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Sample records for lada terra v-56

  1. Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, P. Senthil; Head, James W., III

    2009-01-01

    Geological mapping of the V-56 quadrangle (Fig. 1) reveals various tectonic and volcanic features and processes in Lada Terra that consist of tesserae, regional extensional belts, coronae, volcanic plains and impact craters. This study aims to map the spatial distribution of different material units, deformational features or lineament patterns and impact crater materials. In addition, we also establish the relative age relationships (e.g., overlapping or cross-cutting relationship) between them, in order to reconstruct the geologic history. Basically, this quadrangle addresses how coronae evolved in association with regional extensional belts, in addition to evolution of tesserae, regional plains and impact craters, which are also significant geological units of Lada Terra.

  2. Geologic map of the Lada Terra quadrangle (V-56), Venus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumar, P. Senthil; Head, James W.

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides a geological map of Lada Terra quadrangle (V–56), a portion of the southern hemisphere of Venus that extends from lat 50° S. to 70° S. and from long 0° E. to 60° E. V–56 is bordered by Kaiwan Fluctus (V–44) and Agnesi (V–45) quadrangles in the north and by Mylitta Fluctus (V–61), Fredegonde (V–57), and Hurston (V–62) quadrangles in the west, east, and south, respectively. The geological map of V–56 quadrangle reveals evidence for tectonic, volcanic, and impact processes in Lada Terra in the form of tesserae, regional extensional belts, coronae, and volcanic plains. In addition, the map also shows relative age relations such as overlapping or cross-cutting relations between the mapped geologic units. The geology observed within this quadrangle addresses (1) how coronae evolved in association with regional extensional belts and (2) how tesserae, regional plains, and impact craters, which are also significant geological units observed in Lada Terra quadrangle, were formed.

  3. Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus: A Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, P. Senthil; Head, James W., III

    2008-01-01

    Geological mapping of the V-56 quadrangle (Fig. 1) reveals various tectonic and volcanic features and processes in Lada Terra that consist of tesserae, regional extensional belts, coronae, volcanic plains and impact craters. This study aims to map the spatial distribution of different material units, deformational features or lineament patterns and impact crater materials. In addition, we also establish the relative age relationships (e.g., overlapping or cross-cutting relationships) between them, in order to reconstruct the geologic history. Basically, this quadrangle addresses how coronae evolved in association with regional extensional belts, in addition to evolution of tesserae, regional plains and impact craters, which are also significant geological units of Lada Terra.

  4. Spatial and temporal relations between coronae and extensional belts, northern Lada Terra, Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, G.; Schubert, G.; Bindschadler, D. L.; Stofan, E. R.

    1994-04-01

    Preliminary studies of the distribution of coronae and volcanic rises on Venus show that many of these features tend to cluster along zones of rifting and extension. The plains north of Lada Terra are crossed by two such extensional belts. Each belt is composed of grabens, ridges, faults, volcanic flows, coronae and coronalike features. The longer and more prominent belt is the NW trending Alpha-Lada extensional belt, which is over 6000 km long and 50-200 km wide, and includes the coronae Eve, Tamfana, Carpo, Selu, Derceto, Otygen, and an unnamed corona south of Otygen. The second belt is the NNE trending Derceto-Quetzalpetlatl extensional belt, which is about 2000 km long and in places over 300 km wide, and includes the coronae Sarpanitum, Eithinoha, and Quetzalpetlatl. The two belts intersect at the 1600 x 600 km wide Derceto volcanic plateau. It is apparent that deformation along the two belts overlapped in time, though deformation along the Alpha-Lada extensional belt probably continued after the deformation along the Derceto-Quetzalpetlatl extensional belt terminated. In certain areas, volcanism originated in grabens within the extensional belts, whereas in other areas, such as in Eve, Selu, Derceto, and Quetzalpetlatl, volcanism originated in the coronae and flowed into the lower parts of the extensional belts. Regional extension has affected the evolution of all the coronae at some stage of their development. Regional deformation occurred before the initiation of Derceto and Eithinoha of their development. Regional deformation occurred before the initiation of Derceto and Eithinoha and after the initiation of Carpo, Tamfana, Otygen, and Sarpanitum. It is thus unlikely that coronae formation along the belts is solely a consequence of the regional extension, and it is also unlikely that regional extension has been caused solely by the coronae. No corona along the belts was formed subsequent to the cessation of the regional extension. We therefore suggest that

  5. Application of left- and right-looking SAR stereo to depth measurements of the Ammavaru outflow channel, Lada Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    Venusian channels are too narrow to be resolved by Magellan's radar altimeter, so they are not visible in the standard topographic data products. Stereo image data, in addition to their benefit to geologic mapping of Venus structures as a whole, are indispensible in measuring the topography across the channels. These measurements can then be used in conjunction with the regional topographic maps based on the altimeter data to produce cross-sectional areas for the channels and estimate the fluid discharge through them. As an example of the application of the stereo image data to venusian channels, a number of test depth and profile measurements were made of the large outflow channel system in Lada Terra, centered at 50 deg S latitude, 21 deg E longitude (F-MIDR 50S021). These measurements were made by viewing the cycle 1 and 2 digital FMIDRs in stereo on a display monitor, so as to minimize the errors in measuring parallax displacement as much as possible. The MIDRs are produced at a scale of 75 m/pixel. This corresponds to a vertical scale of about 17 m/pixel, when calculating the height of a feature from its parallax displacement. An error in placement determination of 1 pixel was assumed to characterize the vertical accuracy as plus or minus 17 m. When this technique was applied to the outflow channel, it was noted that the walls of the collapsed terrain source and 'trough reach' of the channel are laid over in both the cycle 1 and 2 images. This is evident when examining the distance between features on the plateau and the cliff walls in the two images. The layover 'shifts' the features closer to the apparent edge of the wall relative to the oppositely illuminated image.

  6. TERRA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Kirsty

    1997-01-01

    TERRA (Teaching Ecological Responsibility, Recreation, and Adventure) is an integrated, one-semester, four-course program in environmental science, environmental English, independent geography, and outdoor education for grades 11 and 12 in New Liskeard, Ontario. Program activities include outdoor adventure, environmental research projects,…

  7. Venus southern hemisphere - Geologic character and age of terrains in the Themis-Alpha-Lada region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. B.; Senske, D. A.; Head, J. W.; Fisher, P. C.; Hine, A. A.

    1991-01-01

    Arecibo high-resolution radar images of the southern hemisphere of Venus extending to 78 deg S show that the surface of the Themis-Alpha-Lada region is characterized by linear deformation zones with volcanoes and corona-like features and by regional volcanic deposits (primarily plains, small shields, and large edifices). Large-scale areal deformation is limited to the tessera of Alpha Regio. Lada Terra, in the southern high latitudes, contains several large coronae, in contrast to Ishtar Terra in the northern high latitudes. The density of craters of possible impact origin is somewhat lower than that observed in the Venera 15 and 16 coverage; these data extend to 43 percent of the areas of the surface of Venus with ages of less than about 1 billion years.

  8. Terra Satellite

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... techniques, this enables construction of 3-D models and estimation of the total amount of sunlight reflected by Earth's diverse ... Artist Concept Terra with MISR location:  Global Images thumbnail:  ...

  9. Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This image shows deposits in a crater located in Arabia Terra. Arabia is generally dust covered and dark streaks or dust avalanches are present in the crater walls. The dominant geologic process acting in this crater interior is wind erosion. The central crater deposits are eroded to form yardangs, or linear wind-sculpted hills that resemble an inverted boat hull. Deflation and abrasion are capable of eroding rock structures that are aligned parallel to wind direction. In the lower right hand side of the crater, a dark deposit has formed barchan dunes. These crescent shaped dunes have 'horns' that point downwind indicating general northwest to southeast wind direction. These dark sands probably played a role in the erosion and formation of the yardangs.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Terra Sirenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This image is from a region called Terra Sirenum in Mars' southern hemisphere. This region was named in 1958 for the Sea of the Sirens from Greek Mythology. This is not a sea, however, but a relatively dusty, high albedo region of Mars. There are numerous dust devil tracks that are apparent in the center- left of the image. The dust devils act like vacuum cleaners and lift dust off of the surface leaving a less dusty and relatively lower albedo surface behind. Dust devils are very common on Mars and are thought to be the primary mechanism for constantly lifting the dust into the atmosphere. Dust is constantly present in the Martian atmosphere in greater abundances than typically seen on Earth. The Martian dust is one of the main factors that affect the present Martian climate and clearly displays the relationship between Mars' geology and atmosphere.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California

  11. InfoTerra/TerraSAR initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Manfred W.

    2004-01-01

    The overarching goal of the InfoTerra/TerraSAR Initiative is to establish a self-sustaining operational/commercial business built on Europe"s know-how and experience in space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology, in SAR data processing as well as in SAR applications. InfoTerra stands for a new business concept based on supplying innovative geo-information products and services. TerraSAR is a space and ground system conceived to consist of an initial deployment and operation of 2 Radar satellites (one in X- and one in L-band) flying in a tandem configuration in the same orbit. The design of TerraSAR is driven by the market and is user-oriented. TerraSAR is key to capturing a significant proportion of the existing market and to opening new market opportunities, when it becomes operational. The InfoTerra/TerraSAR Initiative has evolved gradually. It started in 1997 as a joint venture between German (DSS) and British (MMS-UK) space industry, strongly supported by both space agencies, DLR and BNSC. In early 2001, DLR and BNSC submitted to ESA the Formal Programme Proposal for InfoTerra/TerraSAR to become an essential element of ESA"s Earth Watch Programme. In summer 2001, when it became evident that there was not yet sufficient support from the ESA Member States to allow immediate start entering into TerraSAR Phase C/D, it has been decided to implement first a TerraSAR consolidation phase. In early 2002, in order to avoid further delays, a contract was signed between DLR and Astrium GmbH on the development of one component of TerraSAR, the TerraSAR-X, in the frame of a national programme, governed by a Public Private Partnership Agreement. Even if now the different launch dates for TerraSAR-X and TerraSAR-L are narrowing down the window of common data acquisition, it is a reasonable starting point, but it should always be kept in mind that the utmost goal for the longterm is to achieve self sustainability by supplying geo-information products and services

  12. Terra Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 28 June 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image illustrates the complex terrains within Terra Meridiani. This general region is one of the more complex on Mars, with a rich array of sedimentary, volcanic, and impact surfaces that span a wide range of martian history. This image lies at the eastern edge of a unique geologic unit that was discovered by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) Science Team to have high concentrations of a unique mineral called grey (crystalline) hematite. As discussed by the TES Science Team, this mineral typically forms by processes associated with water, and this region appears to have undergone alteration by hydrothermal (hot water) or other water-related processes. As a result of this evidence for water activity, this region is a leading candidate for further exploration by one of NASA's upcoming Mars Exploration Rovers. The brightness and texture of the surface varies remarkably throughout this image. These differences are associated with different rock layers or ?units?, and can be used to map the occurrence of these layers. The number of layers indicates that extensive deposition by volcanic and sedimentary processes has occurred in this region. Since that time, however, extensive erosion has occurred to produce the patchwork of different layers exposed across the surface. Several distinct layers can be seen within the 20 km diameter crater at the bottom (south) of the image, indicating that this crater once contained layers of sedimentary material that has since been removed. THEMIS infrared images of this region show that many of these rock layers have distinctly different temperatures, indicating that the physical properties vary from layer to layer. These differences suggest that the environment and the conditions under which these layers were deposited or solidified varied through time as these layers were formed. The Story Mars exploration

  13. Morphometric and genetics properties of pea crops grown in space greenhouse Lada"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinskikh, M.; Sychev, V.; Podolsky, I.; Gostimsky, S.; Bingham, G.

    Results of the experiments with higher plants performed in greenhouse Svet aboard the MIR space station in 1996-1999 made it evident that the main biological characteristics of plants growth development reproduction and metabolism did not undergo modifications in consequence of microgravity It was shown that at least two ontogenetic cycles of plants could pass in the normal way in this environment However the initial experimental data was insufficient for fiducial conclusions on the delayed effects of cultivating a sequence of plant generations on the background of spaceflight factors Hence these investigations are given precedence in the space life sciences research programs In the period from March 2003 to April 2005 we fulfilled five experimental cultivations of genetically marked dwarf pea species in greenhouse Lada installed in the Russian segment of the International space station The purpose of this series of experiments was to make morphologic and genetic analysis of pea plants grown in successive generations According to our results pea growth and development over the full cycle of ontogenesis from seed to seed taking place in space greenhouse Lada were not different as compared with the ground control plants In addition four successive pea crops gathered in space flight did not loose their reproductive functions and formed viable seeds Genetic analysis of the plants grown from the space and ground seeds produced by the first to fourth successive crops was performed using the methods of

  14. EOS Terra Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David

    1999-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include ASTER, CERES, MISR, MODIS and MOPITT. In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2, though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra mission will be described with emphasis on derived geophysical parameters of most relevance to the atmospheric radiation community. Detailed information about the EOS Terra validation Program can be found on the EOS Validation program

  15. EOS Terra Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David

    2000-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multi-Angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2 though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra

  16. Terra Sirenum Slope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    16 July 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the layered rocks and boulders exposed on the wall of a trough in the Terra Sirenum region. The layers that erode to produce large boulders are harder and more resistant to weathering and erosion than those that do not. The slope is located near 25.8oS, 139.8oW. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  17. Comparing Crustal Magnetism of Terra Meridiani and Terra Cimmeria, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, R. A.; Jurdy, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Terra Meridiani displays remanent crustal magnetization, roughly symmetric and coherent over long distances, that has been interpreted by some workers as resulting from seafloor spreading. A detailed magnetization map of this region, located at 0º, 0º ±20º, will be compared with that of Terra Cimmeria (-40º, 180º) which hosts Mars' most intense and continuous magnetization. Mars Global Surveyor magnetometer (MGS MAG) data from mapping altitude (~400km) was downward continued to the surface. Data from the MGS aerobraking phase contains tracks in Terra Meridiani at altitudes between 110-190 km, revealing localized persistent Br signatures between -268 and 278 nT, with standard deviations of 24 and 17 nT, respectively. These signatures coincide with areas of strongest magnetization on the downward continued map at corresponding altitudes. However, several uncorrelated small-scale pockets of magnetization that appear in the aerobraking dataset may be attributed to shorter wavelength signals or noise. Positive and negative sources in Terra Meridiani show comparable decay with altitude. Similarly, sources in Terra Cimmeria resemble this decay. By extrapolating into the subsurface, we estimate the source depths for both regions and observe that Terra Meridiani has shallower sources than Terra Cimmeria. The strongest magnetization in Terra Meridiani lies along the 4,600 km diameter outer ring of the Chryse basin. A similar association occurs in Terra Cimmeria along the outer rings of the Sirenum basin. The decay of magnetization intensity with altitude, crustal composition, and crustal thickness estimates will be used to create simple models of magnetic sources for Terra Meridiani.

  18. Geology and tectonics of the Themis Regio-Lavinia Planitia-Alpha Regio-Lada Terra area, Venus - Results from Arecibo image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senske, D. A.; Head, J. W.; Fisher, C. P.; Decharon, A.; Frank, S. L.; Keddie, S. T.; Roberts, K. M.; Campbell, D. B.; Hine, A. A.; Stofan, E. R.

    1991-01-01

    Results of new radar images obtained from the Arecibo Observatory for portions of the southern hemisphere of Venus are reported. The images show that the upland of Phoebe Region contains the southern extension of Devana Chasma, a rift zone extending 4200 km south from Theia Mons and interpreted as a zone of extension. Alpha Regio, the only large region of tesserae within the imaged area, is found to be similar to tesserae mapped elsewhere on the planet; it covers a smaller percentage of the surface than that observed in the northern high latitudes. Themis Region is mapped as an ovoid chain of radar-bright arcuate single- and double-ring structures, edifices, and bright lineaments. On the basis of the present analysis, the southern hemisphere of Venus is interpreted to be characterized by regions of mantle upwelling on a variety of scales, upwelling and extension, and localized compression.

  19. Terra is in NORMAL Mode

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-23

    ... 22, 2016.  TERRA has recovered from Safe Hold and is now in Normal mode. CERES will hold their CAM Wednesday morning and will ... . You can learn more about this mission at the Terra web site. The Flight Operations Team is working on resolving the issue as ...

  20. Bilateral symmetry across Aphrodite Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, J. W.; Campbell, D. B.

    1987-01-01

    There are three main highland areas on Venus: Beta Regio, Ishtar Terra and Aphrodite Terra. The latter is least known and the least mapped, yet existing analyses of Aphrodite Terra based on available Pioneer-Venus orbiter data suggest that it may be the site of extensive rifting. Some of the highest resolution (30 km) PV data (SAR) included most of the western half of Aphrodite Terra. Recent analysis of the SAR data together with Arecibo range-doppler topographic profiling (10 X 100 km horizontal and 10 m vertical resolution) across parts of Aphrodite, further characterized the nature of possible tectonic processes in the equatorial highlands. The existence of distinct topographic and radar morphologic linear discontinuities across the nearly east-west strike of Aphrodite Terra is indicated. Another prominent set of linear features is distinctly parallel to and orthogonal to the ground tracks of the PV spacecraft and are not included because of the possibility that they are artifacts. Study of the northwest trending cross-strike discontinuities (CSD's) and the nature of topographic and morphologic features along their strike suggest the presence of bilateral topographic and morphologic symmetry about the long axis of Aphrodite Terra.

  1. Terra Cimmeria Crater Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The landslide in this VIS image is located inside an impact crater in the Terra Cimmeria region of Mars. The unnamed crater hosting this image is just east of Molesworth Crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -27.7, Longitude 152 East (208 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Quantitative and Qualitative Differences in Neurocognitive Impairment Induced by 1 GeV 56Fe Ions and X-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britten, R.; Mitchell, S.; Parris, B.; Johnson, A.; Singletary-Britten, S.; Lonart, G.; Drake, R.

    2008-10-01

    During the planned mission to Mars, Astronauts will be exposed to heavy charged particles (Hze). Our group has been determining the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of Hze (1 GeV 56Fe, LET = 150 kev/um) with respect to neurocognitive impairment, specifically spatial memory, short-term working memory and attentional set shifting. Our current data suggest that Hze have RBE values of about 7 for hippocampal-dependent spatial memory tasks (Barnes Maze) and possibly even higher for certain attentional processes. We have also used MALDI-TOF serum profiling analysis to identify several proteins that are biomarkers of both the level and LET of the radiation exposure, and biomarkers of cognitive performance. Our data suggest that Hze particles have a distinctly different impact upon neurocognitive function in rats than do X-rays. From a mission perspective, attentional set shifting is the neurocognitive function most likely to be impacted by the predicted Hze exposure; unfortunately Set shifting underlies our ability to execute complex plans. The proteins identified could be used to monitor the Astronauts for radiation exposure and any associated loss of neurocognitive function, and some may actually give an insight into the complex processes that lead to radiation-induced cognitive impairment.

  3. Science Writers' Guide to TERRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The launch of NASA's Terra spacecraft marks a new era of comprehensive monitoring of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and continents from a single space-based platform. Data from the five Terra instruments will create continuous, long-term records of the state of the land, oceans, and atmosphere. Together with data from other satellite systems launched by NASA and other countries, Terra will inaugurate a new self-consistent data record that will be gathered over the next 15 years. The science objectives of NASAs Earth Observing System (EOS) program are to provide global observations and scientific understanding of land cover change and global productivity, climate variability and change, natural hazards, and atmospheric ozone. Observations by the Terra instruments will: provide the first global and seasonal measurements of the Earth system, including such critical functions as biological productivity of the land and oceans, snow and ice, surface temperature, clouds, water vapor, and land cover; improve our ability to detect human impacts on the Earth system and climate, identify the "fingerprint" of human activity on climate, and predict climate change by using the new global observations in climate models; help develop technologies for disaster prediction, characterization, and risk reduction from wildfires, volcanoes, floods, and droughts, and start long-term monitoring of global climate change and environmental change.

  4. TerraSAR-X mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werninghaus, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    The TerraSAR-X is a German national SAR- satellite system for scientific and commercial applications. It is the continuation of the scientifically and technologically successful radar missions X-SAR (1994) and SRTM (2000) and will bring the national technology developments DESA and TOPAS into operational use. The space segment of TerraSAR-X is an advanced high-resolution X-Band radar satellite. The system design is based on a sound market analysis performed by Infoterra. The TerraSAR-X features an advanced high-resolution X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar based on the active phased array technology which allows the operation in Spotlight-, Stripmap- and ScanSAR Mode with various polarizations. It combines the ability to acquire high resolution images for detailed analysis as well as wide swath images for overview applications. In addition, experimental modes like the Dual Receive Antenna Mode allow for full-polarimetric imaging as well as along track interferometry, i.e. moving target identification. The Ground Segment is optimized for flexible response to (scientific and commercial) User requests and fast image product turn-around times. The TerraSAR-X mission will serve two main goals. The first goal is to provide the strongly supportive scientific community with multi-mode X-Band SAR data. The broad spectrum of scientific application areas include Hydrology, Geology, Climatology, Oceanography, Environmental Monitoring and Disaster Monitoring as well as Cartography (DEM Generation) and Interferometry. The second goal is the establishment of a commercial EO-market in Europe which is driven by Infoterra. The commercial goal is the development of a sustainable EO-business so that the e.g. follow-on systems can be completely financed by industry from the profit. Due to its commercial potential, the TerraSAR-X project will be implemented based on a public-private partnership with the Astrium GmbH. This paper will describe first the mission objectives as well as the

  5. Terra firma-forme dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Ferdi; Kocabaş, Engin; Ertan, Pelin; Ermertcan, Aylin Türel

    2010-12-01

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis (TFFD) is an uncommon disorder of keratinization with an unknown etiology in which patients present with dirt-like lesions that are resistant to washing. A 6-year old girl presented with the complaint of an asymptomatic brownish black dirt-like eruption on her body. Her parents reported no response to washing with soap and water. Dermatologic examination revealed brown hyperpigmented patches on the trunk and abdominal region. TFFD was suspected, and isopropyl alcohol was applied to the patient's lesions. All lesions completely disappeared after rubbing with alcohol. Terra firma-forme dermatosis is a relatively recently described entity that is much more common than might be expected when surveying the medical literature. With the very few reports found in the literature about TFFD, we believe that an increased awareness of this entity among primary care physicians would help decrease unnecessary worries or medical procedures, since TFFD lesions simply resolve by rubbing with isopropyl alcohol. PMID:20684734

  6. A single amino acid change (Y318F) in the L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LadA) from Aspergillus niger results in a significant increase in affinity for D-sorbitol

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LAD) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) are involved in the degradation of L-arabinose and D-xylose, which are among the most abundant monosaccharides on earth. Previous data demonstrated that LAD and XDH not only differ in the activity on their biological substrate, but also that only XDH has significant activity on D-sorbitol and may therefore be more closely related to D-sorbitol dehydrogenases (SDH). In this study we aimed to identify residues involved in the difference in substrate specificity. Results Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that LAD, XDH and SDH form 3 distinct groups of the family of dehydrogenases containing an Alcohol dehydrogenase GroES-like domain (pfam08240) and likely have evolved from a common ancestor. Modelling of LadA and XdhA of the saprobic fungus Aspergillus niger on human SDH identified two residues in LadA (M70 and Y318), that may explain the absence of activity on D-sorbitol. While introduction of the mutation M70F in LadA of A. niger resulted in a nearly complete enzyme inactivation, the Y318F resulted in increased activity for L-arabitol and xylitol. Moreover, the affinity for D-sorbitol was increased in this mutant. Conclusion These data demonstrates that Y318 of LadA contributes significantly to the substrate specificity difference between LAD and XDH/SDH. PMID:19674460

  7. Terra Nova Bay Polynya, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In Terra Nova Bay, off the Scott Coast of Victoria Land, Antarctica, a large pocket of open water persists throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere winter, even while most of the rest of the Antarctic coastline is firmly embraced by the frozen Southern Ocean. This pocket of open water--a polynya--results from exceptionally strong winds that blow downslope from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. These fierce katabatic winds drive the sea ice eastward. Since the dominant ice drift pattern in the area is northward, the Drygalski Ice Tongue prevents the bay from being re-populated with sea ice. This image of the Terra Nova Bay polynya was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 16, 2007. Sea ice sits over the Ross Sea like a cracked and crumbling windshield. Blue-tinged glaciers flow down from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. Although glaciers can appear blue because of melt water, they can also get that tint when the wind scours and polishes the ice surface. Given the strength of the katabatic winds along this part of the Antarctic coast, it is likely that the blue color of these glaciers is a result of their having been swept clean of snow. The large image has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel.

  8. Xanthe Terra Landslide in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This is a daytime IR image of a chaos region within Xanthe Terra. As with earlier images, the landslide in this image is caused by the failure of steep slopes releasing material to form the landslide deposit.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 3.1, Longitude 309.7 East (50.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Sand Dunes in Noachis Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    11 February 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark-toned sand dunes in a crater in eastern Noachis Terra. Most big martian dunes tend to be dark, as opposed to the more familiar light-toned dunes of Earth. This difference is a product of the composition of the dunes; on Earth, most dunes contain abundant quartz. Quartz is usually clear (transparent), though quartz sand grains that have been kicked around by wind usually develop a white, frosty surface. On Mars, the sand is mostly made up of the darker minerals that comprise iron- and magnesium-rich volcanic rocks--i.e., like the black sand beaches found on volcanic islands like Hawaii. Examples of dark sand dunes on Earth are found in central Washington state and Iceland, among other places. This picture is located near 49.0oS, 326.3oW. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the upper left; the image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  10. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TERRA KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY - TERRA-KLEEN RESPONSE GROUP, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Terra-Kleen Solvent Extraction Technology was developed by Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc., to remove polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other organic constituents from contaminated soil. This batch process system uses a proprietary solvent at ambient temperatures to treat ...

  11. Small Volcano in Terra Cimmeria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 26 June 2002) The Science This positive relief feature (see MOLA context) in the ancient highlands of Mars appears to be a heavily eroded volcanic center. The top of this feature appears to be under attack by the erosive forces of the martian wind. Light-toned streaks are visible, trending northeast to southwest, and may be caused by scouring of the terrain, or they may be dune forms moving sand. The northeast portion of the caldera area looks as though a layer of material is being removed to expose a slightly lighter-toned surface underneath. The flanks of this feature are slightly less cratered than the surrounding terrain, which could be explained in two ways: 1) this feature may be younger than the surrounding area, and has had less time to accumulate meteorite impacts, or 2) the slopes that are observed today may be so heavily eroded that the original, cratered surfaces are now gone, exposing relatively uncratered rocks. Although most of Terra Cimmeria has low albedo, some eastern portions, such as shown in this image, demonstrate an overall lack of contrast that attests to the presence of a layer of dust mantling the surface. This dust, in part, is responsible for the muted appearance and infill of many of the craters at the northern and southern ends of this image The Story This flat-topped volcano pops out from the surface, the swirls of its ancient lava flows running down onto the ancient highlands of Mars. Its smooth top appears to be under attack by the erosive forces of the martian wind. How can you tell? Click on the image above for a close-up look. You'll see some light-toned streaks that run in a northeast-southwest direction. They are caused either by the scouring of the terrain or dunes of moving sand. Either way, the wind likely plays upon the volcano's surface. Look also for the subtle, nearly crescent shaped feature at the northeast portion of the volcano's cap. It looks as if a layer of material has been removed by the wind, exposing

  12. The Earth Observing System Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2000-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. After the launch in Dec. 16 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution smaller than 1 km on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical perspective of the Terra mission and the key new elements of the mission. We expect to have some first images that demonstrate the most innovative capability from EOS Terra: MODIS - 1.37 microns cirrus channel; 250 m daily cover for clouds and vegetation change; 7 solar channels for land and aerosol; new fire channels; Chlorophyll fluorescence; MISR - 9 multi angle views of clouds and vegetation; MOPITT - Global CO maps and CH4 maps; ASTER - Thermal channels for geological studies with 15-90 m resolution.

  13. The Earth Observing System Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. After the launch in Dec. 16 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution better than 1 km on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical perspective of the Terra mission and the key new elements of the mission. We expect to have first images that demonstrate the most innovative capability from EOS Terra 5 instruments: MODIS - 1.37 micron cirrus cloud channel; 250m daily coverage for clouds and vegetation change; 7 solar channels for land and aerosol studies; new fire channels; Chlorophyll fluorescence; MISR - first 9 multi angle views of clouds and vegetation; MOPITT - first global CO maps and C114 maps; ASTER - Thermal channels for geological studies with 15-90 m resolution.

  14. Northern Terra Meridiani's 'Monument Valley'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Northern Terra Meridiani, near the intersection of the martian equator and prime meridian, is a region of vast exposures of layered rock. A thermal image from the Phobos 2 orbiter in 1989 showed these materials to be anomalously cool during the daytime, an observation very suggestive of dense, hardened materials like rock. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images of this region show layered material exposed in cliffs, buttes, and mesas that in some ways resemble the rock outcrops of northern Arizona and southeastern Utah in North America (e.g., Monument Valley, Canyonlands, Zion National Park, Four Corners). MGS MOC Extended Mission operations have included several hundred opportunities for the spacecraft to be rolled off-nadir (i.e., at an angle other than 'straight down') to take pictures that repeat earlier MOC coverage. These repeat images, because they are taken from a different angle, can be combined with the original picture to produce a stereoscopic ('3-D') view. The image shown here is a composite of two pictures, the first taken October 23, 2000, the second acquired by pointing the spacecraft off-nadir on May 15, 2001. This view shows four buttes and a pinnacle (near left-center) composed of eroded, layered rock. The four buttes are each capped by the remains of a single layer of rock that is harder than the materials beneath it. It is the presence of this cap rock that has permitted these buttes to remain standing after surrounding materials were eroded away. Like the buttes of Monument Valley in the Navajo Nation on the Arizona/Utah border, these are believed to consist of sedimentary rocks, perhaps deposited in water or by wind, though some scientists have speculated that they could be made of thick accumulations of volcanic ash. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left. To see the image in 3-D, red (left-eye) and blue (right-eye) '3-D' glasses are required.

  15. Terra - the Earth Observing System flagship observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Terra platform enters its teenage years with an array of accomplishments but also with the potential to do much more. Efforts continue to extend the Terra data record to build upon its array of accomplishments and make its data more valuable by creating a record length that allows examination of inter annual variability, observe trends on the decadal scale, and gather statistics relevant to the define climate metrics. Continued data from Terra's complementary instruments will play a key role in creating the data record needed for scientists to develop an understanding of our climate system. Terra's suite of instruments: ASTER (contributed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry with a JPL-led US Science Team), CERES (NASA LaRC - PI), MISR (JPL - PI), MODIS (NASA GSFC), and MOPITT (sponsored by Canadian Space Agency with NCAR-led Science Team) are providing an unprecedented 81 core data products. The annual demand for Terra data remains with >120 million files distributed in 2011 and >157 million in 2012. More than 1,100 peer-reviewed publications appeared in 2012 using Terra data bringing the lifetime total >7,600. Citation numbers of 21,000 for 2012 and over 100,000 for the mission's lifetime. The broad range of products enable the community to provide answers to the overarching question, 'How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?' Terra continues to provide data that: (1) Extend the baseline of morning-orbit collections; (2) Enable comparison of measurements acquired from past high-impact events; (3) Add value to recently-launched and soon-to-be launched missions, and upcoming field programs. Terra data continue to support monitoring and relief efforts for natural and man-made disasters that involve U.S. interests. Terra also contributes to Applications Focus Areas supporting the U.S. National Objectives for agriculture, air quality, climate, disaster management, ecological forecasting, public health, water

  16. DETAIL OF ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA FRIEZE ABOVE GROUND FLOOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA FRIEZE ABOVE GROUND FLOOR AND TYPICAL TERRA COTTA WINDOW SILL. CORNER OF CLAY AND 15TH STREETS - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. Slope Streaks in Terra Sabaea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version

    This HiRISE image shows the rim of a crater in the region of Terra Sabaea in the northern hemisphere of Mars.

    The subimage (figure 1) is a close-up view of the crater rim revealing dark and light-toned slope streaks. Slope streak formation is among the few known processes currently active on Mars. While their mechanism of formation and triggering is debated, they are most commonly believed to form by downslope movement of extremely dry sand or very fine-grained dust in an almost fluidlike manner (analogous to a terrestrial snow avalanche) exposing darker underlying material.

    Other ideas include the triggering of slope streak formation by possible concentrations of near-surface ice or scouring of the surface by running water from aquifers intercepting slope faces, spring discharge (perhaps brines), and/or hydrothermal activity.

    Several of the slope streaks in the subimage, particularly the three longest darker streaks, show evidence that downslope movement is being diverted around obstacles such as large boulders. Several streaks also appear to originate at boulders or clumps of rocky material.

    In general, the slope streaks do not have large deposits of displaced material at their downslope ends and do not run out onto the crater floor suggesting that they have little reserve kinetic energy. The darkest slope streaks are youngest and can be seen to cross cut and superpose older and lighter-toned streaks. The lighter-toned streaks are believed to be dark streaks that have lightened with time as new dust is deposited on their surface.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_001808_1875 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 15-Dec-2006. The complete image is centered at 7.4 degrees latitude, 47.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 272.1 km

  18. Seasonal Frost in Terra Sirenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image of the Terra Sirenum region of Mars was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0918 UTC (4:18 a.m. EST) on Nov. 25, 2006, near 38.9 degrees south latitude, 195.9 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across.

    At this time, Mars' southern hemisphere was experiencing mid-winter. During Martian southern winter, the southern polar cap is covered and surrounded by carbon dioxide frost and water frost. This is unlike Earth, whose frozen winter precipitation is made up of only one volatile -- water. The carbon dioxide frost evaporates, or sublimates, at a lower temperature than water frost. So, during spring, the carbon dioxide ice evaporates first and leaves a residue of water frost, which later sublimates as well.

    The image shown here covers part of a crater rim, which is illuminated from the upper left. North is at the top. The topography creates a cold microenvironment on the south side of the rim that is partially protected from solar illumination. That cold surface contains an outlier of the southern seasonal frost about 15 degrees of latitude closer to the equator than the average edge of the frost at this season.

    The top image was constructed from three infrared wavelengths that highlight the bluer color of frost than the background rock and soil. Note that the frost occurs both on sunlit and shaded surfaces on the south side of the rim. The shaded areas are still visible because they are illuminated indirectly by the Martian sky.

    The bottom image was constructed by measuring the depths of spectral absorption bands due to water frost and carbon dioxide frost, and displaying the results in image form. Blue shows strength of an absorption due to water frost near 1.50 micrometers, and green shows strength of an absorption due to carbon dioxide frost near 1.45 micrometers. Red shows

  19. Cratered terrain in Terra Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 30 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image shows a region in Terra Meridiani near -12o S, 358o W (2o E). An old, heavily degraded channel can be seen from the lower (southern) portion of the image toward the top. This channel appears to terminate abruptly at the rim of a 10 km diameter crater. This apparent 'superposition' of the crater on top of the channel suggests that the impact crater was created after the channel was formed. This crater has two 3-km sized blocks of material that have slumped off from the lower left segment of the original crater rim. These immense blocks must have moved as a single unit because the rock layers that can be seen in the original wall of the crater can still be seen in these detached blocks. The walls of several craters in this image show vague hints of possible gully formation at the bottom of pronounced rock layers, with the suggestion of alcoves above the individual gullies. Well-developed gullies that were imaged by the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) on Mars Global Surveyor have been suggested to form by seepage and runoff of a fluid. The MOC has observed these gullies in numerous craters and channels further south, but they are uncommon at latitudes this close to the equator. Several sections of the crater walls appear to have ridges and troughs formed by the dry avalanche of loose rock, and a similar process of dry avalanche may account for the gullies seen in this THEMIS image. Patches of lighter material, possibly small dunes ripples, can be seen in several places throughout this image. The Story When the walls come tumbling down! Take a closer look at the bright linear ridges within a deep crater near the center of this image (bottom, left-hand side of the crater). Almost 2 miles long, these chunks of material slumped off the crater side in one fell swoop. Phoozhj! Down they came as one massive unit. You can tell, because the rock layers seen in the original wall of the crater are also still there in the

  20. Scaling the Pipe: NASA EOS Terra Data Systems at 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2010-01-01

    Standard products from the five sensors on NASA's Earth Observing System's (EOS) Terra satellite are being used world-wide for earth science research and applications. This paper describes the evolution of the Terra data systems over the last decade in which the distributed systems that produce, archive and distribute high quality Terra data products were scaled by two orders of magnitude.

  1. Sedimentary Rocks and Methane - Southwest Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Venechuk, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    We propose to land the Mars Science Laboratory in southwest Arabia Terra to study two key aspects of martian history the extensive record of sedimentary rocks and the continuing release of methane. The results of this exploration will directly address the MSL Scientific Objectives regarding biological potential, geology and geochemistry, and past habitability.

  2. ES4 Terra-Xtrk Ed3

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-08

    ... Order:  Reverb   Reverb Tutorial Order Data:  Reverb:  Order Data Guide Documents:  ... for Terra and Aqua; Edition2 for TRMM) are approved for science publications.  Additional Info:  b SCAR-B ...

  3. Terra Populus and DataNet Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugler, T.; Ruggles, S.; Fitch, C. A.; Clark, P. D.; Sobek, M.; Van Riper, D.

    2012-12-01

    Terra Populus, part of NSF's new DataNet initiative, is developing organizational and technical infrastructure to integrate, preserve, and disseminate data describing changes in the human population and environment over time. Terra Populus will incorporate large microdata and aggregate census datasets from the United States and around the world, as well as land use, land cover, climate and other environmental datasets. These data are widely dispersed, exist in a variety of data structures, have incompatible or inadequate metadata, and have incompatible geographic identifiers. Terra Populus is developing methods of integrating data from different domains and translating across data structures based on spatio-temporal linkages among data contents. The new infrastructure will enable researchers to identify and merge data from heterogeneous sources to study the relationships between human behavior and the natural world. Terra Populus will partner with data archives, data producers, and data users to create a sustainable international organization that will guarantee preservation and access over multiple decades. Terra Populus is also collaborating with the other projects in the DataNet initiative - DataONE, the DataNet Federation Consortium (DFC) and Sustainable Environment-Actionable Data (SEAD). Taken together, the four projects address aspects of the entire data lifecycle, including planning, collection, documentation, discovery, integration, curation, preservation, and collaboration; and encompass a wide range of disciplines including earth sciences, ecology, social sciences, hydrology, oceanography, and engineering. The four projects are pursuing activities to share data, tools, and expertise between pairs of projects as well as collaborating across the DataNet program on issues of cyberinfrastructure and community engagement. Topics to be addressed through program-wide collaboration include technical, organizational, and financial sustainability; semantic

  4. Terra in K-16 formal education settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Fischer, J. D.; Lewis, P. M.; Moore, S. W.; Oots, P. C.; Rogerson, T. M.; Hitke, K. M.; Riebeek, H.

    2009-12-01

    Since it began, the Terra mission has had an active presence in formal education at the K-16 level. This educational presence was provided through the S’COOL project for the first five years of the mission, joined by the MY NASA DATA project for the second five years. The Students’ Cloud Observations On-Line (S’COOL) Project, begun in 1997 under the auspices of the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, seeks to motivate students across the entire K-12 spectrum to learn science basics and how they tie in to a larger picture. Beginning early on, college level participants have also participated in the project, both in science classes and in science education coursework. The project uses the connection to an on-going NASA science investigation as a powerful motivator for student observations, analysis and learning, and has reached around the globe as shown in the world map. This poster will review the impact that Terra, through S’COOL, has made in formal education over the last decade. The MY NASA DATA Project began in 2004 under the NASA Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network (REASoN). A 5-year REASoN grant enabled the creation of an extensive website which wraps easily accessible Earth science data - including Terra parameters from CERES (involving MODIS data fusion), MISR, and MOPITT (an example for carbon monoxide is given in the graph, with dark areas indicating high CO levels) - with explanatory material written at the middle school level, and an extensive collection of peer-reviewed lesson plans. The MY NASA DATA site has a rapidly growing user-base and was recently adopted by a number of NASA Earth Science missions, in addition to Terra, as a formal education arm of their Education and Public Outreach efforts. This poster will summarize the contributions that Terra, through MY NASA DATA, has made to formal education since 2004.

  5. Resurfacing history of Tempe Terra and surroundings

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, H.V. ); Grant, T.D. )

    1990-08-30

    The resurfacing history of the Tempe Terra region is determined using the Neukum and Hiller technique of breaking cumulative frequency curves into separate branches where the curves depart from a standard production curve. We find four surfaces recorded in the heavily cratered portions of Tempe Terra, with crater retention ages N(1) = (242,100), (95,700), (20,800), and (5,500). This is interpreted to indicate three major resurfacing events occurred in this region, ending at N(1) = (95,700), (20,800), and (5,500). The ridged plains on the Tempe Terra plateau have an oldest recorded surface age of (20,400), identical to that of the second resurfacing event recorded in the heavily cratered areas. A single resurfacing of the ridged plains (which may have been a second episode of ridged plains volcanism) occurred at N(1) = (7,800). The knobby plains to the north west and east of Tempe Terra also show a resurfacing at (20,000) and additional events at (5,400) and perhaps (1,600). Mottled plains to the northeast record surfaces with crater retention age (7,500), (5,000), and (3,900), where the first age is determined by a single surviving crater. It appears that the Lunae Planum Age (LPA) (at N(1) = (20,000)) resurfacing event seen elsewhere on mars was widespread and effective in this region. A second widespread event appears to have ended at N(1) = (5,000). The authors estimate the thickness of the resurfacing materials corresponding to the LPA event to be less than 90 m in the heavily cratered areas but 300-500 m in the ridged plains themselves. Later resurfacing materials were generally thicker farther north in the mottled plains (300 m) than in the knobby plains (200 m).

  6. Geologic Mapping in Southern Margaritifer Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, R. P., III; Grant, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Margaritifer Terra records a complex geologic history [1-5], and the area from Holden crater through Ladon Valles, Ladon basin, and up to Morava Valles is no exception [e.g., 6-13]. The 1:500,000 geologic map of MTM quadrangles -15027, -20027, -25027, and -25032 (Figs. 1 and 2 [14]) identifies a range of units that delineate the history of water-related activity and regional geologic context.

  7. Is Ishtar Terra a thickened basaltic crust?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Jafar

    1992-01-01

    The mountain belts of Ishtar Terra and the surrounding tesserae are interpreted as compressional regions. The gravity and surface topography of western Ishtar Terra suggest a thick crust of 60-110 km that results from crustal thickening through tectonic processes. Underthrusting was proposed for the regions along Danu Montes and Itzpapalotl Tessera. Crustal thickening was suggested for the entire Ishtar Terra. In this study, three lithospheric models with total thicknesses of 40.75 and 120 km and initial crustal thicknesses of 3.9 and 18 km are examined. These models could be produced by partial melting and chemical differentiation in the upper mantle of a colder, an Earth-like, and a hotter Venus having temperatures of respectively 1300 C, 1400 C, and 1500 C at the base of their thermal boundary layers associated with mantle convection. The effects of basalt-granulite-eclogite transformation (BGET) on the surface topography of a thickening basaltic crust is investigated adopting the experimental phase diagram and density variations through the phase transformation.

  8. Vicarious calibration of Aqua and Terra MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, Kurtis J.; Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey S.; Biggar, Stuart F.

    2003-11-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is onboard both the Terra and Aqua platforms. An important aspect of the use of MODIS, and other Earth Science Enterprise sensors, has been the characterization and calibration of the sensors and validation of their data products. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona has been active in this area through the use of ground- based test sites. This paper presents the results from the reflectance-base approach using the Railroad Valley Playa test site in Nevada for both Aqua and Terra MODIS. The key to the approach is the measurement of surface reflectance over a 1-km2 area of the playa and results from this method shows agreement with both MODIS sensors to better than 5%. Early results indicate that while the two sensors both agree with the ground-based measurements to within the uncertainties of the reflectance-based approach, there were significant differences between the Aqua and Terra MODIS for data prior to September 2002. Recent results indicate that this bias, if any, is now within the uncertainties of the reflectance-based method of calibration.

  9. NASA's Terra spacecraft is prepared for encapsulation before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers at Vandenberg AFB, Calif., help prepare NASA's Terra spacecraft (right) for encapsulation in the rocket faring (left). Terra is expected to be launched aboard a Lockheed Martin Atlas IIAS rocket Dec. 16 from Space Launch Complex 3 East at Vandenberg. Terra comprises five state-of-the-art sets of instruments that will collect data for continuous, long-term records of the state of Earth's land, oceans and atmosphere. Together with data from other satellite systems launched by NASA and other countries, Terra will inaugurate a new self-consistent data record that will be gathered over the next 15 years. From an altitude of 438 miles, Terra will circle the Earth 16 times a day from pole to pole (98 degree inclination), crossing the equator at 10:30 a.m. The five Terra instruments will operate by measuring sunlight reflected by the Earth and heat emitted by the Earth.

  10. NASA's Terra spacecraft is prepared for encapsulation before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Terra spacecraft (foreground) is ready for encapsulation in the rocket faring behind it. Terra is expected to be launched aboard a Lockheed Martin Atlas IIAS rocket Dec. 16 from Space Launch Complex 3 East at Vandenberg AFB, Calif. Terra comprises five state-of-the-art sets of instruments that will collect data for continuous, long-term records of the state of Earth's land, oceans and atmosphere. Together with data from other satellite systems launched by NASA and other countries, Terra will inaugurate a new self-consistent data record that will be gathered over the next 15 years. From an altitude of 438 miles, Terra will circle the Earth 16 times a day from pole to pole (98 degree inclination), crossing the equator at 10:30 a.m. The five Terra instruments will operate by measuring sunlight reflected by the Earth and heat emitted by the Earth.

  11. Terra Mission Operations: Launch to the Present (and Beyond)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita; Moyer, Eric; Mantziaras, Dimitrios; Case, Warren

    2014-01-01

    The Terra satellite, flagship of NASA's long-term Earth Observing System (EOS) Program, continues to provide useful earth science observations well past its 5-year design lifetime. This paper describes the evolution of Terra operations, including challenges and successes and the steps taken to preserve science requirements and prolong spacecraft life. Working cooperatively with the Terra science and instrument teams, including NASA's international partners, the mission operations team has successfully kept the Terra operating continuously, resolving challenges and adjusting operations as needed. Terra retains all of its observing capabilities (except Short Wave Infrared) despite its age. The paper also describes concepts for future operations. This paper will review the Terra spacecraft mission successes and unique spacecraft component designs that provided significant benefits extending mission life and science. In addition, it discusses special activities as well as anomalies and corresponding recovery efforts. Lastly, it discusses future plans for continued operations.

  12. Terra firma-forme dermatosis revisited.

    PubMed

    Browning, John; Rosen, Ted

    2005-01-01

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis is a cutaneous discoloration resembling dirt, hence the clinical name. The dyschromia cannot be removed with routine soap and water washing, but can be eliminated by rubbing with isopropyl alcohol. Although the condition poses no serious medical threat, it is cosmetically distressing. Our experience is that this entity is much more frequent that might be expected when considering the paucity of reports in the readily available medical literature. We chronicle a series of cases to highlight occurrence in widely divergent demographic groups and long duration of remission following appropriate topical intervention. The cause remains unknown. PMID:16150223

  13. Radar Scattering Properties of Terra Meridiani, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, K. W.; Haldemann, A. F.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2002-12-01

    A series of fourteen radar observations of Mars were made during the 2001 opposition. Four of these observation tracks passed over Terra Meridiani, a prime candidate landing site for one of the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover missions. Observations were conducted using X-band (3.5 centimeter wavelength) radar transmitted with a pseudo-random binary phase encoding which, combined with the frequency resolution of the processing FFT, yields a maximum spatial resolution of approximately five kilometers. Actual spatial resolution is coarser than this (between five and twenty kilometers) due to signal-to-noise considerations that predicated longer integration times as well as greater planetary ranges for the off-opposition observations. We have processed the Terra Meridiani data in stages, beginning with one-dimensional sub-radar track profiles and culminating with four-station interferometry. Not all observations were amendable to the full four-station interferometry, due to technical issues, but were processed with a minimum of two stations to remove the spatial ambiguities inherent to radar observations. Our processing yields one- and two-dimensional maps of the surface reflectivity along the radar track. We extract scattering data for points along the sub-radar track, where the angle in incidence varies most, and model the scattering function. The multi-station reflectivity data is also modeled according to the Hagfors scattering model to extract two-dimensional maps of RMS roughness and dielectric constant. The RMS roughness data for the Terra Meridiani landing sites shows the local surface slopes to be less than 3 degrees, on the scale of tens of wavelengths. An enhanced dielectric constant is apparent over Terra Meridiani that is spatially correlated with the MGS detected hematite deposits. The level of the enhancement is consistent with the inclusion of 10-15 percent hematite, according to a weighted dielectric or PVL model. Integral to our processing, and new to

  14. Volcanism in Northwest Ishtar Terra, Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddis, L.R.; Greeley, R. )

    1990-10-01

    Evidence is presented for a previously undocumented volcanic complex in the highlands of NW Ishtar Terra (74 deg N, 313 deg E). The proposed valcanic center is in mountainous banded terrain thought to have been formed by regional compression. Data used include Soviet Venera 15/16 radar images and topography (Fotokarta Veneri B-4, 1987). An attempt is made to assess the place of this feature in the framework of known volcanic landforms of the Lakshmi Planum and to examine the relationships between volcanism and tectonism in this region. 38 refs.

  15. Role of TERRA in the Regulation of Telomere Length

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caiqin; Zhao, Li; Lu, Shiming

    2015-01-01

    Telomere dysfunction is closely associated with human diseases such as cancer and ageing. Inappropriate changes in telomere length and/or structure result in telomere dysfunction. Telomeres have been considered to be transcriptionally silent, but it was recently demonstrated that mammalian telomeres are transcribed into telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA). TERRA, a long non-coding RNA, participates in the regulation of telomere length, telomerase activity and heterochromatinization. The correct regulation of telomere length may be crucial to telomeric homeostasis and functions. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the crucial role of TERRA in the maintenance of telomere length, with focus on the variety of mechanisms by which TERRA is involved in the regulation of telomere length. This review aims to enable further understanding of how TERRA-targeted drugs can target telomere-related diseases. PMID:25678850

  16. NASA's Terra spacecraft is prepared for encapsulation before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers (left) at Vandenberg AFB, Calif., get ready to prepare NASA's Terra spacecraft (right) for encapsulation in the rocket faring (left) before launch. The spacecraft is expected to be launched Dec. 16 aboard a Lockheed Martin Atlas IIAS rocket from the AFB's Space Launch Complex 3 East. Terra comprises five state-of-the-art sets of instruments that will collect data for continuous, long-term records of the state of Earth's land, oceans and atmosphere. Together with data from other satellite systems launched by NASA and other countries, Terra will inaugurate a new self-consistent data record that will be gathered over the next 15 years. From an altitude of 438 miles, Terra will circle the Earth 16 times a day from pole to pole (98 degree inclination), crossing the equator at 10:30 a.m. The five Terra instruments will operate by measuring sunlight reflected by the Earth and heat emitted by the Earth.

  17. NASA's Terra spacecraft is prepared for encapsulation before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Terra spacecraft awaits installation of the instruments that will collect data for continuous, long-term records of the state of Earth's land, oceans and atmosphere. Terra is expected to be launched aboard a Lockheed Martin Atlas IIAS rocket Dec. 16 from Space Launch Complex 3 East at Vandenberg AFB, Calif. Terra comprises five state-of-the-art sets of instruments that, together with data from other satellite systems launched by NASA and other countries, will inaugurate a new self-consistent data record that will be gathered over the next 15 years. From an altitude of 438 miles, Terra will circle the Earth 16 times a day from pole to pole (98 degree inclination), crossing the equator at 10:30 a.m. The five Terra instruments will operate by measuring sunlight reflected by the Earth and heat emitted by the Earth.

  18. Validation of CERES/TERRA Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Wieliski, Bruce A.; Smith, G. Louis; Lee, Robert B.; Priestley, Kory J.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Kratz, David P.

    2000-01-01

    There are 2 CERES scanning radiometer instruments aboard the TERRA spacecraft, one for mapping the solar radiation reflected from the Earth and the outgoing longwave radiation and the other for measuring the anisotropy of the radiation. Each CERES instrument has on-board calibration devices, which have demonstrated that from ground to orbit the broadband total and shortwave sensor responses maintained their ties to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 at precisions approaching radiances have been validated in orbit to +/- 0.3 % (0.3 W/sq m sr). Top of atmosphere fluxes are produced by use of the CERES data alone. By including data from other instruments, surface radiation fluxes and radiant fluxes within the atmosphere and at its top, shortwave and longwave, for both up and down components, are derived. Validation of these data products requires ground and aircraft measurements of fluxes and of cloud properties.

  19. Bilateral topographic symmetry patterns across Aphrodite Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Topographic profiles have been obtained across Aphrodite Terra to test for bilateral symmetry of the type associated with thermal boundary layer topography at divergent plate boundaries on earth. In addition to a broad bilateral symmetry at a range of angles across Aphrodite Terra, detailed bilateral symmetry is noted within domains between linear discontinuities in directions parallel to the strike of the discontinuities. The results suggest that western Aphrodite Terra is similar to terrestrial oceanic divergent plate boundary environments, and that the cross-strike discontinuities are analogous to oceanic fracture zones rather than strike-slip faults.

  20. 4. DETAIL OF TERRA COTTA DECORATION AT TOP OF EXPRESSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF TERRA COTTA DECORATION AT TOP OF EXPRESSED COLUMN, JUST ABOVE FOURTH FLOOR WINDOWS ON SOUTH FRONT FACADE - John D. Van Allen & Son Store, South Fifth Avenue & Second Street, Clinton, Clinton County, IA

  1. 3. DETAIL OF TERRA COTTA DECORATION ON LOWER END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF TERRA COTTA DECORATION ON LOWER END OF EXPRESSED COLUMN, JUST BELOW SECOND FLOOR ON SOUTH FRONT FACADE - John D. Van Allen & Son Store, South Fifth Avenue & Second Street, Clinton, Clinton County, IA

  2. Detail, terra cotta, ironwork, and painted wood "worm gear" carved ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, terra cotta, ironwork, and painted wood "worm gear" carved columns, north rear. - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. SSF Terra-FM1 Ed3A

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-07-13

    SSF Terra-FM1 Ed3A Project Title:  CERES Discipline:  Clouds Radiation Budget ...   Reverb Tutorial Subset/Visualization Tool: CERES Order Tool Subset Data:  CERES Search and Subset Tool (HDF4 & ...

  4. TERRA promotes telomerase-mediated telomere elongation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Martin; Wischnewski, Harry; Bah, Amadou; Hu, Yan; Liu, Na; Lafranchi, Lorenzo; King, Megan C; Azzalin, Claus M

    2016-07-01

    Telomerase-mediated telomere elongation provides cell populations with the ability to proliferate indefinitely. Telomerase is capable of recognizing and extending the shortest telomeres in cells; nevertheless, how this mechanism is executed remains unclear. Here, we show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, shortened telomeres are highly transcribed into the evolutionarily conserved long noncoding RNA TERRA A fraction of TERRA produced upon telomere shortening is polyadenylated and largely devoid of telomeric repeats, and furthermore, telomerase physically interacts with this polyadenylated TERRA in vivo We also show that experimentally enhanced transcription of a manipulated telomere promotes its association with telomerase and concomitant elongation. Our data represent the first direct evidence that TERRA stimulates telomerase recruitment and activity at chromosome ends in an organism with human-like telomeres. PMID:27154402

  5. NASA's Terra spacecraft is prepared for encapsulation before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The rocket faring is lifted up the launch tower for mating with the Lockheed Martin Atlas IIAS rocket after encapsulation of Terra, formerly EOS AM-1. It is scheduled for launch Dec. 16 from Space Launch Complex 3 East at Vandenberg AFB, Calif. Terra comprises five state-of-the-art sets of instruments that will collect data for continuous, long-term records of the state of Earth's land, oceans and atmosphere. Together with data from other satellite systems launched by NASA and other countries, it will inaugurate a new self-consistent data record that will be gathered over the next 15 years. From an altitude of 438 miles, Terra will circle the Earth 16 times a day from pole to pole (98 degree inclination), crossing the equator at 10:30 a.m. The five Terra instruments will operate by measuring sunlight reflected by the Earth and heat emitted by the Earth.

  6. Completion and Submission of the Terra Sirenum Map Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Robbins, S.; Schroeder, J.

    2016-06-01

    We have completed and plan to submit a detailed 1:5,000,000-scale geologic map of the Terra Sirenum region, which includes mapping stratigraphic units and identifying tectonic, erosional, depositional, and impact structures.

  7. NASA's Terra spacecraft is prepared for encapsulation before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Terra spacecraft (right) is prepared for encapsulation in the rocket faring (left) before launch at Vandenberg AFB, Calif. The faring displays a logo of the many science instruments that make up Terra. The spacecraft's launch aboard a Lockheed Martin Atlas IIAS rocket is scheduled for Dec. 16 from Space Launch Complex 3 East at Vandenberg. Terra comprises five state-of-the- art sets of instruments that will collect data for continuous, long-term records of the state of Earth's land, oceans and atmosphere. Together with data from other satellite systems launched by NASA and other countries, Terra will inaugurate a new self-consistent data record that will be gathered over the next 15 years. From an altitude of 438 miles, Terra will circle the Earth 16 times a day from pole to pole (98 degree inclination), crossing the equator at 10:30 a.m. The five Terra instruments will operate by measuring sunlight reflected by the Earth and heat emitted by the Earth.

  8. Ancient Hydrothermal Springs in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal springs are important astrobiological sites for several reasons: 1) On Earth, molecular phylogeny suggests that many of the most primitive organisms are hyperthermophiles, implying that life on this planet may have arisen in hydrothermal settings; 2) on Mars, similar settings would have supplied energy- and nutrient-rich waters in which early martian life may have evolved; 3) such regions on Mars would have constituted oases of continued habitability providing warm, liquid water to primitive life forms as the planet became colder and drier; and 4) mineralization associated with hydrothermal settings could have preserved biosignatures from those martian life forms. Accordingly, if life ever developed on Mars, then hydrothermal spring deposits would be excellent localities in which to search for morphological or chemical remnants of that life. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel which allows detailed analysis of geologic structure and geomorphology. Based on these new data, we report several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra that we interpret as ancient hydrothermal springs.

  9. Terra - 15 Years as the Earth Observing System Flagship Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Terra marks its 15th year on orbit with an array of accomplishments and the potential to do much more. Efforts continue to extend the Terra data record to make its data more valuable by creating a record length to examine interannual variability, observe trends on the decadal scale, and gather statistics relevant to climate metrics. Continued data from Terra's complementary instruments will play a key role in creating the data record needed for scientists to develop an understanding of our climate system. Terra's suite of instruments: ASTER (contributed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry with a JPL-led US Science Team), CERES (NASA LaRC - PI), MISR (JPL - PI), MODIS (NASA GSFC), and MOPITT (sponsored by Canadian Space Agency with NCAR-led Science Team) are providing an unprecedented 81 core data products. The annual demand for Terra data remains with >120 million files distributed in 2011 and >157 million in 2012. More than 1,100 peer-reviewed publications appeared in 2012 using Terra data bringing the lifetime total >7,600. Citation numbers of 21,000 for 2012 and over 100,000 for the mission's lifetime. The power of Terra is in the high quality of the data calibration, sensor characterization, and the complementary nature of the instruments covering a range of scientific measurements as well as scales. The broad range of products enable the community to provide answers to the overarching question, "How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?" Terra continues to provide data that: (1) Extend the baseline of morning-orbit collections; (2) Enable comparison of measurements acquired from past high-impact events; (3) Add value to recently-launched and soon-to-be launched missions, and upcoming field programs. Terra data continue to support monitoring and relief efforts for natural and man-made disasters that involve U.S. interests. Terra also contributes to Applications Focus Areas supporting the U.S. National

  10. Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) constitutes a nucleoprotein component of extracellular inflammatory exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuo; Deng, Zhong; Dahmane, Nadia; Tsai, Kevin; Wang, Pu; Williams, Dewight R.; Kossenkov, Andrew V.; Showe, Louise C.; Zhang, Rugang; Huang, Qihong; Conejo-Garcia, José R.; Lieberman, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) has been identified as a telomere-associated regulator of chromosome end protection. Here, we report that TERRA can also be found in extracellular fractions that stimulate innate immune signaling. We identified extracellular forms of TERRA in mouse tumor and embryonic brain tissue, as well as in human tissue culture cell lines using RNA in situ hybridization. RNA-seq analyses revealed TERRA to be among the most highly represented transcripts in extracellular fractions derived from both normal and cancer patient blood plasma. Cell-free TERRA (cfTERRA) could be isolated from the exosome fractions derived from human lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) culture media. cfTERRA is a shorter form (∼200 nt) of cellular TERRA and copurifies with CD63- and CD83-positive exosome vesicles that could be visualized by cyro-electron microscopy. These fractions were also enriched for histone proteins that physically associate with TERRA in extracellular ChIP assays. Incubation of cfTERRA-containing exosomes with peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated transcription of several inflammatory cytokine genes, including TNFα, IL6, and C-X-C chemokine 10 (CXCL10) Exosomes engineered with elevated TERRA or liposomes with synthetic TERRA further stimulated inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that exosome-associated TERRA augments innate immune signaling. These findings imply a previously unidentified extrinsic function for TERRA and a mechanism of communication between telomeres and innate immune signals in tissue and tumor microenvironments. PMID:26578789

  11. BOOK REVIEW: European Perceptions of Terra Australis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, Christiaan

    2012-12-01

    Terra Australis - the southern land - has been one of the most widespread concepts in European geography from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. This book comprises a set of 14 interdisciplinary scholarly contributions that deal with personal perceptions of Terra Australis by cartographers and explorers, and with putting these perceptions in their historical and cultural environments. This book seems, at a first glance, to be very remote from astronomy - and even from the history of astronomy - however, as it also offers an excellent background to Captain James Cook's second voyage to observe the 1769 transit of Venus from Tahiti, it definitely is a work of truly interdisciplinary character. Cook's voyages, in fact, became a model in which key scientists of many nationalities and disciplines traveled together on ships. In these voyages, art, science, technology and political power were centralised and united. The chapters range across history, the visual arts, literature, popular culture, technology, politics and science. Issues of scientific reasoning are raised in the description of how people did think about the south before there even existed a perception of the unknown land - quite comparable to how ancient and early-modern astronomers had their thought about cosmology even before any observational data were available. Several early map systems - like the zonal and T-O maps (medieval world maps with the letter T inside an O representing the lands inside a circle of oceans) - are described, and the description of Roman geography shows the amazing fact that theory and practice were not unified, and existed independently of each other insofar that a real paradox between theory and observation had persisted for a very long time. The maps and charts also exemplify the long-lasting consequences of early modern copy-paste practice: navigators copied original sketch charts of coasts that were previously unknown to them, herewith committing many translation and

  12. Geological Time on Display in Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This scene from the dust covered plains of eastern Arabia Terra portrays a range of geological time. Three craters at the center of the image capture some of this range. Two have the classic bowl-shape of small, relatively recent craters while the one just to the north has seen much more history. Its rim has been scoured away by erosion and its floor has been filled in by material likely of a sedimentary nature. The channels that wind through the scene may be the oldest features present while the relatively dark streaks scattered about could have been produced in the past few years or even months as winds remove a layer of dust to reveal darker material below.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Synergism of MODIS Aerosol Remote Sensing from Terra and Aqua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2003-01-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensors, aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites, are showing excellent competence at measuring the global distribution and properties of aerosols. Terra and Aqua were launched on December 18, 1999 and May 4, 2002 respectively, with daytime equator crossing times of approximately 10:30 am and 1:30 pm respectively. Several aerosol parameters are retrieved at 10-km spatial resolution from MODIS daytime data over land and ocean surfaces. The parameters retrieved include: aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 0.47, 0.55 and 0.66 micron wavelengths over land, and at 0.47, 0.55, 0.66, 0.87, 1.2, 1.6, and 2.1 microns over ocean; Angstrom exponent over land and ocean; and effective radii, and the proportion of AOT contributed by the small mode aerosols over ocean. Since the beginning of its operation, the quality of Terra-MODIS aerosol products (especially AOT) have been evaluated periodically by cross-correlation with equivalent data sets acquired by ground-based (and occasionally also airborne) sunphotometers, particularly those coordinated within the framework of the AErosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET). Terra-MODIS AOT data have been found to meet or exceed pre-launch accuracy expectations, and have been applied to various studies dealing with local, regional, and global aerosol monitoring. The results of these Terra-MODIS aerosol data validation efforts and studies have been reported in several scientific papers and conferences. Although Aqua-MODIS is still young, it is already yielding formidable aerosol data products, which are also subjected to careful periodic evaluation similar to that implemented for the Terra-MODIS products. This paper presents results of validation of Aqua-MODIS aerosol products with AERONET, as well as comparative evaluation against corresponding Terra-MODIS data. In addition, we show interesting independent and synergistic applications of MODIS aerosol data from

  14. Effect of MODIS Terra radiometric calibration improvements on Collection 6 Deep Blue aerosol products: Validation and Terra/Aqua consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.; Meister, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Deep Blue (DB) algorithm's primary data product is midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD). DB applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements provides a data record since early 2000 for MODIS Terra and mid-2002 for MODIS Aqua. In the previous data version (Collection 5, C5), DB production from Terra was halted in 2007 due to sensor degradation; the new Collection 6 (C6) has both improved science algorithms and sensor radiometric calibration. This includes additional calibration corrections developed by the Ocean Biology Processing Group to address MODIS Terra's gain, polarization sensitivity, and detector response versus scan angle, meaning DB can now be applied to the whole Terra record. Through validation with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, it is shown that the C6 DB Terra AOD quality is stable throughout the mission to date. Compared to the C5 calibration, in recent years the RMS error compared to AERONET is smaller by ˜0.04 over bright (e.g., desert) and ˜0.01-0.02 over darker (e.g., vegetated) land surfaces, and the fraction of points in agreement with AERONET within expected retrieval uncertainty higher by ˜10% and ˜5%, respectively. Comparisons to the Aqua C6 time series reveal a high level of correspondence between the two MODIS DB data records, with a small positive (Terra-Aqua) average AOD offset <0.01. The analysis demonstrates both the efficacy of the new radiometric calibration efforts and that the C6 MODIS Terra DB AOD data remain stable (to better than 0.01 AOD) throughout the mission to date, suitable for quantitative scientific analyses.

  15. Effect of MODIS Terra Radiometric Calibration Improvements on Collection 6 Deep Blue Aerosol Products: Validation and Terra/Aqua Consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.; Meister, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Blue (DB) algorithm's primary data product is midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD). DB applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements provides a data record since early 2000 for MODIS Terra and mid-2002 for MODIS Aqua. In the previous data version (Collection 5, C5), DB production from Terra was halted in 2007 due to sensor degradation; the new Collection 6 (C6) has both improved science algorithms and sensor radiometric calibration. This includes additional calibration corrections developed by the Ocean Biology Processing Group to address MODIS Terra's gain, polarization sensitivity, and detector response versus scan angle, meaning DB can now be applied to the whole Terra record. Through validation with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, it is shown that the C6 DB Terra AOD quality is stable throughout the mission to date. Compared to the C5 calibration, in recent years the RMS error compared to AERONET is smaller by approximately 0.04 over bright (e.g., desert) and approximately 0.01-0.02 over darker (e.g., vegetated) land surfaces, and the fraction of points in agreement with AERONET within expected retrieval uncertainty higher by approximately 10% and approximately 5%, respectively. Comparisons to the Aqua C6 time series reveal a high level of correspondence between the two MODIS DB data records, with a small positive (Terra-Aqua) average AOD offset <0.01. The analysis demonstrates both the efficacy of the new radiometric calibration efforts and that the C6 MODIS Terra DB AOD data remain stable (to better than 0.01 AOD) throughout the mission to date, suitable for quantitative scientific analyses.

  16. Identification of New Genomospecies in the Mycobacterium terrae Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ngeow, Yun Fong; Wong, Yan Ling; Tan, Joon Liang; Hong, Kar Wai; Ng, Hien Fuh; Ong, Bee Lee; Chan, Kok Gan

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Mycobacterium terrae complex are slow-growing, non-chromogenic acid-fast bacilli found in the natural environment and occasionally in clinical material. These genetically closely-related members are difficult to differentiate by conventional phenotypic and molecular tests. In this paper we describe the use of whole genome data for the identification of four strains genetically similar to Mycobacterium sp. JDM601, a newly identified member of the M. terrae complex. Phylogenetic information from the alignment of genome-wide orthologous genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms show consistent clustering of the four strains together with M. sp. JDM601 into a distinct clade separate from other rapid and slow growing mycobacterial species. More detailed inter-strain comparisons using average nucleotide identity, tetra-nucleotide frequencies and analysis of synteny indicate that our strains are closely related to but not of the same species as M. sp. JDM601. Besides the 16S rRNA signature described previously for the M. terrae complex, five more hypothetical proteins were found that are potentially useful for the rapid identification of mycobacterial species belonging to the M. terrae complex. This paper illustrates the versatile utilization of whole genome data for the delineation of new bacterial species and introduces four new genomospecies to add to current members in the M. terrae complex. PMID:25830768

  17. NASA's Terra spacecraft is prepared for encapsulation before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The rocket faring (left) displays a logo of the many science instruments that make up NASA's Terra spacecraft (background). When fully assembled, Terra will be encapsulated in the faring before launch, scheduled for Dec. 16 aboard a Lockheed Martin Atlas IIAS rocket from Space Launch Complex 3 East at Vandenberg AFB, Calif. Terra comprises five state-of-the-art sets of instruments that will collect data for continuous, long-term records of the state of Earth's land, oceans and atmosphere. Together with data from other satellite systems launched by NASA and other countries, it will inaugurate a new self-consistent data record that will be gathered over the next 15 years. From an altitude of 438 miles, Terra will circle the Earth 16 times a day from pole to pole (98 degree inclination), crossing the equator at 10:30 a.m. The five Terra instruments will operate by measuring sunlight reflected by the Earth and heat emitted by the Earth.

  18. Thermal Performance of Capillary Pumped Loops Onboard Terra Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Butler, Charles D.; Swanson, Theodore; Thies, Diane

    2004-01-01

    The Terra spacecraft is the flagship of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. It provides global data on the state of atmosphere, land and oceans, as well as their interactions with solar radiation and one another. Three Terra instruments utilize Capillary Pumped Heat Transport System (CPHTS) for temperature control: Each CPHTS, consisting of two capillary pumped loops (CPLs) and several heat pipes and electrical heaters, is designed for instrument heat loads ranging from 25W to 264W. The working fluid is ammonia. Since the launch of the Terra spacecraft, each CPHTS has been providing a stable interface temperature specified by the instrument under all modes of spacecraft and instrument operations. The ability to change the CPHTS operating temperature upon demand while in service has also extended the useful life of one instrument. This paper describes the design and on-orbit performance of the CPHTS thermal systems.

  19. Evidence for explosive volcanism in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, Joseph; Bleacher, Jacob

    2014-05-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae exhibit a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. They were likely active in the Late Noachian or Early Hesperian and would have affected the climate, atmospheric composition, and regional surface geology at that time. Lavas extruded from these calderas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra, but these volcanoes do not exhibit shield-like topographic profiles related to the sustained, localized effusive eruption of basaltic lava. We suggest that the lack of a single edifice, the large volume of collapse within an associated with the calderas, and the association of the calderas with vast deposits friable clastic deposits all indicate that these volcanoes were dominated by explosive activity. Layered, friable deposits found throughout Arabia Terra have enigmatic origins, though these materials have been suggested to represent volcanic ash. Attempts to link the locations of various friable deposits in equatorial regions to known volcanic sources have demonstrated that this hypothesis is plausible, but a link between friable deposits and known volcanic sources in this particular region (Arabia Terra) has yet to emerge. We suggest that some of the layered, friable materials were sourced from calderas in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and water from these calderas would have contributed to the alteration of layered clastic materials in Arabia Terra, and perhaps throughout the equatorial region.

  20. Evidence for volcanism in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddis, L.; Greeley, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    Venera 15/16 radar data for an area in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus, show an area with moderate radar return and a smooth textured surface which embays low lying areas of the surrounding mountainous terrain. Although this unit may be an extension of the lava plains of Lakshmi Planum to the southeast, detailed study suggests a separate volcanic center in NW Ishtar Terra. Lakshmi Planum, on the Ishtar Terra highland, exhibits major volcanic and tectonic features. On the Venera radar image radar brightness is influenced by slope and roughness; radar-facing slopes (east-facing) and rough surfaces (approx. 8 cm average relief) are bright, while west-facing slopes and smooth surfaces are dark. A series of semi-circular features, apparently topographic depressions, do not conform in orientation to major structural trends in this region of NW Ishtar Terra. The large depression in NW Ishtar Terra is similar to the calderas of Colette and Sacajawea Paterae, as all three structures are large irregular depressions. NW Ishtar Terra appears to be the site of a volcanic center with a complex caldera structure, possibly more than one eruptive vent, and associated lobed flows at lower elevations. The morphologic similarity between this volcanic center and those of Colette and Sacajawea suggests that centralized eruptions have been the dominant form of volcanism in Ishtar. The location of this volcanic center at the intersection of two major compressional mountain belts and the large size of the calders (with an inferred larg/deep magma source) support a crustal thickening/melting rather than a hot-spot origin for these magmas.

  1. Terra firma-forme dermatosis: Case Series and dermoscopic features.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Razek, Moheb M; Fathy, Hanan

    2015-10-01

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis (TFFD) is characterized by dirt-like skin lesions that disappear after rubbing with alcohol. We describe the dermoscopic features of TFFD before and after alcohol swabbing in six patients. All patients showed similar dermoscopic appearance with large polygonal plate-like brown scales arranged together giving a mosaic pattern. These features disappear completely after isopropyl alcohol swabbing of the lesions. In conclusion dermoscopy can assist in the evaluation of terra firma-forme dermatosis and the dermoscopic evaluation of other dirty dermatoses is recommended in the future to compare findings with TFFD. PMID:26632811

  2. NASA's Terra Spacecraft Measures Height of California Rim Fire Smoke Plumes

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... NASA's Terra Spacecraft Measures Height of California Rim Fire Smoke Plumes     View ... - NASA's Terra Spacecraft Measures Height of California Rim Fire Smoke Plumes project:  MISR category:  ...

  3. Knobby terrain in Northern Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 25 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image shows a region in northern Arabia Terra near 44o N, 322o W (38o E). Knobby or 'scabby' plains units that mantle and modify a pre-existing cratered surface dominate the unusual landscape in this region. Several large (5-8 km diameter) impact craters seen in the upper left of the image have been extensively modified since their initial formation. The rims of these craters can still be seen, but the ejecta deposits and the surrounding plains have been buried by a layer of material. This mantling layer has itself been modified to produce a pitted, knobby surface. Circular depressions of all sizes, presumably the remnants of impact craters, are filled with smooth deposits. In some places large regions have been covered by this smooth material; an example can be seen in the lower right portion of this image. In many cases the impact craters have been extensively modified prior to their being filled. This modification indicates an erosion process that has removed material from the walls to produce shapes that vary from circular with crisp rims, to circular with no rims, to oblong and elliptical forms, and finally to irregular shapes whose initial circular outline can barely be detected. The slope of the channel at the top of the image has an unusual deposit of material that occurs preferentially on the cold, north-facing slope. Similar deposits are seen frequently at mid-northern and southern latitudes on Mars, and have a characteristic, rounded boundary that typically occurs at approximately the same distance below the ridge crest. It has been suggested that these deposits once draped the entire surface and have since been removed from all but the cold north-facing slopes. The presence and removal of ground ice may play an important role in the formation of this layer, as well as the knobby terrain and unusual features seen in this image. The StoryThere's no way these impact craters are in their original

  4. Quantitative interaction screen of telomeric repeat-containing RNA reveals novel TERRA regulators

    PubMed Central

    Scheibe, Marion; Arnoult, Nausica; Kappei, Dennis; Buchholz, Frank; Decottignies, Anabelle; Butter, Falk; Mann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres are actively transcribed into telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), which has been implicated in the regulation of telomere length and heterochromatin formation. Here, we applied quantitative mass spectrometry (MS)–based proteomics to obtain a high-confidence interactome of TERRA. Using SILAC-labeled nuclear cell lysates in an RNA pull-down experiment and two different salt conditions, we distinguished 115 proteins binding specifically to TERRA out of a large set of background binders. While TERRA binders identified in two previous studies showed little overlap, using quantitative mass spectrometry we obtained many candidates reported in these two studies. To test whether novel candidates found here are involved in TERRA regulation, we performed an esiRNA-based interference analysis for 15 of them. Knockdown of 10 genes encoding candidate proteins significantly affected total cellular levels of TERRA, and RNAi of five candidates perturbed TERRA recruitment to telomeres. Notably, depletion of SRRT/ARS2, involved in miRNA processing, up-regulated both total and telomere-bound TERRA. Conversely, knockdown of MORF4L2, a component of the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex, reduced TERRA levels both globally and for telomere-bound TERRA. We thus identified new proteins involved in the homeostasis and telomeric abundance of TERRA, extending our knowledge of TERRA regulation. PMID:23921659

  5. Widespread Layers in Arabia Terra: Implications for Martian Geologic History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venechuk, Elizabeth M.; Oehler, D. Z.

    2006-01-01

    Layered rocks in Arabia Terra have been the focus of several recent papers. Studies have focused on the layers found in crater basins located in the southwest portion of the region. However, Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images have identified layered deposits across the region. Terrestrial layered rocks are usually sedimentary, and often deposited in water. Thus extensive layered sequences in Arabia Terra may indicate locations of past, major depositional basins on Mars. Other mechanisms can also create layered rocks, or the appearance of layered rocks, including volcanism (both lava flows and ash falls), wind-blown deposits, and wave-cut terraces at shorelines. By identifying where in the region layers occur, and classifying the layers according to morphology and albedo, past depositional environments may be identified. Arabia Terra is characterized by heavily cratered Noachian plains, as well as a rise from -4000 m in the northwest to 4000 m in the southeast (Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter [MOLA] datum). This slope may have provided a constraint on sediment deposition and thus layer formation. While most of the region is Noachian in age, a significant percentage of the area is identified as Hesperian. Although the history of the Arabia Terra initially seems to be straightforward cratered plains with several younger units atop them analysis of high-resolution imagery may reveal a more complex history.

  6. A new cucurbitacin from Picria fel-terrae.

    PubMed

    Zou, J-M; Wang, L-S; Ma, X-M; Guo, Y-J; Shi, R-B

    2006-06-01

    A new cucurbitacin, picfeltarraenone II (1) as well as four known cucurbitacins, picfeltarraegenin I (2), picfeltarraenin IA (3), picfeltarraenin IB (4), and picfeltarraenin IV (5), have been isolated and characterized from the whole plant of Picria fel-terrae. The purity of picfeltarraenin IA has been determined by TLC and HPLC. PMID:16864449

  7. FLASH_SSF_Terra-FM1_V3B

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-07-22

    ... FLASH_SSF_Terra-FM1_V3B Project Title:  CERES Discipline:  Clouds Radiation Budget ...   Reverb Tutorial Subset/Visualization Tool:  CERES Order Tool CERES Search and Subset Tool (HDF4 & netCDF) ...

  8. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Phages Benczkowski14 and Katyusha

    PubMed Central

    Benczkowski, Matthew S.; Green, Daryn E.; Hwang, Melina; Kennedy, Bryan; Kocak, Bradley; Kruczek, Ellen; Lin, Leon; Moretti, Matthew L.; Onelangsy, Faith L.; Mezghani, Nadia; Milliken, Katherine A.; Toner, Chelsea L.; Thompson, Paige K.; Ulbrich, Megan C.; Furbee, Emily C.; Grubb, Sarah R.; Warner, Marcie H.; Montgomery, Matthew T.; Garlena, Rebecca A.; Russell, Daniel A.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages Katyusha and Benczkowski14 are newly isolated phages that infect Gordonia terrae 3612. Both have siphoviral morphologies with isometric heads and long tails (500 nm). The genomes are 75,380 bp long and closely related, and the tape measure genes (9 kbp) are among the largest to be identified. PMID:27340062

  9. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Phages Benczkowski14 and Katyusha.

    PubMed

    Pope, Welkin H; Benczkowski, Matthew S; Green, Daryn E; Hwang, Melina; Kennedy, Bryan; Kocak, Bradley; Kruczek, Ellen; Lin, Leon; Moretti, Matthew L; Onelangsy, Faith L; Mezghani, Nadia; Milliken, Katherine A; Toner, Chelsea L; Thompson, Paige K; Ulbrich, Megan C; Furbee, Emily C; Grubb, Sarah R; Warner, Marcie H; Montgomery, Matthew T; Garlena, Rebecca A; Russell, Daniel A; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages Katyusha and Benczkowski14 are newly isolated phages that infect Gordonia terrae 3612. Both have siphoviral morphologies with isometric heads and long tails (500 nm). The genomes are 75,380 bp long and closely related, and the tape measure genes (9 kbp) are among the largest to be identified. PMID:27340062

  10. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: TERRA-KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of PCBs in soils has been difficult to implement on a full-scale, cost-effective basis. The Terra-Kleen solvent extraction system has overcome many of the soil handling, contaminant removal, and regulatory restrictions that have made it difficult to implement a cost-e...

  11. A Sedimentary Platform in Margaritifer Sinus, Meridiani Terra, and Arabia?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.; Irwin, R. P., III; Craddock, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    The Margaritifer-Meridiani-Arabia highlands-lowlands (H-L) transition has long been recognized as the most fluvially dissected region of Mars. However, the geomorphic evolution of this region remains enigmatic, particularly the origin of the layered deposits of Meridiani Terra and Arabia. We suggest that a portion of this regional slope served as a fluvial depositional platform during the late Noachian.

  12. 10 years of Terra Outreach over the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, K.; Riebeek, H.; Chambers, L. H.

    2009-12-01

    1 Author Yuen, Karen JPL (818) 393-7716 2 Author Riebeek, Holli Sigma Space Corporation (department) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Institution), Greenbelt, Maryland 3 Author Chambers, Lin NASA Abstract: Since launch, Terra has returned about 195 gigabytes (level 0) of data per day or 1 terabyte every 5 days. Few outlets were able to accommodate and quickly share that amount of information as well as the Internet. To honor the 10-year anniversary of the launch of Terra, we would like to highlight the education and outreach efforts of the Terra mission on the Internet and its reach to the science attentive public. The Internet or web has been the primary way of delivering Terra content to different groups- from formal and informal education to general public outreach. Through the years, many different web-based projects have been developed, and they were of service to a growing population of the science attentive public. One of Terra’s original EPO activities was the Earth Observatory. It was initially dedicated to telling the remote sensing story of Terra, but quickly grew to include science and imagery from other sensors. The web site allowed for collaboration across NASA centers, universities and other organizations by exchanging and sharing of story ideas, news and images. The award winning Earth Observatory helped pave the way for the more recently funded development of the Climate Change website. With its specific focus on climate change studies, once again, Terra stories and images are shared with an even more specific audience base. During the last 10 years, Terra as a mission has captured the imagination of the public through its visually stunning and artistically arresting images. With its five instruments of complementary but unique capabilities, the mission gave the world not just pretty pictures, but scientific data-based images. The world was able to see from space everything from calving icebergs to volcanic eruption plumes and the eye of a

  13. Multitemporal observations of sugarcane by TerraSAR-X images.

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cresson, Rémi; Todoroff, Pierre; Moinet, Soizic

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean). Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°). Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV) were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd) less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm). This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired

  14. Multitemporal Observations of Sugarcane by TerraSAR-X Images

    PubMed Central

    Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cresson, Rémi; Todoroff, Pierre; Moinet, Soizic

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean). Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°). Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV) were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd) less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm). This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired

  15. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars. PMID:24091975

  16. How to create a Terra Harvest compliant plug-in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klawon, Kevin; Gold, Josh; Marcucci, Nicholas

    2012-06-01

    The DIA wants to create an UGS controller that is interoperable across all controller platforms, capable of easily adding new sensors, radios, and processes, etc., as well as backward compatibility with existing UGS systems. To achieve this, the defined Terra Harvest standard is based on the latest Java JRE 1.6 and an OSGI platform. OSGI is an extensible framework that provides a modularized environment that allows functionality to be deployed in "bundles". These bundles can publish, discover, and share services available from other bundles or bundles provided by the controller core. This paper will give you architectural overview and then show you how to use the THOSE SDK to develop and deploy a bundle for your asset, communications device, or algorithm using OSGI and the Terra Harvest Standard.

  17. Summary of Terra and Aqua MODIS Long-Term Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Wenny, Brian N.; Angal, Amit; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, the MODIS ProtoFlight Model (PFM) onboard the Terra spacecraft has successfully operated for more than 11 years. Its Flight Model (FM) onboard the Aqua spacecraft, launched in May 2002, has also successfully operated for over 9 years. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands at three nadir spatial resolutions and are calibrated and characterized regularly by a set of on-board calibrators (OBC). Nearly 40 science products, supporting a variety of land, ocean, and atmospheric applications, are continuously derived from the calibrated reflectances and radiances of each MODIS instrument and widely distributed to the world-wide user community. Following an overview of MODIS instrument operation and calibration activities, this paper provides a summary of both Terra and Aqua MODIS long-term performance. Special considerations that are critical to maintaining MODIS data quality and beneficial for future missions are also discussed.

  18. Supervolcanoes Within an Ancient Volcanic Province in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalski, Joseph. R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2014-01-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae display a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism, and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulfur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas likely fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. Discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  19. The TerraSAR-L Interferometric Mission Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, M.

    2004-06-01

    TerraSAR-L is the new imaging radar mission of the European Space Agency. The platform, based on the novel Snapdragon concept, is built around the active phase array antenna of the L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Specification of the L-SAR has been guided by careful analysis of the product requirements resulting in a robust baseline design with considerable margins. Besides having a commercial role for the provision of geo-information products, TerraSAR-L will contribute to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative and serve the scientific user community. Interferometry (INSAR) is a key element behind a number of mission objectives. A L-band SAR in a 14-day repeat orbit is an ideal sensor for solid earth applications (earth quake and volcano monitoring, landslides and subsidence) relying on differential interferometry. L-band penetration of vegetation cover facilitates these applications also over vegetated surfaces. Because of the high coherence, L-band is also the preferred frequency for monitoring ice sheet and glacier dynamics. Highly accurate orbit control (orbital tube <100m) and special wideband INSAR modes are required to support these applications globally and systematically. Precise burst synchronisation enables repeat-pass ScanSAR interferometry and global coverage within the short repeat cycle. A feasibility study into cartwheel constellations flying in close formation with TerraSAR-L revealed the potential for generating Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of unprecedented quality (2m relative height accuracy @ 12m posting). The TerraSAR-L operations strategy is based on a long-term systematic and repetitive acquisition scenario to ensure consistent data archives and to maximise the exploitation of this very powerful SAR system.

  20. Eastern Ishtar Terra: Tectonic evolution derived from recognized features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorderbruegge, R. W.; Head, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Previous analyses have recognized several styles and orientations of compressional deformation, crustal convergence, and crustal thickening in Eastern Ishtar Terra. An east to west sense of crustal convergence through small scale folding, thrusting, and buckling is reflected in the high topography and ridge-and-valley morphology of Maxwell Montes and the adjacent portion of Fortuna Tessera. This east to west convergence was accompanied by up to 1000 km of lateral motion and large scale strike-slip faulting within two converging shear zones which has resulted in the present morphology of Maxwell Montes. A more northeast to southwest sense of convergence through large scale buckling and imbrication is reflected in large, northwest-trending scarps along the entire northern boundary of Ishtar Terra, with up to 2 km of relief present at many of the scarps. It was previously suggested that both styles of compression have occurred at the expense of pre-existing tessera regions which have then been overprinted by the latest convergence event. The difference in style is attributed mostly to differences in the properties of the crust converging with the tessera blocks. If one, presumably thick, tessera block converges with another tessera region, then the widespread, distributed style of deformation occurs, as observed in western Fortuna Tessera. However, if relatively thin crust (such as suggested for the North Polar Plains converges with thicker tessera regions, then localized deformation occurs, as reflected in the scarps along Northern Ishtar Terra. The purpose is to identify the types of features observed in Eastern Ishtar Terra. Their potential temporal and spatial relationships, is described, possible origins for them is suggested, and how the interpretation of some of these features has led to the multiple-style tectonic evolution model described is shown.

  1. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Bacteriophages Phinally and Vivi2

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kaitlyn C.; Arora, Charu; Bortz, Michael E.; Burnet, George; Conover, David H.; D’Incau, Gina M.; Ghobrial, Jonathan A.; Jonas, Audrey L.; Migdal, Emily J.; Rote, Nicole L.; German, Brian A.; McDonnell, Jill E.; Mezghani, Nadia; Schafer, Claire E.; Thompson, Paige K.; Ulbrich, Megan C.; Yu, Victor J.; Furbee, Emily C.; Grubb, Sarah R.; Warner, Marcie H.; Montgomery, Matthew T.; Garlena, Rebecca A.; Russell, Daniel A.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages Phinally and Vivi2 were isolated from soil from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, using host Gordonia terrae 3612. The Phinally and Vivi2 genomes are 59,265 bp and 59,337 bp, respectively, and share sequence similarity with each other and with GTE6. Fewer than 25% of the 87 to 89 putative genes have predictable functions. PMID:27540050

  2. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Bacteriophages Phinally and Vivi2.

    PubMed

    Pope, Welkin H; Anderson, Kaitlyn C; Arora, Charu; Bortz, Michael E; Burnet, George; Conover, David H; D'Incau, Gina M; Ghobrial, Jonathan A; Jonas, Audrey L; Migdal, Emily J; Rote, Nicole L; German, Brian A; McDonnell, Jill E; Mezghani, Nadia; Schafer, Claire E; Thompson, Paige K; Ulbrich, Megan C; Yu, Victor J; Furbee, Emily C; Grubb, Sarah R; Warner, Marcie H; Montgomery, Matthew T; Garlena, Rebecca A; Russell, Daniel A; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages Phinally and Vivi2 were isolated from soil from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, using host Gordonia terrae 3612. The Phinally and Vivi2 genomes are 59,265 bp and 59,337 bp, respectively, and share sequence similarity with each other and with GTE6. Fewer than 25% of the 87 to 89 putative genes have predictable functions. PMID:27540050

  3. Surface Albedo/BRDF Parameters (Terra/Aqua MODIS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Trishchenko, Alexander

    2008-01-15

    Spatially and temporally complete surface spectral albedo/BRDF products over the ARM SGP area were generated using data from two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on Terra and Aqua satellites. A landcover-based fitting (LBF) algorithm is developed to derive the BRDF model parameters and albedo product (Luo et al., 2004a). The approach employs a landcover map and multi-day clearsky composites of directional surface reflectance. The landcover map is derived from the Landsat TM 30-meter data set (Trishchenko et al., 2004a), and the surface reflectances are from MODIS 500m-resolution 8-day composite products (MOD09/MYD09). The MOD09/MYD09 data are re-arranged into 10-day intervals for compatibility with other satellite products, such as those from the NOVA/AVHRR and SPOT/VGT sensors. The LBF method increases the success rate of the BRDF fitting process and enables more accurate monitoring of surface temporal changes during periods of rapid spring vegetation green-up and autumn leaf-fall, as well as changes due to agricultural practices and snowcover variations (Luo et al., 2004b, Trishchenko et al., 2004b). Albedo/BRDF products for MODIS on Terra and MODIS on Aqua, as well as for Terra/Aqua combined dataset, are generated at 500m spatial resolution and every 10-day since March 2000 (Terra) and July 2002 (Aqua and combined), respectively. The purpose for the latter product is to obtain a more comprehensive dataset that takes advantages of multi-sensor observations (Trishchenko et al., 2002). To fill data gaps due to cloud presence, various interpolation procedures are applied based on a multi-year observation database and referring to results from other locations with similar landcover property. Special seasonal smoothing procedure is also applied to further remove outliers and artifacts in data series.

  4. Terra MODIS Band 27 Electronic Crosstalk Effect and Its Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Junqiang; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wenny, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the primary instruments in the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS). The first MODIS instrument was launched in December, 1999 on-board the Terra spacecraft. MODIS has 36 bands, covering a wavelength range from 0.4 micron to 14.4 micron. MODIS band 27 (6.72 micron) is a water vapor band, which is designed to be insensitive to Earth surface features. In recent Earth View (EV) images of Terra band 27, surface feature contamination is clearly seen and striping has become very pronounced. In this paper, it is shown that band 27 is impacted by electronic crosstalk from bands 28-30. An algorithm using a linear approximation is developed to correct the crosstalk effect. The crosstalk coefficients are derived from Terra MODIS lunar observations. They show that the crosstalk is strongly detector dependent and the crosstalk pattern has changed dramatically since launch. The crosstalk contributions are positive to the instrument response of band 27 early in the mission but became negative and much larger in magnitude at later stages of the mission for most detectors of the band. The algorithm is applied to both Black Body (BB) calibration and MODIS L1B products. With the crosstalk effect removed, the calibration coefficients of Terra MODIS band 27 derived from the BB show that the detector differences become smaller. With the algorithm applied to MODIS L1B products, the Earth surface features are significantly removed and the striping is substantially reduced in the images of the band. The approach developed in this report for removal of the electronic crosstalk effect can be applied to other MODIS bands if similar crosstalk behaviors occur.

  5. Ground-based vicarious radiometric calibration of Terra MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Thome, K.

    2009-12-01

    Accurate radiometric calibration is required by Earth-observing systems to ensure that the derived data products are of the highest quality. Preflight calibration is used as a baseline to understand the system before it is launched on orbit, while post-launch calibration is used to understand changes that may have occurred due to the nature of launching an instrument into space. On-orbit radiometric calibration ensures that changes in the system, including any onboard calibration sources, can be monitored. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona has been directly involved in the ground-based vicarious calibration of both Terra and Aqua MODIS since their respective launches in 1999 and 2002. RSG personnel are present at a test site during sensor overpass, and surface reflectance and atmospheric attenuation measurements are used as inputs to a radiative transfer code to determine the top-of-atmosphere radiance for the sensor under test. In the case of Terra MODIS, a 1-km2 site at Railroad Valley, Nevada, is used as a test site. This work presents results obtained using the reflectance-based approach at RSG’s Railroad Valley test site. Results from 10 years of in situ data collection at Railroad Valley show a percent difference in the seven land spectral channels between RSG and Terra MODIS ranging from 1.6 % in channel 6 (1632 nm), to 5.1% in channel 4 (553 nm). The average percent difference for Terra MODIS’s seven land channels and RSG is 3.5%. The uncertainty is within the 3-5% predicted for ground-based vicarious calibration.

  6. Status of Terra and Aqua MODIS Instrument Operation and Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Wenny, B. N.; Sun, J.; Angal, A.; Salomonson, V. V.

    2013-12-01

    Terra and Aqua MODIS have successfully operated for more than 13 and 11 years since their respective launches in 1999 and 2002. Nearly 40 data products, developed for studies of the earth's land, ocean, and atmosphere, have been routinely generated from calibrated and geo-located MODIS observations and widely distributed to the science and user community. MODIS on-orbit calibration is performed by a set of on-board calibrators, which include a solar diffuser for the reflective solar bands calibration and a blackbody for the thermal emissive bands calibration. MODIS on-board calibrators are regularly operated to monitor on-orbit changes in sensor responses and key performance parameters, such as radiometric calibration coefficients. Since launch, extensive instrument calibration and characterization activities have been scheduled and executed by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST). This presentation provides an overview of both Terra and Aqua MODIS instrument status, their on-orbit operation and calibration activities, and overall long-term performance. It reports calibration improvements (algorithms and look-up tables) made in the latest MODIS data collection (C6). Lessons learned from both Terra and Aqua MODIS and their applications to the S-NPP VIIRS on-orbit calibration are also discussed.

  7. The non-coding RNA TERRA is a natural ligand and direct inhibitor of human telomerase

    PubMed Central

    Redon, Sophie; Reichenbach, Patrick; Lingner, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Telomeres, the physical ends of eukaryotes chromosomes are transcribed into telomeric repeat containing RNA (TERRA), a large non-coding RNA of unknown function, which forms an integral part of telomeric heterochromatin. TERRA molecules resemble in sequence the telomeric DNA substrate as they contain 5′-UUAGGG-3′ repeats near their 3′-end which are complementary to the template sequence of telomerase RNA. Here we demonstrate that endogenous TERRA is bound to human telomerase in cell extracts. Using in vitro reconstituted telomerase and synthetic TERRA molecules we demonstrate that the 5′-UUAGGG-3′ repeats of TERRA base pair with the RNA template of the telomerase RNA moiety (TR). In addition TERRA contacts the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein subunit independently of hTR. In vitro studies further demonstrate that TERRA is not used as a telomerase substrate. Instead, TERRA acts as a potent competitive inhibitor for telomeric DNA in addition to exerting an uncompetitive mode of inhibition. Our data identify TERRA as a telomerase ligand and natural direct inhibitor of human telomerase. Telomerase regulation by the telomere substrate may be mediated via its transcription. PMID:20460456

  8. 15 Years of Terra, 14 Years of Application Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Alarcon, C.; Boller, R. A.; Cechini, M. F.; Davies, D.; Fu, G.; Gunnoe, T.; Hall, J. R.; Huang, T.; Ilavajhala, S.; Jackson, M.; King, J.; McGann, M.; Murphy, K. J.; Roberts, J. T.; Thompson, C. K.; Ye, G.

    2014-12-01

    The instruments onboard the Terra spacecraft were designed for long-term Earth science research but not long after launch it became apparent that this data and imagery could be made available in near real-time for applications users. During the year 2000 fire season in the western United States, the US Forest Service approached NASA with a request to expedite MODIS fire detections. The Rapid Response system was created to generate fire detections as well as true color imagery in both swath and geo-referenced formats. This imagery was used by a wide variety of applications, such as NASA's AERONET program, the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, Antarctic resupply shipping, flood mapping for relief agencies, Deepwater Horizon monitoring, volcanic ash monitoring, as well as print, televised, and Internet media. From 2004, the University of Maryland's Web Fire Mapper helped distribute fire detection information in a variety of formats. However, the applications community expressed the need for near-real time access to the underlying data. This requirement led to the development of the Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) in 2009. To achieve the latency requirements, many components of the EOS satellite operations, ground and science processing systems had to be made more efficient. In addition, products that require ancillary data were modified to use alternate inputs. Forty Terra MODIS data products are currently available from LANCE. LANCE also includes data from other instruments including AIRS, AMSR-E, MLS, and OMI. To help near-real time users navigate this large data offering, a new imagery service was begun in 2011 - Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS). This service provides very responsive viewing using the Web Map Tile Service protocol. These programs will continue to support and expand the use of Terra data for near-real time applications well into the future.

  9. Electronic crosstalk in Terra MODIS thermal emissive bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junqiang; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wang, Menghua

    2015-09-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a legacy Earth remote sensing instrument in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS). The first MODIS instrument was launched in December 1999 on board the Terra spacecraft. MODIS has 36 bands, among which bands 20-25 and bands 27-36 are thermal emissive bands covering a wavelength range from 3.7μm to 14.2μm. It has been found that there are severe contaminations in Terra bands 27-30 (6.7 μm - 9.73 μm) due to crosstalk of signals among themselves. The crosstalk effect induces strong striping artifacts in the Earth View (EV) images and causes large long-term drifts in the EV brightness temperature (BT) in these bands. An algorithm using a linear approximation derived from on-orbit lunar observations has been developed to correct the crosstalk effect for them. It was demonstrated that the crosstalk correction can substantially reduce the striping noise in the EV images and significantly remove the long-term drifts in the EV BT in the Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR) water vapor channels (bands 27-28). In this paper, the crosstalk correction algorithm previously developed is applied to correct the crosstalk effect in the remaining LWIR bands 29 and 30. The crosstalk correction successfully reduces the striping artifact in the EV images and removes long-term drifts in the EV BT in bands 29-30 as was done similarly for bands 27-28. The crosstalk correction algorithm can thus substantially improve both the image quality and the radiometric accuracy of the Level 1B (L1B) products of the LWIR PV bands, bands 27-30. From this study it is also understood that other Terra MODIS thermal emissive bands are contaminated by the crosstalk effect and that the algorithm can be applied to these bands for crosstalk correction.

  10. Braided alluvial fan in the Terra Sirenum region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeli, S.; Hauber, E.; Le Deit, L.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Platz, T.; Fawdon, P.; Jaumann, R.

    2015-10-01

    Here we report the presence of an Amazonian-aged outflow channel located on the rim of the Ariadnes Colles basin (37°S/178°E) that has an alluvial fan on its downstream part. The study area is located in the Noachian highlands of Terra Sirenum, the site of a large hypothesized paleolake [3]. This so-called Eridania lake existed during the Late Noachian -Early Hesperian and drained into Ma'adim Vallis, one of the largest valleys on Mars. The Ariadnes Colles basin was part of the Eridania paleolake and hosted later a closed lake.

  11. Extension Across Tempe Terra, Mars from MOLA Topographic Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, B. W.; Phillips, R. J.; Golombek, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    Previously, methods of estimating the extension across grabens and rifts on Mars by necessity relied on photogeologic methods such as shadow measurement, crater ellipticity, or photoclinometry. With the new data being returned by the Mars Global Surveyor, specifically from the Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA), it is now possible to directly measure the depths of these structures and therefore to estimate more accurately the amount of extension. Here we provide an example of this new approach in the Tempe Terra region. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Seasonal Surface Spectral Emissivity Derived from Terra MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan; Minnis, Patrick; Young, DavidF.; Smith, William J., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) Project is measuring broadband shortwave and longwave radiances and deriving cloud properties form various images to produce a combined global radiation and cloud property data set. In this paper, simultaneous data from Terra MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) taken at 3.7, 8.5, 11.0, and 12.0 m are used to derive the skin temperature and the surface emissivities at the same wavelengths. The methodology uses separate measurements of clear sky temperature in each channel determined by scene classification during the daytime and at night. The relationships between the various channels at night are used during the day when solar reflectance affects the 3.7- m radiances. A set of simultaneous equations is then solved to derive the emissivities. Global monthly emissivity maps are derived from Terra MODIS data while numerical weather analyses provide soundings for correcting the observed radiances for atmospheric absorption. These maps are used by CERES and other cloud retrieval algorithms.

  13. Hints at diapirism in Arabia Terra bulged craters (Mars)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, R.; Massironi, M.; Rossi, A. P.; Sauro, F.; Carli, C.; Marinangeli, L.; Cremonese, G.

    2015-10-01

    Impact craters within Arabia Terra region,on Mars,display a large central bulge, sometimes showing a well-preserved stratification (light albedo layered deposits). In craters like Crommelin or an unnamed crater (that is numbered 12000088) located a few hundreds kilometers on the East some unusual landforms and structures among the layered deposits were observed. In particular, on Crommelin's bulge and its surroundings we found fold systems with axis parallel to the bulge perimeter. The fold sets are typical compressional structure often associated to diapiric rise on Earth[1]. In addition on top of 12000088 crater's bulge the evidence of sulfate signatures was detected as well as the presence of small bowl-shaped depressions. Several fluid-carved channels that depart radially from the bulge are cut by a ring of normal faults,thus suggesting a collapse of the bulge summit. Thus, on the basis of the previous observations it is possible to hypothesize that diapiric rise could have been responsible for central bulging both on Crommelin and 12000088 craters and likely on other bulged craters on Arabia Terra.

  14. Flood routing of the Maja outflow across Xanthe Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    The object is to trace a single flood crest through the Maja outflow system and to evaluate the effects of topography on ponding and multiple channel routing. Maja Valles provides a good model because it has a single source and a well defined channel system. The 1500 km long Maja Valles originates in Juventae Chasma. The outflow system stretches 1100 km northward along the Lunae Planum/Xanthe Terra boundary, then eastward across the Xanthe Terra highlands. It descends to Chryse Planitia where it extends northeastward toward the middle of the basin. It is concluded that flood routing through multiple channels and retardation in local impoundments are responsible for breakup of the initial flood crest and the formation of multiple flood crests. Recombined flow near the mouths of these canyons results in an extended flow regime and multiple flood surges. As a result of ponding along the flood course, depositional sites are localized and renewed erosion downstream (from ponded sites) results in sediment source areas not greatly removed from depositional sites.

  15. A fully automated TerraSAR-X based flood service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinis, Sandro; Kersten, Jens; Twele, André

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a fully automated processing chain for near real-time flood detection using high resolution TerraSAR-X Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data is presented. The processing chain including SAR data pre-processing, computation and adaption of global auxiliary data, unsupervised initialization of the classification as well as post-classification refinement by using a fuzzy logic-based approach is automatically triggered after satellite data delivery. The dissemination of flood maps resulting from this service is performed through an online service which can be activated on-demand for emergency response purposes (i.e., when a flood situation evolves). The classification methodology is based on previous work of the authors but was substantially refined and extended for robustness and transferability to guarantee high classification accuracy under different environmental conditions and sensor configurations. With respect to accuracy and computational effort, experiments performed on a data set of 175 different TerraSAR-X scenes acquired during flooding all over the world with different sensor configurations confirm the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed flood mapping service. These promising results have been further confirmed by means of an in-depth validation performed for three study sites in Germany, Thailand, and Albania/Montenegro.

  16. Status of Terra MODIS Operation, Calibration, and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Wenny, B.; Wu, A.; Angal, A.; Geng, X.; Chen, H.; Dodd, J.; Link, D.; Madhavan, S.; Chen, N.; Li, Y.; Iacangelo, S.; Barnes, W.; Salomonson, V.

    2014-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, Terra MODIS has successfully operated for nearly 15 years, making continuous observations. Data products derived from MODIS observations have significantly contributed to a wide range of studies of key geophysical parameters of the earth's eco-system of land, ocean, and atmosphere, and their changes over time. The quality of MODIS data products relies on the dedicated effort to monitor and sustain instrument health and operation, to calibrate and update sensor parameters and properties, and to improve calibration algorithms. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands, covering wavelengths from visible to long-wave infrared. The reflective solar bands (1-19 and 26) are primarily calibrated by a solar diffuser (SD) panel and regularly scheduled lunar observations. The thermal emissive bands (20-25 and 27- 36) calibration is referenced to an on-board blackbody (BB) source. On-orbit changes in the sensor spectral and spatial characteristics are monitored by a spectroradiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). This paper provides an overview of Terra MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities and implementation strategies. It presents and summarizes sensor on-orbit performance using nearly 15 years of data from its telemetry, on-board calibrators, and lunar observations. Also discussed in this paper are changes in sensor characteristics, corrections applied to maintain MODIS level 1B (L1B) data quality, and efforts for future improvements.

  17. Retrieval algorithm development and product validation for TERRA/MOPITT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeter, M. N.; Martínez-Alonso, S.; Worden, H. M.; Emmons, L. K.; Dean, V.; Mao, D.; Edwards, D. P.; Gille, J. C.

    2014-10-01

    Satellite observations of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) are employed in diverse applications including air quality studies, chemical weather forecasting and the characterization of CO emissions through inverse modeling. The TERRA / MOPITT ('Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere') instrument incorporates a set of gas correlation radiometers to observe CO simultaneously in both a thermal-infrared (TIR) band near 4.7 µm and a near-infrared (NIR) band near 2.3 μm. This multispectral capability is unique to MOPITT. The MOPITT retrieval algorithm for vertical profiles of CO has been refined almost continuously since TERRA was launched at the end of 1999. Retrieval algorithm enhancements are the result of ongoing analyses of instrument performance, improved radiative transfer modeling, and systematic comparisons with correlative data, including in-situ profiles measured from aircraft and products from other satellite instruments. In the following, we describe the methods used to routinely evaluate MOPITT CO profiles. As the satellite instrument with the longest record for CO, methods for assessing the long-term stability are becoming increasingly important.

  18. The crosstalk of telomere dysfunction and inflammation through cell-free TERRA containing exosomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Lieberman, Paul M

    2016-08-01

    Telomeric repeats-containing RNA (TERRA) are telomere-derived non-coding RNAs that contribute to telomere function in protecting chromosome ends. We recently identified a cell-free form of TERRA (cfTERRA) enriched in extracellular exosomes. These cfTERRA-containing exosomes stimulate inflammatory cytokines when incubated with immune responsive cells. Here, we report that cfTERRA levels were increased in exosomes during telomere dysfunction induced by the expression of the dominant negative TRF2. The exosomes from these damaged cells also enriched with DNA damage marker γH2AX and fragmented telomere repeat DNA. Purified cfTERRA stimulated inflammatory cytokines, but the intact membrane-associated nucleoprotein complexes produced a more robust cytokine activation. Therefore, we propose cfTERRA-containing exosomes transport a telomere-associated molecular pattern (TAMP) and telomere-specific alarmin from dysfunctional telomeres to the extracellular environment to elicit an inflammatory response. Since cfTERRA can be readily detected in human serum it may provide a useful biomarker for the detection of telomere dysfunction in the early stage of cancers and aging-associated inflammatory disease. PMID:27351774

  19. Two MODIS Aerosol Products Over Ocean on the Terra and Aqua CERES SSF Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatov, Alexander; Minnis, Patrick; Loeb, Norman; Wielicki, Bruce; Miller, Walter; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Tanre, Didier; Remer, Lorraine; Laszlo, Istvan; Geier, Erika

    2004-01-01

    Over ocean, two aerosol products are reported on the Terra and Aqua CERES SSFs. Both are derived from MODIS, but using different sampling and aerosol algorithms. This study briefly summarizes these products, and compares using 2 weeks of global Terra data from 15-21 December 2000, and 1-7 June 2001.

  20. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE TERRA VAC IN SITU VACUUM EXTRACTION PROCESS IN GROVELAND, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an EPA evaluation of the patented Terra Vac, Inc.'s in situ vacuum extraction process that was field-demonstrated on a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated soil in Groveland, MA, under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. he Terra...

  1. Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. Solvent Extraction Technology Rapid Commercialization Initiative Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terra-Kleen Response Group Inc. (Terra-Kleen), has commercialized a solvent extraction technology that uses a proprietary extraction solvent to transfer organic constituents from soil to a liquid phase in a batch process at ambient temperatures. The proprietary solvent has a rel...

  2. Meteorological impact of realistic Terra Nova Bay polynyas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Sandra

    2010-05-01

    The energy exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere in the Antarctic marginal sea ice zone is influenced by the extent of sea-ice cover. In areas of open water, a direct contact is established and intense energy exchanges occur, due to the large difference of temperature between the water and the air above it. This implies that the polynyas are areas where the ocean exchanges energy with the atmosphere and as a result they have an effect on the polar meteorology/climate. The work presented here concerns real polynya events in the region of Terra Nova Bay (TNB), Antarctica, where a recurring coastal polynya occurs nearby the Italian Antarctic Base. The aim is the study of the impact of polynyas on the atmosphere by three-dimensional numerical simulations. The ETA model (Mesinger et al., 2006) was used and ECMWF and NCEP data provided the initial and boundary conditions. The model had already been successfully used in the Antarctic area (Casini and Morelli, 2007) A polynya of realistic size (as observed by satellite image) was included in the initial conditions for the simulations and a study of the air circulation during the events is found in Morelli et al. (2007), Morelli and Casini (2008), Morelli et al. (2009). The Eta Model reproduced the evolution of upper and mod-level conditions in good agreement with AVHRR observations (Morelli, 2008, Morelli and Parmiggiani, 2009). Also, the simulated 10 m wind was well correlated with the observed extension of the polynya. In order to isolate the effect of the presence of the open water area on the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer and on the atmospheric circulation, further simulations were performed without the presence of the polynya, i.e. with its extent covered with sea ice. The numerical simulations show that the polynyas act to increase the speed of the air above them and generate strong heat fluxes that warm the air. The effects are found over and downwind the sea ice free area. Results from the Eta

  3. Prospecting for Methane in Arabia Terra, Mars - First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dotoyhy Z.; Venechuk, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Methane has been measured in the Martian atmosphere at concentrations of approx. 10 ppb. Since the photochemical lifetime of this gas is approx. 300 years, it is likely that methane is currently being released from the surface. Possible sources for the methane include 1) hydrothermal activity, 2) serpentinization of basalts and other water-rock interactions, 3) thermal maturation of sedimentary organic matter, and 4) metabolism of living bacteria. Any such discovery would revolutionize our understanding of Mars. Longitudinal variations in methane concentration, as measured by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) on Mars Express, show the highest values over Arabia Terra, Elysium Planum, and Arcadia-Memnonia, suggesting localized areas of methane release. We are using orbital data and methodologies derived from petroleum exploration in an attempt to locate these release points.

  4. A case for ancient springs in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Allen, Carlton C; Oehler, Dorothy Z

    2008-12-01

    Based on new image data from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), a case can be made that several structures in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra are ancient springs. This interpretation is based on comprehensive geomorphologic analysis coupled with assessment of multiple hypotheses. The structures identified extend across several kilometers and are exceptional in that nothing with their detail and scale has been reported from Mars. The deposits are associated with an extensive fracture system that may have facilitated upward flow of warm fluids. Several additional spring-like features occur in Vernal Crater, and it is possible that these are part of a major province of spring activity. Since springs are environments where life could have evolved on Mars, where that life could have found refuge as the climate became colder and drier, and where signatures of that life may be preserved, Vernal Crater may be a site of major astrobiological importance. PMID:19093802

  5. Summary of Aqua, Aura, and Terra High Interest Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    Single-obs tracking Sparsely tracked objects are an unfortunate reality of CARA operations Terra vs. 32081: new track with bad data was included in OD solution for secondary object and risk became high CARA and JSpOC discussed tracking and OSAs threw out the bad data. Event no longer presented high risk based on new OD Improvement: CARA now sends JSpOC a flag indicating when a single obs is included, so OSAs can evaluate if manual update to OD is required. Missing ASW OCMsAura vs. 87178, TCA: 317 at 08:04 UTC. Post-maneuver risk (conjunction was identified in OO results)CARA confirmed with JSpOC that ASW OCMs should have been received in addition to OO OCMsJSpOC corrected the manual error in their script that prevented the data from being delivered to CARAJSpOC QAd their other scripts to ensure this error did not exist in other places.

  6. TerraLuna: A CosmoQuest Adventure in Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Pamela; Bracey, Georgia; Gugliucci, Nicole

    The content of the session will focus on CosmoQuest’s TerraLuna unit, a comparative geology unit that uses authentic data to study the geology of the Moon and Earth. Inquiry activities will allow teachers to help their students compare crater formation and other surface features on the two bodies, comparing Moon features to similar structures on Earth. Links to the latest data from NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter will be introduced and hands- on activities will be featured as the basis for inquiry learning in elementary and middle level classrooms. Teachers will be introduced to citizen science projects that will enable their students to think like real scientists and engage in authentic scientific research, providing a useful service to the scientific community. Participation in the workshop introduces teachers to the CosmoQuest website, which includes a suite of citizen science activities. The site provides teachers with an online community dedicated to science inquiry and educational support.

  7. 15 Years of Terra MODIS Instrument on-Orbit Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Salomonson, V.

    2014-12-01

    The first MODIS instrument, launched on-board the NASA EOS Terra spacecraft in December 1999, has successfully operated for nearly 15 years. MODIS observations have significantly contributed to the studies of many geophysical parameters of the earth's system and its changes over time. Dedicated effort made by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) to constantly monitor instrument operation, to calibrate changes in sensor response, to derive and update sensor calibration parameters, and to maintain and improve calibration algorithms has played an extremely important role to assure the quality of MODIS data products. MODIS was developed with overall improvements over its heritage sensors. Its observations are made in 36 spectral bands, covering wavelengths from visible to long-wave infrared. The reflective solar bands (1-19 and 26) are calibrated on-orbit by a solar diffuser (SD) panel and regularly scheduled lunar observations. The thermal emissive bands (20-25 and 27-36) calibration is referenced to an on-board blackbody (BB) source. On-orbit changes in the sensor spectral and spatial characteristics are tracked by a spectroradiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). This paper provides an overview of Terra MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities implemented from launch to present and the status of instrument health and functions. It demonstrates sensor on-orbit performance derived from its telemetry, on-board calibrators (OBC), and lunar observations. Also discussed in this paper are changes in sensor characteristics, corrections applied to maintain level 1B data quality, various challenging issues, and future improvements.

  8. TERRA Battery Thermal Control Anomaly - Simulation and Corrective Actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grob, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    The TERRA spacecraft was launched in December 1999 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, becoming the flagship of NASA's Earth Observing System program to gather data on how the planet's processes create climate. Originally planned as a 5 year mission, it still provides valuable science data after nearly 10 years on orbit. On October 13th, 2009 at 16:23z following a routine inclination maneuver, TERRA experienced a battery cell failure and a simultaneous failure of several battery heater control circuits used to maintain cell temperatures and gradients within the battery. With several cells nearing the minimum survival temperature, preventing the electrolyte from freezing was the first priority. After several reset attempts and power cycling of the control electronics failed to reestablish control authority on the primary side of the controller, it was switched to the redundant side, but anomalous performance again prevented full heater control of the battery cells. As the investigation into the cause of the anomaly and corrective action continued, a battery thermal model was developed to be used in determining the control ability remaining and to simulate and assess corrective actions. Although no thermal model or detailed reference data of the battery was available, sufficient information was found to allow a simplified model to be constructed, correlated against pre-anomaly telemetry, and used to simulate the thermal behavior at several points after the anomaly. It was then used to simulate subsequent corrective actions to assess their impact on cell temperatures. This paper describes the rapid development of this thermal model, including correlation to flight data before and after the anomaly., along with a comparative assessment of the analysis results used to interpret the telemetry to determine the extent of damage to the thermal control hardware, with near-term corrective actions and long-term operations plan to overcome the anomaly.

  9. Intercomparison Calibration Study of Terra ASTER and MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, K.; Thome, K. J.; McCorkel, J.

    2014-12-01

    Calibration and validation play an essential role during the acquisition and processing of satellite data for the Earth Observing System satellites in addition to being an integral part of maintaining scientific values of archived satellite data. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection and Radiometer (ASTER) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are two of five sensors onboard the Terra platform - the Earth Observing System flagship. ASTER has a swath width of 60km with 8 bands in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) spectral range with a spatial resolution of 15m (bands 1-3) and 90m (bands 10-14), respectively while MODIS has a swath width of 2300km with 36 spectral bands from visible to infrared spectral range with a spatial resolution of 250m (bands 1-2), 500m (bands 3-7), and 1km (bands 8-36). ASTER is the 'zoom' lens and MODIS is the 'keystone' instrument for Terra; they provide quantitative measurements of various earth system variables to the scientific and to the broader community. The simultaneous view of the sensors simplifies the intercomparison between them and relies on the use of the Railroad Valley Playa test site to reduce uncertainties caused by spatial heterogeneity and spectral differences in the sensors. The fact that Railroad Valley Playa is a calibration test site for ASTER ensures that ASTER was tasked at a higher rate over this area providing more scenes for the intercomparison. The study compares ASTER L1B data for the three VNIR bands reprocessed with recent calibration updates and MODIS 02 Collection 6 data products for the similar bands. No correction for geometry angle is needed and coincident 3-km by 3-km regions are used to reduce the impact of spatial heterogeneity. A correction for spectral differences between the sensors is applied based on averages of ground measurements of the test site.

  10. Preliminary Operational Results of the TDRSS Onboard Navigation System (TONS) for the Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramling, Cheryl; Lorah, John; Santoro, Ernest; Work, Kevin; Chambers, Robert; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Earth Observing System Terra spacecraft was launched on December 18, 1999, to provide data for the characterization of the terrestrial and oceanic surfaces, clouds, radiation, aerosols, and radiative balance. The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Onboard Navigation System (ONS) (TONS) flying on Terra provides the spacecraft with an operational real-time navigation solution. TONS is a passive system that makes judicious use of Terra's communication and computer subsystems. An objective of the ONS developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Guidance, Navigation and Control Center is to provide autonomous navigation with minimal power, weight, and volume impact on the user spacecraft. TONS relies on extracting tracking measurements onboard from a TDRSS forward-link communication signal and processing these measurements in an onboard extended Kalman filter to estimate Terra's current state. Terra is the first NASA low Earth orbiting mission to fly autonomous navigation which produces accurate results. The science orbital accuracy requirements for Terra are 150 meters (m) (3sigma) per axis with a goal of 5m (1 sigma) RSS which TONS is expected to meet. The TONS solutions are telemetered in real-time to the mission scientists along with their science data for immediate processing. Once set in the operational mode, TONS eliminates the need for ground orbit determination and allows for a smooth flow from the spacecraft telemetry to planning products for the mission team. This paper will present the preliminary results of the operational TONS solution available from Terra.

  11. Hints at diapirism in Arabia Terra craters, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, Riccardo; Pio Rossi, Angelo; Massironi, Matteo; Mazzarini, Francesco; Pondrelli, Monica; Marinangeli, Lucia; Unnithan, Vikram

    2014-05-01

    Arabia Terra is a region of Mars located at the boundary between the southern highlands and the northern lowlands and classically dominated by heavily cratered terrain. Unlike the rest of the topographic dichotomy on the planet, in Arabia Terra the elevation transition is very gentle, falling of 4 km over a distance of 2500 km (average slope = 0.0016°). Most of the impact craters within the region display a central bulge, bearing a well preserved stratification and a wide range of smaller morphologies like pitted cones, mounds and knobs (Franchi et al. 2013). Images acquired by HiRISE and CTX cameras on board MRO provided a comprehensive dataset in which also these small features can be easily recognized. These are tens of meters of diameter and tens of meters high, and many of them show an apical orifice. They are interpreted to have worked as pathways for subsurface fluid flow (e.g. Pondrelli et al., 2011; Rossi et al., 2008). Indeed an active underground fluid flow activity in Arabia Terra It has been recently hypothesized (e.g. Andrews-Hanna et al, 2011) , being crater central bulges a place of sulfate precipitation, due to local water table emergence (e.g. Franchi et al., 2013). To date, there is no clear explanation for occurrence of central bulges surrounded by prominent depressions in Arabia craters. In addition, in Firsoff and Crommelin craters it is possible to recognize folds and outward dipping strata on the central bulges and their surroundings. Interestingly, a few craters with a prominent bulged floor elsewhere in Arabia Terra do not display stratification and are not explainable as impact related structures as their expected pristine central peak derived by hydrocode modelling is ~2km lower and one third the diameter than the actual topography (Pozzobon et al., 2013). All these evidences are not consistent with a typical lacustrine stratigraphic environment, whether interested by sulfate precipitation or not, and suggest active deformation after or

  12. Topographic Analyses of the Vestalia Terra plateau, Vesta (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczkowski, D.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Williams, D. A.; Preusker, F.; Roatsch, T.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    The identification of Vestalia Terra, a topographically high region of Vesta bound by steep scarps, is itself a direct result of topographic analysis of the asteroid. However, additional analysis of the topography of the plateau has yielded important scientific discoveries. While most equatorial regions on Vesta display numerous wide and flat-floored troughs, Vestalia Terra does not. There are, however, three long pit crater chains on top of the plateau that are roughly aligned with the equatorial flat-floor troughs. Pit crater chains are a type of feature that have been observed on several planetary bodies and have been described as lines of circular to elliptical depressions which lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows. Individual pits most commonly have a conical shape, sometimes with a flat floor, but in some cases they are elliptical in shape, with the long axis parallel to the chain orientation. Pit craters can in many cases coalesce into linear troughs, but the pits are often bordered by a graben (a down-dropped block bounded by normal faults) even before this coalesence. While pits are generally agreed to have formed by collapse into a subsurface cavity, the exact formation mechanisms hypothesized can vary from planet to planet. However, several researchers have suggested that pit crater chains on small bodies such as Phobos, Eros, Lutetia and Enceladus are formed by the drainage of a loose cover material into subsurface voids formed by dilation of a subsurface normal fault, a method described in extensive detail for pit crater chains on Mars. This formation hypothesis is strengthened by the strong correlation between pit crater chains and fault-bounded graben that has been observed and by the fact that pit chains are often in alignment with a regional fault and fracture system. There are two fundamental controls on the maximum size a pit can attain: the thickness of the overlying regolith and the amount of subsurface accommodation space. The

  13. Retrieval of Aerosol Properties from MODIS Terra, MODIS Aqua, and VIIRS SNPP: Calibration Focus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Robert C.; Mattoo, Shana; Sawyer, Virginia; Kleidman, Richard; Patadia, Falguni; Zhou, Yaping; Gupta, Pawan; Shi, Yingxi; Remer, Lorraine; Holz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    MODIS-DT Collection 6 - Aqua/Terra level 2, 3; entire record processed - "Trending" issues reduced - Still a 15% or 0.02 Terra vs Aqua offset. - Terra/Aqua convergence improved with C6+, but bias remains. - Other calibration efforts yield mixed results. VIIRS-­-DT in development - VIIRS is similar, yet different then MODIS - With 50% wider swath, VIIRS has daily coverage - Ensures algorithm consistency with MODIS. - Currently: 20% NPP vs Aqua offset over ocean. - Only small bias (%) over land (2012-­-2016) - Can VIIRS/MODIS create aerosol CDR? Calibration for MODIS - VIIRS continues to fundamentally important. It's not just Terra, or just Aqua, or just NPP-­-VIIRS, I really want to push synergistic calibration.

  14. NASA's Terra Spacecraft Eyes Smoke Plumes from Massive Rim Fire Near Yosemite

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... NASA's Terra Spacecraft Eyes Smoke Plumes from Massive Rim Fire Near Yosemite     View ... Image (TIFF)   This visible image of California's Rim Fire was acquired Aug. 23, 2013 by the Multi-angle Imaging ...

  15. Official portrait of STS-44 Terra Scout payload specialist Thomas J. Hennen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Official portrait of STS-44 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Terra Scout payload specialist Thomas J. Hennen wearing blue flight suit, holding space shuttle model, and seated in front of flag backdrop.

  16. Technology Demonstration Summary: Terra Vac In Situ Vacuum Extraction System, Groveland, Massachusetts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terra Vac Inc's vacuum extraction system was demonstrated at the Valley Manufactured Products Company, Inc., site in Groveland, Massachusetts. The property is part of the Groveland Wells Superfund site and is contaminated mainly by trichloroethylene (TCE). Vacuum extraction...

  17. Development of Terra Harvest compliant plug-ins for McQ Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeder, Brent W.; Fish, Robert C.

    2013-05-01

    The Army Research Lab (ARL), in collaboration with the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) and representatives from industry, recently validated the feasibility of the Terra Harvest architecture by successfully integrating dozens of Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets at the Trident Spectre 12 (TS12) exercise in Fort Story, VA. Based on the exercise, it is evident that Terra Harvest will greatly simplify the process of integrating disparate ISR systems. By reducing this complexity, Terra Harvest will increase the variety of devices U.S. soldiers have at their disposal giving them a greater technological advantage over their adversaries than ever before. This paper describes McQ's effort to develop Terra Harvest compliant plug-ins for its UGS along with lessons learned from their demonstration at TS12.

  18. Testing Formation Theories of NW Arabia Terra, Mars: New Clues from Old Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, S. J.; Hynek, B. M.

    2008-03-01

    Northwest Arabia Terra has topography and crater populations indicating a unique history. We directly tested two proposed formation mechanisms. Crater size-frequency and d/D ratios suggest neither scenario is easily reconcilable with the new datasets.

  19. Identifying the Pre-Tharsis Structures Associated with the Terra Sirenum Region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Robbins, S.; Schroeder, J.

    2014-07-01

    The Terra Sirenum region contains some of the oldest stratigraphic units found on Mars. Examination of the structures and units provides an excellent window into clarifying the processes that influenced the early geologic evolution of Mars.

  20. Terra Sirenum: Window into Pre-Tharsis and Tharsis Phases of Mars Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Robbins, S.; Hynek, B.; Andrews-Hanna, J.

    2012-03-01

    The Terra Sirenum region contains some of the oldest stratigraphic units on Mars. Detailed examination of the structures and units provides an excellent window into identifying the processes that influenced the early geologic evolution of Mars.

  1. Katabatic wind forcing of the Terra Nova Bay polynya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromwich, David H.; Kurtz, Dennis D.

    The Terra Nova Bay polynya is a perennial winter feature in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica, which occupies roughly 1000 km2, it is formed and maintained by the combined influence of persistent katabatic winds, which advect newly formed bay ice eastward, and the Drygalski Ice Tongue, which prevents northward drifting pack ice from entering Terra Nova Bay. Existence of anomalously strong katabatic drainage along this coast is predicted by Parish's (1982) simulation of wintertime airflow which reveals a pronounced confluence of surface winds upslope from the Reeves Glacier where the winds are further focused by local topography. The simulation is strongly supported by regional sastrugi orientations. Average wintertime atmospheric conditions and ice sheet topography which control surface air drainage are stable on a climatic time scale; therefore, persistent wintertime katabatic winds should be an annual phenomenon. Further evidence comes from multi-year Landsat images which consistently show windswept, snowfree areas on the Reeves Glacier. In marked contrast to typical Antarctic katabatic winds, strong persistent winter winds are observed at sea level ˜25 km beyond the coastal slope break. Air probably descends as bora-type winds and is likely to be significantly denser than the air at sea level; conditions are not favorable for hydraulic jumps apparently typical of other katabatic regimes. The horizontal density difference is maintained during airflow across the Nansen Ice Sheet because relatively little air mass modification occurs there in contrast to situations where air moves over an ice-laden ocean. Observations thus suggest that katabatic winds maintain their identity for some distance seaward of the coast; qualitative trajectory calculations indicate that for representative geostrophic conditions this distance is on the order of the observed polynya width. Estimated ice freezing rates are ˜20 cm day-1, but wind-generated waves and currents prevent ice from

  2. TerraFERMA: Harnessing Advanced Computational Libraries in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. R.; Spiegelman, M.; van Keken, P.

    2012-12-01

    Many important problems in Earth sciences can be described by non-linear coupled systems of partial differential equations. These "multi-physics" problems include thermo-chemical convection in Earth and planetary interiors, interactions of fluids and magmas with the Earth's mantle and crust and coupled flow of water and ice. These problems are of interest to a large community of researchers but are complicated to model and understand. Much of this complexity stems from the nature of multi-physics where small changes in the coupling between variables or constitutive relations can lead to radical changes in behavior, which in turn affect critical computational choices such as discretizations, solvers and preconditioners. To make progress in understanding such coupled systems requires a computational framework where multi-physics problems can be described at a high-level while maintaining the flexibility to easily modify the solution algorithm. Fortunately, recent advances in computational science provide a basis for implementing such a framework. Here we present the Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler (TerraFERMA), which leverages several advanced open-source libraries for core functionality. FEniCS (fenicsproject.org) provides a high level language for describing the weak forms of coupled systems of equations, and an automatic code generator that produces finite element assembly code. PETSc (www.mcs.anl.gov/petsc) provides a wide range of scalable linear and non-linear solvers that can be composed into effective multi-physics preconditioners. SPuD (amcg.ese.ic.ac.uk/Spud) is an application neutral options system that provides both human and machine-readable interfaces based on a single xml schema. Our software integrates these libraries and provides the user with a framework for exploring multi-physics problems. A single options file fully describes the problem, including all equations, coefficients and solver options. Custom compiled applications are

  3. Automated inundation monitoring using TerraSAR-X multitemporal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, S.; Huth, J.; Wehrmann, T.; Schettler, I.; Künzer, C.; Schmidt, M.; Dech, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Mekong Delta in Vietnam offers natural resources for several million inhabitants. However, a strong population increase, changing climatic conditions and regulatory measures at the upper reaches of the Mekong lead to severe changes in the Delta. Extreme flood events occur more frequently, drinking water availability is increasingly limited, soils show signs of salinization or acidification, species and complete habitats diminish. During the Monsoon season the river regularly overflows its banks in the lower Mekong area, usually with beneficial effects. However, extreme flood events occur more frequently causing extensive damage, on the average once every 6 to 10 years river flood levels exceed the critical beneficial level X-band SAR data are well suited for deriving inundated surface areas. The TerraSAR-X sensor with its different scanning modi allows for the derivation of spatial and temporal high resolved inundation masks. The paper presents an automated procedure for deriving inundated areas from TerraSAR-X Scansar and Stripmap image data. Within the framework of the German-Vietnamese WISDOM project, focussing the Mekong Delta region in Vietnam, images have been acquired covering the flood season from June 2008 to November 2008. Based on these images a time series of the so called watermask showing inundated areas have been derived. The product is required as intermediate to (i) calibrate 2d inundation model scenarios, (ii) estimate the extent of affected areas, and (iii) analyze the scope of prior crisis. The image processing approach is based on the assumption that water surfaces are forward scattering the radar signal resulting in low backscatter signals to the sensor. It uses multiple grey level thresholds and image morphological operations. The approach is robust in terms of automation, accuracy, robustness, and processing time. The resulting watermasks show the seasonal flooding pattern with inundations starting in July, having their peak at the end

  4. Fresh Shallow Valleys (FSVs) in Northern Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S. A.; Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fresh Shallow Valleys (FSVs) on Mars are part of a growing inventory of post-Noachian landforms that may be related to late, widespread aqueous activity that occurred during a period once thought to be less favorable for precipitation and runoff. Constraining the source, magnitude, timing and duration of FSVs will provide insight into the mechanism and extent of fluvial activity on Mars and the geologic and climatic environments in which they formed. Unlike the older Noachian-Hesperian valleys that are characterized by integrated, dissected and degraded networks that cover large spatial extents, FSVs are typically narrow, short or discontinuous valleys with low drainage densities. They are generally incised no more than a few decameters, slightly degraded at multi-meter scales, and cluster in the mid-latitudes (35-50° in both hemispheres). A high concentration of FSVs occurs in Northern Arabia Terra (~33°N, 8°E), a Noachian-aged landscape characterized by broad, irregular depressions. Many of the FSVs in this region are 150+ km long and some appear to cross depressions that were likely filled with ice or water at the time of formation. Examples of broad, flat floored FSVs with incised channels could either indicate a complex history of a single flow event or multiple flow events. The occurrence of "pollywogs," fairly fresh, small (typically 2-10 km in diameter) craters with a single channel extending from the rim outward, implies overflow of the crater, the presence of a deep lake and the involvement of artesian groundwater flow. Roughly 25% of the FSVs in our northern Arabia Terra study region occur on relatively fresh crater ejecta, which may be related to formation age, topography, surface materials and (or) substrate. Ejecta with dense concentrations of FSVs average 25.5 km in diameter, have more degraded crater interiors, and well developed petal-like ejecta. Ejecta with sparse or no FSVs have radial ejecta with less distinct petals and are associated with

  5. Radiometric cross-calibration of Terra ASTER and MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Karen; Thome, Kurt; McCorkel, Joel

    2015-09-01

    Calibration and validation play an essential role during the acquisition and processing of satellite data for Earth Observing System satellites in addition to being an integral part of maintaining scientific values of archived satellite data. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection and Radiometer (ASTER) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are two of five sensors onboard the Terra platform. ASTER has a swath width of 60 km with 8 spectral bands in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) spectral range with a spatial resolution of 15-m (bands 1-3) and 90-m (bands 10-14), respectively while MODIS has a swath width of 2300 km with 36 spectral bands from visible to infrared spectral range with a spatial resolution of 250 m (bands 1-2), 500 m (bands 3-7), and 1 km (bands 8-36). ASTER is the `zoom' lens and MODIS is the `keystone' instrument for Terra; they provide quantitative measurements of various earth system variables to the scientific and to the broader community. The simultaneous view of the sensors simplifies the intercomparison between them and the current work relies on the use of the Railroad Valley Playa test site to reduce uncertainties caused by spatial heterogeneity and spectral differences in the sensors. The fact that Railroad Valley is a calibration test site for ASTER ensures that ASTER was tasked at a higher rate over this area providing more scenes for an intercomparison. The study compares ASTER L1B data for the three VNIR bands reprocessed with recent calibration updates and MODIS 02 Collection 6 data products for the similar bands. No correction for geometry angle is needed and coincident 3-km by 3-km regions are used to reduce the impact of spatial heterogeneity. A correction for spectral differences between the sensors is applied based on seasonal averages of EO-1 Hyperion spectral range. Results indicate that the calibrated radiance products from the two sensors agree to within the

  6. Tectonics and volcanism of Eastern Aphrodite Terra, Venus - No subduction, no spreading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Vicki L.; Phillips, Roger J.

    1993-01-01

    Eastern Aphrodite Terra, a deformed region with high topographic relief on Venus, has been interpreted as analogous to a terrestrial extensional or convergent plate boundary. However, analysis of geological and structural relations indicates that the tectonics of eastern Aphrodite Terra is dominated by blistering of the crust by magma diapirs. The findings imply that, within this region, vertical tectonism dominates over horizontal tectonism and, consequently, that this region is neither a divergent nor a convergent plate boundary.

  7. Electronic crosstalk characterization of Terra MODIS long wave infrared channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, Sriharsha; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Chiang, Kwofu; Wu, Aisheng

    2015-09-01

    Terra (T) MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), a heritage Earth observing sensor has completed 15 years of operation as of December 18 2014. T-MODIS has 36 spectral channels designed to monitor the land, ocean, and atmosphere. The long term climate data record from T-MODIS is an important dataset for global change monitoring. Sixteen of the spectral channels fall in the Mid (M) (3.7-4.5μm) to Long (L) (6.7-14.1μm)Wave InfraRed (M/LWIR) wavelengths, which are also referred to as the Thermal Emissive Bands (TEBs). To date the TEBs have very satisfactory performance which is attributed to the scan-by-scan calibration using an on-board BlackBody whose temperature is traceable to the NIST temperature standards. However, with an aging instrument, it was observed from 2010 onwards that the Photo Voltaic LWIR channels (Bands 27-30) have suffered significantly from electronic crosstalk. This is mainly due to the deterioration of the electronic circuits of the relevant bands in the LWIR Focal Plane Array (FPA). In this paper, we report the characterization of the electronic crosstalk in the above-mentioned bands using the well characterized test site such as Dome Concordia (C). Such characterization can be used to reduce the effects of crosstalk when implemented in the future Level 1B reprocessing and thereby increasing the radiometric fidelity of the concerned bands.

  8. Atmospheric correction for the ASTER visible data on Terra satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, T.; Masuda, K.; Sano, I.; Mukai, S.

    2001-01-01

    An atmospheric correction algorithm over the heterogeneous surface on the emergent radiation from the top of the atmosphere is proposed. This is an atmospheric correction code for the ASTER visible channels on Terra satellite, which have a spatial resolution of 15m. Therefore, interactions of atmospheric radiation with radiation reflected by the heterogeneous surface should be accounted for in this atmospheric correction. The surface is simulated by a checkerboard type terrain composed of land or ocean pixels. To investigate the contribution of adjacent pixels, two additional parameters based on the diffuse transmission(α) and reflection(β) function of the atmosphere are introduced. These parameters are independent of the surface reflection properties and thus may be used for any surface. The present method was developed with reference to existing numerical results based on one-dimensional radiative transfer code. Furthermore, as vicarious calibration, skylight polarization measurements were taken by a spectro-polarimeter over the Nevada desert. The measurements indicate little absorption by aerosols in the atmosphere at wavelengths from 550nm to 700nm. Furthermore the aerosols could not be spherical particles in a poly-dispersion.

  9. Amazonian thermokarst in Danielson crater, Arabia Terra region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioni, Davide; Murana, Alessio; Tramontana, Mario

    2014-12-01

    This paper describe the possible ice-related landforms observed within Danielson crater which is centered at about 8°N and 353°E, in the region of southwestern Arabia Terra about 800 km south of Becquerel crater. A morphological survey of the study area through an analysis of the available Mars images was performed. The features of the landforms were investigated through an integrated analysis of Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and Context Camera (CTX) data. Landforms interpreted as due to thermokarst processes, resembling similarly ice-related landforms found both in the cold-climate non-glacial regions of Earth, and putatively in other areas of Mars, was observed. These landforms are attributed to the presence of ground ice/ice-melting processes reflect significant climatic changes and different climatic conditions than those existing now. Moreover, they appear to display young erosional age, suggesting that are probably young, probably of Amazonian age.

  10. Multispectral Cloud Retrievals from MODIS on Terra and Aqua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Ackerman, Steven A.; Menzel, W. Paul; Gray, Mark A.; Moody, Eric G.

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and the Aqua spacecraft on April 26, 2002. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from each polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). In this paper we will describe the various methods being used for the remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS data, focusing primarily on the MODIS cloud mask used to distinguish clouds, clear sky, heavy aerosol, and shadows on the ground, and on the remote sensing of cloud optical properties, especially cloud optical thickness and effective radius of water drops and ice crystals. Additional properties of clouds derived from multispectral thermal infrared measurements, especially cloud top pressure and emissivity, will also be described. Results will be presented of MODIS cloud properties both over the land and over the ocean, showing the consistency in cloud retrievals over various ecosystems used in the retrievals. The implications of this new observing system on global analysis of the Earth's environment will be discussed.

  11. Terra and Aqua: new data for epidemiology and public health

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, Andrew J.; Goetz, Scott J.; Hay, Simon I.

    2012-01-01

    Earth-observing satellites have only recently been exploited for the measurement of environmental variables of relevance to epidemiology and public health. Such work has relied on sensors with spatial, spectral and geometric constraints that have allowed large-area questions associated with the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases to be addressed. Moving from pretty maps to pragmatic control tools requires a suite of satellite-derived environmental data of higher fidelity, spatial resolution, spectral depth and at similar temporal resolutions to existing meteorological satellites. Information derived from sensors onboard the next generation of moderate-resolution Earth-observing sensors may provide the key. The MODIS and ASTER sensors onboard the Terra and Aqua platforms provide substantial improvements in spatial resolution, number of spectral channels, choices of bandwidths, radiometric calibration and a much-enhanced set of pre-processed and freely available products. These sensors provide an important advance in moderate-resolution remote sensing and the data available to those concerned with improving public health. PMID:22545030

  12. Estimating terra MODIS polarization effect using ocean data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, Andrew; Brinkmann, Jake; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Jack

    2016-05-01

    Terra MODIS has been known since pre-launch to have polarization sensitivity, particularly in shortest-wavelength bands 8 and 9. On-orbit reflectance trending of pseudo-invariant sites show a variation in reflectance as a function of band and scan mirror angle of incidence consistent with time-dependent polarization effects from the rotating doublesided scan mirror. The MODIS Characterization Support Team [MCST] estimates the Mueller matrix trending from this variation as observed from a single desert site, but this effect is not included in Collection 6 [C6] calibration. Here we extend the MCST's current polarization sensitivity monitoring to two ocean sites distributed over latitude to help estimate the uncertainties in the derived Mueller matrix. The Mueller matrix elements derived for polarization-sensitive Band 8 for a given site are found to be fairly insensitive to surface brdf modeling. The site-to-site variation is a measure of the uncertainty in the Mueller estimation. Results for band 8 show that the polarization correction reduces mirror-side striping by up to 50% and reduces the instrument polarization effect on reflectance time series of an ocean target.

  13. Geology of Terra Nova oil field, Grand Banks, Newfoundland

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, J.D.; Sullivan, G.W.; Park, J.

    1986-05-01

    Oil was discovered at the Petro-Canada et al Terra Nova K-08 well in May 1984. The well was drilled in the Jeanne d'Arc subbasin, 340 km east of St. John's, Newfoundland, and 35 km southeast of the giant Hibernia oil field. Follow-up wells provided log correlations and core data that have been used with a three-dimensional seismic survey to construct a geologic model. Mapping the field demonstrated a combination structural-stratigraphic trap. The reservoir is within the lower part of the Jeanne d'Arc sequence (Upper Jurassic). This conglomeratic sandstone is interpreted as having been deposited in a nearshore to fluvial setting by basinward, northward progradation of fan-delta systems. The reservoir has a depositional limit updip to the south, and is overstepped and sealed by transgressive shales of the upper Jeanne d'Arc. Oil source is from the underlying Egret (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian) argillaceous limestones. The geologic model and seismic interpretation have been tested by appraisal drilling.

  14. Vicarious calibration of Terra ASTER, MISR, and MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, Kurtis J.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Choi, Hyun J.

    2004-10-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection and Radiometer (ASTER), Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are all onboard the Terra platform. An important aspect of the use of MODIS, and other Earth Science Enterprise sensors, has been the characterization and calibration of the sensors and validation of their data products. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona has been active in this area through the use of ground-based test sites. This paper presents the results from the reflectance-base approach using the Railroad Valley Playa test site in Nevada for ASTER, MISR, and MODIS and thus effectively a cross-calibration between all three sensors. The key to the approach is the measurement of surface reflectance over a 1-km2 area of the playa and results from this method shows agreement with MODIS to better than 5%. The paper examines biases between ASTER and the other two sensors in the VNIR due to uncertainties in the onboard calibrator for ASTER and in the SWIR due to an optical crosstalk effect.

  15. Aoutomatic Oil Spill Detection Using TerraSAR-X Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulipiye, Kaiyoumu; Balik Sanli, Fusun

    2016-07-01

    Oil release into the ocean may affect marine ecosystems and cause environmental pollution. Thus, oil spill detection and identification becomes critical important. Characterized by synoptic view over large regions, remote sensing has been proved to be a reliable tool for oil spill detection. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery shows returned signal that clearly distinguish oil from oil-free surface under optimal wind conditions, which makes it the most frequent used remote sensing technique in oil spill detection. Algorithms of automatic oil spill detection has already been developed for different SAR sensors, including RADARSAT and ENVISAT. In this study, we want to apply automatic oil spill detection algorithms on TerraSAR-X data which is previously developed for ASAR data. The applied methodology includes two steps as segmentation and classification. First segmentation algorithms compiled by C# have been applied under a Bayesian framework adopting a multi-level logistic. After segmentation different classification methods such as feature selection, filter, and embedded selection have been applied. As a result the used classifiers for oil spill detection will be compared, and the complete processing chain will be evaluated.

  16. Coastal wave field extraction using TerraSAR-X data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruck, Miguel; Lehner, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The main highlights of TerraSAR-X (TS-X) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery are a higher resolution of up to 1 m, when compared to conventional C-band SAR data, and a reduction of nonlinear imaging effects of a moving target by lower platform altitude. Thus, ocean waves with wavelength <30 m are detectable. This makes TS-X particularly useful to observe coastal areas where complex bathymetry strongly impacts the approaching waves. TS-X images acquired in different coastal areas are presented, including three case studies at the German coast. Wave fields (significant wave height and peak wavelength) are derived from the TS-X imagery using the proposed XWAVE algorithm and compared not only to in situ buoy wave measurements but also to results of a high-resolution numerical wave model. The objective is to study the quality of significant wave height field estimation in the spatial domain in highly variable conditions, which are typically dominant in coastal areas. The results show that the empirical XWAVE algorithm allows estimating wave fields from TS-X data with high resolution, thus showing the spatial information on wave variations. Therefore, it is a new useful tool to characterize sea state in coastal areas by remote sensing.

  17. Bringing Terra Science to the People: 10 years of education and public outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebeek, H.; Chambers, L. H.; Yuen, K.; Herring, D.

    2009-12-01

    The default image on Apple's iPhone is a blue, white, green and tan globe: the Blue Marble. The iconic image was produced using Terra data as part of the mission's education and public outreach efforts. As far-reaching and innovative as Terra science has been over the past decade, Terra education and public outreach efforts have been equally successful. This talk will provide an overview of Terra's crosscutting education and public outreach projects, which have reached into educational facilities—classrooms, museums, and science centers, across the Internet, and into everyday life. The Earth Observatory web site was the first web site designed for the public that told the unified story of what we can learn about our planet from all space-based platforms. Initially conceived as part of Terra mission outreach in 1999, the web site has won five Webby awards, the highest recognition a web site can receive. The Visible Earth image gallery is a catalogue of NASA Earth imagery that receives more than one million page views per month. The NEO (NASA Earth Observations) web site and WMS (web mapping service) tool serves global data sets to museums and science centers across the world. Terra educational products, including the My NASA Data web service and the Students' Cloud Observations Online (S'COOL) project, bring Terra data into the classroom. Both projects target multiple grade levels, ranging from elementary school to graduate school. S'COOL uses student observations of clouds to help validate Terra data. Students and their parents have puzzled over weekly "Where on Earth" geography quizzes published on line. Perhaps the most difficult group to reach is the large segment of the public that does not seek out science information online or in a science museum or classroom. To reach these people, EarthSky produced a series of podcasts and radio broadcasts that brought Terra science to more than 30 million people in 2009. Terra imagery, including the Blue Marble, have

  18. Hematite and Etched Terrain Distribution in Terra Meridiani, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeppen, W. C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Seelos, F. P.

    2002-12-01

    Analyses of TES-based bolometric albedo, thermal inertia, and spectral emissivity-derived hematite index for the Hematite region in Terra Meridiani (centered at 1.5 deg S and 3.0 deg W) indicate the terrain to be homogenous at resolutions of 3 km per pixel. In contrast, MOC NA frames with a maximum resolution of ~1.5 meters per pixel show that though the Hematite region is composed primarily of smooth, dark, pervasive dune-forms, there are also exposures of a ubiquitous bright material. This high albedo etched unit is interpreted to be a resistant substrate that extends beyond the borders of the overlying hematite-bearing plains. In order to quantify the relative superficial abundance of bright substrate and dark plains, we conduct high-resolution mapping of the hematite-bearing unit using MOC NA frames processed to ISIS level 2 (map projected with units proportional to radiance on sensor). As an illustrative example, MOC NA E03-01763 exhibits the etched unit in three typical settings: young crater rims, older craters which have lost much of their topographic signature but retain bright rims, and intercrater plains underlying dark, motley dunes. By area, 9.1% of the frame consists of bright material distributed uniformly across the scene. In general, MOC frames from the Hematite unit exhibit bright materials with an areal coverage ranging from 3% to 12%. This analysis demonstrates that the Mars Exploration Rover will be able to perform in-situ analyses of both the dark, hematite-bearing plains and the bright substrate over the course of the primary 90 sol mission.

  19. MOPITT Mechanisms 16 Years In-Orbit Operation on TERRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Andrew S.; Nichitiu, Florian; Caldwell, Dwight

    2016-01-01

    The 16th anniversary of the launch of NASA's Terra Spacecraft was marked on December 18, 2015, with the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument being a successful contributor to the NASA EOS flagship. MOPITT has been enabled by a large suite of mechanisms, allowing the instrument to perform long-duration monitoring of atmospheric carbon monoxide, providing global measurements of this important greenhouse gas for 16 years. Mechanisms have been successfully employed for scanning, cooling of detectors, and to optically modulate the gas path length within the instrument by means of pressure and gas cell length variation. The instrument utilizes these devices to perform correlation spectroscopy, enabling measurements with vertical resolution from the nadir view, and has thereby furthered understanding of source and global transport effects of carbon monoxide. Given the design requirement for a 5.25-year lifetime, the stability and performance of the majority of mechanisms have far surpassed design goals. With 16 continuously operating mechanisms in service on MOPITT, including 12 rotating mechanisms and 4 with linear drive elements, the instrument was an ambitious undertaking. The long life requirements combined with demands for cleanliness and optical stability made for difficult design choices including that of the selection of new lubrication processes. Observations and lessons learned with regards to many aspects of the mechanisms and associated monitoring devices are discussed here. Mechanism behaviors are described, including anomalies, long-term drive current/power, fill pressure, vibration and cold-tip temperature trends. The effectiveness of particular lubrication formulations and the screening method implemented is discussed in relation to continuous rotating mechanisms and stepper motors, which have exceeded 15 billon rotations and 2.5 billion steps respectively. Aspects of gas cell hermeticity, optical cleanliness, heater problems

  20. Oryzobacter terrae gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Lim, Jun-Muk; Hamada, Moriyuki; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro; Ahn, Tae-Young; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2015-09-01

    A bacterial strain, PSGM2-16(T), was isolated from a pot of paddy soil grown with rice in Suwon region, Republic of Korea, and was characterized as having aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, short-rod-shaped cells with one polar flagellum. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain PSGM2-16(T) revealed the highest sequence similarities with Knoellia locipacati DMZ1T (97.4%), Fodinibacter luteus YIM C003(T) (97.2%) and Lapillicoccus jejuensis R-Ac013(T) (97.0%), and the phylogenetic tree showed that strain PSGM2-16(T) formed a subgroup with Ornithinibacter aureus HB09001(T) and F. luteus YIM C003(T) within the family Intrasporangiaceae. The major fatty acids (>10% of the total fatty acids) of strain PSGM2-16(T) were iso-C16 : 0, C17 : 1ω8c and iso-C14 : 0. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H4). The polar lipids present were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, three aminophospholipids and two phospholipids. The peptidoglycan was type A4γ with meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain PSGM2-16(T) and closely related taxa were much less than 70%. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain PSGM2-16(T) was 70.0 mol%. On the basis of the evidence presented, it is concluded that strain PSGM2-16(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Intrasporangiaceae, for which the name Oryzobacter terrae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is PSGM2-16(T) ( = KACC 17299(T)= DSM 27137(T)= NBRC 109598(T)). PMID:26297674

  1. Parafilimonas terrae gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from greenhouse soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Park, Joo-Hyeon; Lim, Jun-Muk; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Anandham, Rangasamy; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2014-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, short rod-shaped, non-flagellated, yellow bacterium, designated strain 5GHs7-2(T), was isolated from a greenhouse soil sample in South Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain 5GHs7-2(T) indicated that the isolate belonged to the family Chitinophagaceae, and exhibited the highest sequence similarities with members of the genera Terrimonas (89.2-92.6 %), Sediminibacterium (90.8-91.4 %) and Chitinophaga (89.2-91.7 %), Filimonas lacunae YT21(T) (91.7 %), members of the genus Segetibacter (90.2-91.6 %), Parasegetibacter luojiensis RHYL-37(T) (90.9 %) and Flavihumibacter petaseus T41(T) (91.2 %). Flexirubin-type pigments were present. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strain were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and iso-C15 : 1 G. The polar lipid profile consisted of a large amount of phosphatidylethanolamine, and moderate and small amounts of several unknown aminolipids and lipids. The only respiratory quinone of strain 5GHs7-2(T) was MK-7, and the DNA G+C content was 47.6 mol%. On the basis of the evidence presented, it is concluded that strain 5GHs7-2(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Chitinophagaceae, for which the name Parafilimonas terrae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is 5GHs7-2(T) ( = KACC 17343(T) = DSM 28286(T)). PMID:24925599

  2. Toxicity assessment in marine sediment for the Terra Nova environmental effects monitoring program (1997-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteway, Sandra A.; Paine, Michael D.; Wells, Trudy A.; DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Janes, G. Gregory

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses toxicity test results on sediments from the Terra Nova offshore oil development. The Terra Nova Field is located on the Grand Banks approximately 350 km southeast of Newfoundland (Canada). The amphipod (Rhepoxynius abronius) survival and solid phase luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, or Microtox) assays were conducted on sediment samples collected from approximately 50 stations per program year around Terra Nova during baseline (1997), prior to drilling, and in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010 after drilling began. The frequency of toxic responses in the amphipod toxicity test was low. Of the ten stations that were toxic in environmental effects monitoring (EEM) years, only one (station 30(FE)) was toxic in more than one year and could be directly attributed to Terra Nova project activities. In contrast, 65 (18%) of 364 EEM samples were toxic to Microtox. Microtox toxicity in EEM years was not related to distance from Terra Nova drill centres or concentrations of >C10-C21 hydrocarbons or barium, the primary constituents of the synthetic-based drill muds used at Terra Nova. Of the variables tested, fines and strontium levels showed the strongest (positive) correlations with toxicity. Neither fines nor strontium levels were affected by drill cuttings discharge at Terra Nova, except at station 30(FE) (and that station was not toxic to Microtox). Benthic macro-invertebrate abundance, richness and diversity were greater in toxic than in non-toxic sediments. Therefore, Microtox responses indicating toxicity were associated with positive biological responses in the field. This result may have been an indirect function of the increased abundance of most invertebrate taxa in less sandy sediments with higher gravel content, where fines and strontium levels and, consequently, toxicity to Microtox were high; or chemical substances released by biodegradation of organic matter, where invertebrates are abundant, may be toxic to Microtox. Given

  3. Fifteen Years of ASTER Data on NASA's Terra Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, M.; Tsu, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five instruments operating on NASA's Terra platform. Launched in 1999, ASTER has been acquiring data for 15 years. ASTER is a joint project between Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; and US NASA. Data processing and distribution are done by both organizations; a joint science team helps to define mission priorities. ASTER acquires ~550 images per day, with a 60 km swath width. A daytime acquisition is three visible bands and a backward-looking stereo band with 15 m resolution, six SWIR bands with 30 m resolution, and 5 TIR bands with 90 m resolution. Nighttime TIR-only data are routinely collected. The stereo capability has allowed the ASTER project to produce a global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) data set, covering the earth's land surfaces from 83 degrees north to 83 degrees south, with 30 m data postings. This is the only (near-) global DEM available to all users at no charge; to date, over 28 million 1-by-1 degree DEM tiles have been distributed. As a general-purpose imaging instrument, ASTER-acquired data are used in numerous scientific disciplines, including: land use/land cover, urban monitoring, urban heat island studies, wetlands studies, agriculture monitoring, forestry, etc. Of particular emphasis has been the acquisition and analysis of data for natural hazard and disaster applications. We have been systematically acquiring images for 15,000 valley glaciers through the USGS Global Land Ice Monitoring from Space Project. The recently published Randolph Glacier Inventory, and the GLIMS book, both relied heavily on ASTER data as the basis for glaciological and climatological studies. The ASTER Volcano Archive is a unique on-line archive of thousands of daytime and nighttime ASTER images of ~1500 active glaciers, along with a growing archive of Landsat images. ASTER was scheduled to target active volcanoes at least 4 times per year, and more frequently for

  4. Euripus Mons - Landform Evolution and Climate Constraints in Promethei Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gasselt, Stephan; Kim, Jungrack; Baik, Hyun-Seob

    2016-04-01

    The Promethei Terra region of Mars exhibits a variety of geomorphic landforms indicative of ice-assisted creep of debris and ice, similar to features and processes found at the Martian dichotomy boundary in Deuteronilus, Protonilus and Nilosyrtis Mensae. Despite only little doubt about the fact that ice played an integral role in the formation of these features, it is still disputed if these features were formed by glacial processes, requiring precipitation of ice and snow and exhibiting glacial deformation and basal sliding, or if these landforms are a product of periglacial denudation and subject to different deformation regimes. As information about past climate conditions on Mars is sparse, the proper assessment of landform types today allows to put constraints on their environmental conditions in the past. Due to limited knowledge about the internal physical and thermal structure of these landforms, it remains impossible to unambiguously determine their origin [1]. A variety of geomorphic and model-based indicators need to be taken into account when putting constraints on their history and when trying to reconstruct their evolution. For selected features on Mars it has been shown by SHARAD radar observations that the ice content might be relatively high [2], and that some of them might be composed of pure ice, protected from sublimation by a thin debris cover. One of such examples, Euripus Mons, is a 80 km remnant feature with an associated circumferential talus deposit that shows indicators for deformation by downslope movement, i.e. debris apron morphology. Recent modelling assuming glacial deformation helped to reconstruct some internal structural properties [3]. Despite these attempts, Euripus Mons shows clear geomorphic signatures of classical periglacial denudation which do not fit into the concept of glacial-only evolution. Denudation rates as well as ages are similar to those reported from other locations on Mars for which hyperarid climate conditions

  5. Terra e Arte Project: Soils connecting Art and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Rozenberg, Bianca; de Cássia Francisco, Talita; Gramacho de Oliveira, Elisa

    2015-04-01

    The "Terra e Arte" project was designed to combine science and art by approaching soil contents in basic education schools in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The project was developed to awake, sensitize and create awareness about soils and their importance to life and environment within school communities. It was proposed and realized by the Earth Sciences Museum Alexis Dorofeef (MCTAD) of the Federal University of Viçosa (UFV), as part of the celebrations of its 20th anniversary. Since all the schools of the town visit the museum at least once a year and most of them have received and carried out pedagogic projects on soil themes in the last 20 years, it was proposed to them to develop a soil subject with any of their groups and combine it with painting using soil materials. Each group interested in joining the project received a basic set of material to produce soil paints. They were expected to develop a soil theme and its contents for a few weeks and to finalize it with a figurative and textual collective creation that synthetized their learning. 16 of the 24 visited schools joined the project and realized it for an average of two months. During this time, the school groups visited the museum and/or borrowed the itinerant exposition on soils from the museum to work with in in the school community. At the end of the projects, the productions were presented at the Knowledge Market (Feira do Conhecimento) that happens every year in the central square of the town, as part of the National Week of Science and Technology. At the event, 58 works were presented by 14 schools, involving directly 700 pupils and their teachers. They approached themes from soil formation and properties to agroecology and urban occupation and impacts on the soils. 30 of the works were selected for a commemorative exposition and 12 were chosen for a table calendar 2014. The movement created around the project mobilized many people and had strong impact on the school communities, especially

  6. Sea state measurements using TerraSAR-X data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruck, Miguel; Lehner, Susanne

    2012-09-01

    An empirical algorithm (XWAVE) to derive integrated sea state parameters from TerraSAR-X (TS-X) SAR data is developed and validated using NOAA in-situ buoy wave measurements. The comparison for significant wave height and peak wave length was performed as well for deep water locations in open ocean as well as for coastal areas. The significant wave height validation results show a correlation of 0.93% and a scatter index of 0.21 when using in-situ wave buoy data. Verification of the TS-X derived peak wavelength against in-situ buoy data resulted in a correlation of 0.96 and a scatter index of 0.13. The main highlights of TS-X imagery are a higher resolution of up to 1m, when compared to conventional C-band SAR data and a reduction of non-linear imaging effects of a moving target by lower platform altitude. Thus, ocean waves with wavelength less than 30m are detectable. This makes TS-X particularly useful to observe coastal areas where complex bathymetry strongly impacts the approaching waves. In this paper, TS-X images acquired in different coastal areas are presented, including three cases of the German coast and one case near the coast of the Azores Archipelago in the North Atlantic Ocean. Wave fields are derived from the TS-X imagery using the proposed XWAVE algorithm and compared not only to in-situ buoy wave measurements but also to results of a high resolution numerical wave model. The objective was to study the quality of significant wave height field estimation in the spatial domain in highly variable conditions which are typically dominant in coastal areas. The results show that the empirical XWAVE algorithm allows estimating wave fields from TS-X data with high resolution thus showing the spatial information on wave variations. Therefore it is a new useful tool to characterize sea state in coastal areas by remote sensing.

  7. Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra Spacecraft 120 Volt Power Subsystem: Requirements, Development and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Denney J.

    2000-01-01

    Built by the Lockheed-Martin Corporation, the Earth Observing System (EOS) TERRA spacecraft represents the first orbiting application of a 120 Vdc high voltage spacecraft electrical power system implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The EOS TERRA spacecraft's launch provided a major contribution to the NASA Mission to Planet Earth program while incorporating many state of the art electrical power system technologies to achieve its mission goals. The EOS TERRA spacecraft was designed around five state-of-the-art scientific instrument packages designed to monitor key parameters associated with the earth's climate. The development focus of the TERRA electrical power system (EPS) resulted from a need for high power distribution to the EOS TERRA spacecraft subsystems and instruments and minimizing mass and parasitic losses. Also important as a design goal of the EPS was maintaining tight regulation on voltage and achieving low conducted bus noise characteristics. This paper outlines the major requirements for the EPS as well as the resulting hardware implementation approach adopted to meet the demands of the EOS TERRA low earth orbit mission. The selected orbit, based on scientific needs, to achieve the EOS TERRA mission goals is a sun-synchronous circular 98.2degree inclination Low Earth Orbit (LEO) with a near circular average altitude of 705 kilometers. The nominal spacecraft orbit is approximately 99 minutes with an average eclipse period of about 34 minutes. The scientific goal of the selected orbit is to maintain a repeated 10:30 a.m. +/- 15 minute descending equatorial crossing which provides a fairly clear view of the earth's surface and relatively low cloud interference for the instrument observation measurements. The major EOS TERRA EPS design requirements are single fault tolerant, average orbit power delivery of 2, 530 watts with a defined minimum lifetime of five years (EOL). To meet

  8. TerraLook: GIS-Ready Time-Series of Satellite Imagery for Monitoring Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-01-01

    TerraLook is a joint project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with a goal of providing satellite images that anyone can use to see changes in the Earth's surface over time. Each TerraLook product is a user-specified collection of satellite images selected from imagery archived at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. Images are bundled with standards-compliant metadata, a world file, and an outline of each image's ground footprint, enabling their use in geographic information systems (GIS), image processing software, and Web mapping applications. TerraLook images are available through the USGS Global Visualization Viewer (http://glovis.usgs.gov).

  9. Cross-calibration of the Oceansat-2 Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) with Terra and Aqua MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angal, Amit; Brinkmann, Jake; Kumar, A. Senthil; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-05-01

    The Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) sensor on-board the Oceansat-2 spacecraft has been operational since its launch in September, 2009. The Oceansat 2 OCM primary design goal is to provide continuity to Oceansat-1 OCM to obtain information regarding various ocean-colour variables. OCM acquires Earth scene measurements in eight multi-spectral bands in the range from 402 to 885 nm. The MODIS sensor on the Terra and Aqua spacecraft has been successfully operating for over a decade collecting measurements of the earth's land, ocean surface and atmosphere. The MODIS spectral bands, designed for land and ocean applications, cover the spectral range from 412 to 869 nm. This study focuses on comparing the radiometric calibration stability of OCM using near-simultaneous TOA measurements with Terra and Aqua MODIS acquired over the Libya 4 target. Same-day scene-pairs from all three sensors (OCM, Terra and Aqua MODIS) between August, 2014 and September, 2015 were chosen for this analysis. On a given day, the OCM overpass is approximately an hour after the Terra overpass and an hour before the Aqua overpass. Due to the orbital differences between Terra and Aqua, MODIS images the Libya 4 site at different scan-angles on a given day. Some of the high-gain ocean bands for MODIS tend to saturate while viewing the bright Libya 4 target, but bands 8-10 (412 nm - 486 nm) provide an unsaturated response and are used for comparison with the spectrally similar OCM bands. All the standard corrections such as bidirectional reflectance factor (BRDF), relative spectral response mismatch, and impact for atmospheric water-vapor are applied to obtain the reflectance differences between OCM and the two MODIS instruments. Furthermore, OCM is used as a transfer radiometer to obtain the calibration differences between Terra and Aqua MODIS reflective solar bands.

  10. TERRA: a computer code for simulating the transport of environmentally released radionuclides through agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Hermann, O.W.

    1984-11-01

    TERRA is a computer code which calculates concentrations of radionuclides and ingrowing daughters in surface and root-zone soil, produce and feed, beef, and milk from a given deposition rate at any location in the conterminous United States. The code is fully integrated with seven other computer codes which together comprise a Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System, CRRIS. Output from either the long range (> 100 km) atmospheric dispersion code RETADD-II or the short range (<80 km) atmospheric dispersion code ANEMOS, in the form of radionuclide air concentrations and ground deposition rates by downwind location, serves as input to TERRA. User-defined deposition rates and air concentrations may also be provided as input to TERRA through use of the PRIMUS computer code. The environmental concentrations of radionuclides predicted by TERRA serve as input to the ANDROS computer code which calculates population and individual intakes, exposures, doses, and risks. TERRA incorporates models to calculate uptake from soil and atmospheric deposition on four groups of produce for human consumption and four groups of livestock feeds. During the environmental transport simulation, intermediate calculations of interception fraction for leafy vegetables, produce directly exposed to atmospherically depositing material, pasture, hay, and silage are made based on location-specific estimates of standing crop biomass. Pasture productivity is estimated by a model which considers the number and types of cattle and sheep, pasture area, and annual production of other forages (hay and silage) at a given location. Calculations are made of the fraction of grain imported from outside the assessment area. TERRA output includes the above calculations and estimated radionuclide concentrations in plant produce, milk, and a beef composite by location.

  11. Water Indicators in Sirenum Terra and Around the Argyre Impact Basin, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, J. G.; Frey, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between three temporally distinct indicators of water on Mars: ancient craters with fluidized ejecta, relatively more recent gullies inside those craters, and current abundance of near surface hydrogen around those craters. We find an association between gully occurrence and large-scale geologic features; analysis indicates unique depth/diameter ratios for gullied craters in Sirenum Terra. Numerical comparisons of fluidized and non-fluidized, gullied and non-gullied craters suggest that the Argyre region could have had a near-surface water table that receded before recent times, while Sirenum Terra may have had an ancient water table that persists to this day.

  12. Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy for the Analysis of Roman Ceramics Terra Sigillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado-Lopez, A.; Nicolás, G.; Mateo, M. P.; Piñón, V.; Ramil, A.

    Roman ceramics Terra Sigillata from different production areas have been analyzed by means of "laser induced plasma spectroscopy" (LIPS). The overall objective of this study is to show the capability of LIPS to classify these archaeological ceramics as a function of their provenance. The use of linear correlation methods allows us to cluster the samples by quantitative comparison of their LIP spectra, leading to a reliable assignment of Terra Sigillata pieces to their regions of origin and establishing reference groups for the purpose of assigning future pieces.

  13. LIPS and linear correlation analysis applied to the classification of Roman pottery Terra Sigillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, A. J.; Nicolás, G.; Mateo, M. P.; Ramil, A.; Piñón, V.; Yáñez, A.

    2006-06-01

    Archaeological ceramics Terra Sigillata manufactured in different production centres have been studied by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS). The aim of this work was to establish a procedure for the rapid classification of these archaeological ceramics in function of their provenance through combination of LIPS and statistical methodologies. Representative emission spectra of the Hispanic, Gaulish and African groups of pottery were selected as references. The use of linear correlation allowed one to cluster the samples by quantitative comparison of LIP spectra, leading to a reliable assignment of Terra Sigillata pieces to origin centres.

  14. Genome sequence of the Verrucomicrobium Opitutus terrae PB90-1, an abundant inhabitant of rice paddy soil ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Passel, Mark W.J.; Kant, Ravi; Palva, Airi; Copeland, A; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla L.; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Pitluck, Sam; Goltsman, Eugene; Clum, Alicia; Hui, Sun; Schmutz, Jeremy; Larimer, Frank W; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mikhailova, Natalia; Richardson, Paul; Janssen, Peter H.; De Vos, Willem M.; Smidt, Hauke

    2011-01-01

    Opitutus terrae PB90-1 is a member of the deeply branching bacterial phylum Verrucomicrobia. Bacteria in this phylum are only rarely cultured, but common in metagenomic libraries from aquatic, terrestrial and intestinal environments. O. terrae is a numerically abundant anaerobe capable of propionate production from plant-derived polysaccharides.

  15. 75 FR 1052 - Terra-Gen Dixie Valley, LLC; TGP Dixie Development Company, LLC; New York Canyon, LLC; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Terra-Gen Dixie Valley, LLC; TGP Dixie Development Company, LLC; New York Canyon, LLC; Notice of Filing December 30, 2009. Take notice that on December 24, 2009, Terra-Gen...

  16. Possible Volcanic Province in Western Promethei Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitala, J.; Ivanov, M.; Kostama, V.; Korteniemi, J.; Törmänen, T.; Neukum, G.

    2007-12-01

    The western Promethei Terra region (36-50°S, 90-106°E) studied is roughly ~700 km across. It occupies a unique area on the smoothened eastern Hellas basin rim, and consists of two parts: a gentler (~0.07°, eastward of ~97°E) and a steeper (~0.88°, W of ~97°E) regional slope. The Noachian cratered terrain surrounds the region in the NE, E, and S. The large canyons of Harmakhis, Reull and Teviot Valles cut through the central area and the smooth Hesperian plains [1-10] of the western and central areas display a set of features that does not occur elsewhere on the eastern side of the Hellas basin. The plains have multi-layered interiors as seen on the walls of the canyons that cut them. Similar stacks of sub- horizontal layers are seen in other Martian regions with exposed lava plain interiors, for example, in Lunae Planum and Syrtis Major. These are classic volcanic provinces the layered structure of which was formed by successive emplacement of sheet lava flows that followed the general topographic trend. The average visible thickness of the Promethei layers is ~70-80 m and the typical measured canyon wall slope is ~25-30o. This gives an estimate of the thickness of the layers, which is ~35-45 m. The full layer stack thickness, estimated from observations, is ~1.3 km. Consistent with the observed layering, there are narrow wrinkle ridges (WR) that deform the surface of the plains. WR mostly occur in the eastern portion of the area near Reull and Teviot Valles but some of them are seen near Harmakhis Vallis in the west. Additional long straight narrow ridges (widths < km, heights 10s m, lengths 10s km), which occur in mostly NE-SW-oriented groups, are seen on the surface of the plains. The regional topography does not appear to control the distribution of the ridges. Their morphologic characteristics, areal distribution, and close association with the lava plains are consistent with and suggest that the straight ridges may represent exhumed dikes [11], which

  17. Terra Firma forme dermatosis. Case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Akkash, Laith; Badran, Dana; Al-Omari, Aseel Q

    2009-02-01

    Terra Firma forme dermatosis (TFFD) is an infrequently described disorder which features dirt-like lesions that clear after rubbing with alcohol. We describe a series of four patients with the disorder, discuss differential diagnostic considerations and review the literature. PMID:19087214

  18. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the TerraNova Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills/5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Joseph J.; Zvoch, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis was used to explore the internal validity of scores on the TerraNova Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills/5 using samples from a southwestern school district and standardization samples reported by the publisher. One of the strengths claimed for battery-type achievement tests is provision of reliable and valid samples…

  19. Terra Pretas: Charcoal Amendments Influence on Relict Soils and Modern Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricigliano, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Most soils found in the Amazon region are characterized by highly weathered profiles that are incapable of longterm agricultural production. However, small patches of highly fertile relict soil referred to as Terra Pretas, are also found in the Amazon region, and have maintained their integrity for thousands of years. These soils were…

  20. A Paradigm for Operant Conditioning in Blow Flies ("Phormia Terrae Novae" Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Michel B. C.; Disma, Gerald; Abramson, Charles I.

    2010-01-01

    An operant conditioning situation for the blow fly ("Protophormia terrae novae") is described. Individual flies are trained to enter and reenter a hole as the operant response. Only a few sessions of contingent reinforcement are required to increase response rates. When the response is no longer followed by food, the rate of entering the hole…

  1. Adjustments to the MODIS Terra Radiometric Calibration and Polarization Sensitivity in the 2010 Reprocessing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, Gerhard; Franz, Bryan A.

    2011-01-01

    The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite Terra provides global coverage of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances that have been successfully used for terrestrial and atmospheric research. The MODIS Terra ocean color products, however, have been compromised by an inadequate radiometric calibration at the short wavelengths. The Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) at NASA has derived radiometric corrections using ocean color products from the SeaWiFS sensor as truth fields. In the R2010.0 reprocessing, these corrections have been applied to the whole mission life span of 10 years. This paper presents the corrections to the radiometric gains and to the instrument polarization sensitivity, demonstrates the improvement to the Terra ocean color products, and discusses issues that need further investigation. Although the global averages of MODIS Terra ocean color products are now in excellent agreement with those of SeaWiFS and MODIS Aqua, and image quality has been significantly improved, the large corrections applied to the radiometric calibration and polarization sensitivity require additional caution when using the data.

  2. FIELD EVALUATION OF TERRA THERM IN SITU THERMAL DESTRUCTION (ISTD) TREATMENT OF HEXACHLOROCYCLOPENTADIENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program evaluation of the In Situ Thermal Destruction (ISTD) technology, developed by others, was refined by TerraTherm, Inc. The demonstration was designed to ...

  3. Fluvial channels in the north-western part of Noachis Terra, Mars: Implications for tectonic controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, K.; Dasgupta, N.; Kundu, A.; Chauhan, P.

    2015-10-01

    Palaeochannels in the western part of Noachis Terra are mapped to understand their origin and also the control on their courses. Relation to impact craters, trends and cross- correlations between their paths indicates to impact-related origin and tectonic lineament controlled courses for the rivers.

  4. Thermal Inertia, Albedo, and MOLA-derived Roughness for Terrains in the Terra Meridiani Area, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Deal, K.; Hynek, B. M.; Seelos, F. P., IV; Snider, N. O.; Mellon, M. T.; Garvin, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    Surface properties of layered deposits draped on dissected, cratered terrain in the Terra Meridiani area are analyzed using remote sensing data. The etched plains are cemented and differentially eroded, and the hematite plains are loose and drifting. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. TerraKids: An Interactive Web Site where Kids Learn about Saving the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twyman, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    Whatever adults might accomplish on the green behavior change front, any sustained success in combating climate change will require the help of the world's more than 2.2 billion children. In "TerraKids," Janet Twyman describes a possible Web site where kids learn about their family's carbon footprint and what they can do to help reduce it.…

  6. MOLA Topography of Small Volcanoes in Tempe Terra and Ceraunius Fossae, Mars: Implications for Eruptive Styles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, M. P.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Garvin, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    We use Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to measure small volcanoes in the Tempe Terra and Ceraunius Fossae regions of Mars. We find that previous geometry estimates based on imagery alone are inaccurate, but MOLA data support image-based interpretations of eruptive style. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Phages Attis and SoilAssassin

    PubMed Central

    Biery, Daniel N.; Huff, Zachary T.; Huynh, Amy B.; McFadden, William M.; Mouat, Julia S.; Schneiderman, Scott E.; Song, Hannah; Szpak, Leah E.; Umbaugh, Melanie S.; German, Brian A.; McDonnell, Jill E.; Mezghani, Nadia; Schafer, Claire E.; Thompson, Paige K.; Ulbrich, Megan C.; Yu, Victor J.; Furbee, Emily C.; Grubb, Sarah R.; Warner, Marcie H.; Montgomery, Matthew T.; Garlena, Rebecca A.; Russell, Daniel A.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2016-01-01

    Attis and SoilAssassin are two closely related bacteriophages isolated on Gordonia terrae 3612 from separate soil samples in Pittsburgh, PA. The Attis and SoilAssassin genomes are 47,881 bp and 47,880 bp, respectively, and have 74 predicted protein-coding genes, including toxin-antitoxin systems, but no tRNAs. PMID:27365347

  8. Strategy to use the Terra Aerosol Information to Derive the Global Aerosol Radiative Forcing of Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Terra will derive the aerosol optical thickness and properties. The aerosol properties can be used to distinguish between natural and human-made aerosol. In the polar orbit Terra will measure aerosol only once a day, around 10:30 am. How will we use this information to study the global radiative impacts of aerosol on climate? We shall present a strategy to address this problem. It includes the following steps: - From the Terra aerosol optical thickness and size distribution model we derive the effect of aerosol on reflection of solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere. In a sensitivity study we show that the effect of aerosol on solar fluxes can be derived 10 times more accurately from the MODIS data than derivation of the optical thickness itself. Applications to data over several regions will be given. - Using 1/2 million AERONET global data of aerosol spectral optical thickness we show that the aerosol optical thickness and properties during the Terra 10:30 pass are equivalent to the daily average. Due to the aerosol lifetime of several days measurements at this time of the day are enough to assess the daily impact of aerosol on radiation. - Aerosol impact on the top of the atmosphere is only part of the climate question. The INDOEX experiment showed that addressing the impact of aerosol on climate, requires also measurements of the aerosol forcing at the surface. This can be done by a combination of measurements of MODIS and AERONET data.

  9. TERRA-KLEEN RESPONSE GROUP, INC. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of a field demonstration conducted under the SITE program. The technology which was demonstrated was a solvent extraction technology developed by Terra-Kleen Response Group. Inc. to remove organic contaminants from soil. The technology employs...

  10. The role of loamy sediment ( terra rossa) in the context of steady state karst surface lowering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šušteršič, France; Rejšek, Klement; Mišič, Miha; Eichler, František

    2009-05-01

    Reddish, loamy material ( terra rossa), found on many karstified surfaces, has long been accepted as a characteristic karst feature. Two basic views of terra rossa formation were distinguished, related to either a residual or a detrital origin. More recently it has been suggested that it could derive from isovolumetric reactions between the parent carbonate rock and airborne material. This paper reviews possible sources of terra rossa, explores its behaviour on the karst surface from the karst geomorphology viewpoint, and considers whether its existence is better explained in terms of a closed or open karst geomorphic system. Two approximately west-east traverses were laid out across Slovenia and the Czech Republic, comprising nine sample locations in each country previously known to be characterized by terra rossa. General geomorphic/speleomorphic conditions were estimated, and loamy material and parent rock samples were collected. Insoluble residues extracted from the rock were processed in the same ways as the loamy material. Basic geochemical and mineralogical investigations were run. The data obtained were processed statistically. Results show that statistical relationships between the adjacent rock insoluble residues and adjacent terra rossa bodies exist only at sampling sites recognised as "vertical". Most such sites are cutters, which are "karren-like grooves formed beneath the soil, more commonly referred to as subsoil karren" (US Environmental Protection Agency, 2002. A Lexicon of Cave and Karst Terminology. Field, M.S. (Ed.). , p.53). Possible sources of terra rossa material as well as the possibilities of material accumulating on the karst surface are discussed in detail, with special emphasis upon cutters. Theoretical considerations indicate that cutters are the only features that can collect sufficient insoluble residue to be detectable after a period of evolution within a surface that is lowering under

  11. Review of Terra MODIS thermal emissive band L1B radiometric performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, Chris; Menzel, W. P.; Quinn, Greg

    2014-09-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Earth Observing System Terra satellite, launched into orbit on 18 December 1999, will have a "first light" 15th anniversary on 24 February 2015. For nearly 15 years the MODIS instrument has provided radiances in all spectral bands. Though some detectors have fallen below SNR thresholds, the vast majority of spectral bands continue to provide high quality L1B measurements for use in L2 science algorithms supporting global climate research. Radiometric accuracy of the Terra MODIS thermal emissive bands (TEBs) in the C6 L1B product has been assessed using various approaches over the nearly 15 year Terra MODIS data record, including comparisons with instruments on the ground, in aircraft under-flights, and on other satellites. All of these approaches contribute to the understanding of the Terra MODIS radiometric L1B performance. Early in the lifetime of Terra, ground-based measurements and NASA ER-2 aircraft under-flights revealed that TEBs in the infrared window ("window" bands) are well calibrated and performing within accuracy specifications. The ER-2 under-flights also suggested that many atmospheric bands may be performing outside of specification, especially LWIR CO2 sensitive bands that are subject to optical crosstalk, although analysis uncertainties are larger for atmospheric bands. Beginning in 2007, MetOp-A IASI observations were used to evaluate Terra MODIS TEB performance through Simultaneous Nadir Overpass (SNO) comparisons. These inter-satellite comparisons largely affirm the early aircraft and ground-based evaluations, showing that all Terra MODIS window bands have small biases, minimal trending, and minor detector and mirror side striping over the 2007-2013 timeframe. Most atmospheric bands are performing satisfactorily near to specification; however, biases, striping and trending are large and significantly out of specification in the water vapor sensitive band 27 and ozone sensitive

  12. Environmental effects monitoring at the Terra Nova offshore oil development (Newfoundland, Canada): Program design and overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Tracy, Ellen; Janes, G. Gregory; Crowley, Roger D.; Wells, Trudy A.; Williams, Urban P.; Paine, Michael D.; Mathieu, Anne; Kilgour, Bruce W.

    2014-12-01

    An environmental effects monitoring (EEM) program was developed by Suncor (formerly Petro-Canada) in 1997/98 to assess effects of the Terra Nova offshore oil and gas development on the receiving environment. The Terra Nova Field is located on the Grand Banks approximately 350 km southeast of Newfoundland (Canada), at approximately 100 m water depth. The EEM program was developed with guidance from experts in government, academia and elsewhere, and with input from the public. The EEM program proposed by Suncor was accepted by Canadian regulatory agencies and the program was implemented in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010, with pre-development sampling in 1997. The program continues to be implemented every two years. EEM includes an assessment of alterations in sediment quality through examination of changes in sediment chemistry, particle size, toxicity and benthic invertebrate community structure. A second component of the program examines potential effects on two species of commercial fishing interest: Iceland scallop (Chlamys islandica) and American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides). Chemical body burden for these two species is examined and taste tests are performed to assess the presence of taint in edible tissues. Effects on American plaice bioindicators are also examined. A final component of the program assesses potential effects of the Terra Nova development on water quality and examines water column chemistry, chlorophyll concentration and physical properties. The papers presented in this collection focus on effects of drill cuttings and drilling muds on the seafloor environment and, as such, report results on sediment quality and bioaccumulation of drilling mud components in Iceland scallop and American plaice. This paper provides information on drilling discharges, an overview of the physical oceanography at the Terra Nova Field, and an overview of the field program designed to assess environmental effects of drilling at Terra Nova.

  13. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Clouds as Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Menzel, Paul; Ackerman, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18,1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. It achieved its final orbit and began Earth observations on February 24,2000 for Terra and June 24,2002 for Aqua. A comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms for cloud masking and the retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties has been developed by members of the MODIS atmosphere science team. The archived products from these algorithms have applications in climate change studies, climate modeling, numerical weather prediction, and fundamental atmospheric research. In addition to an extensive cloud mask, products include cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure, effective emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical and microphysical parameters (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path), as well as derived statistics. Over the last year, extensive improvements and enhancements in the global cloud products have been implemented, and reprocessing of all MODIS data on Terra has commenced since first light in February 2000. In the cloud mask algorithm, the most extensive improvements were in distinguishing clouds at nighttime, including the challenging polar darkness regions of the world. Additional improvements have been made to properly distinguish sunglint from clouds in the tropical ocean regions, and to improve the identification of clouds from snow during daytime in Polar Regions. We will show global monthly mean cloud fraction for both Terra and Aqua, and show how similar the global daytime cloud fraction is from these morning and afternoon orbits, respectively. We will also show the zonal distribution of cloud fraction over land and ocean regions for both Terra and Aqua, and show the time series of global cloud fraction from July 2002 through June 2006.

  14. Web-based Dissemination of TRMM Data via TerraFly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rishe, N. D.; Teng, B.; Rui, H.; Graham, S. C.; Gutierrez, M. E.

    2004-12-01

    Florida International University's High Performance Database Research Center (FIU HPDRC) is collaborating with the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center's Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DISC DAAC) to provide an easy-to-use and powerful Web-based interface to Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and other satellite data from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). The collaboration uses FIU's TerraFly data dissemination tools to make TRMM and other data available to a wider audience of users. TerraFly is a Web-enabled system (http://terrafly.fiu.edu) designed to aid in the visualization of spatial and remote sensed imagery. This system allows one to "fly" over the Earth's surface and explore spatial data such as aerial photography, satellite imagery, street maps, and locale information. Internet capability allows the system to access numerous data sets without the installation of any specialized GIS programs. Designed for users of all levels and unlike other geographic information systems, TerraFly runs via standard Web browsers, with no need to download software or data prior to visualization. TerraFly can be delivered as a standalone application or a Web-based tool. FIU's technology of streaming incremental tiles to a Java applet allows the user to "fly" even via modem connections. While "flying" over imagery in TerraFly, the user can see various overlays, such as road names, application-relevant points that are hyperlinked to more information, and shaded zones that depict thematic map layers. The user can also view multi-spectral data by assigning bands to the RGB display and by visualizing the application of various algorithms and filters on multiple spectral bands or multiple data sets. The user can thus compare imagery of the same area acquired at different times or different imagery of the same area acquired concurrently and apply advanced visualization algorithms to the data. The FIU-GES DISC DAAC project aims to make TRMM

  15. Assessment of the Visible Channel Calibrations of the TRMM VIRS and MODIS on Aqua and Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Doelling, David R.; Nguyen, Louis; Miller, Walter F.; Chakrapani, Venketesan

    2007-01-01

    Several recent research satellites carry self-calibrating multispectral imagers that can be used for calibrating operational imagers lacking complete self-calibrating capabilities. In particular, the visible (VIS, 0.65 m) channels on operational meteorological satellites are generally calibrated before launch, but require vicarious calibration techniques to monitor the gains and offsets once they are in orbit. To ensure that the self-calibrating instruments are performing as expected, this paper examines the consistencies between the VIS channel (channel 1) reflectances of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Terra and Aqua satellites and the Version 5a and 6 reflectances of the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission using a variety of techniques. These include comparisons of Terra and Aqua VIS radiances with coincident broadband shortwave radiances from the well-calibrated Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES), time series of deep convective cloud (DCC) albedos, and ray-matching intercalibrations between each of the three satellites. Time series of matched Terra and VIRS data, Aqua and VIRS data, and DCC reflected fluxes reveal that an older version (Version 5a, ending in early 2004) of the VIRS calibration produced a highly stable record, while the latest version (Version 6) appears to overestimate the sensor gain change by approx.1%/y as the result of a manually induced gain adjustment. Comparisons with the CERES shortwave radiances unearthed a sudden change in the Terra MODIS calibration that caused a 1.17% decrease in the gain on 19 November 2003 that can be easily reversed. After correction for these manual adjustments, the trends in the VIRS and Terra channels are no greater than 0.1%/y. Although the results were more ambiguous, no statistically significant trends were found in the Aqua MODIS channel-1 gain. The Aqua radiances are 1% greater, on average, than their

  16. Constraints on crustal rheology and age of deformation from models of gravitational spreading in Ishtar Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Soloman, Sean C.

    1992-01-01

    Gravitational spreading is expected to lead to rapid relaxation of high relief due to the high surface temperature and associated weak crust on Venus. In this study, we use new Magellan radar and altimetry data to determine the extent of gravitational relaxation in Ishtar Terra, which contains the highest relief on Venus as well as areas of extremely high topographic slope. Within Ishtar Terra the only mountain belts found on Venus, Akna, Danu, Freyja, and Maxwell Montes, nearly encircle the smooth, high (3-4 km) plateau of Lakshmi Planum. Finite-element models of this process give expected timescales for relaxation of relief and failure at the surface. From these modeling results we attempt to constrain the strength of the crust and timescales of deformation in Ishtar Terra. Below we discuss observational evidence for gravitational spreading in Ishtar Terra, results from the finite-element modeling, independent age constraints, and implications for the rheology and timing of deformation.

  17. MICROSCANNING XRF, XANES, AND XRD STUDIES OF THEDECORATED SURFACE OF ROMAN TERRA SIGILLATA CERAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Mirguet, C.; Sciau, P.; Goudeau, P.; Mehta, A.; Pianetta, P.; Liu, Z.; Tamura, N.

    2008-10-24

    Different microscanning synchrotron techniques were used to better understand the elaboration process and origins of Terra Sigillata potteries from the Roman period. A mixture Gallic slip sample cross-section showing red and yellow colors was studied. The small (micron) size of the X-ray beam available at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) and Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron sources, coupled with the use of a sample scanning stage allowed us to spatially resolve the distribution of the constitutive mineral phases related to the chemical composition. Results show that red color is a result of iron-rich hematite crystals and the yellow part is a result of the presence of Ti-rich rutile-type phase (brookite). Volcanic-type clay is at the origin of these marble Terra Sigillata.

  18. The TERRA framework: conceptualizing rural environmental health inequities through an environmental justice lens.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Patricia; Postma, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The deleterious consequences of environmentally associated diseases are expressed differentially by income, race, and geography. Scientists are just beginning to understand the consequences of environmental exposures under conditions of poverty, marginalization, and geographic isolation. In this context, we developed the TERRA (translational environmental research in rural areas) framework to explicate environmental health risks experienced by the rural poor. Central to the TERRA framework is the premise that risks exist within physical-spatial, economic-resources, and cultural-ideologic contexts. In the face of scientific and political uncertainty, a precautionary risk reduction approach has the greatest potential to protect health. Conceptual and technical advances will both be needed to achieve environmental justice. PMID:19461228

  19. EOSDIS Terra Data Sampler #1: Western US Wildfires 2000. 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Dorothy C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains sample data in HDF-EOS format from the instruments on board the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra satellite: (1) Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER); (2) Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES); (3) Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR); and (4) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Data from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument were not available for distribution (as of October 17, 2000). The remotely sensed, coincident data for the Western US wildfires were acquired August 30, 2000. This CD-ROM provides information about the Terra mission, instruments, data, and viewing tools. It also provides the Collage tool for viewing data, and links to Web sites containing other digital data processing software. Full granules of the data on this CD-ROM and other EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data products are available from the NASA Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs).

  20. Estimation of Atmospheric Path Delays in TerraSAR-X Data using Models vs. Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Jehle, Michael; Perler, Donat; Small, David; Schubert, Adrian; Meier, Erich

    2008-01-01

    Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements of the Earth's surface depend on electromagnetic waves that are subject to atmospheric path delays, in turn affecting geolocation accuracy The atmosphere influences radar signal propagation by modifying its velocity and direction, effects which can be modeled. We use TerraSAR-X (TSX) data to investigate improvements in the knowledge of the scene geometry. To precisely estimate atmospheric path delays, we analyse the signal return of four corner reflectors with accurately surveyed positions (based on differential GPS), placed at different altitudes yet with nearly identical slant ranges to the sensor. The comparison of multiple measurements with path delay models under these geometric conditions also makes it possible to evaluate the corrections for the atmospheric path delay made by the TerraSAR processor and to propose possible improvements.

  1. Using Lunar Observations to Assess Terra MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chen, Hongda

    2010-01-01

    MODIS collects data in both the reflected solar and thermal emissive regions using 36 spectral bands. The center wavelengths of these bands cover the3.7 to 14.24 micron region. In addition to using its on-board calibrators (OBC), which include a full aperture solar diffuser (SD) and a blackbody (BB), lunar observations have been scheduled on a regular basis to support both Terra and Aqua MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization. This paper provides an overview of MODIS lunar observations and their applications for the reflective solar bands (RSB) and thermal emissive bands (TEB) with an emphasis on potential calibration improvements of MODIS band 21 at 3.96 microns. This spectral band has detectors set with low gains to enable fire detection. Methodologies are proposed and examined on the use of lunar observations for the band 21 calibration. Also presented in this paper are preliminary results derived from Terra MODIS lunar observations and remaining challenging issues.

  2. Architecture of orogenic belts and convergent zones in Western Ishtar Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James W.; Vorderbruegge, R. W.; Crumpler, L. S.

    1989-01-01

    Linear mountain belts in Ishtar Terra were recognized from Pioneer-Venus topography, and later Arecibo images showed banded terrain interpreted to represent folds. Subsequent analyses showed that the mountains represented orogenic belts, and that each had somewhat different features and characteristics. Orogenic belts are regions of focused shortening and compressional deformation and thus provide evidence for the nature of such deformation, processes of crustal thickening (brittle, ductile), and processes of crustal loss. Such information is important in understanding the nature of convergent zones on Venus (underthrusting, imbrication, subduction), the implications for rates of crustal recycling, and the nature of environments of melting and petrogenesis. The basic elements of four convergent zones and orogenic belts in western Ishtar Terra are identified and examined, and then assess the architecture of these zones (the manner in which the elements are arrayed), and their relationships. The basic nomenclature of the convergent zones is shown.

  3. MODIS Cloud Products Derived from Terra and Aqua During CRYSTAL-FACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, S.; Riedi, J. C.; Ackerman, S. A.; Menzel, W. P.

    2003-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), developed as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) and launched on Terra in December 1999 and Aqua in May 2002, is designed to meet the scientific needs for satellite remote sensing of clouds, aerosols, water vapor, and land and ocean surface properties. During the CRYSTAL-FACE experiment, numerous aircraft coordinated both in situ and remote sensing observations with the Terra and Aqua spacecraft. In this paper we will emphasize the optical, microphysical, and physical properties of both liquid water and ice clouds obtained from an analysis of the satellite observations over Florida and the Gulf of Mexico during July 2002. We will present the frequency distribution of liquid water and ice cloud microphysical properties throughout the region, separating the results over land and ocean. Probability distributions of effective radius and cloud optical thickness will also be shown.

  4. Trend Analysis of global AOT based on various Polar Orbiting Satellite Observations: MODIS (Terra), MISR (Terra), SeaWiFS (OrbView-2), and MODIS (Aqua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, J.; Vountas, M.; von Hoyningen-Huene, W.; Chang, D. Y.; Burrows, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Many studies have investigated temporal trends of cloud-free AOTs derived from polar orbiting satellite observations since aerosol retrieval accuracy has been improved substantially. However, only few studies have discussed the fundamental limitation of incomplete sampling originated from frequent cloud disturbance and restricted temporal coverage. Furthermore, the AOT trends derived from various polar orbiting satellite observations are hardly comparable due to different sensor calibration, retrieval accuracy, and cloud screening. Therefore, the present paper integrates various analyses of AOT trends derived from multiple observations (i.e. MODIS-Terra (MOD) from 2000/03 to 2009/12, MISR-Terra (MIS) from 2000/03 to 2010/12, SeaWiFS-OrbView-2 (SEA) from 1998/01 to 2007/12, and MODIS-Aqua (MYD) from 2003/01 to 2008/12) using a weighted least squares regression in order to minimize the above mentioned issues. With high statistical confidence, the weighted trends of MOD AOT (550 nm), MIS AOT (558 nm), SEA AOT (510 nm), and MYD AOT (550 nm) over OECD Europe showed a significant decrease (-0.00274±0.00126, -0.00303±0.00169, -0.00077±0.00044, and -0.00530±0.00304 per year respectively) while increasing over East Asia (+0.00727±0.00385, +0.00673±0.00401, +0.00342±0.00171, and +0.01939±0.00986 per year respectively).

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Sphingopyxis terrae Strain 203-1 (NBRC 111660), a Polyethylene Glycol Degrader.

    PubMed

    Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Nonoyama, Shouta; Nagata, Yuji; Numata, Mitsuru; Tsuchikane, Keiko; Hosoyama, Akira; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Tsuda, Masataka; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawai, Fusako

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Sphingopyxis terrae strain 203-1, which is capable of growing on polyethylene glycol, was determined. The genome consisted of a chromosome with a size of 3.98 Mb and a plasmid with a size of 4,328 bp. The strain was deposited to the National Institute of Technology and Evaluation (Tokyo, Japan) under the number NBRC 111660. PMID:27284143

  6. Monitoring of mining-induced land subsidence by PALSAR and TerraSAR-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, Tomonori; Kutoglu, Hakan

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we applied InSAR time series analysis using PALSAR and TerraSAR-X data to Zonguldak Hardcoal Basin in Republic of Turkey in order to monitor mining induced surface displacement. Zonguldak coal area is located along the Black Sea 240 km eastward from Istanbul. Recently, ground deformation caused by underground exploration has come to the surface, and it has been destroying roads and buildings. We utilized PALSAR and TerraSAR-X data for the detail analysis on the recent land subsidence induced by mining activities. PALSAR data in the fine beam mode were obtained from an ascending orbit, TerraSAR-X data in the StripMap mode were from a descending orbit. The vertical and the east-west displacement were calculated by the composition of the deformation vectors of PALSAR and TerraSAR-X. Additionally, the source depth of the main anomaly detected near the campus of Zonguldak Karaelmas University (ZKU) was estimated by vector analysis using the vertical and east-west displacement. As a result, it was approximately 80 to 100 meters under the sea level. On the other hand, the depth of coal production zones is recorded 300 to 560 meters under the sea level. Thus, it was supposed that the anomaly near the university had been caused by not only mining activities but also the other factor in the shallower geological formation. Because some historical documents said that some caves existed in the limestone formation bedded over coal formations and domestic wastewater is injected into these caves, perhaps the cause of land subsidence is considered the expansion of caves' space resulted from the solution of limestone rocks by the wastewater injection.

  7. Long-term drift induced by the electronic crosstalk in Terra MODIS Band 29

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junqiang; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wang, Menghua

    2015-10-01

    Terra MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the key sensors in the NASA's Earth Observing System, which has successfully completed 15 years of on-orbit operation. Terra MODIS continues to collect valuable information of the Earth's energy radiation from visible to thermal infrared wavelengths. The instrument has been well characterized over its lifetime using onboard calibrators whose calibration references are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology standards. In this paper, we focus on the electronic crosstalk effect of Terra MODIS band 29, a thermal emissive band (TEB) whose center wavelength is 8.55 µm. Previous works have established the mechanism to describe the effect of the electronic crosstalk in the TEB channels of Terra MODIS. This work utilizes the established methodology to apply to band 29. The electronic crosstalk is identified and characterized using the regularly scheduled lunar observations. The moon being a near-pulse-like source allowed easy detection of extraneous signals around the actual Moon surface. First, the crosstalk-transmitting bands are identified along with their amplitudes. The crosstalk effect then is characterized using a moving average mechanism that allows a high fidelity of the magnitude to be corrected. The lunar-based analysis unambiguously shows that the crosstalk contamination is becoming more severe in recent years and should be corrected in order to maintain calibration quality for the affected spectral bands. Finally, two radiometrically well-characterized sites, Pacific Ocean and Libya 1 desert, are used to assess the impact of crosstalk effect. It is shown that the crosstalk contamination induces a long-term upward drift of 1.5 K in band 29 brightness temperature of MODIS Collection 6 L1B, which could significantly impact the science products. The crosstalk effect also induces strong detector-to-detector differences, which result in severe stripping in the Earth view

  8. Discrimination of crop types with TerraSAR-X-derived information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonobe, Rei; Tani, Hiroshi; Wang, Xiufeng; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Shimamura, Hideki

    Although classification maps are required for management and for the estimation of agricultural disaster compensation, those techniques have yet to be established. This paper describes the comparison of three different classification algorithms for mapping crops in Hokkaido, Japan, using TerraSAR-X (including TanDEM-X) dual-polarimetric data. In the study area, beans, beets, grasslands, maize, potatoes and winter wheat were cultivated. In this study, classification using TerraSAR-X-derived information was performed. Coherence values, polarimetric parameters and gamma nought values were also obtained and evaluated regarding their usefulness in crop classification. Accurate classification may be possible with currently existing supervised learning models. A comparison between the classification and regression tree (CART), support vector machine (SVM) and random forests (RF) algorithms was performed. Even though J-M distances were lower than 1.0 on all TerraSAR-X acquisition days, good results were achieved (e.g., separability between winter wheat and grass) due to the characteristics of the machine learning algorithm. It was found that SVM performed best, achieving an overall accuracy of 95.0% based on the polarimetric parameters and gamma nought values for HH and VV polarizations. The misclassified fields were less than 100 a in area and 79.5-96.3% were less than 200 a with the exception of grassland. When some feature such as a road or windbreak forest is present in the TerraSAR-X data, the ratio of its extent to that of the field is relatively higher for the smaller fields, which leads to misclassifications.

  9. An Overview of Lunar Calibration and Characterization for the EOS Terra and Aqua MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Salomonson, V. V.; Sun, J.; Chiang, K.; Xiong, S.; Humphries, S.; Barnes, W.; Guenther, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Moon can be used as a stable source for Earth-observing sensors on-orbit radiometric and spatial stability monitoring in the VIS and NIR spectral regions. It can also serve as a calibration transfer vehicle among multiple sensors. Nearly identical copies of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODE) have been operating on-board the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites since their launches in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively. Terra and Aqua MODIS each make observations in 36 spectral bands covering the spectral range from 0.41 to 14.5 microns and are calibrated on-orbit by a set of on-board calibrations (OBCs) including: 1) a solar diffuser (SD), 2) a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), 3) a blackbody (BB), and 4) a spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). In addition to fully utilizing the OBCs, the Moon has been used extensively by both Terra and Aqua MODIS to support their on-orbit calibration and characterization. A 4 This paper provides an overview of applications of lunar calibration and characterization from the MODIS perspective, including monitoring radiometric calibration stability for the reflective solar bands (RSBs), tracking changes of the sensors response versus scan-angle (RVS), examining the sensors spatial performance , and characterizing optical leaks and electronic crosstalk among different spectral bands and detectors. On-orbit calibration consistency between the two MODIS instruments is also addressed. Based on the existing on-orbit time series of the Terra and Aqua MODIS lunar observations, the radiometric difference between the two sensors is less than +/-1% for the RSBs. This method provides a powerful means of performing calibration comparisons among Earth-observing sensors and assures consistent data and science products for the long-term studies of climate and environmental changes.

  10. Observations of the atmosphere and surface state over Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica, using unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, John J.; Seefeldt, Mark W.; Palo, Scott; Knuth, Shelley L.; Bradley, Alice C.; Herrman, Paul D.; Kernebone, Peter A.; Logan, Nick J.

    2016-03-01

    In September 2012 five Aerosonde unmanned aircraft were used to make measurements of the atmospheric state over the Terra Nova Bay polynya, Antarctica, to explore the details of air-sea ice-ocean coupling. A total of 14 flights were completed in September 2012. Ten of the flight missions consisted of two unmanned aerial systems (UAS) sampling the atmosphere over Terra Nova Bay on 5 different days, with one UAS focusing on the downwind evolution of the air mass and a second UAS flying transects roughly perpendicular to the low-level winds. The data from these coordinated UAS flights provide a comprehensive three-dimensional data set of the atmospheric state (air temperature, humidity, pressure, and wind) and surface skin temperature over Terra Nova Bay. The remaining UAS flights during the September 2012 field campaign included two local flights near McMurdo Station for flight testing, a single UAS flight to Terra Nova Bay, and a single UAS flight over the Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Sea polynya. A data set containing the atmospheric and surface data as well as operational aircraft data have been submitted to the United States Antarctic Program Data Coordination Center (USAP-DCC, http://www.usap-data.org/) for free access (http://gcmd.nasa.gov/getdif.htm?NSF-ANT10-43657, doi:10.15784/600125).

  11. Observations of the atmosphere and surface state over Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica using unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, J. J.; Seefeldt, M. W.; Palo, S.; Knuth, S. L.; Bradley, A. C.; Herrman, P. D.; Kernebone, P. A.; Logan, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    In September 2012 five Aerosonde unmanned aircraft were used to make measurements of the atmospheric state over the Terra Nova Bay polynya, Antarctica, to explore the details of air - sea ice - ocean coupling. A total of 14 flights were completed in September 2012. Ten of the flight missions consisted of two unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) sampling the atmosphere over Terra Nova Bay on five different days, with one UAS focusing on the downwind evolution of the air mass and a second UAS flying transects roughly perpendicular to the low level winds. The data from these coordinated UAS flights provide a comprehensive three-dimensional data set of the atmospheric state (air temperature, humidity, pressure, and wind) and surface skin temperature over Terra Nova Bay. The remaining UAS flights during the September 2012 field campaign included two local flights near McMurdo Station for flight testing, a single UAS flight to Terra Nova Bay, and a single UAS flight over the Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Sea polynya. A dataset containing the atmospheric and surface data as well as operational aircraft data has been submitted to the United States Antarctic Program Data Coordination Center (USAP-DCC, http://www.usap-data.org/) for free access (http://gcmd.nasa.gov/getdif.htm?NSF-ANT10-43657, doi:10.15784/600125).

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Sphingopyxis terrae Strain 203-1 (NBRC 111660), a Polyethylene Glycol Degrader

    PubMed Central

    Nonoyama, Shouta; Nagata, Yuji; Numata, Mitsuru; Tsuchikane, Keiko; Hosoyama, Akira; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Tsuda, Masataka; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawai, Fusako

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Sphingopyxis terrae strain 203-1, which is capable of growing on polyethylene glycol, was determined. The genome consisted of a chromosome with a size of 3.98 Mb and a plasmid with a size of 4,328 bp. The strain was deposited to the National Institute of Technology and Evaluation (Tokyo, Japan) under the number NBRC 111660. PMID:27284143

  13. Corrections to MODIS Terra Calibration and Polarization Trending Derived from Ocean Color Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, Gerhard; Eplee, Robert E.; Franz, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    Remotely sensed ocean color products require highly accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances, on the order of 0.5% or better. Due to incidents both prelaunch and on-orbit, meeting this requirement has been a consistent problem for the MODIS instrument on the Terra satellite, especially in the later part of the mission. The NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) has developed an approach to correct the TOA radiances of MODIS Terra using spatially and temporally averaged ocean color products from other ocean color sensors (such as the SeaWiFS instrument on Orbview-2 or the MODIS instrument on the Aqua satellite). The latest results suggest that for MODIS Terra, both linear polarization parameters of the Mueller matrix are temporally evolving. A change to the functional form of the scan angle dependence improved the quality of the derived coefficients. Additionally, this paper demonstrates that simultaneously retrieving polarization and gain parameters improves the gain retrieval (versus retrieving the gain parameter only).

  14. Thenature of marbled Terra Sigillata slips: a combined mu XRF and mu XRD investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, Yoanna; Sciau, Philippe; Goudeau, Philippe; Tamura, Nobumichi; Webb, Sam; Mehta, Apurva

    2009-01-31

    In addition to the red terra sigillata production, the largest Gallic workshop (La Graufesenque) made a special type of terra sigillata, called 'marbled' by the archaeologists. Produced exclusively on this site, this pottery is characterized by a surface finish made of a mixture of yellow and red slips. Because the two slips are intimately mixed, it is difficult to obtain the precise composition of one of the two constituents without contamination by the other. In order to obtain very precise correlation at the appropriate scale between the color aspect and the element and mineralogical phase distributions in the slip, combined electron microprobe, x-ray micro spectroscopies and micro diffraction on cross sectional samples were performed. The aim is to discover how potters were able to produce this unique type of terra sigillata and especially this slip showing an intense yellow color. Results show that the yellow component of marbled sigillata was made from a titanium-rich clay preparation. The color is related to the formation of a pseudobrookite (TiFe2O5) phase in the yellow part of the slip, the main characteristics of that structure being considered nowadays as essential for the fabrication of stable yellow ceramic pigments. Its physical properties such as high refractive indices and a melting point higher than that of most silicates widely used as ceramic colorants are indeed determinant for this kind of applications. Finally, the red parts have a similar composition (elementary and mineralogical) to the one of standard red slip.

  15. Divergent plate boundaries and crustal spreading on Venus: Evidence from Aphrodite Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, James W.

    1989-01-01

    The modes of lithospheric heat transfer and the tectonic styles may differ between Earth and Venus, depending on how the high surface temperature (700 K = 430 C), dense and opaque atmosphere (approx. 10 MPa = 100 bars), lack of water oceans, and the other known ways in which Venus differs from Earth, influence basic lithospheric processes, thermal gradient, upper mantle temperature, thermal and chemical evolution, and convection. A fundamental question is whether the lithosphere of Venus is horizontally stable, like the other terrestrial planets, or is mobile like that on Earth. The variety of characteristics, their integrated relationships, and their predictable behavior throughout Western Aphrodite Terra are similar to those features known to occur in association with the terrestrial seafloor at spreading centers and divergent plate boundaries. It is concluded that Western Aphrodite Terra represents the site of crustal spreading centers and divergent plate boundaries. The extent of similar characteristics and processes elsewhere on Venus outside of the 13,000 km long Western and Eastern Aphrodite Terra rise is unknown at the present, but their presence in other areas of the equatorial highlands, suggested from recent analysis, may be tested with forthcoming Magellan data.

  16. Results and Lessons from a Decade of Terra MODIS On-Orbit Spectral Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Choi, T.; Che, N.; Wang, Z.; Dodd, J.

    2010-01-01

    Since its launch in December 1999, the NASA EOS Terra MODIS has successfully operated for more than a decade. MODIS makes observations in 36 spectral bands from visible (VIS) to longwave infrared (LWIR) and at three nadir spatial resolutions: 250m (2 bands), 500m (5 bands), and 1km (29 bands). In addition to its on-board calibrators designed for the radiometric calibration, MODIS was built with a unique device, called the spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). It can be configured in three different modes: radiometric, spatial, and spectral. When it is operated in the spectral modes, the SRCA can monitor changes in Sensor spectral performance for the VIS and near-infrared (NIR) spectral bands. For more than 10 years, the SRCA operation has continued to provide valuable information for MODIS on-orbit spectral performance. This paper briefly describes SRCA on-orbit operation and calibration activities; it presents decade-long spectral characterization results for Terra MODIS VIS and NIR spectral bands in terms of chances in their center wavelengths (CW) and bandwidths (BW). It is shown that the SRCA on-orbit wavelength calibration capability remains satisfactory. For most spectral bands, the changes in CW and BW are less than 0.5 and 1 nm, respectively. Results and lessons from Terra MODIS on-orbit spectral characterization have and will continue to benefit its successor, Aqua MODIS, and other future missions.

  17. Fusion of TerraSAR-x and Landsat ETM+ data for protected area mapping in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otukei, John Richard; Blaschke, Thomas; Collins, Michael

    2015-06-01

    TerraSAR-X satellite acquires very high spatial resolution data with potential for detailed land cover mapping. A known problem with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data is the lack of spectral information. Fusion of SAR and multispectral data provides opportunities for better image interpretation and information extraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the fusion between TerraSAR-X and Landsat ETM+ for protected area mapping using high pass filtering (HPF), principal component analysis with band substitution (PCA) and principal component with wavelet transform (WPCA). A total of thirteen land cover classes were identified for classification using a non-parametric C 4.5 decision tree classifier. Overall classification accuracies of 74.99%, 83.12% and 85.38% and kappa indices of 0.7220, 0.8100 and 0.8369 were obtained for HPF, PCA and WPCA fusion approaches respectively. These results indicate a high potential for a combined use of TerraSAR-X and Landsat ETM+ data for protected area mapping in Uganda.

  18. Monitoring on Xi'an ground fissures deformation with TerraSAR-X data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, C.; Zhang, Q.; Zhu, W.; Lu, Zhiming

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the fine resolution of TerraSAR-X data provided since 2007, this paper applied 6 TerraSAR data (strip mode) during 3rd Dec. 2009 to 23rd Mar. 2010 to detect and monitor the active fissures over Xi'an region. Three themes have been designed for high precision detection and monitoring of Xi'an-Chang'an fissures, as small baseline subsets (SBAS) to test the atmospheric effects of differential interferograms pair stepwise, 2-pass differential interferogram with very short baseline perpendicular to generate the whole deformation map with 44 days interval, and finally, corner reflector (CR) technique was used to closely monitor the relative deformation time series between two CRs settled crossing two ground fissures. Results showed that TerraSAR data are a good choice for small-scale ground fissures detection and monitoring, while special considerations should be taken for their great temporal and baseline decorrelation. Secondly, ground fissures in Xi'an were mostly detected at the joint section of stable and deformable regions. Lastly, CR-InSAR had potential ability to monitor relative deformation crossing fissures with millimeter precision.

  19. Elevated cadmium accumulation in marine organisms from Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica)

    SciTech Connect

    Bargagli, R.; Nelli, L.; Ancora, S.; Focardi, S.

    1996-08-01

    As a contribution towards identification of the principal environmental factors involved in cadmium accumulation in Antarctic marine organisms and the establishment of a baseline near the Italian Antarctic Station {open_quotes}Baia Terra Nova{close_quotes}, surface sediments, plankton and benthic organisms were studied in coastal waters of Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea). The cadmium content of sediments was similar to that regarded as background in most marine coastal areas, whereas in surface water, phyto- and zooplankton it was similar to values measured in areas of enhanced upwelling. Algal and animal taxa dominating benthic associations had a higher cadmium content than related species from other seas. Very high concentrations of the metal were found in sponges (10-80 {mu}g/g dw) and in the digestive gland of molluscs (up to 345 {mu}g/g in Neobuccinum eatoni). The rapid regeneration of cadmium and its natural occurrence and bioavailability in highly productive coastal waters seem to be responsible for cadmium accumulation in the tissues of marine organisms near the {open_quotes}Baia Terra Nova{close_quotes} station. 45 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. TerraSAR-X Small Baseline interferometry of Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Zeeuw van Dalfsen, Elske; Walter, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Popocatepetl is an active 5426 m high stratovolcano, with a steep-walled, 400 by 600 m wide crater. It is located 70 km southeast of Mexico city, and its activity potentially influences up to 25 million people. More than 15 major eruptions occurred in historic times, the last one in 1947. The year 2012 has been a highly active one, with numerous ash plumes in mid-April, and explosions during July-October. We have acquired TerraSAR-X images of Popocatepetl, and the surrounding area, using strip and spot mode, covering this period. We have created small baseline interferograms from TerraSAR-X strip mode images, using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) software. Of the resulting interferograms, several show medium to good coherence on the lower and upper flanks of the volcano and some are even coherent in the crater area. We further analysed the data that cover the time period from 27 march 2012 to 22 october 2012. During this time period the volcano has been very active, displaying on and off: gas and ash plumes, explosions injecting incandescent fragments up to 1 km from the crater and even ashfall in municipalities up to 50 km away. The short revisit time of TerraSAR-X of 11 days increases the chances of a coherent image during such active periods. We present the preliminary results from this unique data set.

  1. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Tropospheric Clouds Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. It achieved its final orbit and began Earth observations on February 24, 2000 for Terra and June 24, 2002 for Aqua. A comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms for cloud masking and the retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties has been developed by members of the MODIS atmosphere science team. The archived products from these algorithms have applications in climate change studies, climate modeling, numerical weather prediction, as well as fundamental atmospheric research. In addition to an extensive cloud mask, products include cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure, effective emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical and microphysical parameters (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path), as well as derived statistics. We will describe the various cloud properties being analyzed on a global basis from both Terra and Aqua. These include the latitudinal distribution of cloud optical and radiative properties of both liquid water and ice clouds, as well as joint histograms of cloud optical thickness and effective radius for selected geographical locations around the world.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Tropospheric Clouds Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18,1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. It achieved its final orbit and began Earth observations on February 24, 2000 for Terra and June 24, 2002 for Aqua. A comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms for cloud masking and the retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties has been developed by members of the MODIS atmosphere science team. The archived products from these algorithms have applications in climate change studies, climate modeling, numerical weather prediction, as well as fundamental atmospheric research. In addition to an extensive cloud mask, products include cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure, effective emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical and microphysical parameters (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path), as well as derived statistics. We will describe the various cloud properties being analyzed on a global basis from both Terra and Aqua. These include the latitudinal distribution of cloud optical and radiative properties of both liquid water and ice clouds, as well as joint histograms of cloud optical thickness and effective radius for selected geographical locations around the world.

  3. The Unique Geomorphology and Physical Properties of the Vestalia Terra Plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buczkowski, D.L.; Wyrick, D.Y.; Toplis, M.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Garry, W. B.; Mest, S.; Kneissl, T.; Scully, J. E. C.; Nathues, A.; DeSanctis, M. C.; LeCorre, L.; Reddy, V.; Hoffmann, M.; Ammannito, E.; Frigeri, A.; Tosi, F.; Preusker, F.; Roatsch, T.; Raymond, C. A.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Russell, C. T.

    2014-01-01

    We produced a geologic map of the Av-9 Numisia quadrangle of asteroid Vesta using Dawn spacecraft data to serve as a tool to understand the geologic relations of surface features in this region. These features include the plateau Vestalia Terra, a hill named Brumalia Tholus, and an unusual "dark ribbon" material crossing the majority of the map area. Stratigraphic relations suggest that Vestalia Terra is one of the oldest features on Vesta, despite a model crater age date similar to that of much of the surface of the asteroid. Cornelia, Numisia and Drusilla craters reveal bright and dark material in their walls, and both Cornelia and Numisia have smooth and pitted terrains on their floors suggestive of the release of volatiles during or shortly after the impacts that formed these craters. Cornelia, Fabia and Teia craters have extensive bright ejecta lobes. While diogenitic material has been identified in association with the bright Teia and Fabia ejecta, hydroxyl has been detected in the dark material within Cornelia, Numisia and Drusilla. Three large pit crater chains appear in the map area, with an orientation similar to the equatorial troughs that cut the majority of Vesta. Analysis of these features has led to several interpretations of the geological history of the region. Vestalia Terra appears to be mechanically stronger than the rest of Vesta. Brumalia Tholus may be the surface representation of a dike-fed laccolith. The dark ribbon feature is proposed to represent a long-runout ejecta flow from Drusilla crater.

  4. Multitemporal classification of TerraSAR-X data for wetland vegetation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betbeder, Julie; Rapinel, Sébastien; Corpetti, Thomas; Pottier, Eric; Corgne, Samuel; Hubert-Moy, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with wetland vegetation mapping using multitemporal synthetic aperture radar imagery. Although wetlands play a key role in controlling flooding and nonpoint source pollution, sequestering carbon and providing an abundance of ecological services, knowledge of the flora and fauna of these environments is patchy, and understanding of their ecological functioning is still insufficient for a reliable functional assessment on areas larger than a few hectares. The aim of this paper is to evaluate multitemporal TerraSAR-X imagery to precisely map the distribution of vegetation formations considering flood duration. A series of six dual-polarization TerraSAR-X images (HH-VV) was acquired in 2012 during dry and wet seasons. One polarimetric parameter, the Shannon entropy (SE), and two intensity parameters (σ° HH and σ° VV), which vary with wetland flooding status and vegetation roughness, were first extracted. These parameters were then classified using support vector machine techniques based on a specific kernel adapted to the comparison of time-series data, K-nearest neighbors, and decision tree (DT) algorithms. The results show that the vegetation formations can be identified very accurately (kappa index=0.85) from the classification of SE temporal profiles derived from the TerraSAR-X images. They also reveal the importance of the use of polarimetric parameters instead of backscattering coefficients alone (HH or VV) or combined (HH and VV).

  5. TerraSAR InSAR Investigation of Active Crustal Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, L.; Burgmann, R.

    2009-12-01

    We aim to utilize advanced analysis of TerraSAR-X data to investigate the dynamics and interactions of solid Earth deformation processes, such as earthquakes and fault creep, and Earth surface processes, such as land subsidence and groundwater movements, in a densely populated, urban region, the San Francisco Bay Area. Ongoing deformation imaging reveals a number of natural hazards including elastic strain accumulation about seismologic faults, active landsliding, land subsidence and rebound, and settling of unconsolidated sediments that are highly susceptible to liquefaction. Up to now, we have ordered and received 20 more TerraSAR-X Spotlight Single Look Complex (SLC) images and a few Stripmap SLC images delivered by DLR and got a few preliminary results. The TerraSAR-X images were acquired over the San Francisco Bay Area particularly around an area of active landsliding, coastal subsidence and shallow Hayward fault creep near the city of Berkeley. Berkeley is situated between latitude 37.45 and 38.00, longitude 237.30 and 238.00. The data acquisition interval is from November, 2008 to now. Four types of Spotlight images and one type of Stripmap images in time sequence were ordered and acquired: spot_012, spot_038, spot_049, spot_075 and strip_003, having different look angles and pass directions. Access to the SAR data is via ftp about 10 days after acquisition date. The data is supplied in TerraSAR-X standard SLC COSAR (COmplex SAR) format with orbital information in an Extensible Markup Language (XML) header. The file contains integer real-complex components with double sampling and calibration constants for values. I am using ROI_PAC to do the interferograms. But ROI_PAC was designed to process the raw data rather SLC images. So there are some problems in azimuth processing with TerraSAR SLC data especially the Spotlight data. We now have some preliminary results of Stripmap interferograms and Spotlight interferograms but still work on those problems and

  6. Web-based Hierarchical Ordering Mechanism (WHOM) tool for MODIS data from Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikder, M. S.; Eaton, P.; Leptoukh, G.; McCrimmon, N.; Zhou, B.

    2001-05-01

    At the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), we have substantially enhanced the popular Web-based Hierarchical Ordering Mechanism (WHOM) to include data from the Earth Observing System (EOS). The GES DAAC archives unprecedented volumes of remotely sensed data and large number of geophysical products derived from the MODIS instrument on board Terra satellite, and distributes them to the world scientific and applications user community. These products are currently divided into three groups: Radiometric and Geolocation, Atmosphere, and Ocean data products. The so-called Terra-WHOM (http://acdisx.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/dataset/MODIS/index.html) is a GES DAAC developed search and order user interface which is a smaller segment of the WHOM interface that provides access to all other GES DAAC data holdings. Terra-WHOM specifically provides user access to MODIS data archived at the GES DAAC. It allows users to navigate through all the available data products and submit a data request with minimal effort. The WHOM modular design and hierarchical architecture makes this tool unique, user-friendly, and very efficient to complete the search and order. The main principle of WHOM is that it advertises the available data products, so, users always know what they can get. The WHOM design includes: simple point & click, flexible, web pages generated from templates, consistent look and feel throughout interface, and easy configuration management due to contents being encapsulated and separated from software. Modular search algorithms provide dynamic Spatial and Temporal search capability and return the search results as html pages using CGI scripts. In Terra-WHOM, calendar pages show the actual number of data granules archived for each day for high-resolution local scenes, and from there the user can go to a page showing the geo-coverage for every granule for a given day. This feature significantly optimizes user's effort for selecting data. The

  7. Validation of MODIS Terra and Aqua Ice Surface Temperatures at Summit, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D. K.; Shuman, C. A.; Xiong, X.; Wenny, B. N.; DiGirolamo, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    Ice-surface temperature (IST) is used in many studies, for example for validation of model output and for detection of leads and thin ice in sea ice. The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Terra and Aqua satellites are useful for mapping IST of sea ice and the Greenland ice sheet (Hall et al., 2012), and validation of the ISTs derived from MODIS has been an ongoing effort (e.g., Koenig & Hall, 2010; Shuman et al., 2014). Recent results call into question the calibration of the MODIS-derived ISTs at very cold temperatures that are characteristic of the Greenland ice sheet high interior during winter (Shuman et al., 2014). In the present work, we investigate the calibration of MODIS IR bands 31 (10.780 - 11.280 µm) and 32 (11.770 - 12.270 µm) under very cold conditions. MODIS IR bands are calibrated using a quadratic algorithm. In Collection 6 (C6), the offset and nonlinear calibration coefficients are computed from data collected during the blackbody cool-down vs the warm-up data used in Collection 5 (C5). To improve the calibration accuracy for low-temperature scenes, the offset terms are set to 0. In general, Aqua MODIS bands 31 and 32 perform better than Terra MODIS bands 31 and 32. One of the reasons is that the Aqua bands have a lower saturation temperature (~340 K) than the Terra (~380 K) bands, and lower saturation or smaller dynamic range means better resolution. As compared to ~2-m NOAA air temperatures (TA) at Summit, Greenland, Shuman et al. (2014) show a small (~0.5°C) offset in Terra MODIS-derived IST vs TA near 0°C, and an increasingly larger offset (up to ~5°C) as TA drops to -60°C. To investigate this further, we compare Terra and Aqua C5 and C6 ISTs with TA data from Summit. This work will document the calibration of bands 31 and 32 at very low temperatures in C5 and C6. Hall, D.K., et al., 2012: Satellite-Derived Climate-Quality Data Record of the Clear-Sky Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

  8. TerraFERMA: The Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler for multi-physics problems in the solid Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegelman, M. W.; Wilson, C. R.; Van Keken, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    We announce the release of a new software infrastructure, TerraFERMA, the Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler for the exploration and solution of coupled multi-physics problems. The design of TerraFERMA is driven by two overarching computational needs in Earth sciences. The first is the need for increased flexibility in both problem description and solution strategies for coupled problems where small changes in model assumptions can often lead to dramatic changes in physical behavior. The second is the need for software and models that are more transparent so that results can be verified, reproduced and modified in a manner such that the best ideas in computation and earth science can be more easily shared and reused. TerraFERMA leverages three advanced open-source libraries for scientific computation that provide high level problem description (FEniCS), composable solvers for coupled multi-physics problems (PETSc) and a science neutral options handling system (SPuD) that allows the hierarchical management of all model options. TerraFERMA integrates these libraries into an easier to use interface that organizes the scientific and computational choices required in a model into a single options file, from which a custom compiled application is generated and run. Because all models share the same infrastructure, models become more reusable and reproducible. TerraFERMA inherits much of its functionality from the underlying libraries. It currently solves partial differential equations (PDE) using finite element methods on simplicial meshes of triangles (2D) and tetrahedra (3D). The software is particularly well suited for non-linear problems with complex coupling between components. We demonstrate the design and utility of TerraFERMA through examples of thermal convection and magma dynamics. TerraFERMA has been tested successfully against over 45 benchmark problems from 7 publications in incompressible and compressible convection, magmatic solitary waves

  9. The Wisconsin Snow and Cloud-Terra 2000 Experiment (WISC-T2000)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Atmospheric scientists take to the skies this winter for the Wisconsin Snow and Cloud-Terra 2000 experiment, Feb. 25 through March 13. Scientists in WISC-T2000 will use instruments on board NASA's ER-2, a high-altitude research plane, to validate new science products from NASA's earth-observing satellite Terra, which began its five-year mission on Dec. 18, 1999. Contact Terri Gregory Public Information Coordinator Space Science and Engineering Center University of Wisconsin-Madison (608) 263-3373; fax (608) 262-5974 terri.gregory@ssec.wisc.edu Science Goals: WISC-T2000 is the third in a series of field experiments sponsored by the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Space Science and Engineering Center. The center helped develop one of the five science instruments on Terra, the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). MODIS will make global measurements of clouds, oceans, land, and atmospheric properties in an effort to monitor and predict global climate change. Infrastructure: The ER-2 will be based at Madison's Truax Field and will fly over the upper Midwest and Oklahoma. ER-2 measurements will be coordinated with observations at the Department of Energy's Cloud and Radiation Testbed site in Oklahoma (http://www.arm.gov/), which will be engaged in a complementary cloud experiment. The center will work closely with NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, which will collect and distribute MODIS data and science products. Additional information on the WISC-T2000 field campaign is available at the project's Web site http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/wisct2000/

  10. Columbus crater and other possible groundwater-fed paleolakes of Terra Sirenum, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wray, J.J.; Milliken, R.E.; Dundas, C.M.; Swayze, G.A.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Baldridge, A.M.; Chojnacki, M.; Bishop, J.L.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Murchie, S.L.; Clark, R.N.; Seelos, F.P.; Tornabene, L.L.; Squyres, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Columbus crater in the Terra Sirenum region of the Martian southern highlands contains light-toned layered deposits with interbedded sulfate and phyllosilicate minerals, a rare occurrence on Mars. Here we investigate in detail the morphology, thermophysical properties, mineralogy, and stratigraphy of these deposits; explore their regional context; and interpret the crater's aqueous history. Hydrated mineral-bearing deposits occupy a discrete ring around the walls of Columbus crater and are also exposed beneath younger materials, possibly lava flows, on its floor. Widespread minerals identified in the crater include gypsum, polyhydrated and monohydrated Mg/Fe-sulfates, and kaolinite; localized deposits consistent with montmorillonite, Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates, jarosite, alunite, and crystalline ferric oxide or hydroxide are also detected. Thermal emission spectra suggest abundances of these minerals in the tens of percent range. Other craters in northwest Terra Sirenum also contain layered deposits and Al/Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates, but sulfates have so far been found only in Columbus and Cross craters. The region's intercrater plains contain scattered exposures of Al-phyllosilicates and one isolated mound with opaline silica, in addition to more common Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates with chlorides. A Late Noachian age is estimated for the aqueous deposits in Columbus, coinciding with a period of inferred groundwater upwelling and evaporation, which (according to model results reported here) could have formed evaporites in Columbus and other craters in Terra Sirenum. Hypotheses for the origin of these deposits include groundwater cementation of crater-filling sediments and/or direct precipitation from subaerial springs or in a deep (???900 m) paleolake. Especially under the deep lake scenario, which we prefer, chemical gradients in Columbus crater may have created a habitable environment at this location on early Mars. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Photogrammetric processing of a TerraSAR-X image: evaluation of products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannidis, C.; Bourexis, F.; Tsigenopoulos, G.

    2013-08-01

    TerraSAR-X was the first from a series of very high resolution SAR satellites, which have significantly enlarged the range of cartographic applications of SAR data. For such applications the use of photogrammetric processing, either independently or combined with optical images became meaningful. In this paper the procedures that may be applied on a single SAR image are developed and the quality and accuracy of their products are investigated regarding the impact of using various models or changing the parameters of external data (GCPs, DTM). A Spotlight mode TerraSAR-X image is used for a case study. The area is a mountainous terrain, of 5x10km size, located in the north-eastern region of Athens, Greece. Three alternative registration/georeferencing methods are investigated: the Physical Sensor Model (Range- Doppler method), the DLT and the 2nd order RPF. Orthoimage production using four different DTMs of various quality and density are investigated. Geometric accuracy and quality are investigated using Independent Check Points and through an analysis of the slopes and aspects of the terrain in combination with the geometry of the sensor. Automatic techniques for the extraction of the road network are used; however the results are not satisfactory. In addition, a manual extraction of the roads using visual interpretation is made and the results are evaluated in terms of completeness, correctness and quality. According to the results derived from the above procedures, the use of high resolution TerraSAR- Χ images is very promising for a variety of applications for which medium scale geometric accuracies are required.

  12. Centimeter range measurement using amplitude data of TerraSAR-X imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaldo, P.; Fratarcangeli, F.; Nascetti, A.; Mazzoni, A.; Porfiri, M.; Crespi, M.

    2014-09-01

    The SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imagery are largely used for the environmental, structures and infrastructures monitoring. In particular, Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is a well known technique that allows producing spatially dense displacement maps with centimetre to millimetre accuracy. The SAR signal is characterized by phase and amplitude value and the DInSAR remote sensing technique allows to analyse deformation phenomena affecting both extended natural areas and localized man-made structures, by exploiting the phase difference of SAR image pairs. New SAR satellite sensors such as COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X and PAZ offer the capability to achieve positioning in a global reference frame accuracies in the meter range and even better, thanks to the higher image resolution (up to 0.20 m pixel resolution in the Staring SpotLight mode for TerraSAR-X and PAZ) and to the use of on board dual frequency GPS receivers, which allows to determine the satellite orbit with an accuracy at few centimetres level. The goal of this work is to exploit the slant-range measurements reaching centimetre accuracies using only the amplitude information of SAR images acquired by TerraSAR-X satellite sensor. The leading idea is to evaluate the positioning accuracy of well identifiable and stable natural and man-made Persistent Scatterers (PS's) along the SAR line of sight. The preliminary results, obtained on the Berlin area (Germany), shown that it is possible achieve a slant-range positioning accuracy with a bias well below 10 cm and a standard deviation of about 3 cm; the results are encouraging for applications of high resolution SAR imagery amplitude data in land and infrastructures monitoring.

  13. Integrating regional and continental scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Baker, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Pennington, R. T.; Vásquez Martínez, R.; Monteagudo, A.; Mogollón, H.; Dávila Cardozo, N.; Ríos, M.; García-Villacorta, R.; Valderrama, E.; Ahuite, M.; Huamantupa, I.; Neill, D. A.; Laurance, W. F.; Nascimento, H. E. M.; Soares de Almeida, S.; Killeen, T. J.; Arroyo, L.; Núñez, P.; Freitas Alvarado, L.

    2009-01-01

    We contrast regional and continental-scale comparisons of the floristic composition of terra firme forest in South Amazonia, using 55 plots across Amazonia and a subset of 30 plots from northern Peru and Ecuador. Firstly, we examine the floristic patterns using both genus- or species-level data and find that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes different plot clusters. Secondly, we compare the patterns and causes of floristic differences at regional and continental scales. At a continental scale, ordination analysis shows that species of Lecythidaceae and Sapotaceae are gradually replaced by species of Arecaceae and Myristicaceae from eastern to western Amazonia. These floristic gradients are correlated with gradients in soil fertility and to dry season length, similar to previous studies. At a regional scale, similar patterns are found within north-western Amazonia, where differences in soil fertility distinguish plots where species of Lecythidaceae, characteristic of poor soils, are gradually replaced by species of Myristicaceae on richer soils. The main coordinate of this regional-scale ordination correlates mainly with concentrations of available calcium and magnesium. Thirdly, we ask at a regional scale within north-western Amazonia, whether soil fertility or other distance dependent processes are more important for determining variation in floristic composition. A Mantel test indicates that both soils and geographical distance have a similar and significant role in determining floristic similarity across this region. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is dependent on a range of processes that include both habitat specialisation related to edaphic conditions and other distance-dependent processes. To fully account for regional scale variation in continental

  14. The absolute radiometric calibration of Terra imaging sensors: MODIS, MISR, and ASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey; Thome, Kurtis; Anderson, Nikolaus; Biggar, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    The Terra spacecraft contains five Earth-observation instruments, three of which are multispectral imaging sensors that complement each other in spectral and spatial coverage. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 36 channels ranging from 0.4-14.4 μm, with spatial resolutions of 250, 500, and 1000 m. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) uses individual imaging sensors to view the earth at nine discreet angles. Each radiometer has four channels in the visible and near infrared (VNIR), and the nadir-viewing camera has a spatial resolution of 275 m. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was designed with fourteen bands ranging from 0.5-11.6 μm. It is the high-resolution sensor on Terra, with a spatial resolution of 15 m in the VNIR, and 30 m in the shortwave infrared (SWIR). This work describes the vicarious techniques used to perform the absolute radiometric calibration of MODIS, MISR, and ASTER in the solar-reflective region (0.4-2.5 μm). It includes the reflectance-based approach, which uses ground-based personnel to make in situ measurements during the time of overpass. It also includes more recent results that were obtained using the University of Arizona's automated Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) at Railroad Valley, Nevada. In addition to the absolute radiometric calibration of Terra sensors, RadCaTS is used to perform the cross comparison of MODIS, MISR, and ASTER with Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI.

  15. Columbus crater and other possible groundwater-fed paleolakes of Terra Sirenum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, J. J.; Milliken, R. E.; Dundas, C. M.; Swayze, G. A.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Baldridge, A. M.; Chojnacki, M.; Bishop, J. L.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Murchie, S. L.; Clark, R. N.; Seelos, F. P.; Tornabene, L. L.; Squyres, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Columbus crater in the Terra Sirenum region of the Martian southern highlands contains light-toned layered deposits with interbedded sulfate and phyllosilicate minerals, a rare occurrence on Mars. Here we investigate in detail the morphology, thermophysical properties, mineralogy, and stratigraphy of these deposits; explore their regional context; and interpret the crater's aqueous history. Hydrated mineral-bearing deposits occupy a discrete ring around the walls of Columbus crater and are also exposed beneath younger materials, possibly lava flows, on its floor. Widespread minerals identified in the crater include gypsum, polyhydrated and monohydrated Mg/Fe-sulfates, and kaolinite; localized deposits consistent with montmorillonite, Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates, jarosite, alunite, and crystalline ferric oxide or hydroxide are also detected. Thermal emission spectra suggest abundances of these minerals in the tens of percent range. Other craters in northwest Terra Sirenum also contain layered deposits and Al/Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates, but sulfates have so far been found only in Columbus and Cross craters. The region's intercrater plains contain scattered exposures of Al-phyllosilicates and one isolated mound with opaline silica, in addition to more common Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates with chlorides. A Late Noachian age is estimated for the aqueous deposits in Columbus, coinciding with a period of inferred groundwater upwelling and evaporation, which (according to model results reported here) could have formed evaporites in Columbus and other craters in Terra Sirenum. Hypotheses for the origin of these deposits include groundwater cementation of crater-filling sediments and/or direct precipitation from subaerial springs or in a deep (˜900 m) paleolake. Especially under the deep lake scenario, which we prefer, chemical gradients in Columbus crater may have created a habitable environment at this location on early Mars.

  16. Possible ancient giant basin and related water enrichment in the Arabia Terra province, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Barlow, N.G.; Anderson, R.C.; Williams, J.-P.; Miyamoto, H.; Ferris, J.C.; Strom, R.G.; Taylor, G.J.; Fairen, A.G.; Baker, V.R.; Boynton, W.V.; Keller, J.M.; Kerry, K.; Janes, D.; Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Hare, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    A circular albedo feature in the Arabia Terra province was first hypothesized as an ancient impact basin using Viking-era information. To test this unpublished hypothesis, we have analyzed the Viking era-information together with layers of new data derived from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Odyssey (MO) missions. Our analysis indicates that Arabia Terra is an ancient geologic province of Mars with many distinct characteristics, including predominantly Noachian materials, a unique part of the highland-lowland boundary, a prominent paleotectonic history, the largest region of fretted terrain on the planet, outflow channels with no obvious origins, extensive exposures of eroded layered sedimentary deposits, and notable structural, albedo, thermal inertia, gravity, magnetic, and elemental signatures. The province also is marked by special impact crater morphologies, which suggest a persistent volatile-rich substrate. No one characteristic provides definitive answers to the dominant event(s) that shaped this unique province. Collectively the characteristics reported here support the following hypothesized sequence of events in Arabia Terra: (1) an enormous basin, possibly of impact origin, formed early in martian history when the magnetic dynamo was active and the lithosphere was relatively thin, (2) sediments and other materials were deposited in the basin during high erosion rates while maintaining isostatic equilibrium, (3) sediments became water enriched during the Noachian Period, and (4) basin materials were uplifted in response to the growth of the Tharsis Bulge, resulting in differential erosion exposing ancient stratigraphic sequences. Parts of the ancient basin remain water-enriched to the present day. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Consistency of Global Modis Aerosol Optical Depths over Ocean on Terra and Aqua Ceres SSF Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatov, Alexander; Minnis, Patrick; Miller, Walter F.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Remer, Lorraine

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol retrievals over ocean from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Terra and Aqua platforms are available from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Single Scanner Footprint (SSF) datasets generated at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Two aerosol products are reported side-by-side. The primary M product is generated by sub-setting and remapping the multi-spectral (0.47-2.1 micrometer) MODIS produced oceanic aerosol (MOD04/MYD04 for Terra/Aqua) onto CERES footprints. M*D04 processing uses cloud screening and aerosol algorithms developed by the MODIS science team. The secondary AVHRR-like A product is generated in only two MODIS bands 1 and 6 (on Aqua, bands 1 and 7). The A processing uses the CERES cloud screening algorithm, and NOAA/NESDIS glint identification, and single-channel aerosol retrieval algorithms. The M and A products have been documented elsewhere and preliminarily compared using 2 weeks of global Terra CERES SSF Edition 1A data in which the M product was based on MOD04 collection 3. In this study, the comparisons between the M and A aerosol optical depths (AOD) in MODIS band 1 (0.64 micrometers), tau(sub 1M) and tau(sub 1A) are re-examined using 9 days of global CERES SSF Terra Edition 2A and Aqua Edition 1B data from 13 - 21 October 2002, and extended to include cross-platform comparisons. The M and A products on the new CERES SSF release are generated using the same aerosol algorithms as before, but with different preprocessing and sampling procedures, lending themselves to a simple sensitivity check to non-aerosol factors. Both tau(sub 1M) and tau(sub 1A) generally compare well across platforms. However, the M product shows some differences, which increase with ambient cloud amount and towards the solar side of the orbit. Three types of comparisons conducted in this study - cross-platform, cross-product, and cross-release confirm the previously made observation that the major area for

  18. Extension across Tempe Terra, Mars, from measurements of fault scarp widths and deformed craters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golombek, M.P.; Tanaka, K.L.; Franklin, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Two independent methods, with no common assumptions, have been used to estimate the extension across the heavily deformed Tempe Terra province of the Tharsis region of Mars. One method uses measurements of normal fault scarp width with average scarp slope data for simple grabens and rifts on Mars to estimate the fault throw, which, combined with sparse fault dip data, can be used to estimate extension. Formal uncertainties in this method are only slightly greater than those in other methods, given that the total uncertainty is dominated by the likely uncertainty in the fault dip (assumed to be 60????15??). Measurement of normal fault scarp widths along two N25??-50??W directed traverses across Tempe Terra both yield about 22??16 km of extension (or ???2% strain across the northern traverse and nearly 3% across the southern one). About three quarters of the extension has occurred during the two main phases of Tharsis-related deformation from Middle/Late Noachian to Early Hesperian and from Late Hesperian to Early Amazonian, with more extension closer to the center of Tharsis during the first phase. Extension across the region was also determined by measuring the elongation and elongation direction of all ancient Noachian impact craters without ejecta blankets, which predate most of the deformation. Results have been corrected for initial non circularity of craters, established from similar measurements of young (post deformation) impact craters, yielding a statistically significant mean strain of 1.96??0.35% in a N38????10??W direction across Tempe Terra (extension of ???20??4, comparable in magnitude and direction to the average result from the scarp measurement method). Both methods indicate an average extension for single normal fault scarps (and shortening across wrinkle ridges for the crater method) of ???100 m. The agreement between the results of the two independent methods in overall extension and average single normal fault extension argues that the average

  19. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Clouds Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Menzel, W. Paul; Ackerman, Steven A.; Hubanks, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched aboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. A comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms for the retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties have enabled over twelve years of continuous observations of cloud properties from Terra and over nine years from Aqua. The archived products from these algorithms include 1 km pixel-level (Level-2) and global gridded Level-3 products. In addition to an extensive cloud mask, products include cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure, effective emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical and microphysical parameters (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path), as well as derived statistics. Results include the latitudinal distribution of cloud optical and radiative properties for both liquid water and ice clouds, as well as latitudinal distributions of cloud top pressure and cloud top temperature. MODIS finds the cloud fraction, as derived by the cloud mask, is nearly identical during the day and night, with only modest diurnal variation. Globally, the cloud fraction derived by the MODIS cloud mask is approx.67%, with somewhat more clouds over land during the afternoon and less clouds over ocean in the afternoon, with very little difference in global cloud cover between Terra and Aqua. Overall, cloud fraction over land is approx.55%, with a distinctive seasonal cycle, whereas the ocean cloudiness is much higher, around 72%, with much reduced seasonal variation. Cloud top pressure and temperature have distinct spatial and temporal patterns, and clearly reflect our understanding of the global cloud distribution. High clouds are especially prevalent over the northern hemisphere continents between 30 and 50 . Aqua and Terra have comparable zonal cloud top pressures, with Aqua having somewhat higher clouds (cloud top pressures lower by 100 hPa) over land due to

  20. Terra and Aqua MODIS Design, Radiometry, and Geometry in Support of Land Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wolfe, Robert; Barnes, William; Guenther, Bruce; Vermote, Eric; Saleous, Nazmi; Salomonson, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) mission includes the construction and launch of two nearly identical Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments. The MODIS proto-flight model (PFM) is onboard the EOS Terra satellite (formerly EOS AM-1) launched on December 18, 1999 and hereafter referred to as Terra MODIS. Flight model-1 (FM1) is onboard the EOS Aqua satellite (formerly EOS PM-1) launched on May 04, 2002 and referred to as Aqua MODIS. MODIS was developed based on the science community s desire to collect multiyear continuous datasets for monitoring changes in the Earth s land, oceans and atmosphere, and the human contributions to these changes. It was designed to measure discrete spectral bands, which includes many used by a number of heritage sensors, and thus extends the heritage datasets to better understand both long- and short-term changes in the global environment (Barnes and Salomonson 1993; Salomonson et al. 2002; Barnes et al. 2002). The MODIS development, launch, and operation were managed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland. The sensors were designed, built, and tested by Raytheon/ Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS), Goleta, California. Each MODIS instrument offers 36 spectral bands, which span the spectral region from the visible (0.41 m) to long-wave infrared (14.4 m). MODIS collects data at three different nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25, 0.5, and 1 km. Key design specifications, such as spectral bandwidths, typical scene radiances, required signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) or noise equivalent temperature differences (NEDT), and primary applications of each MODIS spectral band are summarized in Table 7.1. These parameters were the basis for the MODIS design. More details on the evolution of the NASA EOS and development of the MODIS instruments are provided in Chap. 1. This chapter focuses on the MODIS sensor design, radiometry, and geometry as they apply to land remote sensing. With near

  1. Earth System Science Research Using Datra and Products from Terra, Aqua, and ACRIM Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, Keith D.

    2007-01-01

    The report describes the research conducted at CSR to extend MODIS data and products to the applications required by users in the State of Texas. This research presented in this report was completed during the timeframe of August 2004 - December 31, 2007. However, since annual reports were filed in December 2005 and 2006, results obtained during calendar year 2007 are emphasized in the report. The stated goals of the project were to complete the fundamental research needed to create two types of new, Level 3 products for the air quality community in Texas from data collected by NASA s EOS Terra and Aqua missions.

  2. Ten Years of MISR Observations from Terra: Looking Back, Ahead, and in Between

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Braverman, Amy J.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Chopping, Mark J.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Davies, Roger; Di Girolamo, Larry; Kahn, Ralph A.; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Liu, Yang; Marchand, Roger; Martonchik, John V.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Nolin, Anne W.; Pinty, Bernard; Verstraete, Michel M.; Wu, Dong L.; Garay, Michael J.; Kalashnikova, Olga V.; Davis, Anthony B.; Davis, Edgar S.; Chipman, Russell A.

    2010-01-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument has been collecting global Earth data from NASA's Terra satellite since February 2000. With its nine along-track view angles, four visible/near-infrared spectral bands, intrinsic spatial resolution of 275 m, and stable radiometric and geometric calibration, no instrument that combines MISR's attributes has previously flown in space. The more than 10-year (and counting) MISR data record provides unprecedented opportunities for characterizing long-term trends in aerosol, cloud, and surface properties, and includes 3-D textural information conventionally thought to be accessible only to active sensors.

  3. First results from the GPS atmospheric remote sensing experiment TOR aboard TerraSAR-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyerle, G.; Grunwaldt, L.; Heise, S.; Köhler, W.; Schmidt, T.; Choi, K.-R.; Michalak, G.; König, R.; Rothacher, M.; Wickert, J.

    2009-04-01

    The TerraSAR-X satellite was launched on 15 June 2007 into a sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of about 514 km and about 98 ° orbit inclination. In addition to synthetic aperture radar and laser communication payloads, TerraSAR-X accommodates the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) experiment. TOR's hardware consists of the Integrated Geodetic and Occultation Receiver (IGOR) and a laser retro-reflector for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). IGOR, a dual frequency, geodetic-grade GPS receiver instrument, provides signal-to-noise ratios, pseudorange and carrier phase observations of an occulting and a reference satellite at sampling rates of up to 50 Hz for remote sensing of atmospheric refractivity using the radio occultation (RO) technique. For precise orbit determination pseudorange and carrier phase data from all satellites in view are sampled at 0.1 Hz. Three brief RO tests were conducted with TOR in 2007; a 32-day campaign was performed in January/February 2008 and from 25 July to 17 November 2008 occultation events were recorded continuously for 117 days. We describe first results from an analysis of about 19.000 setting radio occultation events observed during that last campaign. Atmospheric refractivity profiles derived from TOR data are intercompared with ECMWF analyses; ECMWF analysis data are interpolated to the time and location of the RO measurement. At altitudes of about 2-25 km the mean fractional refractivity bias with respect to ECMWF is less than ±0.5%, its standard deviation varies between 0.5% and 1% in the altitude range 5-20 km increasing to about 2% at altitudes below 5 km and above 20 km. Unlike the RO receivers aboard the CHAMP and GRACE satellites the IGOR aboard TerraSAR-X employs an open-loop tracking technique to improve L1 carrier phase tracking at altitudes below 5 to 6 km. Consistent with earlier findings from the COSMIC constellation, open-loop tracking significantly reduces the 50%-altitude, the tangent point altitude which is

  4. Self-organized geodynamics of karst limestone landscapes and coupled terra rossa/bauxite formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, E.; Wang, Y.; Banerjee, A.

    2012-12-01

    Why do flat limestones overlain by terra rossa or bauxite systematically adopt so-called karst geomorphology, which consists of sets of roughly regularly spaced wormholes, or funnels, or sinkholes, or tower karst? The idea that the funnels and sinkholes are located at the intersections of preexisting sets of subvertical fractures is untenable. New field and petrographic evidence (Merino & Banerjee, J. Geology, 2008) revealed that, rather than 'residual' or 'detrital' (the only options that have been on the table for decades), the terra rossa/bauxite clays and Al- and Fe-oxyhydroxides grow authigenically at the base of the terra rossa, replacing the underlying limestone at a generally downward-moving reaction front several centimeters thick. The clay-for-limestone replacement, which preserves solid volume (because it takes place by clay-growth-driven pressure solution of calcite), releases H+ ions. These dissolve more calcite, generating considerable leached porosity in a narrow zone that travels with the replacement front. We proposed (Merino & Banerjee, J. Geology, 2008) that the moving leached-porosity maximum created at the front could trigger the reactive-infiltration instability (Chadam et al, IMA J. Appl. Math., 1986), causing the replacement-and-leaching reaction front to become regularly fingered, with the fingers jumping in scale to funnels, these to sinks, and these, when deep enough and merged together laterally, to tower karst. This new geodynamics would account both for the world-wide association of terra rossa and bauxite with karst limestones, and for the stunning, self-organized geomorphology of karst itself. We are testing these ideas through linear stability analysis of a simplified reaction-transport system of equations and through numerical solution of the full non-linear system of reaction-transport equations applicable, including aqueous speciation. Preliminary calculations (Banerjee & Merino, J. Geology, 2011) suggest that the replacement

  5. Active aeolian processes on Mars: A regional study in Arabia and Meridiani Terrae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silvestro, S.; Vaz, D.A.; Fenton, L.K.; Geissler, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    We present evidence of widespread aeolian activity in the Arabia Terra/Meridiani region (Mars), where different kinds of aeolian modifications have been detected and classified. Passing from the regional to the local scale, we describe one particular dune field in Meridiani Planum, where two ripple populations are distinguished by means of different migration rates. Moreover, a consistent change in the ripple pattern is accompanied by significant dune advancement (between 0.4-1 meter in one Martian year) that is locally triggered by large avalanche features. This suggests that dune advancement may be common throughout the Martian tropics. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Geological-morphological description of the Ishtar Terra (photomap of the Venusian surface sheet B-5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sukhanov, A. L.; Pronin, A. A.; Tyuflin, Y. S.; Ostrovskiy, M. V.; Kotelnikov, V. A.; Rzhiga, O. N.; Petrov, G. I.; Sidorenko, A. I.; Aleksandrov, Y. N.; Zakharov, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    The main part of the Ishtar Terra east of the Maxwell Montes is covered with systems of areal dislocations of several directions, which are called Parquet. According to the structural patterns these may be divided into: (1) the central stable block; (2) the lesser peripheral blocks separated from the central one by gaps and grabens; (3) the zones of mobilized parquet, whose substance flowed downward at an incline in the directions away from the central block in the form of plastic flows; and (4) the partially parqueted lava sheets. The Maxwell Montes were formed as a result of the collision between the central parquet block and the Lakshmi Planum.

  7. Early season monitoring of corn and soybeans with TerraSAR-X and RADARSAT-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNairn, H.; Kross, A.; Lapen, D.; Caves, R.; Shang, J.

    2014-05-01

    Early and on-going crop production forecasts are important to facilitate food price stability for regions at risk, and for agriculture exporters, to set market value. Most regional and global efforts in forecasting rely on multiple sources of information from the field. With increased access to data from spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), these sensors could contribute information on crop acreage. But these acreage estimates must be available early in the season to assist with production forecasts. This study acquired TerraSAR-X and RADARSAT-2 data over a region in eastern Canada dominated by economically important corn and soybean production. Using a supervised decision tree classifier, results determined that either sensor was capable of delivering highly accurate maps of corn and soybeans at the end of the growing season. Accuracies far exceeded 90%. Spatial and multi-temporal filtering approaches were compared and small improvements in accuracies were found by applying the multi-temporal filter to the RADARSAT-2 data. Of significant interest, this study determined that by using only three TerraSAR-X images corn could be accurately identified by the end of June, a mere six weeks after planting and at a vegetative growth stage (V6 - sixth leaf collar developed). However, soybeans required additional acquisitions given the variance in planting densities and planting dates in this region of Canada. In this case, accurate soybean classification required TerraSAR-X images until early August at the start of the reproductive stage (R5 - seed development is beginning). Also important, by applying a multi-temporal filter accurate mapping (close to 90%) of corn and soybeans from RADARSAT-2 could occur five weeks earlier (by August 19) than if a spatial filter was used. Thus application of this filtering approach could accelerate delivery of a crop inventory for this region of Canada. Corn and soybeans are important commodities both globally and within Canada. This

  8. Micro scanning X-ray diffraction study of Gallo-Roman Terra Sigillata ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciau, P.; Goudeau, P.; Tamura, N.; Dooryhee, E.

    2006-05-01

    The red glaze (slip) that characterizes the Terra Sigillata potteries, greatly contributed to their success during the Roman period. This feature can in fact be partially explained by the microstructure (crystalline phases and grain sizes) and the physico-chemistry (compositions) of the ceramics. In this paper, we describe how the technique of synchrotron micro scanning X-raydiffraction could contribute to the understanding of the elaboration process and origins of these ceramics. The small (micron) size of the X-raybeam coupled with the use of a sample scanning stage allows one to spatially resolve the distribution and other characteristics of the constitutive mineral phases.

  9. Direct Geolocation of TerraSAR-X Spotlight Mode Image and Error Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiao; Zeng, Qiming; Jiao, Jian; Zhang, Jingfa; Gong, Lixia

    2013-01-01

    The research dealt with direct geolocation of spaceborne high-resolution SAR image. The TerraSAR-X spotlight mode image was chosen as the study object. The mathematical model of SAR geolocation is Range-Doppler (RD) model. Its resolving algorithms had been studied and the ASF algorithm was chosen because of its high accuracy. The focus of this research laid on the error sources and their correction method which could affect the geolocation accuracy, such as the orbit errors, azimuth timing errors and range timing errors. At last, the accuracy of this method was verified by the experiment results.

  10. Sea surface wind field by TerraSAR-X and Tandem-X data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoming; Lehner, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    A new Geophysical Model Function (GMF), denoted XMOD2, is developed to retrieve the sea surface wind field from X-band TerraSAR-X/Tandem-X (TS-X/TD-X) data. In contrary to the previous XMOD1, XMOD2 is based on a nonlinear GMF, and moreover it also depicts the difference between upwind and downwind of the sea surface backscatter. By exploiting 371 collocations, the retrieved TS-X/TD-X sea surface wind speed U10 by XMOD2 agrees well with in situ buoy measurements with a bias of 0.39 m/s, an RMSE of 1.52 m/s and a scatter index (SI) of 16.1%. To apply XMOD2 to TS-X/TD-X data acquired at HH polarization, we verify the X-band SAR Polarization Ratio (PR) models by comparing the retrieved sea surface wind speed to in situ buoy measurements as well. Based on 62 collocated pairs, it is found that by using the Elfouhaily type PR model and XMOD2 yields better U10 retrieval with a bias of -0.27 m/s, an RMSE of 2.06 m/s and a SI of 22.7% than using the X-PR model which yields a bias of -0.98 m, and RMSE of 2.30 m and a SI of 23.4%. Several TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X ScanSAR images are acquired in October, 2012 to track the Hurricane Sandy. Three of the images are acquired in the open sea, which are presented in this chapter to demonstrate observations of sea surface wind and wave extracted from X-band ScanSAR image with high spatial resolution of 17 m in the hurricane. In the case of the TerraSAR-X image acquired on October 26, 2012, we analyze the peak wave direction and length of swell generated by Hurricane Sandy, as well as interaction of swell with the Abaco Island, Bahamas. In the other two cases, sea surface wind field derived from the TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X acquired on October 27 and 28 are presented. The sea surface wind speed retrieved by the X-band Geophysical Model Function (GMF) XMOD2 using wind direction derived from SAR images and the NOAA Hurricane Research Division (HRD) wind analyses are both presented for comparisons. We also compare the retrieved sea surface

  11. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    en que vive es el planeta Tierra y que, probablemente por ese motivo, distingue con precisión, dentro de los limites de comprensión de la edad y madurez asociada, la tierra y la Tierra. O presente artigo analisa uma entrevista livre enquanto uma menina de quatro anos e quatro meses, matriculada na educação infantil, desenhava a Terra. A entrevista se realizou fora do ambiente escolar e sem qualquer outra pessoa por perto que pudesse interferir. De acordo com Ferreira & Silva (2004), para que o pesquisador conheça realmente o que uma criança põe no papel através de grafismos e/ou desenhos, é necessário ouvi-la durante o processo de criação do desenho. A menina apresenta, em relação à Terra, o tradicional desenho plano com o 'céu' paralelo ao solo, conforme já apresentaram Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Mas quando solicitada a desenhar o Mundo - palavra empregada em um trabalho por Butterworth et al. (2002), com intenção de não provocar 'confusões' desnecessárias para seus pesquisados - o representa de forma circular, colocando-se sobre sua superfície. Seus desenhos levaram à conclusão que esta criança ainda não tem conhecimento de que o Mundo em que vive é o Planeta Terra e que, provavelmente por este motivo, diferencia com precisão, dentro dos limites impostos por sua idade e consequente maturidade, a terra e a Terra.

  12. TERRA Education and Public Outreach: Bringing Earth Science Resources to the Public, Students, Educators, and Citizen Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, N.; Thome, K. J.; Bounoua, L.; Owen, T.

    2014-12-01

    Leaping advances in the capability to accurately measure global atmospheric and surficial conditions from space have created an abundance of educationally relevant images, discoveries, and products. In attempt to fully utilize these abundant resources, TERRA has allocated a portion of its mission toward education and public outreach. From highly interactive websites allowing users to view the latest satellite images and discoveries, to partnerships with museums encouraging enhanced primary and secondary scholastic experiences, TERRA has successfully applied a multifaceted range of tools to aid in the furthering of education for students, educators, scientists, and the general public. This presentation aims to increase publicity regarding these many methods of outreach, and to highlight particular outreach success stories. With the increasing emphasis on STEM education in current school systems, the invaluable resources and opportunities that TERRA provides for young scientists have become a necessity and will continue to help inspire the next generation of Earth Scientists.

  13. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  14. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-01-01] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  15. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  16. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  17. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  18. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-01-01] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  19. Terra Maneuvers

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-12

    ... Loss of Pointing Accuracy 58983 022 0.00 00:00:08.2 ... 63452 228 2011/326/16:33:41 Regain Pointing Accuracy 63453 011 ... 2008/263/23:12:59 MODIS Roll Maneuver #83 46573 211 2008/263/12:17:00 ...

  20. Estimation of suspended sediment concentrations using Terra MODIS: an example from the Lower Yangtze River, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, J-J; Lu, X X

    2010-02-01

    Traditional measurements of suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) through in-situ sampling in rivers are expensive and time-consuming to perform. Thus, these methods cannot provide continuous SSC records. Although remote sensing has been used for SSC estimation, little research has been undertaken on inland rivers, especially for highly turbid rivers like the Yangtze. Previous studies have proposed Landsat TM/ETM+ Band 4 as a spectral SSC indicator for the Yangtze, but its limitation on temporal resolution is insufficient for the study of dynamic changes of sediment. This paper presents a method of estimating SSC of the Yangtze at Jiujiang using time-series satellite data of high temporal resolution Terra MODIS. It was found that differences in water reflectance between Band 2 and Band 5 could provide relatively accurate SSC estimation even when in-situ atmospheric conditions were unknown. After cross-validation, mean absolute relative error (ARE) and relative root mean square error (RRMSE) were relatively low (i.e., 25.5% and 36.5%, respectively). This empirical relationship was successfully applied to the estimation of SSC at Datong in the Lower Yangtze River, although the SSC values were generally underestimated. This study suggests that Terra MODIS could be used to estimate SSC in large turbid rivers, although some influencing factors require further study to improve the accuracy of SSC estimation. PMID:20022078

  1. Terra Flexible Blanket Solar Array Deployment, On-Orbit Performance and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard; Schurig, Hans; Rosenfeld, Mark; Herriage, Michael; Gaddy, Edward; Keys, Denney; Faust, Carl; Andiario, William; Kurtz, Michelle; Moyer, Eric; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Terra spacecraft (formerly identified as EOS AM1) is the flagship in a planned series of NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) Earth observing system satellites designed to provide information on the health of the Earth's land, oceans, air, ice, and life as a total ecological global system. It has been successfully performing its mission since a late-December 1999 launch into a 705 km polar orbit. The spacecraft is powered by a single wing, flexible blanket array using single junction (SJ) gallium arsenide/germanium (GaAs/Ge) solar cells sized to provide five year end-of-life (EOL) power of greater than 5000 watts at 127 volts. It is currently the highest voltage and power operational flexible blanket array with GaAs/Ge cells. This paper briefly describes the wing design as a basis for discussing the operation of the electronics and mechanisms used to achieve successful on-orbit deployment. Its orbital electrical performance to date will be presented and compared to analytical predictions based on ground qualification testing. The paper concludes with a brief section on future applications and performance trends using advanced multi-junction cells and weight-efficient mechanical components. A viewgraph presentation is attached that outlines the same information as the paper and includes more images of the Terra Spacecraft and its components.

  2. Western Aphrodite Terra, tectonics, geology, and line-of-sight gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, John E.; Morgan, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Aphrodite Terra is the largest area of high-standing topography on Venus, and isostatic considerations strongly suggest that this high topography is supported at least in part by thickened crust. Previous studies of line-of-sight gravity data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter indicate rapidly changing apparent depths of compensation across Aphrodite Terra. Magellan imaging data provide the first detailed images of this region, and we are mapping the region along Pioneer Venus orbit 440 to investigate whether the changing apparent depths of compensation correlate with changes in surficial tectonics. Preliminary mapping of geological features on Magellan images along the path of Pioneer Venus orbit 440 do not indicate a first-order correlation among surface features and changes in the apparent depth of compensation of line-of-sight gravity data. The apparent depth of compensation appears to be most variable in regions dominated by tessera, but not all areas of tessera have distinct gravity signatures. There is a weak correlation among areas in which impact craters are relatively common and areas in which the observed and predicted gravity anomalies are poorly correlated.

  3. Terra and Aqua MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands On-Orbit Calibration and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wu, Aisheng; Wenny, Brian N.; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wang, Zhipeng; Li, Yonghong; Chen, Na; Barnes, William L.; Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2015-01-01

    Since launch, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have operated successfully for more than 14 and 12 years, respectively. A key instrument for National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Observing System missions, MODIS was designed to make continuous observations for studies of Earth's land, ocean, and atmospheric properties and to extend existing data records from heritage Earth observing sensors. The 16 thermal emissive bands (TEBs) (3.75-14.24 micrometers) are calibrated on orbit using a temperature controlled blackbody (BB). Both Terra and Aqua MODIS BBs have displayed minimal drift over the mission lifetime, and the seasonal variations of the BB temperature are extremely small in Aqua MODIS. The long-term gain and noise equivalent difference in temperature performance of the 160 TEB detectors on both MODIS instruments have been well behaved and generally very stable. Small but noticeable variations of Aqua MODIS bands 33-36 (13.34-14.24 micrometer) response in recent years are primarily due to loss of temperature control margin of its passive cryoradiative cooler. As a result, fixed calibration coefficients, previously used by bands when the BB temperature is above their saturation temperatures, are replaced by the focal-plane-temperature-dependent calibration coefficients. This paper presents an overview of the MODIS TEB calibration, the on-orbit performance, and the challenging issues likely to impact the instruments as they continue operating well past their designed lifetime of six years.

  4. Trends in Ocean Irradiance using a Radiative Model Forced with Terra Aerosols and Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson; Casey, Nancy; Romanou, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol and cloud information from MODIS on Terra provide enhanced capability to understand surface irradiance over the oceans and its variability. These relationships can be important for ocean biology and carbon cycles. An established radiative transfer model, the Ocean-Atmosphere Spectral Irradiance Model (OASIM) is used to describe ocean irradiance variability on seasonal to decadal time scales. The model is forced with information on aerosols and clouds from the MODIS sensor on Terra and Aqua. A 7-year record (2000-2006) showed no trends in global ocean surface irradiance or photosynthetic available irradiance (PAR). There were significant (P<0.05) negative trends in the Mediterranean Sea, tropical Pacific) and tropical Indian Oceans, of -7.0, -5.0 and -2.7 W/sq m respectively. Global interannual variability was also modest. Regional interannual variability was quite large in some ocean basins, where monthly excursions from climatology were often >20 W/sq m. The trends using MODIS data contrast with results from OASIM using liquid water path estimates from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Here, a global trend of -2 W/sq m was observed, largely dues to a large negative trend in the Antarctic -12 W/sq m. These results suggest the importance of the choice of liquid water path data sets in assessments of medium-length trends in ocean surface irradiance. The choices also impact the evaluation of changes in ocean biogeochemistry.

  5. Early Instrument Performance Results from the Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Guenther, B. W.; Barnes, W. L.; Murphy, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a major observational capability flying on the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 "Terra" mission. This mission is to go into orbit in late 1999 or very early 2000. The MODIS was developed to provide improved observations of land, ocean, and atmosphere features relative to "heritage instruments" such as the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the Nimbus Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS)and the SeaStar/SeaWiFS instruments, in particular. In addition the MODIS should provide complementary observations to the Landsat-7 Thematic Mapper and the NOAA HIRS instrument. There has been considerable effort to include capabilities or plans to characterize and assure calibration of the instrument data. These efforts include on on-board blackbody (BB), a solar diffuser (SID), a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), and a spectral radiometric calibration assembly (SDSM). These devices, along with careful analyses of scenes acquired during orbit, are expected to allow comparisons with pre-launch expectations regarding spatial performance, spectral performance, and radiometric performance. In addition deep space observations and observations of the moon are to be used to characterize instrument performance. The purpose of this paper is to provide quantitative comparisons, as results become available from the Terra MODIS, to heritage instruments, pre-launch expectations and specifications.

  6. The 'Terra Preta' phenomenon: a model for sustainable agriculture in the humid tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Bruno; Haumaier, Ludwig; Guggenberger, Georg; Zech, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    Many soils of the lowland humid tropics are thought to be too infertile to support sustainable agriculture. However, there is strong evidence that permanent or semi-permanent agriculture can itself create sustainably fertile soils known as 'Terra Preta' soils. These soils not only contain higher concentrations of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium, but also greater amounts of stable soil organic matter. Frequent findings of charcoal and highly aromatic humic substances suggest that residues of incomplete combustion of organic material (black carbon) are a key factor in the persistence of soil organic matter in these soils. Our investigations showed that 'Terra Preta' soils contained up to 70 times more black carbon than the surrounding soils. Due to its polycyclic aromatic structure, black carbon is chemically and microbially stable and persists in the environment over centuries. Oxidation during this time produces carboxylic groups on the edges of the aromatic backbone, which increases its nutrient-holding capacity. We conclude that black carbon can act as a significant carbon sink and is a key factor for sustainable and fertile soils, especially in the humid tropics.

  7. Selection of putative Terra Maranhão plantain cultivar mutants obtained by gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Reis, R V; Amorim, E P; Ledo, C A S; Pestana, R K N; Gonçalves, Z S; Borém, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select putative Terra Maranhão plantain cultivar mutants obtained by gamma radiation, with good agronomic traits and short height. A total of 315 buds were irradiated in vitro with gamma rays in doses of 20 Gy and were subcultivated and evaluated in the field over 2 production cycles. The clones were evaluated to select the best 10% of the plants. Cultivation was undertaken at a spacing of 3 x 4 m, and fertilization was carried out according to the technical recommendations for the crop. A total of 111 irradiated plants and 41 controls were evaluated in the field. Among the irradiated plants selected, genotypes that exhibited reduced height were observed. The genotypes Irra 04, Irra 13, Irra 19, and Irra 21 exhibited a height of 3.6 m, which was below the mean value of the controls selected. Other irradiated genotypes selected such as Irra 14 and Irra 16, with a height of 3.65 m, are promising because, in addition to reduced height, they exhibited good bunch weight and shorter period to flowering in relation to the mean value of the controls, which is a significant factor for the next stages in breeding. These results confirm the possibility of inducing mutations in Terra type banana plants to obtain desirable agronomic traits and short height. PMID:25966243

  8. First results from the GPS atmosphere sounding experiment TOR aboard the TerraSAR-X satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyerle, G.; Grunwaldt, L.; Heise, S.; Köhler, W.; König, R.; Michalak, G.; Rothacher, M.; Schmidt, T.; Wickert, J.; Tapley, B. D.; Giesinger, B.

    2010-11-01

    GPS radio occultation events observed between 24 July and 17 November 2008 by the IGOR occultation receiver aboard the TerraSAR-X satellite are processed and analyzed. The comparison of 16 262 refractivity profiles with collocated ECMWF data yield a mean bias of -0.60% to +0.02% at altitudes between 5 and 30 km. Standard deviations decrease from about 0.8% to 1.8% at 5 km to about 0.5% to 0.8% at about 10 km altitude. At low latitudes mean biases and standard deviations are larger, in particular in the lower troposphere. The results are consistent with 15 159 refractivity observations collected during the same time period by the BlackJack receiver aboard GRACE-A and processed by GFZ's operational processing system. The main difference between the two occultation instruments is the implementation of open-loop signal tracking in the IGOR (TerraSAR-X) receiver which improves the tropospheric penetration depth in terms of ray height by about 2 km compared to the conventional closed-loop data acquired by BlackJack (GRACE-A).

  9. First results from the GPS atmosphere sounding experiment TOR aboard the TerraSAR-X satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyerle, G.; Grunwaldt, L.; Heise, S.; Köhler, W.; König, R.; Michalak, G.; Rothacher, M.; Schmidt, T.; Wickert, J.; Tapley, B. D.; Giesinger, B.

    2011-07-01

    GPS radio occultation events observed between 24 July and 17 November 2008 by the IGOR occultation receiver aboard the TerraSAR-X satellite are processed and analyzed. The comparison of 15 327 refractivity profiles with collocated ECMWF data yield a mean bias between zero and -0.30 % at altitudes between 5 and 30 km. Standard deviations decrease from about 1.4 % at 5 km to about 0.6 % at 10 km altitude, however, increase significantly in the upper stratosphere. At low latitudes mean biases and standard deviations are larger, in particular in the lower troposphere. The results are consistent with 15 159 refractivity observations collected during the same time period by the BlackJack receiver aboard GRACE-A and processed by GFZ's operational processing system. The main difference between the two occultation instruments is the implementation of open-loop signal tracking in the IGOR (TerraSAR-X) receiver which improves the tropospheric penetration depth in terms of ray height by about 2 km compared to the conventional closed-loop data acquired by BlackJack (GRACE-A).

  10. Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale are being used to assess geologic materials and processes that shape the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae as identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit. Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary may provide constraints on: 1) origin of the dichotomy boundary, 2) paleo-environments and climate conditions, and 3) various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes in these regions. The results of this work will include two 1:1M scale geologic maps of twelve MTM quadrangles (Mawrth Vallis - 20022, 20017, 20012, 25022, 25017, and 25012; and Nili Fossae - 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, 30282).

  11. Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars: Introductory Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale will be used to characterize geologic processes that have shaped the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae as identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit. Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary will provide the ability to: 1) further test original dichotomy formation hypotheses, 2) constrain ancient paleoenvironments and climate conditions, and 3) evaluate various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes in these regions. The result will be two 1:1M scale geologic maps of twelve MTM quadrangles (Mawrth Vallis - 20022, 20017, 20012, 25022, 25017, and 25012; and Nili Fossae - 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, 30282).

  12. Cross-Calibration of Earth Observing System Terra Satellite Sensors MODIS and ASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCorkel, J.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissive and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) are two of the five sensors onboard the Earth Observing System's Terra satellite. These sensors share many similar spectral channels while having much different spatial and operational parameters. ASTER is a tasked sensor and sometimes referred to a zoom camera of the MODIS that collects a full-earth image every one to two days. It is important that these sensors have a consistent characterization and calibration for continued development and use of their data products. This work uses a variety of test sites to retrieve and validate intercalibration results. The refined calibration of Collection 6 of the Terra MODIS data set is leveraged to provide the up-to-date reference for trending and validation of ASTER. Special attention is given to spatially matching radiance measurements using prelaunch spatial response characterization of MODIS. Despite differences in spectral band properties and spatial scales, ASTER-MODIS is an ideal case for intercomparison since the sensors have nearly identical views and acquisitions times and therefore can be used as a baseline of intercalibration performance of other satellite sensor pairs.

  13. First In-Orbit Experience of TerraSAR-X Flight Dynamics Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, R.; Kazeminejad, B.; Kirschner, M.; Yoon, Y.; Kiehling, R.; D'Amico, S.

    2007-01-01

    TerraSAR-X is an advanced synthetic aperture radar satellite system for scientific and commercial applications that is realized in a public-private partnership between the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the Astrium GmbH. TerraSAR-X was launched at June 15, 2007 on top of a Russian DNEPR-1 rocket into a 514 km sun-synchronous dusk-dawn orbit with an 11-day repeat cycle and will be operated for a period of at least 5 years during which it will provide high resolution SAR-data in the X-band. Due to the objectives of the interferometric campaigns the satellite has to comply to tight orbit control requirements, which are formulated in the form of a 250 m toroidal tube around a pre-flight determined reference trajectory (see [1] for details). The acquisition of the reference orbit was one of the main and key activities during the Launch and Early Orbit Phase (LEOP) and had to compensate for both injection errors and spacecraft safe mode attitude control thruster activities. The paper summarizes the activities of GSOC flight dynamics team during both LEOP and early Commissioning Phase, where the main tasks have been 1) the first-acquisition support via angle-tracking and GPS-based orbit determination, 2) maneuver planning for target orbit acquisition and maintenance, and 3) precise orbit and attitude determination for SAR processing support. Furthermore, a presentation on the achieved results and encountered problems will be addressed.

  14. Draft genome sequence of the soil bacterium Burkholderia terrae strain BS001, which interacts with fungal surface structures.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Rashid; Hansen, Martin A; Sørensen, Søren; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-08-01

    Burkholderia terrae BS001 is a soil bacterium which was originally isolated from the mycosphere of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria proxima. It exhibits a range of fungus-interacting traits which reveal its propensity to actively interact at fungal interfaces. Here, we present the approximately 11.5-Mb (G+C content, 61.52%) draft genome sequence of B. terrae BS001 with the aim of providing insight into the genomic basis of its ecological success in fungus-affected soil settings. PMID:22843604

  15. Related magma-ice interactions: Possible origins of chasmata, chaos, and surface materials in Xanthe, Margaritifer, Meridiani Terrae, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.G.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2002-01-01

    We examine here the close spatial and temporal associations among several unique features of Xanthe and Margaritifer Terrae, specifically the Valles Marineris troughs or chasmata and their interior deposits, chaotic terrain, the circum-Chryse outflow channels, and the subdued cratered material that covers Xanthe, Margaritifer, and Meridiani Terrae. Though previous hypotheses have attempted to explain the origin of individual features or subsets of these, we suggest that they may all be related. All of these features taken together present a consistent scenario that includes the processes of sub-ice volcanism and other magma/ice interactions, results of intrusive events during Late Noachian to Early Amazonian times. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  16. Non-invasive methods to establish the diagnosis of terra firma-forme dermatosis: The SMART (Skin Modified by Alcohol Rubbing Test) evaluation and dermoscopy.

    PubMed

    Greywal, Tanya; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis may mimic a variety of hyper pigmented dermatoses.  The diagnosis can be characterized using dermoscopy and confirmed with the SMART (Skin Modified by Alcohol Rubbing Test) evaluation.  When terra firma-forme dermatosis (Duncan's dirty dermatosis) is clinically suspected, clearance of the dermatosis follows rubbing the affected skin with 70% isopropyl alcohol. PMID:27617614

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Paenibacillus polymyxa NRRL B-30509 and Paenibacillus terrae NRRL B-30644, Strains from a Poultry Environment That Produce Tridecaptin A and Paenicidins

    PubMed Central

    Lohans, Christopher T.; Vederas, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Paenibacillus polymyxa NRRL B-30509 and Paenibacillus terrae NRRL B-30644 produce tridecaptin A that is inhibitory to Campylobacter jejuni, as well as lantibiotics in the paenicidin family. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of P. polymyxa NRRL B-30509 and P. terrae NRRL B-30644 that contain gene clusters for various nonribosomal lipopeptides. PMID:25908148

  18. Fluvial Interpretation of Ridged Units, Northern Sinus Meridiani/Southwest Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, J.; Allen, C. C.; Oehler, D. Z.

    2007-12-01

    THEMIS, MOC, and HiRISE imagery shows features at various scales that suggest fluvial emplacement of the ridge-forming rock units exposed in northern Sinus Meridiani and southwestern Arabia Terra. The study area -- 10 N to 2 S latitude and 10 W to 8 E longitude -- spans the interface from the southern highlands to the northern plains. Numerous, linear ridges of varying width, orientation and sinuosity (mainly lower sinuosity) are suggestive of fluvial channels. Sets of features can be interpreted as braided channel reaches. Cross-cutting relationships, a common feature of channels on terrestrial fluvial plains, are ubiquitous. Many sinuous features appear as twinned parallel lines, suggesting preferential cementing of coarser channel-bank sediments. A few examples exist of features that can be interpreted as scroll bars and channel augmentation in locally narrow reaches. Layering and internal discontinuities of the Meridiani rocks are consistent with a fluvial interpretation. The regional setting of study-area units accords closely with many terrestrial basins which are occupied by fluvially emplaced sediment bodies known as megafans. Contiguous megafan surfaces (characterized by numerous channel traces, of varied orientation) cover large areas -- 1.25 million sq. km. in S. America -- with radii of hundreds of km. Megafans characteristically lie at the foot of a backing highland, from which rivers supply sediment. The ridged units on Mars lie at the foot of the southern highlands from which numerous river valleys have drained towards Meridiani Planum/southwest Arabia Terra. Further, the present regional slope is apparently away from the highlands, with downslope dimensions of hundreds of km. The low slopes of the northern Meridiani units mirror the typically low regional slopes of terrestrial megafans. Low slopes are conducive to the development of water bodies, which are numerous on some terrestrial megafans. The lacustrine model for the formation of the hematite

  19. Transferências orbitais dentro do modelo quase bicircular no sistema Terra-Lua-Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, A. A.; de Almeida Prado, A. F. B.; Stuchi, T. J.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    O problema quase bicircular planar consiste na determinação da dinâmica de um corpo, de massa desprezível, que se move sob o campo gravitacional de três corpos. No caso estudado, o quarto corpo é considerado um satélite artificial e os demais são a Terra, a Lua e o Sol, formando o sistema de três corpos. Este modelo permite a construção de uma hamiltoniana similar a do problema restrito de três corpos (PRTC), incluindo termos periódicos não autônomos, provenientes da presença do Sol, portanto pode ser entendido como uma perturbação ao PRTC. Suas órbitas periódicas aparecem isoladas e possuem o mesmo período solar. Os pontos de equilíbrio colineares possuem o mesmo caráter de estabilidade linear dos pontos lagrangianos (L1, L2 e L3) do PRTC, sendo do tipo sela x centro x centro, instável na direção x e estáveis nas direções y e z. As órbitas periódicas tridimensionais ao redor do ponto colinear é chamada órbita Halo. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar órbitas de transferências de baixo consumo de combustível para um veículo espacial partindo de uma órbita de estacionamento ao redor da Terra em direção a uma órbita Halo do ponto L1, situado entre a Terra e Lua. Esta tarefa pode ser transformada no problema de valor de contorno: dado um ponto inicial na órbita de estacionamento, um ponto final na órbita halo e o tempo de transferência, deseja-se obter a trajetória que liga estes dois pontos e que minimize os incrementos de velocidade do veículo. Essas transferências são realizadas baseadas no método de Lambert e analisadas de modo a fornecer um baixo consumo. Posteriormente, é feita uma comparação de consumo com as órbitas de transferência equivalentes do PRTC.

  20. Classification and monitoring of reed belts using dual-polarimetric TerraSAR-X time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, Iris; Jagdhuber, Thomas; Itzerott, Sibylle

    2016-04-01

    The shorelines of lakes in northeastern Germany are often covered by reed. These reed belts fulfill an important function as erosion protection, biotope for animals, carbon storage, and as cleaning filter for lake water. However, despite their importance for the limnic ecosystem, reed vegetation in northeastern Germany is not regularly monitored. In this research study we investigate the potential of synthetic aperture radar polarimetry (PolSAR) for seasonal monitoring of reed vegetation. SAR imagery enables sunlight- and (almost) weather-independent monitoring. Polarimetric decomposition techniques allow the physical characterization of the scattering scenario and the involved scatterers. Our study is based on 19 dual-polarimetric (HH/VV) TerraSAR-X images acquired between August 2014 and May 2015. We calculated different polarimetric indices comprising the HH and VV intensities, the dual-polarimetric coherency matrix with dominant and mean alpha scattering angles, entropy and anisotropy (normalized eigen-value difference) as well as combinations of entropy and anisotropy for the analysis of the scattering scenarios. The reed areas in the TerraSAR-X images were classified using a random forest algorithm and validated with high-resolution digital orthophotos. The time series analysis of the reed belts revealed significant seasonal changes in the double bounce sensitive parameters (intensity ratio HH/VV and intensity difference HH-VV, the co-polarimetric coherence phase and the dominant and mean alpha scattering angles). Additionally, the dual-polarimetric coherence (amplitude), anisotropy, entropy, and anisotropy-entropy-combinations showed seasonal changes of reed. In summer, the reed areas are characterized within the X-band SAR data by volume scattering, whereas in winter double-bounce scattering dominates. The volume scattering in summer is caused predominantly by reed leaves. In autumn, the leaves start to wither and fall off, so that in winter predominately

  1. Linking TERRA and DRex to relate mantle convection and seismic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Andrew; Davies, Huw; Davies, Rhodri; Wookey, James

    2015-04-01

    Seismic anisotropy caused by flow induced alignment of the olivine crystals in Earth's upper mantle provides a powerful way to test our ideas of mantle convection. We have been working to directly combine computer simulations of mantle dynamics, using fluid mechanics at the continuum scale, with models of rock deformation to capture fabric evolution at the grain scale. By combining models of deformation at these two scales we hope to be able to rigorously test hypothesis linking mantle flow to seismic anisotropy in regions as diverse as subduction zones, the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and the transition zone. We also intend to permit feedback, for example via geometrical softening, from the model of fabric development into the material properties used in the convection simulation. We are building a flexible framework for this approach which we call Theia. Our initial implementation uses the TERRA convection code (Baumgardner, J. Stat. Phys. 39:501-511, 1985; Davies et al. Geosci. Model Dev. 6:1095-1107, 2013) to drive DRex (Kaminski et al. Geophys. J. Int. 158:744-752, 2004), which is used to predict the evolution of crystallographic preferred orientation in the upper mantle. Here we describe our current implementation which makes use of the ability of TERRA to track markers, or particles, through the evolving flow field. These tracers have previously been used to track attributes such as the bulk chemical composition or trace element ratios. Our modification is to use this technology to track a description of the current state of the texture and microstructure (encompassing an orientation distribution function, grain size parameters and dislocation density) such that we can advance models of polycrystalline deformation for many simultaneous DRex instances alongside and in sync with models of mantle convection. We will also describe initial results from our first use of the Theia framework where we are investigating the effect of asthenospheric viscosity

  2. Recent Results From The Nasa Earth Science Terra Mission and Future Possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Earth Sciences Enterprise has made some remarkable strides in recent times in using developing, implementing, and utilizing spaceborne observations to better understand how the Earth works as a coupled, interactive system of the land, ocean, and atmosphere. Notable examples include the Upper Atmosphere Research (UARS) Satellite, the Topology Ocean Experiment (TOPEX) mission, Landsat-7, SeaWiFS, the Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM), Quickscatt, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and, quite recently, the Terra'/Earth Observing System-1 mission. The Terra mission, for example, represents a major step forward in providing sensors that offer considerable advantages and progress over heritage instruments. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissions and Reflections (ASTER) radiometer, and the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) radiometer are the instruments involved. Early indications in March indicate that each of these instruments are working well and will be augmenting data bases from heritage instruments as well as producing new, unprecedented observations of land, ocean, and atmosphere features. Several missions will follow the Terra mission as the Earth Observing mission systems complete development and go into operation. These missions include EOS PM-1/'Aqua', Icesat, Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL), Jason/TOPEX Follow-on, the Chemistry mission, etc. As the Earth Observing systems completes its first phase in about 2004 a wealth of data enabling better understanding of the Earth and the management of its resources will have been provided. Considerable thought is beginning to be placed on what advances in technology can be implemented that will enable further advances in the early part of the 21st century; e.g., in the time from of 2020. Concepts such as

  3. Case study of climatic changes in Martian fluvial systems at Xanthe Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, Akos

    2014-06-01

    An unnamed valley system was analyzed in Xanthe Terra south of Havel Vallis on Mars where three separate episodes of fluvial activity could be identified with different morphology, water source and erosional processes, inferring formation under different climatic conditions. The oldest scattered valleys (1. group) form interconnecting network and suggest areally distributed water source. Later two valley types formed from confined water source partly supported by possible subsurface water. The smaller upper reaches (2. group) with three separate segments and also a similar aged but areal washed terrain suggest contribution from shallow subsurface inflow. These valleys fed the main channel (3. group), which morphology (wide, theater shaped source, few tributaries, steep walls) is the most compatible with the subsurface sapping origin. While the first valley group formed in the Noachian, the other two, more confined groups are younger. Their crater density based age value is uncertain, and could be only 1200 million years. After these three fluvial episodes etch pitted, heavily eroded terrain formed possibly by ice sublimation driven collapse. More recently (60-200 million years ago) dunes covered the bottom of the valleys, and finally the youngest event took place when mass movements produced debris covered the valleys' slopes with sediments along their wall around 5-15 million years ago, suggesting wind activity finished earlier than the mass movements in the region. This small area represents the sequence of events probably appeared on global scale: the general cooling and drying environment of Mars. Comparing the longitudinal profiles here to other valleys in Xanthe Terra, convex shaped valley profiles are usually connected to steep terrains. The location of erosional base might play an important role in their formation that can be produced convex shapes where the erosional base descended topographically (by deep impact crater or deep outflow channel formation

  4. Arsenic Encapsulation Using Portland Cement With Ferrous Sulfate/Lime And Terra-BondTM Technologies - Microcharacterization And Leaching Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work reports the results of an investigation on the treatment and encapsulation of arsenic-containing materials by Portland cement with ferrous sulfate and lime (PFL) and Terra-BondTM, a commercially available patented technology. The arsenic materials treated we...

  5. Morphology, mineralogy and magnetic susceptibility of epikarst-Terra Rossa developed in late Quaternary aeolianite deposits of southeastern Saurashtra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadkikar, Aniruddha S.; Basavaiah, Nathani

    2004-03-01

    The nature and development of epikarst and soil development in aeolianites under a monsoonal climatic regime has not yet been described. Late Quaternary aeolianites of the southeastern coast of Saurashtra in western India show a wide array of epikarst and red-soil formation, and serve to typify the character of aeolianite weathering under a monsoonal climate. Three varieties of epikarst are identified that represent down-profile increase in groundwater flow. Five types of Terra Rossae represent a transition from the karstified limestone to soil development. Terra Rossae differ in the content of residual aeolianite and show both simple and complex profiles. The latter at places shows ped development. The results show that an ontogenetic (growth) sequence exists from incipient epikarst to complex palaeosols. This ontogenetic sequence represents an incremental increase in the groundwater budget of the region in response to changing intensification of the Indian monsoon rainfall. Magnetic properties of the Terra Rossae formed under a monsoonal climate are described for the first time. The magnetic susceptibility together with its frequency-dependent and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) represents both the concentration of single domain and ultrafine superparamagnetic (SP) magnetite. The formation of single domain and superparamagnetic magnetite and hematite are linked genetically to weathering of the aeolianite that leads to the formation of Terra Rossa.

  6. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Aerosols from Collection 6 Aqua and Terra MODIS e-Deep Blue Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettenhausen, C.; Hsu, N. Y. C.; Sayer, A. M.; Lee, J.; Carletta, N.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosols continue to attract a significant amount of attention from researchers worldwide due to their extensive effects on Earth's climate, ecology, public health, and even energy production. In order to truly understand these effects, a long, stable, and well-calibrated data record is required. Since 2000 and 2002, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites together with the e-Deep Blue aerosol retrieval algorithm have been providing such a data record. After a multi-year development effort, the production of both Aqua and Terra MODIS Collection 6 (C6) atmosphere products successfully completed earlier this year and the data was released to the public shortly thereafter. The C6 Deep Blue products (now enhanced Deep Blue or e-Deep Blue) have been significantly improved over the previous Collection 5.1 version. In this poster we provide an overview of the latest C6 e-Deep Blue products and the improvements implemented since the previous collection including coverage over dark surfaces and updates to the Terra calibration. Validation results utilizing Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data are also summarized. We then use the C6 e-Deep Blue products from both Aqua and Terra to explore the spatial characteristics in addition to the seasonal and inter-annual variability of aerosols on both regional and global scales. We also use this as an opportunity to compare these results and investigate any differences found between the two instruments.

  7. The Use of MODIS Instrument on the EOS-Terra Satellite to Assess the Impact of Aerosol on Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Terra will derive the aerosol optical thickness and properties. The aerosol properties can be used to distinguish between natural and human-made aerosol. In the polar orbit Terra will measure aerosol only once a day, around 10:30 am. How will we use this information to study the global radiative impacts of aerosol on climate? We shall present a strategy to address this problem. It includes the following steps: 1) From the Terra aerosol optical thickness and size distribution model we derive the effect of aerosol on reflection of solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere. In a sensitivity study we show that the effect of aerosol on solar fluxes can be derived 10 times more accurately from the MODIS data than derivation of the optical thickness itself. Applications to data over several regions will be given. 2) Using 1/2 million AERONET global data of aerosol spectral optical thickness we show that the aerosol optical thickness and properties during the Terra 10:30 pass are equivalent to the daily average. Due to the aerosol lifetime of several days measurements at this time of the day are enough to assess the daily impact of aerosol on radiation. 3) Aerosol impact on the top of the atmosphere is only part of the climate question. The INDOEX experiment showed that addressing the impact of aerosol on climate, requires also measurements of the aerosol forcing at the surface. This can be done by a combination of measurements of MODIS and AERONET data.

  8. 75 FR 5780 - Green Borders Geothermal, LLC, Complainant, v. Terra-Gen Dixie Valley, LLC, Respondent; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Borders Geothermal, LLC, Complainant, v. Terra-Gen Dixie Valley, LLC, Respondent; Notice of Complaint January 28, 2010. Take notice that on January 25, 2010, Green Borders Geothermal, LLC (Green Borders) filed...

  9. Land use analyses in the African Sahel: an object-oriented classification approach using TerraSAR-X data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biro, Khalid; Sulieman, Hussein; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Buchroithner, Manfred

    Recently, object-oriented classification techniques based on image segmentation approaches are being actively studied in the high-resolution image processing tools to extract a variety of thematic information. Land use patterns in the semi-arid Sahel zone of Africa in Sudan is characterized by complex vegetation covers with scattered distribution of small and large agricultural fields. Therefore, image segmentation approach might not suitable due to the presence of these land cover variations. In this study, land use types in the African Sahel dry-lands were analysed using the object-oriented classification approach. TerraSAR-X data (X-band in HH and HV polarisation) with 3.0 m of spatial resolution was used for the land cover classification. Using a feature space optimization tool based on nearest neighbour classifier, the attributes of the TerraSAR-X image were optimized to obtain the best separability among the classes for the land use mapping. The results highlighted the importance of both TerraSAR-X and object-oriented classification approaches as a useful source of information and technique for land use analyses over drylands of African Sahel in Sudan. Keywords: Object-oriented classification; TerraSAR-X; land use; drylands; African Sahel

  10. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, San Antonio, TX, 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III (Editor); Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Kelley, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Topics covered include: Geologic Mapping of the Beta-Atla-Themis (BAT) Region of Venus: A Progress Report; Geologic Map of the Snegurochka Planitia Quadrangle (V-1): Implications for Tectonic and Volcanic History of the North Polar Region of Venus; Preliminary Geological Map of the Fortuna Tessera (V-2) Quadrangle, Venus; Geological Map of the Fredegonde (V-57) Quadrangle, Venus; Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus; Geologic Mapping of V-19; Lunar Geologic Mapping: A Preliminary Map of a Portion of the LQ-10 ("Marius") Quadrangle; Geologic Mapping of the Lunar South Pole, Quadrangle LQ-30: Volcanic History and Stratigraphy of Schr dinger Basin; Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars; Geologic Mapping Investigations of the Northwest Rim of Hellas Basin, Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Meridiani Region of Mars; Geology of a Portion of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002 and -25007; Geologic Mapping of Holden Crater and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava Outflow System; Mapping Tyrrhena Patera and Hesperia Planum, Mars; Geologic Mapping of Athabaca Valles; Geologic Mapping of MTM -30247, -35247 and -40247 Quadrangles, Reull Vallis Region, Mars Topography of the Martian Impact Crater Tooting; Mars Structural and Stratigraphic Mapping along the Coprates Rise; Geology of Libya Montes and the Interbasin Plains of Northern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: Project Introduction and First Year Work Plan; Geology of the Southern Utopia Planitia Highland-Lowland Boundary Plain: Second Year Results and Third Year Plan; Mars Global Geologic Mapping: About Half Way Done; New Geologic Map of the Scandia Region of Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation on Mars and the Northern Lowland Plains of Venus; Volcanism on Io: Insights from Global Geologic Mapping; and Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009.

  11. Using MODIS Terra 250 m Imagery to Map Concentrations of Total Suspended Matter in Coastal Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Richard L.; McKee, Brent A.

    2004-01-01

    High concentrations of suspended particulate matter in coastal waters directly effect or govern numerous water column and benthic processes. The concentration of suspended sediments derived from bottom sediment resuspension or discharge of sediment-laden rivers is highly variable over a wide range of time and space scales. Although there has been considerable effort to use remotely sensed images to provide synoptic maps of suspended particulate matter, there are limited routine applications of this technology due in-part to the low spatial resolution, long revisit period, or cost of most remotely sensed data. In contrast, near daily coverage of medium-resolution data is available from the MODIS Terra instrument without charge from several data distribution gateways. Equally important, several display and processing programs are available that operate on low cost computers.

  12. Terra, Aqua, and Aura Direct Broadcast - Providing Earth Science Data for Realtime Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Coronado, Patrick L.; Case, Warren F.; Franklin, Ameilia

    2010-01-01

    The need for realtime data to aid in disaster management and monitoring has been clearly demonstrated for the past several years, e.g., during the tsunami in Indonesia in 2004, the hurricane Katrina in 2005, fires, etc. Users want (and often require) the means to get earth observation data for operational regional use as soon as they are generated by satellites. This is especially true for events that can cause loss of human life and/or property. To meet this need, NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites, Terra and Aqua, provide realtime data useful to disaster management teams. This paper describes the satellites, their Direct Broadcast (DB) capabilities, the data uses, what it takes to deploy a DB ground station, and the future of the DB.

  13. Nitrogen dioxide monitoring with an automatic DOAS station at Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Kostadinov, Ivan K.; Giovanelli, Giorgio

    1998-08-01

    During the last few years UV-Vis spectrometers were developed at the FISBAT Institute and are used for application of differential optical absorption spectroscopy method to detect many atmospheric trace gases playing important roles in the stratospheric chemistry. After several test both in laboratory and in Antarctic region, one of the spectrometers, called GASCOD2/2, was modified in collaboration with ENEA for unattended and automatic measurement in extreme high-latitude environment. The instrument was installed in December 1995 in the Italian Station at Terra Nova Bay. The aim of this research is to study the dentrification processes during the formation of the so-called ozone hole over the Antarctic region. The preliminary results for the first year of nitrogen dioxide measurement are presented and discussed.

  14. A new perspective on ancient martian volcanism: evidence for supervolcanoes in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, J. R.; Bleacher, J. E.; Wright, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    While many Hesperian and Amazonian volcanic constructs on Mars are easily recognizable from their shield morphologies, significantly less is known about ancient (Noachian and earliest Hesperian) martian volcanism. Yet, heat flow in the martian crust was higher in the Noachian and therefore the planet was likely more magmatically active [1]. It is possible that Noachian volcanic constructs have largely escaped detection because higher erosion rates on ancient Mars destroyed geomorphological evidence for their existence. However, another possibility exists: some ancient volcanoes on Mars might have been of a fundamentally different character compared to well known, younger shield volcanoes because of an explosive nature of the more ancient ones. We present evidence for ancient supervolcanoes within the Arabia Terra region of Mars. Several large (~20-70 km-diameter) craters within Arabia Terra display little or no evidence for impact origins and exhibit various degrees of evidence for volcanism. These structures, which we term 'plains style caldera complexes,' show no evidence for preserved ejecta, raised rims, inverted stratigraphy, or central peaks that could be attributed to meteor impact-related processes. While it is possible that any evidence for impact origins was removed by erosion, we consider this unlikely because crater degradation generally leads to lower depth-diameter ratios [2] and these structures have high depth-diameter ratios, comparable to values for unmodified craters [3]. In fact, erosion has been low enough to preserve various pieces of evidence for volcanism associated with the structures, such as association with ridged plains lavas, possible vent structures, evidence for lava lakes in some cases, and association with sagging crust possibly related to magma migration or withdrawal. Taken together, these structures represent a newly recognized type of volcanism on Mars dominated by explosive volcanism and structural collapse. They occur within

  15. Spatially Complete Surface Albedo Data Sets: Value-Added Products Derived from Terra MODIS Land Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moody, Eric G.; King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Gao, Feng

    2004-01-01

    Spectral land surface albedo is an important parameter for describing the radiative properties of the Earth. Accordingly it reflects the consequences of natural and human interactions, such as anthropogenic, meteorological, and phenological effects, on global and local climatological trends. Consequently, albedos are integral parts in a variety of research areas, such as general circulation models (GCMs), energy balance studies, modeling of land use and land use change, and biophysical, oceanographic, and meteorological studies. Recent observations of diffuse bihemispherical (white-sky) and direct beam directional hemispherical (black-sky ) land surface albedo included in the MOD43B3 product from MODIS instruments aboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellite platforms have provided researchers with unprecedented spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics. Cloud and seasonal snow cover, however, curtail retrievals to approximately half the global land surfaces on an annual equal-angle basis, precluding MOD43B3 albedo products from direct inclusion in some research projects and production environments.

  16. Age dates of valley network drainage basins and subbasins within Sabae and Arabia Terrae, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouley, Sylvain; Craddock, Robert A.

    2014-06-01

    The precise timing of valley network drainage basin formation is critical to understanding the history of water and climate on Mars. To determine whether there are any variations in ages within separate drainage basins and subbasins that may reflect local or regional variations in climate or resetting from resurfacing (e.g., impact ejecta or lava flows), we dated 27 basins and subbasins in Sabaea and Arabia Terrae. The age-dating basin technique we employed allowed sufficient precision to give accurate ages and shows that fluvial activity within the basins and subbasins ceased at approximately the same time around the Early Hesperian/Late Hesperian transition. Our results support the hypothesis that valley networks formed during a unique "fluvial optimum" that may have shut off gradually because of a global climate change that affected all areas simultaneously on Mars.

  17. Compositional analysis of Hispanic Terra Sigillata by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, A. J.; Nicolás, G.; Mateo, M. P.; Piñón, V.; Tobar, M. J.; Ramil, A.

    2005-08-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied for the analysis of Roman pottery Hispanic Terra Sigillata dating back to the 1st-5th century A.C. from two important ceramic production centers in Spain. For each sample, several examinations were performed on slip and body providing data necessary to draw depth profiles of the contents of various elements. In all the cases investigated, the amount of some elements such as calcium and iron and the presence of other ones such as silicon and aluminum showed the differences existing between slip and body in these ancient ceramics in relation with their region and period of production. In addition, complementary analyses were carried out with scanning electron microscopy linked with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX) to measure the thickness of slip and to obtain verification of chemical results.

  18. Collection of LAI and FPAR Data Over The Terra Core Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myneni, Ranga B.; Knjazihhin, J.; Tian, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of our effort was to collect and archive data on LAI (leaf area index) and FPAR (Fraction of Photosynthetically active Radiation absorbed by vegetation) at the EOS Core validation sites as well as to validate and evaluate global fields of LAI and FPAR derived from atmospherically corrected MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) surface reflectance data by comparing these fields with the EOS Core validation data set. The above has been accomplished by: (a) the participation in selected field campaigns within the EOS Validation Program; (b) the processing of the collected data so that suitable comparison between field measurements and the MODIS LAI/FPAR fields can be made; (c) the comparison of the MODAS LAI/FRAM fields with the EOS Terra Core validation data set.

  19. The structure of the Ishtar Terra central and eastern parts and some tectonic problems of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazilevskiy, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    Moving from the Maxwell Montes to the eastern edge of Ishtar Terra there is a gradual shift in submeridional meandering folded ranges in the western section of the area to straight intersecting disjunctive systems of connected faults and sublatitudinal shifts. These disjunctive systems evidently transform older structures; the major axis of the stresses created by them is primarily oriented sublatitudinally. Relative to younger structures, in the western they occupy a higher hypsometric position. The reason for the formation of this entire system may be a large astenospheric flow wihch rise in the region of Lakashmi Planum and Maxwell Montes and which spreads and plunges in an easterly direction, taking with it deformed blocks of the lithosphere.

  20. Wave observation in the marginal ice zone with the TerraSAR-X satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Claus; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Gemmrich, Johannes; Lehner, Susanne; Pleskachevsky, Andrey; Rosenthal, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    This article investigates the penetration of ocean waves into the marginal ice zone (MIZ), observed by satellite, and likewise provides a basis for the future cross-validation of respective models. To this end, synthetic aperture radar images from the TerraSAR-X satellite (TS-X) and numerical simulations of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are used. The focus is an event of swell waves, developed during a storm passage in the Atlantic, penetrating deeply into the MIZ off the coast of Eastern Greenland in February 2013. The TS-X scene which is the basis for this investigation extends from the ice-free open ocean to solid ice. The variation of the peak wavelength is analysed and potential sources of variability are discussed. We find an increase in wavelength which is consistent with the spatial dispersion of deep water waves, even within the ice-covered region.

  1. Sedimentary deposits in Xanthe Terra: Implications for the ancient climate on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, E.; Gwinner, K.; Kleinhans, M.; Reiss, D.; Di Achille, G.; Ori, G.-G.; Scholten, F.; Marinangeli, L.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    2009-07-01

    A variety of sedimentary deposits is observed in Xanthe Terra, Mars, including Gilbert-type deltas, fan deltas dominated by resedimentation processes, and alluvial fans. Sediments were provided through deeply incised valleys, which were probably incised by both runoff and groundwater sapping. Mass balances based on High-Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) digital terrain models show that up to ˜30% of the material that was eroded in the valleys is present as deltas or alluvial fan deposits. Stratigraphic relationships and crater counts indicate an age of ˜4.0 to ˜3.8 Ga for the fluvial activity. Hydrologic modeling indicates that the deposits were probably formed in geologically very short time scales. Our results point to episodes of a warmer and wetter climate on early Mars, followed by a long period of significantly reduced erosion rates.

  2. Comparing wavelengths simulated by the coastal wave model CWAM and TerraSAR-X satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Claus; Pleskachevsky, Andrey; Rosenthal, Wolfgang; Lehner, Susanne; Hoffmann, Peter; Kieser, Jens; Bruns, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The accuracy of the high resolution coastal wave forecast model CWAM is validated on the basis of sea state information from satellite images of TerraSAR-X (TS-X). At the same time, the performance of the satellite retrieval of sea state parameters is demonstrated. Employing 2-dimensional spatial Fourier Transformation, image spectra are derived from TS-X and locally varying patterns of the peak wavelength are provided using state-of-the-art satellite retrieval. Subsequently, wavelength comparisons are performed between a typical set of TS-X scenes acquired in December 2013 over the German Bight and the model hindcasts. The results are mostly in reasonable agreement. Potential shortcomings of the wave model are discussed as well.

  3. Wave observation in the marginal ice zone with the TerraSAR-X satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Claus; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Gemmrich, Johannes; Lehner, Susanne; Pleskachevsky, Andrey; Rosenthal, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    This article investigates the penetration of ocean waves into the marginal ice zone (MIZ), observed by satellite, and likewise provides a basis for the future cross-validation of respective models. To this end, synthetic aperture radar images from the TerraSAR-X satellite (TS-X) and numerical simulations of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are used. The focus is an event of swell waves, developed during a storm passage in the Atlantic, penetrating deeply into the MIZ off the coast of Eastern Greenland in February 2013. The TS-X scene which is the basis for this investigation extends from the ice-free open ocean to solid ice. The variation of the peak wavelength is analysed and potential sources of variability are discussed. We find an increase in wavelength which is consistent with the spatial dispersion of deep water waves, even within the ice-covered region.

  4. Assessing the Success of Postfire Reseeding in Semiarid Rangelands Using Terra MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Fang; Weber, Keith T.; Scbnase, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Successful postfire reseeding efforts can aid rangeland ecosystem recovery by rapidly establishing a desired plant community and thereby reducing the likelihood of infestation by invasive plants. Although the success of postfire remediation is critical, few efforts have been made to leverage existing geospatial technologies to develop methodologies to assess reseeding success following a fire. In this study, Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data were used to improve the capacity to assess postfire reseeding rehabilitation efforts, with particular emphasis on the semiarid rangelands of Idaho. Analysis of MODIS data demonstrated a positive effect of reseeding on rangeland ecosystem recovery, as well as differences in vegetation between reseeded areas and burned areas where no reseeding had occurred (P,0.05). We conclude that MODIS provides useful data to assess the success of postfire reseeding.

  5. Longwave Radiative Forcing of Saharan Dust Aerosols Estimated from MODIS, MISR and CERES Observations on Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Jiang-Long; Christopher, Sundar A.

    2003-01-01

    Using observations from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments onboard the Terra satellite; we present a new technique for studying longwave (LW) radiative forcing of dust aerosols over the Saharan desert for cloud-free conditions. The monthly-mean LW forcing for September 2000 is 7 W/sq m and the LW forcing efficiency' (LW(sub eff)) is 15 W/sq m. Using radiative transfer calculations, we also show that the vertical distribution of aerosols and water vapor are critical to the understanding of dust aerosol forcing. Using well calibrated, spatially and temporally collocated data sets, we have combined the strengths of three sensors from the same satellite to quantify the LW radiative forcing, and show that dust aerosols have a "warming" effect over the Saharan desert that will counteract the shortwave "cooling effect" of aerosols.

  6. Sea surface wind measurement over offshore wind farm using TerraSAR-X data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Ming; Lehner, Susanne; Brusch, Stephan; Ren, Yong-Zheng

    2011-11-01

    A TerraSAR-X Stripmap image over the North Sea shows significant spatial variations of sea surface wind field over the offshore wind farm Alpha Ventus. In the present study, we demonstrate the tempting potential of using high resolution SAR to investigate spatial variations of sea surface wind field over the offshore wind farms. A newly developed X-band Geophysical Model Function (GMF) XMOD2 is applied on the TS-X data to retrieve sea surface wind speed. By comparing the TS-X retrieved sea surface wind field to results of the DWD wind field, in situ observations on the FiNO platform, as well as the satellite measurement derived from the polarimetric microwave radiometer WindSat, it is found that the SAR estimated wind field not only agrees well with other measurements, but also presents the fine-scale features of sea surface wind field over the offshore wind farm.

  7. Polarimetric SAR Tomopgraphy With TerraSAR-X By Means Of Distributed Compressed Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, E.; Nannini, M.; Antonello, A.; Marotti, L.; Prats, P.; Reigber, A.

    2012-01-01

    In SAR tomography, the vertical reflectivity function for every azimuth-range pixel is usually recovered by processing data collected using a defined repeat-pass acquisition geometry. A common and appealing approach is to generate a synthetic aperture in the elevation direction through imaging from parallel tracks. However, the quality of conventional reconstruction methods is generally dictated by the Nyquist rate, which can be considerably high. In an attempt to reduce this rate, we propose a new tomographic focusing approach that exploits correlations between neighboring azimuth-range pixels and polarimetric channels. As a matter of fact, this can be done under the framework of Distributed Com- pressed Sensing (DCS), which stems from Compressed Sensing (CS) theory, thus also exploiting sparsity in the tomographic signal. Results demonstrating the potential of the DCS methodology will be validated, for the first time, using dual-polarized data acquired at X-band by the TerraSAR-X spaceborne system.

  8. Mycobacterium terrae: a potential surrogate for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a standard disinfectant test.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, P A; Babb, J R; Fraise, A P

    1998-03-01

    The susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare to the disinfections used for spillage and heat sensitive instruments has received much attention in recent years. The use of clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis and M. avium-intracellulare as test organisms is considered unsuitable for standard tests due to their hazardous nature (category 3 pathogens and slow growth rates). This has led to much debate in standards committees on the selection and use of a possible surrogate which would be safer and more practical to use and yet mimic the susceptibility of clinical isolates. This study compared the susceptibility of one possible surrogate Mycobacterium terrae NCTC 10856, with that of clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis H37 Rv and M. avium-intracellulare using a quantitative suspension test. The instrument and environmental disinfectants tested were a chlorine-releasing agent, sodium dichloroisocyanyurate (NaDCC) at 1000 ppm and 10,000 ppm av. Cl, chlorine dioxide at 1100 ppm av. ClO2 (Tristel, HayMan MediChem), 0.35% peracetic acid (NuCidex, Johnson & Johnson), 70% industrial methylated spirit (IMS), 2% alkaline glutaraldehyde (Asep, Galen), 10% succine dialdehyde and formaldehyde mixture (Gigasept, Schulke and Mayr). Results showed that the clinical isolate of M. avium-intracellulare was the most resistant of the three test organisms. M. terrae, which is not a category 3 pathogen, was slightly more resistant than M. tuberculosis and this would appear to be a suitable surrogate for establishing tuberculocidal activity. However, with an increase in the clinical significance of M. avium-intracellulare, particularly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and immunocompromised patients, a more resistant surrogate is required. In the absence of such a surrogate, testing with M. avium-intracellulare in a clinical laboratory equipped for handling category 3 pathogens is still advised to establish mycobactericidal activity. PMID

  9. Mars Eolian Geology at Airphoto Scales: The Large Wind Streaks of Western Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2001-01-01

    More than 27,000 pictures at aerial photograph scales (1.5-12 m/pixel) have been acquired by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) since September 1997. The pictures are valuable for testing hypotheses about geologic history and processes of Mars. Of particular interest are eolian features connected to surface albedo patterns. This work is focused on low-albedo wind streaks, some over 100 km long, in western Arabia Terra. Each streak is widest where it originates at an impact crater (typically 25-150 km diameter). The streaks taper downwind. Within the associated craters there is a lower-albedo surface that, in nearly all observed cases, includes barchan dunes indicative of transport in the same direction as the wind streaks. Upwind of the dunes there is usually an outcrop of layered material that might have served as a source for dune sand. MOC images show that the west Arabia streaks consist of a smooth-surfaced, multiple-meters-thick, mantle (smooth at 1.5 m/pixel) that appears to be superposed on local surfaces. No dunes are present, indicating that down-streak transport of sediment via saltation and traction have not occurred. Two models might explain the observed properties: (1) the streaks consist of dark silt- and clay-sized grains deflated from the adjacent crater interiors and deposited from suspension or (2) they are remnants (protected in the lee of impact crater rims) of a formerly much larger, regional covering of low albedo, smooth-surfaced mantle. The latter hypothesis is based on observation of low albedo mantled surfaces occurring south of west Arabia in Terra Meridiani. For reasons yet unknown, a large fraction of the martian equatorial regions are covered by low albedo, mesa-forming material that lies unconformably atop eroded layered and cratered terrain. Both hypotheses are being explored via continued selective targeting of new MOC images as well as analyses of the new data.

  10. Geologic Map of MTM -20012 and -25012 Quadrangles, Margaritifer Terra Region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, J. A.; Wilson, S.A.; Fortezzo, C.M.; Clark, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) -20012 and -25012 quadrangles (lat 17.5 deg - 27.5 deg S., long 345 deg - 350 deg E.) cover a portion of Margaritifer Terra near the east end of Valles Marineris. The map area consists of a diverse assemblage of geologic surfaces including isolated knobs of rugged mountainous material, heavily cratered and dissected ancient highland material, a variety of plains materials, chaotic terrain materials, and one of the highest densities of preserved valleys and their associated deposits on the planet (Saunders, 1979; Baker, 1982; Phillips and others, 2000, 2001). The map area is centered on a degraded, partially filled, ~200-km-diameter impact structure (lat 22 deg S., long 347.5 deg E.), informally referred to as Parana basin, located between Parana Valles to the east and Loire Valles to the west. Parana Valles is a network of multidigitate, mostly east-west-oriented valleys that flowed west and discharged into Parana basin (Grant, 1987, 2000; Grant and Parker, 2002). Loire Valles, broadly comparable in length to the Grand Canyon on Earth, has a deeply incised channel within the map area that originates at the west-northwest edge of Erythraeum Chaos within Parana basin (Grant, 1987, 2000; Grant and Parker, 2002; Strom and others, 2000). Parana and Loire Valles, combined with Samara Valles to the west, form one of the most laterally extensive, well-integrated valley networks on Mars (Grant, 2000) and record a long history of modification by fluvial processes. The origin and morphology of the valley networks, therefore, provide insight into past environmental conditions, whereas their relation with other landforms helps constrain the timing and role of fluvial processes in the evolution and modification of the Margaritifer Terra region.

  11. Partially-Exhumed Crater in Northern Terra Meridiani: Stereo Anaglyph of overlapping coverage in

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-316, 8 August 2002 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images have shown time and again that the geology and history of Mars is complex. These two pictures show different views of a circular feature in northern Terra Meridiani at 2.3oN, 356.6oW. The first is a mosaic of 3 MOC narrow angle images acquired in August 1999, November 2000, and June 2002. The black area is a gap in coverage resulting from data lost after transmission from Mars to Earth. The second picture is a stereo ('3-D') anaglyph of a portion of the same circular feature. It has been rotated 90o clockwise to show the stereo effect that results from combining the August 1999 image, which was taken while the spacecraft was pointed nadir (straight down) and the June 2002 image, taken with the spacecraft pointing backwards about 16o (i.e., MGS Relay-16 orientation). The anaglyph should be viewed with '3-D' glasses (red in left eye, blue in the right). The circular feature was once an impact crater. The crater was 2.6 km (1.6 mi) across, about 2.6 times larger than the famous Meteor Crater in northern Arizona. Terra Meridiani, like northern Arizona, is a region of vast exposures of layered sedimentary rock. Like the crater in Arizona, this one was formed by a meteor that impacted a layered rock substrate. Later, this crater was filled and completely buried under more than 100 m (more than 327 ft) of additional layered sediment. The sediment hardened to become rock. Later still, the rock was eroded away--by processes unknown (perhaps wind)--to re-expose the buried crater. The crater today remains mostly filled with sediment, its present rim standing only about 40 m (130 ft) above its surroundings.

  12. Analysis of crater valleys, Noachis Terra, Mars: Evidence of fluvial and glacial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, S. W.; Clarke, J. D. A.; Paull, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    The precise mechanism for the formation and evolution of crater valley networks in the Martian southern highlands remains under debate, with precipitation, groundwater flow, and melting induced by impact being suggested. We studied valley networks within four craters of the Noachis Terra highlands that were representative of similar features in Noachis Terra and where orbital data existed for analysis in order to characterise their morphology and infer possible processes involved in their formation and evolution. We found evidence for valleys carved by liquid water and ice-related processes. This included strong evidence of liquid water-based valley formation through melting of ice-rich deposits throughout our study area, suggesting an alternative to previously suggested rainfall or groundwater-based scenarios. The location of these valleys on steeply sloping crater walls, as opposed to the shallow slopes of the highlands where Martian valleys are typically found, suggested that our 'fluvial' valleys had not evolved a more structured fluvial morphology as valley networks found on the Martian plains. Our studied valleys' association with ice-rich material and abundant evidence for erosion caused by downslope flow of ice-rich material are consistent with a cold, wet Mars hypothesis where accumulation, flow, and melting of ice have been dominant factors in eroding crater valleys. Additionally, analysis of valley morphology with slope and aspect suggested a greater dependence on local geology and presence of volatiles than larger valley networks, though ice-related valleys were consistently wider for their length than valleys assessed as fluvial carved. We assessed that local conditions such as climate, geology, and availability of ice-rich material played a major role in the erosion of crater valleys at our study site.

  13. Tectonics and volcanism of Eastern Aphrodite Terra: No subduction, no spreading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Vicki L.; Keep, Myra; Herrick, Robert R.; Phillips, Roger J.

    1992-01-01

    Eastern Aphrodite Terra is approximately equal in size to the western North American Cordillera, from Mexico to Alaska. Its size and unique landforms make it an important area for understanding the tectonics of Venus, yet models for its formation are diametrically opposed. This region is part of the Equatorial Highlands, which was proposed as a region of lithospheric thinning, isostatic uplift, and attendant volcanism. Eastern Aphrodite Terra is dominated by circular structures within which deformation and volcanism are intimately related. These structures are marked by radial and concentric fractures, and volcanic flows that emanate from a central vent, as well as from concentric fracture sets. Cross-cutting relations between flows and concentric fracture sets indicate that outer concentric fracture sets are younger than inner fracture sets. The circular structures are joined by regional northeast- to east-trending fractures that dominantly postdate formation of the circular structures. We propose that the circular structures 'grow' outward with time. Although these structures probably represent addition of crust to the lithosphere, they do not represent significant lithospheric spreading or convergence, and the region does not mark the boundary between two distinct tectonic plates. This region is not easily explained by analogy with either terrestrial midocean rifts or subduction zones. It is perhaps best explained by upwelling of magma diapirs that blister the surface, but do not cause significant lithospheric spreading. Further study of the structural and volcanic evolution of this region using Magellan altimetry and SAR data should lead to better understanding of the tectonic evolution of this region.

  14. Terra MODIS RSB on-orbit calibration and performance: four years of data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erives, Hector; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Esposito, Joseph A.; Xiong, Sanxiong; Barnes, William L.

    2004-11-01

    Terra MODIS, also referred to as the MODIS Protoflight Model (PFM), was launched on-board the NASA's EOS Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999. It has been in operation for more than four years and continuously providing the science community quality data sets for studies of the Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere. It has also served as the primary source of information for the MODIS Land Rapid Response System for observing and reporting on natural disasters, and providing active fire information around the Earth. The MODIS instrument has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from 0.41mm to 14.5mm: 20 bands with wavelengths below 2.2mm are the reflective solar bands (RSB) and the other 16 bands are the thermal emissive bands (TEB). The RSB are calibrated on-orbit using a solar diffuser (SD) with the degradation of its bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) tracked by an on-board solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). The calibration coefficients are updated via Look-Up Tables (LUTs) for the Level 1B code that converts the sensor's Earth view response from digital counts to calibrated reflectance and radiance. In this paper we review the MODIS RSB on-orbit calibration algorithm and the methodology of computing and updating the calibration coefficients determined from the SD and SDSM data sets. We present examples of the sensor's long-term and short-term stability trending of key RSB calibration parameters using over four years of on-orbit calibration data sets. Special considerations due to changes in instrument configuration and sensor response are also discussed.

  15. Detailed spectroscopic analysis of chloride salt deposits in Terra Sirenum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterloo, M. M.; Glotch, T. D.; Bandfield, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Chloride salt-bearing deposits have been identified throughout the southern highlands of Mars [1] based on the lack of diagnostic spectral features of anhydrous chlorides in both the visible near infrared (VNIR) and middle infrared (MIR) wavelength ranges [1,2]. A puzzling aspect of martian chloride deposits is the apparent lack of other weathering or evaporite phases associated with most of the deposits. A global analysis over the chloride salt sites conducted by [3] found that only ~9% of the deposits they analyzed were associated with minerals such as phyllosilicates. Most of these occurrences are in Terra Sirenum where [4] noted that salt-bearing deposits lie stratigraphically above Noachian phyllosilicates. Although a variety of formation mechanisms have been proposed for these intriguing deposits, detailed geologic mapping by [5] suggests that surface water and evaporation played a dominant role. On Earth, evaporative settings are often characterized by a multitude of evaporite and phyllosilicate phases including carbonates, sulfates, and nitrates. [6] evaluated chemical divides and brine evolution for martian systems and their results indicate three pathways wherein late-stage brines favor chloride precipitation. In each case the pathway to chloride formation includes precipitation of carbonates (calcite, siderite, and/or magnesite) and sulfates (gypsum, melanterite, and/or epsomite). Here, we present the results of our detailed and systematic spectroscopic study to identify additional evaporite phases associated with salt/silicate mixtures in Terra Sirenum. [1] Osterloo et al. (2008) Science, 319, [2] Glotch, T. D. et al. (2013) Lunar and Planet. Sci. XLIV, abstract #1549 [3] Ruesch, O. et al. (2012), J. Geophys. Res., 117, E00J13 [4] Glotch, T. D. et al. (2010) Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L16202, [5] Osterloo, M. M. and B. M Hynek (2015) Lunar and Planet. Sci XLVI. Abstract #1054 [6] Tosca, N. J. and S. M. McLennan (2006), Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 241.

  16. Sustainable land-use by regional energy and material flow management using "Terra-Preta-Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friede, K.; Rößler, K.; Terytze, K.; Vogel, I.; Worzyk, F.; Schatten, R.; Wagner, R.; Haubold-Rosar, M.; Rademacher, A.; Weiß, U.; Weinfurtner, K.; Drabkin, D.; Zundel, S.; Trabelsi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary joint research project seeks innovative system solutions for resource efficiency, climate protection and area revaluation by means of an integrative approach. The project's fundament is set by implementing the zero-emission-strategy, launching a regional resource efficient material flow management as well as utilising "Terra-Preta-Technology" as an innovative system component. As the centrepiece of optimised regional biogenic material flows Terra Preta Substrate (TPS) contains biochar shall be utilised exemplarily in model regions. In regional project 1 (state of Brandenburg, county Teltow-Fläming) TPS shall be used on military conversion areas, which are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mineral oil hydrocarbons. It will be examined, whether the use of TPS causes accelerated pollutant reduction and whether this area is available for renewable raw material production. In regional project 2 (Western Lusatia, county Oberspreewald-Lusatia) reclamation and renaturation of post-mining-landscapes is first priority. In this case, the project seeks for an upgrade of devastated soils for plant production as well as for restoration of soil functions and setup of organic soil substances. In regional project 3 (state of North Rhine-Westphalia, city of Schmallenberg) reforestations of large scale windbreakage areas shall be supported by using TPS. Soil stabilisation, increased growth and survival of young trees and decreased nutrient losses are desired achievements. The crop production effectiveness and environmental compatibility of TPS will be determined by tests in laboratories, by lysimeter and open land taking into account chemical and physical as well as biological parameters. Currently diverse chemical, physical and biological examinations are performed. First results will be presented. The focus will be set on the use of TPS on military conversion areas to reduce specific organic contaminations.

  17. Evaluation of Terra and Aqua MODIS thermal emissive band response versus scan angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenny, B. N.; Wu, A.; Madhavan, S.; Xiong, X.

    2014-10-01

    Terra and Aqua MODIS have operated near-continuously for over 14 and 12 years, respectively, and are key instruments for NASA's Earth Observing System. Observations from the 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB), covering wavelengths from 3.5 to 14.4 μm with a nadir spatial resolution of 1 km are used to regularly generate a variety of atmosphere, ocean and land science products. The TEB detectors are calibrated using scan-by-scan observations of an on-board blackbody (BB). The current response versus scan angle (RVS) of the scan mirror was derived using a spacecraft deep-space pitch maneuver for Terra MODIS and characterized during prelaunch for Aqua MODIS. Earth view (EV) data over the complete range of angles of incidence (AOI) can be used to evaluate the on-orbit performance of the TEB RVS over the mission lifetime. Three approaches for tracking the TEB RVS on-orbit using EV observations are formulated. The first approach uses the multiple daily observations of Dome C BT at different AOI and their trend relative to coincident measurements from a ground temperature sensor. The second approach uses brightness temperatures (BT) retrieved over the cloud-free ocean to derive the trends at 13 AOI over the mission lifetime. The third approach tracks the dn response (normalized to the BB AOI) across the full swath width for Antarctic granules with the Dome C site at nadir. The viability of the three approaches is assessed and the long-term stability of the TEB RVS for both MODIS instruments is determined.

  18. Influence of biochar and terra preta substrates on wettability and erodibility of soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smetanova, A.; Dotterweich, M.; Diehl, D.; Ulrich, U.; Fohrer, N.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar (BC) and terra preta substrates (TPS) have recently been promoted as soil amendments suitable for soil stabilization, soil amelioration and long-term carbon sequestration. BC is a carbon-enriched substance produced by thermal decomposition of organic material. TPS is composed of liquid and solid organic matter, including BC, altered by acid-lactic fermentation. Their effect on wettability, soil erodibility and nutrient discharge through overland flow was studied by laboratory experiments. At water contents between 0 and 100% BC is water repellent, while TPS changes from a wettable into a repellent state. The 5 and 10 vol % mixtures of BC and 10 and 20 vol% mixtures of TPS with sand remain mainly wettable during drying but repellency maxima are shifted to higher water contents with respect to pure sand and are mainly of subcritical nature. The runoff response was dominated by infiltration properties of the substrates rather than their wettability.Only one mixtures (20% TPS) produced more runoff than sandy-loamy soil on a 15% slope at an intensity of 25 mm•h-1. The 10% BC decreased runoff by up to 40%. At higher rainfall intensities (45 and 55 mm•h-1) the 10% TPS7 was up to 35% less erodible than 10% BC. Despite the TPS containing more nutrients, nutrient discharge varied between types of nutrients, slopes, rainfall intensities and mixtures. The application of a 1 cm layer onto the soil surface instead of 10% mixtures is not recommended due to high nutrient concentrations in the runoff and the wettability of pure substrates. The usage of 10% BC in lowland areas with low frequency and low-intensity precipitation and 10% TPS7 in areas with higher rainfall intensities appears to be appropriate and commendable according to current results. However, together with reversibility of repellency, it needs to undergo further examination in the field under different environmental and land use conditions Key words: biochar, terra preta substrate, wettability

  19. Mapping slope movements in Alpine environments using TerraSAR-X interferometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboux, Chloé; Strozzi, Tazio; Delaloye, Reynald; Wegmüller, Urs; Collet, Claude

    2015-11-01

    Mapping slope movements in Alpine environments is an increasingly important task in the context of climate change and natural hazard management. We propose the detection, mapping and inventorying of slope movements using different interferometric methods based on TerraSAR-X satellite images. Differential SAR interferograms (DInSAR), Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI), Short-Baseline Interferometry (SBAS) and a semi-automated texture image analysis are presented and compared in order to determine their contribution for the automatic detection and mapping of slope movements of various velocity rates encountered in Alpine environments. Investigations are conducted in a study region of about 6 km × 6 km located in the Western Swiss Alps using a unique large data set of 140 DInSAR scenes computed from 51 summer TerraSAR-X (TSX) acquisitions from 2008 to 2012. We found that PSI is able to precisely detect only points moving with velocities below 3.5 cm/yr in the LOS, with a root mean squared error of about 0.58 cm/yr compared to DGPS records. SBAS employed with 11 days summer interferograms increases the range of detectable movements to rates up to 35 cm/yr in the LOS with a root mean squared error of 6.36 cm/yr, but inaccurate measurements due to phase unwrapping are already possible for velocity rates larger than 20 cm/year. With the semi-automated texture image analysis the rough estimation of the velocity rates over an outlined moving zone is accurate for rates of "cm/day", "dm/month" and "cm/month", but due to the decorrelation of yearly TSX interferograms this method fails for the observation of slow movements in the "cm/yr" range.

  20. Multiyear On-orbit Calibration and Performance of Terra MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chiang, Kwo-Fu; Wu, Aisheng; Barnes, William; Guenther, Bruce; Salomonson, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, Terra MODIS has been making continuous Earth observations for more than seven years. It has produced a broad range of land, ocean, and atmospheric science data products for improvements in studies of global climate and environmental change. Among its 36 spectral bands, there are 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB). MODIS thermal emissive bands cover the mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral regions with wavelengths from 3.7 to 14.4pm. They are calibrated on-orbit using an on-board blackbody (BB) with its temperature measured by a set of thermistors on a scan-by-scan basis. This paper will provide a brief overview of MODIS TEB calibration and characterization methodologies and illustrate on-board BB functions and TEB performance over more than seven years of on-orbit operation and calibration. Discussions will be focused on TEB detector short-term stability and noise characterization, and changes in long-term response (or system gain). Results show that Terra MODIS BB operation has been extremely stable since launch. When operated at its nominal controlled temperature of 290K, the BB temperature variation is typically less than +0.30mK on a scan-by-scan basis and there has been no time-dependent temperature drift. In addition to excellent short-term stability, most TEB detectors continue to meet or exceed their specified noise characterization requirements, thus enabling calibration accuracy and science data product quality to be maintained. Excluding the noisy detectors identified pre-launch and those that occurred post-launch, the changes in TEB responses have been less than 0.7% on an annual basis. The optical leak corrections applied to bands 32-36 have been effective and stable over the entire mission

  1. Possible crater-based karstic and lacustrine terrain in Tyrrhena Terra, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioni, Davide; Soare, Richard

    2015-04-01

    We have identified two craters in Tyrrhena Terra, Mars (19.560 S, 67.480 E, 18.500 S, 68.340 E), where crater-floor deposits display traits that are consistent with formation by karst-driven processes. Tyrrhena Terra is located in the cratered highlands of the southern Martian hemisphere, immediately to the northeast of Hellas Planitia and to the southeast of Isidis Planitia. Crater diameters in the region vary widely, from metres to 100km. Most of these craters are moderately to highly degraded and many show bright deposits on their floors. Here, we present some of the key characteristics associated with these bright deposits and explain why a "karstic" formation hypothesis is reasonable. First and foremost amongst these characteristics are depressions that are ubiquitous within the bright deposits. They display a variety of plan forms ranging from rounded, circular, elongated, polygonal and drop-like to elliptical. Moreover, they display strong morphometric (sizes) and morphologic (shapes, bottoms, walls) similarities with the karst depressions that are common on limestone and evaporite terrains on the Earth. Some depression morphologies - rounded/elongate - could be the result of formation by coalescence. We infer that the depressions are dolines, karstic features formed polygenetically by corrosion and solution-related intra-crater processes; we also demonstrate why the formation of the depressions by aeolian, periglacial, volcanic or impact-related processes seems less plausible by karst-related ones. Interestingly, polygonal cracks whose morphology points to an origin by dessication often cross-cut the bright deposits; as such, their crater floor presence could be an important co-marker of ponded or running liquid water within the craters where they are observed.

  2. Seasonal and Diurnal Tropical Forest Greenness Observed and Modeled Using MODIS Terra and Aqua Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huete, A. R.; Davies, K.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Ratana, P.; Sun, Q.; Saleska, S. R.; Schaaf, C.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies on satellite measures of Amazon forest greening suggest that observed seasonalities are optical artefacts resulting from shifting sun- sensor view geometries between solstice and equinox periods. The degree and extent of sun geometry influences on satellite observations have important implications on the utility of multi-sensor time series for generating accurate long-term data records. Here we investigate sun angle interactions on tropical forest greening using Terra- and Aqua-MODIS, and combined Terra-Aqua Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR) vegetation index (VI) time series, with distinct seasonal and daily sun angle conditions for 10:30 a.m., 1:30 p.m. overpasses, and local solar noon times, respectively. This was compared with modeled, sun angle corrected data from the MODIS MCD43A1 product for fixed sun angles. The interactions between sun angle and forest greening were analyzed along an equatorial forest transect of constant sun-earth geometry but variable annual rainfall and dry season length, as well as a latitudinal transect ranging from equatorial to dry southern forests. In equatorial forests, seasonality in sun angle geometry was synchronous with drought seasonality and resulted in broad scale, forest greening consistent with the duration of the dry season and light availability. The sun angle corrected data showed a reduction in the magnitude of seasonal greening, but also revealed an extended greening period well beyond the equinox. On the other hand, across the latitudinal gradient there were shifts in the start and duration of the dry season that resulted in greening patterns that were asynchronous with sun angle geometries. Sun angle influences became significant and were more pronounced at greater latitudes, demonstrating need to normalize cross-sensor satellite data for sun geometry effects, especially with the recent and upcoming launches of new satellite systems.

  3. Subsidence and Collapse Activity in Arabia Terra, Mars: Which Link with Magmatic Activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, N.; Howard, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Collapsed terrains have been observed using Viking images in the northern part of Arabia Terra from Ismenius Lacus to Deuteronilus Mensae. Recent interpretations of some of these depressions as explosive volcanoes (Michalski and Bleacher, 2013) have renewed the interest for this region. However, recent observations also show the discovery in this region of a series of outflow channels named Okavango Valles (Mangold and Howard, 2013). These channels formed in the Hesperian through catastrophic flows having deposited sediments as deltas in ephemeral lakes. The source area of these channels takes place in a region of widespread depressions and local collapse pits. A continuum of landforms exists from broad depressions (~100 km in length and 100s m in depth) and sharper collapse structures (<100 km in diameter). Given the link between these depressions and the presence of outflow channels, we interpret the collapse structures as resulting from a specific lithology with volatile-rich sediments (or megaregolith) buried at depth. Collapse may be due either to the melting of subsurface ice, or subsurface flows triggered by a change in the groundwater table, or the (less likely) dissolution of buried chemical sediments. Magmatic activity is not excluded: a regionally enhanced thermal flux during the Hesperian could have triggered ground ice melting, and could have initiated subsidence subsequently, but explosive volcanism at the surface is not necessary to explain the presence of large collapsed terrains. Michalski, J. and J. Bleacher, 2013. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars, Nature, doi:10.1038/nature12482 Mangold N., and A. D. Howard, 2013. Outflow channels with deltaic deposits in Ismenius Lacus, Mars, Icarus, doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2013.05.040

  4. Atmospheric response to a realistic coastal polynya in Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica) simulated by ETA model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, S.; Casini, G.; Parmiggiani, F.

    2009-04-01

    Coastal polynyas are areas of open water (and/or very thin ice) which form adjacent to coasts or blocking feature in polar regions during the wintertime, when the sea water is expected to be ice covered. They are thought to be maintained by strong offshore winds blowing over these area and/or by ocean currents. Sea ice is removed as it forms and drifted offshore. In polynya areas a direct contact is established between the relatively warm sea water and the cold, dry atmosphere. As a consequence, the physical characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer change. The work presented here concerns a real polynya event in the region of Terra Nova Bay (TNB), Antarctica, where a recurring coastal polynya occurs nearby the Italian Antarctic Base. The aim is the study of atmospheric response to the presence of a open water area of realistic size by three-dimensional numerical simulations. Atmospheric numerical modelling is a fundamental tool for the study of air - polynya interactions in the remote polar regions, where observational data are difficult. The numerical model used for the simulations is a recent version of ETA model (Mesinger et al., 2006), with the addition of a piecewise linear advection for the wind field. ECMWF and NCEP data provided the initial and boundary conditions. A previous version of the model had already been successfully used in the Antarctic area (De Carolis et al, 2006, Casini and Morelli, 2007). As a first step to analyze the polynya event, numerical simulation was performed for the period from 12 to 17 July 2006 in order to study the development of the katabatic wind (Morelli and Casini, 2008; Morelli, 2008). Daily satellite images, concerning the period, display that a sea ice free area formed on 15 and 16 July, reaching its maximum extension of about 4000 km2 on 16 July (Morelli et al.,2007). In order to gain insight on the atmospheric response to open water area within a sea ice field, ETA model runs were carried out from 15 to 17 July

  5. Expression of Telomeres in Astrocytoma WHO Grade 2 to 4: TERRA Level Correlates with Telomere Length, Telomerase Activity, and Advanced Clinical Grade12

    PubMed Central

    Sampl, Sandra; Pramhas, Sibylle; Stern, Christian; Preusser, Matthias; Marosi, Christine; Holzmann, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells bypass replicative senescence, the major barrier to tumor progression, by using telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) as telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs). Correlation between ALT and patient survival was demonstrated for high-grade astrocytomas. Transcription from subtelomeres produces telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), a natural inhibitor of telomerase activity (TA). This led us to evaluate correlations of TERRA and TMM with tumor grade and outcome in astrocytoma patients. SYBR Green real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays for quantitation of total and chromosome 2p and 18p specific TERRA levels were developed. Tumor samples from 46 patients with astrocytoma grade 2 to 4, tissue controls, and cell lines were assessed. TMMs were evaluated by measuring TA and by detecting long telomeres due to ALT. In glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) grade 4, total TERRA levels were similar to cell lines but 14-, 31-, and 313-fold lower compared with grade 3, grade 2, and nonmalignant tissue, respectively. Total TERRA levels differed from chromosomal levels. Low 2p TERRA levels correlated with dense promoter methylation of subtelomeric CpG islands, indicating that TERRA expression in gliomas may be chromosome specific and epigenetically regulated. Total TERRA levels correlated with diagnosis, with low or absent TA and the presence of ALT, and were tentatively associated with favorable patient prognosis in our cohort (P = .06). TA and short telomeres identified a subset of GBM with a median survival of only 14.8 months. TERRA and TA may be prognostic in astrocytic tumors. PMID:22348177

  6. State of the scientific knowledge on properties and genesis of Anthropogenic Dark Earths in Central Amazonia (terra preta de Índio)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Bruno; Birk, Jago Jonathan

    2012-04-01

    Tropical rainforests are highly important for the global climate regulation and for global biodiversity. However, these ecosystems are characterized by nutrient-poor and highly weathered soils and by high turnover rates of organic matter. Thus, they are fragile ecosystems prone to loss of ecosystem services when anthropogenically disturbed. Currently, the major threat to these ecosystems is deforestation leading to irreversible destruction of rainforests. Surprising and not expected is that within these ecosystems small patches of highly fertile soils occur which are known as Anthropogenic Dark Earths or terra preta de Índio (terra preta). These soils exhibit high nutrient and soil organic matter stocks and allow sustainable agriculture. Frequent occurrence of pot-sherds of pre-Columbian origin and further evidence for settlement activities clearly demonstrate that terra preta is of anthropogenic origin. In recent years, the terra preta phenomenon has gained increasing interest because it is assumed that terra preta could act as a model for promoting sustainable agricultural practices in the humid tropics and because terra preta is an example for long-term CO2 sequestration into terrestrial ecosystems with additional positive benefits for ecosystem services. These potentials of terra preta initiated a great number of studies but also stimulated fantasy about their genesis. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the scientific knowledge about terra preta properties and to discuss their genesis. From our own and literature data it is evident that terra preta is the product of inorganic [e.g. ash, bones (esp. fish)] and organic (e.g. biomass wastes, manure, excrements, urine, and biochar) amendments to infertile Ferralsols. These ingredients were microbially metabolized and stabilized by humification in soil, fungi playing a bigger role in this process compared to bacteria in surrounding ecosystems. Biochar is a key component for this process due to its

  7. Layered Sediments, Rampart Craters, and Potential Fluvio-Lacustrine Activity in S.W. Arabia Terra, Mars: Support for a History of Aqueous Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Allen, C. C.; Venechuk, E. M.; Paris, K. N.

    2007-01-01

    Arabia Terra is a unique area on Mars in that it is the only major, equatorial region characterized by high abundances of near-surface water (as measured by gamma ray and neutron spectroscopy). Vernal Crater is a 55 km-diameter structure in southwest Arabia Terra, centered at 6 N, 355.5 E. The crater includes layered sediments, potential remnants of fluvio-lacustrine activity, and indications of aeolian processes. Regional considerations, along with new THEMIS and MOC data, are being assessed to gain insight into the significance of the geomorphic units within Vernal Crater and the geologic history of SW Arabia Terra.

  8. Assessment of diverse algorithms applied on MODIS Aqua and Terra data over land surfaces in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glantz, P.; Tesche, M.

    2012-04-01

    Beside an increase of greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) human activities (for instance fossil fuel and biomass burning) have lead to perturbation of the atmospheric content of aerosol particles. Aerosols exhibits high spatial and temporal variability in the atmosphere. Therefore, aerosol investigation for climate research and environmental control require the identification of source regions, their strength and aerosol type, which can be retrieved based on space-borne observations. The aim of the present study is to validate and evaluate AOT (aerosol optical thickness) and Ångström exponent, obtained with the SAER (Satellite AErosol Retrieval) algorithm for MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Aqua and Terra calibrated level 1 data (1 km horizontal resolution at ground), against AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) observations and MODIS Collection 5 (c005) standard product retrievals (10 km), respectively, over land surfaces in Europe for the seasons; early spring (period 1), mid spring (period 2) and summer (period 3). For several of the cases analyzed here the Aqua and Terra satellites passed the investigation area twice during a day. Thus, beside a variation in the sun elevation the satellite aerosol retrievals have also on a daily basis been performed with a significant variation in the satellite-viewing geometry. An inter-comparison of the two algorithms has also been performed. The validation with AERONET shows that the MODIS c005 retrieved AOT is, for the wavelengths 0.469 and 0.500 nm, on the whole within the expected uncertainty for one standard deviation of the MODIS retrievals over Europe (Δτ = ±0.05 ± 0.15τ). The SAER estimated AOT for the wavelength 0.443 nm also agree reasonable well with AERONET. Thus, the majority of the SAER AOT values are within the MODIS expected uncertainty range, although somewhat larger RMSD (root mean square deviation) occurs compared to the results obtained with the

  9. Layered Deposits of Arabia Terra and Meridiani Planum: Keys to the Habitability of Ancient Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Paris, Kristen N.; Venechuk, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the habitability of ancient Mars is a key goal in the exploration of that planet. Evidence for conditions favorable to early life must be sought in ancient sedimentary rocks, such as those of Arabia Terra and Meridiani Planum. Arabia Terra, the northernmost extension of the ancient highlands, is dominated by cratered plains and minor ridged units. These plains extend south into the adjacent Meridiani Planum. The Opportunity rover landed in northern Meridiani, close to the border with Arabia. High resolution MOC images reveal extensive layered sequences across much of the Arabia and Meridiani region. These layers have been interpreted as eroded remnants of sedimentary rock deposits (Edgett, 2005). The layered sequences are concentrated in the SW quadrant of Arabia and in northern Meridiani. Preliminary mapping by Edgett (2005) distinguished four large scale layered sequences in the Arabia and Meridiani region. These have dimensions of hundreds to more than 1,000 km. MOLA altimetry shows that each of the sequences can attain a thickness of 200 to 400 m, with a total thickness greater than 1 km. The sequences are generally flat lying, with regional slopes of a few degrees. Much finer layering is evident within a number of craters. The plains and ridged units of the Arabia and Meridiani region were originally mapped as Noachian based on crater statistics, particularly the number of large craters (Scott and Carr, 1978). The layered sequences in the current study postdate many, but not all, of these large craters. The layered sequences have partially or totally filled a number of craters with diameters ranging from 20 to over 50 km. The topmost layered sequence, as well as the lower two sequences, have intermediate thermal inertia, as derived from THEMIS, indicative of moderate induration. The TES spectra from the lower sequences include features indicative of basalt. Some areas of the topmost sequence, which includes the Opportunity landing site, have TES

  10. Environmental effects of offshore drilling in a cold ocean ecosystem: A 10-year monitoring program at the Terra Nova offshore oil development off the Canadian east coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, Jerry; Lee, Kenneth; DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Gregory Janes, G.

    2014-12-01

    The collection of papers that follows is based on results of the Terra Nova Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program from baseline sampling (1997) to 2010. The objective of this multi-year EEM program is to assess the effects of the Terra Nova Offshore Oil Field on the surrounding marine environment.The Terra Nova Field was discovered in 1984 by Suncor (formerly Petro-Canada) and is located approximately 350 km southeast of St. John's Newfoundland, off Canada's east coast, at approximately 100 m water depth (Fig. 1). This collection of papers focuses on environmental effects of drilling mud and cuttings discharges from 34 development wells drilled between 2000 and 2009 in five drill centres at the Terra Nova Field.

  11. Check-Up of Planet Earth at the Turn of the Millennium: Contribution of EOS-Terra to a New Phase in Earth Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram

    1999-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. In 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution of few kilometers on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical developments that brought to the Terra mission, its objectives and example of application to biomass burning.

  12. Performance of Terra MODIS solar diffuser and solar diffuser stability monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Erives, H.; Xiong, S.; Xie, X.; Esposito, J.; Sun, J.; Barnes, W.

    2005-08-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflective solar bands (RSB) cover wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.2μm. They are calibrated on-orbit by a solar diffuser (SD) panel, made of space-grade Spectralon. During each SD calibration a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) is operated concurrently to track the changes of the SD bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF). The SDSM views alternately the sunlight (Sun View) through a fixed transmission screen and the sunlight diffusely reflected from the SD panel (SD view). A design error in the SDSM system, not discovered until post-launch, has caused significant ripples in the SDSM Sun view responses. Consequently an alternative normalization approach has been developed to remove the ripples in the SDSM Sun view responses and their impacts on the SD degradation analysis. This approach has been successfully used in the SDSM measurements on-orbit. In order to reduce the direct solar exposure onto the SD panel, the MODIS instrument was designed with a SD door that is normally commanded to an "open" position during SD/SDSM observations and to a "closed" position when the calibration is completed. For Terra MODIS launched in December 1999, an SD door related anomaly occurred in May 2003 that led to a decision to set the SD door permanently at the open position. This operational configuration has resulted in extra time of direct solar illumination on the SD plate and therefore a much faster SD degradation rate. In this paper we provide a brief description of the MODIS RSB calibration algorithm and the on-board SD and SDSM system used for the calibration. We examine the Terra MODIS SD degradation rate and its spectral dependency. The results from five years of SDSM observations are summarized in this paper and used to evaluate the SD on-orbit performance and its impact on the MODIS RSB calibration uncertainty. Prior to the SD door anomaly, the SD annual degradation rate was approximately 3% at 0.41μm, 2% at 0

  13. Visual analytics for semantic queries of TerraSAR-X image content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza-Molina, Daniela; Alonso, Kevin; Datcu, Mihai

    2015-10-01

    With the continuous image product acquisition of satellite missions, the size of the image archives is considerably increasing every day as well as the variety and complexity of their content, surpassing the end-user capacity to analyse and exploit them. Advances in the image retrieval field have contributed to the development of tools for interactive exploration and extraction of the images from huge archives using different parameters like metadata, key-words, and basic image descriptors. Even though we count on more powerful tools for automated image retrieval and data analysis, we still face the problem of understanding and analyzing the results. Thus, a systematic computational analysis of these results is required in order to provide to the end-user a summary of the archive content in comprehensible terms. In this context, visual analytics combines automated analysis with interactive visualizations analysis techniques for an effective understanding, reasoning and decision making on the basis of very large and complex datasets. Moreover, currently several researches are focused on associating the content of the images with semantic definitions for describing the data in a format to be easily understood by the end-user. In this paper, we present our approach for computing visual analytics and semantically querying the TerraSAR-X archive. Our approach is mainly composed of four steps: 1) the generation of a data model that explains the information contained in a TerraSAR-X product. The model is formed by primitive descriptors and metadata entries, 2) the storage of this model in a database system, 3) the semantic definition of the image content based on machine learning algorithms and relevance feedback, and 4) querying the image archive using semantic descriptors as query parameters and computing the statistical analysis of the query results. The experimental results shows that with the help of visual analytics and semantic definitions we are able to explain

  14. Synergistic Use of Satellite Volcano Detection and Science: A Fifteen Year Perspective of ASTER on Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The success of Terra-based observations using the ASTER instrument of active volcanic processes early in the mission gave rise to a funded NASA program designed to both increase the number of ASTER observations following an eruption and validate the satellite data. The urgent request protocol (URP) system for ASTER grew out of this initial study and has now operated in conjunction with and the support of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the University of Hawaii, the USGS Land Processes DAAC, and the ASTER science team. The University of Pittsburgh oversees this rapid response/sensor-web system, which until 2011 had focused solely on the active volcanoes in the North Pacific region. Since that time, it has been expanded to operate globally with AVHRR and MODIS and now ASTER VNIR/TIR data are being acquired at numerous erupting volcanoes around the world. This program relies on the increased temporal resolution of AVHRR/MODIS midwave infrared data to trigger the next available ASTER observation, which results in ASTER data as frequently as every 2-5 days. For many targets, the URP has increased the observational frequency over active eruptions by as much 50%. The data have been used for operational response to new eruptions, longer-term scientific studies such as capturing detailed changes in lava domes/flows, pyroclastic flows and lahars. These data have also been used to infer the emplacement of new lava lobes, detect endogenous dome growth, and interpret hazardous dome collapse events. The emitted TIR radiance from lava surfaces has also been used effectively to model composition, texture and degassing. Now, this long-term archive of volcanic image data is being mined to provide statistics on the expectations of future high-repeat TIR data such as that proposed for the NASA HyspIRI mission. In summary, this operational/scientific program utilizing the unique properties of ASTER and the Terra mission has shown the potential for

  15. Retrieval of Both Soil Moisture and Texture Using one configuration TerraSAR-X radar Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zribi, M., Sr.; Gorrab, A.; Baghdadi, N.; Lili-Chabaane, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a methodology combing multi-temporal X-band SAR images (TerraSAR-X) with continuous ground thetaprobe measurements, for the retrieval of surface soil moisture and texture at a high spatial resolution. Our analysis is based on seven radar images acquired at a 36° incidence angle in the HH polarization, over a semi-arid site in Tunisia (North Africa). All ground measurements of surface soil parameters were carried out over several bare soil reference fields located at the Kairouan site. Between November 2013 and January 2014 (three months), ground campaigns were carried out at the same time as the seven satellite acquisitions. The soil moisture estimations are based on an empirical change detection approach using TerraSAR-X data and ground auxiliary thetaprobe network measurements. Two assumptions were tested: (1) roughness variations during the three-month radar acquisition campaigns were not accounted for; (2) a simple correction for temporal variations in roughness was included. For the two considered approaches, the soil moisture estimations were validated using ground measurements acquired over fifteen test fields, under different moisture conditions. These comparisons lead to a volumetric moisture RMSE equal to 3.8% and 3.3%, and a bias equal to 0.5% and 0.3%, respectively. By considering the estimated temporal dynamics of soil moisture, a methodology is proposed for the retrieval of clay and sand content (expressed as percentages) in soil. Two empirical relationships were established between the mean moisture values retrieved from the seven acquired radar images and the two soil texture components over 36 test fields. Validation of the proposed approach was carried out over a second set of 34 fields, showing that highly accurate clay estimations can be achieved. For clay and sand, we retrieve an rms error equal to 10.8% (equivalent to 108 g/kg) and 18.6% (equivalent to 186 g/kg), respectively. Maps of soil moisture, clay

  16. Age and origin of Terra Rossa soils in the Coonawarra area of South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mee, Aija C.; Bestland, Erick A.; Spooner, Nigel A.

    2004-03-01

    The famous Terra Rossa soil in the Coonawarra area, South Australia, is dominated by locally derived aeolian detritus, which probably accumulated over the last 120-130 ka. Four soil profiles and associated limestone and lunette deposits were investigated using the following methods: mass balance geochemistry of bulk soil samples (major and trace elements), quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineralogy, strontium isotopes (87/86), as well as grain-size analysis and cation exchange capacity. These data show that the Terra Rossa soil from the Coonawarra has a thick, clayey B-horizon which is geochemically homogeneous and dominated by smectite and kaolinite. Mass-balance calculations show unrealistic weathering scenarios when plotted using silicate residuum from the underlying limestone as parent. Realistic weathering scenarios are produced with fine-grained silicate material from local lunette deposits as parent. Strontium isotopes of silicate residuum from Gambier Limestone (0.78) contrast strongly with the clayey B-horizon (0.726). Strontium isotope ratios of silicate material from a local lunette (0.725) are similar to the B-horizon soil values. Strontium isotope ratios from regional geological units indicate that the strontium signature in the lunette and soil B-horizon is dominated by weathering products from the Palaeozoic Kanmantoo shales, extensively exposed upwind to the west on Kangaroo Island and the Fleurieu Peninsula. Optical (optically stimulated luminescence, OSL) dating of 61 individual quartz grains (single aliquot) from three samples in the Coonawarra soil profile (one from the A-horizon and two from the B-horizon) shows that most of the quartz sand grains have been buried for only a few thousand years. Many of the grains, however, have been buried for tens of thousands of years with three grains having exposure ages of between 105 and 109 ka. The large population of young exposure dates represents quartz sands recently exposed in the A-horizon and

  17. The genome of the fungal-interactive soil bacterium Burkholderia terrae BS001-a plethora of outstanding interactive capabilities unveiled.

    PubMed

    Haq, Irshad Ul; Graupner, Katharina; Nazir, Rashid; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2014-07-01

    Burkholderia terrae strain BS001, obtained as an inhabitant of the mycosphere of Laccaria proxima (a close relative of Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten), actively interacts with Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten. We here summarize the remarkable ecological behavior of B. terrae BS001 in the mycosphere and add key data to this. Moreover, we extensively analyze the approximately 11.5-Mb five-replicon genome of B. terrae BS001 and highlight its remarkable features. Seventy-nine regions of genomic plasticity (RGP), that is, 16.48% of the total genome size, were found. One 70.42-kb RGP, RGP76, revealed a typical conjugal element structure, including a full type 4 secretion system. Comparative analyses across 24 related Burkholderia genomes revealed that 95.66% of the total BS001 genome belongs to the variable part, whereas the remaining 4.34% constitutes the core genome. Genes for biofilm formation and several secretion systems, under which a type 3 secretion system (T3SS), were found, which is consistent with the hypothesis that T3SSs play a role in the interaction with Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten. The high number of predicted metabolic pathways and membrane transporters suggested that strain BS001 can take up and utilize a range of sugars, amino acids and organic acids. In particular, a unique glycerol uptake system was found. The BS001 genome further contains genetic systems for the degradation of complex organic compounds. Moreover, gene clusters encoding nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) and hybrid polyketide synthases/NRPS were found, highlighting the potential role of secondary metabolites in the ecology of strain BS001. The patchwork of genetic features observed in the genome is consistent with the notion that 1) horizontal gene transfer is a main driver of B. terrae BS001 adaptation and 2) the organism is very flexible in its ecological behavior in soil. PMID:24923325

  18. Arsenic encapsulation using Portland cement with ferrous sulfate/lime and Terra-Bond™ technologies - Microcharacterization and leaching studies.

    PubMed

    Randall, Paul M

    2012-03-15

    This work reports the results of an investigation on the treatment and encapsulation of arsenic-containing materials by Portland cement with ferrous sulfate and lime (PFL) and Terra-Bond™, a commercially available patented technology. The arsenic materials included: chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood materials; scorodite-rich mine tailings from the La Trinidad Mine in California; and a soil/smelter dust mixture from the Anaconda Superfund site spiked with monosodium methyl arsenate (MSMA) to simulate an organoarsenic soil material. SEM/EDS and XRD spectra of PFL treated samples showed similarity across all three waste materials while Terra-Bond treated samples showed predominance of elemental sulfur. SEM/EDS of PFL treated samples showed that calcium was imbedded in the structure while micrographs of Terra-Bond treated samples showed the appearance of an epoxy material on the surface. The epoxy material appears to be responsible for encapsulating and reducing the leachability of arsenic. XANES spectra for the PFL treatment of CCA-containing samples showed that arsenic has a predominant pentavalent form (As +5), and the PFL treatment process did not alter the arsenic oxidation state. But, distinct differences were observed for XANES spectra of untreated and PFL treated scorodite-rich mine tailing which changed the arsenic coordination structure from a mixture of As (+3/+5) to exclusively As (+5). Both S/S techniques reduced the amount of arsenic released in the leaching tests. Most cases show lower amounts of arsenic released from wastes treated by the Terra-Bond™ technique when compared to the PFL technique. The pH of the solution significantly affected the leachability, with the amount of arsenic released increasing with pH. Sequential extraction results indicate that sodium hydroxide was favorable in releasing arsenic in the mine tailings. This is due to ligand displacement reactions of hydroxyl ions with arsenic species and high pH conditions that

  19. Precise Determination of the Baseline Between the TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Rolf; Rothacher, Markus; Michalak, Grzegorz; Moon, Yongjin

    TerraSAR-X, launched on June 15, 2007, and TanDEM-X, to be launched in September 2009, both carry the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) category A payload instrument package. The TOR consists of a high-precision dual-frequency GPS receiver, called Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver (IGOR), for precise orbit determination and atmospheric sounding and a Laser retro-reflector (LRR) serving as target for the global Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) ground station network. The TOR is supplied by the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ) Germany, and the Center for Space Research (CSR), Austin, Texas. The objective of the German/US collaboration is twofold: provision of atmospheric profiles for use in numerical weather predictions and climate studies from the occultation data and precision SAR data processing based on precise orbits and atmospheric products. For the scientific objectives of the TanDEM- X mission, i.e., bi-static SAR together with TerraSAR-X, the dual-frequency GPS receiver is of vital importance for the millimeter level determination of the baseline or distance between the two spacecrafts. The paper discusses the feasibility of generating millimeter baselines by the example of GRACE, where for validation the distance between the two GRACE satellites is directly available from the micrometer-level intersatellite link measurements. The distance of the GRACE satellites is some 200 km, the distance of the TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X formation will be some 200 meters. Therefore the proposed approach is then subject to a simulation of the foreseen TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X formation. The effect of varying space environmental conditions, of possible phase center variations, multi path, and of varying center of mass of the spacecrafts are evaluated and discussed.

  20. Spatially extensive uniform stress fields on Venus inferred from radial dike swarm geometries: The Aphrodite Terra example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosfils, Eric B.; Head, James W.

    1993-01-01

    The high resolution and near global coverage of Magellan radar images is facilitating attempts to systematically investigate the stresses that have deformed the venusian crust. Here we continue earlier efforts to utilize approximately 170 large, radially lineated structures interpreted as dike swarms to assess the orientation of the regional maximum horizontal compressive stress (MHCS) which existed in their vicinities during emplacement. Examination of swarms near the equator reveals a link to broad scale regional structures, such as Aphrodite Terra, across distances in excess of 1000 km, suggesting the existence of first order stress fields which affect areas of more than 10(exp 6) sq km in a uniform fashion. Focusing further upon the Aphrodite Terra region, the MHCS field in the surrounding lowlands inferred from radial swarms is oriented approximately normal to the slope of the highland topography. This stress configuration appears, at a simple level, to be incompatible with that expected during either upwelling or downwelling construction of the highlands. In addition, the relatively undeformed geometry of the radial structures within the highlands implies that these dike swarm features formed more recently than their highly deformed surroundings. We conclude that the differential stresses which existed during emplacement of the dike swarms within and adjacent to the Aphrodite Terra highlands are related to the gravitational relaxation of pre-existing topography.

  1. Spatially extensive uniform stress fields on Venus inferred from radial dike swarm geometries: The Aphrodite Terra example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosfils, Eric B.; Head, James W.

    1993-03-01

    The high resolution and near global coverage of Magellan radar images is facilitating attempts to systematically investigate the stresses that have deformed the venusian crust. Here we continue earlier efforts to utilize approximately 170 large, radially lineated structures interpreted as dike swarms to assess the orientation of the regional maximum horizontal compressive stress (MHCS) which existed in their vicinities during emplacement. Examination of swarms near the equator reveals a link to broad scale regional structures, such as Aphrodite Terra, across distances in excess of 1000 km, suggesting the existence of first order stress fields which affect areas of more than 106 sq km in a uniform fashion. Focusing further upon the Aphrodite Terra region, the MHCS field in the surrounding lowlands inferred from radial swarms is oriented approximately normal to the slope of the highland topography. This stress configuration appears, at a simple level, to be incompatible with that expected during either upwelling or downwelling construction of the highlands. In addition, the relatively undeformed geometry of the radial structures within the highlands implies that these dike swarm features formed more recently than their highly deformed surroundings. We conclude that the differential stresses which existed during emplacement of the dike swarms within and adjacent to the Aphrodite Terra highlands are related to the gravitational relaxation of pre-existing topography.

  2. Offshore wind farm flow measured by complementary remote sensing techniques: radar satellite TerraSAR-X and lidar windscanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneemann, J.; Hieronimus, J.; Jacobsen, S.; Lehner, S.; Kühn, M.

    2015-06-01

    Scanning Doppler lidar systems offer continuous wind measurements with some kilometres of range and a spatial distribution of concurrent measurements down to some metres. The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite TerraSAR-X is capable to cover offshore areas of hundreds of square kilometres and to obtain wind data spatially distributed with some tens of metres. Images can be taken up to twice a day when the satellite passes the measurement site. Simultaneous wind speed measurements with ground based scanning Doppler lidar and TerraSAR-X in the region of the offshore wind farm ”alpha ventus” in the German North Sea were collected. A comparison of both systems in free stream conditions is performed by extrapolating the lidardata to the measurement height of the radar satellite assuming a logarithmic wind profile. In wake conditions the wake tracks obtained by lidar and TerraSAR-X are compared. In free stream conditions the comparison reveals a mean absolute wind velocity difference ≤ 0.4 m/s in two of the four considered cases and 1.1 m/s in one case. The fourth case shows a bad agreement due to a unusually low radar backscatter in the satellite's measurement. In wake conditions the wind turbine wakes could be tracked in the lidar and the satellite data. The comparison for the considered case reveals similar wake tracks in principle, but no matching due to the time difference of the measurements and the lower spatial resolution of the radar measurements.

  3. Atmosphere sounding by GPS radio occultation: First results from TanDEM-X and comparison with TerraSAR-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zus, Florian; Grunwaldt, Ludwig; Heise, Stefan; Michalak, Grzegorz; Schmidt, Torsten; Wickert, Jens

    2014-01-01

    On 21 June 2010 the TerraSAR-X satellite was joined by the TanDEM-X satellite. A Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) experiment using the twin satellites has been carried out to estimate the precision of GPS atmospheric soundings. For the Day Of Year (DOY) 330-336, 2011, we analyze phase and amplitude data recorded by GPS receivers separated by a few hundred meters in a low earth orbit and derive collocated atmospheric refractivity profiles. In the altitude range 10-20 km the standard deviation between TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X refractivity does not exceed 0.15%. The standard deviation is rapidly increasing for lower and higher altitudes; close to the surface and at an altitude of 30 km the standard deviation reaches 0.8% and 0.5%, respectively. Systematic deviations between TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X refractivity in the considered altitude range (0-30 km) are negligible. The results confirm the anticipated high precision of the GPS RO technique. However, the difference in the retrieved refractivity in the lower troposphere for different Open Loop (OL) signal tracking parameters, altered onboard TanDEM-X for DOY 49-55, 2012, calls for an in depth analysis. At the moment we can not exclude that a potential bias in the OL Doppler model introduces a bias in our retrieved refractivity at altitudes <8 km.

  4. Terra-Preta-Technology as an innovative system component to create circulation oriented, sustainable land use systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotterweich, M.; Böttcher, J.; Krieger, A.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents current research and application projects on innovative system solutions which are based on the implementation of a regional resource efficient material flow management as well as utilising "Terra-Preta-Technology" as an innovative system component. Terra Preta Substrate (TPS) is a recently developed substance composed of liquid and solid organic matter, including biochar, altered by acid-lactic fermentation. Based on their properties, positive effects on water and nutrient retention, soil microbiological activity, and cation-exchange capacity are expected and currently investigated by different projects. TPS further sequesters carbon and decreases NO2 emissions from fertilized soils as observed by the use of biochar. The production of TPS is based on a circulation oriented organic waste management system directly adapted to the local available inputs and desired soil amendment properties. The production of TPS is possible with simple box systems for subsistence farming but also on a much larger scale as modular industrial plants for farmers or commercial and municipal waste management companies in sizes from 500 and 50,000 m3. The Terra-Preta-Technology enhances solutions to soil conservation, soil amelioration, humic formation, reduced water consumption, long term carbon sequestration, nutrient retention, containment binding, and to biodiversity on local to a regional scale. The projects also involve research of ancient land management systems to enhance resource efficiency by means of an integrative and transdisciplinary approach.

  5. How Well Can Aerosol Measurements from the Terra Morning Polar Orbiting Satellite Represent the Daily Aerosol Abundance and Properties?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Holben, B. N.; Tanre, D.; Slutzker, I.; Eck, T. F.; Smirnov, A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Terra mission, launched at the dawn of 1999, and Aqua mission to be launched soon, will possess innovative measurements of the aerosol daily spatial distribution, distinguish between dust, smoke and regional pollution and measure aerosol radiative forcing of climate. Their polar orbit gives daily global coverage, however measurements are acquired at specific time of the day. To what degree can present measurements from Terra taken between 10:00 and 11:30 AM local time, represent the daily average aerosol forcing of climate? Here we answer this question using 7 years of data from the distributed ground based 50-70 instrument Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) This (AERONET) half a million measurement data set shows that Terra aerosol measurements represent the daily average values within 5%. The excellent representation is found for large dust particles or small aerosol particles from Fires or regional pollution and for any range of the optical thickness, a measure of the amount of aerosol in the atmosphere.

  6. Impacts of Cross-Platform Vicarious Calibration on the Deep Blue Aerosol Retrievals for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aboard Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Hsu, N. Christina; Kwiatkowska, Ewa J.; Franz, Bryan A.; Meister, Gerhard; Salustro, Clare E.

    2012-01-01

    The retrieval of aerosol properties from spaceborne sensors requires highly accurate and precise radiometric measurements, thus placing stringent requirements on sensor calibration and characterization. For the Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spedroradiometer (MODIS), the characteristics of the detectors of certain bands, particularly band 8 [(B8); 412 nm], have changed significantly over time, leading to increased calibration uncertainty. In this paper, we explore a possibility of utilizing a cross-calibration method developed for characterizing the Terral MODIS detectors in the ocean bands by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ocean Biology Processing Group to improve aerosol retrieval over bright land surfaces. We found that the Terra/MODIS B8 reflectance corrected using the cross calibration method resulted in significant improvements for the retrieved aerosol optical thickness when compared with that from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer, Aqua/MODIS, and the Aerosol Robotic Network. The method reported in this paper is implemented for the operational processing of the Terra/MODIS Deep Blue aerosol products.

  7. Nitrogen Dioxide Total Column Over Terra Nova Bay Station - Antarctica - During 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortoli, D.; Ravegnani, F.; Giovanelli, G.; Petritoli, A.; Kostadinov, I.

    GASCOD (Gas Analyzer Spectrometer Correlating Optical Differences), installed at the Italian Antarctic Station of Terra Nova Bay (TNB) - 74.69S, 164.12E - since 1995, carried out a full dataset of zenith scattered light measurements for the year 2001. The application of DOAS methodology to the collected data gave as final results, the slant column values for nitrogen dioxide. The seasonal variation shows a maxi- mum in the summer and it is in good agreement with the results obtained by other authors. The data analysis is performed by using different parameters like the po- tential vorticity (PV) at 500 K and the atmospheric temperatures at the same level. After the verification of the linear dependency between the NO2 slant column values and the temperature of NO2 cross section utilized in the DOAS algorithm, the actual stratospheric temperatures (from ECMWF) over TNB are applied to the results. The sensible changes in the nitrogen dioxide slant column values allow to highlight the good matching between the NO2 AM/PM ratio and the potential vorticity at 500 K. The NO2 slant column values follow the variations of the stratospheric temperature mainly during the spring season, when the lowest temperatures are observed and the ozone-hole phenomena mainly occur. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The author Daniele Bortoli was financially supported by the "Subprograma Ciência e Tecnologia do Ter- ceiro Quadro Comunitário de Apoio". The National Program for Antarctic Research (PNRA) supported this research.

  8. Application of a Terrestrial LIDAR System for Elevation Mapping in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyoungsig; Hong, Seunghwan; Kim, Sangmin; Park, Hyokeun; Park, Ilsuk; Sohn, Hong-Gyoo

    2015-01-01

    A terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system has high productivity and accuracy for topographic mapping, but the harsh conditions of Antarctica make LIDAR operation difficult. Low temperatures cause malfunctioning of the LIDAR system, and unpredictable strong winds can deteriorate data quality by irregularly shaking co-registration targets. For stable and efficient LIDAR operation in Antarctica, this study proposes and demonstrates the following practical solutions: (1) a lagging cover with a heating pack to maintain the temperature of the terrestrial LIDAR system; (2) co-registration using square planar targets and two-step point-merging methods based on extracted feature points and the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm; and (3) a georeferencing module consisting of an artificial target and a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver. The solutions were used to produce a topographic map for construction of the Jang Bogo Research Station in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. Co-registration and georeferencing precision reached 5 and 45 mm, respectively, and the accuracy of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generated from the LIDAR scanning data was ±27.7 cm. PMID:26389918

  9. Rainwater and throughfall chemistry in a terra firme rain forest: Central Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Forti, M.C.; Moreira-Nordemann, L.M. )

    1991-04-20

    During the Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE)-Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE) 2B campaign in the Amazon basin, samples of rainwater and throughfall were obtained in a terra firme (nonflooded forest) rain forest at the Ducke Reserve (2{degree}57{prime}S, 59{degree}58{prime}W). The samples were collected during one wet period (April 1 to May 13, 1987) and one dry period (August 1 to October 1, 1987). All samples were analyzed for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Cl{sup {minus}} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, and pH. The rainwater was acidic, with a volume-weighted mean pH of 4.6 for two periods. Rainwater input from the dry period was 2 times greater for Na{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and about 4 times greater for K{sup +} than from the wet period. The ionic concentrations in throughfall were higher than those in rainwater, except for NH{sub 4}{sup +} during the dry period. This enrichment of throughfall is attributed to the interaction of precipitation with the forest canopy.

  10. Terra Flexible Blanket Solar Array Deployment, On-Orbit Performance and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard; Schurig, Hans; Rosenfeld, Mark; Herriage, Michael; Gaddy, Edward; Keys, Denney; Faust, Carl; Andiario, William; Kurtz, Michelle; Moyer, Eric; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Terra spacecraft (formerly identified as EOS AM1) is the flagship in a planned series of NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) Earth observing system satellites designed to provide information on the health of the Earth's land, oceans, air, ice, and life as a total ecological global system. It has been successfully performing its mission since a late-December 1999 launch into a 705 km polar orbit. The spacecraft is powered by a single wing, flexible blanket array using single junction (SJ) gallium arsenide/germanium (GaAs/Ge) solar cells sized to provide five year end-of-life (EOL) power of greater than 5000 watts at 127 volts. It is currently the highest voltage and power operational flexible blanket array with GaAs/Ge cells. This paper briefly describes the wing design as a basis for discussing the operation of the electronics and mechanisms used to achieve successful on-orbit deployment. Its orbital electrical performance to date will be presented and compared to analytical predictions based on ground qualification testing. The paper concludes with a brief section on future applications and performance trends using advanced multi-junction cells and weight-efficient mechanical components.

  11. Assessment of the short-term radiometric stability between Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chander, Gyanesh; Angal, A.

    2009-01-01

    Short-term radiometric stability was evaluated using continuous ETM+ scenes within a single orbit (contact period) and the corresponding MODIS scenes for the four matching solar reflective visible and near-infrared (VNIR) band pairs between the two sensors. The near-simultaneous earth observations were limited by the smaller swath size of ETM+ (183 km) compared to MODIS (2330 km). Two sets of continuous granules for Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ were selected and mosaicked based on pixel geolocation information for noncloudy pixels over the African continent. The matching pixel pairs were resampled from a fine to a coarse pixel resolution, and the at-sensor spectral radiance values for a wide dynamic range of the sensors were compared and analyzed, covering various surface types. The following study focuses on radiometric stability analysis from the VNIR band-pairs of ETM+ and MODIS. The Libya-4 desert target was included in the path of this continuous orbit, which served as a verification point between the short-term and the long-term trending results from previous studies. MODTRAN at-sensor spectral radiance simulation is included for a representative desert surface type to evaluate the consistency of the results.

  12. Highly Heterogeneous Soil Bacterial Communities around Terra Nova Bay of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyoun Soo; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ji Hee; Lee, Joohan; Choi, Taejin; Ahn, Tae Seok; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Given the diminished role of biotic interactions in soils of continental Antarctica, abiotic factors are believed to play a dominant role in structuring of microbial communities. However, many ice-free regions remain unexplored, and it is unclear which environmental gradients are primarily responsible for the variations among bacterial communities. In this study, we investigated the soil bacterial community around Terra Nova Bay of Victoria Land by pyrosequencing and determined which environmental variables govern the bacterial community structure at the local scale. Six bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, were dominant, but their relative abundance varied greatly across locations. Bacterial community structures were affected little by spatial distance, but structured more strongly by site, which was in accordance with the soil physicochemical compositions. At both the phylum and species levels, bacterial community structure was explained primarily by pH and water content, while certain earth elements and trace metals also played important roles in shaping community variation. The higher heterogeneity of the bacterial community structure found at this site indicates how soil bacterial communities have adapted to different compositions of edaphic variables under extreme environmental conditions. Taken together, these findings greatly advance our understanding of the adaption of soil bacterial populations to this harsh environment. PMID:25799273

  13. Application of a Terrestrial LIDAR System for Elevation Mapping in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyoungsig; Hong, Seunghwan; Kim, Sangmin; Park, Hyokeun; Park, Ilsuk; Sohn, Hong-Gyoo

    2015-01-01

    A terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system has high productivity and accuracy for topographic mapping, but the harsh conditions of Antarctica make LIDAR operation difficult. Low temperatures cause malfunctioning of the LIDAR system, and unpredictable strong winds can deteriorate data quality by irregularly shaking co-registration targets. For stable and efficient LIDAR operation in Antarctica, this study proposes and demonstrates the following practical solutions: (1) a lagging cover with a heating pack to maintain the temperature of the terrestrial LIDAR system; (2) co-registration using square planar targets and two-step point-merging methods based on extracted feature points and the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm; and (3) a georeferencing module consisting of an artificial target and a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver. The solutions were used to produce a topographic map for construction of the Jang Bogo Research Station in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. Co-registration and georeferencing precision reached 5 and 45 mm, respectively, and the accuracy of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generated from the LIDAR scanning data was ±27.7 cm. PMID:26389918

  14. On-orbit modulation transfer function characterization of terra MODIS using the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2011-10-01

    The on-orbit Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of MODIS instrument can be accurately measured by its on-board SpectroRadiometirc Calibration Assembly (SRCA). For other Earth observing instruments without calibrators similar to SRCA, the sharp edge of moon provides a reasonable high-contrast target for their on-orbit MTF characterization. In this paper, we propose a procedure to measure MODIS on-orbit MTF from the moon image. For Terra MODIS, lunar calibration was performed nearly every month since its launch in 2000. For each lunar calibration, the images of the moon from multiple scans are taken and traced across the right edge to form an edge spread function (ESF). The ESF is used to calculate a line spread function (LSF) through differentiation. The MTF in along-scan direction is then derived through the Fourier Transform of the LSF. The same procedure can also be applied to MTF calculation in along-track direction. The results are compared with SRCA measured MTF, and the long-term trending of both MTF agrees. Lunar MTF characterization appears noisier mainly because of the non-uniformity of the moon surface and moderate spatial resolution of the moon image, which makes it difficult to accurately locate the circular lunar edge in sub-pixel level. Improvement of the current method is discussed in the end.

  15. Genetic Analysis of Benzothiophene Biodesulfurization Pathway of Gordonia terrae Strain C-6

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Kehui; Zhang, Yue; Tian, Huimei; Ji, Kaihua; Li, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur can be removed from benzothiophene (BT) by some bacteria without breaking carbon-carbon bonds. However, a clear mechanism for BT desulfurization and its genetic components have not been reported in literatures so far. In this study, we used comparative transcriptomics to study differential expression of genes in Gordonia terrae C-6 cultured with BT or sodium sulfate as the sole source of sulfur. We found that 135 genes were up-regulated with BT relative to sodium sulfate as the sole sulfur source. Many of these genes encode flavin-dependent monooxygenases, alkane sulfonate monooxygenases and desulfinase, which perform similar functions to those involved in the 4S pathway of dibenzothiophene (DBT) biodesulfurization. Three of the genes were found to be located in the same operon, designated bdsABC. Cell extracts of pET28a-bdsABC transfected E. coli Rosetta (DE3) converted BT to a phenolic compound, identified as o-hydroxystyrene. These results advance our understanding of enzymes involved in the BT biodesulfurization pathway. PMID:24367657

  16. Dust transport and deposition observed from the Terra-MODIS space observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Koren, I.; Tanre, D.; Fan, S.; Remer, L.; Ginoux, P.

    2003-12-01

    Meteorological observations, in situ data and satellite images of dust episodes were used already in the 1970s to estimate that 100 tg of dust are transported from Africa over the Atlantic Ocean every year between June and August and deposited in the Atlantic Ocean and the Americas. Desert dust is a main source of nutrients to oceanic biota and the Amazon forest, but deteriorates air quality and caries pathogens as shown for Florida. Dust affects the Earth radiation budget, thus participating in climate change and feedback mechanisms. There is an urgent need for new tools for quantitative evaluation of the dust distribution, transport and deposition. The Terra spacecraft launched at the dawn of the last millennium provides first systematic well calibrated multispectral measurements from the MODIS instrument, for daily global analysis of aerosol. MODIS data are used here to distinguish dust from smoke and maritime aerosols and evaluate the African dust column concentration, transport and deposition. We found that 230 80 tg of dust are transported annually from Africa to the Atlantic Ocean, 30 tg return to Africa and Europe, 70 tg reach the Caribbean, 45 tg fertilize the Amazon Basin, 4 times as previous estimates thus explaining a paradox regarding the source of nutrition to the Amazon forest, and 120 40 tg are deposited in the Atlantic Ocean. The results are compared favorably with dust transport models for particle radius * 12 m. This study is a first example of quantitative use of MODIS aerosol for a geophysical study.

  17. Spatially Complete Surface Albedo Data Sets: Value-Added Products Derived from Terra MODIS Land Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moody, E. G.; King, M. D.; Platnick, S.; Schaaf, C. B.; Gao, F.

    2004-01-01

    Spectral land surface albedo is an important parameter for describing the radiative properties of the Earth. Accordingly it reflects the consequences of natural and human interactions, such as anthropogenic, meteorological, and phenological effects, on global and local climatological trends. Consequently, albedos are integral parts in a variety of research areas, such as general circulation models (GCMs), energy balance studies, modeling of land use and land use change, and biophysical, oceanographic, and meteorological studies. The availability of global albedo data over a large range of spectral channels and at high spatial resolution has dramatically improved with the launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft in December 1999. However, lack of spatial and temporal coverage due to cloud and snow effects can preclude utilization of official products in production and research studies. We report on a technique used to fill incomplete MOD43 albedo data sets with the intention of providing complete value-added maps. The technique is influenced by the phenological concept that within a certain area, a pixel s ecosystem class should exhibit similar growth cycle events over the same time period. The shape of an area s phenological temporal curve can be imposed upon existing pixel-level data to fill missing temporal points. The methodology will be reviewed by showcasing 2001 global and regional results of complete albedo and NDVl data sets.

  18. Social vulnerability and climate variability in southern Brazil: a TerraPop case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamo, S. B.; Fitch, C. A.; Kugler, T.; Doxsey-Whitfield, E.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability is an inherent characteristic of the Earth's climate, including but not limited to climate change. It affects and impacts human society in different ways, depending on the underlying socioeconomic vulnerability of specific places, social groups, households and individuals. This differential vulnerability presents spatial and temporal variations, and is rooted in historical patterns of development and relations between human and ecological systems. This study aims to assess the impact of climate variability on livelihoods and well-being, as well as their changes over time and across space, and for rural and urban populations. The geographic focus is Southern Brazil-the states of Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul-- and the objectives include (a) to identify and map critical areas or hotspots of exposure to climate variability (temperature and precipitation), and (b) to identify internal variation or differential vulnerability within these areas and its evolution over time (1980-2010), using newly available integrated data from the Terra Populus project. These data include geo-referenced climate and agricultural data, and data describing demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individuals, households and places.

  19. Determining the Location and Radiative Impact of Thin Cirrus Clouds using Terra data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. E.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Thin cirrus clouds (with optical depth tau much less than 1) play a potentially important role in the Earth atmosphere. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Terra satellite has a channel at 1.375 microns that is specifically designed to detect these clouds. During two three-day periods from December 2000 and June 2001, I show that thin cirrus clouds are ubiquitous throughout the tropics. These thin cirrus generally have optical depths below 0.05 and appear with greater frequency and optical depth near deep convection. Regressing top-of-atmosphere outgoing longwave flux data from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) against optical depth, we calculate that these thin clouds decrease outgoing longwave flux by approx. 1 W/sq m/(0.01 tau). This translates into longwave forcing of several W/sq m near convection and zero away from convection. Averaging over the whole tropics, these thin cirrus decrease average longwave forcing is approx. 1.4 W/sq m.

  20. Assessment of the Short-Term Radiometric Stability between Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaxiong; Chander, G.; Angal, Amit

    2009-01-01

    The Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor was launched on April 15th, 1999 and has been in operation for over nine years. It has six reflective solar spectral bands located in the visible and shortwave infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum (0.5 - 2.5 micron) at a spatial resolution of 30 m. The on-board calibrators are used to monitor the on-orbit sensor system changes. The ETM+ performs solar calibrations using on-board Full Aperture Solar Calibrator (FASC) and the Partial Aperture Solar Calibrator (PASC). The Internal Calibrator Lamp (IC) lamps, a blackbody and shutter optics constitute the on-orbit calibration mechanism for ETM+. On 31 May 2003, a malfunction of the scan-line corrector (SLC) mirror assembly resulted in the loss of approximately 22% of the normal scene area. The missing data affects most of the image with scan gaps varying in width from one pixel or less near the centre of the image to 14 pixels along the east and west edges of the image, creating a wedge-shaped pattern. However, the SLC failure has no impacts on the radiometric performance of the valid pixels. On December 18, 1999, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Proto-Flight Model (PFM) was launched on-board the NASA's EOS Terra spacecraft. Terra MODIS has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 14.5 micron and collects data over a wide field of view angle (+/-55 deg) at three nadir spatial resolutions of 250 m, 500 in 1 km for bands 1 to 2, 3 to 7, and 8 to 36, respectively. It has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with spectral wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The RSB radiometric calibration is performed by using on-board solar diffuser (SD), solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), space-view (SV), and spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). Through the SV port, periodic lunar observations are used to track radiometric response changes at different angles of incidence (AOI) of the scan mirror. As a part of the AM

  1. TERRA/MOPITT Measurements of Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Distributions in Support of INTEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. P.; Gille, J. C.; Emmons, L. K.; Ziskin, D.

    2005-01-01

    Interaction with the ongoing satellite measurements programs was an important goal of INTEX- A. The Terra/MOPITT instrument had been making global measurements of the tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) distribution for 4 years, and was in a unique position to provide valuable support during the field campaign. Remote sensing of CO directly addressed the scientific questions motivating the IXTEX-A strategy and deployment, and measurement of this gas was rated as being mission critical. CO is an important trace gas in tropospheric chemistry due to its role in determining the atmospheric oxidizing capacity, as an ozone precursor, and as an indicator and tracer of both natural and anthropogenic pollution arising from incomplete combustion. The satellite perspective provided the more general temporal and spatial context to the aircraft and ground-based measurements during the subsequent scientific analysis. We proposed to build on the experience of supplying MOPITT data to previous field campaigns, such as TRACE-P. We provided expedited MOPITT data processing in near real-time, along with basic analysis of the measurements to indicate, where possible, the origin of the CO plumes that impacted the regions of flight operations and other in situ measurement activities. To ensure maximum exploitation of the satellite information, we will also had a scientist in the field to present and interpret the MOPITT data for the INTEX team, and to help ensure its utility in flight planning.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HARPS-TERRA project. I. (Anglada-Escude+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglada-Escude, G.; Butler, R. P.

    2012-07-01

    Doppler spectroscopy has uncovered or confirmed all the known planets orbiting nearby stars. Two main techniques are used to obtain precision Doppler measurements at optical wavelengths. The first approach is the gas cell method, which consists of least-squares matching of the spectrum of iodine imprinted on the spectrum of the star. The second method relies on the construction of a stabilized spectrograph externally calibrated in wavelength. The most precise stabilized spectrometer in operation is the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS), operated by the European Southern Observatory in La Silla Observatory, Chile. The Doppler measurements obtained with HARPS are typically obtained using the cross-correlation function (CCF) technique. This technique consists of multiplying the stellar spectrum by a weighted binary mask and finding the minimum of the product as a function of the Doppler shift. It is known that CCF is suboptimal in exploiting the Doppler information in the stellar spectrum. Here we describe an algorithm to obtain precision radial velocity measurements using least-squares matching of each observed spectrum to a high signal-to-noise ratio template derived from the same observations. This algorithm is implemented in our software HARPS-TERRA (Template-Enhanced Radial velocity Re-analysis Application). New radial velocity measurements on a representative sample of stars observed by HARPS are used to illustrate the benefits of the proposed method. We show that, compared with CCF, template matching provides a significant improvement in accuracy, especially when applied to M dwarfs. (5 data files).

  3. Regional and local land subsidence at the Venice coastland by TerraSAR-X PSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, L.; Strozzi, T.; Da Lio, C.; Teatini, P.

    2015-11-01

    Land subsidence occurred at the Venice coastland over the 2008-2011 period has been investigated by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) using a stack of 90 TerraSAR-X stripmap images with a 3 m resolution and a 11-day revisiting time. The regular X-band SAR acquisitions over more than three years coupled with the very-high image resolution has significantly improved the monitoring of ground displacements at regional and local scales, e.g., the entire lagoon, especially the historical palaces, the MoSE large structures under construction at the lagoon inlets to disconnect the lagoon from the Adriatic Sea during high tides, and single small structures scattered within the lagoon environments. Our results show that subsidence is characterized by a certain variability at the regional scale with superimposed important local displacements. The movements range from a gentle uplift to subsidence rates of up to 35 mm yr-1. For instance, settlements of 30-35 mm yr-1 have been detected at the three lagoon inlets in correspondence of the MoSE works, and local sinking bowls up to 10 mm yr-1 connected with the construction of new large buildings or restoration works have been measured in the Venice and Chioggia historical centers. Focusing on the city of Venice, the mean subsidence of 1.1 ± 1.0 mm yr-1 confirms the general stability of the historical center.

  4. On-Orbit Spatial Characterization of MODIS with ASTER Aboard the Terra Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Yong; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2011-01-01

    This letter presents a novel approach for on-orbit characterization of MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) band-to-band registration (BBR) using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra spacecraft. The spatial resolution of ASTER spectral bands is much higher than that of MODIS, making it feasible to characterize MODIS on-orbit BBR using their simultaneous observations. The ground target selected for on-orbit MODIS BBR characterization in this letter is a water body, which is a uniform scene with high signal contrast relative to its neighbor areas. A key step of this approach is to accurately localize the measurements of each MODIS band in an ASTER measurement plane coordinate (AMPC). The ASTER measurements are first interpolated and aggregated to simulate the measurements of each MODIS band. The best measurement match between ASTER and each MODIS band is obtained when the measurement difference reaches its weighted minimum. The position of each MODIS band in the AMPC is then used to calculate the BBR. The results are compared with those derived from MODIS onboard Spectro-Radiometric Calibration Assembly. They are in good agreement, generally less than 0.1 MODIS pixel. This approach is useful for other sensors without onboard spatial characterization capability. Index Terms Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), band-to-band registration (BBR), MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), spatial characterization.

  5. Terra and Aqua moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer collection 6 level 1B algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toller, Gary; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Wenny, Brian N.; Geng, Xu; Kuyper, James; Angal, Amit; Chen, Hongda; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wu, Aisheng

    2013-01-01

    The moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) was launched on the Terra spacecraft on Dec.18, 1999 and on Aquaon May 4, 2002. The data acquired by these instruments have contributed to the long-term climate data record for more than a decade and represent a key component of NASA's Earth observing system. Each MODIS instrument observes nearly the whole Earth each day, enabling the scientific characterization of the land, ocean, and atmosphere. The MODIS Level 1B (L1B) algorithms input uncalibrated geo-located observations and convert instrument response into calibrated reflectance and radiance, which are used to generate science data products. The instrument characterization needed to run the L1B code is currently implemented using time-dependent lookup tables. The MODIS characterization support team, working closely with the MODIS Science Team, has improved the product quality with each data reprocessing. We provide an overview of the new L1B algorithm release, designated collection 6. Recent improvements made as a consequence of on-orbit calibration, on-orbit analyses, and operational considerations are described. Instrument performance and the expected impact of L1B changes on the collection 6 L1B products are discussed.

  6. The TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X Formation Acquisition-from Planning to Realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahle, Ralph; Schlepp, Benjamin; Meissner, Florian; Kirschner, Michael; Kiehling, Reinhard

    2012-09-01

    On June 21, 2010 the TanDEM-X satellite (TDX) was injected into orbit at 15,700 km distance from its twin satellite TerraSAR-X (TSX), which has been in orbit since 2007. Already one month later TDX acquired a formation with TSX in order to build up the first single-pass radar interferometer in space. Within three years of close formation flying with flexible baselines ranging from 150 m to a few kilometers the twin satellites will collect interferometric radar measurements for the generation of a global digital elevation model with unprecedented accuracy. This paper elaborates on the TDX pre-launch analysis performed in the fields of collision assessment during orbit injection and target formation acquisition. To avoid a critical close approach shortly after TDX separation, the risk of collision between the already flying TSX satellite and the newly injected elements (DNEPR upper-stage, gas dynamic shield, and TDX satellite) had to be carefully analyzed. Further, the paper discusses a fuel-saving formation acquisition strategy, for which the maneuver budget is analyzed as a function of launch day and launch injection accuracy. Finally, flight results are presented to illustrate the successful formation acquisition realized in July 2010 and the formation reconfiguration process from the 20 km wide formation into the 300-400 m close formation performed in October 2010. This reconfiguration marked the start of the bi-static TDX/TSX instrument operation.

  7. Monitoring of rapid land cover changes in eastern Japan using Terra/MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, I.; Hara, K.; Park, J.; Asanuma, I.; Tomita, M.; Hasegawa, D.; Short, K.; Fujihara, M.,

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation and land cover in Japan are rapidly changing. Abandoned farmland in 2010, for example, was 396,000 ha, or triple that of 1985. Efficient monitoring of changes in land cover is vital to both conservation of biodiversity and sustainable regional development. The Ministry of Environment is currently producing 1/25,000 scale vegetation maps for all of Japan, but the work is not yet completed. Traditional research is time consuming, and has difficulty coping with the rapid nature of change in the modern world. In this situation, classification of various scale remotely sensed data can be of premier use for efficient and timely monitoring of changes in vegetation.. In this research Terra/MODIS data is utilized to classify land cover in all of eastern Japan. Emphasis is placed on the Tohoku area, where large scale and rapid changes in vegetation have occurred in the aftermath of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011. Large sections of coastal forest and agricultural lands, for example, were directly damaged by the earthquake or inundated by subsequent tsunami. Agricultural land was also abandoned due to radioactive contamination from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. The classification results are interpreted within the framework of a Landscape Transformation Sere model developed by Hara et al (2010), which presents a multi-staged pattern for tracking vegetation changes under successively heavy levels of human interference. The results of the research will be useful for balancing conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems with the needs for regional redevelopment.

  8. Assessment of the Short-Term Radiometric Stability between Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaxiong; Chander, G.; Angal, Amit

    2009-01-01

    The Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor was launched on April 15th, 1999 and has been in operation for over nine years. It has six reflective solar spectral bands located in the visible and shortwave infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum (0.5 - 2.5 micron) at a spatial resolution of 30 m. The on-board calibrators are used to monitor the on-orbit sensor system changes. The ETM+ performs solar calibrations using on-board Full Aperture Solar Calibrator (FASC) and the Partial Aperture Solar Calibrator (PASC). The Internal Calibrator Lamp (IC) lamps, a blackbody and shutter optics constitute the on-orbit calibration mechanism for ETM+. On 31 May 2003, a malfunction of the scan-line corrector (SLC) mirror assembly resulted in the loss of approximately 22% of the normal scene area. The missing data affects most of the image with scan gaps varying in width from one pixel or less near the centre of the image to 14 pixels along the east and west edges of the image, creating a wedge-shaped pattern. However, the SLC failure has no impacts on the radiometric performance of the valid pixels. On December 18, 1999, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Proto-Flight Model (PFM) was launched on-board the NASA's EOS Terra spacecraft. Terra MODIS has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 14.5 micron and collects data over a wide field of view angle (+/-55 deg) at three nadir spatial resolutions of 250 m, 500 in 1 km for bands 1 to 2, 3 to 7, and 8 to 36, respectively. It has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with spectral wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The RSB radiometric calibration is performed by using on-board solar diffuser (SD), solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), space-view (SV), and spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). Through the SV port, periodic lunar observations are used to track radiometric response changes at different angles of incidence (AOI) of the scan mirror. As a part of the AM

  9. Spatially Complete Surface Albedo Data Sets: Value-Added Products Derived From Terra MODIS Land Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, E.; King, M. D.; Platnick, S.; Schaaf, C. B.; Gao, F.

    2003-12-01

    Spectral land surface albedo is an important parameter for describing the radia-tive properties of the Earth. Accordingly it reflects the consequences of natural and human interactions, such as anthropogenic, meteorological, and phenological effects, on global and local climatological trends. Consequently, albedos are integral parts in a variety of research areas, such as general circulation models (GCMs), energy balance studies, modeling of land use and land use change, and biophysical, oceanographic, and meteorological studies. The availability of global albedo data over a large range of spectral channels and at high spatial resolution has dramatically improved with the launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft in December 1999. However, lack of spatial and temporal coverage due to cloud and snow effects can preclude utilization of official products in production and research studies. We report on a technique used to fill incomplete MOD43 albedo data sets with the intention of providing complete value-added maps. The technique is influ-enced by the phenological concept that within a certain area, a pixel's ecosystem class should exhibit similar growth cycle events over the same time period. The shape of an area's phenological temporal curve can be imposed upon existing pixel-level data to fill missing temporal points. The methodology will be reviewed by showcasing 2001 global and regional results of complete albedo and NDVI data sets.

  10. Brevundimonas terrae sp. nov., isolated from an alkaline soil in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Kang, So-Jung; Lee, Jung-Sook; Oh, Tae-Kwang

    2006-12-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, Brevundimonas-like bacterial strain, KSL-145(T), was isolated from an alkaline soil in Korea and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. Strain KSL-145(T) grew optimally at pH 7.5-8.0 and 30 degrees C without NaCl. It was characterized chemotaxonomically as containing Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(16 : 0) as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 61.8 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain KSL-145(T) fell within the radiation of the cluster comprising Brevundimonas species and Mycoplana bullata. The levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain KSL-145(T) and the type strains of Brevundimonas species and M. bullata ranged from 95.3 to 98.7 %. The mean DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain KSL-145(T) and the type strains of Brevundimonas diminuta and M. bullata, the closest phylogenetic relatives, were 26 and 15 %, respectively. Strain KSL-145(T) could be differentiated from Brevundimonas species and M. bullata by differences in several phenotypic characteristics. On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic data, strain KSL-145(T) represents a novel species in the genus Brevundimonas, for which the name Brevundimonas terrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KSL-145(T) (=KCTC 12481(T)=JCM 13476(T)). PMID:17158998

  11. Sea Surface Wind Field by X-Band TerraSAR-X and Tandem-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Susanne; Li, Xiaoming; Ren, Yongzheng; He, Mingxia

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we present the newly developed Geophysical Model Function (GMF), denoted XMOD2, to retrieve the sea surface wind field from X-band TerraSAR-X/Tandem-X (TS-X/TD-X) data. In contrary to the previous XMOD1, XMOD2 is based on a nonlinear GMF, and moreover it also depicts the difference between upwind and downwind of the sea surface backscatter. By exploiting 371 collocations, the retrieved TS-X/TD-X sea surface wind speed by XMOD2 agrees well with in situ buoy measurements with a bias of 0.39 m/s, an RMSE of 1.52 m/s and a scatter index (SI) of 16.1%. To evaluate the sea surface wind field retrieved from X-band SAR, we conducted a joint campaign in the South China Sea in August, 2011. Examples of sea surface wind field retrieved from the TS-X/TD-X data acquired in the campaign are shown for demonstration.

  12. Mycobacterium icosiumassiliensis sp. nov., a New Member in the Mycobacterium terrae Complex Isolated from Surface Water in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Djouadi, Lydia N; Levasseur, Anthony; Khalil, Jacques Bou; Blanc-Taileur, Caroline; Asmar, Shady; Ghiloubi, Wassila; Natèche, Farida; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-08-01

    An acid-fast, rapidly growing, rod-shaped microorganism designated 8WA6 was isolated from a lake in Algiers, Algeria. The lake water was characterized by a temperature of 18 °C, a pH of 7.82, a copper concentration of 8.6 µg/L, and a cadmium concentration of 0.6 µg/L. First-line molecular identification confirmed the 8WA6 isolate to be a member of the Mycobacterium terrae complex, sharing 99.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with M. arupense AR-30097, 98.2 % partial hsp65 gene sequence similarity with M. terrae 28K766, and 97.1 % partial rpoB gene sequence similarity with Mycobacterium sp. FI-05396. Its 4.89-Mb genome exhibits a 66.8 GC % and an average nucleotide identity of 64.5 % with M. tuberculosis, 70.5 % with M. arupense, and 75 % with M. asiaticum. In the M. terrae complex, Mycobacterium 8WA6 was unique in exhibiting growth at 42 °C, negative reaction for nitrate reduction, urease activity and Tween 80 hydrolysis, and a positive reaction for α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase. Its protein profile determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry revealed a unique spectrum similar to M. arupense and M. terrae, exhibiting eleven specific peaks at 3787.791, 4578.019, 6349.630, 6855.638, 7202.310, 8149.608, 8775.257, 10,224.588, 10,484.116, 12,226.379, and 12,636.871 m/z. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for antibiotics, determined by microdilution, indicated a broad spectrum resistance, except for rifabutin (MIC, 0.5 g/L) and cefoxitin (MIC, 16 g/L). We concluded that the 8WA6 isolate is a representative isolate of a previously undescribed species in the M. terrae complex, which was named M. icosiumassiliensis sp. nov. with strain 8WA6 (Collection de Souches de l'Unité des Rickettsies, CSUR P1561, Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen, DSM 100711) as the type strain. PMID:27154465

  13. Terra@15, S'Cool@18: A Long-Running Student and Citizen Science Campaign for Validating Cloud Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Crecelius, S.; Rogerson, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    As Terra marks its 15th anniversary, the Students' Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) Project celebrates an 18 year milestone. S'COOL is the education and public outreach arm of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, which has two instruments on Terra. It developed from an initial conversation between scientists and educators in December 1996 before the launch of the first CERES instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Since January 1997, S'COOL has engaged students and citizen scientists with this NASA research by inviting them to make ground truth observations of clouds and related Earth system parameters. Since the project began, more than 127,000 cloud observations have been reported from more than 70 countries around the world. While observations are accepted at any time, more than half of those reported correspond to a CERES satellite retrieval matched in time (+/-15 minutes) and space. Nearly 1% of the reports, from locations at higher latitudes, can be compared to both Terra and Aqua to shed light on view angle effects. More than 3% of observations are for Terra night-time overpasses. About 10% of reports are for locations with snow on the ground - an ongoing challenge for cloud detection from space. S'COOL draws very loyal and unique participants: a school in Pennsylvania alone has reported more than 11,000 observations (including more than 2,500 night-time reports for Terra). In Central and South America, 3 schools in Colombia and one in Nicaragua have each reported more than 2,500 observations. The addition of the S'COOL Rover program, added in 2007 to simplify participation for citizen scientists, enabled reports from the Around the Americas sailing ship that circumnavigated North and South America in 2009-10, Roz Savage, a UK woman who has rowed solo across all the world's oceans, and a few observations from the MAGIC campaign of instrumented cargo ships transiting from Long Beach to Hawaii. A middle

  14. Comparison of Plains Volcanism in the Tempe Terra Region of Mars to the Eastern Snake River Plains, Idaho with Implications for Geochemical Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weren, S. L.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Hughes, S. S.; Gregg, T. K. P.

    2004-01-01

    The Eastern Snake River Plains (ESRP) in Idaho have long been considered a terrestrial analog for the plains volcanism like that evident in Syria Planum and Tempe Terra, Mars. Both the ESRP and Tempe Terra are sediment-blanketed volcanic fields in areas with significant extensional faulting. Similar volcanic features can be observed throughout both study areas using field analysis and DEMs of the ESRP and the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data from Mars. These features include flow fields, low shields, shields with steep summits, and fissure eruptions. A few other volcanic features, such as cinder cones, which suggest variable compositions, volatile interactions, and multiple volcanic events can be seen in both areas. The eruptions in both the ESRP and Tempe Terra generally originate from the fissures creating elongate, multi-vent shields as well as isolated or aligned single vent shields. Many of these show evidence of radial flow patterns from summit craters as well as lava tube fed flows. The volcanoes of Tempe Terra display some of the global latitudinal parameter trends of small volcanoes on Mars. Some of these trends may be explained by the variation of volatile content and compositional variation across Mars. However, within Tempe Terra no significant local latitudinal trends can be seen in edifice attributes and not all variations are explained by global trends. This study builds upon previous studies of the Tempe Terra region and the ESRP in order to develop a more detailed representation of features and topographic data. Using these data we attempt to help constrain the composition and eruptive style of the Tempe Terra volcanoes by correlating them with the similar and quantified ESRP variations.

  15. Mycobacterium arupense, Mycobacterium heraklionense, and a Newly Proposed Species, "Mycobacterium virginiense" sp. nov., but Not Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum, as Species of the Mycobacterium terrae Complex Causing Tenosynovitis and Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wengenack, Nancy L; Eke, Uzoamaka A; Benwill, Jeana L; Turenne, Christine; Wallace, Richard J

    2016-05-01

    Mycobacterium terrae complex has been recognized as a cause of tenosynovitis, with M. terrae and Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum reported as the primary etiologic pathogens. The molecular taxonomy of the M. terrae complex causing tenosynovitis has not been established despite approximately 50 previously reported cases. We evaluated 26 isolates of the M. terrae complex associated with tenosynovitis or osteomyelitis recovered between 1984 and 2014 from 13 states, including 5 isolates reported in 1991 as M. nonchromogenicum by nonmolecular methods. The isolates belonged to three validated species, one new proposed species, and two novel related strains. The majority of isolates (20/26, or 77%) belonged to two recently described species: Mycobacterium arupense (10 isolates, or 38%) and Mycobacterium heraklionense (10 isolates, or 38%). Three isolates (12%) had 100% sequence identity to each other by 16S rRNA and 99.3 to 100% identity by rpoB gene region V sequencing and represent a previously undescribed species within the M. terrae complex. There were no isolates of M. terrae or M. nonchromogenicum, including among the five isolates reported in 1991. The 26 isolates were susceptible to clarithromycin (100%), rifabutin (100%), ethambutol (92%), and sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (70%). The current study suggests that M. arupense, M. heraklionense, and a newly proposed species ("M. virginiense" sp. nov.; proposed type strain MO-233 [DSM 100883, CIP 110918]) within the M. terrae complex are the major causes of tenosynovitis and osteomyelitis in the United States, with little change over 20 years. Species identification within this complex requires sequencing methods. PMID:26962085

  16. MATER - Pianeta Terra-Mare: an interactive and multidisciplinary approach to Geosphere sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piangiamore, Giovanna Lucia; Fanelli, Emanuela; Furia, Stefania; Garau, Daniela; Merlino, Silvia; Musacchio, Gemma; Carla Centineo, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that Earth and Marine Sciences are not properly treated in scholastic programs and in textbooks are included in a superficial way. These topics are interdisciplinary and experimental (biology, ecology, oceanography and geology) and the recent advance in these fields is strictly linked to technologic improvement. School cannot keep up with the huge advances of knowledge experimented in the last 20 years, also for the lack of didactic laboratories sufficiently updated to support experimental activities. In this context, in 2014-15 three Italian Research Institutes (INGV, ISMAR-CNR and ENEA-CRAM) have decided to support the Unified School District "ISA 10"of Lerici (Liguria, Italy) - comprehensive of kindergartner, primary and middle schools - to develop the project MATER - Pianeta Terra-Mare (Planet Earth and Sea). The acronym MATER (MARe and TERra) has also a gender value, as people involved in the projects were women, mostly researchers and teachers, which have worked side by side with other women belonging to environmental and cultural associations of the territory. This heterogeneous group has a common objective: to promote the diffusion of a scientific culture and to sensitize students from 3 to 14 years towards problems occurring in marine and terrestrial environments, fostering the settlement of a sustainable attitude to the exploitation of natural resources and consciousness to natural hazards, such as earthquakes and floods, quite common in the Ligurian region. MATER has been considered as one of the best projects funded by MIUR (Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research) inside the Dissemination of Scientific and Technological Culture call for the year 2014. Natural hazards (Planet Earth) and the chemical-physical aspects and resources of the marine environment (Planet Sea) were the two modules of the project. Planet Earth developed through Piovono Idee! (Cloudy with a chance of Ideas!), an interactive exhibition on

  17. Equatorial Layered Deposits in Arabia Terra, Mars: Facies and Process Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pondrelli, M.; Rossi, A.; van Gasselt, S.; Le Deit, L.; Glamoclija, M.; Cavalazzi, B.; Franchi, F.; Fueten, F.; Hauber, E.; Zegers, T.

    2012-12-01

    Genetic mechanisms proposed to explain Equatorial Layered Deposits (ELDs) formation include subglacial volcanism, aeolian/airfall, lacustrine, lacustrine/volcanic and spring-fed deposition. ELDs have been frequently shown to consist of sulfates (e.g. Gendrin et al., 2005) that might form as a response to evaporation in a playa environment (Hoefen et al., 2003) or during spring precipitation (e.g. Allen and Oehler, 2008; Rossi et al., 2008). The importance of groundwater-dominated hydrological systems was proposed to explain the formation of light-toned deposits in Meridiani Planum and Arabia Terra (e.g. Andrews-Hanna et al. 2007). Additionally, fluid expulsion processes have been invoked to explain the formation of mounds within the light-toned deposits in Arabia Terra (Allen and Oehler, 2008; Rossi et al., 2008; Pondrelli et al., 2011). Potential for habitable conditions of both playa and spring-related settings (Cavalazzi et al., 2007; Glamoclija et al., 2011) coupled with the high preservation potential within sulfates (Panieri et al., 2010), make these deposits a good candidate to understand the potential past habitability of the planet. In order to investigate ELDs genesis, an area in the vicinity of Firsoff crater, where ELDs are present within and outside the craters, was selected for geological mapping and analysis of the landforms and their association using the available dataset, including CRISM in order to infer ELDs composition. Within Firsoff crater, ELDs form a bulge that can be estimated to be at least a few hundred meters thick, while, outside the craters, ELDs form flat-lying deposits. Although heavily eroded by wind and carved by yardangs, several morphologies within the ELDs in the craters seem to be depositional, which would exclude that the entire Firsoff basin had been originally filled by ELDs. Within craters, ELDs consist of roughly meter thick layers draping and onlapping the substratum. They appear affected by polygonal patterns with no

  18. Urban vegetation land covers change detection using multi-temporal MODIS Terra/Aqua data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.; Savastru, Dan M.; Dida, Adrian I.; Ionescu, Ovidiu M.

    2013-10-01

    Urban vegetation land cover change is a direct measure of quantitative increase or decrease in sources of urban pollution and the dimension of extreme climate events and changes that determine environment quality. Spatio- temporal monitoring of urban vegetation land cover changes is a very important task for establishing the links between policy decisions, regulatory actions and subsequent land use activities. Former studies incorporating two-date change detection using Landsat TM/ETM data had limited performance for urban biophysically complex systems applications. In this paper, we describe recent results using data from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and NOAA/AVHRR satellite to study urban vegetation land cover dynamics. This study explored the use of time-series MODIS Terra/Aqua Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Leaf Area Index (LAI), data to provide change detection information for metropolitan area of Bucharest in Romania. Training and validation are based on a reference dataset collected from IKONOS high resolution remote sensing data. The mean detection accuracy for period 2002- 2012 was assessed to be of 89%, with a reasonable balance between change commission errors (21.7%), change omission errors (28.5%), and Kappa coefficient of 0.69. Annual change detection rates across the urban/periurban areas over the study period (2002-2012) were estimated at 0.78% per annum in the range of 0.45% (2002) to 0.75% (2012).Vegetation dynamics in urban areas at seasonal and longer timescales reflect large-scale interactions between the terrestrial biosphere and the climate system.

  19. Luteimonas terrae sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere soil of Radix ophiopogonis.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Hien T T; Yin, Chang Shik

    2016-05-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped and bright-yellow-pigmented bacterium, motile by means of a single polar flagellum, designated THG-MD21T, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of Radix ophiopogonis in Henan province, PR China. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain THG-MD21T belongs to the genus Luteimonas and was most closely related to Luteimonas aestuarii B9T (98.2 % sequence similarity), Lysobacter panaciterrae Gsoil 068T (97.2 %) and Luteimonas marina FR1330T (97.0 %). The DNA G+C content was 64.4 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain THG-MD21T and its closest phylogenetic neighbours was below 30.0 %. The only isoprenoid quinone detected in strain THG-MD21T was ubiquinone-8.The major polar lipids were found to be phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol, and the predominant fatty acids were iso-C11 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0 and iso-C17 : 1ω9c. The DNA-DNA hybridization result and characteristics revealed by a polyphasic study showed that strain THG-MD21T represents a novel species, for which the name Luteimonas terrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-MD21T ( = KACC 18131T = JCM 30122T). PMID:26782356

  20. Global Retrieval of Roughness Length from EOS-Terra Satellite Products and Limited Field Study Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaudt, K. J.; Dickinson, R. E.

    2003-12-01

    Global and regional retrievals, which illustrate the seasonality, of roughness length will be presented. Roughness length is a key factor in estimating the sensible and latent heat fluxes in climate models. In the past the lack of observations made it necessary for most climate models to use relatively crude estimates for roughness length. Typically the roughness length was assigned a constant value for each of the land cover classifications. In reality roughness length depends upon the average height, shape, density and Leaf Area Index (LAI) of the vegetation present. The retrievals presented here depend on these four variables, and they represent a significant improvement over past approaches. The parameterization of roughness length in terms of the four variables (average height, shape, density and LAI) is based on the work of Raupach and Lindroth. The roughness length is formulated in such a way that roughness length can be found either by remote sensing or by variables used in climate models with interactive canopies. The EOS-Terra satellite products used are the overstory plant density and LAI for the seven treed IGBP land cover classes (evergreen and deciduous needle-leaf, evergreen and deciduous broad-leaf and mixed forests, savannah and woody savannah). The tree crown shape (the canopy height-to-width ratio) is based on field studies; it depends on the tree's basic shape (conical or elliptical) and on latitude. At present, the height is of all the vegetation is the average height for the various land cover classifications found in numerous field studies. Limitations of the current retrieval and future improvements will be discussed.

  1. Blueberries on Earth and Mars: Correlations Between Concretions in Navajo Sandstone and Terra Meridiani on Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Milner, M. W.; Netoff, D.; Dohm, J.; Kalm, V.; Krinsley, D.; Sodhi, R. N.; Anderson, R. C.; Boccia, S.; Malloch, D.; Kapran, B.; Havics, A.

    2008-12-01

    Concretionary Fe-Mn-rich nodular authigenic constituents of Jurassic Navajo sandstone (moki marbles) bear a certain relationship to similar concretionary forms ('blueberries') observed on Mars. Their origin on Earth is considered to invoke variable redox conditions with underground fluids penetrating porous quartz-rich sandstone leading to precipitation of hematite and goethite-rich material from solution, generally forming around a central nucleus of fine particles of quartz and orthoclase, recently verified by XRD and SEM-EDS analyses. At the outer rim/inner nucleus boundary, bulbous lobes of fine-grained quartz often invade and fracture the outer rim armored matrix. The bulbous forms are interpreted to result from fluid explusion from the inner concretionary mass, a response to pressure changes accompanying overburden loading. Moki marbles, harder than enclosing rock, often weather out of in situ sandstone outcrops that form a surface lag deposit of varnished marbles that locally resemble desert pavement. The marbles appear morphologically similar to 'blueberries' identified on the martian surface in Terra Meridiani through the MER-1 Opportunity rover. On Earth, redox fluids responsible for the genesis of marbles may have emanated from deep in the crust (often influenced by magmatic processes). These fluids, cooling to ambient temperatures, may have played a role in the genesis of the cemented outer rim of the concretions. The low frequency of fungi filaments in the marbles, contrasts with a high occurrence in Fe-encrusted sands of the Navajo formation [1], indicating that microbial content is of secondary importance in marble genesis relative to the fluctuating influx of ambient groundwater. Nevertheless, the presence of filaments in terrestrial concretions hints at the possibility of discovering fossil/extant life on Mars, and thus should be considered as prime targets for future reconnaissance missions to Mars. 1] Mahaney, W.C., et al. (2004), Icarus, 171, 39-53.

  2. TerraSAR-X precise orbit determination with real-time GPS ephemerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wermuth, M.; Hauschild, A.; Montenbruck, O.; Kahle, R.

    2012-09-01

    For active and future Earth observation missions, the availability of near real-time precise orbit information is becoming more and more important. The latency and quality of precise orbit determination results is mainly driven by the availability of precise GPS ephemerides and clocks. In order to have high-quality GPS ephemerides and clocks available at real-time, the German Space Operations Center (GSOC) has developed the real-time clock estimation system RETICLE. The system receives data streams with GNSS observations from the global tracking network of the International GNSS Service (IGS) in real-time. Using the known station position, RETICLE estimates precise GPS satellite clock offsets and drifts based on the most recent available ultra rapid predicted orbits provided by the IGS. The clock offset estimates have an accuracy of better than 0.3 ns and are globally valid. The latency of the estimated clocks is approximately 7 s after the observation epoch. Another limiting factor is the frequency of satellite downlinks and the latency of the data transfer from the ground station to the operations center. Therefore a near real-time scenario using GPS observation data from the TerraSAR-X mission is examined in which the satellite has about one ground station contact per orbit or respectively one contact in 90 min. This test campaign shows that precise orbits can be obtained in near real-time. With the use of estimated clocks an orbit accuracy of better than 10 cm (3D-RMS) can be obtained. The evaluation of satellite laser ranging (SLR) observations shows residuals of 2.1 cm (RMS) for orbits using RECTICLE and residuals of 4.2 cm (RMS) for orbits using the IGS ultra rapid ephemerides and clocks products. Hence the use of estimated clocks improves the orbit determination accuracy significantly (˜factor 2) compared to using predicted clocks.

  3. Aerosol optical thickness over the Mediterranean region by Modis (Terra): 2001 climatology and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaba, F.; Gobbi, G. P.

    2003-04-01

    Atmospheric suspended matter (aerosol) strongly impact the Earth radiative budget by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation. At a given wavelength, the main parameter commonly used to define their capability to extinguish radiation is the aerosol optical thickness (AOT). Monitoring such a quantity from space is fundamental to assess both global and regional impact of atmospheric aerosols. At the same time, these observations need to be compared to and integrated with ground-based measurements. One-year (2001) AOT data at 550 nm from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, on board of the NASA-Terra spacecraft) have been analyzed for the Mediterranean region, with particular focus on the Italian peninsula. Retrieved over both land and ocean, these data show interesting features of aerosol geographical and seasonal distribution. An evaluation of the MODIS aerosol retrieval over land has been performed comparing satellite-derived data with coincidental ground-based photometric AOT measurements at three different Italian sites (Rome - Tor Vergata, Ispra and Oristano as part of the AErosol RObotic NETwork, AERONET). For the Rome - Tor Vergata site, the availability of coincidental ground-based lidar measurements allowed to further investigate the MODIS retrieval by distinguishing between different atmospheric conditions. This analysis shows the different atmospheric regimes to have a not-negligible impact on the satellite retrieval. For the Oristano coastal site a comparison between land and ocean retrievals has been possible. In this case, the (expected) better performance of the ocean retrieval mainly translates in the reduction of the bias observed between MODIS and photometer measurements.

  4. TerraSAR-X dual-pol time-series for mapping of wetland vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betbeder, Julie; Rapinel, Sébastien; Corgne, Samuel; Pottier, Eric; Hubert-Moy, Laurence

    2015-09-01

    Mapping vegetation formations at a fine scale is crucial for assessing wetland functions and for better landscape management. Identification and characterization of vegetation formations is generally conducted at a fine scale using ecological ground surveys, which are limited to small areas. While optical remotely sensed imagery is limited to cloud-free periods, SAR time-series are used more extensively for wetland mapping and characterization using the relationship between distribution of vegetation formations and flood duration. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal number and key dates of SAR images to be classified to map wetland vegetation formations at a 1:10,000 scale. A series of eight dual-polarization TerraSAR-X images (HH/VV) was acquired in 2013 during dry and wet seasons in temperate climate conditions. One polarimetric parameter was extracted first, the Shannon entropy, which varies with wetland flooding status and vegetation roughness. Classification runs of all the possible combinations of SAR images using different k (number of images) subsets were performed to determine the best combinations of the Shannon entropy images to identify wetland vegetation formations. The classification runs were performed using Support Vector Machine techniques and were then analyzed using the McNemar test to investigate significant differences in the accuracy of all classification runs based on the different image subsets. The results highlight the relevant periods (i.e. late winter, spring and beginning of summer) for mapping vegetation formations, in accordance with ecological studies. They also indicate that a relationship can be established between vegetation formations and hydrodynamic processes with a short time-series of satellite images (i.e. 5 dates). This study introduces a new approach for herbaceous wetland monitoring using SAR polarimetric imagery. This approach estimates the number and key dates required for wetland management (e

  5. Biochemical and microbial features of shallow marine sediments along the Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Franco; Marchetto, Davide; Pini, Francesco; Fani, Renato; Michaud, Luigi; Lo Giudice, Angelina; Berto, Daniela; Giani, Michele

    2010-09-01

    Shallow marine sediments were collected from seven stations (three of which located at Gerlache Inlet, two at Tethys Bay, one at Adelie Cove and one just beneath the Italian Research Base) along the Terra Nova Bay coast (Ross Sea, Antarctica). Their chemical, biochemical and microbiological properties were studied in order to provide further insights in the knowledge of this Antarctic benthic ecosystem. Overall, the organic carbon (OC) represented the major fraction of total carbon (TC) and displayed concentrations similar to or slightly lower than those previously measured in Antarctic bottom sediments. The biopolymeric carbon within OC ranged from 4.1% to 19.9% and showed a wide trophic range (65-834 μg g -1 d.w.). Proteins (PRT) represented on average the main biochemical class contributing to labile organic carbon, followed by lipids (LIP) and carbohydrates (CHO). The activity of aminopeptidase, β- D-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase and esterase was checked, giving the highest values at Tethys Bay and at the deepest water sediments. The principal component analysis, which was computed considering physical, chemical (elemental and biochemical sedimentary composition) and microbiological parameters (including bacterial abundance, ectoenzymatic activities, T-RFs richness and diversity indices), allowed to obtain two main clusters ("Tethys Bay" and "other stations"). Based on data obtained, two representative 16S rRNA clone libraries using samples from Tethys Bay and Gerlache Inlet were constructed. The sequences of 171 clones were compared to those available in public databases to determine their approximate phylogenetic affiliations. Both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were disclosed, with the majority of them affiliated with the Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria. The occurrence of strictly anaerobic bacteria suggests that sediments might also undergo anoxic conditions that, in turn, could favor the accumulation of PRT in respect

  6. Summer snowmelt patterns in the South Shetlands using TerraSAR-X imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, C.; Jimenez, J. J.; Catalao Fernades, J.; Ferreira, A.; David, A.; Ramos, M.; Vieira, G.

    2014-12-01

    Snow plays an important role in controlling ground thermal regime and thus influencing permafrost distribution in the lower areas of the South Shetlands archipelago, where late lying snowpatches protect the soil from summer warming. However, summer snow distribution is complex in the mountainous environments of the Maritime Antarctica and it is very difficult to obtain accurate mapping products of snow cover extent and also to monitor snowmelt. Field observations of snow cover in the region are currently based on: i) thickness data from a very scarce network of meteorological stations, ii) temperature poles allowing to estimate snow thickness, iii) and time-lapse cameras allowing for assessing snow distribution over relatively small areas. The high cloudiness of the Maritime Antarctic environment limits good mapping results from the analysis of optical remote sensing imagery such as Landsat, QuickBird or GeoEye. Therefore, microwave sensors provide the best imagery, since they are not influenced by cloudiness and are sensitive to wet-snow, typical of the melting season. We have acquired TerraSAR-X scenes for Deception and Livingston Islands for January-March 2014 in spotlight (HH, VV and HH/VV) and stripmap modes (HH) and analyse the radar backscattering for determining the differences between wet-snow, dry-snow and bare soil aiming at developing snow melt pattern maps. For ground truthing, snowpits were dug in order to characterize snow stratigraphy, grain size, grain type and snow density and to evaluate its effects on radar backscattering. Time-lapse cameras allow to identify snow patch boundaries in the field and ground surface temperatures obtained with minloggers, together with air temperatures, allow to identify the presence of snow cover in the ground. The current research is conducted in the framework of the project PERMANTAR-3 (Permafrost monitoring and modelling in Antarctic Peninsula - PTDC/AAG-GLO/3908/2012 of the FCT and PROPOLAR).

  7. Modern pollen-rain characteristics of tall terra firme moist evergreen forest, southern Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosling, William D.; Mayle, Francis E.; Tate, Nicholas J.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2005-11-01

    The paucity of modern pollen-rain data from Amazonia constitutes a significant barrier to understanding the Late Quaternary vegetation history of this globally important tropical forest region. Here, we present the first modern pollen-rain data for tall terra firme moist evergreen Amazon forest, collected between 1999 and 2001 from artificial pollen traps within a 500 × 20 m permanent study plot (14°34'50″S, 60°49'48″W) in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park (NE Bolivia). Spearman's rank correlations were performed to assess the extent of spatial and inter-annual variability in the pollen rain, whilst statistically distinctive taxa were identified using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Comparisons with the floristic and basal area data of the plot (stems ≥10 cm d.b.h.) enabled the degree to which taxa are over/under-represented in the pollen rain to be assessed (using R-rel values). Moraceae/Urticaceae dominates the pollen rain (64% median abundance) and is also an important constituent of the vegetation, accounting for 16% of stems ≥10 cm d.b.h. and ca. 11% of the total basal area. Other important pollen taxa are Arecaceae (cf. Euterpe), Melastomataceae/Combretaceae, Cecropia, Didymopanax, Celtis, and Alchornea. However, 75% of stems and 67% of the total basal area of the plot ≥10 cm d.b.h. belong to species which are unidentified in the pollen rain, the most important of which are Phenakospermum guianensis (a banana-like herb) and the key canopy-emergent trees, Erisma uncinatum and Qualea paraensis.

  8. Characteristics of Co Profile Data From The Mopitt Instrument On Eos-terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, N. A. D.; Remedios, J. J.

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the main reaction partner of the hydroxyl radical (OH) in the troposphere and since OH plays a central role in atmospheric chemistry, CO is an important trace gas. Satellite instruments offer a way to measure the concentration and distribution of CO on a global scale. One such instrument is the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument which was launched on Decem- ber 18, 1999, onboard the NASA EOS-Terra satellite. It is a nadir viewing infra-red radiometer which targets measurements of CO and methane (CH4) using gas corre- lation spectroscopy to improve its spectral sensitivity. The CO profile measurements are made at 4.6 µm and 2.3 µm exploiting both upwelling thermal radiance and re- flected solar radiance. This study focuses on CO measurements from MOPITT, which currently employ the thermal channel data to retrieve columns and profiles. Investigation of the characteristics of MOPITT data in particular regimes, such as pollution measurements in the region of Europe and the examination of the effects of CO profile shape on MOPITT retrievals of CO in the region of Europe will be achieved through the use of retrieval simulations. An off-line data inversion system (retrieval algorithm) is currently under development. Preliminary results will be shown from retrieval simulations for a MOPITT-like instrument performed using the four thermal infra-red channels only. The simulations use optimal estimation techniques to derive typical retrieval errors given pre-computed spectra and weighting functions generated by an accurate, state of the art, infra-red, line by line radiative transfer model, the Oxford Reference Forward Model (RFM). Preliminary MOPITT data will also be shown to demonstrate the instrument's ability to observe regional CO sources as well as providing a global picture of CO behaviour.

  9. Dust Transport and Deposition Observed from the Terra-MODIS Space Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Koren, I.; Remer, L. A.; Tanre, D.; Fan, Ginoux; Fan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Meteorological observations, in situ data and satellite images of dust episodes were used already in the 1970s to estimate that 100 tg of dust are transported from Africa over the Atlantic Ocean every year between June and August and deposited in the Atlantic Ocean and the Americas. Desert dust is a main source of nutrients to oceanic biota and the Amazon forest, but deteriorates air quality and caries pathogens as shown for Florida. Dust affects the Earth radiation budget, thus participating in climate change and feedback mechanisms. There is an urgent need for new tools for quantitative evaluation of the dust distribution, transport and deposition. The Terra spacecraft launched at the dawn of the last millennium provides first systematic well calibrated multispectral measurements from the MODIS instrument, for daily global analysis of aerosol. MODIS data are used here to distinguish dust from smoke and maritime aerosols and evaluate the African dust column concentration, transport and deposition. We found that 230+/-80 tg of dust are transported annually from Africa to the Atlantic Ocean, 30 tg return to Africa and Europe, 70 tg reach the Caribbean, 45 tg fertilize the Amazon Basin, 4 times as previous estimates thus explaining a paradox regarding the source of nutrition to the Amazon forest, and 120+/-40 tg are deposited in the Atlantic Ocean. The results are compared favorably with dust transport models for particle radius less than or equal to 12 microns. This study is a first example of quantitative use of MODIS aerosol for a geophysical study.

  10. Monitoring ice break-up on the Mackenzie River, Canada, from MODIS Aqua and Terra observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, P.; Duguay, C. R.; Kang, K.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring the response of river ice phenology to variability and changes in high-latitude climate conditions is critical for improving our understanding of northern hydrology and related impacts on geochemical and biological processes. Shorter ice cover duration, thinner ice, and earlier break-up also influence the winter road season, thereby influencing industrial development and the delivery of goods to northern communities. Increased upstream temperatures over the Mackenzie River Basin have caused shorter ice cover seasons, consequently changing the timing and severity of river ice flow in this high-latitude region. This study involves the analysis of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Level 3 500-m snow products (Aqua and Terra), complemented with 250-m Level 1b data, to monitor ice cover during the break-up period on the Mackenzie River over the 2001-2013 period. Results from the analysis of 10 ice seasons (2003-2012) show that first day ice-off was observed between day of year (DY) 115-125 and ended between DY 145-155, resulting in average melt durations of about 30-40 days. Additional ice-on and ice-off days observed during 2003-2012 resulted from northern flowing entrained river ice that extended the break-up season until DY 155-163. Floating ice flowing northbound could therefore generate multiple periods of ice-cover and ice-free days at the same geographic location. During the ice break-up seasons from 2003-2012, ice melt was initiated by in situ melt over drainage basin (thermodynamic), especially between 61-62o N. However, ice break-up above the 62o N was more dynamically driven. In addition, ice jams were found to be largely controlled by river morphology.

  11. Drought monitoring of Shandong province in late 2010 using data acquired by Terra MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingzhi; Huang, He; Liu, Suihua; Yan, Lei

    2011-12-01

    Drought has been a frequently happened type of disaster in China, and it has caused massive losses to people's lives. Especially the drought happened in Shandong province in the late 2010, which was recognized as the severest in the past five hundred years in some areas. Evaluation must be done in order to make proper rescue plans. Instead of collecting data site by site, remote sensing is an efficient way to acquire data in a large area, which is very helpful for drought identification. Some normal ways in remote sensing for drought analysis are explained and compared in this paper, and then the VSWI method is chosen to evaluation the drought in Shandong province. Because of its free data policy and wide availability, the data sets acquired by Terra-MODIS are chosen to identify the drought severity in Shandong province. From the drought severity level images we can see that almost the whole area of Shandong province was lack of water except the Weishan Lake and eastern coastline regions where large area of water exists. The southwest region, including Heze and Jining, is in moderate drought condition, where it is used to be an important grain-producing area. This drought condition will inevitably put a negative effect on its grain production. The central and southern areas were in severe drought condition, but fortunately these areas are of hills and mountains, so the drought will only affect the lives of residents. The northern parts, including Dezhou and Bingzhou areas, were also in severe drought condition, and these regions are also important for grain-producing, so the severe drought disaster will lead to a sharp grain output cut. This analysis results will not only shed light on the rescue process, but also give the government some clues on how to maintain the grain supply safety.

  12. Implementation of electronic crosstalk correction for terra MODIS PV LWIR bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xu; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Chen, Na; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the primary instruments in the fleet of NASA's Earth Observing Systems (EOS) in space. Terra MODIS has completed 15 years of operation far exceeding its design lifetime of 6 years. The MODIS Level 1B (L1B) processing is the first in the process chain for deriving various higher level science products. These products are used mainly in understanding the geophysical changes occurring in the Earth's land, ocean, and atmosphere. The L1B code is designed to carefully calibrate the responses of all the detectors of the 36 spectral bands of MODIS and provide accurate L1B radiances (also reflectances in the case of Reflective Solar Bands). To fulfill this purpose, Look Up Tables (LUTs), that contain calibration coefficients derived from both on-board calibrators and Earth-view characterized responses, are used in the L1B processing. In this paper, we present the implementation mechanism of the electronic crosstalk correction in the Photo Voltaic (PV) Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR) bands (Bands 27-30). The crosstalk correction involves two vital components. First, a crosstalk correction modular is implemented in the L1B code to correct the on-board Blackbody and Earth-View (EV) digital number (dn) responses using a linear correction model. Second, the correction coefficients, derived from the EV observations, are supplied in the form of LUTs. Further, the LUTs contain time stamps reflecting to the change in the coefficients assessed using the Noise Equivalent difference Temperature (NEdT) trending. With the algorithms applied in the MODIS L1B processing it is demonstrated that these corrections indeed restore the radiometric balance for each of the affected bands and substantially reduce the striping noise in the processed images.

  13. Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in Ship Tracks Using Terra MODIS/MISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. C.; Christensen, M.; Diner, D. J.; Garay, M. J.; Nelson, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Simultaneous ship track observations from Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) have been compiled to investigate how ship-injected aerosols affect marine warm boundary layer clouds under different cloud types and environmental conditions. Taking advantage of the high spatial resolution multiangle observations uniquely available from MISR, we utilized the retrieved cloud albedo, cloud top height, and cloud motion vectors to examine the cloud property responses in ship-polluted and nearby unpolluted clouds. The strength of cloud albedo response to increased aerosol level is primarily dependent on cloud cell structure, dryness of the free troposphere, and boundary layer depth, corroborating a previous study by Chen et al. (2012) where A-Train satellite data were applied. Under open cell cloud structure, the cloud properties are more susceptible to aerosol perturbations as compared to closed cells. Aerosol plumes caused an increase in liquid water amount (+27%), cloud top height (+11%), and cloud albedo (+40%) for open cell clouds, whereas under closed cell clouds, little changes in cloud properties were observed. Further capitalizing on MISR's unique capabilities, the MISR cross-track cloud speed has been used to derive cloud top divergence. Statistically averaging the results from many plume segments to reduce random noise, we have found that in ship-polluted clouds there is stronger cloud top divergence, and in nearby unpolluted clouds, convergence occurs and leads to downdrafts, providing observational evidence for cloud top entrainment feedback. These results suggest that detailed cloud responses, classified by cloud type and environmental conditions, must be accounted for in global climate modeling studies to reduce uncertainties of aerosol indirect forcing. Reference: Chen, Y.-C. et al. Occurrence of lower cloud albedo in ship tracks, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 8223-8235, doi:10.5194/acp-12

  14. Terrabacter terrae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from soil in Spain.

    PubMed

    Montero-Barrientos, Marta; Rivas, Raúl; Velázquez, Encarna; Monte, Enrique; Roig, Manuel G

    2005-11-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, long-rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (strain PPLB(T)) was isolated from soil mixed with Iberian pig hair. This actinomycete showed keratinase activity in vitro when chicken feathers were added to the culture medium. Strain PPLB(T) was oxidase-negative and catalase-positive and produced lipase and esterase lipase. This actinomycete grew at 40 degrees C on nutrient agar and in the same medium containing 5 % (w/v) NaCl. Growth was observed with many different carbohydrates as the sole carbon source. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain PPLB(T) was shown to belong to the genus Terrabacter of the family Intrasporangiaceae. Strain PPLB(T) showed 98.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Terrabacter tumescens. Chemotaxonomic data, such as the main ubiquinone (MK-8), the main polar lipids (phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol) and the main fatty acids (i-C(15 : 0), ai-C(15 : 0), i-C(16 : 0) and ai-C(17 : 0)) supported the affiliation of strain PPLB(T) to the genus Terrabacter. The G+C content of the DNA was 71 mol%. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization (36.6 % relatedness between Terrabacter tumescens and strain PPLB(T)) and physiological and biochemical tests suggested that strain PPLB(T) belongs to a novel species of the genus Terrabacter, for which the name Terrabacter terrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PPLB(T) (=CECT 3379T=LMG 22921T). PMID:16280515

  15. NASA A-Train and Terra Observations of the 2010 Russian Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Douglass, A. R.; DaSilva, A.; Torres, O.; Levy, R.; Duncan, B. N.

    2011-01-01

    Wildfires raged throughout western Russia and parts of Eastern Europe during a persistent heat wave in the summer of 2010. Anomalously high surface temperatures (35 - 41 C) and low relative humidity (9 - 25 %) from mid- June to mid-August 2010 shown by analysis of radiosonde data from multiple sites in western Russia were ideal conditions for the wildfires to thrive. Measurements of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) over western Russian indicate persistent subsidence during the heat wave. Daily three-day back-trajectories initiated over Moscow reveal a persistent anticyclonic circulation for 18 days in August, coincident with the most intense period of fire activity observed by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This unfortunate meteorological coincidence allowed transport of polluted air from the region of intense fires to Moscow and the surrounding area. We demonstrate that the 2010 Russian wildfires are unique in the record of observations obtained by remote-sensing instruments on-board NASA satellites: Aura and Aqua (part of the A-Train Constellation) and Terra. Analysis of the distribution of MODIS fire products and aerosol optical thickness (AOT), UV aerosol index (AI) and single-scattering albedo (SSA) from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and total column carbon monoxide (CO) from Aqua s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) show that the region in the center of western Russia surrounding Moscow (52-58 deg N, 33 -43 deg E) is most severely impacted by wildfire emissions. Over this area, AIRS CO, OMI AI, and MODIS AOT are significantly enhanced relative to the historical satellite record during the first 18 days in August when the anti-cyclonic circulation persisted. By mid-August, the anti-cyclonic circulation was replaced with westerly transport over Moscow and vicinity. The heat wave

  16. Dust Transport and Deposition Observed from the Terra-Moderate Image Spectrometer (MODIS) Space Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Meteorological observations, in situ data and satellite images of dust episodes were used already in the 1970s to estimate that 100 tg of dust are transported from Africa over the Atlantic Ocean every year between June and August and deposited in the Atlantic Ocean and the Americas. Desert dust is a main source of nutrients to oceanic biota and the Amazon forest, but deteriorates air quality and caries pathogens as shown for Florida. Dust affects the Earth radiation budget, thus participating in climate change and feedback mechanisms. There is an urgent need for new tools for quantitative evaluation of the dust distribution, transport and deposition. The Terra spacecraft launched at the dawn of the last millennium provides first systematic well calibrated multispectral measurements from the MODIS instrument, for daily global analysis of aerosol. MODIS data are used here to distinguish dust from smoke and maritime aerosols and evaluate the African dust column concentration, transport and deposition. We found that 230 plus or minus 80 tg of dust are transported annually from Africa to the Atlantic Ocean, 30 tg return to Africa and Europe, 70 tg reach the Caribbean, 45 tg fertilize the Amazon Basin, 4 times as previous estimates thus explaining a paradox regarding the source of nutrition to the Amazon forest, and 120 plus or minus 40 tg are deposited in the Atlantic Ocean. The results are compared favorably with dust transport models for particle radius less than or equal to 12 microns. This study is a first example of quantitative use of MODIS aerosol for a geophysical study.

  17. Aerosol-cloud interactions in ship tracks using Terra MODIS/MISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Christensen, Matthew W.; Diner, David J.; Garay, Michael J.

    2015-04-01

    Simultaneous ship track observations from Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) have been compiled to investigate how ship-injected aerosols affect marine warm boundary layer clouds for different cloud types and environmental conditions. By taking advantage of the high spatial resolution multiangle observations available from MISR, we utilized the retrieved cloud albedo, cloud top height, and cloud motion vectors to examine cloud property responses in ship-polluted and nearby unpolluted clouds. The strength of the cloud albedo response to increased aerosol level is primarily dependent on cloud cell structure, dryness of the free troposphere, and boundary layer depth, corroborating a previous study by Chen et al. (2012) where A-Train satellite data were utilized. Under open cell cloud structure the cloud properties are more susceptible to aerosol perturbations as compared to closed cells. Aerosol plumes caused an increase in liquid water amount (+38%), cloud top height (+13%), and cloud albedo (+49%) for open cell clouds, whereas for closed cell clouds, little change in cloud properties was observed. Further capitalizing on MISR's unique capabilities, the MISR cross-track cloud speed was used to derive cloud top divergence. Statistically averaging the results from the identified plume segments to reduce random noise, we found evidence of cloud top divergence in the ship-polluted clouds, whereas the nearby unpolluted clouds showed cloud top convergence, providing observational evidence of a change in local mesoscale circulation associated with enhanced aerosols. Furthermore, open cell polluted clouds revealed stronger cloud top divergence as compared to closed cell clouds, consistent with different dynamical mechanisms driving their responses. These results suggest that detailed cloud responses, classified by cloud type and environmental conditions, must be accounted for in global climate modeling

  18. Age-Dating Drainage Basins in Sabae and Arabia Terrae, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouley, S.; Craddock, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    The precise timing of drainage basins is critical to understanding the climate history on Mars. One of the obvious problems with age-dating valley networks is the fact that they are small, linear features that are easily destroyed by large impact craters, thus counting craters on valley networks themselves is difficult at best. We proposed a new global study dating 27 drainage basins and subbasins in Sabaea and Arabia Terrae with the basin age-dating technique. Valley networks are contained within drainage basins, which is defined as the area that contributes water to a particular channel or set of channels . For our study, we used THEMIS (Thermal Emission Imaging System) visible images with a spatial resolution of 100 m/pixel which allow us to count craters with diameter of 1 km and larger. A digital elevation model (DEM) using 1/128 gridded Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) helped us to extract the 26 basins and sub-basins drainage divides From these measurements, our study shows: (1) that all the drainages basins of a large region seem to cease their main fluvial activity at the same time at the end of the Early Hesperian epoch (~3.54 Gyr); (2) that the basin technique is the most reliable technique to do global age-dating; and (3) that there is a possible correlation between the degradation rate and the elevation. Our conclusions suggest that the main fluvial activity ceased because of a global climate change. We suppose that most of valley networks on Mars we observed today formed during the Early Hesperian and post-dated the early and late Noachian topographic features.

  19. Spatially Complete Global Surface Albedos Derived from Terra/MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Moody, Eric G.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Platnick, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Spectral land surface albedo is an important parameter for describing the radiative properties of the Earth. Accordingly it reflects the consequences of natural and human interactions, such as anthropogenic, meteorological, and phenological effects, on global and local climatological trends. Consequently, albedos are integral parts in a variety of research areas, such as general circulation models (GCMs), energy balance studies, modeling of land use and land use change, and biophysical, oceanographic, and meteorological studies. , Over five years of land surface anisotropy, diffuse bihemispherical (white-sky) albedo and direct beam directional hemispherical (black-sky) albedo from observations acquired by the MODIS instruments aboard NASA s Terra and Aqua satellite platforms have provided researchers with unprecedented spatial, spectral, and temporal information on the land surface s radiative characteristics. However, roughly 30% of the global land surface, on an annual equal-angle basis, is obscured due to persistent and transient cloud cover, while another 207% is obscured due to ephemeral and seasonal snow effects. This precludes the MOD43B3 albedo products from being directly used in some remote sensing and ground-based applications, climate models, and global change research projects. To provide researchers with the requisite spatially complete global snow-free land surface albedo dataset, an ecosystem-dependent temporal interpolation technique was developed to fill missing or lower quality data and snow covered values from the official MOD43B3 dataset with geophysically realistic values. The method imposes pixel-level and local regional ecosystem-dependent phenological behavior onto retrieved pixel temporal data in such a way as to maintain pixel-level spatial and spectral detail and integrity. The phenological curves are derived from statistics based on the MODIS MOD12Q1 IGBP land cover classification product geolocated with the MOD43B3 data.

  20. Aquamicrobium terrae sp. nov., isolated from the polluted soil near a chemical factory.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Fang; Gu, Cheng-Gang; Zhang, Yin-Ping; Yang, Zong-Zheng; Wu, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Xin

    2014-06-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile bacterial strain hun6(T) isolated from the polluted soil near a chemical factory in northern Nanjing, China was investigated to clarify its taxonomic position. Growth of strain hun6(T) occurred between 10 and 45 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and between pH 6.0 and 8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0). No growth occurred at NaCl concentrations greater than 5 % (w/v). The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain hun6(T) belongs to the genus Aquamicrobium. The sequence similarities of strain hun6(T) to other type strains of Aquamicrobium genus were all below 98.5 %. The presence of ubiquinone-10, the predominant fatty acid summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c and/or C18:1 ω6c) and C19:0 cyclo ω8c, a polar lipid pattern with phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phophatidylmonomethylethanoamine were in accord with the characteristics of the genus Aquamicrobium. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 63.5 mol%. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, physiological and biochemical tests and chemotaxonomic properties allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain hun6(T) from all known Aquamicrobium species. Therefore, strain hun6(T) can be assigned to a new species of this genus for which the name Aquamicrobium terrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is hun6(T) (= CICC 10733(T) = DSM 27865(T)). PMID:24788880

  1. East-Asia land surface emissivity maps generated from Terra/ASTER data archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonooka, Hideyuki; Urai, Minoru

    2009-09-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a high-spatial-resolution multispectral imager on the Terra satellite launched in December 1999. The ASTER thermal infrared (TIR) subsystem has five spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 90 m in the TIR spectral region, which are used for generation of the standard products of surface temperature and surface spectral emissivity. High-resolution surface emissivity at five spectral bands is unique, and is particularly useful for geological mapping. However, the emissivity product is not always easy to use, because (1) its image size is about 60 km square which is not large enough for regional-scale studies, (2) its imaged area is not fixed to the world reference system (WRS) due to a flexible pointing system, and (3) standard atmospheric correction often fails under humid conditions. Thus, in order to improve the usability of the ASTER emissivity product, we are generating land surface emissivity maps in a regional scale by applying improved retrieval algorithms and stack/mosaic processing to an ASTER orthogonal projection dataset which have been produced from the ASTER data archives by the Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan. In the present paper, we introduce East-Asia land surface emissivity maps as the first result of this project. A comparison study with MODIS monthly emissivity products (MOD11C3) indicates that the generated maps give more reasonable emissivity spectra with higher spatial resolution than the MODIS emissivity products, though the maps have missing pixels in high latitude areas and humid areas.

  2. Tyrrhena Terra: hydrated lobates ejecta and plains, as seen by OMEGA/MEx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, D.; Bouley, S.; Mangold, N.; Meresse, S.; Costard, F.; Poulet, F.; Ansan, V.; Le Mouelic, S.; Bibring, J.-P.; Gondet, B.

    2009-04-01

    Tyrrhena Terra was reported [2; 1; 3; 4] as one of the Martian region displaying outcrops rich in hydrated miner-als, by the identification of a weak 1.9 µm absorption band on spectra acquired by OMEGA, the imaging spectrometer onboard Mars Express. The region is located in cratered Noachian highlands in the southern hemisphere, south of Isidia Planitia and north of Hellas basin. It displays highland terrains partially dissected by fluvial valleys and several intercrater plains. Hydrated minerals are identified in two types of terrains in Tyrrhena Terra: on lobate ejecta blankets and in some plains. About 20 ejecta blankets showing hydrated minerals were identified with OMEGA in the studied area. The pres-ence of the 2.3 µm absorption band, together with the 1.93 µm band, indicates the possible presence of phyllosili-cates. Most of these ejecta blankets are located on the eastern, higher part of the studied region, above 2000 m in altitude. Their diameter varies from 2 to 26 km. They are well delimited and are contrasted compared to the rest of the highlands on THEMIS IR night imagery. The other, non-hydrated, ejecta blankets of the region do not show such a contrast. As the dust cover is very low throughout the region, the difference in the THEMIS IR nighttime imagery would come from a difference in the ejecta material or preservation [3]. The hydration as seen by OMEGA appears preferentially on the surrounding ejecta and not inside the crater. Py-roxene is also detected on the ejecta blankets. On another hand, most ejecta are devoid of olivine as detected by OMEGA, although it is detected on many intercrater plains of the region. In addition, CRISM observes phyllosilicates associated with crater ejecta blankets and in mounds and knobs on crater floors [5; 6]. We also identified with OMEGA around 10 areas showing outcrops of hydrated minerals in the studied region, not associated to crater ejecta. They generally correspond to plains at the end of valley

  3. Sedimentary deposits in Xanthe Terra: Implications for the ancient climate on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, E.; Gwinner, K.; Kleinhans, M.; Reiss, D.; di Achille, G.; Ori, G.-G.; Scholten, F.; Marinangeli, L.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    Summary A variety of sedimentary deposits is observed in Xanthe Terra, Mars, including Gilbert-type deltas, fan deltas dominated by resedimentation processes, and alluvial fans. Sediments were provided through deeply incised valleys, which were probably incised by both runoff and groundwater sapping. Mass balances based on high-resolution HRSC digital terrain models show that up to ~30% of the material that was eroded in the valleys is present as deltas or alluvial fan deposits. Stratigraphic relationships and crater counts indicate an age of ~4.0 to ~3.8 Ga for the fluvial activity. Hydrologic modeling indicates that the deposits were probably formed in geologically very short time-scales. Our results indicate episodes of a warmer and wetter climate on early Mars, followed by a long period of significantly reduced erosion rates. Background Fluvial and lacustrine deposits on Mars contain a record of past hydrological conditions and are important targets of environmental and paleoclimatic studies. Ancient depositional landforms associated with fluvial channels are generally thought to indicate an active hydrosphere, involving precipitation, runoff, and significant erosion. However, the exact nature of the flow processes and the time-scales over which they occurred are under debate. End-member scenarios are represented by an early Mars that was either wet and warm or cold and dry. The analysis of sedimentary deposits can constrain paleohydrological models. For example, a warmer climate and persistent flow would have been required if they were formed in long-standing paleolakes. Alternatively, fans and deltas might have formed under subaerial conditions or in short-lived lakes. Therefore, the determination of the time when such deposits were formed in Mars` history, the duration of the fluvial activity, and the type of sedimentary environment is a critical component of paleoclimatic studies of Mars. Data The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on the Mars Express

  4. Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Terra Satellite. Part 1; Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.; Loukachine, K.; Smith, N. M.

    2004-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) provides coincident global cloud and aerosol properties together with reflected solar, emitted terrestrial longwave and infrared window radiative fluxes. These data are needed to improve our understanding and modeling of the interaction between clouds, aerosols and radiation at the top of the atmosphere, surface, and within the atmosphere. This paper describes the approach used to estimate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes from instantaneous CERES radiance measurements on the Terra satellite. A key component involves the development of empirical angular distribution models (ADMs) that account for the angular dependence of Earth's radiation field at the TOA. The CERES Terra ADMs are developed using 24 months of CERES radiances, coincident cloud and aerosol retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and meteorological parameters from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMA0) s Goddard Earth Observing System DAS (GEOS-DAS V4.0.3) product. Scene information for the ADMs is from MODIS retrievals and GEOS-DAS V4.0.3 properties over ocean, land, desert and snow, for both clear and cloudy conditions. Because the CERES Terra ADMs are global, and far more CERES data is available on Terra than was available from CERES on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the methodology used to define CERES Terra ADMs is different in many respects from that used to develop CERES TRMM ADMs, particularly over snow/sea-ice, under cloudy conditions, and for clear scenes over land and desert.

  5. High Fidelity Non-Gravitational Force Models for Precise and Accurate Orbit Determination of TerraSAR-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackel, Stefan; Montenbruck, Oliver; Steigenberger, -Peter; Eineder, Michael; Gisinger, Christoph

    Remote sensing satellites support a broad range of scientific and commercial applications. The two radar imaging satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X provide spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and interferometric SAR data with a very high accuracy. The increasing demand for precise radar products relies on sophisticated validation methods, which require precise and accurate orbit products. Basically, the precise reconstruction of the satellite’s trajectory is based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from a geodetic-grade dual-frequency receiver onboard the spacecraft. The Reduced Dynamic Orbit Determination (RDOD) approach utilizes models for the gravitational and non-gravitational forces. Following a proper analysis of the orbit quality, systematics in the orbit products have been identified, which reflect deficits in the non-gravitational force models. A detailed satellite macro model is introduced to describe the geometry and the optical surface properties of the satellite. Two major non-gravitational forces are the direct and the indirect Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP). Due to the dusk-dawn orbit configuration of TerraSAR-X, the satellite is almost constantly illuminated by the Sun. Therefore, the direct SRP has an effect on the lateral stability of the determined orbit. The indirect effect of the solar radiation principally contributes to the Earth Radiation Pressure (ERP). The resulting force depends on the sunlight, which is reflected by the illuminated Earth surface in the visible, and the emission of the Earth body in the infrared spectra. Both components of ERP require Earth models to describe the optical properties of the Earth surface. Therefore, the influence of different Earth models on the orbit quality is assessed within the presentation. The presentation highlights the influence of non-gravitational force and satellite macro models on the orbit quality of TerraSAR-X.

  6. Geology of Libya Montes and the Interbasin Plains of Northern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: Project Introduction and First Year Work Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skiner, J. A., Jr.; Rogers, A. D.; Seelos, K. D.

    2009-01-01

    The highland-lowland boundary (HLB) of Mars is interpreted to be a complex tectonic and erosional transition that may hold evidence for past geologic processes and environments. The HLB-abutting margin of the Libya Montes and the interbasin plains of northern Tyrrhena Terra display an exceptional view of the earliest to middle history of Mars that has yet to be fully characterized. This region contains some of the oldest exposed materials on the Martian surface as well as aqueous mineral signatures that may be potential chemical artifacts of early highland formational processes. However, a full understanding of the regions geologic and stratigraphic evolution is remarkably lacking. Some outstanding questions regarding the geologic evolution of Libya Montes and northern Tyrrhena Terra in-clude: Does combining geomorphology and composition advance our understanding of the region s evolution? Can highland materials be subdivided into stratigraphically discrete rock and sediment sequences? What do major physiographic transitions imply about the balanced tectonism, climate change, and erosion? Where is the erosional origin and what is the post-depositional history of channel and plains units? When and in what types of environments did aqueous mineral signatures arise? This abstract introduces the geologic setting, science rationale, and first year work plan of a recently-funded 4-year geologic mapping proposal (project year = calendar year). The objective is to delineate the geologic evolution of Libya Montes and northern Tyrrhena Terra at 1:1M scale using both classical geomorphological and compositional mapping techniques. The funded quadrangles are MTMs 00282, -05282, -10282, 00277, -05277, and -10277.

  7. Geology of the Terra Cimmeria-Utopia Planitia Highland Lowland Transitional Zone: Final Technical Approach and Scientific Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Tanaka, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    The southern Utopia highland-lowland transitional zone extends from northern Terra Cimmeria to southern Utopia Planitia and contains broad, bench-like platforms with depressions, pitted cones, tholi, and lobate flows. The locally occurring geologic units and landforms contrast other transitional regions and record a spatially partitioned geologic history. We systematically delineated and described the geologic units and landforms of the southern Utopia-Cimmeria highland-lowland transitional zone for the production of a 1:1,000,000-scale geologic map (MTMs 10237, 15237, 20237, 10242, 15242, 20242, 10247, 15247, and 20247). Herein, we present technical and scientific results of this mapping project.

  8. Light-Toned, Layered Outcrops of Northern Terra Meridiani Mars: Viking, Phobos 2, and Mars Global Surveyor Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2002-01-01

    Locating outcrops of sedimentary rock on Mars is an important step toward deciphering the planet's geologic and climatologic record. Sedimentary rock representing the earliest martian environments, are of particular interest in this context. This is a report about a vast exposure of material proposed to be martian sedimentary rock. The outcrops cover an area (approximately sq 300,000 km) roughly the size of the Colorado Plateau in North America (approximately 260,000 sq km). The materials occur in northern Terra Meridiani, near of one of the four sites being considered for a 2004 NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing. The landing ellipse, centered at deg S, deg W, lies in a region exhibiting smooth and rough (at meter scale) dark-toned surfaces, with scattered light-toned patches. Stratigraphically, the dark-toned materials at the MER site lie unconformably on top of a previously-eroded, light-toned surface; the light-toned patches in the landing ellipse are geologic windows down to this lower stratigraphic unit. North of the landing ellipse, the light-toned materials are well-exposed because the darker materials have been removed, stranding outlier remnants in a few locations. The light-toned materials are layered, vertically heterogeneous, and exhibit lateral continuity over hundreds of kilometers. Eroded layers produce cliffs; some outcrops are expressed as mesas, buttes, and spires; and impact craters ranging in diameter from a few meters to tens of kilometers are interbedded with the layers. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of greater than 6 years of photogeologic investigation into the nature of the light-toned outcrops of northern Terra Meridiani. The work is a 'snapshot' of progress made toward eventual geologic mapping and establishment of the stratigraphic sequence for the materials through 30 September 2002, a day prior to the first release of Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) data to the NASA Planetary Data

  9. On-orbit performance and calibration improvements for the reflective solar bands of Terra and Aqua MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angal, Amit; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Wu, Aisheng; Chen, Hongda; Geng, Xu; Link, Daniel; Li, Yonghong; Wald, Andrew; Brinkmann, Jake

    2016-05-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is the keystone instrument for NASA's EOS Terra and Aqua missions, designed to extend and improve heritage sensor measurements and data records of the land, oceans and atmosphere. The reflective solar bands (RSB) of MODIS covering wavelengths from 0.41 μm to 2.2 μm, are calibrated on-orbit using a solar diffuser (SD), with its on-orbit bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) changes tracked using a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). MODIS is a scanning radiometer using a two-sided paddle-wheel mirror to collect earth view (EV) data over a range of +/-55° off instrument nadir. In addition to the solar calibration provided by the SD and SDSM system, lunar observations at nearly constant phase angles are regularly scheduled to monitor the RSB calibration stability. For both Terra and Aqua MODIS, the SD and lunar observations are used together to track the on-orbit changes of RSB response versus scan angle (RVS) as the SD and SV port are viewed at different angles of incidence (AOI) on the scan mirror. The MODIS Level 1B (L1B) Collection 6 (C6) algorithm incorporated several enhancements over its predecessor Collection 5 (C5) algorithm. A notable improvement was the use of the earth-view (EV) response trends from pseudo-invariant desert targets to characterize the on-orbit RVS for select RSB (Terra bands 1-4, 8, 9 and Aqua bands 8, 9) and the time, AOI, and wavelength-dependent uncertainty. The MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) has been maintaining and enhancing the C6 algorithm since its first update in November, 2011 for Aqua MODIS, and February, 2012 for Terra MODIS. Several calibration improvements have been incorporated that include extending the EV-based RVS approach to other RSB, additional correction for SD degradation at SWIR wavelengths, and alternative approaches for on-orbit RVS characterization. In addition to the on-orbit performance of the MODIS RSB, this paper also discusses in

  10. Model developments in TERRA_URB, the upcoming standard urban parametrization of the atmospheric numerical model COSMO(-CLM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wouters, Hendrik; Blahak, Ulrich; Helmert, Jürgen; Raschendorfer, Matthias; Demuzere, Matthias; Fay, Barbara; Trusilova, Kristina; Mironov, Dmitrii; Reinert, Daniel; Lüthi, Daniel; Machulskaya, Ekaterina

    2015-04-01

    In order to address urban climate at the regional scales, a new efficient urban land-surface parametrization TERRA_URB has been developed and coupled to the atmospheric numerical model COSMO-CLM. Hereby, several new advancements for urban land-surface models are introduced which are crucial for capturing the urban surface-energy balance and its seasonal dependency in the mid-latitudes. This includes a new PDF-based water-storage parametrization for impervious land, the representation of radiative absorption and emission by greenhouse gases in the infra-red spectrum in the urban canopy layer, and the inclusion of heat emission from human activity. TERRA_URB has been applied in offline urban-climate studies during European observation campaigns at Basel (BUBBLE), Toulouse (CAPITOUL), and Singapore, and currently applied in online studies for urban areas in Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Helsinki, Singapore, and Melbourne. Because of its computational efficiency, high accuracy and its to-the-point conceptual easiness, TERRA_URB has been selected to become the standard urban parametrization of the atmospheric numerical model COSMO(-CLM). This allows for better weather forecasts for temperature and precipitation in cities with COSMO, and an improved assessment of urban outdoor hazards in the context of global climate change and urban expansion with COSMO-CLM. We propose additional extensions to TERRA_URB towards a more robust representation of cities over the world including their structural design. In a first step, COSMO's standard EXTernal PARarameter (EXTPAR) tool is updated for representing the cities into the land cover over the entire globe. Hereby, global datasets in the standard EXTPAR tool are used to retrieve the 'Paved' or 'sealed' surface Fraction (PF) referring to the presence of buildings and streets. Furthermore, new global data sets are incorporated in EXTPAR for describing the Anthropogenic Heat Flux (AHF) due to human activity, and optionally the

  11. Mycobacterium terrae isolated from indoor air of a moisture-damaged building induces sustained biphasic inflammatory response in mouse lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Jussila, Juha; Komulainen, Hannu; Huttunen, Kati; Roponen, Marjut; Iivanainen, Eila; Torkko, Pirjo; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Pelkonen, Jukka; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2002-01-01

    Occupants in moisture-damaged buildings suffer frequently from respiratory symptoms. This may be partly due to the presence of abnormal microbial growth or the altered microbial flora in the damaged buildings. However, the specific effects of the microbes on respiratory health and the way they provoke clinical manifestations are poorly understood. In the present study, we exposed mice via intratracheal instillation to a single dose of Mycobacterium terrae isolated from the indoor air of a moisture-damaged building (1 X 10(7), 5 X 10(7), or 1 X 10(8) microbes). Inflammation and toxicity in lungs were evaluated 2 hr later. The time course of the effects was assessed with the dose of 1 X 10(8) bacterial cells for up to 28 days. M. terrae caused a sustained biphasic inflammation in mouse lungs. The characteristic features for the first phase, which lasted from 6 hr to 3 days, were elevated proinflammatory cytokine [i.e., tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). TNF-alpha was produced in the lungs more intensively than was IL-6. Neutrophils were the most abundant cells in the airways during the first phase, although their numbers in BALF remained elevated up to 21 days. The characteristics of the second phase, which lasted from 7 to 28 days, were elevated TNF-alpha levels in BALF, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in BAL cells, and recruitment of mononuclear cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages into the airways. Moreover, total protein, albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase concentrations were elevated in both phases in BALF. The bacteria were detected in lungs up to 28 days. In summary, these observations indicate that M. terrae is capable of provoking a sustained, biphasic inflammation in mouse lungs and can cause a moderate degree of cytotoxicity. Thus, M. terrae can be considered a species with potential to adversely affect the health of the occupants of moisture

  12. Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-3) Range Biases and Momentum Unload Modeling for Terra (EOS-AMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Douglas T.

    2001-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) reports its performance in meeting Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) predicted ephemeris accuracy requirements with TDRS-3. The Terra (Earth Observing System AM-1) satellite has 3-sigma TDRS requirements of 75 m for total position accuracy predicted over one day onboard. The study sample includes selected cases over 21 months after Guam Remote Ground Terminal (GRGT) support started in June 1998. For daily solutions with a 1.5-day prediction span, predicted results of the study were below the Terra requirement by at least 12 m. Refined range bias estimation and modeled momentum unloads are needed to meet Terra's requirements for TDRS-3. Maintained at 275 W longitude over the zone of exclusion, TDRS-3 is analyzed separately from other TDRSs because of its unique tracking data. Only the Bilateration Ranging Transponder (BRT) at Alice Springs (ALS), Australia, and the Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TT&C) system at Guam are used for routine operational tracking data for TDRS-3. Simultaneous batch orbit solutions with three TDRSs and either the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) or Terra were done with the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) to periodically refine the TT&C and BRT System (BRTS) range biases. As new biases were determined, significant changes were made in estimating the absolute position. FDF achieved similar results using a sequential filter with all operational TDRSs and four user satellites. Definitive accuracy (3-sigma) is expected to be below 50 m. The White Sands Complex (WSC) performs momentum unloads to maintain three-axis stabilized attitude of TDRSs. The relationship between velocity changes (delta-V) and reaction wheel speed changes was empirically determined for roll/yaw unloads. A theoretical relationship was verified and used for pitch unloads. Modeling both pitch and roll/yaw momentum unloads is necessary to meet the 75-m requirement. Moving the orbit solution epoch an hour before a

  13. TerraLook: Providing easy, no-cost access to satellite images for busy people and the technologically disinclined

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geller, G.N.; Fosnight, E.A.; Chaudhuri, Sambhudas

    2007-01-01

    Access to satellite images has been largely limited to communities with specialized tools and expertise, even though images could also benefit other communities. This situation has resulted in underutilization of the data. TerraLook, which consists of collections of georeferenced JPEG images and an open source toolkit to use them, makes satellite images available to those lacking experience with remote sensing. Users can find, roam, and zoom images, create and display vector overlays, adjust and annotate images so they can be used as a communication vehicle, compare images taken at different times, and perform other activities useful for natural resource management, sustainable development, education, and other activities. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  14. TerraLook: Providing easy, no-cost access to satellite images for busy people and the technologically disinclined

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geller, G.N.; Fosnight, E.A.; Chaudhuri, Sambhudas

    2008-01-01

    Access to satellite images has been largely limited to communities with specialized tools and expertise, even though images could also benefit other communities. This situation has resulted in underutilization of the data. TerraLook, which consists of collections of georeferenced JPEG images and an open source toolkit to use them, makes satellite images available to those lacking experience with remote sensing. Users can find, roam, and zoom images, create and display vector overlays, adjust and annotate images so they can be used as a communication vehicle, compare images taken at different times, and perform other activities useful for natural resource management, sustainable development, education, and other activities. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  15. New Mineralogic Diversity in the Noachian Crust of Tyrrhena Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelos, K. D.; Seelos, F. P., IV; Viviano-Beck, C.; Murchie, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The cratered Noachian highlands region of Mars is host to hundreds to thousands of exposures of hydrated minerals. Areas of the highlands that are relatively free of dust, such as Tyrrhena Terra, have been previously examined using Mars Express/OMEGA and MRO/CRISM visible/near-IR reflectance data. The inferred alteration mineralogy is consistent with formation under low water to rock ratio, relatively low T/P and shallow crustal conditions. The vast majority of occurrences are associated with impact craters with a wide range of diameters, and within not only central peaks, but also rims and ejecta. This implies that most outcrops are a result of the excavation of pre-existing mineralology, not formation in-situ by post-impact hydrothermalism. Types of minerals reported include, most commonly, Fe/Mg phyllosilicates (smectite, chlorite, mixed-layer clays, prehnite, serpentine, illite), and less commonly, Al-phyllosilicates (e.g., kaolinite), carbonates, zeolites (e.g., analcime), and hydrated silica. Here we document and characterize the occurrence of an additional class of mineralogy in Noachian terrain: hydrated sulfates. Hydrated sulfates are observed in the central peaks and (in one case) the proximal ejecta of 3 craters dispersed across the region. In each crater, a diverse assemblage of other hydrated alteration minerals is also apparent and includes prehnite, carbonate, zeolite, Fe/Mg smectite, and chlorite. Two of the three craters are approximately 10 km in diameter, with resulting sulfate exhumation depths in the central peaks approaching 1 km. The third crater has a diameter of 25 km; however, uplift and ejecta from several pre-existing impacts reduce the possible sulfate excavation depth to 1.3 km. CRISM spectra are consistent with a poly-hydrated sulfate, with major absorptions centered at 1.45, 1.95, and 2.4 micrometers - similar to, but distinct from, many zeolites. While mono-hydrated and poly-hydrated sulfates are not uncommon to other areas of Mars

  16. Evidence for Recent Liquid Water on Mars: Gullies in Crater Wall, Noachis Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Gullies eroded into the wall of a meteor impact crater in Noachis Terra. This high resolution view (top left) from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) shows channels and associated aprons of debris that are interpreted to have formed by groundwater seepage, surface runoff, and debris flow. The lack of small craters superimposed on the channels and apron deposits indicates that these features are geologically young. It is possible that these gullies indicate that liquid water is present within the martian subsurface today.

    The MOC image was acquired on September 28, 1999. The scene covers an area approximately 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide by 6.7 km (4.1 mi) high (note, the aspect ratio is 1.5 to 1.0). Sunlight illuminates this area from the upper left. The image is located near 54.8oS, 342.5oW. The context image (above) shows the location of the MOC image on the south-facing wall of an impact crater approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter. The context picture was obtained by the Viking 1 orbiter in 1980 and is illuminated from the upper left. The large mound on the floor of the crater in the context view is a sand dune field. The Mars Orbiter Camera high resolution images are taken black-and-white (grayscale); the color seen here has been synthesized from the colors of Mars observed by the MOC wide angle cameras and by the Viking Orbiters in the late 1970s.

    A brief description of how the color was generated: The MOC narrow angle camera only takes grayscale (black and white) pictures. To create the color versions seen here, we have taken much lower resolution red and blue images acquired by the MOC's wide angle cameras, and by the Viking Orbiter cameras in the 1970s, synthesized a green image by averaging red and blue, and created a pallette of colors that represent the range of colors on Mars. We then use a relationship that correlates color and brightness to assign a color to

  17. Statistical analysis of the electronic crosstalk correction in Terra MODIS Band 27

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, Sriharsha; Sun, Junqiang; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wenny, Brian N.; Wu, Aisheng

    2014-10-01

    The first MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), also known as the Proto-Flight model (PFM), is on-board the Terra spacecraft and has completed 14 years of on orbit flight as of December 18, 2013. MODIS remotely senses the Earth in 36 spectral bands, with a wavelength range from 0.4 μm to 14.4 μm. The 36 bands can be subdivided into two groups based on their spectral responsivity as Reflective Solar Bands (RSBs) and Thermal Emissive Bands (TEBs). Band 27 centered at 6.77 μm is a TEB used to study the global water vapor distribution. It was found recently that this band has been severely affected by electronic crosstalk. The electronic crosstalk magnitude, its on-orbit change and calibration impact have been well characterized in our previous studies through the use of regularly scheduled lunar observations. Further, the crosstalk correction was implemented in Earth view (EV) images and quantified the improvements of the same. However, improvements remained desirable on several fronts. Firstly, the effectiveness of the correction needed to be analyzed spatially and radiometrically over a number of scenes. Also, the temporal aspect of the correction had to be investigated in a rigorous manner. In order to address these issues, a one-orbit analysis was performed on the Level 1A (L1A) scene granules over a ten year period from 2003 through 2012. Results have been quantified statistically and show a significant reduction of image striping, as well as removal of leaked signal features from the neighboring bands. Statistical analysis was performed by analyzing histograms of the one-orbit granules at a scene and detector level before and after correction. The comprehensive analysis and results reported in this paper will be very helpful to the scientific community in understanding the impacts of crosstalk correction on various scenes and could potentially be applied for future improvements of band 27 calibration and, therefore, its retrieval for the

  18. TerraSAR-X precise orbit determination with real-time GPS ephemerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wermuth, Martin; Hauschild, Andre; Montenbruck, Oliver; Kahle, Ralph

    TerraSAR-X is a German Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite, which was launched in June 2007 from Baikonour. Its task is to acquire radar images of the Earth's surface. In order to locate the radar data takes precisely, the satellite is equipped with a high-quality dual-frequency GPS receiver -the Integrated Geodetic and Occultation Receiver (IGOR) provided by the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ). Using GPS observations from the IGOR instrument in a reduced dynamic precise orbit determination (POD), the German Space Operations Center (DLR/GSOC) is computing rapid and science orbit products on a routine basis. The rapid orbit products arrive with a latency of about one hour after data reception with an accuracy of 10-20 cm. Science orbit products are computed with a latency of five days achieving an accuracy of about 5cm (3D-RMS). For active and future Earth observation missions, the availability of near real-time precise orbit information is becoming more and more important. Other applications of near real-time orbit products include the processing of GNSS radio occulation measurements for atmospheric sounding as well as altimeter measurements of ocean surface heights, which are nowadays employed in global weather and ocean circulation models with short latencies. For example after natural disasters it is necessary to evaluate the damage by satellite images as soon as possible. The latency and quality of POD results is mainly driven by the availability of precise GPS ephemerides. In order to have high-quality GPS ephemerides available at real-time, GSOC has developed the real-time clock estimation system RETICLE. The system receives NTRIP-data streams with GNSS observations from the global tracking network of IGS in real-time. Using the known station position, RETICLE estimates precise GPS satellite clock offsets and drifts based on the most recent available IGU predicted orbits. The clock offset estimates have an accuracy of better than 0.3 ns and are

  19. Impact of drought on surface albedo in Canadian Prairie observed from Terra- MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Trishchenko, A. P.; Wang, S.; Khlopenkov, K. V.

    2009-05-01

    A new technology was developed at the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) for generating Canada wide clear-sky surface albedo data based on observations from MODIS sensor onboard TERRA satellite. The data include all seven MODIS land bands (B1-B7) mapped at 250m spatial resolution and 10-day temporal interval from year 2000 through 2008. The new product presents an important spatial enhancement as well as an improved retrieval of water fraction and snow characteristics relative to the standard MODIS archival products. The regional data for the entire Canadian Prairie region are extracted and aggregated for different ecozones, such as north to south, the boreal transition, aspen parkland, moist mixed grassland, and mixed grassland etc. The preliminary results indicate that in comparison to normal summer conditions (2006-2008), the albedo for the drought years (2000-2003) summer increases up to 20 percent in the visible band (B1) and decreases as low as 10 percent in the near infrared band (B2). In the shortwave infrared band (B6) where a large absorption by leaf water occurs, the albedo increases as much as 15 percent for the drought years due to less leaf water content. The derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which represents a density of healthy vegetation, drops dramatically (up to 30 percent) for the drought period of 2000-2003. Among the different ecozones, the grassland shows the largest response to droughts while the boreal zone shows the least. Further applications of this product include mapping of snow cover (fraction and grain size), the fraction of absorbed photo-synthetically active radiation (fAPAR), ecosystem productivity, water and energy budget, as well as impact of various disturbances, such as wildfires, and long term climate induced trends. This work was conducted at the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS), Earth Sciences Sector of the Department of Natural Resources Canada as part of the Project J35 of the Program on

  20. Investigation of coastal wave field variations with TerraSAR-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Sven; Lehner, Susanne; Bruck, Miguel; Gies, Tobias; Pleskachevsky, Andrey; Rosenthal, Wolfgang; Bruns, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a uniquely powerful sensor providing two-dimensional information of the ocean surface like a broad spectrum of meteo-marine parameters such as windfields, significant wave height, peak wavelength and other seastate characteristics. SAR is particularly suitable for many oceanographic observations due to its high resolution in combination with global coverage and the independence of daylight and cloud conditions. The data has been amongst others used to investigate geophysical processes and for numerical model validation. It has also so been found to be a valuable contribution regarding data assimilation into meteorological, marine and coupled models. The X-band radar of the TerraSAR-X (TS-X) satellite acquires images of the sea surface with a high resolution up to 1m. Due to a lower platform altitude and a higher signal frequency, nonlinear imaging effects of the moving ocean surface are reduced when compared to previous C-band sensors and thus individual ocean waves with wavelengths below 30m are detectable. Minor importance of nonlinear effects in the wave imaging process also gives rise to new empirical model functions to derive sea state parameters directly from the SAR image spectrum properties and thus minimizing data processing time. This is of special interest with regard to the development of near-real-time (NRT) data products often favorable for maritime safety and security applications particularly . The latest generation of the empirical algorithm for TS-X seastate analysis XWAVE has been tuned with hundreds of collocated buoy measurements over the open ocean and subsequent validation exhibits a very good agreement with in-situ data. However, in contrast to the open ocean where seastate parameters do not change significantly on the scale of kilometers, coastal waters exhibit a large spacial variablility owing to ,inter alia, subsurface topography influence. The lateral variation complicates the extraction of

  1. Geometry, stratigraphy and evidences for fluid expulsion within Crommelin crater deposits, Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchi, F.; Rossi, A. P.; Pondrelli, M.; Cavalazzi, B.

    2014-03-01

    Conical mounds and furrows are widely interpreted as the morphological evidences of fluids expulsion on the martian surface. In the Crommelin crater (equatorial Arabia Terra) furrows and conical mounds are exhumed within light-toned equatorial layered deposits (ELDs). Aim of this paper is to describe these landforms and discuss their potential relations with water upwelling in Crommelin area. A comparative study of some of the morphologies hosted in the Crommelin area deposits have been performed by using multiple datasets (CTX, HRSC, MOLA, HiRISE). Then examples of spring and conical mounds on Earth was examined for comparison with analog structures on Mars. In this work thickness and geometries of the crater filling sediment packages have been calculated. Stratigraphic contacts and relations have been also reported in Crommelin area revised geological map, and mound clusters, potentially fluid-related morphologies, from Crommelin, Firsoff and Southern crater have been detailed. The morphometric and morphological analyses revealed that mounds and other structures occur where the ELDs are thicker and crudely layered. In addition, orthorectified imagery and high-resolution topography indicated the presence of conical mounds within the upper portion of ELDs near the craters rims. Mounds show apical holes and are linked to elongated structures resembling veins and dikes. Elongated structures (furrows) and concentric strata pattern that we refer to as ridge-and-through, were described inside to Crommelin crater. MOLA-based DEMs revealed that these morphologies developed within a flat topography and are inconsistent with gravitative processes. The results suggest that the inferred sediments package was likely part of an extensive zone of groundwater upwelling. This long-wavelength flow controlled water and sediments supply into the study area, probably during a major climate shift. Fluid expulsion processes were recognized as a relevant process in the formation of these

  2. Spatially Complete Global Surface Albedos Derived from Terra/MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Moody, Eric G.; Platnick, Steven; Schaaf, Crystal B.

    2004-01-01

    Spectral land surface albedo is an important parameter for describing the radiative properties of the Earth. Accordingly it reflects the consequences of natural and human interactions, such as anthropogenic, meteorological, and phenological effects, on global and local climatological trends. Consequently, albedos are integral parts in a variety of research areas, such as general circulation models (GCMs), energy balance studies, modeling of land use and land use change, and biophysical, oceanographic, and meteorological studies. Recent production of land surface anisotropy, diffuse bihemispherical (white-sky) albedo and direct beam directional hemispherical (black-sky) albedo from observations acquired by the MODIS instruments aboard NASA s Terra and Aqua satellite platforms have provided researchers with unprecedented spatial, spectral, and temporal information on the land surface's radiative characteristics. Cloud cover, which cutails retrievals, and the presence of ephemeral and seasonal snow limit the snow-free data to approximately half the global land surfaces on an annual equal-angle basis. This precludes the MOD43B3 albedo products from being used in some remote sensing and ground-based applications, climate models, and global change research projects. An ecosystem-dependent temporal interpolation technique is described that has been developed to fill missing or seasonally snow-covered data in the official MOD43B3 albedo product. The method imposes pixel-level and local regional ecosystem-dependent phenological behavior onto retrieved pixel temporal data in such a way as to maintain pixel-level spatial and spectral detail and integrity. The phenological curves are derived from statistics based on the MODIS MOD12Q1 IGBP land cover classification product geolocated with the MOD43B3 data. The resulting snow-free value-added products provide the scientific community with spatially and temporally complete global white- and black-sky surface albedo maps and

  3. Change analysis at Stuttgart airport using TerraSAR-X imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldt, Markus; Thiele, Antje; Cadario, Erich; Schulz, Karsten; Hinz, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Change detection based on remote sensing imagery is a topic highly on demand with various fields of application. Probably, disaster management is the best known, where it is crucial to get fast and reliable results to enable a suitable supply of the affected region. Another important issue, for example in city or land-use planning, is the regular monitoring of specific regions of interest. For both scenarios, it would be significant to have information about the type or category of the detected changes. Since High-Resolution (HR) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is in opposite to optical sensors an active technique, it is well-capable for all change detection topics where a regular monitoring is intended. SAR sensors illuminate the investigated scene by their own microwave radiation and most applied microwave wavelengths make SAR nearly independent from atmospheric effects like dust, fog, and clouds. Moreover, the time of day makes no difference using SAR sensors. Acquired in HR SpotLight mode 300 (HS300) by the German satellite TerraSAR-X (TSX), images have a resolution of better than one meter, which allows to separate small objects placed close together. In this paper, a concept of change analysis focusing on small-sized areas is presented. Those change areas can be caused by man-made objects (e.g. vehicles, small construction sites) or natural events like phenologically based changes of the vegetation. Since the presented change analysis concept deals with the analysis of time series imagery, other seasonal also man-made caused changes (e.g. agriculture) can be detected. Furthermore, the concept comprises the categorization of the detected changes, which separates it from many of the existing change detection approaches. It includes five central components given by the change detection itself, the pre-categorization of change pixels, the feature extraction for change blobs, the analysis of their spatial context, and the final decision making forming a

  4. Relation between "terra rossa" from the Apulia aquifer of Italy and the radon content of groundwater: Experimental results and their applicability to radon occurrence in the aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadolini, T.; Spizzico, M.

    The radon-222 (222Rn) activity in groundwater of the Apulian karstic aquifer in southern Italy is as great as 500 Becquerel per liter (Bq/L) locally. Normal radium-226 (226Ra) activity in the limestone and calcareous dolomites of the aquifer is not enough to explain such a high level. Laboratory investigations identified high 226Ra activity in the "terra rossa," the residuum occupying fissures and cavities in the bedrock, and also the relation between (1) 226Ra-bearing bedrock and "terra rossa" and (2) 222Rn in water. The "terra rossa" is the primary source of the radon in the groundwater. The experimental results show the need to characterize the "terra rossa" of Apulia on the basis of 226Ra activity and also to study the distribution and variations in 222Rn activity over time in the aquifer. Résumé L'activité du radon-222 (222Rn) dans les eaux souterraines de l'aquifère karstique des Pouilles, dans le sud de l'Italie, atteint localement 500 Becquerel par litre (Bq/L). L'activité normale du radium-226 (226Ra) dans les calcaires et dans les calcaires dolomitiques de l'aquifère n'est pas assez élevée pour expliquer des valeurs aussi élevées. Des analyses de laboratoire ont mis en évidence une forte activité en 226Ra dans la terra rossa, remplissage de fissures et de cavités de la roche, ainsi qu'une relation entre (1) la roche et la terra rossa contenant du 226Ra et (2) le 222Rn dans l'eau. La terra rossa est la source primaire de radon dans l'eau souterraine. Les résultats expérimentaux montrent qu'il est nécessaire de caractériser la terra rossa des Pouilles par son activité en 226Ra et d'étudier la distribution et les variations de l'activité en 222Rn au cours du temps dans l'aquifère. Resumen La actividad del radon-222 (222Rn) en el agua subterránea del acuífero cárstico de Apulia, al sur de Italia, alcanza localmente los 500Bq/L. La actividad normal del radio-226 (226Ra) en las calcitas y dolomitas del acuífero no es suficiente para

  5. Detection and context of hydrated mineralogy in the Tyrrhena Terra region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Haan, J.; Zegers, T. E.; van Ruitenbeek, F. J. A.; van der Werff, H. M. A.; Rossi, A.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The discovery of phyllosilicates on Mars [1] has had major implications on the perceived geologic and climatologic evolution of Mars [2]. Not only do phyllosilicates represent a `wet' period on Mars, they might also represent a potentially favorable environment for life. The phyllosilicates have so far exclusively been found in or close to ancient Noachian highland terrain. Those phyllosilicate deposits studied (e.g. [3]) show a clear association between hydrated mineralogy and heavily eroded and crater-saturated outcrops. Phyllosilicates on Earth are associated with a wide variety of geological processes (volcanism, metamorphism, hydrothermal alteration, sedimentation). The occurrence of phyllosilicates on Mars may be equally diverse in nature. To be able to place constraints on the early Martian environment, the processes by which these phyllosilicates formed need to be reconstructed. To derive this information from individual phyllosilicate deposits, it is necessary to interpret their composition in relation to their geological context and relative time relationships. We conducted such an integrated hyperspectral and geological study of the Tyrrhena Terra region. Data products ad methods HRSC data products (both image at 12 m/pixel and stereo-derived DTMs) are used for examining geologic cross-cutting relationships, geomorphologic landforms and visual determination of unit boundaries. Odyssey THEMIS nighttime TIR images are analyzed for spatial variations in thermal inertia. Where available, HRSC is supplemented by higher-resolution visible observations of CTX or MOC. Hyperspectral analysis is conducted using data from the OMEGA hyperspectral instrument. In order to batch-process large amounts of OMEGA data, an IDL/ENVI tool was developed on top of the existing SOFT04, distributed by PSA. The applied atmospheric correction assumes that atmospheric contributions are multiplicative, and follow a power-law distribution with altitude [4]. The ratio of

  6. Air-sea interactions over Terra Nova Bay during winter: Simulation with a coupled atmosphere-polynya model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallée, Hubert

    A preliminary simulation of the Terra Nova Bay polynya has been performed with a coupled atmosphere-polynya model. The atmospheric model is a hydrostatic primitive equations model that has been validated previously by a simulation of the strong katabatic winds observed in that area. The polynya model includes a representation of the free drift of frazil ice and simple sea-ice dynamics and thermodynamics. Two and three-dimensional experiments have been performed under polar night conditions. Two-dimensional experiments show that an open (warm) water area influences significantly the atmospheric circulation in the antarctic coastal zone: an additional ice-breeze effect is simulated and is responsible for the strengthening of the katabatic winds near the coast. Because of the important temperature difference between the continental air and the ice-free ocean (up to 40°C), strong surface heat fluxes are simulated over the polynya. Finally, a three-dimensional experiment has been performed. The integration domain includes Terra Nova Bay. The polynya observed in that region is well simulated. It is found that heat losses from the polynya surface are stronger than previously thought but are probably constrained by the idealized representation of frazil ice, which is assumed to be uniform in each grid box. This stresses the need for having a better knowledge of frazil ice evolution in large polynyas.

  7. The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua Mission Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS: Science and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomnson, Vincent V.

    2003-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra Mission began to produce data in February 2000. The EOS Aqua mission was launched successfully May 4,2002 with another MODIS on it and "first light" observations occurred on June 24,2002. The Terra MODIS is in a sun-synchronous orbit going north to south in the daylight portion of the orbit crossing the equator at about 1030 hours local time. The Aqua spacecraft operates in a sun-synchronous orbit going south to north in the daylight portion of the orbit crossing the equator at approximately 1330 hours local time. The spacecraft, instrument, and data systems for both MODIS instruments are performing well and are producing a wide variety of data products useful for scientific and applications studies in relatively consistent fashion extending from November 2000 to the present. Within the approximately 40 MODIS data products, several are new and represent powerful and exciting capabilities such the ability to provide observations over the globe of fire occurrences, microphysical properties of clouds and sun-stimulated fluorescence from phytoplankton in the surface waters of the ocean. The remainder of the MODIS products exceeds or, at a minimum, matches the capabilities of products from heritage sensors such as, for example, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Efforts are underway to provide data sets for the greater Earth science community and to improve access to these products at the various Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC's) or through Direct Broadcast (DB) stations.

  8. Terra Preta sanitation: re-discovered from an ancient Amazonian civilisation - integrating sanitation, bio-waste management and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Factura, H; Bettendorf, T; Buzie, C; Pieplow, H; Reckin, J; Otterpohl, R

    2010-01-01

    The recent discovery of the bio-waste and excreta treatment of a former civilisation in the Amazon reveals the possibility of a highly efficient and simple sanitation system. With the end product that was black soil they converted 10% of former infertile soil of the region: Terra Preta do Indio (black soil of the Indians). These soils are still very fertile 500 years after this civilisation had disappeared. Deriving from these concepts, Terra Preta Sanitation (TPS) has been re-developed and adopted. TPS includes urine diversion, addition of a charcoal mixture and is based on lactic-acid-fermentation with subsequent vermicomposting. No water, ventilation or external energy is required. Natural formation processes are employed to transform excreta into lasting fertile soil that can be utilised in urban agriculture. The authors studied the lacto-fermentation of faecal matter with a minimum of 4 weeks followed by vermicomposting. The results showed that lactic-acid fermentation with addition of a charcoal mixture is a suitable option for dry toilets as the container can be closed after usage. Hardly any odour occured even after periods of several weeks. Lactic-acid fermentation alone without addition of bulking agents such as paper and sliced-cut wood to raise the C/N ratio is creating a substrate that is not accepted by worms. PMID:20453341

  9. Low Albedo Surfaces and Eolian Sediment: Mars Orbiter Camera Views of Western Arabia Terra Craters and Wind Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2001-01-01

    High spatial resolution (1.5 to 12 m/pixel) Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera images obtained September 1997 through June 2001 indicate that the large, dark wind streaks of western Arabia Terra each originate at a barchan dune field on a crater floor. The streaks consist of a relatively thin coating of sediment deflated from the dune fields and their vicinity. This sediment drapes a previous mantle that more thickly covers nearly all of western Arabia Terra. No dunes or eolian bedforms are found within the dark wind streaks, nor do any of the intracrater dunes climb up crater walls to provide sand to the wind streaks. The relations between dunes, wind streak, and subjacent terrain imply that dark-toned grains finer than those which comprise the dunes are lifted into suspension and carried out of the craters to be deposited on the adjacent terrain. Such grains are most likely in the silt size range (3.9-62.5 micrometers). The streaks change in terms of extent, relative albedo, and surface pattern over periods measured in years, but very little evidence for recent eolian activity (dust plumes, storms, dune movement) has been observed.

  10. Current and future advances in optical multiangle remote sensing of aerosols and clouds based on Terra/MISR experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diner, David J.; Davies, Roger; Kahn, Ralph; Martonchik, John; Gaitley, Barbara; Davis, Ab

    2006-12-01

    Through acquisition of well-calibrated near-nadir and oblique-angle imagery (0° - 70° zenith angles) at moderately high spatial resolution (275 m - 1.1 km), the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) experiment aboard NASA's Terra satellite has taken atmospheric remote sensing in new directions. Retrieval algorithms that were largely conceptual prior to Terra launch in 1999 have led to publicly available aerosol and cloud products with direct application to global climate and particulate air quality research. Automated algorithms making use of stereoscopic parallax, time lapse among the nine angular views, and the variation in radiance with view angle, scattering angle, and wavelength (446-866 nm) make possible unique data sets including geometric cloud and aerosol plume heights derived independently of emissivity or temperature assumptions; height-resolved cloud-tracked winds; and aerosol optical depth and particle type over a wide variety of surfaces including bright desert source regions. To illustrate these capabilities, examples of regional and global MISR data products, quantitative evaluations of product accuracies based on comparisons with independent data sources, and time series showing seasonal and interannual variations are presented here. Future sensor improvements aimed at building upon MISR heritage, including expanding the spectral coverage to ultraviolet and shortwave infrared wavelengths, adding polarization channels, and widening the sensor swath, are also discussed.

  11. Falling in love with minerals terra mineralia - a journey to the most beautiful minerals of the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anna, D.

    2013-12-01

    Is it possible to make people fall in love with minerals? Yes, it is. And it happens daily at terra mineralia, a permanent exhibition displaying a collection of 3500 rare and beautiful minerals, precious stones and meteorites in Freiberg/Saxony. The exhibits are part of one of the world's largest private collections of minerals and have been given to the TU Bergakademie Freiberg on permanent loan by Dr. Erika Pohl-Ströher. The exquisite pieces stem from sites on every continent, and as such, allow the visitor to virtually journey around the world to the world's most beautiful minerals - an amazing and unexpected experience. The specimen are so unique in quality and aesthetical appearance that scientists and private collectors from all over the world are overwhelmed by their display. However, the exhibition is less targeted towards the specialist or collector. Due to the close ties of the terra mineralia to its parent organization, the TU Bergakademie Freiberg, which is one of the leading universities dedicated to the geo-sciences, it has been primarily designed to attract young visitors, school children and students. It is the expressed goal of the University and Dr. Erika Pohl-Ströher to give young people the opportunity to discover the fascinating aspects natural sciences have to offer. Therefore, the efforts of the museums educational service focus on raising awareness and enticing the young 'scientists' to be. Why not continue a live of learning where the interest in natural sciences had been nurtured in first place - at the TU Bergakademie in Freiberg, for example with studies in the fields of mineralogy, geology or mining? And while you are at it, come back to terra mineralia as a student to help form and train the next generation of young talents. So, does it work? Yes, even if it is still too early to see the young enrolled in the University. What we already see, is a tremendous amount of positive feed back from the young, their parents and educators

  12. Evaluation of monthwise and overall trends of AOD over Indian cities using MODIS Aqua and Terra retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Subhasis; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have been shown to have profound impact on climate system and human health. Regular and systematic monitoring of ambient air is thus necessary in order to asses its impact. There are several ground based stations worldwide employed in this service but still their numbers are inadequate and it is even almost impossible to have such stations at difficult geographical terrains and take measurement throughout the year. Aerosol optical depth or AOD, which is a measure of extinction of incoming solar radiation, serves as proxy to atmospheric aerosol loading. Various sensors onboard different satellites take routine measurement of AOD throughout the year. Satellite based AOD is used in many studies due to their wide coverage and availability for a longer time period. Satellite measures reflected solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere. Column integrated value of aerosol are routinely estimated from those measurements using suitable inversion algorithms. MODIS instrument onboard Aqua and Terra satellites of Earth Observing System takes routine measurement in wide spectral range. We used those data to evaluate trend of AOD over almost fifty Indian cities having population more than a million. The cities we have chosen spread over almost entire length and breadth of the country. Few such studies have already been conducted using MODIS data. They typically used level 3 data. Since Level 3 data comes in 1x 1 degree gridded form they provide average value over a vast geographical region. We used level 2 dataset to enable us taking smaller region(1/2 x 1/2 degree here) centering the region of our interest . We used seasonal Mann-Kendall (M-K) statistics coupled with Sen's non-parametric slope estimation procedure to estimate monthwise and overall(i.e., yearly trend taking seasonality into account) AOD trend. We used median AOD for each month of every year to discard very high AOD's which we often get due to cloud contamination. Seasonal M-K test takes

  13. Analysis of Ice-Related Intra-Crater Facies in Promethei Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orgel, Csilla; Kereszturi, Ákos; van Gasselt, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    On Mars ice-related landforms have been identified at mid-latitudes between 30° and 50° in both hemispheres including the areas of Tempe Terra, Deuteronilus-Protonilus Mensae, Phlegra Montes and the rims of the southern-hemispheric impact basins Argyre and Hellas [1-7]. Our study area - informally termed hourglass-shaped crater [8] - is located near Reull Vallis on the eastern rim of the Hellas impact basin (39.0°S, 102.8°E). Impact-crater infill was described as debris-covered piedmont-type glacier [8] based on analysis of High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) data, and implies a glacial origin with precipitation of ice during higher obliquity phases. Recent, higher-resolution image data such as data of the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and the Context Imager (CTX) provide a more detailed picture of the lateral distribution of different small-scale surface features indicative of periglacial and/or glacial origin. The aim of this study is to identify qualitative and quantitative characteristics of these ice-related landforms and to separate sources of water ice and related processes. Initial age determinations based on impact-crater size-frequency statistics indicate an age of 3.4 Gyr for the impact-crater and an age of approximately 75 Myr for the infill [8]. In order to identify a possible sequence of surface-feature evolution we calculated the age distribution of four major surface units which span ages ages between 1-47 Myr. Along with detailed age information and a separation of different processes at this confined type location of Mars young-Amazonian landscape evolution and potential cyclic signals are being reconstructed to constrain climate evolution. Carr, M. H. & Schaber, G. G. 1977: Martian permafrost features.- J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4039-4054. Squyres, S. W. 1978: Martian fretted terrain: flow of erosional debris.- Icarus 34, 600-613. Squyres, S. W. 1979: The distribution of lobate debris aprons and similar flows on Mars.- J

  14. Fractional Snowcover Estimates from Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua missions has shown considerable capability for mapping snowcover. The typical approach that has used, along with other criteria, the Normalized Snow Difference Index (NDSI) that takes the difference between 500 meter observations at 1.64 micrometers (MODIS band 6) and 0.555 micrometers (MODIS band 4) over the sum of these observations to determine whether MODIS pixels are snowcovered or not in mapping the extent of snowcover. For many hydrological and climate studies using remote sensing of snowcover, it is desirable to assess if the MODIS snowcover observations could not be enhanced by providing the fraction of snowcover in each MODIS observation (pixel). Pursuant to this objective studies have been conducted to assess whether there is sufficient "signal%o in the NDSI parameter to provide useful estimates of fractional snowcover in each MODIS 500 meter pixel. To accomplish this objective high spatial resolution (30 meter) Landsat snowcover observations were used and co-registered with MODIS 500 meter pixels. The NDSI approach was used to assess whether a Landsat pixel was or was not snowcovered. Then the number of snowcovered Landsat pixels within a MODIS pixel was used to determine the fraction of snowcover within each MODIS pixel. The e results were then used to develop statistical relationships between the NDSI value for each 500 meter MODIS pixel and the fraction of snowcover in the MODIS pixel. Such studies were conducted for three widely different areas covered by Landsat scenes in Alaska, Russia, and the Quebec Province in Canada. The statistical relationships indicate that a 10 percent accuracy can be attained. The variability in the statistical relationship for the three areas was found to be remarkably similar (-0.02 for mean error and less than 0.01 for mean absolute error and standard deviation). Independent tests of the relationships were

  15. Combining TerraSAR-X and SPOT-5 data for object-based landslide detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, B.; Hölbling, D.; Füreder, P.

    2012-04-01

    Landslide detection and classification is an essential requirement in pre- and post-disaster hazard analysis. In earlier studies landslide detection often was achieved through time-consuming and cost-intensive field surveys and visual orthophoto interpretation. Recent studies show that Earth Observation (EO) data offer new opportunities for fast, reliable and accurate landslide detection and classification, which may conduce to an effective landslide monitoring and landslide hazard management. To ensure the fast recognition and classification of landslides at a regional scale, a (semi-)automated object-based landslide detection approach is established for a study site situated in the Huaguoshan catchment, Southern Taiwan. The study site exhibits a high vulnerability to landslides and debris flows, which are predominantly typhoon-induced. Through the integration of optical satellite data (SPOT-5 with 2.5 m GSD), SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data (TerraSAR-X Spotlight with 2.95 m GSD) and digital elevation information (DEM with 5 m GSD) including its derived products (e.g. slope, curvature, flow accumulation) landslides may be examined in a more efficient way as if relying on single data sources only. The combination of optical and SAR data in an object-based image analysis (OBIA) domain for landslide detection and classification has not been investigated so far, even if SAR imagery show valuable properties for landslide detection, which differ from optical data (e.g. high sensitivity to surface roughness and soil moisture). The main purpose of this study is to recognize and analyze existing landslides by applying object-based image analysis making use of eCognition software. OBIA provides a framework for examining features defined by spectral, spatial, textural, contextual as well as hierarchical properties. Objects are derived through image segmentation and serve as input for the classification process, which relies on transparent rulesets, representing knowledge

  16. Burkholderia terrae BS001 migrates proficiently with diverse fungal hosts through soil and provides protection from antifungal agents

    PubMed Central

    Nazir, Rashid; Tazetdinova, Diana I.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Soil bacteria can benefit from co-occurring soil fungi in respect of the acquisition of carbonaceous nutrients released by fungal hyphae and the access to novel territories in soil. Here, we investigated the capacity of the mycosphere-isolated bacterium Burkholderia terrae BS001 to comigrate through soil along with hyphae of the soil fungi Trichoderma asperellum, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum, F. oxysporum pv lini, Coniochaeta ligniaria, Phanerochaete velutina, and Phallus impudicus. We used Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten as the reference migration-inciting fungus. Bacterial migration through presterilized soil on the extending fungal hyphae was detected with six of the seven test fungi, with only Phallus impudicus not showing any bacterial transport. Much like with Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten, intermediate (106–108 CFU g-1 dry soil) to high (>108 CFU g-1 dry soil) strain BS001 cell population sizes were found at the hyphal migration fronts of four fungi, i.e., T. asperellum, Rhizoctonia solani, F. oxysporum and F. oxysporum pv lini, whereas for two fungi, Coniochaeta ligniaria and Phanerochaete velutina, the migration responses were retarded and population sizes were lower (103–106 CFU g-1 dry soil). Consistent with previous data obtained with the reference fungus, migration with the migration-inciting fungi occurred only in the direction of the hyphal growth front. Remarkably, Burkholderia terrae BS001 provided protection from several antifungal agents to the canonical host Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten. Specifically, this host was protected from Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 metabolites, as well as from the anti-fungal agent cycloheximide. Similar protection by strain BS001was observed for T. asperellum, and, to a lower extent, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. The protective effect may be related to the consistent occurrence of biofilm-like cell layers or agglomerates at the surfaces of the protected fungi. The current study represents

  17. The Origin of the Terra Meridiani Sediments: Volatile Transport and the Formation of Sulfate Bearing Layered Deposits on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P.B.

    2008-01-01

    The chemistry, sedimentology, and geology of the Meridiani sedimentary deposits are best explained by eolian reworking of the sublimation residue of a large scale ice/dust deposit. This large ice deposit was located in close proximity to Terra Meridiani and incorporated large amounts of dust, sand, and SO2 aerosols generated by impacts and volcanism during early martian history. Sulfate formation and chemical weathering of the initial igneous material is hypothesized to have occurred inside of the ice when the darker mineral grains were heated by solar radiant energy. This created conditions in which small films of liquid water were created in and around the mineral grains. This water dissolved the SO2 and reacted with the mineral grains forming an acidic environment under low water/rock conditions. Subsequent sublimation of this ice deposit left behind large amounts of weathered sublimation residue which became the source material for the eolian process that deposited the Terra Meridiani deposit. The following features of the Meridiani sediments are best explained by this model: The large scale of the deposit, its mineralogic similarity across large distances, the cation-conservative nature of the weathering processes, the presence of acidic groundwaters on a basaltic planet, the accumulation of a thick sedimentary sequence outside of a topographic basin, and the low water/rock ratio needed to explain the presence of very soluble minerals and elements in the deposit. Remote sensing studies have linked the Meridiani deposits to a number of other martian surface features through mineralogic similarities, geomorphic similarities, and regional associations. These include layered deposits in Arabia Terra, interior layered deposits in the Valles Marineris system, southern Elysium/Aeolis, Amazonis Planitia, and the Hellas basin, Aram Chaos, Aureum Chaos, and Ioni Chaos. The common properties shared by these deposits suggest that all of these deposits share a common

  18. Impact of model order and estimation window for indexing TerraSAR-X images using Gauss Markov random fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza-Molina, Daniela; Datcu, Mihai

    2010-10-01

    TerraSAR-X is the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) German satellite which provides a high diversity of information due to its high-resolution. TerraSAR-X acquires daily a volume of up to 100 GB of high complexity, multi-mode SAR images, i.e. SpotLight, StripMap, and ScanSAR data, with dual or quad-polarization, and with different look angles. The high and multiple resolutions of the instrument (1m, 3m or 10m) open perspectives for new applications, that were not possible with past lower resolution sensors (20-30m). Mainly the 1m and 3m modes we expect to support a broad range of new applications related to human activities with relevant structures and objects at the 1m scale. Thus, among the most interesting scenes are: urban, industrial, and rural data. In addition, the global coverage and the relatively frequent repeat pass will definitely help to acquire extremely relevant data sets. To analyze the available TerrrSAR-X data we rely on model based methods for feature extraction and despeckling. The image information content is extracted using model-based methods based on Gauss Markov Random Field (GMRF) and Bayesian inference approach. This approach enhances the local adaptation by using a prior model, which learns the image structure and enables to estimate the local description of the structures, acting as primitive feature extraction method. However, the GMRF model-based method uses as input parameters the Model Order (MO) and the size of Estimation Window (EW). The appropriated selection of these parameters allows us to improve the classification and indexing results due to the number of well separated classes could be determined by them. Our belief is that the selection of the MO depends on the kind of information that the image contains, explaining how well the model can recognize complex structures as objects, and according to the size of EW the accuracy of the estimation is determined. In the following, we present an evaluation of the impact of the model

  19. The impact of rise of the Andes and Amazon landscape evolution on diversification of lowland terra-firme forest birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleixo, A.; Wilkinson, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Since the 19th Century, the unmatched biological diversity of Amazonia has stimulated a diverse set of hypotheses accounting for patterns of species diversity and distribution in mega-diverse tropical environments. Unfortunately, the evidence supporting particular hypotheses to date is at best described as ambiguous, and no generalizations have emerged yet, mostly due to the lack of comprehensive comparative phylogeographic studies with thorough trans-Amazonian sampling of lineages. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of diversification estimated from mitochondrial gene trees for 31 lineages of birds associated with upland terra-firme forest, the dominant habitat in modern lowland Amazonia. The results confirm the pervasive role of Amazonian rivers as primary barriers separating sister lineages of birds, and a protracted spatio-temporal pattern of diversification, with a gradual reduction of earlier (1st and 2nd) and older (> 2 mya) splits associated with each lineage in an eastward direction (the easternmost tributaries of the Amazon, the Xingu and Tocantins Rivers, are not associated with any splits older than > 2 mya). This "younging-eastward" pattern may have an abiotic explanation related to landscape evolution. Triggered by a new pulse of Andean uplift, it has been proposed that modern Amazon basin landscapes may have evolved successively eastward, away from the mountain chain, starting ~10 mya. This process was likely based on the deposition of vast fluvial sediment masses, known as megafans, which apparently extended in series progressively eastward from Andean sources. The effects on drainage patterns are apparent from the location of axial rivers such as the Negro / Orinoco and Madeira which lie at the distal ends of major megafan ramparts at cratonic margins furthest from the Andes. Megafan extension plausibly explains the progressive extinction of the original Pebas wetland of west-central Amazonia by the present fluvial landsurfaces where

  20. UAVSAR and TerraSAR-X Based InSAR Detection of Localized Subsidence in the New Orleans Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, R. G.; An, K.; Jones, C. E.; Latini, D.

    2014-12-01

    Vulnerability of the US Gulf coast to inundation has received increased attention since hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Compounding effects of sea level rise, wetland loss, and regional and local subsidence makes flood protection a difficult challenge, and particularly for the New Orleans area. Key to flood protection is precise knowledge of elevations and elevation changes. Analysis of historical and continuing geodetic measurements show surprising complexity, including locations subsiding more rapidly than considered during planning of hurricane protection and coastal restoration projects. Combining traditional, precise geodetic data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations can provide geographically dense constraints on surface deformation. The Gulf Coast environment is challenging for InSAR techniques, especially with systems not designed for interferometry. We use two InSAR capable systems, the L- band (24 cm wavelength) airborne JPL/NASA UAVSAR, and the DLR/EADS Astrium spaceborne TerraSAR X-band (3 cm wavelength), and compare results. First, we are applying pair-wise InSAR to the longer wavelength UAVSAR data to detect localized elevation changes potentially impacting flood protection infrastructure from 2009 - 2014. We focus on areas on and near flood protection infrastructure to identify changes indicative of subsidence, structural deformation, and/or seepage. The Spaceborne TerraSAR X-band SAR system has relatively frequent observations, and dense persistent scatterers in urban areas, enabling measurement of very small displacements. We compare L-band UAVSAR results with permanent scatterer (PS-InSAR) and Short Baseline Subsets (SBAS) interferometric analyses of a stack composed by 28 TerraSAR X-band images acquired over the same period. Thus we can evaluate results from the different radar frequencies and analyses techniques. Preliminary results indicate subsidence features potentially of a variety of causes, including ground water

  1. TERRA mimicking ssRNAs prevail over the DNA substrate for telomerase in vitro due to interactions with the alternative binding site.

    PubMed

    Azhibek, Dulat; Skvortsov, Dmitry; Andreeva, Anna; Zatsepin, Timofei; Arutyunyan, Alexandr; Zvereva, Maria; Dontsova, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Telomerase is a key component of the telomere length maintenance system in the majority of eukaryotes. Telomerase displays maximal activity in stem and cancer cells with high proliferative potential. In humans, telomerase activity is regulated by various mechanisms, including the interaction with telomere ssDNA overhangs that contain a repetitive G-rich sequence, and with noncoding RNA, Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), that contains the same sequence. So these nucleic acids can compete for telomerase RNA templates in the cell. In this study, we have investigated the ability of different model substrates mimicking telomere DNA overhangs and TERRA RNA to compete for telomerase in vitro through a previously developed telomerase inhibitor assay. We have shown in this study that RNA oligonucleotides are better competitors for telomerase that DNA ones as RNA also use an alternative binding site on telomerase, and the presence of 2'-OH groups is significant in these interactions. In contrast to DNA, the possibility of forming intramolecular G-quadruplex structures has a minor effect for RNA binding to telomerase. Taking together our data, we propose that TERRA RNA binds better to telomerase compared with its native substrate - the 3'-end of telomere DNA overhang. As a result, some specific factor may exist that participates in switching telomerase from TERRA to the 3'-end of DNA for telomere elongation at the distinct period of a cell cycle in vivo. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26669798

  2. Terra Cognita: Graduate Students in the Archives. A Retrospective on the CLIR Mellon Fellowships for Dissertation Research in Original Sources. CLIR Publication No. 170

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Terra Cognita" surveys the current landscape of archival research and the experiences of emerging scholars seeking to navigate it. Drawing on data from the Council on Library and Information Resources' (CLIR's) Mellon Fellowships for Dissertation Research in Original Sources, the report takes an in-depth look at how the conditions and…

  3. CERES Single Scanner Satellite Footprint, TOA, Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  4. CERES Single Scanner Satellite Footprint, TOA, Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  5. CERES Single Scanner Satellite Footprint, TOA, Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  6. CERES Single Scanner Satellite Footprint, TOA, Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  7. CERES Single Scanner Satellite Footprint, TOA, Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) data in HDF (CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  8. Mineralogy, chemistry and palaeoenvironmental significance of an Early Tertiary Terra Rossa from Northern Ireland: A preliminary review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B. J.; McAlister, J. J.

    1995-04-01

    Early Tertiary basalts of the Antrim Plateau have preserved palaeosols developed on late Cretaceous limestone. These palaeosols include dark red clays and clays with flints that are rich in silica and contain a complex clay mineral assemblage of 2:1 lattice clays, kaolinite and sepiolite. They occur in infilled solution hollows and joints, can be associated with a rudimentary tower karst and are similar in appearance and composition to present-day Mediterranean terra rossa soils. Elsewhere, grey flint-rich clay-sized material dominated by silica and kaolinite developed on an undulating landscape, sometimes now capped by a lignite horizon. Deposits and the palaeolandscape suggest a humid tropical to sub-tropical environment contrary to previous published inferences of arid conditions, but corresponding to humid tropical conditions proposed for the formation of overlying inter-basaltic soils.

  9. Floristic and phytosociology in dense "terra firme" rainforest in the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Plant influence area, Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lemos, D A N; Ferreira, B G A; Siqueira, J D P; Oliveira, M M; Ferreira, A M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the floristic and phytosociological composition on a stretch of dense "Terra Firme" rainforest located in the Belo Monte hydroelectric plant area of influence, located in the state of Pará, Brazil. All trees with DAP >10 cm situated in 75 permanent plots of 1 ha were inventoried. 27,126 individuals trees (361 ind.ha-1), distributed in 59 botanical families, comprising 481 species were observed. The families with the largest number of species were Fabaceae (94), Araceae (65) and Arecaceae (43), comprising 43.7% of total species. The species Alexa grandiflora (4.41), Cenostigma tocantinum (2.50) and Bertholletia excelsa (2.28) showed the highest importance values (IV). The ten species with greater IV are concentrated (22%). The forest community has high species richness and can be classified as diverse age trees, heterogeneous and of medium conservation condition. PMID:26691099

  10. Dome growth at Mount Cleveland, Aleutian Arc, quantified by time-series TerraSAR-X imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Teng; Poland, Michael; Lu, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar imagery is widely used to study surface deformation induced by volcanic activity; however, it is rarely applied to quantify the evolution of lava domes, which is important for understanding hazards and magmatic system characteristics. We studied dome formation associated with eruptive activity at Mount Cleveland, Aleutian Volcanic Arc, in 2011–2012 using TerraSAR-X imagery. Interferometry and offset tracking show no consistent deformation and only motion of the crater rim, suggesting that ascending magma may pass through a preexisting conduit system without causing appreciable surface deformation. Amplitude imagery has proven useful for quantifying rates of vertical and areal growth of the lava dome within the crater from formation to removal by explosive activity to rebirth. We expect that this approach can be applied at other volcanoes that host growing lava domes and where hazards are highly dependent on dome geometry and growth rates.

  11. Near real time monitoring of platform sourced pollution using TerraSAR-X over the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Singha, Suman; Velotto, Domenico; Lehner, Susanne

    2014-09-15

    Continuous operational monitoring by means of remote sensing contributes significantly towards less occurrence of oil spills over European waters however, operational activities show regular occurrence of accidental and deliberate oil spills over the North Sea, particularly from offshore platform installations. Since the areas covered by oil spills are usually large and scattered over the North Sea, satellite remote sensing particularly Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) represents an effective tool for operational oil spill detection. This paper describes the development of a semi-automated approach for oil spill detection, optimized for near real time offshore platform sourced pollution monitoring context. Eight feature parameters are extracted from each segmented dark spot. The classification algorithm is based on artificial neural network. An initial evaluation of this methodology has been carried out on 156 TerraSAR-X images. Wind and current history information also have been analyzed for particular cases in order to evaluate their influences on spill trajectory. PMID:25063509

  12. Regional scale net radiation estimation by means of Landsat and TERRA/AQUA imagery and GIS modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristóbal, J.; Ninyerola, M.; Pons, X.; Llorens, P.; Poyatos, R.

    2009-04-01

    Net radiation (Rn) is one of the most important variables for the estimation of surface energy budget and is used for various applications including agricultural meteorology, climate monitoring and weather prediction. Moreover, net radiation is an essential input variable for potential as well as actual evapotranspiration modeling. Nowadays, radiometric measurements provided by Remote Sensing and GIS analysis are the technologies used to compute net radiation at regional scales in a feasible way. In this study we present a regional scale estimation of the daily Rn on clear days, (Catalonia, NE of the Iberian Peninsula), using a set of 22 Landsat images (17 Landsat-5 TM and 5 Landsat-7 ETM+) and 171 TERRA/AQUA images MODIS from 2000 to 2007 period. TERRA/AQUA MODIS images have been downloaded by means of the EOS Gateway. We have selected three different types of products which contain the remote sensing data we have used to model daily Rn: daily LST product, daily calibrated reflectances product and daily atmospheric water vapour product. Landsat-5 TM images have been corrected by means of conventional techniques based on first order polynomials taking into account the effect of land surface relief using a Digital Elevation Model, obtaining an RMS less than 30 m. Radiometric correction of Landsat non-thermal bands has been done following the methodology proposed by Pons and Solé (1994), which allows to reduce the number of undesired artifacts that are due to the effects of the atmosphere or to the differential illumination which is, in turn, due to the time of the day, the location in the Earth and the relief (zones being more illuminated than others, shadows, etc). Atmospheric correction of Landsat thermal band has been carried out by means of a single-channel algorithm improvement developed by Cristóbal et al. (2009) and the land surface emissivity computed by means of the methodology proposed by Sobrino and Raissouni (2000). Rn has been estimated through the

  13. TerraSAR-X Staring Spotlight Monitoring of a Highway Bridge in the Czech Republic (Preliminary Results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavacova, Ivana; Kolomaznik, Jan; Halounova, Lena

    2015-05-01

    Highway bridge in the southern part of Prague, Czech republic, is the longest bridge in the Czech republic and it is architectonically unique in Europe. It was built above the valley with confluence of two big rivers, Vltava and Berounka, in an area of frequent floods. On top, there is a five-lane highway with an important, circle-shape crossroad, and both ends of the bridge end up in a tunnel. During construction, steel was partially replaced by concrete in comparison to the plan, and first cracks arose just after opening of the bridge in September 2010, and are progressively getting bigger. We try to monitor this bridge using the InSAR technique with 22 TerraSAR-X scenes, acquired in the Staring Spotlight mode with a resolution of approximately 0.3 meters during June 2014 - February 2015 (11 days interval).

  14. Observations of HII regions at millimeter wavelengths with the O.A.S.I. telescope at Terra Nova Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatini, L.; Dall'Oglio, G.; Davies, R. D.; Cavaliere, F.; Martinis, L.; Miriametro, A.; Pizzo, L.; Russo, P. A.; Valenziano, L.

    We report on our latest investigations into strong HII regions lying on the Galactic plane. They are sources of free-free emission in radio and dust emission in IR, but they have not been observed in the millimeter range until now. Our efforts to understand their behaviour in this range will be displayed. These observations were carried out with the O.A.S.I. telescope at Terra Nova Bay from November to December 2001. The receiving system consisted of a bolometric detector operating at wavelengths of 1.25 and 2 millimeter, with a resolution of 5 arcmin. We will briefly describe the observational techniques and the preliminary results for two of these sources, G291.6 -0.5 and G291.3 -0.7; we will also discuss some improvements to be introduced for further observations.

  15. Alterations in bottom sediment physical and chemical characteristics at the Terra Nova offshore oil development over ten years of drilling on the grand banks of Newfoundland, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Paine, Michael D.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Janes, G. Gregory

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes sediment composition at the Terra Nova offshore oil development. The Terra Nova Field is located on the Grand Banks approximately 350 km southeast of Newfoundland, Canada, at an approximate water depth of 100 m. Surface sediment samples (upper 3 cm) were collected for chemical and particle size analyses at the site pre-development (1997) and in 2000-2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Approximately 50 stations have been sampled in each program year, with stations extending from less than 1 km to a maximum of 20 km from source (drill centres) along five gradients, extending to the southeast, southwest, northeast, northwest and east of Terra Nova. Results show that Terra Nova sediments were contaminated with >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium-the two main constituents of synthetic-based drilling muds used at the site. Highest levels of contamination occurred within 1 to 2 km from source, consistent with predictions from drill cuttings dispersion modelling. The strength of distance gradients for >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium, and overall levels, generally increased as drilling progressed but decreased from 2006 to 2010, coincident with a reduction in drilling. As seen at other offshore oil development sites, metals other than barium, sulphur and sulphide levels were elevated and sediment fines content was higher in the immediate vicinity (less than 0.5 km) of drill centres in some sampling years; but there was no strong evidence of project-related alterations of these variables. Overall, sediment contamination at Terra Nova was spatially limited and only the two major constituents of synthetic-based drilling muds used at the site, >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium, showed clear evidence of project-related alternations.

  16. Radiometric cross-calibration of the Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ using an invariant desert site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, T.; Angal, A.; Chander, G.; Xiong, X.

    2008-01-01

    A methodology for long-term radiometric cross-calibration between the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors was developed. The approach involves calibration of near-simultaneous surface observations between 2000 and 2007. Fifty-seven cloud-free image pairs were carefully selected over the Libyan desert for this study. The Libyan desert site (+28.55??, +23.39??), located in northern Africa, is a high reflectance site with high spatial, spectral, and temporal uniformity. Because the test site covers about 12 kmx13 km, accurate geometric preprocessing is required to match the footprint size between the two sensors to avoid uncertainties due to residual image misregistration. MODIS Level IB radiometrically corrected products were reprojected to the corresponding ETM+ image's Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid projection. The 30 m pixels from the ETM+ images were aggregated to match the MODIS spatial resolution (250 m in Bands 1 and 2, or 500 m in Bands 3 to 7). The image data from both sensors were converted to absolute units of at-sensor radiance and top-ofatmosphere (TOA) reflectance for the spectrally matching band pairs. For each band pair, a set of fitted coefficients (slope and offset) is provided to quantify the relationships between the testing sensors. This work focuses on long-term stability and correlation of the Terra MODIS and L7 ETM+ sensors using absolute calibration results over the entire mission of the two sensors. Possible uncertainties are also discussed such as spectral differences in matching band pairs, solar zenith angle change during a collection, and differences in solar irradiance models.

  17. Differential geodetic stereo SAR with TerraSAR-X by exploiting small multi-directional radar reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisinger, Christoph; Willberg, Martin; Balss, Ulrich; Klügel, Thomas; Mähler, Swetlana; Pail, Roland; Eineder, Michael

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we report on the direct positioning of small multi-directional radar reflectors, so-called octahedrons, with the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite TerraSAR-X. Its highest resolution imaging mode termed staring spotlight enables the use of such octahedron reflectors with a dimension of only half a meter, but still providing backscatter equivalent to 1-2 cm observation error. Four octahedrons were deployed at Wettzell geodetic observatory, and observed by TerraSAR-X with 12 acquisitions in three different geometries. By applying our least squares stereo SAR algorithm already tested with common trihedral corner reflectors (CRs), and introducing a novel differential extension using one octahedron as reference point, the coordinates of the remaining octahedrons were directly retrieved in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Contrary to our standard processing, the differential approach does not require external corrections for the atmospheric path delays and the geodynamic displacements, rendering it particularly useful for joint geodetic networks employing SAR and GNSS. In this paper, we present and discuss both methods based on results when applying them to the aforementioned Wettzell data set of the octahedrons. The comparison with the independently determined reference coordinates confirms the positioning accuracy with 2-5 cm for the standard approach, and 2-3 cm for the differential processing. Moreover, we present statistical uncertainty estimates of the observations and the positioning solutions, which are additionally provided by our parameter estimation algorithms. The results also include our 1.5 m CR available at Wettzell, and the outcomes clearly demonstrate the advantage of the multi-directional octahedrons over conventional CRs for global positioning applications with SAR.

  18. The sedimentology and dynamics of crater-affiliated wind streaks in western Arabia Terra, Mars and Patagonia, Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Tanaka, K.L.; Yamamoto, A.; Berman, D.C.; Zimbelman, J.R.; Kargel, J.S.; Sasaki, S.; Jinguo, Y.; Miyamoto, H.

    2010-01-01

    Wind streaks comprise recent aeolian deposits that have been extensively documented on Venus, Earth and Mars. Martian wind streaks are among the most abundant surface features on the planet and commonly extend from the downwind margins of impact craters. Previous studies of wind streaks emerging from crater interior deposits suggested that the mode of emplacement was primarily related to the deposition of silt-sized particles as these settled from plumes. We have performed geologic investigations of two wind streaks clusters; one situated in western Arabia Terra, a region in the northern hemisphere of Mars, and another in an analogous terrestrial site located in southern Patagonia, Argentina, where occurrences of wind streaks emanate from playas within maar craters. In both these regions we have identified bedforms in sedimentary deposits on crater floors, along wind-facing interior crater margins, and along wind streaks. These observations indicate that these deposits contain sand-sized particles and that sediment migration has occurred via saltation from crater interior deposits to wind streaks. In Arabia Terra and in Patagonia wind streaks initiate from crater floors that contain lithic and evaporitic sedimentary deposits, suggesting that the composition of wind streak source materials has played an important role in development. Spatial and topographic analyses suggest that regional clustering of wind streaks in the studied regions directly correlates to the areal density of craters with interior deposits, the degree of proximity of these deposits, and the craters' rim-to-floor depths. In addition, some (but not all) wind streaks within the studied clusters have propagated at comparable yearly (Earth years) rates. Extensive saltation is inferred to have been involved in its propagation based on the studied terrestrial wind streak that shows ripples and dunes on its surface and the Martian counterpart changes orientation toward the downslope direction where it

  19. Fresh Shallow Valleys in Northern Arabia Terra: Evidence for a Late, Widespread Period of Aqueous Activity on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S. A.; Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.; Grant, J. A., III

    2015-12-01

    Concentrations of fresh shallow valleys (FSVs) on Mars occur between ~30-45° in both hemispheres as well as near the equator (e.g., Gale crater and vicinity). FSVs in the northern hemisphere occur along the dichotomy boundary, with the highest concentration in northern Arabia Terra from 35-40°N between 0-20ºE. In this region, FSVs developed both on and away from ejecta of relatively fresh craters, making the direct association between impact processes and formation less likely. Crater statistics and cross-cutting relationships indicate the formation of FSVs terminated prior to about 1.4 Ga, suggesting they may be contemporaneous with alluvial fan and delta formation in the equatorial and mid-latitudes. Many FSV systems are 150+ km long, and in several cases appear to cross depressions that were likely filled with ice or water during FSV formation. Most FSV systems could have formed from a single episode of erosion but incision of the main channel in some locations may imply episodic formation. One long valley system in N. Arabia Terra with an incised channel (100 m wide, up to 10 m deep) yields formative discharges in the range of 100-200 m3/s assuming sand sized particles and a flow depth of 0.25 m, consistent with formation via snowmelt. The grain size is unknown, therefore discharges could range from 10s m3/s for active transport of fine sand to 1000 m3/s for gravel sized grains. Approximately 25 small craters (diameters ranging from ~2-10 km) have single channels extending outward from their rim, implying overflow of the crater and the possible presence of a deep lake. Widespread occurrence of FSVs, their similar morphology, and modest state of degradation is consistent with most forming during one or more global intervals of favorable climate, likely through snowmelt from surface or sub-ice flows during the Hesperian.

  20. Evaluation of Surface Slope Effects on Ripple Orientations Observed on Sand Dunes in the Terra Tyrrhena Region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Johnson, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) has revealed abundant wind ripples on sand dunes across Mars. Ripple orientations have been documented using HiRISE images of sand dunes at 24 widely distributed sites across Mars, in order to identify the last significant wind directions at these locations. Howard (GSAB, 1977) gives a mathematical expression for how surface slopes on a sand dune can affect the orientation of ripples with respect to the formative winds. In order to evaluate this mechanism for measured ripple orientations on Mars, quantitative data for surface slopes on the sand dunes is required. Stereo pairs of HiRISE images are used to generate Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) with postings of one meter. In June 2014 we produced a DTM of sand dunes in the Terra Tyrrhena region of Mars (14.55° S, 97.77° E) using SOCET SET at the Astrogeology Branch, USGS-Flagstaff. Typically it is difficult for feature matching software to work well on sand dunes, but our stereo images (ESP_022609_1655 and ESP_026675_1655) were obtained only six Earth days apart under excellent illumination conditions. The Terra Tyrrhena DTM had remarkably few artifacts on the sand dunes (except at slip faces, where the average slope between slip face crest and base was interpolated) and excellent control from irregular terrain exposed in interdune areas. Slopes on the stoss sides of sand dunes are generally <10°; the Howard equation indicates ripple deflection angles should be <17° with respect to the actual surface wind direction. We are adjusting documented ripple orientations to account for surface slopes utilizing the DTM data, and so far we do not see major changes to inferred surface wind directions that would be derived directly from the ripple orientations.

  1. Rapid Screening Method for Mycobactericidal Activity of Chemical Germicides That Uses Mycobacterium terrae Expressing a Green Fluorescent Protein Gene

    PubMed Central

    Zafer, Ahmed A.; Taylor, Yvonne E.; Sattar, Syed A.

    2001-01-01

    The slow growth of mycobacteria in conventional culture methods impedes the testing of chemicals for mycobactericidal activity. An assay based on expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) by mycobacteria was developed as a rapid alternative. Plasmid pBEN, containing the gene encoding a red-shifted, high-intensity GFP mutant, was incorporated into Mycobacterium terrae (ATCC 15755), and GFP expression was observed by epifluorescence microscopy. Mycobactericidal activity was assessed by separately exposing a suspension of M. terrae(pBEN) to several dilutions of test germicides based on 7.5% hydrogen peroxide, 2.4% alkaline glutaraldehyde, 10% acid glutaraldehyde, and 15.5% of a phenolic agent for contact times ranging from 10 to 20 min (22°C), followed by culture of the exposed cells in broth (Middlebrook 7H9) and measurement of fluorescence every 24 h. When the fluorescence was to be compared with CFU, the samples were plated on Middlebrook 7H11 agar and incubated for 4 weeks. No increase in fluorescence or CFU occurred in cultures in which the cells had been inactivated by the germicide concentrations tested. Where the test bacterium was exposed to ineffective levels of the germicides, fluorescence increased after a lag period of 1 to 7 days, corresponding to the level of bacterial inactivation. In untreated controls, fluorescence increased rapidly to reach a peak in 2 to 4 days. A good Pearson correlation coefficient (r ≥0.85) was observed between the intensity of fluorescence and the number of CFU. The GFP-based fluorescence assay reduced the turnaround time in the screening of chemical germicides for mycobactericidal activity to ≤7 days. PMID:11229916

  2. Potential uses of TerraSAR-X for mapping herbaceous halophytes over salt marsh and tidal flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yoon-Kyung; Park, Jeong-Won; Choi, Jong-Kuk; Oh, Yisok; Won, Joong-Sun

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a method and application results of mapping different halophytes over tidal flats and salt marshes using high resolution space-borne X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has been rarely used for salt marsh mapping. Halophytes in a salt marshes are sensitive to sea-level changes, sedimentation, and anthropogenic modifications. The alteration of the demarcations among halophyte species is an indicator of sea level and environmental changes within a salt marsh. The boundary of an herbaceous halophyte patch is, however, difficult to determine using remotely sensed data because of its sparseness. We examined the ecological status of the halophytes and their distribution changes using TerraSAR-X and optical data. We also determined the optimum season for halophyte mapping. An annual plant, Suaeda japonica (S. japonica), and a typical perennial salt marsh grass, Phragmites australis (P. australis), were selected for halophyte analysis. S. japonica is particularly sensitive to sea level fluctuation. Seasonal variation for the annual plant was more significant (1.47 dB standard deviation) than that for the perennial grass, with a pattern of lower backscattering in winter and a peak in the summer. The border between S. japonica and P. australis was successfully determined based on the distinctive X-band radar backscattering features. Winter is the best season to distinguish between the two different species, while summer is ideal for analyzing the distribution changes of annual plants in salt marshes. For a single polarization, we recommend using HH polarization, because it produces maximum backscattering on tidal flats and salt marshes. Our results show that high resolution SAR, such as TerraSAR-X and Cosmo-SkyMed, is an effective tool for mapping halophyte species in tidal flats and monitoring their seasonal variations.

  3. Comparing an estimate of seabirds at risk to a mortality estimate from the November 2004 Terra Nova FPSO oil spill.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Sabina I; Robertson, Gregory J; Ryan, Pierre C; Schneider, David C

    2007-05-01

    On 21 November 2004, about 1000 barrels of crude oil were accidentally released from the Terra Nova FPSO (floating production, storage and offloading) onto the Grand Banks, approximately 340 km east-southeast of St. John's, Newfoundland. We estimated the number of vulnerable seabirds (murres (Uria spp.) and dovekies (Alle alle)) at risk from this incident by multiplying observed densities of seabirds with the total area covered by the slick, estimated at 793 km(2). A mean density of 3.46 murres/km(2) and 1.07 dovekies/km(2) on the sea surface was recorded during vessel-based surveys on 28 and 29 November 2004, with a mean density of 6.90 murres/km(2) and 13.43 dovekies/km(2) combining those on the sea and in flight. We calculated a mean of 9858 murres and dovekies were at risk of being oiled, with estimates ranging from 3593 to 16,122 depending on what portion of birds in flight were assumed to be at risk. A mortality model based on spill volume was derived independently of the risk model, and estimated that 4688 (CI 95%: 1905-12,480) birds were killed during this incident. A low mortality estimate based strictly on spill volume would be expected for this incident, which occurred in an area of relatively high seabird densities. Given that the risk and mortality estimates are statistically indistinguishable, we estimate that on the order of 10,000 birds were killed by the Terra Nova spill. PMID:17328926

  4. Multiple Episodes of Recent Gully Activity Indicated by Gully Fan Stratigraphy in Eastern Promethei Terra, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schon, S.; Head, J.; Fassett, C.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction Gullies are considered among the youngest geomorphic features on Mars based upon their stratigraphic relationships, superposition on steep slopes and distinctive morphology in unconsolidated sediment. Multiple formation hypotheses have been proposed, which can be divided into three broad classes: entirely dry mechanisms (e.g., [1,2]), wet mechanisms invoking groundwater or ground ice (e.g., [3,4]) and wet mechanisms invoking surficial meltwater (e.g., [5,6,7,8]). It has been difficult to differentiate between these hypotheses based upon past observations and it remains possible that gullies are polygenetic landforms. This study presents stratigraphic relationships in the depositional fan of a crater wall gully system that suggest: (1) multiple episodes of alluvial fan-style deposition, (2) very recent depositional activity that is younger than a newly recognized rayed crater, and (3) surficial snowmelt as the most likely source of these multiple episodes of recent gully activity. Gully-Fan Stratigraphy In Eastern Promethei Terra an ~5 km-diameter crater is observed with a well-developed gully system (Fig. 1) and several smaller gullies in its northnortheast wall. The large gully system (composed of a small western gully and larger eastern gully) shows evidence for incision into the crater wall country rock and has multiple contributory sub-alcoves and channels. The depositional fan associated with this gully system is bounded on its western side by a small arcuate ridge swell that is not observed on the eastern side of the fan. This ridge is interpreted as a moraine-like structure that may have bounded a glacially-formed depression into which the fan is deposited [8]. Similar depressions with bounding ridges are commonly observed in this latitude band (~30-50°S) in association with deeply incised gully alcoves [9,10,11]. This gully fan is composed of multiple lobes with distinct lobe contacts, incised channels, and cut-andfill deposits - all features

  5. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-09-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  6. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-11-01] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  7. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-11-01] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  8. Chemotaxis and adherence to fungal surfaces are key components of the behavioral response of Burkholderia terrae BS001 to two selected soil fungi.

    PubMed

    Haq, Irshad Ul; Calixto, Renata Oliveira da Rocha; Yang, Pu; Dos Santos, Giulia Maria Pires; Barreto-Bergter, Eliana; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-11-01

    Burkholderia terrae BS001 has previously been proposed to be a 'generalist' associate of soil fungi, but its strategies of interaction have been largely ignored. Here, we studied the chemotactic behavior of B. terrae BS001 towards Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten and Trichoderma asperellum 302 and the role of fungal surface molecules in their physical interaction with the bacteria. To assess the involvement of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS), wild-type strain BS001 and T3SS mutant strain BS001-ΔsctD were used in the experiments. First, the two fungi showed divergent behavior when confronted with B. terrae BS001 on soil extract agar medium. Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten revealed slow growth towards the bacterium, whereas T. asperellum 302 grew avidly over it. Both on soil extract and M9 agar, B. terrae BS001 and BS001-ΔsctD moved chemotactically towards the hyphae of both fungi, with a stronger response to Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten than to T. asperellum 302. The presence of a progressively increasing glycerol level in the M9 agar enhanced the level of movement. Different oxalic acid concentrations exerted varied effects, with a significantly raised chemotactic response at lower, and a subdued response at higher concentrations. Testing of the adherence of B. terrae BS001 and BS001-ΔsctD to Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten and to cell envelope-extracted ceramide monohexosides (CMHs) revealed that CMHs in both conidia and hyphae could bind strain BS001 cells. As BS001-ΔsctD adhered significantly less to the CMHs than BS001, the T3SS was presumed to have a role in the interaction. In contrast, such avid adherence was not detected with T. asperellum 302. Thus, B. terrae BS001 shows a behavior characterized by swimming towards Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten and T. asperellum 302 and attachment to the CMH moiety in the cell envelope, in particular of the former. PMID:27495244

  9. An Assessment of Diurnal and Seasonal Cloud Cover Changes Over the Hawaiian Islands Using Terra and Aqua MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, M.; Miura, T.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Chen, Q.

    2012-12-01

    To date, there has not yet been a spatial and temporal analysis of cloud cover over the Hawaiian Islands using high spatial resolution data. An understanding of patterns in cloud cover is essential to analyzing and understanding atmospheric and hydrologic processes, including evapotranspiration. The MODIS instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites provide observations with the high spatial resolution necessary to determine patterns of cloud cover over the Hawaiian Islands. The objective of this study was to determine how spatial patterns of cloudiness change diurnally and seasonally over the Hawaiian Islands using high resolution cloud cover data generated from the Terra and Aqua MODIS satellite sensors. The MODIS cloud mask products (MOD35 and MYD35) were obtained for the entire MODIS time series over the major Hawaiian Islands. Monthly statistics including mean cloud cover probability at the daytime and nighttime overpasses for each instrument were generated from the daily MOD35 and MYD35 cloudiness time series. The derived monthly statistics for January and June (the wet and dry season, respectively) were analyzed for diurnal (morning vs. afternoon and late evening vs. early morning) changes in total amount and spatial patterns of cloudiness. They were also compared to analyze seasonal changes in cloudiness. Cloud probability generally increased with elevation until the elevation of the inversion layer. The lowest cloud cover probability was observed above the inversion layer on the islands of Maui and Hawaii. This elevational gradient varied in relation to the facings of slopes; cloud cover probability was higher on the windward (northeastern) sides than on the leeward (southwestern) sides of the mountains. Both morning and afternoon observations indicate that the Hawaiian Islands were cloudier in June than in January. This is the opposite of what we might expect as January is in the wet season and June is in the dry season. Both late evening and early

  10. Aram Dorsum, Candidate ExoMars Rover Landing Site: a Noachian Inverted Fluvial Channel System in Arabia Terra Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balme, Matthew; Grindrod, Peter; Sefton-Nash, Elliot; Davis, Joel; Gupta, Sanjeev; Fawdon, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Much of Mars' Noachian-aged southern highlands is dissected by systems of fluvial channels and valleys > 3.7 Ga in age. Arabia Terra, lying between the southern highlands and the northern lowlands, is similarly ancient, yet apparently has few valley networks. This regional lack of valley networks only matches Noachian precipitation predictions from climate models if the Noachian climate was dry and cold [1]. In this scenario, highlands dissection was caused by transient flows of meltwater from large, regionally restricted ice-bodies. However, new results [2,3] show that Arabia Terra is not as poorly dissected as previously thought, and in fact there are extensive networks of inverted channel systems. Here, we describe an example of such a system - Aram Dorsum - which has been studied extensively as an ExoMars Rover candidate landing site. Aram Dorsum is an ~100 km long, 1-2 km wide, branching, flat-topped ridge system, in western Arabia Terra. We have mapped the system using CTX images, DEMs and other data. We interpret the ridge system to be fluvial in origin, preserved in positive relief due to infill and differential erosion; this working hypothesis is used as a conceptual framework for the study. Aram Dorsum is a branching, multi-level, contributory network, set in surrounding floodplains-like material. This demonstrates that it was a relatively long-lived, aggradational fluvial system, rather than an erosional outflow or bedrock-carved fluvial channel. Interestingly, the system shows little evidence for unconfined lateral channel migration, so there must have been significant bank stability. Aram Dorsum was therefore probably once a sizable river and, as just one example of many similar systems, is an exemplar for the middle part of a regional sediment transport system that could have extended from the southern highlands to the northern lowlands. Like Aram Dorsum, many of these other recently-recognized fluvial systems have an origin more consistent with

  11. Temporal Analysis of Snow Cover Depletion in the Eastern Part of Turkey Based on MODIS-Terra and Temperature Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyurek, Z.; Surer, S.; Bolat, K.

    2012-04-01

    Snow cover is an important feature of mountainous regions. Depending on latitude, the higher altitudes are completely covered by snow for several months in a year. Snow cover is also an important factor for optimum use of water in energy production, flood control, irrigation and reservoir operation optimization, as well as ski tourism. Snow cover depletion curve (SDC) is one of the important variables in snow hydrological applications, and these curves are very much required for snowmelt runoff modeling in a snow-fed catchment. In this study it is aimed to monitor the temporal changes in the snow cover depletion in Upper-Euphrates basin for the period of 2000-2011. Snow mapping was performed by reclassifying the fractional snow cover areas obtained from MODIS-Terra (MOD09GA) data by the algorithm derived for the region. An automatic approach was developed in deriving the snow cover depletion curves. Maximum snow cover occurs in winter months in Upper-Euphrates basin and the amount of maximum snow cover is between 80-90 % of the total area. Approximately 45% of the area is covered with snow in the autumn, the melting occurs in spring and 15% of the area is covered with snow during spring months. At the beginning of April there exists snow generally above 1900 m in the basin, at the lower elevations snow does not stay after the end of February. The previous studies indicate warming trends for the basin's temperatures. Statistically insignificant decreasing trends in precipitation in the basin except autumn season for the period of 1975-2008 were obtained. The major melting period in this basin starts in early April, but in the last three years a shift in snow melting time was detected. When sufficient satellite data are not available due to cloud cover or due to some other reasons, then SDC can be generated using temperature data. Mean cloud coverage for the melting period was obtained as 82% from MODIS-Terra images in the basin. Under changed climate conditions also

  12. Temporal Analysis of Snow Cover Depletion in the Eastern Part of Turkey Based on MODIS-Terra and Temperature Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyurek, Z.; Sürer, S.; Bolat, K.

    2012-12-01

    Snow cover is an important feature of mountainous regions. Depending on latitude, the higher altitudes are completely covered by snow for several months in a year. Snow cover is also an important factor for optimum use of water in energy production, flood control, irrigation and reservoir operation optimization, as well as ski tourism. Snow cover depletion curve (SDC) is one of the important variables in snow hydrological applications, and these curves are very much required for snowmelt runoff modeling in a snow-fed catchment. In this study it is aimed to monitor the temporal changes in the snow cover depletion in Upper-Euphrates basin for the period of 2000-2011. Snow mapping was performed by reclassifying the fractional snow cover areas obtained from MODIS-Terra (MOD09GA) data by the algorithm derived for the region. An automatic approach was developed in deriving the snow cover depletion curves. Maximum snow cover occurs in winter months in Upper-Euphrates basin and the amount of maximum snow cover is between 80-90 % of the total area. Approximately 45% of the area is covered with snow in the autumn, the melting occurs in spring and 15% of the area is covered with snow during spring months. At the beginning of April there exists snow generally above 1900 m in the basin, at the lower elevations snow does not stay after the end of February. The previous studies indicate warming trends for the basin's temperatures. Statistically insignificant decreasing trends in precipitation in the basin except autumn season for the period of 1975-2008 were obtained. The major melting period in this basin starts in early April, but in the last three years a shift in snow melting time was detected. When sufficient satellite data are not available due to cloud cover or due to some other reasons, then SDC can be generated using temperature data. Mean cloud coverage for the melting period was obtained as 82% from MODIS-Terra images in the basin. Under changed climate conditions also

  13. The Impact of Rise of the Andes and Amazon Landscape Evolution on Diversification of Lowland terra-firme Forest Birds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aleixo, Alexandre; Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2011-01-01

    Since the 19th Century, the unmatched biological diversity of Amazonia has stimulated a diverse set of hypotheses accounting for patterns of species diversity and distribution in mega-diverse tropical environments. Unfortunately, the evidence supporting particular hypotheses to date is at best described as ambiguous, and no generalizations have emerged yet, mostly due to the lack of comprehensive comparative phylogeographic studies with thorough trans-Amazonian sampling of lineages. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of diversification estimated from mitochondrial gene trees for 31 lineages of birds associated with upland terra-firme forest, the dominant habitat in modern lowland Amazonia. The results confirm the pervasive role of Amazonian rivers as primary barriers separating sister lineages of birds, and a protracted spatio-temporal pattern of diversification, with a gradual reduction of earlier (1st and 2nd) and older (> 2 mya) splits associated with each lineage in an eastward direction. (The easternmost tributaries of the Amazon, the Xingu and Tocantins Rivers, are not associated with any splits older than > 2 mya). For the suboscine passerines, maximum-likelihood estimates of rates of diversification point to an overall constant rate over the past 5 my (up to a significant downturn at 300,000 y ago). This "younging-eastward" pattern may have an abiotic explanation related to landscape evolution. Triggered by a new pulse of Andean uplift, it has been proposed that modern Amazon basin landscapes may have evolved successively eastward, away from the mountain chain, starting approximately 10 mya. This process was likely based on the deposition of vast fluvial sediment masses, known as megafans, that may have extended progressively and in series eastward from Andean sources. This process plausibly explains the progressive extinction of original Pebas wetland of western-central Amazonia by the present fluvial landsurfaces of a more terra-firme type

  14. Characterization of hydrated silicate-bearing outcrops in Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: Implications to the alteration history of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, D.; Carter, J.; Bouley, S.; Mangold, N.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Costard, F.; Langevin, Y.; Gondet, B.; Murchie, S. L.

    2012-05-01

    The Tyrrhena Terra region of Mars is studied with the imaging spectrometers OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité) onboard Mars Express and CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Infrared Spectrometer for Mars) onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, through the observation of tens of craters that impacted into this part of the martian highlands. The 175 detections of hydrated silicates are reported, mainly associated with ejecta blankets, crater walls and rims, and central up-lifts. Sizes of craters where hydrated silicates are detected are highly variable, diameters range from less than 1 km to 42 km. We report the presence of zeolites and phyllosilicates like prehnite, Mg-chlorite, Mg-rich smectites and mixed-layer chlorites-smectites and chlorite-vermiculite from comparison of hyperspectral infrared observations with laboratory spectra. These minerals are associated with fresh craters post-dating any aqueous activity. They likely represent ancient hydrated terrains excavated by the crater-forming impacts, and hence reveal the composition of the altered Noachian crust, although crater-related hydrothermal activity may have played a minor role for the largest craters (>20 km in diameter). Most detected minerals formed over relatively high temperatures (100-300 °C), likely due to aqueous alteration of the Noachian crust by regional low grade metamorphism from the Noachian thermal gradient and/or by extended hydrothermal systems associated with Noachian volcanism and ancient large impact craters. This is in contrast with some other phyllosilicate-bearing regions like Mawrth Vallis where smectites, kaolinites and hydrated silica were mainly identified, pointing to a predominance of surface/shallow sub-surface alteration; and where excavation by impacts played only a minor role. Smooth plains containing hydrated silicates are observed at the boundary between the Noachian altered crust, dissected by fluvial valleys, and the Hesperian

  15. Evaluation of Detector-to-Detector and Mirror Side Differences for Terra MODIS Reflective Solar Bands Using Simultaneous MISR Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, A.; Barnes, W.

    2011-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the five Earth-observing instruments on-board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth-Observing System(EOS) Terra spacecraft, launched in December 1999. It has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 14.4 mm and collects data at three nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25 km for 2 bands with 40 detectors each, 0.5 km for 5 bands with 20 detectors each and 1 km for the remaining 29 bands with 10 detectors each. MODIS bands are located on four separate focal plane assemblies (FPAs) according to their spectral wavelengths and aligned in the cross-track direction. Detectors of each spectral band are aligned in the along-track direction. MODIS makes observations using a two-sided paddle-wheel scan mirror. Its on-board calibrators (OBCs) for the reflective solar bands (RSBs) include a solar diffuser (SD), a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) and a spectral-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). Calibration is performed for each band, detector, sub-sample (for sub-kilometer resolution bands) and mirror side. In this study, a ratio approach is applied to MODIS observed Earth scene reflectances to track the detector-to-detector and mirror side differences. Simultaneous observed reflectances from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), also onboard the Terra spacecraft, are used with MODIS observed reflectances in this ratio approach for four close