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Sample records for lada terra v-56

  1. Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, P. Senthil; Head, James W., III

    2009-01-01

    Geological mapping of the V-56 quadrangle (Fig. 1) reveals various tectonic and volcanic features and processes in Lada Terra that consist of tesserae, regional extensional belts, coronae, volcanic plains and impact craters. This study aims to map the spatial distribution of different material units, deformational features or lineament patterns and impact crater materials. In addition, we also establish the relative age relationships (e.g., overlapping or cross-cutting relationship) between them, in order to reconstruct the geologic history. Basically, this quadrangle addresses how coronae evolved in association with regional extensional belts, in addition to evolution of tesserae, regional plains and impact craters, which are also significant geological units of Lada Terra.

  2. Geologic map of the Lada Terra quadrangle (V-56), Venus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumar, P. Senthil; Head, James W.

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides a geological map of Lada Terra quadrangle (V–56), a portion of the southern hemisphere of Venus that extends from lat 50° S. to 70° S. and from long 0° E. to 60° E. V–56 is bordered by Kaiwan Fluctus (V–44) and Agnesi (V–45) quadrangles in the north and by Mylitta Fluctus (V–61), Fredegonde (V–57), and Hurston (V–62) quadrangles in the west, east, and south, respectively. The geological map of V–56 quadrangle reveals evidence for tectonic, volcanic, and impact processes in Lada Terra in the form of tesserae, regional extensional belts, coronae, and volcanic plains. In addition, the map also shows relative age relations such as overlapping or cross-cutting relations between the mapped geologic units. The geology observed within this quadrangle addresses (1) how coronae evolved in association with regional extensional belts and (2) how tesserae, regional plains, and impact craters, which are also significant geological units observed in Lada Terra quadrangle, were formed.

  3. Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus: A Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, P. Senthil; Head, James W., III

    2008-01-01

    Geological mapping of the V-56 quadrangle (Fig. 1) reveals various tectonic and volcanic features and processes in Lada Terra that consist of tesserae, regional extensional belts, coronae, volcanic plains and impact craters. This study aims to map the spatial distribution of different material units, deformational features or lineament patterns and impact crater materials. In addition, we also establish the relative age relationships (e.g., overlapping or cross-cutting relationships) between them, in order to reconstruct the geologic history. Basically, this quadrangle addresses how coronae evolved in association with regional extensional belts, in addition to evolution of tesserae, regional plains and impact craters, which are also significant geological units of Lada Terra.

  4. Spatial and temporal relations between coronae and extensional belts, northern Lada Terra, Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, G.; Schubert, G.; Bindschadler, D. L.; Stofan, E. R.

    1994-04-01

    Preliminary studies of the distribution of coronae and volcanic rises on Venus show that many of these features tend to cluster along zones of rifting and extension. The plains north of Lada Terra are crossed by two such extensional belts. Each belt is composed of grabens, ridges, faults, volcanic flows, coronae and coronalike features. The longer and more prominent belt is the NW trending Alpha-Lada extensional belt, which is over 6000 km long and 50-200 km wide, and includes the coronae Eve, Tamfana, Carpo, Selu, Derceto, Otygen, and an unnamed corona south of Otygen. The second belt is the NNE trending Derceto-Quetzalpetlatl extensional belt, which is about 2000 km long and in places over 300 km wide, and includes the coronae Sarpanitum, Eithinoha, and Quetzalpetlatl. The two belts intersect at the 1600 x 600 km wide Derceto volcanic plateau. It is apparent that deformation along the two belts overlapped in time, though deformation along the Alpha-Lada extensional belt probably continued after the deformation along the Derceto-Quetzalpetlatl extensional belt terminated. In certain areas, volcanism originated in grabens within the extensional belts, whereas in other areas, such as in Eve, Selu, Derceto, and Quetzalpetlatl, volcanism originated in the coronae and flowed into the lower parts of the extensional belts. Regional extension has affected the evolution of all the coronae at some stage of their development. Regional deformation occurred before the initiation of Derceto and Eithinoha of their development. Regional deformation occurred before the initiation of Derceto and Eithinoha and after the initiation of Carpo, Tamfana, Otygen, and Sarpanitum. It is thus unlikely that coronae formation along the belts is solely a consequence of the regional extension, and it is also unlikely that regional extension has been caused solely by the coronae. No corona along the belts was formed subsequent to the cessation of the regional extension. We therefore suggest that

  5. Application of left- and right-looking SAR stereo to depth measurements of the Ammavaru outflow channel, Lada Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    Venusian channels are too narrow to be resolved by Magellan's radar altimeter, so they are not visible in the standard topographic data products. Stereo image data, in addition to their benefit to geologic mapping of Venus structures as a whole, are indispensible in measuring the topography across the channels. These measurements can then be used in conjunction with the regional topographic maps based on the altimeter data to produce cross-sectional areas for the channels and estimate the fluid discharge through them. As an example of the application of the stereo image data to venusian channels, a number of test depth and profile measurements were made of the large outflow channel system in Lada Terra, centered at 50 deg S latitude, 21 deg E longitude (F-MIDR 50S021). These measurements were made by viewing the cycle 1 and 2 digital FMIDRs in stereo on a display monitor, so as to minimize the errors in measuring parallax displacement as much as possible. The MIDRs are produced at a scale of 75 m/pixel. This corresponds to a vertical scale of about 17 m/pixel, when calculating the height of a feature from its parallax displacement. An error in placement determination of 1 pixel was assumed to characterize the vertical accuracy as plus or minus 17 m. When this technique was applied to the outflow channel, it was noted that the walls of the collapsed terrain source and 'trough reach' of the channel are laid over in both the cycle 1 and 2 images. This is evident when examining the distance between features on the plateau and the cliff walls in the two images. The layover 'shifts' the features closer to the apparent edge of the wall relative to the oppositely illuminated image.

  6. TERRA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Kirsty

    1997-01-01

    TERRA (Teaching Ecological Responsibility, Recreation, and Adventure) is an integrated, one-semester, four-course program in environmental science, environmental English, independent geography, and outdoor education for grades 11 and 12 in New Liskeard, Ontario. Program activities include outdoor adventure, environmental research projects,…

  7. Venus southern hemisphere - Geologic character and age of terrains in the Themis-Alpha-Lada region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. B.; Senske, D. A.; Head, J. W.; Fisher, P. C.; Hine, A. A.

    1991-01-01

    Arecibo high-resolution radar images of the southern hemisphere of Venus extending to 78 deg S show that the surface of the Themis-Alpha-Lada region is characterized by linear deformation zones with volcanoes and corona-like features and by regional volcanic deposits (primarily plains, small shields, and large edifices). Large-scale areal deformation is limited to the tessera of Alpha Regio. Lada Terra, in the southern high latitudes, contains several large coronae, in contrast to Ishtar Terra in the northern high latitudes. The density of craters of possible impact origin is somewhat lower than that observed in the Venera 15 and 16 coverage; these data extend to 43 percent of the areas of the surface of Venus with ages of less than about 1 billion years.

  8. Terra Satellite

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... techniques, this enables construction of 3-D models and estimation of the total amount of sunlight reflected by Earth's diverse ... Artist Concept Terra with MISR location:  Global Images thumbnail:  ...

  9. Terra Sirenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This image is from a region called Terra Sirenum in Mars' southern hemisphere. This region was named in 1958 for the Sea of the Sirens from Greek Mythology. This is not a sea, however, but a relatively dusty, high albedo region of Mars. There are numerous dust devil tracks that are apparent in the center- left of the image. The dust devils act like vacuum cleaners and lift dust off of the surface leaving a less dusty and relatively lower albedo surface behind. Dust devils are very common on Mars and are thought to be the primary mechanism for constantly lifting the dust into the atmosphere. Dust is constantly present in the Martian atmosphere in greater abundances than typically seen on Earth. The Martian dust is one of the main factors that affect the present Martian climate and clearly displays the relationship between Mars' geology and atmosphere.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California

  10. Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This image shows deposits in a crater located in Arabia Terra. Arabia is generally dust covered and dark streaks or dust avalanches are present in the crater walls. The dominant geologic process acting in this crater interior is wind erosion. The central crater deposits are eroded to form yardangs, or linear wind-sculpted hills that resemble an inverted boat hull. Deflation and abrasion are capable of eroding rock structures that are aligned parallel to wind direction. In the lower right hand side of the crater, a dark deposit has formed barchan dunes. These crescent shaped dunes have 'horns' that point downwind indicating general northwest to southeast wind direction. These dark sands probably played a role in the erosion and formation of the yardangs.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. InfoTerra/TerraSAR initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Manfred W.

    2004-01-01

    The overarching goal of the InfoTerra/TerraSAR Initiative is to establish a self-sustaining operational/commercial business built on Europe"s know-how and experience in space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology, in SAR data processing as well as in SAR applications. InfoTerra stands for a new business concept based on supplying innovative geo-information products and services. TerraSAR is a space and ground system conceived to consist of an initial deployment and operation of 2 Radar satellites (one in X- and one in L-band) flying in a tandem configuration in the same orbit. The design of TerraSAR is driven by the market and is user-oriented. TerraSAR is key to capturing a significant proportion of the existing market and to opening new market opportunities, when it becomes operational. The InfoTerra/TerraSAR Initiative has evolved gradually. It started in 1997 as a joint venture between German (DSS) and British (MMS-UK) space industry, strongly supported by both space agencies, DLR and BNSC. In early 2001, DLR and BNSC submitted to ESA the Formal Programme Proposal for InfoTerra/TerraSAR to become an essential element of ESA"s Earth Watch Programme. In summer 2001, when it became evident that there was not yet sufficient support from the ESA Member States to allow immediate start entering into TerraSAR Phase C/D, it has been decided to implement first a TerraSAR consolidation phase. In early 2002, in order to avoid further delays, a contract was signed between DLR and Astrium GmbH on the development of one component of TerraSAR, the TerraSAR-X, in the frame of a national programme, governed by a Public Private Partnership Agreement. Even if now the different launch dates for TerraSAR-X and TerraSAR-L are narrowing down the window of common data acquisition, it is a reasonable starting point, but it should always be kept in mind that the utmost goal for the longterm is to achieve self sustainability by supplying geo-information products and services

  12. Terra Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 28 June 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image illustrates the complex terrains within Terra Meridiani. This general region is one of the more complex on Mars, with a rich array of sedimentary, volcanic, and impact surfaces that span a wide range of martian history. This image lies at the eastern edge of a unique geologic unit that was discovered by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) Science Team to have high concentrations of a unique mineral called grey (crystalline) hematite. As discussed by the TES Science Team, this mineral typically forms by processes associated with water, and this region appears to have undergone alteration by hydrothermal (hot water) or other water-related processes. As a result of this evidence for water activity, this region is a leading candidate for further exploration by one of NASA's upcoming Mars Exploration Rovers. The brightness and texture of the surface varies remarkably throughout this image. These differences are associated with different rock layers or ?units?, and can be used to map the occurrence of these layers. The number of layers indicates that extensive deposition by volcanic and sedimentary processes has occurred in this region. Since that time, however, extensive erosion has occurred to produce the patchwork of different layers exposed across the surface. Several distinct layers can be seen within the 20 km diameter crater at the bottom (south) of the image, indicating that this crater once contained layers of sedimentary material that has since been removed. THEMIS infrared images of this region show that many of these rock layers have distinctly different temperatures, indicating that the physical properties vary from layer to layer. These differences suggest that the environment and the conditions under which these layers were deposited or solidified varied through time as these layers were formed. The Story Mars exploration

  13. Morphometric and genetics properties of pea crops grown in space greenhouse Lada"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinskikh, M.; Sychev, V.; Podolsky, I.; Gostimsky, S.; Bingham, G.

    Results of the experiments with higher plants performed in greenhouse Svet aboard the MIR space station in 1996-1999 made it evident that the main biological characteristics of plants growth development reproduction and metabolism did not undergo modifications in consequence of microgravity It was shown that at least two ontogenetic cycles of plants could pass in the normal way in this environment However the initial experimental data was insufficient for fiducial conclusions on the delayed effects of cultivating a sequence of plant generations on the background of spaceflight factors Hence these investigations are given precedence in the space life sciences research programs In the period from March 2003 to April 2005 we fulfilled five experimental cultivations of genetically marked dwarf pea species in greenhouse Lada installed in the Russian segment of the International space station The purpose of this series of experiments was to make morphologic and genetic analysis of pea plants grown in successive generations According to our results pea growth and development over the full cycle of ontogenesis from seed to seed taking place in space greenhouse Lada were not different as compared with the ground control plants In addition four successive pea crops gathered in space flight did not loose their reproductive functions and formed viable seeds Genetic analysis of the plants grown from the space and ground seeds produced by the first to fourth successive crops was performed using the methods of

  14. EOS Terra Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David

    1999-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include ASTER, CERES, MISR, MODIS and MOPITT. In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2, though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra mission will be described with emphasis on derived geophysical parameters of most relevance to the atmospheric radiation community. Detailed information about the EOS Terra validation Program can be found on the EOS Validation program

  15. EOS Terra Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David

    2000-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multi-Angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2 though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra

  16. Terra Sirenum Slope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    16 July 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the layered rocks and boulders exposed on the wall of a trough in the Terra Sirenum region. The layers that erode to produce large boulders are harder and more resistant to weathering and erosion than those that do not. The slope is located near 25.8oS, 139.8oW. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  17. Comparing Crustal Magnetism of Terra Meridiani and Terra Cimmeria, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, R. A.; Jurdy, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Terra Meridiani displays remanent crustal magnetization, roughly symmetric and coherent over long distances, that has been interpreted by some workers as resulting from seafloor spreading. A detailed magnetization map of this region, located at 0º, 0º ±20º, will be compared with that of Terra Cimmeria (-40º, 180º) which hosts Mars' most intense and continuous magnetization. Mars Global Surveyor magnetometer (MGS MAG) data from mapping altitude (~400km) was downward continued to the surface. Data from the MGS aerobraking phase contains tracks in Terra Meridiani at altitudes between 110-190 km, revealing localized persistent Br signatures between -268 and 278 nT, with standard deviations of 24 and 17 nT, respectively. These signatures coincide with areas of strongest magnetization on the downward continued map at corresponding altitudes. However, several uncorrelated small-scale pockets of magnetization that appear in the aerobraking dataset may be attributed to shorter wavelength signals or noise. Positive and negative sources in Terra Meridiani show comparable decay with altitude. Similarly, sources in Terra Cimmeria resemble this decay. By extrapolating into the subsurface, we estimate the source depths for both regions and observe that Terra Meridiani has shallower sources than Terra Cimmeria. The strongest magnetization in Terra Meridiani lies along the 4,600 km diameter outer ring of the Chryse basin. A similar association occurs in Terra Cimmeria along the outer rings of the Sirenum basin. The decay of magnetization intensity with altitude, crustal composition, and crustal thickness estimates will be used to create simple models of magnetic sources for Terra Meridiani.

  18. Geology and tectonics of the Themis Regio-Lavinia Planitia-Alpha Regio-Lada Terra area, Venus - Results from Arecibo image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senske, D. A.; Head, J. W.; Fisher, C. P.; Decharon, A.; Frank, S. L.; Keddie, S. T.; Roberts, K. M.; Campbell, D. B.; Hine, A. A.; Stofan, E. R.

    1991-01-01

    Results of new radar images obtained from the Arecibo Observatory for portions of the southern hemisphere of Venus are reported. The images show that the upland of Phoebe Region contains the southern extension of Devana Chasma, a rift zone extending 4200 km south from Theia Mons and interpreted as a zone of extension. Alpha Regio, the only large region of tesserae within the imaged area, is found to be similar to tesserae mapped elsewhere on the planet; it covers a smaller percentage of the surface than that observed in the northern high latitudes. Themis Region is mapped as an ovoid chain of radar-bright arcuate single- and double-ring structures, edifices, and bright lineaments. On the basis of the present analysis, the southern hemisphere of Venus is interpreted to be characterized by regions of mantle upwelling on a variety of scales, upwelling and extension, and localized compression.

  19. Terra is in NORMAL Mode

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-23

    ... 22, 2016.  TERRA has recovered from Safe Hold and is now in Normal mode. CERES will hold their CAM Wednesday morning and will ... . You can learn more about this mission at the Terra web site. The Flight Operations Team is working on resolving the issue as ...

  20. Bilateral symmetry across Aphrodite Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, J. W.; Campbell, D. B.

    1987-01-01

    There are three main highland areas on Venus: Beta Regio, Ishtar Terra and Aphrodite Terra. The latter is least known and the least mapped, yet existing analyses of Aphrodite Terra based on available Pioneer-Venus orbiter data suggest that it may be the site of extensive rifting. Some of the highest resolution (30 km) PV data (SAR) included most of the western half of Aphrodite Terra. Recent analysis of the SAR data together with Arecibo range-doppler topographic profiling (10 X 100 km horizontal and 10 m vertical resolution) across parts of Aphrodite, further characterized the nature of possible tectonic processes in the equatorial highlands. The existence of distinct topographic and radar morphologic linear discontinuities across the nearly east-west strike of Aphrodite Terra is indicated. Another prominent set of linear features is distinctly parallel to and orthogonal to the ground tracks of the PV spacecraft and are not included because of the possibility that they are artifacts. Study of the northwest trending cross-strike discontinuities (CSD's) and the nature of topographic and morphologic features along their strike suggest the presence of bilateral topographic and morphologic symmetry about the long axis of Aphrodite Terra.

  1. Terra Cimmeria Crater Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The landslide in this VIS image is located inside an impact crater in the Terra Cimmeria region of Mars. The unnamed crater hosting this image is just east of Molesworth Crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -27.7, Longitude 152 East (208 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Quantitative and Qualitative Differences in Neurocognitive Impairment Induced by 1 GeV 56Fe Ions and X-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britten, R.; Mitchell, S.; Parris, B.; Johnson, A.; Singletary-Britten, S.; Lonart, G.; Drake, R.

    2008-10-01

    During the planned mission to Mars, Astronauts will be exposed to heavy charged particles (Hze). Our group has been determining the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of Hze (1 GeV 56Fe, LET = 150 kev/um) with respect to neurocognitive impairment, specifically spatial memory, short-term working memory and attentional set shifting. Our current data suggest that Hze have RBE values of about 7 for hippocampal-dependent spatial memory tasks (Barnes Maze) and possibly even higher for certain attentional processes. We have also used MALDI-TOF serum profiling analysis to identify several proteins that are biomarkers of both the level and LET of the radiation exposure, and biomarkers of cognitive performance. Our data suggest that Hze particles have a distinctly different impact upon neurocognitive function in rats than do X-rays. From a mission perspective, attentional set shifting is the neurocognitive function most likely to be impacted by the predicted Hze exposure; unfortunately Set shifting underlies our ability to execute complex plans. The proteins identified could be used to monitor the Astronauts for radiation exposure and any associated loss of neurocognitive function, and some may actually give an insight into the complex processes that lead to radiation-induced cognitive impairment.

  3. Science Writers' Guide to TERRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The launch of NASA's Terra spacecraft marks a new era of comprehensive monitoring of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and continents from a single space-based platform. Data from the five Terra instruments will create continuous, long-term records of the state of the land, oceans, and atmosphere. Together with data from other satellite systems launched by NASA and other countries, Terra will inaugurate a new self-consistent data record that will be gathered over the next 15 years. The science objectives of NASAs Earth Observing System (EOS) program are to provide global observations and scientific understanding of land cover change and global productivity, climate variability and change, natural hazards, and atmospheric ozone. Observations by the Terra instruments will: provide the first global and seasonal measurements of the Earth system, including such critical functions as biological productivity of the land and oceans, snow and ice, surface temperature, clouds, water vapor, and land cover; improve our ability to detect human impacts on the Earth system and climate, identify the "fingerprint" of human activity on climate, and predict climate change by using the new global observations in climate models; help develop technologies for disaster prediction, characterization, and risk reduction from wildfires, volcanoes, floods, and droughts, and start long-term monitoring of global climate change and environmental change.

  4. TerraSAR-X mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werninghaus, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    The TerraSAR-X is a German national SAR- satellite system for scientific and commercial applications. It is the continuation of the scientifically and technologically successful radar missions X-SAR (1994) and SRTM (2000) and will bring the national technology developments DESA and TOPAS into operational use. The space segment of TerraSAR-X is an advanced high-resolution X-Band radar satellite. The system design is based on a sound market analysis performed by Infoterra. The TerraSAR-X features an advanced high-resolution X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar based on the active phased array technology which allows the operation in Spotlight-, Stripmap- and ScanSAR Mode with various polarizations. It combines the ability to acquire high resolution images for detailed analysis as well as wide swath images for overview applications. In addition, experimental modes like the Dual Receive Antenna Mode allow for full-polarimetric imaging as well as along track interferometry, i.e. moving target identification. The Ground Segment is optimized for flexible response to (scientific and commercial) User requests and fast image product turn-around times. The TerraSAR-X mission will serve two main goals. The first goal is to provide the strongly supportive scientific community with multi-mode X-Band SAR data. The broad spectrum of scientific application areas include Hydrology, Geology, Climatology, Oceanography, Environmental Monitoring and Disaster Monitoring as well as Cartography (DEM Generation) and Interferometry. The second goal is the establishment of a commercial EO-market in Europe which is driven by Infoterra. The commercial goal is the development of a sustainable EO-business so that the e.g. follow-on systems can be completely financed by industry from the profit. Due to its commercial potential, the TerraSAR-X project will be implemented based on a public-private partnership with the Astrium GmbH. This paper will describe first the mission objectives as well as the

  5. Terra firma-forme dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Ferdi; Kocabaş, Engin; Ertan, Pelin; Ermertcan, Aylin Türel

    2010-12-01

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis (TFFD) is an uncommon disorder of keratinization with an unknown etiology in which patients present with dirt-like lesions that are resistant to washing. A 6-year old girl presented with the complaint of an asymptomatic brownish black dirt-like eruption on her body. Her parents reported no response to washing with soap and water. Dermatologic examination revealed brown hyperpigmented patches on the trunk and abdominal region. TFFD was suspected, and isopropyl alcohol was applied to the patient's lesions. All lesions completely disappeared after rubbing with alcohol. Terra firma-forme dermatosis is a relatively recently described entity that is much more common than might be expected when surveying the medical literature. With the very few reports found in the literature about TFFD, we believe that an increased awareness of this entity among primary care physicians would help decrease unnecessary worries or medical procedures, since TFFD lesions simply resolve by rubbing with isopropyl alcohol. PMID:20684734

  6. A single amino acid change (Y318F) in the L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LadA) from Aspergillus niger results in a significant increase in affinity for D-sorbitol

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LAD) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) are involved in the degradation of L-arabinose and D-xylose, which are among the most abundant monosaccharides on earth. Previous data demonstrated that LAD and XDH not only differ in the activity on their biological substrate, but also that only XDH has significant activity on D-sorbitol and may therefore be more closely related to D-sorbitol dehydrogenases (SDH). In this study we aimed to identify residues involved in the difference in substrate specificity. Results Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that LAD, XDH and SDH form 3 distinct groups of the family of dehydrogenases containing an Alcohol dehydrogenase GroES-like domain (pfam08240) and likely have evolved from a common ancestor. Modelling of LadA and XdhA of the saprobic fungus Aspergillus niger on human SDH identified two residues in LadA (M70 and Y318), that may explain the absence of activity on D-sorbitol. While introduction of the mutation M70F in LadA of A. niger resulted in a nearly complete enzyme inactivation, the Y318F resulted in increased activity for L-arabitol and xylitol. Moreover, the affinity for D-sorbitol was increased in this mutant. Conclusion These data demonstrates that Y318 of LadA contributes significantly to the substrate specificity difference between LAD and XDH/SDH. PMID:19674460

  7. Terra Nova Bay Polynya, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In Terra Nova Bay, off the Scott Coast of Victoria Land, Antarctica, a large pocket of open water persists throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere winter, even while most of the rest of the Antarctic coastline is firmly embraced by the frozen Southern Ocean. This pocket of open water--a polynya--results from exceptionally strong winds that blow downslope from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. These fierce katabatic winds drive the sea ice eastward. Since the dominant ice drift pattern in the area is northward, the Drygalski Ice Tongue prevents the bay from being re-populated with sea ice. This image of the Terra Nova Bay polynya was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 16, 2007. Sea ice sits over the Ross Sea like a cracked and crumbling windshield. Blue-tinged glaciers flow down from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. Although glaciers can appear blue because of melt water, they can also get that tint when the wind scours and polishes the ice surface. Given the strength of the katabatic winds along this part of the Antarctic coast, it is likely that the blue color of these glaciers is a result of their having been swept clean of snow. The large image has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel.

  8. Xanthe Terra Landslide in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This is a daytime IR image of a chaos region within Xanthe Terra. As with earlier images, the landslide in this image is caused by the failure of steep slopes releasing material to form the landslide deposit.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 3.1, Longitude 309.7 East (50.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Sand Dunes in Noachis Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    11 February 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark-toned sand dunes in a crater in eastern Noachis Terra. Most big martian dunes tend to be dark, as opposed to the more familiar light-toned dunes of Earth. This difference is a product of the composition of the dunes; on Earth, most dunes contain abundant quartz. Quartz is usually clear (transparent), though quartz sand grains that have been kicked around by wind usually develop a white, frosty surface. On Mars, the sand is mostly made up of the darker minerals that comprise iron- and magnesium-rich volcanic rocks--i.e., like the black sand beaches found on volcanic islands like Hawaii. Examples of dark sand dunes on Earth are found in central Washington state and Iceland, among other places. This picture is located near 49.0oS, 326.3oW. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the upper left; the image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  10. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TERRA KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY - TERRA-KLEEN RESPONSE GROUP, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Terra-Kleen Solvent Extraction Technology was developed by Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc., to remove polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other organic constituents from contaminated soil. This batch process system uses a proprietary solvent at ambient temperatures to treat ...

  11. Small Volcano in Terra Cimmeria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 26 June 2002) The Science This positive relief feature (see MOLA context) in the ancient highlands of Mars appears to be a heavily eroded volcanic center. The top of this feature appears to be under attack by the erosive forces of the martian wind. Light-toned streaks are visible, trending northeast to southwest, and may be caused by scouring of the terrain, or they may be dune forms moving sand. The northeast portion of the caldera area looks as though a layer of material is being removed to expose a slightly lighter-toned surface underneath. The flanks of this feature are slightly less cratered than the surrounding terrain, which could be explained in two ways: 1) this feature may be younger than the surrounding area, and has had less time to accumulate meteorite impacts, or 2) the slopes that are observed today may be so heavily eroded that the original, cratered surfaces are now gone, exposing relatively uncratered rocks. Although most of Terra Cimmeria has low albedo, some eastern portions, such as shown in this image, demonstrate an overall lack of contrast that attests to the presence of a layer of dust mantling the surface. This dust, in part, is responsible for the muted appearance and infill of many of the craters at the northern and southern ends of this image The Story This flat-topped volcano pops out from the surface, the swirls of its ancient lava flows running down onto the ancient highlands of Mars. Its smooth top appears to be under attack by the erosive forces of the martian wind. How can you tell? Click on the image above for a close-up look. You'll see some light-toned streaks that run in a northeast-southwest direction. They are caused either by the scouring of the terrain or dunes of moving sand. Either way, the wind likely plays upon the volcano's surface. Look also for the subtle, nearly crescent shaped feature at the northeast portion of the volcano's cap. It looks as if a layer of material has been removed by the wind, exposing

  12. The Earth Observing System Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2000-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. After the launch in Dec. 16 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution smaller than 1 km on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical perspective of the Terra mission and the key new elements of the mission. We expect to have some first images that demonstrate the most innovative capability from EOS Terra: MODIS - 1.37 microns cirrus channel; 250 m daily cover for clouds and vegetation change; 7 solar channels for land and aerosol; new fire channels; Chlorophyll fluorescence; MISR - 9 multi angle views of clouds and vegetation; MOPITT - Global CO maps and CH4 maps; ASTER - Thermal channels for geological studies with 15-90 m resolution.

  13. The Earth Observing System Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. After the launch in Dec. 16 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution better than 1 km on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical perspective of the Terra mission and the key new elements of the mission. We expect to have first images that demonstrate the most innovative capability from EOS Terra 5 instruments: MODIS - 1.37 micron cirrus cloud channel; 250m daily coverage for clouds and vegetation change; 7 solar channels for land and aerosol studies; new fire channels; Chlorophyll fluorescence; MISR - first 9 multi angle views of clouds and vegetation; MOPITT - first global CO maps and C114 maps; ASTER - Thermal channels for geological studies with 15-90 m resolution.

  14. Northern Terra Meridiani's 'Monument Valley'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Northern Terra Meridiani, near the intersection of the martian equator and prime meridian, is a region of vast exposures of layered rock. A thermal image from the Phobos 2 orbiter in 1989 showed these materials to be anomalously cool during the daytime, an observation very suggestive of dense, hardened materials like rock. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images of this region show layered material exposed in cliffs, buttes, and mesas that in some ways resemble the rock outcrops of northern Arizona and southeastern Utah in North America (e.g., Monument Valley, Canyonlands, Zion National Park, Four Corners). MGS MOC Extended Mission operations have included several hundred opportunities for the spacecraft to be rolled off-nadir (i.e., at an angle other than 'straight down') to take pictures that repeat earlier MOC coverage. These repeat images, because they are taken from a different angle, can be combined with the original picture to produce a stereoscopic ('3-D') view. The image shown here is a composite of two pictures, the first taken October 23, 2000, the second acquired by pointing the spacecraft off-nadir on May 15, 2001. This view shows four buttes and a pinnacle (near left-center) composed of eroded, layered rock. The four buttes are each capped by the remains of a single layer of rock that is harder than the materials beneath it. It is the presence of this cap rock that has permitted these buttes to remain standing after surrounding materials were eroded away. Like the buttes of Monument Valley in the Navajo Nation on the Arizona/Utah border, these are believed to consist of sedimentary rocks, perhaps deposited in water or by wind, though some scientists have speculated that they could be made of thick accumulations of volcanic ash. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left. To see the image in 3-D, red (left-eye) and blue (right-eye) '3-D' glasses are required.

  15. Terra - the Earth Observing System flagship observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Terra platform enters its teenage years with an array of accomplishments but also with the potential to do much more. Efforts continue to extend the Terra data record to build upon its array of accomplishments and make its data more valuable by creating a record length that allows examination of inter annual variability, observe trends on the decadal scale, and gather statistics relevant to the define climate metrics. Continued data from Terra's complementary instruments will play a key role in creating the data record needed for scientists to develop an understanding of our climate system. Terra's suite of instruments: ASTER (contributed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry with a JPL-led US Science Team), CERES (NASA LaRC - PI), MISR (JPL - PI), MODIS (NASA GSFC), and MOPITT (sponsored by Canadian Space Agency with NCAR-led Science Team) are providing an unprecedented 81 core data products. The annual demand for Terra data remains with >120 million files distributed in 2011 and >157 million in 2012. More than 1,100 peer-reviewed publications appeared in 2012 using Terra data bringing the lifetime total >7,600. Citation numbers of 21,000 for 2012 and over 100,000 for the mission's lifetime. The broad range of products enable the community to provide answers to the overarching question, 'How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?' Terra continues to provide data that: (1) Extend the baseline of morning-orbit collections; (2) Enable comparison of measurements acquired from past high-impact events; (3) Add value to recently-launched and soon-to-be launched missions, and upcoming field programs. Terra data continue to support monitoring and relief efforts for natural and man-made disasters that involve U.S. interests. Terra also contributes to Applications Focus Areas supporting the U.S. National Objectives for agriculture, air quality, climate, disaster management, ecological forecasting, public health, water

  16. DETAIL OF ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA FRIEZE ABOVE GROUND FLOOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA FRIEZE ABOVE GROUND FLOOR AND TYPICAL TERRA COTTA WINDOW SILL. CORNER OF CLAY AND 15TH STREETS - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. Scaling the Pipe: NASA EOS Terra Data Systems at 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2010-01-01

    Standard products from the five sensors on NASA's Earth Observing System's (EOS) Terra satellite are being used world-wide for earth science research and applications. This paper describes the evolution of the Terra data systems over the last decade in which the distributed systems that produce, archive and distribute high quality Terra data products were scaled by two orders of magnitude.

  18. Cratered terrain in Terra Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 30 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image shows a region in Terra Meridiani near -12o S, 358o W (2o E). An old, heavily degraded channel can be seen from the lower (southern) portion of the image toward the top. This channel appears to terminate abruptly at the rim of a 10 km diameter crater. This apparent 'superposition' of the crater on top of the channel suggests that the impact crater was created after the channel was formed. This crater has two 3-km sized blocks of material that have slumped off from the lower left segment of the original crater rim. These immense blocks must have moved as a single unit because the rock layers that can be seen in the original wall of the crater can still be seen in these detached blocks. The walls of several craters in this image show vague hints of possible gully formation at the bottom of pronounced rock layers, with the suggestion of alcoves above the individual gullies. Well-developed gullies that were imaged by the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) on Mars Global Surveyor have been suggested to form by seepage and runoff of a fluid. The MOC has observed these gullies in numerous craters and channels further south, but they are uncommon at latitudes this close to the equator. Several sections of the crater walls appear to have ridges and troughs formed by the dry avalanche of loose rock, and a similar process of dry avalanche may account for the gullies seen in this THEMIS image. Patches of lighter material, possibly small dunes ripples, can be seen in several places throughout this image. The Story When the walls come tumbling down! Take a closer look at the bright linear ridges within a deep crater near the center of this image (bottom, left-hand side of the crater). Almost 2 miles long, these chunks of material slumped off the crater side in one fell swoop. Phoozhj! Down they came as one massive unit. You can tell, because the rock layers seen in the original wall of the crater are also still there in the

  19. Seasonal Frost in Terra Sirenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image of the Terra Sirenum region of Mars was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0918 UTC (4:18 a.m. EST) on Nov. 25, 2006, near 38.9 degrees south latitude, 195.9 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across.

    At this time, Mars' southern hemisphere was experiencing mid-winter. During Martian southern winter, the southern polar cap is covered and surrounded by carbon dioxide frost and water frost. This is unlike Earth, whose frozen winter precipitation is made up of only one volatile -- water. The carbon dioxide frost evaporates, or sublimates, at a lower temperature than water frost. So, during spring, the carbon dioxide ice evaporates first and leaves a residue of water frost, which later sublimates as well.

    The image shown here covers part of a crater rim, which is illuminated from the upper left. North is at the top. The topography creates a cold microenvironment on the south side of the rim that is partially protected from solar illumination. That cold surface contains an outlier of the southern seasonal frost about 15 degrees of latitude closer to the equator than the average edge of the frost at this season.

    The top image was constructed from three infrared wavelengths that highlight the bluer color of frost than the background rock and soil. Note that the frost occurs both on sunlit and shaded surfaces on the south side of the rim. The shaded areas are still visible because they are illuminated indirectly by the Martian sky.

    The bottom image was constructed by measuring the depths of spectral absorption bands due to water frost and carbon dioxide frost, and displaying the results in image form. Blue shows strength of an absorption due to water frost near 1.50 micrometers, and green shows strength of an absorption due to carbon dioxide frost near 1.45 micrometers. Red shows

  20. Slope Streaks in Terra Sabaea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version

    This HiRISE image shows the rim of a crater in the region of Terra Sabaea in the northern hemisphere of Mars.

    The subimage (figure 1) is a close-up view of the crater rim revealing dark and light-toned slope streaks. Slope streak formation is among the few known processes currently active on Mars. While their mechanism of formation and triggering is debated, they are most commonly believed to form by downslope movement of extremely dry sand or very fine-grained dust in an almost fluidlike manner (analogous to a terrestrial snow avalanche) exposing darker underlying material.

    Other ideas include the triggering of slope streak formation by possible concentrations of near-surface ice or scouring of the surface by running water from aquifers intercepting slope faces, spring discharge (perhaps brines), and/or hydrothermal activity.

    Several of the slope streaks in the subimage, particularly the three longest darker streaks, show evidence that downslope movement is being diverted around obstacles such as large boulders. Several streaks also appear to originate at boulders or clumps of rocky material.

    In general, the slope streaks do not have large deposits of displaced material at their downslope ends and do not run out onto the crater floor suggesting that they have little reserve kinetic energy. The darkest slope streaks are youngest and can be seen to cross cut and superpose older and lighter-toned streaks. The lighter-toned streaks are believed to be dark streaks that have lightened with time as new dust is deposited on their surface.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_001808_1875 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 15-Dec-2006. The complete image is centered at 7.4 degrees latitude, 47.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 272.1 km

  1. ES4 Terra-Xtrk Ed3

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-08

    ... Order:  Reverb   Reverb Tutorial Order Data:  Reverb:  Order Data Guide Documents:  ... for Terra and Aqua; Edition2 for TRMM) are approved for science publications.  Additional Info:  b SCAR-B ...

  2. Sedimentary Rocks and Methane - Southwest Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Venechuk, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    We propose to land the Mars Science Laboratory in southwest Arabia Terra to study two key aspects of martian history the extensive record of sedimentary rocks and the continuing release of methane. The results of this exploration will directly address the MSL Scientific Objectives regarding biological potential, geology and geochemistry, and past habitability.

  3. Terra in K-16 formal education settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Fischer, J. D.; Lewis, P. M.; Moore, S. W.; Oots, P. C.; Rogerson, T. M.; Hitke, K. M.; Riebeek, H.

    2009-12-01

    Since it began, the Terra mission has had an active presence in formal education at the K-16 level. This educational presence was provided through the S’COOL project for the first five years of the mission, joined by the MY NASA DATA project for the second five years. The Students’ Cloud Observations On-Line (S’COOL) Project, begun in 1997 under the auspices of the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, seeks to motivate students across the entire K-12 spectrum to learn science basics and how they tie in to a larger picture. Beginning early on, college level participants have also participated in the project, both in science classes and in science education coursework. The project uses the connection to an on-going NASA science investigation as a powerful motivator for student observations, analysis and learning, and has reached around the globe as shown in the world map. This poster will review the impact that Terra, through S’COOL, has made in formal education over the last decade. The MY NASA DATA Project began in 2004 under the NASA Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network (REASoN). A 5-year REASoN grant enabled the creation of an extensive website which wraps easily accessible Earth science data - including Terra parameters from CERES (involving MODIS data fusion), MISR, and MOPITT (an example for carbon monoxide is given in the graph, with dark areas indicating high CO levels) - with explanatory material written at the middle school level, and an extensive collection of peer-reviewed lesson plans. The MY NASA DATA site has a rapidly growing user-base and was recently adopted by a number of NASA Earth Science missions, in addition to Terra, as a formal education arm of their Education and Public Outreach efforts. This poster will summarize the contributions that Terra, through MY NASA DATA, has made to formal education since 2004.

  4. Terra Populus and DataNet Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugler, T.; Ruggles, S.; Fitch, C. A.; Clark, P. D.; Sobek, M.; Van Riper, D.

    2012-12-01

    Terra Populus, part of NSF's new DataNet initiative, is developing organizational and technical infrastructure to integrate, preserve, and disseminate data describing changes in the human population and environment over time. Terra Populus will incorporate large microdata and aggregate census datasets from the United States and around the world, as well as land use, land cover, climate and other environmental datasets. These data are widely dispersed, exist in a variety of data structures, have incompatible or inadequate metadata, and have incompatible geographic identifiers. Terra Populus is developing methods of integrating data from different domains and translating across data structures based on spatio-temporal linkages among data contents. The new infrastructure will enable researchers to identify and merge data from heterogeneous sources to study the relationships between human behavior and the natural world. Terra Populus will partner with data archives, data producers, and data users to create a sustainable international organization that will guarantee preservation and access over multiple decades. Terra Populus is also collaborating with the other projects in the DataNet initiative - DataONE, the DataNet Federation Consortium (DFC) and Sustainable Environment-Actionable Data (SEAD). Taken together, the four projects address aspects of the entire data lifecycle, including planning, collection, documentation, discovery, integration, curation, preservation, and collaboration; and encompass a wide range of disciplines including earth sciences, ecology, social sciences, hydrology, oceanography, and engineering. The four projects are pursuing activities to share data, tools, and expertise between pairs of projects as well as collaborating across the DataNet program on issues of cyberinfrastructure and community engagement. Topics to be addressed through program-wide collaboration include technical, organizational, and financial sustainability; semantic

  5. Resurfacing history of Tempe Terra and surroundings

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, H.V. ); Grant, T.D. )

    1990-08-30

    The resurfacing history of the Tempe Terra region is determined using the Neukum and Hiller technique of breaking cumulative frequency curves into separate branches where the curves depart from a standard production curve. We find four surfaces recorded in the heavily cratered portions of Tempe Terra, with crater retention ages N(1) = (242,100), (95,700), (20,800), and (5,500). This is interpreted to indicate three major resurfacing events occurred in this region, ending at N(1) = (95,700), (20,800), and (5,500). The ridged plains on the Tempe Terra plateau have an oldest recorded surface age of (20,400), identical to that of the second resurfacing event recorded in the heavily cratered areas. A single resurfacing of the ridged plains (which may have been a second episode of ridged plains volcanism) occurred at N(1) = (7,800). The knobby plains to the north west and east of Tempe Terra also show a resurfacing at (20,000) and additional events at (5,400) and perhaps (1,600). Mottled plains to the northeast record surfaces with crater retention age (7,500), (5,000), and (3,900), where the first age is determined by a single surviving crater. It appears that the Lunae Planum Age (LPA) (at N(1) = (20,000)) resurfacing event seen elsewhere on mars was widespread and effective in this region. A second widespread event appears to have ended at N(1) = (5,000). The authors estimate the thickness of the resurfacing materials corresponding to the LPA event to be less than 90 m in the heavily cratered areas but 300-500 m in the ridged plains themselves. Later resurfacing materials were generally thicker farther north in the mottled plains (300 m) than in the knobby plains (200 m).

  6. Geologic Mapping in Southern Margaritifer Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, R. P., III; Grant, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Margaritifer Terra records a complex geologic history [1-5], and the area from Holden crater through Ladon Valles, Ladon basin, and up to Morava Valles is no exception [e.g., 6-13]. The 1:500,000 geologic map of MTM quadrangles -15027, -20027, -25027, and -25032 (Figs. 1 and 2 [14]) identifies a range of units that delineate the history of water-related activity and regional geologic context.

  7. Vicarious calibration of Aqua and Terra MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, Kurtis J.; Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey S.; Biggar, Stuart F.

    2003-11-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is onboard both the Terra and Aqua platforms. An important aspect of the use of MODIS, and other Earth Science Enterprise sensors, has been the characterization and calibration of the sensors and validation of their data products. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona has been active in this area through the use of ground- based test sites. This paper presents the results from the reflectance-base approach using the Railroad Valley Playa test site in Nevada for both Aqua and Terra MODIS. The key to the approach is the measurement of surface reflectance over a 1-km2 area of the playa and results from this method shows agreement with both MODIS sensors to better than 5%. Early results indicate that while the two sensors both agree with the ground-based measurements to within the uncertainties of the reflectance-based approach, there were significant differences between the Aqua and Terra MODIS for data prior to September 2002. Recent results indicate that this bias, if any, is now within the uncertainties of the reflectance-based method of calibration.

  8. Is Ishtar Terra a thickened basaltic crust?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Jafar

    1992-01-01

    The mountain belts of Ishtar Terra and the surrounding tesserae are interpreted as compressional regions. The gravity and surface topography of western Ishtar Terra suggest a thick crust of 60-110 km that results from crustal thickening through tectonic processes. Underthrusting was proposed for the regions along Danu Montes and Itzpapalotl Tessera. Crustal thickening was suggested for the entire Ishtar Terra. In this study, three lithospheric models with total thicknesses of 40.75 and 120 km and initial crustal thicknesses of 3.9 and 18 km are examined. These models could be produced by partial melting and chemical differentiation in the upper mantle of a colder, an Earth-like, and a hotter Venus having temperatures of respectively 1300 C, 1400 C, and 1500 C at the base of their thermal boundary layers associated with mantle convection. The effects of basalt-granulite-eclogite transformation (BGET) on the surface topography of a thickening basaltic crust is investigated adopting the experimental phase diagram and density variations through the phase transformation.

  9. Terra Mission Operations: Launch to the Present (and Beyond)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita; Moyer, Eric; Mantziaras, Dimitrios; Case, Warren

    2014-01-01

    The Terra satellite, flagship of NASA's long-term Earth Observing System (EOS) Program, continues to provide useful earth science observations well past its 5-year design lifetime. This paper describes the evolution of Terra operations, including challenges and successes and the steps taken to preserve science requirements and prolong spacecraft life. Working cooperatively with the Terra science and instrument teams, including NASA's international partners, the mission operations team has successfully kept the Terra operating continuously, resolving challenges and adjusting operations as needed. Terra retains all of its observing capabilities (except Short Wave Infrared) despite its age. The paper also describes concepts for future operations. This paper will review the Terra spacecraft mission successes and unique spacecraft component designs that provided significant benefits extending mission life and science. In addition, it discusses special activities as well as anomalies and corresponding recovery efforts. Lastly, it discusses future plans for continued operations.

  10. NASA's Terra spacecraft is prepared for encapsulation before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers at Vandenberg AFB, Calif., help prepare NASA's Terra spacecraft (right) for encapsulation in the rocket faring (left). Terra is expected to be launched aboard a Lockheed Martin Atlas IIAS rocket Dec. 16 from Space Launch Complex 3 East at Vandenberg. Terra comprises five state-of-the-art sets of instruments that will collect data for continuous, long-term records of the state of Earth's land, oceans and atmosphere. Together with data from other satellite systems launched by NASA and other countries, Terra will inaugurate a new self-consistent data record that will be gathered over the next 15 years. From an altitude of 438 miles, Terra will circle the Earth 16 times a day from pole to pole (98 degree inclination), crossing the equator at 10:30 a.m. The five Terra instruments will operate by measuring sunlight reflected by the Earth and heat emitted by the Earth.

  11. NASA's Terra spacecraft is prepared for encapsulation before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Terra spacecraft (foreground) is ready for encapsulation in the rocket faring behind it. Terra is expected to be launched aboard a Lockheed Martin Atlas IIAS rocket Dec. 16 from Space Launch Complex 3 East at Vandenberg AFB, Calif. Terra comprises five state-of-the-art sets of instruments that will collect data for continuous, long-term records of the state of Earth's land, oceans and atmosphere. Together with data from other satellite systems launched by NASA and other countries, Terra will inaugurate a new self-consistent data record that will be gathered over the next 15 years. From an altitude of 438 miles, Terra will circle the Earth 16 times a day from pole to pole (98 degree inclination), crossing the equator at 10:30 a.m. The five Terra instruments will operate by measuring sunlight reflected by the Earth and heat emitted by the Earth.

  12. Volcanism in Northwest Ishtar Terra, Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddis, L.R.; Greeley, R. )

    1990-10-01

    Evidence is presented for a previously undocumented volcanic complex in the highlands of NW Ishtar Terra (74 deg N, 313 deg E). The proposed valcanic center is in mountainous banded terrain thought to have been formed by regional compression. Data used include Soviet Venera 15/16 radar images and topography (Fotokarta Veneri B-4, 1987). An attempt is made to assess the place of this feature in the framework of known volcanic landforms of the Lakshmi Planum and to examine the relationships between volcanism and tectonism in this region. 38 refs.

  13. Terra firma-forme dermatosis revisited.

    PubMed

    Browning, John; Rosen, Ted

    2005-01-01

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis is a cutaneous discoloration resembling dirt, hence the clinical name. The dyschromia cannot be removed with routine soap and water washing, but can be eliminated by rubbing with isopropyl alcohol. Although the condition poses no serious medical threat, it is cosmetically distressing. Our experience is that this entity is much more frequent that might be expected when considering the paucity of reports in the readily available medical literature. We chronicle a series of cases to highlight occurrence in widely divergent demographic groups and long duration of remission following appropriate topical intervention. The cause remains unknown. PMID:16150223

  14. Radar Scattering Properties of Terra Meridiani, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, K. W.; Haldemann, A. F.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2002-12-01

    A series of fourteen radar observations of Mars were made during the 2001 opposition. Four of these observation tracks passed over Terra Meridiani, a prime candidate landing site for one of the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover missions. Observations were conducted using X-band (3.5 centimeter wavelength) radar transmitted with a pseudo-random binary phase encoding which, combined with the frequency resolution of the processing FFT, yields a maximum spatial resolution of approximately five kilometers. Actual spatial resolution is coarser than this (between five and twenty kilometers) due to signal-to-noise considerations that predicated longer integration times as well as greater planetary ranges for the off-opposition observations. We have processed the Terra Meridiani data in stages, beginning with one-dimensional sub-radar track profiles and culminating with four-station interferometry. Not all observations were amendable to the full four-station interferometry, due to technical issues, but were processed with a minimum of two stations to remove the spatial ambiguities inherent to radar observations. Our processing yields one- and two-dimensional maps of the surface reflectivity along the radar track. We extract scattering data for points along the sub-radar track, where the angle in incidence varies most, and model the scattering function. The multi-station reflectivity data is also modeled according to the Hagfors scattering model to extract two-dimensional maps of RMS roughness and dielectric constant. The RMS roughness data for the Terra Meridiani landing sites shows the local surface slopes to be less than 3 degrees, on the scale of tens of wavelengths. An enhanced dielectric constant is apparent over Terra Meridiani that is spatially correlated with the MGS detected hematite deposits. The level of the enhancement is consistent with the inclusion of 10-15 percent hematite, according to a weighted dielectric or PVL model. Integral to our processing, and new to

  15. Role of TERRA in the Regulation of Telomere Length

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caiqin; Zhao, Li; Lu, Shiming

    2015-01-01

    Telomere dysfunction is closely associated with human diseases such as cancer and ageing. Inappropriate changes in telomere length and/or structure result in telomere dysfunction. Telomeres have been considered to be transcriptionally silent, but it was recently demonstrated that mammalian telomeres are transcribed into telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA). TERRA, a long non-coding RNA, participates in the regulation of telomere length, telomerase activity and heterochromatinization. The correct regulation of telomere length may be crucial to telomeric homeostasis and functions. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the crucial role of TERRA in the maintenance of telomere length, with focus on the variety of mechanisms by which TERRA is involved in the regulation of telomere length. This review aims to enable further understanding of how TERRA-targeted drugs can target telomere-related diseases. PMID:25678850

  16. NASA's Terra spacecraft is prepared for encapsulation before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers (left) at Vandenberg AFB, Calif., get ready to prepare NASA's Terra spacecraft (right) for encapsulation in the rocket faring (left) before launch. The spacecraft is expected to be launched Dec. 16 aboard a Lockheed Martin Atlas IIAS rocket from the AFB's Space Launch Complex 3 East. Terra comprises five state-of-the-art sets of instruments that will collect data for continuous, long-term records of the state of Earth's land, oceans and atmosphere. Together with data from other satellite systems launched by NASA and other countries, Terra will inaugurate a new self-consistent data record that will be gathered over the next 15 years. From an altitude of 438 miles, Terra will circle the Earth 16 times a day from pole to pole (98 degree inclination), crossing the equator at 10:30 a.m. The five Terra instruments will operate by measuring sunlight reflected by the Earth and heat emitted by the Earth.

  17. NASA's Terra spacecraft is prepared for encapsulation before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Terra spacecraft awaits installation of the instruments that will collect data for continuous, long-term records of the state of Earth's land, oceans and atmosphere. Terra is expected to be launched aboard a Lockheed Martin Atlas IIAS rocket Dec. 16 from Space Launch Complex 3 East at Vandenberg AFB, Calif. Terra comprises five state-of-the-art sets of instruments that, together with data from other satellite systems launched by NASA and other countries, will inaugurate a new self-consistent data record that will be gathered over the next 15 years. From an altitude of 438 miles, Terra will circle the Earth 16 times a day from pole to pole (98 degree inclination), crossing the equator at 10:30 a.m. The five Terra instruments will operate by measuring sunlight reflected by the Earth and heat emitted by the Earth.

  18. Validation of CERES/TERRA Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Wieliski, Bruce A.; Smith, G. Louis; Lee, Robert B.; Priestley, Kory J.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Kratz, David P.

    2000-01-01

    There are 2 CERES scanning radiometer instruments aboard the TERRA spacecraft, one for mapping the solar radiation reflected from the Earth and the outgoing longwave radiation and the other for measuring the anisotropy of the radiation. Each CERES instrument has on-board calibration devices, which have demonstrated that from ground to orbit the broadband total and shortwave sensor responses maintained their ties to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 at precisions approaching radiances have been validated in orbit to +/- 0.3 % (0.3 W/sq m sr). Top of atmosphere fluxes are produced by use of the CERES data alone. By including data from other instruments, surface radiation fluxes and radiant fluxes within the atmosphere and at its top, shortwave and longwave, for both up and down components, are derived. Validation of these data products requires ground and aircraft measurements of fluxes and of cloud properties.

  19. Bilateral topographic symmetry patterns across Aphrodite Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Topographic profiles have been obtained across Aphrodite Terra to test for bilateral symmetry of the type associated with thermal boundary layer topography at divergent plate boundaries on earth. In addition to a broad bilateral symmetry at a range of angles across Aphrodite Terra, detailed bilateral symmetry is noted within domains between linear discontinuities in directions parallel to the strike of the discontinuities. The results suggest that western Aphrodite Terra is similar to terrestrial oceanic divergent plate boundary environments, and that the cross-strike discontinuities are analogous to oceanic fracture zones rather than strike-slip faults.

  20. Completion and Submission of the Terra Sirenum Map Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Robbins, S.; Schroeder, J.

    2016-06-01

    We have completed and plan to submit a detailed 1:5,000,000-scale geologic map of the Terra Sirenum region, which includes mapping stratigraphic units and identifying tectonic, erosional, depositional, and impact structures.

  1. TERRA promotes telomerase-mediated telomere elongation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Martin; Wischnewski, Harry; Bah, Amadou; Hu, Yan; Liu, Na; Lafranchi, Lorenzo; King, Megan C; Azzalin, Claus M

    2016-07-01

    Telomerase-mediated telomere elongation provides cell populations with the ability to proliferate indefinitely. Telomerase is capable of recognizing and extending the shortest telomeres in cells; nevertheless, how this mechanism is executed remains unclear. Here, we show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, shortened telomeres are highly transcribed into the evolutionarily conserved long noncoding RNA TERRA A fraction of TERRA produced upon telomere shortening is polyadenylated and largely devoid of telomeric repeats, and furthermore, telomerase physically interacts with this polyadenylated TERRA in vivo We also show that experimentally enhanced transcription of a manipulated telomere promotes its association with telomerase and concomitant elongation. Our data represent the first direct evidence that TERRA stimulates telomerase recruitment and activity at chromosome ends in an organism with human-like telomeres. PMID:27154402

  2. 4. DETAIL OF TERRA COTTA DECORATION AT TOP OF EXPRESSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF TERRA COTTA DECORATION AT TOP OF EXPRESSED COLUMN, JUST ABOVE FOURTH FLOOR WINDOWS ON SOUTH FRONT FACADE - John D. Van Allen & Son Store, South Fifth Avenue & Second Street, Clinton, Clinton County, IA

  3. 3. DETAIL OF TERRA COTTA DECORATION ON LOWER END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF TERRA COTTA DECORATION ON LOWER END OF EXPRESSED COLUMN, JUST BELOW SECOND FLOOR ON SOUTH FRONT FACADE - John D. Van Allen & Son Store, South Fifth Avenue & Second Street, Clinton, Clinton County, IA

  4. Detail, terra cotta, ironwork, and painted wood "worm gear" carved ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, terra cotta, ironwork, and painted wood "worm gear" carved columns, north rear. - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. SSF Terra-FM1 Ed3A

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-07-13

    SSF Terra-FM1 Ed3A Project Title:  CERES Discipline:  Clouds Radiation Budget ...   Reverb Tutorial Subset/Visualization Tool: CERES Order Tool Subset Data:  CERES Search and Subset Tool (HDF4 & ...

  6. NASA's Terra spacecraft is prepared for encapsulation before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The rocket faring is lifted up the launch tower for mating with the Lockheed Martin Atlas IIAS rocket after encapsulation of Terra, formerly EOS AM-1. It is scheduled for launch Dec. 16 from Space Launch Complex 3 East at Vandenberg AFB, Calif. Terra comprises five state-of-the-art sets of instruments that will collect data for continuous, long-term records of the state of Earth's land, oceans and atmosphere. Together with data from other satellite systems launched by NASA and other countries, it will inaugurate a new self-consistent data record that will be gathered over the next 15 years. From an altitude of 438 miles, Terra will circle the Earth 16 times a day from pole to pole (98 degree inclination), crossing the equator at 10:30 a.m. The five Terra instruments will operate by measuring sunlight reflected by the Earth and heat emitted by the Earth.

  7. NASA's Terra spacecraft is prepared for encapsulation before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Terra spacecraft (right) is prepared for encapsulation in the rocket faring (left) before launch at Vandenberg AFB, Calif. The faring displays a logo of the many science instruments that make up Terra. The spacecraft's launch aboard a Lockheed Martin Atlas IIAS rocket is scheduled for Dec. 16 from Space Launch Complex 3 East at Vandenberg. Terra comprises five state-of-the- art sets of instruments that will collect data for continuous, long-term records of the state of Earth's land, oceans and atmosphere. Together with data from other satellite systems launched by NASA and other countries, Terra will inaugurate a new self-consistent data record that will be gathered over the next 15 years. From an altitude of 438 miles, Terra will circle the Earth 16 times a day from pole to pole (98 degree inclination), crossing the equator at 10:30 a.m. The five Terra instruments will operate by measuring sunlight reflected by the Earth and heat emitted by the Earth.

  8. Ancient Hydrothermal Springs in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal springs are important astrobiological sites for several reasons: 1) On Earth, molecular phylogeny suggests that many of the most primitive organisms are hyperthermophiles, implying that life on this planet may have arisen in hydrothermal settings; 2) on Mars, similar settings would have supplied energy- and nutrient-rich waters in which early martian life may have evolved; 3) such regions on Mars would have constituted oases of continued habitability providing warm, liquid water to primitive life forms as the planet became colder and drier; and 4) mineralization associated with hydrothermal settings could have preserved biosignatures from those martian life forms. Accordingly, if life ever developed on Mars, then hydrothermal spring deposits would be excellent localities in which to search for morphological or chemical remnants of that life. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel which allows detailed analysis of geologic structure and geomorphology. Based on these new data, we report several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra that we interpret as ancient hydrothermal springs.

  9. Terra - 15 Years as the Earth Observing System Flagship Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Terra marks its 15th year on orbit with an array of accomplishments and the potential to do much more. Efforts continue to extend the Terra data record to make its data more valuable by creating a record length to examine interannual variability, observe trends on the decadal scale, and gather statistics relevant to climate metrics. Continued data from Terra's complementary instruments will play a key role in creating the data record needed for scientists to develop an understanding of our climate system. Terra's suite of instruments: ASTER (contributed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry with a JPL-led US Science Team), CERES (NASA LaRC - PI), MISR (JPL - PI), MODIS (NASA GSFC), and MOPITT (sponsored by Canadian Space Agency with NCAR-led Science Team) are providing an unprecedented 81 core data products. The annual demand for Terra data remains with >120 million files distributed in 2011 and >157 million in 2012. More than 1,100 peer-reviewed publications appeared in 2012 using Terra data bringing the lifetime total >7,600. Citation numbers of 21,000 for 2012 and over 100,000 for the mission's lifetime. The power of Terra is in the high quality of the data calibration, sensor characterization, and the complementary nature of the instruments covering a range of scientific measurements as well as scales. The broad range of products enable the community to provide answers to the overarching question, "How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?" Terra continues to provide data that: (1) Extend the baseline of morning-orbit collections; (2) Enable comparison of measurements acquired from past high-impact events; (3) Add value to recently-launched and soon-to-be launched missions, and upcoming field programs. Terra data continue to support monitoring and relief efforts for natural and man-made disasters that involve U.S. interests. Terra also contributes to Applications Focus Areas supporting the U.S. National

  10. Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) constitutes a nucleoprotein component of extracellular inflammatory exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuo; Deng, Zhong; Dahmane, Nadia; Tsai, Kevin; Wang, Pu; Williams, Dewight R.; Kossenkov, Andrew V.; Showe, Louise C.; Zhang, Rugang; Huang, Qihong; Conejo-Garcia, José R.; Lieberman, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) has been identified as a telomere-associated regulator of chromosome end protection. Here, we report that TERRA can also be found in extracellular fractions that stimulate innate immune signaling. We identified extracellular forms of TERRA in mouse tumor and embryonic brain tissue, as well as in human tissue culture cell lines using RNA in situ hybridization. RNA-seq analyses revealed TERRA to be among the most highly represented transcripts in extracellular fractions derived from both normal and cancer patient blood plasma. Cell-free TERRA (cfTERRA) could be isolated from the exosome fractions derived from human lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) culture media. cfTERRA is a shorter form (∼200 nt) of cellular TERRA and copurifies with CD63- and CD83-positive exosome vesicles that could be visualized by cyro-electron microscopy. These fractions were also enriched for histone proteins that physically associate with TERRA in extracellular ChIP assays. Incubation of cfTERRA-containing exosomes with peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated transcription of several inflammatory cytokine genes, including TNFα, IL6, and C-X-C chemokine 10 (CXCL10) Exosomes engineered with elevated TERRA or liposomes with synthetic TERRA further stimulated inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that exosome-associated TERRA augments innate immune signaling. These findings imply a previously unidentified extrinsic function for TERRA and a mechanism of communication between telomeres and innate immune signals in tissue and tumor microenvironments. PMID:26578789

  11. BOOK REVIEW: European Perceptions of Terra Australis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, Christiaan

    2012-12-01

    Terra Australis - the southern land - has been one of the most widespread concepts in European geography from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. This book comprises a set of 14 interdisciplinary scholarly contributions that deal with personal perceptions of Terra Australis by cartographers and explorers, and with putting these perceptions in their historical and cultural environments. This book seems, at a first glance, to be very remote from astronomy - and even from the history of astronomy - however, as it also offers an excellent background to Captain James Cook's second voyage to observe the 1769 transit of Venus from Tahiti, it definitely is a work of truly interdisciplinary character. Cook's voyages, in fact, became a model in which key scientists of many nationalities and disciplines traveled together on ships. In these voyages, art, science, technology and political power were centralised and united. The chapters range across history, the visual arts, literature, popular culture, technology, politics and science. Issues of scientific reasoning are raised in the description of how people did think about the south before there even existed a perception of the unknown land - quite comparable to how ancient and early-modern astronomers had their thought about cosmology even before any observational data were available. Several early map systems - like the zonal and T-O maps (medieval world maps with the letter T inside an O representing the lands inside a circle of oceans) - are described, and the description of Roman geography shows the amazing fact that theory and practice were not unified, and existed independently of each other insofar that a real paradox between theory and observation had persisted for a very long time. The maps and charts also exemplify the long-lasting consequences of early modern copy-paste practice: navigators copied original sketch charts of coasts that were previously unknown to them, herewith committing many translation and

  12. Geological Time on Display in Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This scene from the dust covered plains of eastern Arabia Terra portrays a range of geological time. Three craters at the center of the image capture some of this range. Two have the classic bowl-shape of small, relatively recent craters while the one just to the north has seen much more history. Its rim has been scoured away by erosion and its floor has been filled in by material likely of a sedimentary nature. The channels that wind through the scene may be the oldest features present while the relatively dark streaks scattered about could have been produced in the past few years or even months as winds remove a layer of dust to reveal darker material below.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Synergism of MODIS Aerosol Remote Sensing from Terra and Aqua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2003-01-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensors, aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites, are showing excellent competence at measuring the global distribution and properties of aerosols. Terra and Aqua were launched on December 18, 1999 and May 4, 2002 respectively, with daytime equator crossing times of approximately 10:30 am and 1:30 pm respectively. Several aerosol parameters are retrieved at 10-km spatial resolution from MODIS daytime data over land and ocean surfaces. The parameters retrieved include: aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 0.47, 0.55 and 0.66 micron wavelengths over land, and at 0.47, 0.55, 0.66, 0.87, 1.2, 1.6, and 2.1 microns over ocean; Angstrom exponent over land and ocean; and effective radii, and the proportion of AOT contributed by the small mode aerosols over ocean. Since the beginning of its operation, the quality of Terra-MODIS aerosol products (especially AOT) have been evaluated periodically by cross-correlation with equivalent data sets acquired by ground-based (and occasionally also airborne) sunphotometers, particularly those coordinated within the framework of the AErosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET). Terra-MODIS AOT data have been found to meet or exceed pre-launch accuracy expectations, and have been applied to various studies dealing with local, regional, and global aerosol monitoring. The results of these Terra-MODIS aerosol data validation efforts and studies have been reported in several scientific papers and conferences. Although Aqua-MODIS is still young, it is already yielding formidable aerosol data products, which are also subjected to careful periodic evaluation similar to that implemented for the Terra-MODIS products. This paper presents results of validation of Aqua-MODIS aerosol products with AERONET, as well as comparative evaluation against corresponding Terra-MODIS data. In addition, we show interesting independent and synergistic applications of MODIS aerosol data from

  14. Effect of MODIS Terra Radiometric Calibration Improvements on Collection 6 Deep Blue Aerosol Products: Validation and Terra/Aqua Consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.; Meister, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Blue (DB) algorithm's primary data product is midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD). DB applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements provides a data record since early 2000 for MODIS Terra and mid-2002 for MODIS Aqua. In the previous data version (Collection 5, C5), DB production from Terra was halted in 2007 due to sensor degradation; the new Collection 6 (C6) has both improved science algorithms and sensor radiometric calibration. This includes additional calibration corrections developed by the Ocean Biology Processing Group to address MODIS Terra's gain, polarization sensitivity, and detector response versus scan angle, meaning DB can now be applied to the whole Terra record. Through validation with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, it is shown that the C6 DB Terra AOD quality is stable throughout the mission to date. Compared to the C5 calibration, in recent years the RMS error compared to AERONET is smaller by approximately 0.04 over bright (e.g., desert) and approximately 0.01-0.02 over darker (e.g., vegetated) land surfaces, and the fraction of points in agreement with AERONET within expected retrieval uncertainty higher by approximately 10% and approximately 5%, respectively. Comparisons to the Aqua C6 time series reveal a high level of correspondence between the two MODIS DB data records, with a small positive (Terra-Aqua) average AOD offset <0.01. The analysis demonstrates both the efficacy of the new radiometric calibration efforts and that the C6 MODIS Terra DB AOD data remain stable (to better than 0.01 AOD) throughout the mission to date, suitable for quantitative scientific analyses.

  15. Effect of MODIS Terra radiometric calibration improvements on Collection 6 Deep Blue aerosol products: Validation and Terra/Aqua consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.; Meister, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Deep Blue (DB) algorithm's primary data product is midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD). DB applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements provides a data record since early 2000 for MODIS Terra and mid-2002 for MODIS Aqua. In the previous data version (Collection 5, C5), DB production from Terra was halted in 2007 due to sensor degradation; the new Collection 6 (C6) has both improved science algorithms and sensor radiometric calibration. This includes additional calibration corrections developed by the Ocean Biology Processing Group to address MODIS Terra's gain, polarization sensitivity, and detector response versus scan angle, meaning DB can now be applied to the whole Terra record. Through validation with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, it is shown that the C6 DB Terra AOD quality is stable throughout the mission to date. Compared to the C5 calibration, in recent years the RMS error compared to AERONET is smaller by ˜0.04 over bright (e.g., desert) and ˜0.01-0.02 over darker (e.g., vegetated) land surfaces, and the fraction of points in agreement with AERONET within expected retrieval uncertainty higher by ˜10% and ˜5%, respectively. Comparisons to the Aqua C6 time series reveal a high level of correspondence between the two MODIS DB data records, with a small positive (Terra-Aqua) average AOD offset <0.01. The analysis demonstrates both the efficacy of the new radiometric calibration efforts and that the C6 MODIS Terra DB AOD data remain stable (to better than 0.01 AOD) throughout the mission to date, suitable for quantitative scientific analyses.

  16. Identification of New Genomospecies in the Mycobacterium terrae Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ngeow, Yun Fong; Wong, Yan Ling; Tan, Joon Liang; Hong, Kar Wai; Ng, Hien Fuh; Ong, Bee Lee; Chan, Kok Gan

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Mycobacterium terrae complex are slow-growing, non-chromogenic acid-fast bacilli found in the natural environment and occasionally in clinical material. These genetically closely-related members are difficult to differentiate by conventional phenotypic and molecular tests. In this paper we describe the use of whole genome data for the identification of four strains genetically similar to Mycobacterium sp. JDM601, a newly identified member of the M. terrae complex. Phylogenetic information from the alignment of genome-wide orthologous genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms show consistent clustering of the four strains together with M. sp. JDM601 into a distinct clade separate from other rapid and slow growing mycobacterial species. More detailed inter-strain comparisons using average nucleotide identity, tetra-nucleotide frequencies and analysis of synteny indicate that our strains are closely related to but not of the same species as M. sp. JDM601. Besides the 16S rRNA signature described previously for the M. terrae complex, five more hypothetical proteins were found that are potentially useful for the rapid identification of mycobacterial species belonging to the M. terrae complex. This paper illustrates the versatile utilization of whole genome data for the delineation of new bacterial species and introduces four new genomospecies to add to current members in the M. terrae complex. PMID:25830768

  17. NASA's Terra spacecraft is prepared for encapsulation before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The rocket faring (left) displays a logo of the many science instruments that make up NASA's Terra spacecraft (background). When fully assembled, Terra will be encapsulated in the faring before launch, scheduled for Dec. 16 aboard a Lockheed Martin Atlas IIAS rocket from Space Launch Complex 3 East at Vandenberg AFB, Calif. Terra comprises five state-of-the-art sets of instruments that will collect data for continuous, long-term records of the state of Earth's land, oceans and atmosphere. Together with data from other satellite systems launched by NASA and other countries, it will inaugurate a new self-consistent data record that will be gathered over the next 15 years. From an altitude of 438 miles, Terra will circle the Earth 16 times a day from pole to pole (98 degree inclination), crossing the equator at 10:30 a.m. The five Terra instruments will operate by measuring sunlight reflected by the Earth and heat emitted by the Earth.

  18. Thermal Performance of Capillary Pumped Loops Onboard Terra Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Butler, Charles D.; Swanson, Theodore; Thies, Diane

    2004-01-01

    The Terra spacecraft is the flagship of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. It provides global data on the state of atmosphere, land and oceans, as well as their interactions with solar radiation and one another. Three Terra instruments utilize Capillary Pumped Heat Transport System (CPHTS) for temperature control: Each CPHTS, consisting of two capillary pumped loops (CPLs) and several heat pipes and electrical heaters, is designed for instrument heat loads ranging from 25W to 264W. The working fluid is ammonia. Since the launch of the Terra spacecraft, each CPHTS has been providing a stable interface temperature specified by the instrument under all modes of spacecraft and instrument operations. The ability to change the CPHTS operating temperature upon demand while in service has also extended the useful life of one instrument. This paper describes the design and on-orbit performance of the CPHTS thermal systems.

  19. Evidence for volcanism in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddis, L.; Greeley, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    Venera 15/16 radar data for an area in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus, show an area with moderate radar return and a smooth textured surface which embays low lying areas of the surrounding mountainous terrain. Although this unit may be an extension of the lava plains of Lakshmi Planum to the southeast, detailed study suggests a separate volcanic center in NW Ishtar Terra. Lakshmi Planum, on the Ishtar Terra highland, exhibits major volcanic and tectonic features. On the Venera radar image radar brightness is influenced by slope and roughness; radar-facing slopes (east-facing) and rough surfaces (approx. 8 cm average relief) are bright, while west-facing slopes and smooth surfaces are dark. A series of semi-circular features, apparently topographic depressions, do not conform in orientation to major structural trends in this region of NW Ishtar Terra. The large depression in NW Ishtar Terra is similar to the calderas of Colette and Sacajawea Paterae, as all three structures are large irregular depressions. NW Ishtar Terra appears to be the site of a volcanic center with a complex caldera structure, possibly more than one eruptive vent, and associated lobed flows at lower elevations. The morphologic similarity between this volcanic center and those of Colette and Sacajawea suggests that centralized eruptions have been the dominant form of volcanism in Ishtar. The location of this volcanic center at the intersection of two major compressional mountain belts and the large size of the calders (with an inferred larg/deep magma source) support a crustal thickening/melting rather than a hot-spot origin for these magmas.

  20. Evidence for explosive volcanism in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, Joseph; Bleacher, Jacob

    2014-05-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae exhibit a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. They were likely active in the Late Noachian or Early Hesperian and would have affected the climate, atmospheric composition, and regional surface geology at that time. Lavas extruded from these calderas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra, but these volcanoes do not exhibit shield-like topographic profiles related to the sustained, localized effusive eruption of basaltic lava. We suggest that the lack of a single edifice, the large volume of collapse within an associated with the calderas, and the association of the calderas with vast deposits friable clastic deposits all indicate that these volcanoes were dominated by explosive activity. Layered, friable deposits found throughout Arabia Terra have enigmatic origins, though these materials have been suggested to represent volcanic ash. Attempts to link the locations of various friable deposits in equatorial regions to known volcanic sources have demonstrated that this hypothesis is plausible, but a link between friable deposits and known volcanic sources in this particular region (Arabia Terra) has yet to emerge. We suggest that some of the layered, friable materials were sourced from calderas in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and water from these calderas would have contributed to the alteration of layered clastic materials in Arabia Terra, and perhaps throughout the equatorial region.

  1. Terra firma-forme dermatosis: Case Series and dermoscopic features.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Razek, Moheb M; Fathy, Hanan

    2015-10-01

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis (TFFD) is characterized by dirt-like skin lesions that disappear after rubbing with alcohol. We describe the dermoscopic features of TFFD before and after alcohol swabbing in six patients. All patients showed similar dermoscopic appearance with large polygonal plate-like brown scales arranged together giving a mosaic pattern. These features disappear completely after isopropyl alcohol swabbing of the lesions. In conclusion dermoscopy can assist in the evaluation of terra firma-forme dermatosis and the dermoscopic evaluation of other dirty dermatoses is recommended in the future to compare findings with TFFD. PMID:26632811

  2. NASA's Terra Spacecraft Measures Height of California Rim Fire Smoke Plumes

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... NASA's Terra Spacecraft Measures Height of California Rim Fire Smoke Plumes     View ... - NASA's Terra Spacecraft Measures Height of California Rim Fire Smoke Plumes project:  MISR category:  ...

  3. Quantitative interaction screen of telomeric repeat-containing RNA reveals novel TERRA regulators

    PubMed Central

    Scheibe, Marion; Arnoult, Nausica; Kappei, Dennis; Buchholz, Frank; Decottignies, Anabelle; Butter, Falk; Mann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres are actively transcribed into telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), which has been implicated in the regulation of telomere length and heterochromatin formation. Here, we applied quantitative mass spectrometry (MS)–based proteomics to obtain a high-confidence interactome of TERRA. Using SILAC-labeled nuclear cell lysates in an RNA pull-down experiment and two different salt conditions, we distinguished 115 proteins binding specifically to TERRA out of a large set of background binders. While TERRA binders identified in two previous studies showed little overlap, using quantitative mass spectrometry we obtained many candidates reported in these two studies. To test whether novel candidates found here are involved in TERRA regulation, we performed an esiRNA-based interference analysis for 15 of them. Knockdown of 10 genes encoding candidate proteins significantly affected total cellular levels of TERRA, and RNAi of five candidates perturbed TERRA recruitment to telomeres. Notably, depletion of SRRT/ARS2, involved in miRNA processing, up-regulated both total and telomere-bound TERRA. Conversely, knockdown of MORF4L2, a component of the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex, reduced TERRA levels both globally and for telomere-bound TERRA. We thus identified new proteins involved in the homeostasis and telomeric abundance of TERRA, extending our knowledge of TERRA regulation. PMID:23921659

  4. Knobby terrain in Northern Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 25 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image shows a region in northern Arabia Terra near 44o N, 322o W (38o E). Knobby or 'scabby' plains units that mantle and modify a pre-existing cratered surface dominate the unusual landscape in this region. Several large (5-8 km diameter) impact craters seen in the upper left of the image have been extensively modified since their initial formation. The rims of these craters can still be seen, but the ejecta deposits and the surrounding plains have been buried by a layer of material. This mantling layer has itself been modified to produce a pitted, knobby surface. Circular depressions of all sizes, presumably the remnants of impact craters, are filled with smooth deposits. In some places large regions have been covered by this smooth material; an example can be seen in the lower right portion of this image. In many cases the impact craters have been extensively modified prior to their being filled. This modification indicates an erosion process that has removed material from the walls to produce shapes that vary from circular with crisp rims, to circular with no rims, to oblong and elliptical forms, and finally to irregular shapes whose initial circular outline can barely be detected. The slope of the channel at the top of the image has an unusual deposit of material that occurs preferentially on the cold, north-facing slope. Similar deposits are seen frequently at mid-northern and southern latitudes on Mars, and have a characteristic, rounded boundary that typically occurs at approximately the same distance below the ridge crest. It has been suggested that these deposits once draped the entire surface and have since been removed from all but the cold north-facing slopes. The presence and removal of ground ice may play an important role in the formation of this layer, as well as the knobby terrain and unusual features seen in this image. The StoryThere's no way these impact craters are in their original

  5. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Phages Benczkowski14 and Katyusha

    PubMed Central

    Benczkowski, Matthew S.; Green, Daryn E.; Hwang, Melina; Kennedy, Bryan; Kocak, Bradley; Kruczek, Ellen; Lin, Leon; Moretti, Matthew L.; Onelangsy, Faith L.; Mezghani, Nadia; Milliken, Katherine A.; Toner, Chelsea L.; Thompson, Paige K.; Ulbrich, Megan C.; Furbee, Emily C.; Grubb, Sarah R.; Warner, Marcie H.; Montgomery, Matthew T.; Garlena, Rebecca A.; Russell, Daniel A.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages Katyusha and Benczkowski14 are newly isolated phages that infect Gordonia terrae 3612. Both have siphoviral morphologies with isometric heads and long tails (500 nm). The genomes are 75,380 bp long and closely related, and the tape measure genes (9 kbp) are among the largest to be identified. PMID:27340062

  6. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Phages Benczkowski14 and Katyusha.

    PubMed

    Pope, Welkin H; Benczkowski, Matthew S; Green, Daryn E; Hwang, Melina; Kennedy, Bryan; Kocak, Bradley; Kruczek, Ellen; Lin, Leon; Moretti, Matthew L; Onelangsy, Faith L; Mezghani, Nadia; Milliken, Katherine A; Toner, Chelsea L; Thompson, Paige K; Ulbrich, Megan C; Furbee, Emily C; Grubb, Sarah R; Warner, Marcie H; Montgomery, Matthew T; Garlena, Rebecca A; Russell, Daniel A; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages Katyusha and Benczkowski14 are newly isolated phages that infect Gordonia terrae 3612. Both have siphoviral morphologies with isometric heads and long tails (500 nm). The genomes are 75,380 bp long and closely related, and the tape measure genes (9 kbp) are among the largest to be identified. PMID:27340062

  7. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: TERRA-KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of PCBs in soils has been difficult to implement on a full-scale, cost-effective basis. The Terra-Kleen solvent extraction system has overcome many of the soil handling, contaminant removal, and regulatory restrictions that have made it difficult to implement a cost-e...

  8. Widespread Layers in Arabia Terra: Implications for Martian Geologic History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venechuk, Elizabeth M.; Oehler, D. Z.

    2006-01-01

    Layered rocks in Arabia Terra have been the focus of several recent papers. Studies have focused on the layers found in crater basins located in the southwest portion of the region. However, Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images have identified layered deposits across the region. Terrestrial layered rocks are usually sedimentary, and often deposited in water. Thus extensive layered sequences in Arabia Terra may indicate locations of past, major depositional basins on Mars. Other mechanisms can also create layered rocks, or the appearance of layered rocks, including volcanism (both lava flows and ash falls), wind-blown deposits, and wave-cut terraces at shorelines. By identifying where in the region layers occur, and classifying the layers according to morphology and albedo, past depositional environments may be identified. Arabia Terra is characterized by heavily cratered Noachian plains, as well as a rise from -4000 m in the northwest to 4000 m in the southeast (Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter [MOLA] datum). This slope may have provided a constraint on sediment deposition and thus layer formation. While most of the region is Noachian in age, a significant percentage of the area is identified as Hesperian. Although the history of the Arabia Terra initially seems to be straightforward cratered plains with several younger units atop them analysis of high-resolution imagery may reveal a more complex history.

  9. A new cucurbitacin from Picria fel-terrae.

    PubMed

    Zou, J-M; Wang, L-S; Ma, X-M; Guo, Y-J; Shi, R-B

    2006-06-01

    A new cucurbitacin, picfeltarraenone II (1) as well as four known cucurbitacins, picfeltarraegenin I (2), picfeltarraenin IA (3), picfeltarraenin IB (4), and picfeltarraenin IV (5), have been isolated and characterized from the whole plant of Picria fel-terrae. The purity of picfeltarraenin IA has been determined by TLC and HPLC. PMID:16864449

  10. FLASH_SSF_Terra-FM1_V3B

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-07-22

    ... FLASH_SSF_Terra-FM1_V3B Project Title:  CERES Discipline:  Clouds Radiation Budget ...   Reverb Tutorial Subset/Visualization Tool:  CERES Order Tool CERES Search and Subset Tool (HDF4 & netCDF) ...

  11. A Sedimentary Platform in Margaritifer Sinus, Meridiani Terra, and Arabia?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.; Irwin, R. P., III; Craddock, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    The Margaritifer-Meridiani-Arabia highlands-lowlands (H-L) transition has long been recognized as the most fluvially dissected region of Mars. However, the geomorphic evolution of this region remains enigmatic, particularly the origin of the layered deposits of Meridiani Terra and Arabia. We suggest that a portion of this regional slope served as a fluvial depositional platform during the late Noachian.

  12. Multitemporal Observations of Sugarcane by TerraSAR-X Images

    PubMed Central

    Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cresson, Rémi; Todoroff, Pierre; Moinet, Soizic

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean). Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°). Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV) were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd) less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm). This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired

  13. 10 years of Terra Outreach over the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, K.; Riebeek, H.; Chambers, L. H.

    2009-12-01

    1 Author Yuen, Karen JPL (818) 393-7716 2 Author Riebeek, Holli Sigma Space Corporation (department) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Institution), Greenbelt, Maryland 3 Author Chambers, Lin NASA Abstract: Since launch, Terra has returned about 195 gigabytes (level 0) of data per day or 1 terabyte every 5 days. Few outlets were able to accommodate and quickly share that amount of information as well as the Internet. To honor the 10-year anniversary of the launch of Terra, we would like to highlight the education and outreach efforts of the Terra mission on the Internet and its reach to the science attentive public. The Internet or web has been the primary way of delivering Terra content to different groups- from formal and informal education to general public outreach. Through the years, many different web-based projects have been developed, and they were of service to a growing population of the science attentive public. One of Terra’s original EPO activities was the Earth Observatory. It was initially dedicated to telling the remote sensing story of Terra, but quickly grew to include science and imagery from other sensors. The web site allowed for collaboration across NASA centers, universities and other organizations by exchanging and sharing of story ideas, news and images. The award winning Earth Observatory helped pave the way for the more recently funded development of the Climate Change website. With its specific focus on climate change studies, once again, Terra stories and images are shared with an even more specific audience base. During the last 10 years, Terra as a mission has captured the imagination of the public through its visually stunning and artistically arresting images. With its five instruments of complementary but unique capabilities, the mission gave the world not just pretty pictures, but scientific data-based images. The world was able to see from space everything from calving icebergs to volcanic eruption plumes and the eye of a

  14. Multitemporal observations of sugarcane by TerraSAR-X images.

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cresson, Rémi; Todoroff, Pierre; Moinet, Soizic

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean). Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°). Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV) were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd) less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm). This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired

  15. Supervolcanoes Within an Ancient Volcanic Province in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalski, Joseph. R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2014-01-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae display a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism, and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulfur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas likely fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. Discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  16. How to create a Terra Harvest compliant plug-in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klawon, Kevin; Gold, Josh; Marcucci, Nicholas

    2012-06-01

    The DIA wants to create an UGS controller that is interoperable across all controller platforms, capable of easily adding new sensors, radios, and processes, etc., as well as backward compatibility with existing UGS systems. To achieve this, the defined Terra Harvest standard is based on the latest Java JRE 1.6 and an OSGI platform. OSGI is an extensible framework that provides a modularized environment that allows functionality to be deployed in "bundles". These bundles can publish, discover, and share services available from other bundles or bundles provided by the controller core. This paper will give you architectural overview and then show you how to use the THOSE SDK to develop and deploy a bundle for your asset, communications device, or algorithm using OSGI and the Terra Harvest Standard.

  17. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars. PMID:24091975

  18. Summary of Terra and Aqua MODIS Long-Term Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Wenny, Brian N.; Angal, Amit; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, the MODIS ProtoFlight Model (PFM) onboard the Terra spacecraft has successfully operated for more than 11 years. Its Flight Model (FM) onboard the Aqua spacecraft, launched in May 2002, has also successfully operated for over 9 years. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands at three nadir spatial resolutions and are calibrated and characterized regularly by a set of on-board calibrators (OBC). Nearly 40 science products, supporting a variety of land, ocean, and atmospheric applications, are continuously derived from the calibrated reflectances and radiances of each MODIS instrument and widely distributed to the world-wide user community. Following an overview of MODIS instrument operation and calibration activities, this paper provides a summary of both Terra and Aqua MODIS long-term performance. Special considerations that are critical to maintaining MODIS data quality and beneficial for future missions are also discussed.

  19. Ground-based vicarious radiometric calibration of Terra MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Thome, K.

    2009-12-01

    Accurate radiometric calibration is required by Earth-observing systems to ensure that the derived data products are of the highest quality. Preflight calibration is used as a baseline to understand the system before it is launched on orbit, while post-launch calibration is used to understand changes that may have occurred due to the nature of launching an instrument into space. On-orbit radiometric calibration ensures that changes in the system, including any onboard calibration sources, can be monitored. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona has been directly involved in the ground-based vicarious calibration of both Terra and Aqua MODIS since their respective launches in 1999 and 2002. RSG personnel are present at a test site during sensor overpass, and surface reflectance and atmospheric attenuation measurements are used as inputs to a radiative transfer code to determine the top-of-atmosphere radiance for the sensor under test. In the case of Terra MODIS, a 1-km2 site at Railroad Valley, Nevada, is used as a test site. This work presents results obtained using the reflectance-based approach at RSG’s Railroad Valley test site. Results from 10 years of in situ data collection at Railroad Valley show a percent difference in the seven land spectral channels between RSG and Terra MODIS ranging from 1.6 % in channel 6 (1632 nm), to 5.1% in channel 4 (553 nm). The average percent difference for Terra MODIS’s seven land channels and RSG is 3.5%. The uncertainty is within the 3-5% predicted for ground-based vicarious calibration.

  20. Surface Albedo/BRDF Parameters (Terra/Aqua MODIS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Trishchenko, Alexander

    2008-01-15

    Spatially and temporally complete surface spectral albedo/BRDF products over the ARM SGP area were generated using data from two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on Terra and Aqua satellites. A landcover-based fitting (LBF) algorithm is developed to derive the BRDF model parameters and albedo product (Luo et al., 2004a). The approach employs a landcover map and multi-day clearsky composites of directional surface reflectance. The landcover map is derived from the Landsat TM 30-meter data set (Trishchenko et al., 2004a), and the surface reflectances are from MODIS 500m-resolution 8-day composite products (MOD09/MYD09). The MOD09/MYD09 data are re-arranged into 10-day intervals for compatibility with other satellite products, such as those from the NOVA/AVHRR and SPOT/VGT sensors. The LBF method increases the success rate of the BRDF fitting process and enables more accurate monitoring of surface temporal changes during periods of rapid spring vegetation green-up and autumn leaf-fall, as well as changes due to agricultural practices and snowcover variations (Luo et al., 2004b, Trishchenko et al., 2004b). Albedo/BRDF products for MODIS on Terra and MODIS on Aqua, as well as for Terra/Aqua combined dataset, are generated at 500m spatial resolution and every 10-day since March 2000 (Terra) and July 2002 (Aqua and combined), respectively. The purpose for the latter product is to obtain a more comprehensive dataset that takes advantages of multi-sensor observations (Trishchenko et al., 2002). To fill data gaps due to cloud presence, various interpolation procedures are applied based on a multi-year observation database and referring to results from other locations with similar landcover property. Special seasonal smoothing procedure is also applied to further remove outliers and artifacts in data series.

  1. The TerraSAR-L Interferometric Mission Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, M.

    2004-06-01

    TerraSAR-L is the new imaging radar mission of the European Space Agency. The platform, based on the novel Snapdragon concept, is built around the active phase array antenna of the L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Specification of the L-SAR has been guided by careful analysis of the product requirements resulting in a robust baseline design with considerable margins. Besides having a commercial role for the provision of geo-information products, TerraSAR-L will contribute to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative and serve the scientific user community. Interferometry (INSAR) is a key element behind a number of mission objectives. A L-band SAR in a 14-day repeat orbit is an ideal sensor for solid earth applications (earth quake and volcano monitoring, landslides and subsidence) relying on differential interferometry. L-band penetration of vegetation cover facilitates these applications also over vegetated surfaces. Because of the high coherence, L-band is also the preferred frequency for monitoring ice sheet and glacier dynamics. Highly accurate orbit control (orbital tube <100m) and special wideband INSAR modes are required to support these applications globally and systematically. Precise burst synchronisation enables repeat-pass ScanSAR interferometry and global coverage within the short repeat cycle. A feasibility study into cartwheel constellations flying in close formation with TerraSAR-L revealed the potential for generating Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of unprecedented quality (2m relative height accuracy @ 12m posting). The TerraSAR-L operations strategy is based on a long-term systematic and repetitive acquisition scenario to ensure consistent data archives and to maximise the exploitation of this very powerful SAR system.

  2. Eastern Ishtar Terra: Tectonic evolution derived from recognized features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorderbruegge, R. W.; Head, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Previous analyses have recognized several styles and orientations of compressional deformation, crustal convergence, and crustal thickening in Eastern Ishtar Terra. An east to west sense of crustal convergence through small scale folding, thrusting, and buckling is reflected in the high topography and ridge-and-valley morphology of Maxwell Montes and the adjacent portion of Fortuna Tessera. This east to west convergence was accompanied by up to 1000 km of lateral motion and large scale strike-slip faulting within two converging shear zones which has resulted in the present morphology of Maxwell Montes. A more northeast to southwest sense of convergence through large scale buckling and imbrication is reflected in large, northwest-trending scarps along the entire northern boundary of Ishtar Terra, with up to 2 km of relief present at many of the scarps. It was previously suggested that both styles of compression have occurred at the expense of pre-existing tessera regions which have then been overprinted by the latest convergence event. The difference in style is attributed mostly to differences in the properties of the crust converging with the tessera blocks. If one, presumably thick, tessera block converges with another tessera region, then the widespread, distributed style of deformation occurs, as observed in western Fortuna Tessera. However, if relatively thin crust (such as suggested for the North Polar Plains converges with thicker tessera regions, then localized deformation occurs, as reflected in the scarps along Northern Ishtar Terra. The purpose is to identify the types of features observed in Eastern Ishtar Terra. Their potential temporal and spatial relationships, is described, possible origins for them is suggested, and how the interpretation of some of these features has led to the multiple-style tectonic evolution model described is shown.

  3. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Bacteriophages Phinally and Vivi2

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kaitlyn C.; Arora, Charu; Bortz, Michael E.; Burnet, George; Conover, David H.; D’Incau, Gina M.; Ghobrial, Jonathan A.; Jonas, Audrey L.; Migdal, Emily J.; Rote, Nicole L.; German, Brian A.; McDonnell, Jill E.; Mezghani, Nadia; Schafer, Claire E.; Thompson, Paige K.; Ulbrich, Megan C.; Yu, Victor J.; Furbee, Emily C.; Grubb, Sarah R.; Warner, Marcie H.; Montgomery, Matthew T.; Garlena, Rebecca A.; Russell, Daniel A.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages Phinally and Vivi2 were isolated from soil from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, using host Gordonia terrae 3612. The Phinally and Vivi2 genomes are 59,265 bp and 59,337 bp, respectively, and share sequence similarity with each other and with GTE6. Fewer than 25% of the 87 to 89 putative genes have predictable functions. PMID:27540050

  4. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Bacteriophages Phinally and Vivi2.

    PubMed

    Pope, Welkin H; Anderson, Kaitlyn C; Arora, Charu; Bortz, Michael E; Burnet, George; Conover, David H; D'Incau, Gina M; Ghobrial, Jonathan A; Jonas, Audrey L; Migdal, Emily J; Rote, Nicole L; German, Brian A; McDonnell, Jill E; Mezghani, Nadia; Schafer, Claire E; Thompson, Paige K; Ulbrich, Megan C; Yu, Victor J; Furbee, Emily C; Grubb, Sarah R; Warner, Marcie H; Montgomery, Matthew T; Garlena, Rebecca A; Russell, Daniel A; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages Phinally and Vivi2 were isolated from soil from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, using host Gordonia terrae 3612. The Phinally and Vivi2 genomes are 59,265 bp and 59,337 bp, respectively, and share sequence similarity with each other and with GTE6. Fewer than 25% of the 87 to 89 putative genes have predictable functions. PMID:27540050

  5. Terra MODIS Band 27 Electronic Crosstalk Effect and Its Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Junqiang; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wenny, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the primary instruments in the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS). The first MODIS instrument was launched in December, 1999 on-board the Terra spacecraft. MODIS has 36 bands, covering a wavelength range from 0.4 micron to 14.4 micron. MODIS band 27 (6.72 micron) is a water vapor band, which is designed to be insensitive to Earth surface features. In recent Earth View (EV) images of Terra band 27, surface feature contamination is clearly seen and striping has become very pronounced. In this paper, it is shown that band 27 is impacted by electronic crosstalk from bands 28-30. An algorithm using a linear approximation is developed to correct the crosstalk effect. The crosstalk coefficients are derived from Terra MODIS lunar observations. They show that the crosstalk is strongly detector dependent and the crosstalk pattern has changed dramatically since launch. The crosstalk contributions are positive to the instrument response of band 27 early in the mission but became negative and much larger in magnitude at later stages of the mission for most detectors of the band. The algorithm is applied to both Black Body (BB) calibration and MODIS L1B products. With the crosstalk effect removed, the calibration coefficients of Terra MODIS band 27 derived from the BB show that the detector differences become smaller. With the algorithm applied to MODIS L1B products, the Earth surface features are significantly removed and the striping is substantially reduced in the images of the band. The approach developed in this report for removal of the electronic crosstalk effect can be applied to other MODIS bands if similar crosstalk behaviors occur.

  6. Status of Terra and Aqua MODIS Instrument Operation and Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Wenny, B. N.; Sun, J.; Angal, A.; Salomonson, V. V.

    2013-12-01

    Terra and Aqua MODIS have successfully operated for more than 13 and 11 years since their respective launches in 1999 and 2002. Nearly 40 data products, developed for studies of the earth's land, ocean, and atmosphere, have been routinely generated from calibrated and geo-located MODIS observations and widely distributed to the science and user community. MODIS on-orbit calibration is performed by a set of on-board calibrators, which include a solar diffuser for the reflective solar bands calibration and a blackbody for the thermal emissive bands calibration. MODIS on-board calibrators are regularly operated to monitor on-orbit changes in sensor responses and key performance parameters, such as radiometric calibration coefficients. Since launch, extensive instrument calibration and characterization activities have been scheduled and executed by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST). This presentation provides an overview of both Terra and Aqua MODIS instrument status, their on-orbit operation and calibration activities, and overall long-term performance. It reports calibration improvements (algorithms and look-up tables) made in the latest MODIS data collection (C6). Lessons learned from both Terra and Aqua MODIS and their applications to the S-NPP VIIRS on-orbit calibration are also discussed.

  7. The non-coding RNA TERRA is a natural ligand and direct inhibitor of human telomerase

    PubMed Central

    Redon, Sophie; Reichenbach, Patrick; Lingner, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Telomeres, the physical ends of eukaryotes chromosomes are transcribed into telomeric repeat containing RNA (TERRA), a large non-coding RNA of unknown function, which forms an integral part of telomeric heterochromatin. TERRA molecules resemble in sequence the telomeric DNA substrate as they contain 5′-UUAGGG-3′ repeats near their 3′-end which are complementary to the template sequence of telomerase RNA. Here we demonstrate that endogenous TERRA is bound to human telomerase in cell extracts. Using in vitro reconstituted telomerase and synthetic TERRA molecules we demonstrate that the 5′-UUAGGG-3′ repeats of TERRA base pair with the RNA template of the telomerase RNA moiety (TR). In addition TERRA contacts the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein subunit independently of hTR. In vitro studies further demonstrate that TERRA is not used as a telomerase substrate. Instead, TERRA acts as a potent competitive inhibitor for telomeric DNA in addition to exerting an uncompetitive mode of inhibition. Our data identify TERRA as a telomerase ligand and natural direct inhibitor of human telomerase. Telomerase regulation by the telomere substrate may be mediated via its transcription. PMID:20460456

  8. 15 Years of Terra, 14 Years of Application Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Alarcon, C.; Boller, R. A.; Cechini, M. F.; Davies, D.; Fu, G.; Gunnoe, T.; Hall, J. R.; Huang, T.; Ilavajhala, S.; Jackson, M.; King, J.; McGann, M.; Murphy, K. J.; Roberts, J. T.; Thompson, C. K.; Ye, G.

    2014-12-01

    The instruments onboard the Terra spacecraft were designed for long-term Earth science research but not long after launch it became apparent that this data and imagery could be made available in near real-time for applications users. During the year 2000 fire season in the western United States, the US Forest Service approached NASA with a request to expedite MODIS fire detections. The Rapid Response system was created to generate fire detections as well as true color imagery in both swath and geo-referenced formats. This imagery was used by a wide variety of applications, such as NASA's AERONET program, the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, Antarctic resupply shipping, flood mapping for relief agencies, Deepwater Horizon monitoring, volcanic ash monitoring, as well as print, televised, and Internet media. From 2004, the University of Maryland's Web Fire Mapper helped distribute fire detection information in a variety of formats. However, the applications community expressed the need for near-real time access to the underlying data. This requirement led to the development of the Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) in 2009. To achieve the latency requirements, many components of the EOS satellite operations, ground and science processing systems had to be made more efficient. In addition, products that require ancillary data were modified to use alternate inputs. Forty Terra MODIS data products are currently available from LANCE. LANCE also includes data from other instruments including AIRS, AMSR-E, MLS, and OMI. To help near-real time users navigate this large data offering, a new imagery service was begun in 2011 - Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS). This service provides very responsive viewing using the Web Map Tile Service protocol. These programs will continue to support and expand the use of Terra data for near-real time applications well into the future.

  9. Electronic crosstalk in Terra MODIS thermal emissive bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junqiang; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wang, Menghua

    2015-09-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a legacy Earth remote sensing instrument in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS). The first MODIS instrument was launched in December 1999 on board the Terra spacecraft. MODIS has 36 bands, among which bands 20-25 and bands 27-36 are thermal emissive bands covering a wavelength range from 3.7μm to 14.2μm. It has been found that there are severe contaminations in Terra bands 27-30 (6.7 μm - 9.73 μm) due to crosstalk of signals among themselves. The crosstalk effect induces strong striping artifacts in the Earth View (EV) images and causes large long-term drifts in the EV brightness temperature (BT) in these bands. An algorithm using a linear approximation derived from on-orbit lunar observations has been developed to correct the crosstalk effect for them. It was demonstrated that the crosstalk correction can substantially reduce the striping noise in the EV images and significantly remove the long-term drifts in the EV BT in the Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR) water vapor channels (bands 27-28). In this paper, the crosstalk correction algorithm previously developed is applied to correct the crosstalk effect in the remaining LWIR bands 29 and 30. The crosstalk correction successfully reduces the striping artifact in the EV images and removes long-term drifts in the EV BT in bands 29-30 as was done similarly for bands 27-28. The crosstalk correction algorithm can thus substantially improve both the image quality and the radiometric accuracy of the Level 1B (L1B) products of the LWIR PV bands, bands 27-30. From this study it is also understood that other Terra MODIS thermal emissive bands are contaminated by the crosstalk effect and that the algorithm can be applied to these bands for crosstalk correction.

  10. Braided alluvial fan in the Terra Sirenum region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeli, S.; Hauber, E.; Le Deit, L.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Platz, T.; Fawdon, P.; Jaumann, R.

    2015-10-01

    Here we report the presence of an Amazonian-aged outflow channel located on the rim of the Ariadnes Colles basin (37°S/178°E) that has an alluvial fan on its downstream part. The study area is located in the Noachian highlands of Terra Sirenum, the site of a large hypothesized paleolake [3]. This so-called Eridania lake existed during the Late Noachian -Early Hesperian and drained into Ma'adim Vallis, one of the largest valleys on Mars. The Ariadnes Colles basin was part of the Eridania paleolake and hosted later a closed lake.

  11. Extension Across Tempe Terra, Mars from MOLA Topographic Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, B. W.; Phillips, R. J.; Golombek, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    Previously, methods of estimating the extension across grabens and rifts on Mars by necessity relied on photogeologic methods such as shadow measurement, crater ellipticity, or photoclinometry. With the new data being returned by the Mars Global Surveyor, specifically from the Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA), it is now possible to directly measure the depths of these structures and therefore to estimate more accurately the amount of extension. Here we provide an example of this new approach in the Tempe Terra region. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Status of Terra MODIS Operation, Calibration, and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Wenny, B.; Wu, A.; Angal, A.; Geng, X.; Chen, H.; Dodd, J.; Link, D.; Madhavan, S.; Chen, N.; Li, Y.; Iacangelo, S.; Barnes, W.; Salomonson, V.

    2014-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, Terra MODIS has successfully operated for nearly 15 years, making continuous observations. Data products derived from MODIS observations have significantly contributed to a wide range of studies of key geophysical parameters of the earth's eco-system of land, ocean, and atmosphere, and their changes over time. The quality of MODIS data products relies on the dedicated effort to monitor and sustain instrument health and operation, to calibrate and update sensor parameters and properties, and to improve calibration algorithms. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands, covering wavelengths from visible to long-wave infrared. The reflective solar bands (1-19 and 26) are primarily calibrated by a solar diffuser (SD) panel and regularly scheduled lunar observations. The thermal emissive bands (20-25 and 27- 36) calibration is referenced to an on-board blackbody (BB) source. On-orbit changes in the sensor spectral and spatial characteristics are monitored by a spectroradiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). This paper provides an overview of Terra MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities and implementation strategies. It presents and summarizes sensor on-orbit performance using nearly 15 years of data from its telemetry, on-board calibrators, and lunar observations. Also discussed in this paper are changes in sensor characteristics, corrections applied to maintain MODIS level 1B (L1B) data quality, and efforts for future improvements.

  13. A fully automated TerraSAR-X based flood service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinis, Sandro; Kersten, Jens; Twele, André

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a fully automated processing chain for near real-time flood detection using high resolution TerraSAR-X Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data is presented. The processing chain including SAR data pre-processing, computation and adaption of global auxiliary data, unsupervised initialization of the classification as well as post-classification refinement by using a fuzzy logic-based approach is automatically triggered after satellite data delivery. The dissemination of flood maps resulting from this service is performed through an online service which can be activated on-demand for emergency response purposes (i.e., when a flood situation evolves). The classification methodology is based on previous work of the authors but was substantially refined and extended for robustness and transferability to guarantee high classification accuracy under different environmental conditions and sensor configurations. With respect to accuracy and computational effort, experiments performed on a data set of 175 different TerraSAR-X scenes acquired during flooding all over the world with different sensor configurations confirm the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed flood mapping service. These promising results have been further confirmed by means of an in-depth validation performed for three study sites in Germany, Thailand, and Albania/Montenegro.

  14. Retrieval algorithm development and product validation for TERRA/MOPITT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeter, M. N.; Martínez-Alonso, S.; Worden, H. M.; Emmons, L. K.; Dean, V.; Mao, D.; Edwards, D. P.; Gille, J. C.

    2014-10-01

    Satellite observations of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) are employed in diverse applications including air quality studies, chemical weather forecasting and the characterization of CO emissions through inverse modeling. The TERRA / MOPITT ('Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere') instrument incorporates a set of gas correlation radiometers to observe CO simultaneously in both a thermal-infrared (TIR) band near 4.7 µm and a near-infrared (NIR) band near 2.3 μm. This multispectral capability is unique to MOPITT. The MOPITT retrieval algorithm for vertical profiles of CO has been refined almost continuously since TERRA was launched at the end of 1999. Retrieval algorithm enhancements are the result of ongoing analyses of instrument performance, improved radiative transfer modeling, and systematic comparisons with correlative data, including in-situ profiles measured from aircraft and products from other satellite instruments. In the following, we describe the methods used to routinely evaluate MOPITT CO profiles. As the satellite instrument with the longest record for CO, methods for assessing the long-term stability are becoming increasingly important.

  15. Seasonal Surface Spectral Emissivity Derived from Terra MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan; Minnis, Patrick; Young, DavidF.; Smith, William J., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) Project is measuring broadband shortwave and longwave radiances and deriving cloud properties form various images to produce a combined global radiation and cloud property data set. In this paper, simultaneous data from Terra MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) taken at 3.7, 8.5, 11.0, and 12.0 m are used to derive the skin temperature and the surface emissivities at the same wavelengths. The methodology uses separate measurements of clear sky temperature in each channel determined by scene classification during the daytime and at night. The relationships between the various channels at night are used during the day when solar reflectance affects the 3.7- m radiances. A set of simultaneous equations is then solved to derive the emissivities. Global monthly emissivity maps are derived from Terra MODIS data while numerical weather analyses provide soundings for correcting the observed radiances for atmospheric absorption. These maps are used by CERES and other cloud retrieval algorithms.

  16. Hints at diapirism in Arabia Terra bulged craters (Mars)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, R.; Massironi, M.; Rossi, A. P.; Sauro, F.; Carli, C.; Marinangeli, L.; Cremonese, G.

    2015-10-01

    Impact craters within Arabia Terra region,on Mars,display a large central bulge, sometimes showing a well-preserved stratification (light albedo layered deposits). In craters like Crommelin or an unnamed crater (that is numbered 12000088) located a few hundreds kilometers on the East some unusual landforms and structures among the layered deposits were observed. In particular, on Crommelin's bulge and its surroundings we found fold systems with axis parallel to the bulge perimeter. The fold sets are typical compressional structure often associated to diapiric rise on Earth[1]. In addition on top of 12000088 crater's bulge the evidence of sulfate signatures was detected as well as the presence of small bowl-shaped depressions. Several fluid-carved channels that depart radially from the bulge are cut by a ring of normal faults,thus suggesting a collapse of the bulge summit. Thus, on the basis of the previous observations it is possible to hypothesize that diapiric rise could have been responsible for central bulging both on Crommelin and 12000088 craters and likely on other bulged craters on Arabia Terra.

  17. Flood routing of the Maja outflow across Xanthe Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    The object is to trace a single flood crest through the Maja outflow system and to evaluate the effects of topography on ponding and multiple channel routing. Maja Valles provides a good model because it has a single source and a well defined channel system. The 1500 km long Maja Valles originates in Juventae Chasma. The outflow system stretches 1100 km northward along the Lunae Planum/Xanthe Terra boundary, then eastward across the Xanthe Terra highlands. It descends to Chryse Planitia where it extends northeastward toward the middle of the basin. It is concluded that flood routing through multiple channels and retardation in local impoundments are responsible for breakup of the initial flood crest and the formation of multiple flood crests. Recombined flow near the mouths of these canyons results in an extended flow regime and multiple flood surges. As a result of ponding along the flood course, depositional sites are localized and renewed erosion downstream (from ponded sites) results in sediment source areas not greatly removed from depositional sites.

  18. The crosstalk of telomere dysfunction and inflammation through cell-free TERRA containing exosomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Lieberman, Paul M

    2016-08-01

    Telomeric repeats-containing RNA (TERRA) are telomere-derived non-coding RNAs that contribute to telomere function in protecting chromosome ends. We recently identified a cell-free form of TERRA (cfTERRA) enriched in extracellular exosomes. These cfTERRA-containing exosomes stimulate inflammatory cytokines when incubated with immune responsive cells. Here, we report that cfTERRA levels were increased in exosomes during telomere dysfunction induced by the expression of the dominant negative TRF2. The exosomes from these damaged cells also enriched with DNA damage marker γH2AX and fragmented telomere repeat DNA. Purified cfTERRA stimulated inflammatory cytokines, but the intact membrane-associated nucleoprotein complexes produced a more robust cytokine activation. Therefore, we propose cfTERRA-containing exosomes transport a telomere-associated molecular pattern (TAMP) and telomere-specific alarmin from dysfunctional telomeres to the extracellular environment to elicit an inflammatory response. Since cfTERRA can be readily detected in human serum it may provide a useful biomarker for the detection of telomere dysfunction in the early stage of cancers and aging-associated inflammatory disease. PMID:27351774

  19. Two MODIS Aerosol Products Over Ocean on the Terra and Aqua CERES SSF Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatov, Alexander; Minnis, Patrick; Loeb, Norman; Wielicki, Bruce; Miller, Walter; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Tanre, Didier; Remer, Lorraine; Laszlo, Istvan; Geier, Erika

    2004-01-01

    Over ocean, two aerosol products are reported on the Terra and Aqua CERES SSFs. Both are derived from MODIS, but using different sampling and aerosol algorithms. This study briefly summarizes these products, and compares using 2 weeks of global Terra data from 15-21 December 2000, and 1-7 June 2001.

  20. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE TERRA VAC IN SITU VACUUM EXTRACTION PROCESS IN GROVELAND, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an EPA evaluation of the patented Terra Vac, Inc.'s in situ vacuum extraction process that was field-demonstrated on a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated soil in Groveland, MA, under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. he Terra...

  1. Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. Solvent Extraction Technology Rapid Commercialization Initiative Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terra-Kleen Response Group Inc. (Terra-Kleen), has commercialized a solvent extraction technology that uses a proprietary extraction solvent to transfer organic constituents from soil to a liquid phase in a batch process at ambient temperatures. The proprietary solvent has a rel...

  2. Meteorological impact of realistic Terra Nova Bay polynyas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Sandra

    2010-05-01

    The energy exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere in the Antarctic marginal sea ice zone is influenced by the extent of sea-ice cover. In areas of open water, a direct contact is established and intense energy exchanges occur, due to the large difference of temperature between the water and the air above it. This implies that the polynyas are areas where the ocean exchanges energy with the atmosphere and as a result they have an effect on the polar meteorology/climate. The work presented here concerns real polynya events in the region of Terra Nova Bay (TNB), Antarctica, where a recurring coastal polynya occurs nearby the Italian Antarctic Base. The aim is the study of the impact of polynyas on the atmosphere by three-dimensional numerical simulations. The ETA model (Mesinger et al., 2006) was used and ECMWF and NCEP data provided the initial and boundary conditions. The model had already been successfully used in the Antarctic area (Casini and Morelli, 2007) A polynya of realistic size (as observed by satellite image) was included in the initial conditions for the simulations and a study of the air circulation during the events is found in Morelli et al. (2007), Morelli and Casini (2008), Morelli et al. (2009). The Eta Model reproduced the evolution of upper and mod-level conditions in good agreement with AVHRR observations (Morelli, 2008, Morelli and Parmiggiani, 2009). Also, the simulated 10 m wind was well correlated with the observed extension of the polynya. In order to isolate the effect of the presence of the open water area on the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer and on the atmospheric circulation, further simulations were performed without the presence of the polynya, i.e. with its extent covered with sea ice. The numerical simulations show that the polynyas act to increase the speed of the air above them and generate strong heat fluxes that warm the air. The effects are found over and downwind the sea ice free area. Results from the Eta

  3. Summary of Aqua, Aura, and Terra High Interest Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    Single-obs tracking Sparsely tracked objects are an unfortunate reality of CARA operations Terra vs. 32081: new track with bad data was included in OD solution for secondary object and risk became high CARA and JSpOC discussed tracking and OSAs threw out the bad data. Event no longer presented high risk based on new OD Improvement: CARA now sends JSpOC a flag indicating when a single obs is included, so OSAs can evaluate if manual update to OD is required. Missing ASW OCMsAura vs. 87178, TCA: 317 at 08:04 UTC. Post-maneuver risk (conjunction was identified in OO results)CARA confirmed with JSpOC that ASW OCMs should have been received in addition to OO OCMsJSpOC corrected the manual error in their script that prevented the data from being delivered to CARAJSpOC QAd their other scripts to ensure this error did not exist in other places.

  4. Prospecting for Methane in Arabia Terra, Mars - First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dotoyhy Z.; Venechuk, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Methane has been measured in the Martian atmosphere at concentrations of approx. 10 ppb. Since the photochemical lifetime of this gas is approx. 300 years, it is likely that methane is currently being released from the surface. Possible sources for the methane include 1) hydrothermal activity, 2) serpentinization of basalts and other water-rock interactions, 3) thermal maturation of sedimentary organic matter, and 4) metabolism of living bacteria. Any such discovery would revolutionize our understanding of Mars. Longitudinal variations in methane concentration, as measured by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) on Mars Express, show the highest values over Arabia Terra, Elysium Planum, and Arcadia-Memnonia, suggesting localized areas of methane release. We are using orbital data and methodologies derived from petroleum exploration in an attempt to locate these release points.

  5. A case for ancient springs in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Allen, Carlton C; Oehler, Dorothy Z

    2008-12-01

    Based on new image data from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), a case can be made that several structures in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra are ancient springs. This interpretation is based on comprehensive geomorphologic analysis coupled with assessment of multiple hypotheses. The structures identified extend across several kilometers and are exceptional in that nothing with their detail and scale has been reported from Mars. The deposits are associated with an extensive fracture system that may have facilitated upward flow of warm fluids. Several additional spring-like features occur in Vernal Crater, and it is possible that these are part of a major province of spring activity. Since springs are environments where life could have evolved on Mars, where that life could have found refuge as the climate became colder and drier, and where signatures of that life may be preserved, Vernal Crater may be a site of major astrobiological importance. PMID:19093802

  6. TerraLuna: A CosmoQuest Adventure in Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Pamela; Bracey, Georgia; Gugliucci, Nicole

    The content of the session will focus on CosmoQuest’s TerraLuna unit, a comparative geology unit that uses authentic data to study the geology of the Moon and Earth. Inquiry activities will allow teachers to help their students compare crater formation and other surface features on the two bodies, comparing Moon features to similar structures on Earth. Links to the latest data from NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter will be introduced and hands- on activities will be featured as the basis for inquiry learning in elementary and middle level classrooms. Teachers will be introduced to citizen science projects that will enable their students to think like real scientists and engage in authentic scientific research, providing a useful service to the scientific community. Participation in the workshop introduces teachers to the CosmoQuest website, which includes a suite of citizen science activities. The site provides teachers with an online community dedicated to science inquiry and educational support.

  7. Intercomparison Calibration Study of Terra ASTER and MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, K.; Thome, K. J.; McCorkel, J.

    2014-12-01

    Calibration and validation play an essential role during the acquisition and processing of satellite data for the Earth Observing System satellites in addition to being an integral part of maintaining scientific values of archived satellite data. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection and Radiometer (ASTER) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are two of five sensors onboard the Terra platform - the Earth Observing System flagship. ASTER has a swath width of 60km with 8 bands in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) spectral range with a spatial resolution of 15m (bands 1-3) and 90m (bands 10-14), respectively while MODIS has a swath width of 2300km with 36 spectral bands from visible to infrared spectral range with a spatial resolution of 250m (bands 1-2), 500m (bands 3-7), and 1km (bands 8-36). ASTER is the 'zoom' lens and MODIS is the 'keystone' instrument for Terra; they provide quantitative measurements of various earth system variables to the scientific and to the broader community. The simultaneous view of the sensors simplifies the intercomparison between them and relies on the use of the Railroad Valley Playa test site to reduce uncertainties caused by spatial heterogeneity and spectral differences in the sensors. The fact that Railroad Valley Playa is a calibration test site for ASTER ensures that ASTER was tasked at a higher rate over this area providing more scenes for the intercomparison. The study compares ASTER L1B data for the three VNIR bands reprocessed with recent calibration updates and MODIS 02 Collection 6 data products for the similar bands. No correction for geometry angle is needed and coincident 3-km by 3-km regions are used to reduce the impact of spatial heterogeneity. A correction for spectral differences between the sensors is applied based on averages of ground measurements of the test site.

  8. 15 Years of Terra MODIS Instrument on-Orbit Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Salomonson, V.

    2014-12-01

    The first MODIS instrument, launched on-board the NASA EOS Terra spacecraft in December 1999, has successfully operated for nearly 15 years. MODIS observations have significantly contributed to the studies of many geophysical parameters of the earth's system and its changes over time. Dedicated effort made by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) to constantly monitor instrument operation, to calibrate changes in sensor response, to derive and update sensor calibration parameters, and to maintain and improve calibration algorithms has played an extremely important role to assure the quality of MODIS data products. MODIS was developed with overall improvements over its heritage sensors. Its observations are made in 36 spectral bands, covering wavelengths from visible to long-wave infrared. The reflective solar bands (1-19 and 26) are calibrated on-orbit by a solar diffuser (SD) panel and regularly scheduled lunar observations. The thermal emissive bands (20-25 and 27-36) calibration is referenced to an on-board blackbody (BB) source. On-orbit changes in the sensor spectral and spatial characteristics are tracked by a spectroradiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). This paper provides an overview of Terra MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities implemented from launch to present and the status of instrument health and functions. It demonstrates sensor on-orbit performance derived from its telemetry, on-board calibrators (OBC), and lunar observations. Also discussed in this paper are changes in sensor characteristics, corrections applied to maintain level 1B data quality, various challenging issues, and future improvements.

  9. TERRA Battery Thermal Control Anomaly - Simulation and Corrective Actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grob, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    The TERRA spacecraft was launched in December 1999 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, becoming the flagship of NASA's Earth Observing System program to gather data on how the planet's processes create climate. Originally planned as a 5 year mission, it still provides valuable science data after nearly 10 years on orbit. On October 13th, 2009 at 16:23z following a routine inclination maneuver, TERRA experienced a battery cell failure and a simultaneous failure of several battery heater control circuits used to maintain cell temperatures and gradients within the battery. With several cells nearing the minimum survival temperature, preventing the electrolyte from freezing was the first priority. After several reset attempts and power cycling of the control electronics failed to reestablish control authority on the primary side of the controller, it was switched to the redundant side, but anomalous performance again prevented full heater control of the battery cells. As the investigation into the cause of the anomaly and corrective action continued, a battery thermal model was developed to be used in determining the control ability remaining and to simulate and assess corrective actions. Although no thermal model or detailed reference data of the battery was available, sufficient information was found to allow a simplified model to be constructed, correlated against pre-anomaly telemetry, and used to simulate the thermal behavior at several points after the anomaly. It was then used to simulate subsequent corrective actions to assess their impact on cell temperatures. This paper describes the rapid development of this thermal model, including correlation to flight data before and after the anomaly., along with a comparative assessment of the analysis results used to interpret the telemetry to determine the extent of damage to the thermal control hardware, with near-term corrective actions and long-term operations plan to overcome the anomaly.

  10. Preliminary Operational Results of the TDRSS Onboard Navigation System (TONS) for the Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramling, Cheryl; Lorah, John; Santoro, Ernest; Work, Kevin; Chambers, Robert; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Earth Observing System Terra spacecraft was launched on December 18, 1999, to provide data for the characterization of the terrestrial and oceanic surfaces, clouds, radiation, aerosols, and radiative balance. The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Onboard Navigation System (ONS) (TONS) flying on Terra provides the spacecraft with an operational real-time navigation solution. TONS is a passive system that makes judicious use of Terra's communication and computer subsystems. An objective of the ONS developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Guidance, Navigation and Control Center is to provide autonomous navigation with minimal power, weight, and volume impact on the user spacecraft. TONS relies on extracting tracking measurements onboard from a TDRSS forward-link communication signal and processing these measurements in an onboard extended Kalman filter to estimate Terra's current state. Terra is the first NASA low Earth orbiting mission to fly autonomous navigation which produces accurate results. The science orbital accuracy requirements for Terra are 150 meters (m) (3sigma) per axis with a goal of 5m (1 sigma) RSS which TONS is expected to meet. The TONS solutions are telemetered in real-time to the mission scientists along with their science data for immediate processing. Once set in the operational mode, TONS eliminates the need for ground orbit determination and allows for a smooth flow from the spacecraft telemetry to planning products for the mission team. This paper will present the preliminary results of the operational TONS solution available from Terra.

  11. Hints at diapirism in Arabia Terra craters, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, Riccardo; Pio Rossi, Angelo; Massironi, Matteo; Mazzarini, Francesco; Pondrelli, Monica; Marinangeli, Lucia; Unnithan, Vikram

    2014-05-01

    Arabia Terra is a region of Mars located at the boundary between the southern highlands and the northern lowlands and classically dominated by heavily cratered terrain. Unlike the rest of the topographic dichotomy on the planet, in Arabia Terra the elevation transition is very gentle, falling of 4 km over a distance of 2500 km (average slope = 0.0016°). Most of the impact craters within the region display a central bulge, bearing a well preserved stratification and a wide range of smaller morphologies like pitted cones, mounds and knobs (Franchi et al. 2013). Images acquired by HiRISE and CTX cameras on board MRO provided a comprehensive dataset in which also these small features can be easily recognized. These are tens of meters of diameter and tens of meters high, and many of them show an apical orifice. They are interpreted to have worked as pathways for subsurface fluid flow (e.g. Pondrelli et al., 2011; Rossi et al., 2008). Indeed an active underground fluid flow activity in Arabia Terra It has been recently hypothesized (e.g. Andrews-Hanna et al, 2011) , being crater central bulges a place of sulfate precipitation, due to local water table emergence (e.g. Franchi et al., 2013). To date, there is no clear explanation for occurrence of central bulges surrounded by prominent depressions in Arabia craters. In addition, in Firsoff and Crommelin craters it is possible to recognize folds and outward dipping strata on the central bulges and their surroundings. Interestingly, a few craters with a prominent bulged floor elsewhere in Arabia Terra do not display stratification and are not explainable as impact related structures as their expected pristine central peak derived by hydrocode modelling is ~2km lower and one third the diameter than the actual topography (Pozzobon et al., 2013). All these evidences are not consistent with a typical lacustrine stratigraphic environment, whether interested by sulfate precipitation or not, and suggest active deformation after or

  12. Topographic Analyses of the Vestalia Terra plateau, Vesta (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczkowski, D.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Williams, D. A.; Preusker, F.; Roatsch, T.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    The identification of Vestalia Terra, a topographically high region of Vesta bound by steep scarps, is itself a direct result of topographic analysis of the asteroid. However, additional analysis of the topography of the plateau has yielded important scientific discoveries. While most equatorial regions on Vesta display numerous wide and flat-floored troughs, Vestalia Terra does not. There are, however, three long pit crater chains on top of the plateau that are roughly aligned with the equatorial flat-floor troughs. Pit crater chains are a type of feature that have been observed on several planetary bodies and have been described as lines of circular to elliptical depressions which lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows. Individual pits most commonly have a conical shape, sometimes with a flat floor, but in some cases they are elliptical in shape, with the long axis parallel to the chain orientation. Pit craters can in many cases coalesce into linear troughs, but the pits are often bordered by a graben (a down-dropped block bounded by normal faults) even before this coalesence. While pits are generally agreed to have formed by collapse into a subsurface cavity, the exact formation mechanisms hypothesized can vary from planet to planet. However, several researchers have suggested that pit crater chains on small bodies such as Phobos, Eros, Lutetia and Enceladus are formed by the drainage of a loose cover material into subsurface voids formed by dilation of a subsurface normal fault, a method described in extensive detail for pit crater chains on Mars. This formation hypothesis is strengthened by the strong correlation between pit crater chains and fault-bounded graben that has been observed and by the fact that pit chains are often in alignment with a regional fault and fracture system. There are two fundamental controls on the maximum size a pit can attain: the thickness of the overlying regolith and the amount of subsurface accommodation space. The

  13. Testing Formation Theories of NW Arabia Terra, Mars: New Clues from Old Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, S. J.; Hynek, B. M.

    2008-03-01

    Northwest Arabia Terra has topography and crater populations indicating a unique history. We directly tested two proposed formation mechanisms. Crater size-frequency and d/D ratios suggest neither scenario is easily reconcilable with the new datasets.

  14. Identifying the Pre-Tharsis Structures Associated with the Terra Sirenum Region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Robbins, S.; Schroeder, J.

    2014-07-01

    The Terra Sirenum region contains some of the oldest stratigraphic units found on Mars. Examination of the structures and units provides an excellent window into clarifying the processes that influenced the early geologic evolution of Mars.

  15. Terra Sirenum: Window into Pre-Tharsis and Tharsis Phases of Mars Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Robbins, S.; Hynek, B.; Andrews-Hanna, J.

    2012-03-01

    The Terra Sirenum region contains some of the oldest stratigraphic units on Mars. Detailed examination of the structures and units provides an excellent window into identifying the processes that influenced the early geologic evolution of Mars.

  16. Retrieval of Aerosol Properties from MODIS Terra, MODIS Aqua, and VIIRS SNPP: Calibration Focus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Robert C.; Mattoo, Shana; Sawyer, Virginia; Kleidman, Richard; Patadia, Falguni; Zhou, Yaping; Gupta, Pawan; Shi, Yingxi; Remer, Lorraine; Holz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    MODIS-DT Collection 6 - Aqua/Terra level 2, 3; entire record processed - "Trending" issues reduced - Still a 15% or 0.02 Terra vs Aqua offset. - Terra/Aqua convergence improved with C6+, but bias remains. - Other calibration efforts yield mixed results. VIIRS-­-DT in development - VIIRS is similar, yet different then MODIS - With 50% wider swath, VIIRS has daily coverage - Ensures algorithm consistency with MODIS. - Currently: 20% NPP vs Aqua offset over ocean. - Only small bias (%) over land (2012-­-2016) - Can VIIRS/MODIS create aerosol CDR? Calibration for MODIS - VIIRS continues to fundamentally important. It's not just Terra, or just Aqua, or just NPP-­-VIIRS, I really want to push synergistic calibration.

  17. NASA's Terra Spacecraft Eyes Smoke Plumes from Massive Rim Fire Near Yosemite

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... NASA's Terra Spacecraft Eyes Smoke Plumes from Massive Rim Fire Near Yosemite     View ... Image (TIFF)   This visible image of California's Rim Fire was acquired Aug. 23, 2013 by the Multi-angle Imaging ...

  18. Official portrait of STS-44 Terra Scout payload specialist Thomas J. Hennen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Official portrait of STS-44 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Terra Scout payload specialist Thomas J. Hennen wearing blue flight suit, holding space shuttle model, and seated in front of flag backdrop.

  19. Technology Demonstration Summary: Terra Vac In Situ Vacuum Extraction System, Groveland, Massachusetts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terra Vac Inc's vacuum extraction system was demonstrated at the Valley Manufactured Products Company, Inc., site in Groveland, Massachusetts. The property is part of the Groveland Wells Superfund site and is contaminated mainly by trichloroethylene (TCE). Vacuum extraction...

  20. Development of Terra Harvest compliant plug-ins for McQ Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeder, Brent W.; Fish, Robert C.

    2013-05-01

    The Army Research Lab (ARL), in collaboration with the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) and representatives from industry, recently validated the feasibility of the Terra Harvest architecture by successfully integrating dozens of Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets at the Trident Spectre 12 (TS12) exercise in Fort Story, VA. Based on the exercise, it is evident that Terra Harvest will greatly simplify the process of integrating disparate ISR systems. By reducing this complexity, Terra Harvest will increase the variety of devices U.S. soldiers have at their disposal giving them a greater technological advantage over their adversaries than ever before. This paper describes McQ's effort to develop Terra Harvest compliant plug-ins for its UGS along with lessons learned from their demonstration at TS12.

  1. Radiometric cross-calibration of Terra ASTER and MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Karen; Thome, Kurt; McCorkel, Joel

    2015-09-01

    Calibration and validation play an essential role during the acquisition and processing of satellite data for Earth Observing System satellites in addition to being an integral part of maintaining scientific values of archived satellite data. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection and Radiometer (ASTER) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are two of five sensors onboard the Terra platform. ASTER has a swath width of 60 km with 8 spectral bands in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) spectral range with a spatial resolution of 15-m (bands 1-3) and 90-m (bands 10-14), respectively while MODIS has a swath width of 2300 km with 36 spectral bands from visible to infrared spectral range with a spatial resolution of 250 m (bands 1-2), 500 m (bands 3-7), and 1 km (bands 8-36). ASTER is the `zoom' lens and MODIS is the `keystone' instrument for Terra; they provide quantitative measurements of various earth system variables to the scientific and to the broader community. The simultaneous view of the sensors simplifies the intercomparison between them and the current work relies on the use of the Railroad Valley Playa test site to reduce uncertainties caused by spatial heterogeneity and spectral differences in the sensors. The fact that Railroad Valley is a calibration test site for ASTER ensures that ASTER was tasked at a higher rate over this area providing more scenes for an intercomparison. The study compares ASTER L1B data for the three VNIR bands reprocessed with recent calibration updates and MODIS 02 Collection 6 data products for the similar bands. No correction for geometry angle is needed and coincident 3-km by 3-km regions are used to reduce the impact of spatial heterogeneity. A correction for spectral differences between the sensors is applied based on seasonal averages of EO-1 Hyperion spectral range. Results indicate that the calibrated radiance products from the two sensors agree to within the

  2. Katabatic wind forcing of the Terra Nova Bay polynya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromwich, David H.; Kurtz, Dennis D.

    The Terra Nova Bay polynya is a perennial winter feature in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica, which occupies roughly 1000 km2, it is formed and maintained by the combined influence of persistent katabatic winds, which advect newly formed bay ice eastward, and the Drygalski Ice Tongue, which prevents northward drifting pack ice from entering Terra Nova Bay. Existence of anomalously strong katabatic drainage along this coast is predicted by Parish's (1982) simulation of wintertime airflow which reveals a pronounced confluence of surface winds upslope from the Reeves Glacier where the winds are further focused by local topography. The simulation is strongly supported by regional sastrugi orientations. Average wintertime atmospheric conditions and ice sheet topography which control surface air drainage are stable on a climatic time scale; therefore, persistent wintertime katabatic winds should be an annual phenomenon. Further evidence comes from multi-year Landsat images which consistently show windswept, snowfree areas on the Reeves Glacier. In marked contrast to typical Antarctic katabatic winds, strong persistent winter winds are observed at sea level ˜25 km beyond the coastal slope break. Air probably descends as bora-type winds and is likely to be significantly denser than the air at sea level; conditions are not favorable for hydraulic jumps apparently typical of other katabatic regimes. The horizontal density difference is maintained during airflow across the Nansen Ice Sheet because relatively little air mass modification occurs there in contrast to situations where air moves over an ice-laden ocean. Observations thus suggest that katabatic winds maintain their identity for some distance seaward of the coast; qualitative trajectory calculations indicate that for representative geostrophic conditions this distance is on the order of the observed polynya width. Estimated ice freezing rates are ˜20 cm day-1, but wind-generated waves and currents prevent ice from

  3. TerraFERMA: Harnessing Advanced Computational Libraries in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. R.; Spiegelman, M.; van Keken, P.

    2012-12-01

    Many important problems in Earth sciences can be described by non-linear coupled systems of partial differential equations. These "multi-physics" problems include thermo-chemical convection in Earth and planetary interiors, interactions of fluids and magmas with the Earth's mantle and crust and coupled flow of water and ice. These problems are of interest to a large community of researchers but are complicated to model and understand. Much of this complexity stems from the nature of multi-physics where small changes in the coupling between variables or constitutive relations can lead to radical changes in behavior, which in turn affect critical computational choices such as discretizations, solvers and preconditioners. To make progress in understanding such coupled systems requires a computational framework where multi-physics problems can be described at a high-level while maintaining the flexibility to easily modify the solution algorithm. Fortunately, recent advances in computational science provide a basis for implementing such a framework. Here we present the Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler (TerraFERMA), which leverages several advanced open-source libraries for core functionality. FEniCS (fenicsproject.org) provides a high level language for describing the weak forms of coupled systems of equations, and an automatic code generator that produces finite element assembly code. PETSc (www.mcs.anl.gov/petsc) provides a wide range of scalable linear and non-linear solvers that can be composed into effective multi-physics preconditioners. SPuD (amcg.ese.ic.ac.uk/Spud) is an application neutral options system that provides both human and machine-readable interfaces based on a single xml schema. Our software integrates these libraries and provides the user with a framework for exploring multi-physics problems. A single options file fully describes the problem, including all equations, coefficients and solver options. Custom compiled applications are

  4. Automated inundation monitoring using TerraSAR-X multitemporal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, S.; Huth, J.; Wehrmann, T.; Schettler, I.; Künzer, C.; Schmidt, M.; Dech, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Mekong Delta in Vietnam offers natural resources for several million inhabitants. However, a strong population increase, changing climatic conditions and regulatory measures at the upper reaches of the Mekong lead to severe changes in the Delta. Extreme flood events occur more frequently, drinking water availability is increasingly limited, soils show signs of salinization or acidification, species and complete habitats diminish. During the Monsoon season the river regularly overflows its banks in the lower Mekong area, usually with beneficial effects. However, extreme flood events occur more frequently causing extensive damage, on the average once every 6 to 10 years river flood levels exceed the critical beneficial level X-band SAR data are well suited for deriving inundated surface areas. The TerraSAR-X sensor with its different scanning modi allows for the derivation of spatial and temporal high resolved inundation masks. The paper presents an automated procedure for deriving inundated areas from TerraSAR-X Scansar and Stripmap image data. Within the framework of the German-Vietnamese WISDOM project, focussing the Mekong Delta region in Vietnam, images have been acquired covering the flood season from June 2008 to November 2008. Based on these images a time series of the so called watermask showing inundated areas have been derived. The product is required as intermediate to (i) calibrate 2d inundation model scenarios, (ii) estimate the extent of affected areas, and (iii) analyze the scope of prior crisis. The image processing approach is based on the assumption that water surfaces are forward scattering the radar signal resulting in low backscatter signals to the sensor. It uses multiple grey level thresholds and image morphological operations. The approach is robust in terms of automation, accuracy, robustness, and processing time. The resulting watermasks show the seasonal flooding pattern with inundations starting in July, having their peak at the end

  5. Fresh Shallow Valleys (FSVs) in Northern Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S. A.; Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fresh Shallow Valleys (FSVs) on Mars are part of a growing inventory of post-Noachian landforms that may be related to late, widespread aqueous activity that occurred during a period once thought to be less favorable for precipitation and runoff. Constraining the source, magnitude, timing and duration of FSVs will provide insight into the mechanism and extent of fluvial activity on Mars and the geologic and climatic environments in which they formed. Unlike the older Noachian-Hesperian valleys that are characterized by integrated, dissected and degraded networks that cover large spatial extents, FSVs are typically narrow, short or discontinuous valleys with low drainage densities. They are generally incised no more than a few decameters, slightly degraded at multi-meter scales, and cluster in the mid-latitudes (35-50° in both hemispheres). A high concentration of FSVs occurs in Northern Arabia Terra (~33°N, 8°E), a Noachian-aged landscape characterized by broad, irregular depressions. Many of the FSVs in this region are 150+ km long and some appear to cross depressions that were likely filled with ice or water at the time of formation. Examples of broad, flat floored FSVs with incised channels could either indicate a complex history of a single flow event or multiple flow events. The occurrence of "pollywogs," fairly fresh, small (typically 2-10 km in diameter) craters with a single channel extending from the rim outward, implies overflow of the crater, the presence of a deep lake and the involvement of artesian groundwater flow. Roughly 25% of the FSVs in our northern Arabia Terra study region occur on relatively fresh crater ejecta, which may be related to formation age, topography, surface materials and (or) substrate. Ejecta with dense concentrations of FSVs average 25.5 km in diameter, have more degraded crater interiors, and well developed petal-like ejecta. Ejecta with sparse or no FSVs have radial ejecta with less distinct petals and are associated with

  6. Tectonics and volcanism of Eastern Aphrodite Terra, Venus - No subduction, no spreading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Vicki L.; Phillips, Roger J.

    1993-01-01

    Eastern Aphrodite Terra, a deformed region with high topographic relief on Venus, has been interpreted as analogous to a terrestrial extensional or convergent plate boundary. However, analysis of geological and structural relations indicates that the tectonics of eastern Aphrodite Terra is dominated by blistering of the crust by magma diapirs. The findings imply that, within this region, vertical tectonism dominates over horizontal tectonism and, consequently, that this region is neither a divergent nor a convergent plate boundary.

  7. Vicarious calibration of Terra ASTER, MISR, and MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, Kurtis J.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Choi, Hyun J.

    2004-10-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection and Radiometer (ASTER), Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are all onboard the Terra platform. An important aspect of the use of MODIS, and other Earth Science Enterprise sensors, has been the characterization and calibration of the sensors and validation of their data products. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona has been active in this area through the use of ground-based test sites. This paper presents the results from the reflectance-base approach using the Railroad Valley Playa test site in Nevada for ASTER, MISR, and MODIS and thus effectively a cross-calibration between all three sensors. The key to the approach is the measurement of surface reflectance over a 1-km2 area of the playa and results from this method shows agreement with MODIS to better than 5%. The paper examines biases between ASTER and the other two sensors in the VNIR due to uncertainties in the onboard calibrator for ASTER and in the SWIR due to an optical crosstalk effect.

  8. Multispectral Cloud Retrievals from MODIS on Terra and Aqua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Ackerman, Steven A.; Menzel, W. Paul; Gray, Mark A.; Moody, Eric G.

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and the Aqua spacecraft on April 26, 2002. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from each polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). In this paper we will describe the various methods being used for the remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS data, focusing primarily on the MODIS cloud mask used to distinguish clouds, clear sky, heavy aerosol, and shadows on the ground, and on the remote sensing of cloud optical properties, especially cloud optical thickness and effective radius of water drops and ice crystals. Additional properties of clouds derived from multispectral thermal infrared measurements, especially cloud top pressure and emissivity, will also be described. Results will be presented of MODIS cloud properties both over the land and over the ocean, showing the consistency in cloud retrievals over various ecosystems used in the retrievals. The implications of this new observing system on global analysis of the Earth's environment will be discussed.

  9. Terra and Aqua: new data for epidemiology and public health

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, Andrew J.; Goetz, Scott J.; Hay, Simon I.

    2012-01-01

    Earth-observing satellites have only recently been exploited for the measurement of environmental variables of relevance to epidemiology and public health. Such work has relied on sensors with spatial, spectral and geometric constraints that have allowed large-area questions associated with the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases to be addressed. Moving from pretty maps to pragmatic control tools requires a suite of satellite-derived environmental data of higher fidelity, spatial resolution, spectral depth and at similar temporal resolutions to existing meteorological satellites. Information derived from sensors onboard the next generation of moderate-resolution Earth-observing sensors may provide the key. The MODIS and ASTER sensors onboard the Terra and Aqua platforms provide substantial improvements in spatial resolution, number of spectral channels, choices of bandwidths, radiometric calibration and a much-enhanced set of pre-processed and freely available products. These sensors provide an important advance in moderate-resolution remote sensing and the data available to those concerned with improving public health. PMID:22545030

  10. Estimating terra MODIS polarization effect using ocean data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, Andrew; Brinkmann, Jake; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Jack

    2016-05-01

    Terra MODIS has been known since pre-launch to have polarization sensitivity, particularly in shortest-wavelength bands 8 and 9. On-orbit reflectance trending of pseudo-invariant sites show a variation in reflectance as a function of band and scan mirror angle of incidence consistent with time-dependent polarization effects from the rotating doublesided scan mirror. The MODIS Characterization Support Team [MCST] estimates the Mueller matrix trending from this variation as observed from a single desert site, but this effect is not included in Collection 6 [C6] calibration. Here we extend the MCST's current polarization sensitivity monitoring to two ocean sites distributed over latitude to help estimate the uncertainties in the derived Mueller matrix. The Mueller matrix elements derived for polarization-sensitive Band 8 for a given site are found to be fairly insensitive to surface brdf modeling. The site-to-site variation is a measure of the uncertainty in the Mueller estimation. Results for band 8 show that the polarization correction reduces mirror-side striping by up to 50% and reduces the instrument polarization effect on reflectance time series of an ocean target.

  11. Electronic crosstalk characterization of Terra MODIS long wave infrared channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, Sriharsha; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Chiang, Kwofu; Wu, Aisheng

    2015-09-01

    Terra (T) MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), a heritage Earth observing sensor has completed 15 years of operation as of December 18 2014. T-MODIS has 36 spectral channels designed to monitor the land, ocean, and atmosphere. The long term climate data record from T-MODIS is an important dataset for global change monitoring. Sixteen of the spectral channels fall in the Mid (M) (3.7-4.5μm) to Long (L) (6.7-14.1μm)Wave InfraRed (M/LWIR) wavelengths, which are also referred to as the Thermal Emissive Bands (TEBs). To date the TEBs have very satisfactory performance which is attributed to the scan-by-scan calibration using an on-board BlackBody whose temperature is traceable to the NIST temperature standards. However, with an aging instrument, it was observed from 2010 onwards that the Photo Voltaic LWIR channels (Bands 27-30) have suffered significantly from electronic crosstalk. This is mainly due to the deterioration of the electronic circuits of the relevant bands in the LWIR Focal Plane Array (FPA). In this paper, we report the characterization of the electronic crosstalk in the above-mentioned bands using the well characterized test site such as Dome Concordia (C). Such characterization can be used to reduce the effects of crosstalk when implemented in the future Level 1B reprocessing and thereby increasing the radiometric fidelity of the concerned bands.

  12. Atmospheric correction for the ASTER visible data on Terra satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, T.; Masuda, K.; Sano, I.; Mukai, S.

    2001-01-01

    An atmospheric correction algorithm over the heterogeneous surface on the emergent radiation from the top of the atmosphere is proposed. This is an atmospheric correction code for the ASTER visible channels on Terra satellite, which have a spatial resolution of 15m. Therefore, interactions of atmospheric radiation with radiation reflected by the heterogeneous surface should be accounted for in this atmospheric correction. The surface is simulated by a checkerboard type terrain composed of land or ocean pixels. To investigate the contribution of adjacent pixels, two additional parameters based on the diffuse transmission(α) and reflection(β) function of the atmosphere are introduced. These parameters are independent of the surface reflection properties and thus may be used for any surface. The present method was developed with reference to existing numerical results based on one-dimensional radiative transfer code. Furthermore, as vicarious calibration, skylight polarization measurements were taken by a spectro-polarimeter over the Nevada desert. The measurements indicate little absorption by aerosols in the atmosphere at wavelengths from 550nm to 700nm. Furthermore the aerosols could not be spherical particles in a poly-dispersion.

  13. Amazonian thermokarst in Danielson crater, Arabia Terra region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioni, Davide; Murana, Alessio; Tramontana, Mario

    2014-12-01

    This paper describe the possible ice-related landforms observed within Danielson crater which is centered at about 8°N and 353°E, in the region of southwestern Arabia Terra about 800 km south of Becquerel crater. A morphological survey of the study area through an analysis of the available Mars images was performed. The features of the landforms were investigated through an integrated analysis of Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and Context Camera (CTX) data. Landforms interpreted as due to thermokarst processes, resembling similarly ice-related landforms found both in the cold-climate non-glacial regions of Earth, and putatively in other areas of Mars, was observed. These landforms are attributed to the presence of ground ice/ice-melting processes reflect significant climatic changes and different climatic conditions than those existing now. Moreover, they appear to display young erosional age, suggesting that are probably young, probably of Amazonian age.

  14. Aoutomatic Oil Spill Detection Using TerraSAR-X Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulipiye, Kaiyoumu; Balik Sanli, Fusun

    2016-07-01

    Oil release into the ocean may affect marine ecosystems and cause environmental pollution. Thus, oil spill detection and identification becomes critical important. Characterized by synoptic view over large regions, remote sensing has been proved to be a reliable tool for oil spill detection. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery shows returned signal that clearly distinguish oil from oil-free surface under optimal wind conditions, which makes it the most frequent used remote sensing technique in oil spill detection. Algorithms of automatic oil spill detection has already been developed for different SAR sensors, including RADARSAT and ENVISAT. In this study, we want to apply automatic oil spill detection algorithms on TerraSAR-X data which is previously developed for ASAR data. The applied methodology includes two steps as segmentation and classification. First segmentation algorithms compiled by C# have been applied under a Bayesian framework adopting a multi-level logistic. After segmentation different classification methods such as feature selection, filter, and embedded selection have been applied. As a result the used classifiers for oil spill detection will be compared, and the complete processing chain will be evaluated.

  15. Coastal wave field extraction using TerraSAR-X data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruck, Miguel; Lehner, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The main highlights of TerraSAR-X (TS-X) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery are a higher resolution of up to 1 m, when compared to conventional C-band SAR data, and a reduction of nonlinear imaging effects of a moving target by lower platform altitude. Thus, ocean waves with wavelength <30 m are detectable. This makes TS-X particularly useful to observe coastal areas where complex bathymetry strongly impacts the approaching waves. TS-X images acquired in different coastal areas are presented, including three case studies at the German coast. Wave fields (significant wave height and peak wavelength) are derived from the TS-X imagery using the proposed XWAVE algorithm and compared not only to in situ buoy wave measurements but also to results of a high-resolution numerical wave model. The objective is to study the quality of significant wave height field estimation in the spatial domain in highly variable conditions, which are typically dominant in coastal areas. The results show that the empirical XWAVE algorithm allows estimating wave fields from TS-X data with high resolution, thus showing the spatial information on wave variations. Therefore, it is a new useful tool to characterize sea state in coastal areas by remote sensing.

  16. Geology of Terra Nova oil field, Grand Banks, Newfoundland

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, J.D.; Sullivan, G.W.; Park, J.

    1986-05-01

    Oil was discovered at the Petro-Canada et al Terra Nova K-08 well in May 1984. The well was drilled in the Jeanne d'Arc subbasin, 340 km east of St. John's, Newfoundland, and 35 km southeast of the giant Hibernia oil field. Follow-up wells provided log correlations and core data that have been used with a three-dimensional seismic survey to construct a geologic model. Mapping the field demonstrated a combination structural-stratigraphic trap. The reservoir is within the lower part of the Jeanne d'Arc sequence (Upper Jurassic). This conglomeratic sandstone is interpreted as having been deposited in a nearshore to fluvial setting by basinward, northward progradation of fan-delta systems. The reservoir has a depositional limit updip to the south, and is overstepped and sealed by transgressive shales of the upper Jeanne d'Arc. Oil source is from the underlying Egret (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian) argillaceous limestones. The geologic model and seismic interpretation have been tested by appraisal drilling.

  17. Bringing Terra Science to the People: 10 years of education and public outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebeek, H.; Chambers, L. H.; Yuen, K.; Herring, D.

    2009-12-01

    The default image on Apple's iPhone is a blue, white, green and tan globe: the Blue Marble. The iconic image was produced using Terra data as part of the mission's education and public outreach efforts. As far-reaching and innovative as Terra science has been over the past decade, Terra education and public outreach efforts have been equally successful. This talk will provide an overview of Terra's crosscutting education and public outreach projects, which have reached into educational facilities—classrooms, museums, and science centers, across the Internet, and into everyday life. The Earth Observatory web site was the first web site designed for the public that told the unified story of what we can learn about our planet from all space-based platforms. Initially conceived as part of Terra mission outreach in 1999, the web site has won five Webby awards, the highest recognition a web site can receive. The Visible Earth image gallery is a catalogue of NASA Earth imagery that receives more than one million page views per month. The NEO (NASA Earth Observations) web site and WMS (web mapping service) tool serves global data sets to museums and science centers across the world. Terra educational products, including the My NASA Data web service and the Students' Cloud Observations Online (S'COOL) project, bring Terra data into the classroom. Both projects target multiple grade levels, ranging from elementary school to graduate school. S'COOL uses student observations of clouds to help validate Terra data. Students and their parents have puzzled over weekly "Where on Earth" geography quizzes published on line. Perhaps the most difficult group to reach is the large segment of the public that does not seek out science information online or in a science museum or classroom. To reach these people, EarthSky produced a series of podcasts and radio broadcasts that brought Terra science to more than 30 million people in 2009. Terra imagery, including the Blue Marble, have

  18. Oryzobacter terrae gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Lim, Jun-Muk; Hamada, Moriyuki; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro; Ahn, Tae-Young; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2015-09-01

    A bacterial strain, PSGM2-16(T), was isolated from a pot of paddy soil grown with rice in Suwon region, Republic of Korea, and was characterized as having aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, short-rod-shaped cells with one polar flagellum. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain PSGM2-16(T) revealed the highest sequence similarities with Knoellia locipacati DMZ1T (97.4%), Fodinibacter luteus YIM C003(T) (97.2%) and Lapillicoccus jejuensis R-Ac013(T) (97.0%), and the phylogenetic tree showed that strain PSGM2-16(T) formed a subgroup with Ornithinibacter aureus HB09001(T) and F. luteus YIM C003(T) within the family Intrasporangiaceae. The major fatty acids (>10% of the total fatty acids) of strain PSGM2-16(T) were iso-C16 : 0, C17 : 1ω8c and iso-C14 : 0. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H4). The polar lipids present were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, three aminophospholipids and two phospholipids. The peptidoglycan was type A4γ with meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain PSGM2-16(T) and closely related taxa were much less than 70%. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain PSGM2-16(T) was 70.0 mol%. On the basis of the evidence presented, it is concluded that strain PSGM2-16(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Intrasporangiaceae, for which the name Oryzobacter terrae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is PSGM2-16(T) ( = KACC 17299(T)= DSM 27137(T)= NBRC 109598(T)). PMID:26297674

  19. Hematite and Etched Terrain Distribution in Terra Meridiani, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeppen, W. C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Seelos, F. P.

    2002-12-01

    Analyses of TES-based bolometric albedo, thermal inertia, and spectral emissivity-derived hematite index for the Hematite region in Terra Meridiani (centered at 1.5 deg S and 3.0 deg W) indicate the terrain to be homogenous at resolutions of 3 km per pixel. In contrast, MOC NA frames with a maximum resolution of ~1.5 meters per pixel show that though the Hematite region is composed primarily of smooth, dark, pervasive dune-forms, there are also exposures of a ubiquitous bright material. This high albedo etched unit is interpreted to be a resistant substrate that extends beyond the borders of the overlying hematite-bearing plains. In order to quantify the relative superficial abundance of bright substrate and dark plains, we conduct high-resolution mapping of the hematite-bearing unit using MOC NA frames processed to ISIS level 2 (map projected with units proportional to radiance on sensor). As an illustrative example, MOC NA E03-01763 exhibits the etched unit in three typical settings: young crater rims, older craters which have lost much of their topographic signature but retain bright rims, and intercrater plains underlying dark, motley dunes. By area, 9.1% of the frame consists of bright material distributed uniformly across the scene. In general, MOC frames from the Hematite unit exhibit bright materials with an areal coverage ranging from 3% to 12%. This analysis demonstrates that the Mars Exploration Rover will be able to perform in-situ analyses of both the dark, hematite-bearing plains and the bright substrate over the course of the primary 90 sol mission.

  20. MOPITT Mechanisms 16 Years In-Orbit Operation on TERRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Andrew S.; Nichitiu, Florian; Caldwell, Dwight

    2016-01-01

    The 16th anniversary of the launch of NASA's Terra Spacecraft was marked on December 18, 2015, with the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument being a successful contributor to the NASA EOS flagship. MOPITT has been enabled by a large suite of mechanisms, allowing the instrument to perform long-duration monitoring of atmospheric carbon monoxide, providing global measurements of this important greenhouse gas for 16 years. Mechanisms have been successfully employed for scanning, cooling of detectors, and to optically modulate the gas path length within the instrument by means of pressure and gas cell length variation. The instrument utilizes these devices to perform correlation spectroscopy, enabling measurements with vertical resolution from the nadir view, and has thereby furthered understanding of source and global transport effects of carbon monoxide. Given the design requirement for a 5.25-year lifetime, the stability and performance of the majority of mechanisms have far surpassed design goals. With 16 continuously operating mechanisms in service on MOPITT, including 12 rotating mechanisms and 4 with linear drive elements, the instrument was an ambitious undertaking. The long life requirements combined with demands for cleanliness and optical stability made for difficult design choices including that of the selection of new lubrication processes. Observations and lessons learned with regards to many aspects of the mechanisms and associated monitoring devices are discussed here. Mechanism behaviors are described, including anomalies, long-term drive current/power, fill pressure, vibration and cold-tip temperature trends. The effectiveness of particular lubrication formulations and the screening method implemented is discussed in relation to continuous rotating mechanisms and stepper motors, which have exceeded 15 billon rotations and 2.5 billion steps respectively. Aspects of gas cell hermeticity, optical cleanliness, heater problems

  1. Parafilimonas terrae gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from greenhouse soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Park, Joo-Hyeon; Lim, Jun-Muk; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Anandham, Rangasamy; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2014-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, short rod-shaped, non-flagellated, yellow bacterium, designated strain 5GHs7-2(T), was isolated from a greenhouse soil sample in South Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain 5GHs7-2(T) indicated that the isolate belonged to the family Chitinophagaceae, and exhibited the highest sequence similarities with members of the genera Terrimonas (89.2-92.6 %), Sediminibacterium (90.8-91.4 %) and Chitinophaga (89.2-91.7 %), Filimonas lacunae YT21(T) (91.7 %), members of the genus Segetibacter (90.2-91.6 %), Parasegetibacter luojiensis RHYL-37(T) (90.9 %) and Flavihumibacter petaseus T41(T) (91.2 %). Flexirubin-type pigments were present. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strain were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and iso-C15 : 1 G. The polar lipid profile consisted of a large amount of phosphatidylethanolamine, and moderate and small amounts of several unknown aminolipids and lipids. The only respiratory quinone of strain 5GHs7-2(T) was MK-7, and the DNA G+C content was 47.6 mol%. On the basis of the evidence presented, it is concluded that strain 5GHs7-2(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Chitinophagaceae, for which the name Parafilimonas terrae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is 5GHs7-2(T) ( = KACC 17343(T) = DSM 28286(T)). PMID:24925599

  2. Toxicity assessment in marine sediment for the Terra Nova environmental effects monitoring program (1997-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteway, Sandra A.; Paine, Michael D.; Wells, Trudy A.; DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Janes, G. Gregory

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses toxicity test results on sediments from the Terra Nova offshore oil development. The Terra Nova Field is located on the Grand Banks approximately 350 km southeast of Newfoundland (Canada). The amphipod (Rhepoxynius abronius) survival and solid phase luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, or Microtox) assays were conducted on sediment samples collected from approximately 50 stations per program year around Terra Nova during baseline (1997), prior to drilling, and in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010 after drilling began. The frequency of toxic responses in the amphipod toxicity test was low. Of the ten stations that were toxic in environmental effects monitoring (EEM) years, only one (station 30(FE)) was toxic in more than one year and could be directly attributed to Terra Nova project activities. In contrast, 65 (18%) of 364 EEM samples were toxic to Microtox. Microtox toxicity in EEM years was not related to distance from Terra Nova drill centres or concentrations of >C10-C21 hydrocarbons or barium, the primary constituents of the synthetic-based drill muds used at Terra Nova. Of the variables tested, fines and strontium levels showed the strongest (positive) correlations with toxicity. Neither fines nor strontium levels were affected by drill cuttings discharge at Terra Nova, except at station 30(FE) (and that station was not toxic to Microtox). Benthic macro-invertebrate abundance, richness and diversity were greater in toxic than in non-toxic sediments. Therefore, Microtox responses indicating toxicity were associated with positive biological responses in the field. This result may have been an indirect function of the increased abundance of most invertebrate taxa in less sandy sediments with higher gravel content, where fines and strontium levels and, consequently, toxicity to Microtox were high; or chemical substances released by biodegradation of organic matter, where invertebrates are abundant, may be toxic to Microtox. Given

  3. Terra e Arte Project: Soils connecting Art and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Rozenberg, Bianca; de Cássia Francisco, Talita; Gramacho de Oliveira, Elisa

    2015-04-01

    The "Terra e Arte" project was designed to combine science and art by approaching soil contents in basic education schools in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The project was developed to awake, sensitize and create awareness about soils and their importance to life and environment within school communities. It was proposed and realized by the Earth Sciences Museum Alexis Dorofeef (MCTAD) of the Federal University of Viçosa (UFV), as part of the celebrations of its 20th anniversary. Since all the schools of the town visit the museum at least once a year and most of them have received and carried out pedagogic projects on soil themes in the last 20 years, it was proposed to them to develop a soil subject with any of their groups and combine it with painting using soil materials. Each group interested in joining the project received a basic set of material to produce soil paints. They were expected to develop a soil theme and its contents for a few weeks and to finalize it with a figurative and textual collective creation that synthetized their learning. 16 of the 24 visited schools joined the project and realized it for an average of two months. During this time, the school groups visited the museum and/or borrowed the itinerant exposition on soils from the museum to work with in in the school community. At the end of the projects, the productions were presented at the Knowledge Market (Feira do Conhecimento) that happens every year in the central square of the town, as part of the National Week of Science and Technology. At the event, 58 works were presented by 14 schools, involving directly 700 pupils and their teachers. They approached themes from soil formation and properties to agroecology and urban occupation and impacts on the soils. 30 of the works were selected for a commemorative exposition and 12 were chosen for a table calendar 2014. The movement created around the project mobilized many people and had strong impact on the school communities, especially

  4. Fifteen Years of ASTER Data on NASA's Terra Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, M.; Tsu, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five instruments operating on NASA's Terra platform. Launched in 1999, ASTER has been acquiring data for 15 years. ASTER is a joint project between Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; and US NASA. Data processing and distribution are done by both organizations; a joint science team helps to define mission priorities. ASTER acquires ~550 images per day, with a 60 km swath width. A daytime acquisition is three visible bands and a backward-looking stereo band with 15 m resolution, six SWIR bands with 30 m resolution, and 5 TIR bands with 90 m resolution. Nighttime TIR-only data are routinely collected. The stereo capability has allowed the ASTER project to produce a global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) data set, covering the earth's land surfaces from 83 degrees north to 83 degrees south, with 30 m data postings. This is the only (near-) global DEM available to all users at no charge; to date, over 28 million 1-by-1 degree DEM tiles have been distributed. As a general-purpose imaging instrument, ASTER-acquired data are used in numerous scientific disciplines, including: land use/land cover, urban monitoring, urban heat island studies, wetlands studies, agriculture monitoring, forestry, etc. Of particular emphasis has been the acquisition and analysis of data for natural hazard and disaster applications. We have been systematically acquiring images for 15,000 valley glaciers through the USGS Global Land Ice Monitoring from Space Project. The recently published Randolph Glacier Inventory, and the GLIMS book, both relied heavily on ASTER data as the basis for glaciological and climatological studies. The ASTER Volcano Archive is a unique on-line archive of thousands of daytime and nighttime ASTER images of ~1500 active glaciers, along with a growing archive of Landsat images. ASTER was scheduled to target active volcanoes at least 4 times per year, and more frequently for

  5. Euripus Mons - Landform Evolution and Climate Constraints in Promethei Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gasselt, Stephan; Kim, Jungrack; Baik, Hyun-Seob

    2016-04-01

    The Promethei Terra region of Mars exhibits a variety of geomorphic landforms indicative of ice-assisted creep of debris and ice, similar to features and processes found at the Martian dichotomy boundary in Deuteronilus, Protonilus and Nilosyrtis Mensae. Despite only little doubt about the fact that ice played an integral role in the formation of these features, it is still disputed if these features were formed by glacial processes, requiring precipitation of ice and snow and exhibiting glacial deformation and basal sliding, or if these landforms are a product of periglacial denudation and subject to different deformation regimes. As information about past climate conditions on Mars is sparse, the proper assessment of landform types today allows to put constraints on their environmental conditions in the past. Due to limited knowledge about the internal physical and thermal structure of these landforms, it remains impossible to unambiguously determine their origin [1]. A variety of geomorphic and model-based indicators need to be taken into account when putting constraints on their history and when trying to reconstruct their evolution. For selected features on Mars it has been shown by SHARAD radar observations that the ice content might be relatively high [2], and that some of them might be composed of pure ice, protected from sublimation by a thin debris cover. One of such examples, Euripus Mons, is a 80 km remnant feature with an associated circumferential talus deposit that shows indicators for deformation by downslope movement, i.e. debris apron morphology. Recent modelling assuming glacial deformation helped to reconstruct some internal structural properties [3]. Despite these attempts, Euripus Mons shows clear geomorphic signatures of classical periglacial denudation which do not fit into the concept of glacial-only evolution. Denudation rates as well as ages are similar to those reported from other locations on Mars for which hyperarid climate conditions

  6. Sea state measurements using TerraSAR-X data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruck, Miguel; Lehner, Susanne

    2012-09-01

    An empirical algorithm (XWAVE) to derive integrated sea state parameters from TerraSAR-X (TS-X) SAR data is developed and validated using NOAA in-situ buoy wave measurements. The comparison for significant wave height and peak wave length was performed as well for deep water locations in open ocean as well as for coastal areas. The significant wave height validation results show a correlation of 0.93% and a scatter index of 0.21 when using in-situ wave buoy data. Verification of the TS-X derived peak wavelength against in-situ buoy data resulted in a correlation of 0.96 and a scatter index of 0.13. The main highlights of TS-X imagery are a higher resolution of up to 1m, when compared to conventional C-band SAR data and a reduction of non-linear imaging effects of a moving target by lower platform altitude. Thus, ocean waves with wavelength less than 30m are detectable. This makes TS-X particularly useful to observe coastal areas where complex bathymetry strongly impacts the approaching waves. In this paper, TS-X images acquired in different coastal areas are presented, including three cases of the German coast and one case near the coast of the Azores Archipelago in the North Atlantic Ocean. Wave fields are derived from the TS-X imagery using the proposed XWAVE algorithm and compared not only to in-situ buoy wave measurements but also to results of a high resolution numerical wave model. The objective was to study the quality of significant wave height field estimation in the spatial domain in highly variable conditions which are typically dominant in coastal areas. The results show that the empirical XWAVE algorithm allows estimating wave fields from TS-X data with high resolution thus showing the spatial information on wave variations. Therefore it is a new useful tool to characterize sea state in coastal areas by remote sensing.

  7. TerraLook: GIS-Ready Time-Series of Satellite Imagery for Monitoring Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-01-01

    TerraLook is a joint project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with a goal of providing satellite images that anyone can use to see changes in the Earth's surface over time. Each TerraLook product is a user-specified collection of satellite images selected from imagery archived at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. Images are bundled with standards-compliant metadata, a world file, and an outline of each image's ground footprint, enabling their use in geographic information systems (GIS), image processing software, and Web mapping applications. TerraLook images are available through the USGS Global Visualization Viewer (http://glovis.usgs.gov).

  8. Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra Spacecraft 120 Volt Power Subsystem: Requirements, Development and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Denney J.

    2000-01-01

    Built by the Lockheed-Martin Corporation, the Earth Observing System (EOS) TERRA spacecraft represents the first orbiting application of a 120 Vdc high voltage spacecraft electrical power system implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The EOS TERRA spacecraft's launch provided a major contribution to the NASA Mission to Planet Earth program while incorporating many state of the art electrical power system technologies to achieve its mission goals. The EOS TERRA spacecraft was designed around five state-of-the-art scientific instrument packages designed to monitor key parameters associated with the earth's climate. The development focus of the TERRA electrical power system (EPS) resulted from a need for high power distribution to the EOS TERRA spacecraft subsystems and instruments and minimizing mass and parasitic losses. Also important as a design goal of the EPS was maintaining tight regulation on voltage and achieving low conducted bus noise characteristics. This paper outlines the major requirements for the EPS as well as the resulting hardware implementation approach adopted to meet the demands of the EOS TERRA low earth orbit mission. The selected orbit, based on scientific needs, to achieve the EOS TERRA mission goals is a sun-synchronous circular 98.2degree inclination Low Earth Orbit (LEO) with a near circular average altitude of 705 kilometers. The nominal spacecraft orbit is approximately 99 minutes with an average eclipse period of about 34 minutes. The scientific goal of the selected orbit is to maintain a repeated 10:30 a.m. +/- 15 minute descending equatorial crossing which provides a fairly clear view of the earth's surface and relatively low cloud interference for the instrument observation measurements. The major EOS TERRA EPS design requirements are single fault tolerant, average orbit power delivery of 2, 530 watts with a defined minimum lifetime of five years (EOL). To meet

  9. Cross-calibration of the Oceansat-2 Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) with Terra and Aqua MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angal, Amit; Brinkmann, Jake; Kumar, A. Senthil; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-05-01

    The Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) sensor on-board the Oceansat-2 spacecraft has been operational since its launch in September, 2009. The Oceansat 2 OCM primary design goal is to provide continuity to Oceansat-1 OCM to obtain information regarding various ocean-colour variables. OCM acquires Earth scene measurements in eight multi-spectral bands in the range from 402 to 885 nm. The MODIS sensor on the Terra and Aqua spacecraft has been successfully operating for over a decade collecting measurements of the earth's land, ocean surface and atmosphere. The MODIS spectral bands, designed for land and ocean applications, cover the spectral range from 412 to 869 nm. This study focuses on comparing the radiometric calibration stability of OCM using near-simultaneous TOA measurements with Terra and Aqua MODIS acquired over the Libya 4 target. Same-day scene-pairs from all three sensors (OCM, Terra and Aqua MODIS) between August, 2014 and September, 2015 were chosen for this analysis. On a given day, the OCM overpass is approximately an hour after the Terra overpass and an hour before the Aqua overpass. Due to the orbital differences between Terra and Aqua, MODIS images the Libya 4 site at different scan-angles on a given day. Some of the high-gain ocean bands for MODIS tend to saturate while viewing the bright Libya 4 target, but bands 8-10 (412 nm - 486 nm) provide an unsaturated response and are used for comparison with the spectrally similar OCM bands. All the standard corrections such as bidirectional reflectance factor (BRDF), relative spectral response mismatch, and impact for atmospheric water-vapor are applied to obtain the reflectance differences between OCM and the two MODIS instruments. Furthermore, OCM is used as a transfer radiometer to obtain the calibration differences between Terra and Aqua MODIS reflective solar bands.

  10. TERRA: a computer code for simulating the transport of environmentally released radionuclides through agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Hermann, O.W.

    1984-11-01

    TERRA is a computer code which calculates concentrations of radionuclides and ingrowing daughters in surface and root-zone soil, produce and feed, beef, and milk from a given deposition rate at any location in the conterminous United States. The code is fully integrated with seven other computer codes which together comprise a Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System, CRRIS. Output from either the long range (> 100 km) atmospheric dispersion code RETADD-II or the short range (<80 km) atmospheric dispersion code ANEMOS, in the form of radionuclide air concentrations and ground deposition rates by downwind location, serves as input to TERRA. User-defined deposition rates and air concentrations may also be provided as input to TERRA through use of the PRIMUS computer code. The environmental concentrations of radionuclides predicted by TERRA serve as input to the ANDROS computer code which calculates population and individual intakes, exposures, doses, and risks. TERRA incorporates models to calculate uptake from soil and atmospheric deposition on four groups of produce for human consumption and four groups of livestock feeds. During the environmental transport simulation, intermediate calculations of interception fraction for leafy vegetables, produce directly exposed to atmospherically depositing material, pasture, hay, and silage are made based on location-specific estimates of standing crop biomass. Pasture productivity is estimated by a model which considers the number and types of cattle and sheep, pasture area, and annual production of other forages (hay and silage) at a given location. Calculations are made of the fraction of grain imported from outside the assessment area. TERRA output includes the above calculations and estimated radionuclide concentrations in plant produce, milk, and a beef composite by location.

  11. Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy for the Analysis of Roman Ceramics Terra Sigillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado-Lopez, A.; Nicolás, G.; Mateo, M. P.; Piñón, V.; Ramil, A.

    Roman ceramics Terra Sigillata from different production areas have been analyzed by means of "laser induced plasma spectroscopy" (LIPS). The overall objective of this study is to show the capability of LIPS to classify these archaeological ceramics as a function of their provenance. The use of linear correlation methods allows us to cluster the samples by quantitative comparison of their LIP spectra, leading to a reliable assignment of Terra Sigillata pieces to their regions of origin and establishing reference groups for the purpose of assigning future pieces.

  12. LIPS and linear correlation analysis applied to the classification of Roman pottery Terra Sigillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, A. J.; Nicolás, G.; Mateo, M. P.; Ramil, A.; Piñón, V.; Yáñez, A.

    2006-06-01

    Archaeological ceramics Terra Sigillata manufactured in different production centres have been studied by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS). The aim of this work was to establish a procedure for the rapid classification of these archaeological ceramics in function of their provenance through combination of LIPS and statistical methodologies. Representative emission spectra of the Hispanic, Gaulish and African groups of pottery were selected as references. The use of linear correlation allowed one to cluster the samples by quantitative comparison of LIP spectra, leading to a reliable assignment of Terra Sigillata pieces to origin centres.

  13. Water Indicators in Sirenum Terra and Around the Argyre Impact Basin, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, J. G.; Frey, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between three temporally distinct indicators of water on Mars: ancient craters with fluidized ejecta, relatively more recent gullies inside those craters, and current abundance of near surface hydrogen around those craters. We find an association between gully occurrence and large-scale geologic features; analysis indicates unique depth/diameter ratios for gullied craters in Sirenum Terra. Numerical comparisons of fluidized and non-fluidized, gullied and non-gullied craters suggest that the Argyre region could have had a near-surface water table that receded before recent times, while Sirenum Terra may have had an ancient water table that persists to this day.

  14. Genome sequence of the Verrucomicrobium Opitutus terrae PB90-1, an abundant inhabitant of rice paddy soil ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Passel, Mark W.J.; Kant, Ravi; Palva, Airi; Copeland, A; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla L.; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Pitluck, Sam; Goltsman, Eugene; Clum, Alicia; Hui, Sun; Schmutz, Jeremy; Larimer, Frank W; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mikhailova, Natalia; Richardson, Paul; Janssen, Peter H.; De Vos, Willem M.; Smidt, Hauke

    2011-01-01

    Opitutus terrae PB90-1 is a member of the deeply branching bacterial phylum Verrucomicrobia. Bacteria in this phylum are only rarely cultured, but common in metagenomic libraries from aquatic, terrestrial and intestinal environments. O. terrae is a numerically abundant anaerobe capable of propionate production from plant-derived polysaccharides.

  15. 75 FR 1052 - Terra-Gen Dixie Valley, LLC; TGP Dixie Development Company, LLC; New York Canyon, LLC; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Terra-Gen Dixie Valley, LLC; TGP Dixie Development Company, LLC; New York Canyon, LLC; Notice of Filing December 30, 2009. Take notice that on December 24, 2009, Terra-Gen...

  16. Possible Volcanic Province in Western Promethei Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitala, J.; Ivanov, M.; Kostama, V.; Korteniemi, J.; Törmänen, T.; Neukum, G.

    2007-12-01

    The western Promethei Terra region (36-50°S, 90-106°E) studied is roughly ~700 km across. It occupies a unique area on the smoothened eastern Hellas basin rim, and consists of two parts: a gentler (~0.07°, eastward of ~97°E) and a steeper (~0.88°, W of ~97°E) regional slope. The Noachian cratered terrain surrounds the region in the NE, E, and S. The large canyons of Harmakhis, Reull and Teviot Valles cut through the central area and the smooth Hesperian plains [1-10] of the western and central areas display a set of features that does not occur elsewhere on the eastern side of the Hellas basin. The plains have multi-layered interiors as seen on the walls of the canyons that cut them. Similar stacks of sub- horizontal layers are seen in other Martian regions with exposed lava plain interiors, for example, in Lunae Planum and Syrtis Major. These are classic volcanic provinces the layered structure of which was formed by successive emplacement of sheet lava flows that followed the general topographic trend. The average visible thickness of the Promethei layers is ~70-80 m and the typical measured canyon wall slope is ~25-30o. This gives an estimate of the thickness of the layers, which is ~35-45 m. The full layer stack thickness, estimated from observations, is ~1.3 km. Consistent with the observed layering, there are narrow wrinkle ridges (WR) that deform the surface of the plains. WR mostly occur in the eastern portion of the area near Reull and Teviot Valles but some of them are seen near Harmakhis Vallis in the west. Additional long straight narrow ridges (widths < km, heights 10s m, lengths 10s km), which occur in mostly NE-SW-oriented groups, are seen on the surface of the plains. The regional topography does not appear to control the distribution of the ridges. Their morphologic characteristics, areal distribution, and close association with the lava plains are consistent with and suggest that the straight ridges may represent exhumed dikes [11], which

  17. Adjustments to the MODIS Terra Radiometric Calibration and Polarization Sensitivity in the 2010 Reprocessing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, Gerhard; Franz, Bryan A.

    2011-01-01

    The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite Terra provides global coverage of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances that have been successfully used for terrestrial and atmospheric research. The MODIS Terra ocean color products, however, have been compromised by an inadequate radiometric calibration at the short wavelengths. The Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) at NASA has derived radiometric corrections using ocean color products from the SeaWiFS sensor as truth fields. In the R2010.0 reprocessing, these corrections have been applied to the whole mission life span of 10 years. This paper presents the corrections to the radiometric gains and to the instrument polarization sensitivity, demonstrates the improvement to the Terra ocean color products, and discusses issues that need further investigation. Although the global averages of MODIS Terra ocean color products are now in excellent agreement with those of SeaWiFS and MODIS Aqua, and image quality has been significantly improved, the large corrections applied to the radiometric calibration and polarization sensitivity require additional caution when using the data.

  18. FIELD EVALUATION OF TERRA THERM IN SITU THERMAL DESTRUCTION (ISTD) TREATMENT OF HEXACHLOROCYCLOPENTADIENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program evaluation of the In Situ Thermal Destruction (ISTD) technology, developed by others, was refined by TerraTherm, Inc. The demonstration was designed to ...

  19. Strategy to use the Terra Aerosol Information to Derive the Global Aerosol Radiative Forcing of Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Terra will derive the aerosol optical thickness and properties. The aerosol properties can be used to distinguish between natural and human-made aerosol. In the polar orbit Terra will measure aerosol only once a day, around 10:30 am. How will we use this information to study the global radiative impacts of aerosol on climate? We shall present a strategy to address this problem. It includes the following steps: - From the Terra aerosol optical thickness and size distribution model we derive the effect of aerosol on reflection of solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere. In a sensitivity study we show that the effect of aerosol on solar fluxes can be derived 10 times more accurately from the MODIS data than derivation of the optical thickness itself. Applications to data over several regions will be given. - Using 1/2 million AERONET global data of aerosol spectral optical thickness we show that the aerosol optical thickness and properties during the Terra 10:30 pass are equivalent to the daily average. Due to the aerosol lifetime of several days measurements at this time of the day are enough to assess the daily impact of aerosol on radiation. - Aerosol impact on the top of the atmosphere is only part of the climate question. The INDOEX experiment showed that addressing the impact of aerosol on climate, requires also measurements of the aerosol forcing at the surface. This can be done by a combination of measurements of MODIS and AERONET data.

  20. TERRA-KLEEN RESPONSE GROUP, INC. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of a field demonstration conducted under the SITE program. The technology which was demonstrated was a solvent extraction technology developed by Terra-Kleen Response Group. Inc. to remove organic contaminants from soil. The technology employs...

  1. Terra Firma forme dermatosis. Case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Akkash, Laith; Badran, Dana; Al-Omari, Aseel Q

    2009-02-01

    Terra Firma forme dermatosis (TFFD) is an infrequently described disorder which features dirt-like lesions that clear after rubbing with alcohol. We describe a series of four patients with the disorder, discuss differential diagnostic considerations and review the literature. PMID:19087214

  2. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the TerraNova Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills/5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Joseph J.; Zvoch, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis was used to explore the internal validity of scores on the TerraNova Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills/5 using samples from a southwestern school district and standardization samples reported by the publisher. One of the strengths claimed for battery-type achievement tests is provision of reliable and valid samples…

  3. Terra Pretas: Charcoal Amendments Influence on Relict Soils and Modern Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricigliano, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Most soils found in the Amazon region are characterized by highly weathered profiles that are incapable of longterm agricultural production. However, small patches of highly fertile relict soil referred to as Terra Pretas, are also found in the Amazon region, and have maintained their integrity for thousands of years. These soils were…

  4. A Paradigm for Operant Conditioning in Blow Flies ("Phormia Terrae Novae" Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Michel B. C.; Disma, Gerald; Abramson, Charles I.

    2010-01-01

    An operant conditioning situation for the blow fly ("Protophormia terrae novae") is described. Individual flies are trained to enter and reenter a hole as the operant response. Only a few sessions of contingent reinforcement are required to increase response rates. When the response is no longer followed by food, the rate of entering the hole…

  5. MOLA Topography of Small Volcanoes in Tempe Terra and Ceraunius Fossae, Mars: Implications for Eruptive Styles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, M. P.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Garvin, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    We use Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to measure small volcanoes in the Tempe Terra and Ceraunius Fossae regions of Mars. We find that previous geometry estimates based on imagery alone are inaccurate, but MOLA data support image-based interpretations of eruptive style. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. TerraKids: An Interactive Web Site where Kids Learn about Saving the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twyman, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    Whatever adults might accomplish on the green behavior change front, any sustained success in combating climate change will require the help of the world's more than 2.2 billion children. In "TerraKids," Janet Twyman describes a possible Web site where kids learn about their family's carbon footprint and what they can do to help reduce it.…

  7. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Phages Attis and SoilAssassin

    PubMed Central

    Biery, Daniel N.; Huff, Zachary T.; Huynh, Amy B.; McFadden, William M.; Mouat, Julia S.; Schneiderman, Scott E.; Song, Hannah; Szpak, Leah E.; Umbaugh, Melanie S.; German, Brian A.; McDonnell, Jill E.; Mezghani, Nadia; Schafer, Claire E.; Thompson, Paige K.; Ulbrich, Megan C.; Yu, Victor J.; Furbee, Emily C.; Grubb, Sarah R.; Warner, Marcie H.; Montgomery, Matthew T.; Garlena, Rebecca A.; Russell, Daniel A.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2016-01-01

    Attis and SoilAssassin are two closely related bacteriophages isolated on Gordonia terrae 3612 from separate soil samples in Pittsburgh, PA. The Attis and SoilAssassin genomes are 47,881 bp and 47,880 bp, respectively, and have 74 predicted protein-coding genes, including toxin-antitoxin systems, but no tRNAs. PMID:27365347

  8. Fluvial channels in the north-western part of Noachis Terra, Mars: Implications for tectonic controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, K.; Dasgupta, N.; Kundu, A.; Chauhan, P.

    2015-10-01

    Palaeochannels in the western part of Noachis Terra are mapped to understand their origin and also the control on their courses. Relation to impact craters, trends and cross- correlations between their paths indicates to impact-related origin and tectonic lineament controlled courses for the rivers.

  9. Thermal Inertia, Albedo, and MOLA-derived Roughness for Terrains in the Terra Meridiani Area, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Deal, K.; Hynek, B. M.; Seelos, F. P., IV; Snider, N. O.; Mellon, M. T.; Garvin, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    Surface properties of layered deposits draped on dissected, cratered terrain in the Terra Meridiani area are analyzed using remote sensing data. The etched plains are cemented and differentially eroded, and the hematite plains are loose and drifting. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Review of Terra MODIS thermal emissive band L1B radiometric performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, Chris; Menzel, W. P.; Quinn, Greg

    2014-09-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Earth Observing System Terra satellite, launched into orbit on 18 December 1999, will have a "first light" 15th anniversary on 24 February 2015. For nearly 15 years the MODIS instrument has provided radiances in all spectral bands. Though some detectors have fallen below SNR thresholds, the vast majority of spectral bands continue to provide high quality L1B measurements for use in L2 science algorithms supporting global climate research. Radiometric accuracy of the Terra MODIS thermal emissive bands (TEBs) in the C6 L1B product has been assessed using various approaches over the nearly 15 year Terra MODIS data record, including comparisons with instruments on the ground, in aircraft under-flights, and on other satellites. All of these approaches contribute to the understanding of the Terra MODIS radiometric L1B performance. Early in the lifetime of Terra, ground-based measurements and NASA ER-2 aircraft under-flights revealed that TEBs in the infrared window ("window" bands) are well calibrated and performing within accuracy specifications. The ER-2 under-flights also suggested that many atmospheric bands may be performing outside of specification, especially LWIR CO2 sensitive bands that are subject to optical crosstalk, although analysis uncertainties are larger for atmospheric bands. Beginning in 2007, MetOp-A IASI observations were used to evaluate Terra MODIS TEB performance through Simultaneous Nadir Overpass (SNO) comparisons. These inter-satellite comparisons largely affirm the early aircraft and ground-based evaluations, showing that all Terra MODIS window bands have small biases, minimal trending, and minor detector and mirror side striping over the 2007-2013 timeframe. Most atmospheric bands are performing satisfactorily near to specification; however, biases, striping and trending are large and significantly out of specification in the water vapor sensitive band 27 and ozone sensitive

  11. The role of loamy sediment ( terra rossa) in the context of steady state karst surface lowering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šušteršič, France; Rejšek, Klement; Mišič, Miha; Eichler, František

    2009-05-01

    Reddish, loamy material ( terra rossa), found on many karstified surfaces, has long been accepted as a characteristic karst feature. Two basic views of terra rossa formation were distinguished, related to either a residual or a detrital origin. More recently it has been suggested that it could derive from isovolumetric reactions between the parent carbonate rock and airborne material. This paper reviews possible sources of terra rossa, explores its behaviour on the karst surface from the karst geomorphology viewpoint, and considers whether its existence is better explained in terms of a closed or open karst geomorphic system. Two approximately west-east traverses were laid out across Slovenia and the Czech Republic, comprising nine sample locations in each country previously known to be characterized by terra rossa. General geomorphic/speleomorphic conditions were estimated, and loamy material and parent rock samples were collected. Insoluble residues extracted from the rock were processed in the same ways as the loamy material. Basic geochemical and mineralogical investigations were run. The data obtained were processed statistically. Results show that statistical relationships between the adjacent rock insoluble residues and adjacent terra rossa bodies exist only at sampling sites recognised as "vertical". Most such sites are cutters, which are "karren-like grooves formed beneath the soil, more commonly referred to as subsoil karren" (US Environmental Protection Agency, 2002. A Lexicon of Cave and Karst Terminology. Field, M.S. (Ed.). , p.53). Possible sources of terra rossa material as well as the possibilities of material accumulating on the karst surface are discussed in detail, with special emphasis upon cutters. Theoretical considerations indicate that cutters are the only features that can collect sufficient insoluble residue to be detectable after a period of evolution within a surface that is lowering under

  12. Environmental effects monitoring at the Terra Nova offshore oil development (Newfoundland, Canada): Program design and overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Tracy, Ellen; Janes, G. Gregory; Crowley, Roger D.; Wells, Trudy A.; Williams, Urban P.; Paine, Michael D.; Mathieu, Anne; Kilgour, Bruce W.

    2014-12-01

    An environmental effects monitoring (EEM) program was developed by Suncor (formerly Petro-Canada) in 1997/98 to assess effects of the Terra Nova offshore oil and gas development on the receiving environment. The Terra Nova Field is located on the Grand Banks approximately 350 km southeast of Newfoundland (Canada), at approximately 100 m water depth. The EEM program was developed with guidance from experts in government, academia and elsewhere, and with input from the public. The EEM program proposed by Suncor was accepted by Canadian regulatory agencies and the program was implemented in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010, with pre-development sampling in 1997. The program continues to be implemented every two years. EEM includes an assessment of alterations in sediment quality through examination of changes in sediment chemistry, particle size, toxicity and benthic invertebrate community structure. A second component of the program examines potential effects on two species of commercial fishing interest: Iceland scallop (Chlamys islandica) and American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides). Chemical body burden for these two species is examined and taste tests are performed to assess the presence of taint in edible tissues. Effects on American plaice bioindicators are also examined. A final component of the program assesses potential effects of the Terra Nova development on water quality and examines water column chemistry, chlorophyll concentration and physical properties. The papers presented in this collection focus on effects of drill cuttings and drilling muds on the seafloor environment and, as such, report results on sediment quality and bioaccumulation of drilling mud components in Iceland scallop and American plaice. This paper provides information on drilling discharges, an overview of the physical oceanography at the Terra Nova Field, and an overview of the field program designed to assess environmental effects of drilling at Terra Nova.

  13. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Clouds as Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Menzel, Paul; Ackerman, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18,1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. It achieved its final orbit and began Earth observations on February 24,2000 for Terra and June 24,2002 for Aqua. A comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms for cloud masking and the retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties has been developed by members of the MODIS atmosphere science team. The archived products from these algorithms have applications in climate change studies, climate modeling, numerical weather prediction, and fundamental atmospheric research. In addition to an extensive cloud mask, products include cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure, effective emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical and microphysical parameters (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path), as well as derived statistics. Over the last year, extensive improvements and enhancements in the global cloud products have been implemented, and reprocessing of all MODIS data on Terra has commenced since first light in February 2000. In the cloud mask algorithm, the most extensive improvements were in distinguishing clouds at nighttime, including the challenging polar darkness regions of the world. Additional improvements have been made to properly distinguish sunglint from clouds in the tropical ocean regions, and to improve the identification of clouds from snow during daytime in Polar Regions. We will show global monthly mean cloud fraction for both Terra and Aqua, and show how similar the global daytime cloud fraction is from these morning and afternoon orbits, respectively. We will also show the zonal distribution of cloud fraction over land and ocean regions for both Terra and Aqua, and show the time series of global cloud fraction from July 2002 through June 2006.

  14. Web-based Dissemination of TRMM Data via TerraFly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rishe, N. D.; Teng, B.; Rui, H.; Graham, S. C.; Gutierrez, M. E.

    2004-12-01

    Florida International University's High Performance Database Research Center (FIU HPDRC) is collaborating with the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center's Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DISC DAAC) to provide an easy-to-use and powerful Web-based interface to Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and other satellite data from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). The collaboration uses FIU's TerraFly data dissemination tools to make TRMM and other data available to a wider audience of users. TerraFly is a Web-enabled system (http://terrafly.fiu.edu) designed to aid in the visualization of spatial and remote sensed imagery. This system allows one to "fly" over the Earth's surface and explore spatial data such as aerial photography, satellite imagery, street maps, and locale information. Internet capability allows the system to access numerous data sets without the installation of any specialized GIS programs. Designed for users of all levels and unlike other geographic information systems, TerraFly runs via standard Web browsers, with no need to download software or data prior to visualization. TerraFly can be delivered as a standalone application or a Web-based tool. FIU's technology of streaming incremental tiles to a Java applet allows the user to "fly" even via modem connections. While "flying" over imagery in TerraFly, the user can see various overlays, such as road names, application-relevant points that are hyperlinked to more information, and shaded zones that depict thematic map layers. The user can also view multi-spectral data by assigning bands to the RGB display and by visualizing the application of various algorithms and filters on multiple spectral bands or multiple data sets. The user can thus compare imagery of the same area acquired at different times or different imagery of the same area acquired concurrently and apply advanced visualization algorithms to the data. The FIU-GES DISC DAAC project aims to make TRMM

  15. Assessment of the Visible Channel Calibrations of the TRMM VIRS and MODIS on Aqua and Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Doelling, David R.; Nguyen, Louis; Miller, Walter F.; Chakrapani, Venketesan

    2007-01-01

    Several recent research satellites carry self-calibrating multispectral imagers that can be used for calibrating operational imagers lacking complete self-calibrating capabilities. In particular, the visible (VIS, 0.65 m) channels on operational meteorological satellites are generally calibrated before launch, but require vicarious calibration techniques to monitor the gains and offsets once they are in orbit. To ensure that the self-calibrating instruments are performing as expected, this paper examines the consistencies between the VIS channel (channel 1) reflectances of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Terra and Aqua satellites and the Version 5a and 6 reflectances of the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission using a variety of techniques. These include comparisons of Terra and Aqua VIS radiances with coincident broadband shortwave radiances from the well-calibrated Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES), time series of deep convective cloud (DCC) albedos, and ray-matching intercalibrations between each of the three satellites. Time series of matched Terra and VIRS data, Aqua and VIRS data, and DCC reflected fluxes reveal that an older version (Version 5a, ending in early 2004) of the VIRS calibration produced a highly stable record, while the latest version (Version 6) appears to overestimate the sensor gain change by approx.1%/y as the result of a manually induced gain adjustment. Comparisons with the CERES shortwave radiances unearthed a sudden change in the Terra MODIS calibration that caused a 1.17% decrease in the gain on 19 November 2003 that can be easily reversed. After correction for these manual adjustments, the trends in the VIRS and Terra channels are no greater than 0.1%/y. Although the results were more ambiguous, no statistically significant trends were found in the Aqua MODIS channel-1 gain. The Aqua radiances are 1% greater, on average, than their

  16. Constraints on crustal rheology and age of deformation from models of gravitational spreading in Ishtar Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Soloman, Sean C.

    1992-01-01

    Gravitational spreading is expected to lead to rapid relaxation of high relief due to the high surface temperature and associated weak crust on Venus. In this study, we use new Magellan radar and altimetry data to determine the extent of gravitational relaxation in Ishtar Terra, which contains the highest relief on Venus as well as areas of extremely high topographic slope. Within Ishtar Terra the only mountain belts found on Venus, Akna, Danu, Freyja, and Maxwell Montes, nearly encircle the smooth, high (3-4 km) plateau of Lakshmi Planum. Finite-element models of this process give expected timescales for relaxation of relief and failure at the surface. From these modeling results we attempt to constrain the strength of the crust and timescales of deformation in Ishtar Terra. Below we discuss observational evidence for gravitational spreading in Ishtar Terra, results from the finite-element modeling, independent age constraints, and implications for the rheology and timing of deformation.

  17. Architecture of orogenic belts and convergent zones in Western Ishtar Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James W.; Vorderbruegge, R. W.; Crumpler, L. S.

    1989-01-01

    Linear mountain belts in Ishtar Terra were recognized from Pioneer-Venus topography, and later Arecibo images showed banded terrain interpreted to represent folds. Subsequent analyses showed that the mountains represented orogenic belts, and that each had somewhat different features and characteristics. Orogenic belts are regions of focused shortening and compressional deformation and thus provide evidence for the nature of such deformation, processes of crustal thickening (brittle, ductile), and processes of crustal loss. Such information is important in understanding the nature of convergent zones on Venus (underthrusting, imbrication, subduction), the implications for rates of crustal recycling, and the nature of environments of melting and petrogenesis. The basic elements of four convergent zones and orogenic belts in western Ishtar Terra are identified and examined, and then assess the architecture of these zones (the manner in which the elements are arrayed), and their relationships. The basic nomenclature of the convergent zones is shown.

  18. The TERRA framework: conceptualizing rural environmental health inequities through an environmental justice lens.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Patricia; Postma, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The deleterious consequences of environmentally associated diseases are expressed differentially by income, race, and geography. Scientists are just beginning to understand the consequences of environmental exposures under conditions of poverty, marginalization, and geographic isolation. In this context, we developed the TERRA (translational environmental research in rural areas) framework to explicate environmental health risks experienced by the rural poor. Central to the TERRA framework is the premise that risks exist within physical-spatial, economic-resources, and cultural-ideologic contexts. In the face of scientific and political uncertainty, a precautionary risk reduction approach has the greatest potential to protect health. Conceptual and technical advances will both be needed to achieve environmental justice. PMID:19461228

  19. EOSDIS Terra Data Sampler #1: Western US Wildfires 2000. 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Dorothy C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains sample data in HDF-EOS format from the instruments on board the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra satellite: (1) Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER); (2) Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES); (3) Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR); and (4) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Data from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument were not available for distribution (as of October 17, 2000). The remotely sensed, coincident data for the Western US wildfires were acquired August 30, 2000. This CD-ROM provides information about the Terra mission, instruments, data, and viewing tools. It also provides the Collage tool for viewing data, and links to Web sites containing other digital data processing software. Full granules of the data on this CD-ROM and other EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data products are available from the NASA Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs).

  20. MICROSCANNING XRF, XANES, AND XRD STUDIES OF THEDECORATED SURFACE OF ROMAN TERRA SIGILLATA CERAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Mirguet, C.; Sciau, P.; Goudeau, P.; Mehta, A.; Pianetta, P.; Liu, Z.; Tamura, N.

    2008-10-24

    Different microscanning synchrotron techniques were used to better understand the elaboration process and origins of Terra Sigillata potteries from the Roman period. A mixture Gallic slip sample cross-section showing red and yellow colors was studied. The small (micron) size of the X-ray beam available at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) and Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron sources, coupled with the use of a sample scanning stage allowed us to spatially resolve the distribution of the constitutive mineral phases related to the chemical composition. Results show that red color is a result of iron-rich hematite crystals and the yellow part is a result of the presence of Ti-rich rutile-type phase (brookite). Volcanic-type clay is at the origin of these marble Terra Sigillata.

  1. MODIS Cloud Products Derived from Terra and Aqua During CRYSTAL-FACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, S.; Riedi, J. C.; Ackerman, S. A.; Menzel, W. P.

    2003-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), developed as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) and launched on Terra in December 1999 and Aqua in May 2002, is designed to meet the scientific needs for satellite remote sensing of clouds, aerosols, water vapor, and land and ocean surface properties. During the CRYSTAL-FACE experiment, numerous aircraft coordinated both in situ and remote sensing observations with the Terra and Aqua spacecraft. In this paper we will emphasize the optical, microphysical, and physical properties of both liquid water and ice clouds obtained from an analysis of the satellite observations over Florida and the Gulf of Mexico during July 2002. We will present the frequency distribution of liquid water and ice cloud microphysical properties throughout the region, separating the results over land and ocean. Probability distributions of effective radius and cloud optical thickness will also be shown.

  2. Estimation of Atmospheric Path Delays in TerraSAR-X Data using Models vs. Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Jehle, Michael; Perler, Donat; Small, David; Schubert, Adrian; Meier, Erich

    2008-01-01

    Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements of the Earth's surface depend on electromagnetic waves that are subject to atmospheric path delays, in turn affecting geolocation accuracy The atmosphere influences radar signal propagation by modifying its velocity and direction, effects which can be modeled. We use TerraSAR-X (TSX) data to investigate improvements in the knowledge of the scene geometry. To precisely estimate atmospheric path delays, we analyse the signal return of four corner reflectors with accurately surveyed positions (based on differential GPS), placed at different altitudes yet with nearly identical slant ranges to the sensor. The comparison of multiple measurements with path delay models under these geometric conditions also makes it possible to evaluate the corrections for the atmospheric path delay made by the TerraSAR processor and to propose possible improvements.

  3. Using Lunar Observations to Assess Terra MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chen, Hongda

    2010-01-01

    MODIS collects data in both the reflected solar and thermal emissive regions using 36 spectral bands. The center wavelengths of these bands cover the3.7 to 14.24 micron region. In addition to using its on-board calibrators (OBC), which include a full aperture solar diffuser (SD) and a blackbody (BB), lunar observations have been scheduled on a regular basis to support both Terra and Aqua MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization. This paper provides an overview of MODIS lunar observations and their applications for the reflective solar bands (RSB) and thermal emissive bands (TEB) with an emphasis on potential calibration improvements of MODIS band 21 at 3.96 microns. This spectral band has detectors set with low gains to enable fire detection. Methodologies are proposed and examined on the use of lunar observations for the band 21 calibration. Also presented in this paper are preliminary results derived from Terra MODIS lunar observations and remaining challenging issues.

  4. Trend Analysis of global AOT based on various Polar Orbiting Satellite Observations: MODIS (Terra), MISR (Terra), SeaWiFS (OrbView-2), and MODIS (Aqua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, J.; Vountas, M.; von Hoyningen-Huene, W.; Chang, D. Y.; Burrows, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Many studies have investigated temporal trends of cloud-free AOTs derived from polar orbiting satellite observations since aerosol retrieval accuracy has been improved substantially. However, only few studies have discussed the fundamental limitation of incomplete sampling originated from frequent cloud disturbance and restricted temporal coverage. Furthermore, the AOT trends derived from various polar orbiting satellite observations are hardly comparable due to different sensor calibration, retrieval accuracy, and cloud screening. Therefore, the present paper integrates various analyses of AOT trends derived from multiple observations (i.e. MODIS-Terra (MOD) from 2000/03 to 2009/12, MISR-Terra (MIS) from 2000/03 to 2010/12, SeaWiFS-OrbView-2 (SEA) from 1998/01 to 2007/12, and MODIS-Aqua (MYD) from 2003/01 to 2008/12) using a weighted least squares regression in order to minimize the above mentioned issues. With high statistical confidence, the weighted trends of MOD AOT (550 nm), MIS AOT (558 nm), SEA AOT (510 nm), and MYD AOT (550 nm) over OECD Europe showed a significant decrease (-0.00274±0.00126, -0.00303±0.00169, -0.00077±0.00044, and -0.00530±0.00304 per year respectively) while increasing over East Asia (+0.00727±0.00385, +0.00673±0.00401, +0.00342±0.00171, and +0.01939±0.00986 per year respectively).

  5. Long-term drift induced by the electronic crosstalk in Terra MODIS Band 29

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junqiang; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wang, Menghua

    2015-10-01

    Terra MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the key sensors in the NASA's Earth Observing System, which has successfully completed 15 years of on-orbit operation. Terra MODIS continues to collect valuable information of the Earth's energy radiation from visible to thermal infrared wavelengths. The instrument has been well characterized over its lifetime using onboard calibrators whose calibration references are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology standards. In this paper, we focus on the electronic crosstalk effect of Terra MODIS band 29, a thermal emissive band (TEB) whose center wavelength is 8.55 µm. Previous works have established the mechanism to describe the effect of the electronic crosstalk in the TEB channels of Terra MODIS. This work utilizes the established methodology to apply to band 29. The electronic crosstalk is identified and characterized using the regularly scheduled lunar observations. The moon being a near-pulse-like source allowed easy detection of extraneous signals around the actual Moon surface. First, the crosstalk-transmitting bands are identified along with their amplitudes. The crosstalk effect then is characterized using a moving average mechanism that allows a high fidelity of the magnitude to be corrected. The lunar-based analysis unambiguously shows that the crosstalk contamination is becoming more severe in recent years and should be corrected in order to maintain calibration quality for the affected spectral bands. Finally, two radiometrically well-characterized sites, Pacific Ocean and Libya 1 desert, are used to assess the impact of crosstalk effect. It is shown that the crosstalk contamination induces a long-term upward drift of 1.5 K in band 29 brightness temperature of MODIS Collection 6 L1B, which could significantly impact the science products. The crosstalk effect also induces strong detector-to-detector differences, which result in severe stripping in the Earth view

  6. An Overview of Lunar Calibration and Characterization for the EOS Terra and Aqua MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Salomonson, V. V.; Sun, J.; Chiang, K.; Xiong, S.; Humphries, S.; Barnes, W.; Guenther, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Moon can be used as a stable source for Earth-observing sensors on-orbit radiometric and spatial stability monitoring in the VIS and NIR spectral regions. It can also serve as a calibration transfer vehicle among multiple sensors. Nearly identical copies of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODE) have been operating on-board the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites since their launches in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively. Terra and Aqua MODIS each make observations in 36 spectral bands covering the spectral range from 0.41 to 14.5 microns and are calibrated on-orbit by a set of on-board calibrations (OBCs) including: 1) a solar diffuser (SD), 2) a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), 3) a blackbody (BB), and 4) a spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). In addition to fully utilizing the OBCs, the Moon has been used extensively by both Terra and Aqua MODIS to support their on-orbit calibration and characterization. A 4 This paper provides an overview of applications of lunar calibration and characterization from the MODIS perspective, including monitoring radiometric calibration stability for the reflective solar bands (RSBs), tracking changes of the sensors response versus scan-angle (RVS), examining the sensors spatial performance , and characterizing optical leaks and electronic crosstalk among different spectral bands and detectors. On-orbit calibration consistency between the two MODIS instruments is also addressed. Based on the existing on-orbit time series of the Terra and Aqua MODIS lunar observations, the radiometric difference between the two sensors is less than +/-1% for the RSBs. This method provides a powerful means of performing calibration comparisons among Earth-observing sensors and assures consistent data and science products for the long-term studies of climate and environmental changes.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Sphingopyxis terrae Strain 203-1 (NBRC 111660), a Polyethylene Glycol Degrader.

    PubMed

    Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Nonoyama, Shouta; Nagata, Yuji; Numata, Mitsuru; Tsuchikane, Keiko; Hosoyama, Akira; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Tsuda, Masataka; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawai, Fusako

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Sphingopyxis terrae strain 203-1, which is capable of growing on polyethylene glycol, was determined. The genome consisted of a chromosome with a size of 3.98 Mb and a plasmid with a size of 4,328 bp. The strain was deposited to the National Institute of Technology and Evaluation (Tokyo, Japan) under the number NBRC 111660. PMID:27284143

  8. Monitoring of mining-induced land subsidence by PALSAR and TerraSAR-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, Tomonori; Kutoglu, Hakan

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we applied InSAR time series analysis using PALSAR and TerraSAR-X data to Zonguldak Hardcoal Basin in Republic of Turkey in order to monitor mining induced surface displacement. Zonguldak coal area is located along the Black Sea 240 km eastward from Istanbul. Recently, ground deformation caused by underground exploration has come to the surface, and it has been destroying roads and buildings. We utilized PALSAR and TerraSAR-X data for the detail analysis on the recent land subsidence induced by mining activities. PALSAR data in the fine beam mode were obtained from an ascending orbit, TerraSAR-X data in the StripMap mode were from a descending orbit. The vertical and the east-west displacement were calculated by the composition of the deformation vectors of PALSAR and TerraSAR-X. Additionally, the source depth of the main anomaly detected near the campus of Zonguldak Karaelmas University (ZKU) was estimated by vector analysis using the vertical and east-west displacement. As a result, it was approximately 80 to 100 meters under the sea level. On the other hand, the depth of coal production zones is recorded 300 to 560 meters under the sea level. Thus, it was supposed that the anomaly near the university had been caused by not only mining activities but also the other factor in the shallower geological formation. Because some historical documents said that some caves existed in the limestone formation bedded over coal formations and domestic wastewater is injected into these caves, perhaps the cause of land subsidence is considered the expansion of caves' space resulted from the solution of limestone rocks by the wastewater injection.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Sphingopyxis terrae Strain 203-1 (NBRC 111660), a Polyethylene Glycol Degrader

    PubMed Central

    Nonoyama, Shouta; Nagata, Yuji; Numata, Mitsuru; Tsuchikane, Keiko; Hosoyama, Akira; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Tsuda, Masataka; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawai, Fusako

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Sphingopyxis terrae strain 203-1, which is capable of growing on polyethylene glycol, was determined. The genome consisted of a chromosome with a size of 3.98 Mb and a plasmid with a size of 4,328 bp. The strain was deposited to the National Institute of Technology and Evaluation (Tokyo, Japan) under the number NBRC 111660. PMID:27284143

  10. Observations of the atmosphere and surface state over Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica, using unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, John J.; Seefeldt, Mark W.; Palo, Scott; Knuth, Shelley L.; Bradley, Alice C.; Herrman, Paul D.; Kernebone, Peter A.; Logan, Nick J.

    2016-03-01

    In September 2012 five Aerosonde unmanned aircraft were used to make measurements of the atmospheric state over the Terra Nova Bay polynya, Antarctica, to explore the details of air-sea ice-ocean coupling. A total of 14 flights were completed in September 2012. Ten of the flight missions consisted of two unmanned aerial systems (UAS) sampling the atmosphere over Terra Nova Bay on 5 different days, with one UAS focusing on the downwind evolution of the air mass and a second UAS flying transects roughly perpendicular to the low-level winds. The data from these coordinated UAS flights provide a comprehensive three-dimensional data set of the atmospheric state (air temperature, humidity, pressure, and wind) and surface skin temperature over Terra Nova Bay. The remaining UAS flights during the September 2012 field campaign included two local flights near McMurdo Station for flight testing, a single UAS flight to Terra Nova Bay, and a single UAS flight over the Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Sea polynya. A data set containing the atmospheric and surface data as well as operational aircraft data have been submitted to the United States Antarctic Program Data Coordination Center (USAP-DCC, http://www.usap-data.org/) for free access (http://gcmd.nasa.gov/getdif.htm?NSF-ANT10-43657, doi:10.15784/600125).

  11. Observations of the atmosphere and surface state over Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica using unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, J. J.; Seefeldt, M. W.; Palo, S.; Knuth, S. L.; Bradley, A. C.; Herrman, P. D.; Kernebone, P. A.; Logan, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    In September 2012 five Aerosonde unmanned aircraft were used to make measurements of the atmospheric state over the Terra Nova Bay polynya, Antarctica, to explore the details of air - sea ice - ocean coupling. A total of 14 flights were completed in September 2012. Ten of the flight missions consisted of two unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) sampling the atmosphere over Terra Nova Bay on five different days, with one UAS focusing on the downwind evolution of the air mass and a second UAS flying transects roughly perpendicular to the low level winds. The data from these coordinated UAS flights provide a comprehensive three-dimensional data set of the atmospheric state (air temperature, humidity, pressure, and wind) and surface skin temperature over Terra Nova Bay. The remaining UAS flights during the September 2012 field campaign included two local flights near McMurdo Station for flight testing, a single UAS flight to Terra Nova Bay, and a single UAS flight over the Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Sea polynya. A dataset containing the atmospheric and surface data as well as operational aircraft data has been submitted to the United States Antarctic Program Data Coordination Center (USAP-DCC, http://www.usap-data.org/) for free access (http://gcmd.nasa.gov/getdif.htm?NSF-ANT10-43657, doi:10.15784/600125).

  12. Discrimination of crop types with TerraSAR-X-derived information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonobe, Rei; Tani, Hiroshi; Wang, Xiufeng; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Shimamura, Hideki

    Although classification maps are required for management and for the estimation of agricultural disaster compensation, those techniques have yet to be established. This paper describes the comparison of three different classification algorithms for mapping crops in Hokkaido, Japan, using TerraSAR-X (including TanDEM-X) dual-polarimetric data. In the study area, beans, beets, grasslands, maize, potatoes and winter wheat were cultivated. In this study, classification using TerraSAR-X-derived information was performed. Coherence values, polarimetric parameters and gamma nought values were also obtained and evaluated regarding their usefulness in crop classification. Accurate classification may be possible with currently existing supervised learning models. A comparison between the classification and regression tree (CART), support vector machine (SVM) and random forests (RF) algorithms was performed. Even though J-M distances were lower than 1.0 on all TerraSAR-X acquisition days, good results were achieved (e.g., separability between winter wheat and grass) due to the characteristics of the machine learning algorithm. It was found that SVM performed best, achieving an overall accuracy of 95.0% based on the polarimetric parameters and gamma nought values for HH and VV polarizations. The misclassified fields were less than 100 a in area and 79.5-96.3% were less than 200 a with the exception of grassland. When some feature such as a road or windbreak forest is present in the TerraSAR-X data, the ratio of its extent to that of the field is relatively higher for the smaller fields, which leads to misclassifications.

  13. Divergent plate boundaries and crustal spreading on Venus: Evidence from Aphrodite Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, James W.

    1989-01-01

    The modes of lithospheric heat transfer and the tectonic styles may differ between Earth and Venus, depending on how the high surface temperature (700 K = 430 C), dense and opaque atmosphere (approx. 10 MPa = 100 bars), lack of water oceans, and the other known ways in which Venus differs from Earth, influence basic lithospheric processes, thermal gradient, upper mantle temperature, thermal and chemical evolution, and convection. A fundamental question is whether the lithosphere of Venus is horizontally stable, like the other terrestrial planets, or is mobile like that on Earth. The variety of characteristics, their integrated relationships, and their predictable behavior throughout Western Aphrodite Terra are similar to those features known to occur in association with the terrestrial seafloor at spreading centers and divergent plate boundaries. It is concluded that Western Aphrodite Terra represents the site of crustal spreading centers and divergent plate boundaries. The extent of similar characteristics and processes elsewhere on Venus outside of the 13,000 km long Western and Eastern Aphrodite Terra rise is unknown at the present, but their presence in other areas of the equatorial highlands, suggested from recent analysis, may be tested with forthcoming Magellan data.

  14. Results and Lessons from a Decade of Terra MODIS On-Orbit Spectral Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Choi, T.; Che, N.; Wang, Z.; Dodd, J.

    2010-01-01

    Since its launch in December 1999, the NASA EOS Terra MODIS has successfully operated for more than a decade. MODIS makes observations in 36 spectral bands from visible (VIS) to longwave infrared (LWIR) and at three nadir spatial resolutions: 250m (2 bands), 500m (5 bands), and 1km (29 bands). In addition to its on-board calibrators designed for the radiometric calibration, MODIS was built with a unique device, called the spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). It can be configured in three different modes: radiometric, spatial, and spectral. When it is operated in the spectral modes, the SRCA can monitor changes in Sensor spectral performance for the VIS and near-infrared (NIR) spectral bands. For more than 10 years, the SRCA operation has continued to provide valuable information for MODIS on-orbit spectral performance. This paper briefly describes SRCA on-orbit operation and calibration activities; it presents decade-long spectral characterization results for Terra MODIS VIS and NIR spectral bands in terms of chances in their center wavelengths (CW) and bandwidths (BW). It is shown that the SRCA on-orbit wavelength calibration capability remains satisfactory. For most spectral bands, the changes in CW and BW are less than 0.5 and 1 nm, respectively. Results and lessons from Terra MODIS on-orbit spectral characterization have and will continue to benefit its successor, Aqua MODIS, and other future missions.

  15. Fusion of TerraSAR-x and Landsat ETM+ data for protected area mapping in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otukei, John Richard; Blaschke, Thomas; Collins, Michael

    2015-06-01

    TerraSAR-X satellite acquires very high spatial resolution data with potential for detailed land cover mapping. A known problem with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data is the lack of spectral information. Fusion of SAR and multispectral data provides opportunities for better image interpretation and information extraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the fusion between TerraSAR-X and Landsat ETM+ for protected area mapping using high pass filtering (HPF), principal component analysis with band substitution (PCA) and principal component with wavelet transform (WPCA). A total of thirteen land cover classes were identified for classification using a non-parametric C 4.5 decision tree classifier. Overall classification accuracies of 74.99%, 83.12% and 85.38% and kappa indices of 0.7220, 0.8100 and 0.8369 were obtained for HPF, PCA and WPCA fusion approaches respectively. These results indicate a high potential for a combined use of TerraSAR-X and Landsat ETM+ data for protected area mapping in Uganda.

  16. Monitoring on Xi'an ground fissures deformation with TerraSAR-X data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, C.; Zhang, Q.; Zhu, W.; Lu, Zhiming

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the fine resolution of TerraSAR-X data provided since 2007, this paper applied 6 TerraSAR data (strip mode) during 3rd Dec. 2009 to 23rd Mar. 2010 to detect and monitor the active fissures over Xi'an region. Three themes have been designed for high precision detection and monitoring of Xi'an-Chang'an fissures, as small baseline subsets (SBAS) to test the atmospheric effects of differential interferograms pair stepwise, 2-pass differential interferogram with very short baseline perpendicular to generate the whole deformation map with 44 days interval, and finally, corner reflector (CR) technique was used to closely monitor the relative deformation time series between two CRs settled crossing two ground fissures. Results showed that TerraSAR data are a good choice for small-scale ground fissures detection and monitoring, while special considerations should be taken for their great temporal and baseline decorrelation. Secondly, ground fissures in Xi'an were mostly detected at the joint section of stable and deformable regions. Lastly, CR-InSAR had potential ability to monitor relative deformation crossing fissures with millimeter precision.

  17. Elevated cadmium accumulation in marine organisms from Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica)

    SciTech Connect

    Bargagli, R.; Nelli, L.; Ancora, S.; Focardi, S.

    1996-08-01

    As a contribution towards identification of the principal environmental factors involved in cadmium accumulation in Antarctic marine organisms and the establishment of a baseline near the Italian Antarctic Station {open_quotes}Baia Terra Nova{close_quotes}, surface sediments, plankton and benthic organisms were studied in coastal waters of Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea). The cadmium content of sediments was similar to that regarded as background in most marine coastal areas, whereas in surface water, phyto- and zooplankton it was similar to values measured in areas of enhanced upwelling. Algal and animal taxa dominating benthic associations had a higher cadmium content than related species from other seas. Very high concentrations of the metal were found in sponges (10-80 {mu}g/g dw) and in the digestive gland of molluscs (up to 345 {mu}g/g in Neobuccinum eatoni). The rapid regeneration of cadmium and its natural occurrence and bioavailability in highly productive coastal waters seem to be responsible for cadmium accumulation in the tissues of marine organisms near the {open_quotes}Baia Terra Nova{close_quotes} station. 45 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. TerraSAR-X Small Baseline interferometry of Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Zeeuw van Dalfsen, Elske; Walter, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Popocatepetl is an active 5426 m high stratovolcano, with a steep-walled, 400 by 600 m wide crater. It is located 70 km southeast of Mexico city, and its activity potentially influences up to 25 million people. More than 15 major eruptions occurred in historic times, the last one in 1947. The year 2012 has been a highly active one, with numerous ash plumes in mid-April, and explosions during July-October. We have acquired TerraSAR-X images of Popocatepetl, and the surrounding area, using strip and spot mode, covering this period. We have created small baseline interferograms from TerraSAR-X strip mode images, using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) software. Of the resulting interferograms, several show medium to good coherence on the lower and upper flanks of the volcano and some are even coherent in the crater area. We further analysed the data that cover the time period from 27 march 2012 to 22 october 2012. During this time period the volcano has been very active, displaying on and off: gas and ash plumes, explosions injecting incandescent fragments up to 1 km from the crater and even ashfall in municipalities up to 50 km away. The short revisit time of TerraSAR-X of 11 days increases the chances of a coherent image during such active periods. We present the preliminary results from this unique data set.

  19. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Tropospheric Clouds Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. It achieved its final orbit and began Earth observations on February 24, 2000 for Terra and June 24, 2002 for Aqua. A comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms for cloud masking and the retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties has been developed by members of the MODIS atmosphere science team. The archived products from these algorithms have applications in climate change studies, climate modeling, numerical weather prediction, as well as fundamental atmospheric research. In addition to an extensive cloud mask, products include cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure, effective emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical and microphysical parameters (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path), as well as derived statistics. We will describe the various cloud properties being analyzed on a global basis from both Terra and Aqua. These include the latitudinal distribution of cloud optical and radiative properties of both liquid water and ice clouds, as well as joint histograms of cloud optical thickness and effective radius for selected geographical locations around the world.

  20. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Tropospheric Clouds Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18,1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. It achieved its final orbit and began Earth observations on February 24, 2000 for Terra and June 24, 2002 for Aqua. A comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms for cloud masking and the retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties has been developed by members of the MODIS atmosphere science team. The archived products from these algorithms have applications in climate change studies, climate modeling, numerical weather prediction, as well as fundamental atmospheric research. In addition to an extensive cloud mask, products include cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure, effective emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical and microphysical parameters (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path), as well as derived statistics. We will describe the various cloud properties being analyzed on a global basis from both Terra and Aqua. These include the latitudinal distribution of cloud optical and radiative properties of both liquid water and ice clouds, as well as joint histograms of cloud optical thickness and effective radius for selected geographical locations around the world.

  1. Corrections to MODIS Terra Calibration and Polarization Trending Derived from Ocean Color Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, Gerhard; Eplee, Robert E.; Franz, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    Remotely sensed ocean color products require highly accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances, on the order of 0.5% or better. Due to incidents both prelaunch and on-orbit, meeting this requirement has been a consistent problem for the MODIS instrument on the Terra satellite, especially in the later part of the mission. The NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) has developed an approach to correct the TOA radiances of MODIS Terra using spatially and temporally averaged ocean color products from other ocean color sensors (such as the SeaWiFS instrument on Orbview-2 or the MODIS instrument on the Aqua satellite). The latest results suggest that for MODIS Terra, both linear polarization parameters of the Mueller matrix are temporally evolving. A change to the functional form of the scan angle dependence improved the quality of the derived coefficients. Additionally, this paper demonstrates that simultaneously retrieving polarization and gain parameters improves the gain retrieval (versus retrieving the gain parameter only).

  2. Thenature of marbled Terra Sigillata slips: a combined mu XRF and mu XRD investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, Yoanna; Sciau, Philippe; Goudeau, Philippe; Tamura, Nobumichi; Webb, Sam; Mehta, Apurva

    2009-01-31

    In addition to the red terra sigillata production, the largest Gallic workshop (La Graufesenque) made a special type of terra sigillata, called 'marbled' by the archaeologists. Produced exclusively on this site, this pottery is characterized by a surface finish made of a mixture of yellow and red slips. Because the two slips are intimately mixed, it is difficult to obtain the precise composition of one of the two constituents without contamination by the other. In order to obtain very precise correlation at the appropriate scale between the color aspect and the element and mineralogical phase distributions in the slip, combined electron microprobe, x-ray micro spectroscopies and micro diffraction on cross sectional samples were performed. The aim is to discover how potters were able to produce this unique type of terra sigillata and especially this slip showing an intense yellow color. Results show that the yellow component of marbled sigillata was made from a titanium-rich clay preparation. The color is related to the formation of a pseudobrookite (TiFe2O5) phase in the yellow part of the slip, the main characteristics of that structure being considered nowadays as essential for the fabrication of stable yellow ceramic pigments. Its physical properties such as high refractive indices and a melting point higher than that of most silicates widely used as ceramic colorants are indeed determinant for this kind of applications. Finally, the red parts have a similar composition (elementary and mineralogical) to the one of standard red slip.

  3. Multitemporal classification of TerraSAR-X data for wetland vegetation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betbeder, Julie; Rapinel, Sébastien; Corpetti, Thomas; Pottier, Eric; Corgne, Samuel; Hubert-Moy, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with wetland vegetation mapping using multitemporal synthetic aperture radar imagery. Although wetlands play a key role in controlling flooding and nonpoint source pollution, sequestering carbon and providing an abundance of ecological services, knowledge of the flora and fauna of these environments is patchy, and understanding of their ecological functioning is still insufficient for a reliable functional assessment on areas larger than a few hectares. The aim of this paper is to evaluate multitemporal TerraSAR-X imagery to precisely map the distribution of vegetation formations considering flood duration. A series of six dual-polarization TerraSAR-X images (HH-VV) was acquired in 2012 during dry and wet seasons. One polarimetric parameter, the Shannon entropy (SE), and two intensity parameters (σ° HH and σ° VV), which vary with wetland flooding status and vegetation roughness, were first extracted. These parameters were then classified using support vector machine techniques based on a specific kernel adapted to the comparison of time-series data, K-nearest neighbors, and decision tree (DT) algorithms. The results show that the vegetation formations can be identified very accurately (kappa index=0.85) from the classification of SE temporal profiles derived from the TerraSAR-X images. They also reveal the importance of the use of polarimetric parameters instead of backscattering coefficients alone (HH or VV) or combined (HH and VV).

  4. The Unique Geomorphology and Physical Properties of the Vestalia Terra Plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buczkowski, D.L.; Wyrick, D.Y.; Toplis, M.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Garry, W. B.; Mest, S.; Kneissl, T.; Scully, J. E. C.; Nathues, A.; DeSanctis, M. C.; LeCorre, L.; Reddy, V.; Hoffmann, M.; Ammannito, E.; Frigeri, A.; Tosi, F.; Preusker, F.; Roatsch, T.; Raymond, C. A.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Russell, C. T.

    2014-01-01

    We produced a geologic map of the Av-9 Numisia quadrangle of asteroid Vesta using Dawn spacecraft data to serve as a tool to understand the geologic relations of surface features in this region. These features include the plateau Vestalia Terra, a hill named Brumalia Tholus, and an unusual "dark ribbon" material crossing the majority of the map area. Stratigraphic relations suggest that Vestalia Terra is one of the oldest features on Vesta, despite a model crater age date similar to that of much of the surface of the asteroid. Cornelia, Numisia and Drusilla craters reveal bright and dark material in their walls, and both Cornelia and Numisia have smooth and pitted terrains on their floors suggestive of the release of volatiles during or shortly after the impacts that formed these craters. Cornelia, Fabia and Teia craters have extensive bright ejecta lobes. While diogenitic material has been identified in association with the bright Teia and Fabia ejecta, hydroxyl has been detected in the dark material within Cornelia, Numisia and Drusilla. Three large pit crater chains appear in the map area, with an orientation similar to the equatorial troughs that cut the majority of Vesta. Analysis of these features has led to several interpretations of the geological history of the region. Vestalia Terra appears to be mechanically stronger than the rest of Vesta. Brumalia Tholus may be the surface representation of a dike-fed laccolith. The dark ribbon feature is proposed to represent a long-runout ejecta flow from Drusilla crater.

  5. TerraSAR InSAR Investigation of Active Crustal Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, L.; Burgmann, R.

    2009-12-01

    We aim to utilize advanced analysis of TerraSAR-X data to investigate the dynamics and interactions of solid Earth deformation processes, such as earthquakes and fault creep, and Earth surface processes, such as land subsidence and groundwater movements, in a densely populated, urban region, the San Francisco Bay Area. Ongoing deformation imaging reveals a number of natural hazards including elastic strain accumulation about seismologic faults, active landsliding, land subsidence and rebound, and settling of unconsolidated sediments that are highly susceptible to liquefaction. Up to now, we have ordered and received 20 more TerraSAR-X Spotlight Single Look Complex (SLC) images and a few Stripmap SLC images delivered by DLR and got a few preliminary results. The TerraSAR-X images were acquired over the San Francisco Bay Area particularly around an area of active landsliding, coastal subsidence and shallow Hayward fault creep near the city of Berkeley. Berkeley is situated between latitude 37.45 and 38.00, longitude 237.30 and 238.00. The data acquisition interval is from November, 2008 to now. Four types of Spotlight images and one type of Stripmap images in time sequence were ordered and acquired: spot_012, spot_038, spot_049, spot_075 and strip_003, having different look angles and pass directions. Access to the SAR data is via ftp about 10 days after acquisition date. The data is supplied in TerraSAR-X standard SLC COSAR (COmplex SAR) format with orbital information in an Extensible Markup Language (XML) header. The file contains integer real-complex components with double sampling and calibration constants for values. I am using ROI_PAC to do the interferograms. But ROI_PAC was designed to process the raw data rather SLC images. So there are some problems in azimuth processing with TerraSAR SLC data especially the Spotlight data. We now have some preliminary results of Stripmap interferograms and Spotlight interferograms but still work on those problems and

  6. Web-based Hierarchical Ordering Mechanism (WHOM) tool for MODIS data from Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikder, M. S.; Eaton, P.; Leptoukh, G.; McCrimmon, N.; Zhou, B.

    2001-05-01

    At the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), we have substantially enhanced the popular Web-based Hierarchical Ordering Mechanism (WHOM) to include data from the Earth Observing System (EOS). The GES DAAC archives unprecedented volumes of remotely sensed data and large number of geophysical products derived from the MODIS instrument on board Terra satellite, and distributes them to the world scientific and applications user community. These products are currently divided into three groups: Radiometric and Geolocation, Atmosphere, and Ocean data products. The so-called Terra-WHOM (http://acdisx.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/dataset/MODIS/index.html) is a GES DAAC developed search and order user interface which is a smaller segment of the WHOM interface that provides access to all other GES DAAC data holdings. Terra-WHOM specifically provides user access to MODIS data archived at the GES DAAC. It allows users to navigate through all the available data products and submit a data request with minimal effort. The WHOM modular design and hierarchical architecture makes this tool unique, user-friendly, and very efficient to complete the search and order. The main principle of WHOM is that it advertises the available data products, so, users always know what they can get. The WHOM design includes: simple point & click, flexible, web pages generated from templates, consistent look and feel throughout interface, and easy configuration management due to contents being encapsulated and separated from software. Modular search algorithms provide dynamic Spatial and Temporal search capability and return the search results as html pages using CGI scripts. In Terra-WHOM, calendar pages show the actual number of data granules archived for each day for high-resolution local scenes, and from there the user can go to a page showing the geo-coverage for every granule for a given day. This feature significantly optimizes user's effort for selecting data. The

  7. Validation of MODIS Terra and Aqua Ice Surface Temperatures at Summit, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D. K.; Shuman, C. A.; Xiong, X.; Wenny, B. N.; DiGirolamo, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    Ice-surface temperature (IST) is used in many studies, for example for validation of model output and for detection of leads and thin ice in sea ice. The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Terra and Aqua satellites are useful for mapping IST of sea ice and the Greenland ice sheet (Hall et al., 2012), and validation of the ISTs derived from MODIS has been an ongoing effort (e.g., Koenig & Hall, 2010; Shuman et al., 2014). Recent results call into question the calibration of the MODIS-derived ISTs at very cold temperatures that are characteristic of the Greenland ice sheet high interior during winter (Shuman et al., 2014). In the present work, we investigate the calibration of MODIS IR bands 31 (10.780 - 11.280 µm) and 32 (11.770 - 12.270 µm) under very cold conditions. MODIS IR bands are calibrated using a quadratic algorithm. In Collection 6 (C6), the offset and nonlinear calibration coefficients are computed from data collected during the blackbody cool-down vs the warm-up data used in Collection 5 (C5). To improve the calibration accuracy for low-temperature scenes, the offset terms are set to 0. In general, Aqua MODIS bands 31 and 32 perform better than Terra MODIS bands 31 and 32. One of the reasons is that the Aqua bands have a lower saturation temperature (~340 K) than the Terra (~380 K) bands, and lower saturation or smaller dynamic range means better resolution. As compared to ~2-m NOAA air temperatures (TA) at Summit, Greenland, Shuman et al. (2014) show a small (~0.5°C) offset in Terra MODIS-derived IST vs TA near 0°C, and an increasingly larger offset (up to ~5°C) as TA drops to -60°C. To investigate this further, we compare Terra and Aqua C5 and C6 ISTs with TA data from Summit. This work will document the calibration of bands 31 and 32 at very low temperatures in C5 and C6. Hall, D.K., et al., 2012: Satellite-Derived Climate-Quality Data Record of the Clear-Sky Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

  8. TerraFERMA: The Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler for multi-physics problems in the solid Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegelman, M. W.; Wilson, C. R.; Van Keken, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    We announce the release of a new software infrastructure, TerraFERMA, the Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler for the exploration and solution of coupled multi-physics problems. The design of TerraFERMA is driven by two overarching computational needs in Earth sciences. The first is the need for increased flexibility in both problem description and solution strategies for coupled problems where small changes in model assumptions can often lead to dramatic changes in physical behavior. The second is the need for software and models that are more transparent so that results can be verified, reproduced and modified in a manner such that the best ideas in computation and earth science can be more easily shared and reused. TerraFERMA leverages three advanced open-source libraries for scientific computation that provide high level problem description (FEniCS), composable solvers for coupled multi-physics problems (PETSc) and a science neutral options handling system (SPuD) that allows the hierarchical management of all model options. TerraFERMA integrates these libraries into an easier to use interface that organizes the scientific and computational choices required in a model into a single options file, from which a custom compiled application is generated and run. Because all models share the same infrastructure, models become more reusable and reproducible. TerraFERMA inherits much of its functionality from the underlying libraries. It currently solves partial differential equations (PDE) using finite element methods on simplicial meshes of triangles (2D) and tetrahedra (3D). The software is particularly well suited for non-linear problems with complex coupling between components. We demonstrate the design and utility of TerraFERMA through examples of thermal convection and magma dynamics. TerraFERMA has been tested successfully against over 45 benchmark problems from 7 publications in incompressible and compressible convection, magmatic solitary waves

  9. The absolute radiometric calibration of Terra imaging sensors: MODIS, MISR, and ASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey; Thome, Kurtis; Anderson, Nikolaus; Biggar, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    The Terra spacecraft contains five Earth-observation instruments, three of which are multispectral imaging sensors that complement each other in spectral and spatial coverage. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 36 channels ranging from 0.4-14.4 μm, with spatial resolutions of 250, 500, and 1000 m. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) uses individual imaging sensors to view the earth at nine discreet angles. Each radiometer has four channels in the visible and near infrared (VNIR), and the nadir-viewing camera has a spatial resolution of 275 m. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was designed with fourteen bands ranging from 0.5-11.6 μm. It is the high-resolution sensor on Terra, with a spatial resolution of 15 m in the VNIR, and 30 m in the shortwave infrared (SWIR). This work describes the vicarious techniques used to perform the absolute radiometric calibration of MODIS, MISR, and ASTER in the solar-reflective region (0.4-2.5 μm). It includes the reflectance-based approach, which uses ground-based personnel to make in situ measurements during the time of overpass. It also includes more recent results that were obtained using the University of Arizona's automated Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) at Railroad Valley, Nevada. In addition to the absolute radiometric calibration of Terra sensors, RadCaTS is used to perform the cross comparison of MODIS, MISR, and ASTER with Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI.

  10. Possible ancient giant basin and related water enrichment in the Arabia Terra province, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Barlow, N.G.; Anderson, R.C.; Williams, J.-P.; Miyamoto, H.; Ferris, J.C.; Strom, R.G.; Taylor, G.J.; Fairen, A.G.; Baker, V.R.; Boynton, W.V.; Keller, J.M.; Kerry, K.; Janes, D.; Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Hare, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    A circular albedo feature in the Arabia Terra province was first hypothesized as an ancient impact basin using Viking-era information. To test this unpublished hypothesis, we have analyzed the Viking era-information together with layers of new data derived from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Odyssey (MO) missions. Our analysis indicates that Arabia Terra is an ancient geologic province of Mars with many distinct characteristics, including predominantly Noachian materials, a unique part of the highland-lowland boundary, a prominent paleotectonic history, the largest region of fretted terrain on the planet, outflow channels with no obvious origins, extensive exposures of eroded layered sedimentary deposits, and notable structural, albedo, thermal inertia, gravity, magnetic, and elemental signatures. The province also is marked by special impact crater morphologies, which suggest a persistent volatile-rich substrate. No one characteristic provides definitive answers to the dominant event(s) that shaped this unique province. Collectively the characteristics reported here support the following hypothesized sequence of events in Arabia Terra: (1) an enormous basin, possibly of impact origin, formed early in martian history when the magnetic dynamo was active and the lithosphere was relatively thin, (2) sediments and other materials were deposited in the basin during high erosion rates while maintaining isostatic equilibrium, (3) sediments became water enriched during the Noachian Period, and (4) basin materials were uplifted in response to the growth of the Tharsis Bulge, resulting in differential erosion exposing ancient stratigraphic sequences. Parts of the ancient basin remain water-enriched to the present day. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Columbus crater and other possible groundwater-fed paleolakes of Terra Sirenum, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wray, J.J.; Milliken, R.E.; Dundas, C.M.; Swayze, G.A.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Baldridge, A.M.; Chojnacki, M.; Bishop, J.L.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Murchie, S.L.; Clark, R.N.; Seelos, F.P.; Tornabene, L.L.; Squyres, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Columbus crater in the Terra Sirenum region of the Martian southern highlands contains light-toned layered deposits with interbedded sulfate and phyllosilicate minerals, a rare occurrence on Mars. Here we investigate in detail the morphology, thermophysical properties, mineralogy, and stratigraphy of these deposits; explore their regional context; and interpret the crater's aqueous history. Hydrated mineral-bearing deposits occupy a discrete ring around the walls of Columbus crater and are also exposed beneath younger materials, possibly lava flows, on its floor. Widespread minerals identified in the crater include gypsum, polyhydrated and monohydrated Mg/Fe-sulfates, and kaolinite; localized deposits consistent with montmorillonite, Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates, jarosite, alunite, and crystalline ferric oxide or hydroxide are also detected. Thermal emission spectra suggest abundances of these minerals in the tens of percent range. Other craters in northwest Terra Sirenum also contain layered deposits and Al/Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates, but sulfates have so far been found only in Columbus and Cross craters. The region's intercrater plains contain scattered exposures of Al-phyllosilicates and one isolated mound with opaline silica, in addition to more common Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates with chlorides. A Late Noachian age is estimated for the aqueous deposits in Columbus, coinciding with a period of inferred groundwater upwelling and evaporation, which (according to model results reported here) could have formed evaporites in Columbus and other craters in Terra Sirenum. Hypotheses for the origin of these deposits include groundwater cementation of crater-filling sediments and/or direct precipitation from subaerial springs or in a deep (???900 m) paleolake. Especially under the deep lake scenario, which we prefer, chemical gradients in Columbus crater may have created a habitable environment at this location on early Mars. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Photogrammetric processing of a TerraSAR-X image: evaluation of products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannidis, C.; Bourexis, F.; Tsigenopoulos, G.

    2013-08-01

    TerraSAR-X was the first from a series of very high resolution SAR satellites, which have significantly enlarged the range of cartographic applications of SAR data. For such applications the use of photogrammetric processing, either independently or combined with optical images became meaningful. In this paper the procedures that may be applied on a single SAR image are developed and the quality and accuracy of their products are investigated regarding the impact of using various models or changing the parameters of external data (GCPs, DTM). A Spotlight mode TerraSAR-X image is used for a case study. The area is a mountainous terrain, of 5x10km size, located in the north-eastern region of Athens, Greece. Three alternative registration/georeferencing methods are investigated: the Physical Sensor Model (Range- Doppler method), the DLT and the 2nd order RPF. Orthoimage production using four different DTMs of various quality and density are investigated. Geometric accuracy and quality are investigated using Independent Check Points and through an analysis of the slopes and aspects of the terrain in combination with the geometry of the sensor. Automatic techniques for the extraction of the road network are used; however the results are not satisfactory. In addition, a manual extraction of the roads using visual interpretation is made and the results are evaluated in terms of completeness, correctness and quality. According to the results derived from the above procedures, the use of high resolution TerraSAR- Χ images is very promising for a variety of applications for which medium scale geometric accuracies are required.

  13. The Wisconsin Snow and Cloud-Terra 2000 Experiment (WISC-T2000)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Atmospheric scientists take to the skies this winter for the Wisconsin Snow and Cloud-Terra 2000 experiment, Feb. 25 through March 13. Scientists in WISC-T2000 will use instruments on board NASA's ER-2, a high-altitude research plane, to validate new science products from NASA's earth-observing satellite Terra, which began its five-year mission on Dec. 18, 1999. Contact Terri Gregory Public Information Coordinator Space Science and Engineering Center University of Wisconsin-Madison (608) 263-3373; fax (608) 262-5974 terri.gregory@ssec.wisc.edu Science Goals: WISC-T2000 is the third in a series of field experiments sponsored by the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Space Science and Engineering Center. The center helped develop one of the five science instruments on Terra, the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). MODIS will make global measurements of clouds, oceans, land, and atmospheric properties in an effort to monitor and predict global climate change. Infrastructure: The ER-2 will be based at Madison's Truax Field and will fly over the upper Midwest and Oklahoma. ER-2 measurements will be coordinated with observations at the Department of Energy's Cloud and Radiation Testbed site in Oklahoma (http://www.arm.gov/), which will be engaged in a complementary cloud experiment. The center will work closely with NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, which will collect and distribute MODIS data and science products. Additional information on the WISC-T2000 field campaign is available at the project's Web site http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/wisct2000/

  14. Columbus crater and other possible groundwater-fed paleolakes of Terra Sirenum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, J. J.; Milliken, R. E.; Dundas, C. M.; Swayze, G. A.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Baldridge, A. M.; Chojnacki, M.; Bishop, J. L.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Murchie, S. L.; Clark, R. N.; Seelos, F. P.; Tornabene, L. L.; Squyres, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Columbus crater in the Terra Sirenum region of the Martian southern highlands contains light-toned layered deposits with interbedded sulfate and phyllosilicate minerals, a rare occurrence on Mars. Here we investigate in detail the morphology, thermophysical properties, mineralogy, and stratigraphy of these deposits; explore their regional context; and interpret the crater's aqueous history. Hydrated mineral-bearing deposits occupy a discrete ring around the walls of Columbus crater and are also exposed beneath younger materials, possibly lava flows, on its floor. Widespread minerals identified in the crater include gypsum, polyhydrated and monohydrated Mg/Fe-sulfates, and kaolinite; localized deposits consistent with montmorillonite, Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates, jarosite, alunite, and crystalline ferric oxide or hydroxide are also detected. Thermal emission spectra suggest abundances of these minerals in the tens of percent range. Other craters in northwest Terra Sirenum also contain layered deposits and Al/Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates, but sulfates have so far been found only in Columbus and Cross craters. The region's intercrater plains contain scattered exposures of Al-phyllosilicates and one isolated mound with opaline silica, in addition to more common Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates with chlorides. A Late Noachian age is estimated for the aqueous deposits in Columbus, coinciding with a period of inferred groundwater upwelling and evaporation, which (according to model results reported here) could have formed evaporites in Columbus and other craters in Terra Sirenum. Hypotheses for the origin of these deposits include groundwater cementation of crater-filling sediments and/or direct precipitation from subaerial springs or in a deep (˜900 m) paleolake. Especially under the deep lake scenario, which we prefer, chemical gradients in Columbus crater may have created a habitable environment at this location on early Mars.

  15. Centimeter range measurement using amplitude data of TerraSAR-X imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaldo, P.; Fratarcangeli, F.; Nascetti, A.; Mazzoni, A.; Porfiri, M.; Crespi, M.

    2014-09-01

    The SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imagery are largely used for the environmental, structures and infrastructures monitoring. In particular, Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is a well known technique that allows producing spatially dense displacement maps with centimetre to millimetre accuracy. The SAR signal is characterized by phase and amplitude value and the DInSAR remote sensing technique allows to analyse deformation phenomena affecting both extended natural areas and localized man-made structures, by exploiting the phase difference of SAR image pairs. New SAR satellite sensors such as COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X and PAZ offer the capability to achieve positioning in a global reference frame accuracies in the meter range and even better, thanks to the higher image resolution (up to 0.20 m pixel resolution in the Staring SpotLight mode for TerraSAR-X and PAZ) and to the use of on board dual frequency GPS receivers, which allows to determine the satellite orbit with an accuracy at few centimetres level. The goal of this work is to exploit the slant-range measurements reaching centimetre accuracies using only the amplitude information of SAR images acquired by TerraSAR-X satellite sensor. The leading idea is to evaluate the positioning accuracy of well identifiable and stable natural and man-made Persistent Scatterers (PS's) along the SAR line of sight. The preliminary results, obtained on the Berlin area (Germany), shown that it is possible achieve a slant-range positioning accuracy with a bias well below 10 cm and a standard deviation of about 3 cm; the results are encouraging for applications of high resolution SAR imagery amplitude data in land and infrastructures monitoring.

  16. Integrating regional and continental scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Baker, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Pennington, R. T.; Vásquez Martínez, R.; Monteagudo, A.; Mogollón, H.; Dávila Cardozo, N.; Ríos, M.; García-Villacorta, R.; Valderrama, E.; Ahuite, M.; Huamantupa, I.; Neill, D. A.; Laurance, W. F.; Nascimento, H. E. M.; Soares de Almeida, S.; Killeen, T. J.; Arroyo, L.; Núñez, P.; Freitas Alvarado, L.

    2009-01-01

    We contrast regional and continental-scale comparisons of the floristic composition of terra firme forest in South Amazonia, using 55 plots across Amazonia and a subset of 30 plots from northern Peru and Ecuador. Firstly, we examine the floristic patterns using both genus- or species-level data and find that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes different plot clusters. Secondly, we compare the patterns and causes of floristic differences at regional and continental scales. At a continental scale, ordination analysis shows that species of Lecythidaceae and Sapotaceae are gradually replaced by species of Arecaceae and Myristicaceae from eastern to western Amazonia. These floristic gradients are correlated with gradients in soil fertility and to dry season length, similar to previous studies. At a regional scale, similar patterns are found within north-western Amazonia, where differences in soil fertility distinguish plots where species of Lecythidaceae, characteristic of poor soils, are gradually replaced by species of Myristicaceae on richer soils. The main coordinate of this regional-scale ordination correlates mainly with concentrations of available calcium and magnesium. Thirdly, we ask at a regional scale within north-western Amazonia, whether soil fertility or other distance dependent processes are more important for determining variation in floristic composition. A Mantel test indicates that both soils and geographical distance have a similar and significant role in determining floristic similarity across this region. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is dependent on a range of processes that include both habitat specialisation related to edaphic conditions and other distance-dependent processes. To fully account for regional scale variation in continental

  17. Early season monitoring of corn and soybeans with TerraSAR-X and RADARSAT-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNairn, H.; Kross, A.; Lapen, D.; Caves, R.; Shang, J.

    2014-05-01

    Early and on-going crop production forecasts are important to facilitate food price stability for regions at risk, and for agriculture exporters, to set market value. Most regional and global efforts in forecasting rely on multiple sources of information from the field. With increased access to data from spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), these sensors could contribute information on crop acreage. But these acreage estimates must be available early in the season to assist with production forecasts. This study acquired TerraSAR-X and RADARSAT-2 data over a region in eastern Canada dominated by economically important corn and soybean production. Using a supervised decision tree classifier, results determined that either sensor was capable of delivering highly accurate maps of corn and soybeans at the end of the growing season. Accuracies far exceeded 90%. Spatial and multi-temporal filtering approaches were compared and small improvements in accuracies were found by applying the multi-temporal filter to the RADARSAT-2 data. Of significant interest, this study determined that by using only three TerraSAR-X images corn could be accurately identified by the end of June, a mere six weeks after planting and at a vegetative growth stage (V6 - sixth leaf collar developed). However, soybeans required additional acquisitions given the variance in planting densities and planting dates in this region of Canada. In this case, accurate soybean classification required TerraSAR-X images until early August at the start of the reproductive stage (R5 - seed development is beginning). Also important, by applying a multi-temporal filter accurate mapping (close to 90%) of corn and soybeans from RADARSAT-2 could occur five weeks earlier (by August 19) than if a spatial filter was used. Thus application of this filtering approach could accelerate delivery of a crop inventory for this region of Canada. Corn and soybeans are important commodities both globally and within Canada. This

  18. Micro scanning X-ray diffraction study of Gallo-Roman Terra Sigillata ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciau, P.; Goudeau, P.; Tamura, N.; Dooryhee, E.

    2006-05-01

    The red glaze (slip) that characterizes the Terra Sigillata potteries, greatly contributed to their success during the Roman period. This feature can in fact be partially explained by the microstructure (crystalline phases and grain sizes) and the physico-chemistry (compositions) of the ceramics. In this paper, we describe how the technique of synchrotron micro scanning X-raydiffraction could contribute to the understanding of the elaboration process and origins of these ceramics. The small (micron) size of the X-raybeam coupled with the use of a sample scanning stage allows one to spatially resolve the distribution and other characteristics of the constitutive mineral phases.

  19. Terra and Aqua MODIS Design, Radiometry, and Geometry in Support of Land Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wolfe, Robert; Barnes, William; Guenther, Bruce; Vermote, Eric; Saleous, Nazmi; Salomonson, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) mission includes the construction and launch of two nearly identical Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments. The MODIS proto-flight model (PFM) is onboard the EOS Terra satellite (formerly EOS AM-1) launched on December 18, 1999 and hereafter referred to as Terra MODIS. Flight model-1 (FM1) is onboard the EOS Aqua satellite (formerly EOS PM-1) launched on May 04, 2002 and referred to as Aqua MODIS. MODIS was developed based on the science community s desire to collect multiyear continuous datasets for monitoring changes in the Earth s land, oceans and atmosphere, and the human contributions to these changes. It was designed to measure discrete spectral bands, which includes many used by a number of heritage sensors, and thus extends the heritage datasets to better understand both long- and short-term changes in the global environment (Barnes and Salomonson 1993; Salomonson et al. 2002; Barnes et al. 2002). The MODIS development, launch, and operation were managed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland. The sensors were designed, built, and tested by Raytheon/ Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS), Goleta, California. Each MODIS instrument offers 36 spectral bands, which span the spectral region from the visible (0.41 m) to long-wave infrared (14.4 m). MODIS collects data at three different nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25, 0.5, and 1 km. Key design specifications, such as spectral bandwidths, typical scene radiances, required signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) or noise equivalent temperature differences (NEDT), and primary applications of each MODIS spectral band are summarized in Table 7.1. These parameters were the basis for the MODIS design. More details on the evolution of the NASA EOS and development of the MODIS instruments are provided in Chap. 1. This chapter focuses on the MODIS sensor design, radiometry, and geometry as they apply to land remote sensing. With near

  20. Earth System Science Research Using Datra and Products from Terra, Aqua, and ACRIM Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, Keith D.

    2007-01-01

    The report describes the research conducted at CSR to extend MODIS data and products to the applications required by users in the State of Texas. This research presented in this report was completed during the timeframe of August 2004 - December 31, 2007. However, since annual reports were filed in December 2005 and 2006, results obtained during calendar year 2007 are emphasized in the report. The stated goals of the project were to complete the fundamental research needed to create two types of new, Level 3 products for the air quality community in Texas from data collected by NASA s EOS Terra and Aqua missions.

  1. Ten Years of MISR Observations from Terra: Looking Back, Ahead, and in Between

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Braverman, Amy J.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Chopping, Mark J.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Davies, Roger; Di Girolamo, Larry; Kahn, Ralph A.; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Liu, Yang; Marchand, Roger; Martonchik, John V.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Nolin, Anne W.; Pinty, Bernard; Verstraete, Michel M.; Wu, Dong L.; Garay, Michael J.; Kalashnikova, Olga V.; Davis, Anthony B.; Davis, Edgar S.; Chipman, Russell A.

    2010-01-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument has been collecting global Earth data from NASA's Terra satellite since February 2000. With its nine along-track view angles, four visible/near-infrared spectral bands, intrinsic spatial resolution of 275 m, and stable radiometric and geometric calibration, no instrument that combines MISR's attributes has previously flown in space. The more than 10-year (and counting) MISR data record provides unprecedented opportunities for characterizing long-term trends in aerosol, cloud, and surface properties, and includes 3-D textural information conventionally thought to be accessible only to active sensors.

  2. First results from the GPS atmospheric remote sensing experiment TOR aboard TerraSAR-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyerle, G.; Grunwaldt, L.; Heise, S.; Köhler, W.; Schmidt, T.; Choi, K.-R.; Michalak, G.; König, R.; Rothacher, M.; Wickert, J.

    2009-04-01

    The TerraSAR-X satellite was launched on 15 June 2007 into a sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of about 514 km and about 98 ° orbit inclination. In addition to synthetic aperture radar and laser communication payloads, TerraSAR-X accommodates the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) experiment. TOR's hardware consists of the Integrated Geodetic and Occultation Receiver (IGOR) and a laser retro-reflector for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). IGOR, a dual frequency, geodetic-grade GPS receiver instrument, provides signal-to-noise ratios, pseudorange and carrier phase observations of an occulting and a reference satellite at sampling rates of up to 50 Hz for remote sensing of atmospheric refractivity using the radio occultation (RO) technique. For precise orbit determination pseudorange and carrier phase data from all satellites in view are sampled at 0.1 Hz. Three brief RO tests were conducted with TOR in 2007; a 32-day campaign was performed in January/February 2008 and from 25 July to 17 November 2008 occultation events were recorded continuously for 117 days. We describe first results from an analysis of about 19.000 setting radio occultation events observed during that last campaign. Atmospheric refractivity profiles derived from TOR data are intercompared with ECMWF analyses; ECMWF analysis data are interpolated to the time and location of the RO measurement. At altitudes of about 2-25 km the mean fractional refractivity bias with respect to ECMWF is less than ±0.5%, its standard deviation varies between 0.5% and 1% in the altitude range 5-20 km increasing to about 2% at altitudes below 5 km and above 20 km. Unlike the RO receivers aboard the CHAMP and GRACE satellites the IGOR aboard TerraSAR-X employs an open-loop tracking technique to improve L1 carrier phase tracking at altitudes below 5 to 6 km. Consistent with earlier findings from the COSMIC constellation, open-loop tracking significantly reduces the 50%-altitude, the tangent point altitude which is

  3. Self-organized geodynamics of karst limestone landscapes and coupled terra rossa/bauxite formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, E.; Wang, Y.; Banerjee, A.

    2012-12-01

    Why do flat limestones overlain by terra rossa or bauxite systematically adopt so-called karst geomorphology, which consists of sets of roughly regularly spaced wormholes, or funnels, or sinkholes, or tower karst? The idea that the funnels and sinkholes are located at the intersections of preexisting sets of subvertical fractures is untenable. New field and petrographic evidence (Merino & Banerjee, J. Geology, 2008) revealed that, rather than 'residual' or 'detrital' (the only options that have been on the table for decades), the terra rossa/bauxite clays and Al- and Fe-oxyhydroxides grow authigenically at the base of the terra rossa, replacing the underlying limestone at a generally downward-moving reaction front several centimeters thick. The clay-for-limestone replacement, which preserves solid volume (because it takes place by clay-growth-driven pressure solution of calcite), releases H+ ions. These dissolve more calcite, generating considerable leached porosity in a narrow zone that travels with the replacement front. We proposed (Merino & Banerjee, J. Geology, 2008) that the moving leached-porosity maximum created at the front could trigger the reactive-infiltration instability (Chadam et al, IMA J. Appl. Math., 1986), causing the replacement-and-leaching reaction front to become regularly fingered, with the fingers jumping in scale to funnels, these to sinks, and these, when deep enough and merged together laterally, to tower karst. This new geodynamics would account both for the world-wide association of terra rossa and bauxite with karst limestones, and for the stunning, self-organized geomorphology of karst itself. We are testing these ideas through linear stability analysis of a simplified reaction-transport system of equations and through numerical solution of the full non-linear system of reaction-transport equations applicable, including aqueous speciation. Preliminary calculations (Banerjee & Merino, J. Geology, 2011) suggest that the replacement

  4. Active aeolian processes on Mars: A regional study in Arabia and Meridiani Terrae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silvestro, S.; Vaz, D.A.; Fenton, L.K.; Geissler, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    We present evidence of widespread aeolian activity in the Arabia Terra/Meridiani region (Mars), where different kinds of aeolian modifications have been detected and classified. Passing from the regional to the local scale, we describe one particular dune field in Meridiani Planum, where two ripple populations are distinguished by means of different migration rates. Moreover, a consistent change in the ripple pattern is accompanied by significant dune advancement (between 0.4-1 meter in one Martian year) that is locally triggered by large avalanche features. This suggests that dune advancement may be common throughout the Martian tropics. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Consistency of Global Modis Aerosol Optical Depths over Ocean on Terra and Aqua Ceres SSF Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatov, Alexander; Minnis, Patrick; Miller, Walter F.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Remer, Lorraine

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol retrievals over ocean from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Terra and Aqua platforms are available from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Single Scanner Footprint (SSF) datasets generated at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Two aerosol products are reported side-by-side. The primary M product is generated by sub-setting and remapping the multi-spectral (0.47-2.1 micrometer) MODIS produced oceanic aerosol (MOD04/MYD04 for Terra/Aqua) onto CERES footprints. M*D04 processing uses cloud screening and aerosol algorithms developed by the MODIS science team. The secondary AVHRR-like A product is generated in only two MODIS bands 1 and 6 (on Aqua, bands 1 and 7). The A processing uses the CERES cloud screening algorithm, and NOAA/NESDIS glint identification, and single-channel aerosol retrieval algorithms. The M and A products have been documented elsewhere and preliminarily compared using 2 weeks of global Terra CERES SSF Edition 1A data in which the M product was based on MOD04 collection 3. In this study, the comparisons between the M and A aerosol optical depths (AOD) in MODIS band 1 (0.64 micrometers), tau(sub 1M) and tau(sub 1A) are re-examined using 9 days of global CERES SSF Terra Edition 2A and Aqua Edition 1B data from 13 - 21 October 2002, and extended to include cross-platform comparisons. The M and A products on the new CERES SSF release are generated using the same aerosol algorithms as before, but with different preprocessing and sampling procedures, lending themselves to a simple sensitivity check to non-aerosol factors. Both tau(sub 1M) and tau(sub 1A) generally compare well across platforms. However, the M product shows some differences, which increase with ambient cloud amount and towards the solar side of the orbit. Three types of comparisons conducted in this study - cross-platform, cross-product, and cross-release confirm the previously made observation that the major area for

  6. Extension across Tempe Terra, Mars, from measurements of fault scarp widths and deformed craters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golombek, M.P.; Tanaka, K.L.; Franklin, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Two independent methods, with no common assumptions, have been used to estimate the extension across the heavily deformed Tempe Terra province of the Tharsis region of Mars. One method uses measurements of normal fault scarp width with average scarp slope data for simple grabens and rifts on Mars to estimate the fault throw, which, combined with sparse fault dip data, can be used to estimate extension. Formal uncertainties in this method are only slightly greater than those in other methods, given that the total uncertainty is dominated by the likely uncertainty in the fault dip (assumed to be 60????15??). Measurement of normal fault scarp widths along two N25??-50??W directed traverses across Tempe Terra both yield about 22??16 km of extension (or ???2% strain across the northern traverse and nearly 3% across the southern one). About three quarters of the extension has occurred during the two main phases of Tharsis-related deformation from Middle/Late Noachian to Early Hesperian and from Late Hesperian to Early Amazonian, with more extension closer to the center of Tharsis during the first phase. Extension across the region was also determined by measuring the elongation and elongation direction of all ancient Noachian impact craters without ejecta blankets, which predate most of the deformation. Results have been corrected for initial non circularity of craters, established from similar measurements of young (post deformation) impact craters, yielding a statistically significant mean strain of 1.96??0.35% in a N38????10??W direction across Tempe Terra (extension of ???20??4, comparable in magnitude and direction to the average result from the scarp measurement method). Both methods indicate an average extension for single normal fault scarps (and shortening across wrinkle ridges for the crater method) of ???100 m. The agreement between the results of the two independent methods in overall extension and average single normal fault extension argues that the average

  7. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Clouds Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Menzel, W. Paul; Ackerman, Steven A.; Hubanks, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched aboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. A comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms for the retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties have enabled over twelve years of continuous observations of cloud properties from Terra and over nine years from Aqua. The archived products from these algorithms include 1 km pixel-level (Level-2) and global gridded Level-3 products. In addition to an extensive cloud mask, products include cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure, effective emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical and microphysical parameters (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path), as well as derived statistics. Results include the latitudinal distribution of cloud optical and radiative properties for both liquid water and ice clouds, as well as latitudinal distributions of cloud top pressure and cloud top temperature. MODIS finds the cloud fraction, as derived by the cloud mask, is nearly identical during the day and night, with only modest diurnal variation. Globally, the cloud fraction derived by the MODIS cloud mask is approx.67%, with somewhat more clouds over land during the afternoon and less clouds over ocean in the afternoon, with very little difference in global cloud cover between Terra and Aqua. Overall, cloud fraction over land is approx.55%, with a distinctive seasonal cycle, whereas the ocean cloudiness is much higher, around 72%, with much reduced seasonal variation. Cloud top pressure and temperature have distinct spatial and temporal patterns, and clearly reflect our understanding of the global cloud distribution. High clouds are especially prevalent over the northern hemisphere continents between 30 and 50 . Aqua and Terra have comparable zonal cloud top pressures, with Aqua having somewhat higher clouds (cloud top pressures lower by 100 hPa) over land due to

  8. Sea surface wind field by TerraSAR-X and Tandem-X data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoming; Lehner, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    A new Geophysical Model Function (GMF), denoted XMOD2, is developed to retrieve the sea surface wind field from X-band TerraSAR-X/Tandem-X (TS-X/TD-X) data. In contrary to the previous XMOD1, XMOD2 is based on a nonlinear GMF, and moreover it also depicts the difference between upwind and downwind of the sea surface backscatter. By exploiting 371 collocations, the retrieved TS-X/TD-X sea surface wind speed U10 by XMOD2 agrees well with in situ buoy measurements with a bias of 0.39 m/s, an RMSE of 1.52 m/s and a scatter index (SI) of 16.1%. To apply XMOD2 to TS-X/TD-X data acquired at HH polarization, we verify the X-band SAR Polarization Ratio (PR) models by comparing the retrieved sea surface wind speed to in situ buoy measurements as well. Based on 62 collocated pairs, it is found that by using the Elfouhaily type PR model and XMOD2 yields better U10 retrieval with a bias of -0.27 m/s, an RMSE of 2.06 m/s and a SI of 22.7% than using the X-PR model which yields a bias of -0.98 m, and RMSE of 2.30 m and a SI of 23.4%. Several TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X ScanSAR images are acquired in October, 2012 to track the Hurricane Sandy. Three of the images are acquired in the open sea, which are presented in this chapter to demonstrate observations of sea surface wind and wave extracted from X-band ScanSAR image with high spatial resolution of 17 m in the hurricane. In the case of the TerraSAR-X image acquired on October 26, 2012, we analyze the peak wave direction and length of swell generated by Hurricane Sandy, as well as interaction of swell with the Abaco Island, Bahamas. In the other two cases, sea surface wind field derived from the TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X acquired on October 27 and 28 are presented. The sea surface wind speed retrieved by the X-band Geophysical Model Function (GMF) XMOD2 using wind direction derived from SAR images and the NOAA Hurricane Research Division (HRD) wind analyses are both presented for comparisons. We also compare the retrieved sea surface

  9. Direct Geolocation of TerraSAR-X Spotlight Mode Image and Error Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiao; Zeng, Qiming; Jiao, Jian; Zhang, Jingfa; Gong, Lixia

    2013-01-01

    The research dealt with direct geolocation of spaceborne high-resolution SAR image. The TerraSAR-X spotlight mode image was chosen as the study object. The mathematical model of SAR geolocation is Range-Doppler (RD) model. Its resolving algorithms had been studied and the ASF algorithm was chosen because of its high accuracy. The focus of this research laid on the error sources and their correction method which could affect the geolocation accuracy, such as the orbit errors, azimuth timing errors and range timing errors. At last, the accuracy of this method was verified by the experiment results.

  10. Geological-morphological description of the Ishtar Terra (photomap of the Venusian surface sheet B-5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sukhanov, A. L.; Pronin, A. A.; Tyuflin, Y. S.; Ostrovskiy, M. V.; Kotelnikov, V. A.; Rzhiga, O. N.; Petrov, G. I.; Sidorenko, A. I.; Aleksandrov, Y. N.; Zakharov, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    The main part of the Ishtar Terra east of the Maxwell Montes is covered with systems of areal dislocations of several directions, which are called Parquet. According to the structural patterns these may be divided into: (1) the central stable block; (2) the lesser peripheral blocks separated from the central one by gaps and grabens; (3) the zones of mobilized parquet, whose substance flowed downward at an incline in the directions away from the central block in the form of plastic flows; and (4) the partially parqueted lava sheets. The Maxwell Montes were formed as a result of the collision between the central parquet block and the Lakshmi Planum.