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Sample records for lade teruo nakai

  1. LADEE Science Results and Implications for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; M. Horanyi; Colaprete, A.; Benna; Mahaffy, P.; Delory, G. T.; Noble, S. K.; Halekas, J. S.; Hurley, D. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Saratos, M.; Kempf, S.; Poppe, A.; Szalay, J.; Sternovsky, Z.; Cooke, A. M.; Wooden, D. H.; Glenar, D.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer, LADEE, concluded a fully successful investigation of the Moon's tenuous gas and dust atmosphere on April 18, 2014. LADEE hosted three science instruments to address atmospheric and dust objectives, and a technology demonstration of deep-space optical communication. The three science instruments were an ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (UVS), a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), and a lunar dust experiment (LDEX). All data acquired by these instruments have been submitted to the Planetary Data System. A mission overview and science instrument descriptions are readily available. LADEE inserted into a low-altitude, retrograde lunar orbit optimized for observations at the sunrise terminator, where surface temperatures rise abruptly. LADEE also carried out observations over a wide range of local times and altitudes. Here we describe some of the initial results.

  2. Attitude Design for the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galal, Ken; Nickel, Craig; Sherman, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) satellite successfully completed its 148-day science investigation in a low-altitude, near-equatorial lunar orbit on April 18, 2014. The LADEE spacecraft was built, managed and operated by NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC). The Mission Operations Center (MOC) was located at Ames and was responsible for activity planning, command sequencing, trajectory and attitude design, orbit determination, and spacecraft operations. The Science Operations Center (SOC) was located at Goddard Space Flight Center and was responsible for science planning, data archiving and distribution. This paper details attitude design and operations support for the LADEE mission. LADEE's attitude design was shaped by a wide range of instrument pointing requirements that necessitated regular excursions from the baseline one revolution per orbit "Ram" attitude. Such attitude excursions were constrained by a number of flight rules levied to protect instruments from the Sun, avoid geometries that would result in simultaneous occlusion of LADEE's two star tracker heads, and maintain the spacecraft within its thermal and power operating limits. To satisfy LADEE's many attitude requirements and constraints, a set of rules and conventions was adopted to manage the complexity of this design challenge and facilitate the automation of ground software that generated pointing commands spanning multiple days of operations at a time. The resulting LADEE Flight Dynamics System (FDS) that was developed used Visual Basic scripts that generated instructions to AGI's Satellite Tool Kit (STK) in order to derive quaternion commands at regular intervals that satisfied LADEE's pointing requirements. These scripts relied heavily on the powerful "align and constrain" capability of STK's attitude module to construct LADEE's attitude profiles and the slews to get there. A description of the scripts and the attitude modeling they embodied is provided. One particular

  3. 27 CFR 28.250 - Bills of lading required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....C. 5066)) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 28.250, see the List of CFR... § 28.250 Bills of lading required. A copy of the export bill of lading covering transportation from the port of export to the foreign destination, or a copy of the through bill of lading to the...

  4. 27 CFR 28.250 - Bills of lading required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....C. 5066)) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 28.250, see the List of CFR... § 28.250 Bills of lading required. A copy of the export bill of lading covering transportation from the port of export to the foreign destination, or a copy of the through bill of lading to the...

  5. 27 CFR 28.250 - Bills of lading required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....C. 5066)) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 28.250, see the List of CFR... § 28.250 Bills of lading required. A copy of the export bill of lading covering transportation from the port of export to the foreign destination, or a copy of the through bill of lading to the...

  6. 27 CFR 28.250 - Bills of lading required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....C. 5066)) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 28.250, see the List of CFR... § 28.250 Bills of lading required. A copy of the export bill of lading covering transportation from the port of export to the foreign destination, or a copy of the through bill of lading to the...

  7. 27 CFR 28.250 - Bills of lading required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....C. 5066)) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 28.250, see the List of CFR... § 28.250 Bills of lading required. A copy of the export bill of lading covering transportation from the port of export to the foreign destination, or a copy of the through bill of lading to the...

  8. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  9. Flight Software for the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Howard N.

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft was launched on September 6, 2013, and completed its mission on April 17, 2014 with a directed impact to the Lunar Surface. Its primary goals were to examine the lunar atmosphere, measure lunar dust, and to demonstrate high rate laser communications. The LADEE mission was a resounding success, achieving all mission objectives, much of which can be attributed to careful planning and preparation. This paper discusses some of the highlights from the mission, and then discusses the techniques used for developing the onboard Flight Software. A large emphasis for the Flight Software was to develop it within tight schedule and cost constraints. To accomplish this, the Flight Software team leveraged heritage software, used model based development techniques, and utilized an automated test infrastructure. This resulted in the software being delivered on time and within budget. The resulting software was able to meet all system requirements, and had very problems in flight.

  10. LADEE Satellite Modeling and Simulation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Michael; Cannon, Howard; Frost, Chad

    2011-01-01

    As human activity on and around the Moon increases, so does the likelihood that our actions will have an impact on its atmosphere. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), a NASA satellite scheduled to launch in 2013, will orbit the Moon collecting composition, density, and time variability data to characterize the current state of the lunar atmosphere. LADEE will also test the concept of the "Modular Common Bus" spacecraft architecture, an effort to reduce both development time and cost by designing reusable, modular components for use in multiple missions with similar requirements. An important aspect of this design strategy is to both simulate the spacecraft and develop the flight code in Simulink, a block diagram-style programming language that allows easy algorithm visualization and performance testing. Before flight code can be tested, however, a realistic simulation of the satellite and its dynamics must be generated and validated. This includes all of the satellite control system components such as actuators used for force and torque generation and sensors used for inertial orientation reference. My primary responsibilities have included designing, integrating, and testing models for the LADEE thrusters, reaction wheels, star trackers, and rate gyroscopes.

  11. A Conversation with Native Flutist R. Carlos Nakai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1992-01-01

    R. Carlos Nakai discusses his personal development as a musician, his interest in keeping the Native flute tradition alive in a modern way, his ethic of service, the purpose of higher education for Indian students, the relation of education to life, and the role of Indian people in the sciences. (SV)

  12. Simple Sequence Repeats in Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple sequence repeat length polymorphisms were utilized to examine genetic relatedness among accessions of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai). A size-fractionated TaqI genomic library was screened for the occurrence of dimer and trimer simple sequence repeats (SSRs). A total o...

  13. 27 CFR 28.262 - Delay in lading at port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delay in lading at port..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Proceedings at Ports of Export § 28.262 Delay in lading at port. If, on arrival of a shipment withdrawn for export without payment of tax or free of...

  14. 41 CFR 109-40.5004 - Government bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government bills of... Government bills of lading. In those instances where DOE cost-type contractors are authorized to use Government bills of lading, specific employees of cost-type contractors will be authorized by the...

  15. LADEE Propulsion System Cold Flow Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jonathan Hunter; Chapman, Jack M.; Trinh, Hau, P.; Bell, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a NASA mission that will orbit the Moon. Its main objective is to characterize the atmosphere and lunar dust environment. The spacecraft development is being led by NASA Ames Research Center and scheduled for launch in 2013. The LADEE spacecraft will be operated with a bi-propellant hypergolic propulsion system using MMH and NTO as the fuel and oxidizer, respectively. The propulsion system utilizes flight-proven hardware on major components. The propulsion layout is composed of one 100-lbf main thruster and four 5-lbf RCS thrusters. The propellants are stored in four tanks (two parallel-connected tanks per propellant component). The propellants will be pressurized by regulated helium. A simulated propulsion system has been built for conducting cold flow test series to characterize the transient fluid flow of the propulsion system feed lines and to verify the critical operation modes, such as system priming, waterhammer, and crucial mission duty cycles. Propellant drainage differential between propellant tanks will also be assessed. Since the oxidizer feed line system has a higher flow demand than the fuel system does, the cold flow test focuses on the oxidizer system. The objective of the cold flow test is to simulate the LADEE propulsion fluid flow operation through water cold flow test and to obtain data for anchoring analytical models. The models will be used to predict the transient and steady state flow behaviors in the actual flight operations. The test activities, including the simulated propulsion test article, cold flow test, and analytical modeling, are being performed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. At the time of the abstract submission, the test article checkout is being performed. The test series will be completed by November, 2012

  16. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1035 - Uniform Straight Bill of Lading

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Uniform Straight Bill of Lading A Appendix A to... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BILLS OF LADING Pt. 1035, App. A Appendix A to Part 1035—Uniform Straight Bill of Lading Uniform Straight Bill of Lading...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1035 - Uniform Straight Bill of Lading

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Uniform Straight Bill of Lading A Appendix A to... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BILLS OF LADING Pt. 1035, App. A Appendix A to Part 1035—Uniform Straight Bill of Lading Uniform Straight Bill of Lading...

  18. 48 CFR 1852.247-73 - Bills of Lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... government bill of lading is to be used when shipments of deliverable items under this contract are f.o.b...) and domestic overseas shipments of items deliverable under this contract shall be made by...

  19. 41 CFR 102-117.85 - What is the difference between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the difference between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading? 102-117.85 Section 102-117.85 Public... contract or rate tender (see § 102-117.65) and the bill of lading makes reference to that contract or...

  20. 41 CFR 102-117.85 - What is the difference between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is the difference between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading? 102-117.85 Section 102-117.85 Public... contract or rate tender (see § 102-117.65) and the bill of lading makes reference to that contract or...

  1. 41 CFR 102-117.85 - What is the difference between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is the difference between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading? 102-117.85 Section 102-117.85 Public... contract or rate tender (see § 102-117.65) and the bill of lading makes reference to that contract or...

  2. 41 CFR 102-117.85 - What is the difference between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is the difference between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading? 102-117.85 Section 102-117.85 Public... contract or rate tender (see § 102-117.65) and the bill of lading makes reference to that contract or...

  3. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spremo, Stevan; Turner, Mark; Caffrey, Robert T.; Hine, Butler Preston

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a Lunar science orbiter mission currently under development to address the goals of the National Research Council decadal surveys and the recent "Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon" (SCEM) [1] report to study the pristine state of the lunar atmosphere and dust environment prior to significant human activities. LADEE will determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal the processes that contribute to its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. LADEE employs a high heritage science instrument payload including a neutral mass spectrometer, ultraviolet spectrometer, and dust sensor. In addition to the science payloads, LADEE will fly a laser communications system technology demonstration that could provide a building block for future space communications architectures. LADEE is an important component in NASA's portfolio of near-term lunar missions, addressing objectives that are currently not covered by other U.S. or international efforts, and whose observations must be conducted before large-scale human or robotic activities irrevocably perturb the tenuous and fragile lunar atmosphere. LADEE will also demonstrate the effectiveness of a low-cost, rapid-development program utilizing a modular bus design launched on the new Minotaur V launch vehicle. Once proven, this capability could enable future lunar missions in a highly cost constrained environment. This paper describes the LADEE objectives, mission design, and technical

  4. Interferon-mediated antiviral activities of Angelica tenuissima Nakai and its active components.

    PubMed

    Weeratunga, Prasanna; Uddin, Md Bashir; Kim, Myun Soo; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Yoon, Ji-Eun; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Hongik; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Angelica tenuissima Nakai is a widely used commodity in traditional medicine. Nevertheless, no study has been conducted on the antiviral and immune-modulatory properties of an aqueous extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai. In the present study, we evaluated the antiviral activities and the mechanism of action of an aqueous extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, an effective dose of Angelica tenuissima Nakai markedly inhibited the replication of Influenza A virus (PR8), Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Coxsackie virus, and Enterovirus (EV-71) on epithelial (HEK293T/HeLa) and immune (RAW264.7) cells. Such inhibition can be described by the induction of the antiviral state in cells by antiviral, IFNrelated gene induction and secretion of IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In vivo, Angelica tenuissima Nakai treated BALB/c mice displayed higher survivability and lower lung viral titers when challenged with lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3, and H9N2). We also found that Angelica tenuissima Nakai can induce the secretion of IL-6, IFN-λ, and local IgA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of Angelica tenuissima Nakai treated mice, which correlating with the observed prophylactic effects. In HPLC analysis, we found the presence of several compounds in the aqueous fraction and among them; we evaluated antiviral properties of ferulic acid. Therefore, an extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai and its components, including ferulic acid, play roles as immunomodulators and may be potential candidates for novel anti-viral/anti-influenza agents. PMID:26727903

  5. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... information as prescribed in 49 CFR part 379. ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR...

  6. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information as prescribed in 49 CFR part 379. ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR...

  7. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... information as prescribed in 49 CFR part 379. ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR...

  8. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information as prescribed in 49 CFR part 379. ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR...

  9. 41 CFR 109-40.5003 - Commercial bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial bills of lading. 109-40.5003 Section 109-40.5003 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS...

  10. NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, Richard; Delory, Gregory; Colaprete, Anthony; Horanyi, Mihaly; Mahaffy, Paul; Hine, Butler; McClard, Steven; Grayzeck, Edwin; Boroson, Don

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 40 years have passed since the last Apollo missions investigated the mysteries of the lunar atmosphere and the question of levitated lunar dust. The most important questions remain: what is the composition, structure and variability of the tenuous lunar exosphere? What are its origins, transport mechanisms, and loss processes? Is lofted lunar dust the cause of the horizon glow observed by the Surveyor missions and Apollo astronauts? How does such levitated dust arise and move, what is its density, and what is its ultimate fate? The US National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council decadal surveys and the recent "Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon" (SCEM) reports have identified studies of the pristine state of the lunar atmosphere and dust environment as among the leading priorities for future lunar science missions. These measurements have become particularly important since recent observations by the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission point to significant amounts of water and other volatiles sequestered within polar lunar cold traps. Moreover Chandrayaan/M3, EPOXI and Cassini/VIMS have identified molecular water and hydroxyl on lunar surface regolith grains. Variability in concentration suggests these species are likely to be present in the exosphere, and thus constitute a source for the cold traps. NASA s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is currently under development to address these goals. LADEE will determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal its sources and variability. LADEE s results are relevant to surface boundary exospheres and dust processes throughout the solar system, will address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and will have

  11. Generation of Simulated Tracking Data for LADEE Operational Readiness Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodburn, James; Policastri, Lisa; Owens, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Operational Readiness Tests were an important part of the pre-launch preparation for the LADEE mission. The generation of simulated tracking data to stress the Flight Dynamics System and the Flight Dynamics Team was important for satisfying the testing goal of demonstrating that the software and the team were ready to fly the operational mission. The simulated tracking was generated in a manner to incorporate the effects of errors in the baseline dynamical model, errors in maneuver execution and phenomenology associated with various tracking system based components. The ability of the mission team to overcome these challenges in a realistic flight dynamics scenario indicated that the team and flight dynamics system were ready to fly the LADEE mission. Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment.

  12. LADEE Search for a Dust Exosphere: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenar, D. A.; Stubbs, T. J.; Elphic, R.

    2014-01-01

    The LADEE search for exospheric dust is strongly motivated by putative detections of forward-scattered sunlight from exospheric dust grains which were observed during the Apollo era. This dust population, if it exists, has been associated with charging and transport of dust near the terminators. It is likely that the concentration of these dust grains is governed by a saltation mechanism originated by micrometeoroid impacts, which are the source of the more tenuous ejecta cloud.

  13. 49 CFR 375.505 - Must I write up a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS Pick Up of Shipments of Household Goods Before Loading § 375.505 Must I write up a bill of lading? (a) You must issue a bill of... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Must I write up a bill of lading? 375.505...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1035 - Uniform Straight Bill of Lading

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Uniform Straight Bill of Lading A Appendix A to Part 1035 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BILLS OF LADING Pt. 1035, App....

  15. 19 CFR 113.69 - Production of bills of lading bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production of bills of lading bond conditions. 113.69 Section 113.69 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Customs Bond Conditions § 113.69 Production of bills of lading...

  16. 49 CFR 375.505 - Must I write up a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Must I write up a bill of lading? 375.505 Section... TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS Pick Up of Shipments of Household Goods Before Loading § 375.505 Must I write up a bill of lading? (a) You must issue a bill...

  17. 49 CFR 375.505 - Must I write up a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Must I write up a bill of lading? 375.505 Section... TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS Pick Up of Shipments of Household Goods Before Loading § 375.505 Must I write up a bill of lading? (a) You must issue a bill...

  18. 49 CFR 375.505 - Must I write up a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Must I write up a bill of lading? 375.505 Section... TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS Pick Up of Shipments of Household Goods Before Loading § 375.505 Must I write up a bill of lading? (a) You must issue a bill...

  19. 49 CFR 375.505 - Must I write up a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Must I write up a bill of lading? 375.505 Section... TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS Pick Up of Shipments of Household Goods Before Loading § 375.505 Must I write up a bill of lading? (a) You must issue a bill...

  20. Effects of gamma irradiation on the yields of volatile extracts of Angelica gigas Nakai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joog-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2007-11-01

    The study was carried out to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile flavor components including essential oils, of Angelica gigas Nakai. The volatile organic compounds from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were extracted by a simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and identified by GC/MS analysis. A total of 116 compounds were identified and quantified from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai. The major volatile compounds were identified 2,4,6-trimethyl heptane, α-pinene, camphene, α-limonene, β-eudesmol, α-murrolene and sphatulenol. Among these compounds, the amount of essential oils in non-irradiated sample were 77.13%, and the irradiated samples at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were 84.98%, 83.70%, 83.94%, 82.84% and 82.58%, respectively. Oxygenated terpenes such as β-eudesmol, α-eudesmol, and verbenone were increased after irradiation but did not correlate with the irradiation dose. The yields of active substances such as essential oil were increased after irradiation; however, the yields of essential oils and the irradiation dose were not correlated. Thus, the profile of composition volatiles of A. gigas Nakai did not change with irradiation.

  1. The Use of Standards on the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was a small explorer class mission that launched Sept 7, 2013 and successfully de-orbited and impacted the moon's surface on April 17, 2014. The spacecraft was the first to launch from a Minotaur 5 and was the first deep space mission to launch from the Wallops flight facility. Figure 1 shows the famous image of a frog unlucky enough to be launched from the facility at the same time as LADEE. The science mission for the spacecraft was to determine the density, composition and variability of the lunar exosphere. In addition, it performed a first-of-a-kind demonstration of laser-based communications from deep space that exhibited a record downlink rate of 622 megabits per second from the moon. In order to perform the lunar dust surveys, the spacecraft was placed in a retrograde equatorial orbit with periapsis between 20 and 60 kilometers. The mission was granted an extension in which final science surveys were performed at altitudes as low as 2 kilometers over the moon's surface. The cadence for spacecraft operations was demanding: the moon's highly inhomogeneous gravity field distorted the orbit, the regular maneuvers were subject to strict payload-induced pointing requirements, and there were periodic attitude changes to keep the spacecraft thermally safe. This led to a need for high reliability in the operation of the spacecraft while obeying strict budget and schedule guidelines.

  2. The lunar exosphere as seen from LADEE UVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaprete, A.; Wooden, D. H.; Cook, A.; Elphic, R. C.; Sarantos, M.; Vargo, K.; Hermalyn, B.; Stubbs, T. J.; Karcz, J.; Shirley, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Ultraviolet Visible Spectrometer (UVS) began commissioning activities in orbit around the moon on October 16, 2013. Science observations began October 23, 2013 and continued until minutes prior to the planned disposal of the LADEE spacecraft on April 18, 2014 (UTC). Over the course of the mission the UVS instrument made a series of systematic observations, including lunar limb stares at both terminators and about local noon, targeted activities, including anti-sun sodium tail observations, north/south limb stares, solar extinction measurements, and instrument calibrations. Initial analysis of these observations have resulted in temporal and spatial mapping of key exosphere species, such as sodium and potassium, and the detection of several previously-undetected species. Sodium and potassium show variations in concentration across both a single lunation and longer semi-annual periods. These changes are likely due to a response to micro-meteoroidal and solar wind fluxes as well as spatial variations in surface composition. Tentative detections of Ti, Si, Mg, O, Al and He+ have been made. Observations in search of dust, including limb and occultation activities, have provided high signal-to-noise spectra that show variations in extinction and light scattering possibly due to exospheric dust. This talk will provide an overview of UVS results, with an emphasis on the sodium and potassium observations.

  3. Epimedium koreanum Nakai displays broad spectrum of antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo by inducing cellular antiviral state.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Weeratunga, Prasanna; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Park, Jun-Seol; Kim, Chul-Joong; Ma, Jin Yeul; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Epimedium koreanum Nakai has been extensively used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases. Despite the plant's known immune modulatory potential and chemical make-up, scientific information on its antiviral properties and mode of action have not been completely investigated. In this study, the broad antiviral spectrum and mode of action of an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai was evaluated in vitro, and moreover, the protective effect against divergent influenza A subtypes was determined in BALB/c mice. An effective dose of Epimedium koreanum Nakai markedly reduced the replication of Influenza A Virus (PR8), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in RAW264.7 and HEK293T cells. Mechanically, we found that an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai induced the secretion of type I IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the subsequent stimulation of the antiviral state in cells. Among various components present in the extract, quercetin was confirmed to have striking antiviral properties. The oral administration of Epimedium koreanum Nakai exhibited preventive effects on BALB/c mice against lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2). Therefore, an extract of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and its components play roles as immunomodulators in the innate immune response, and may be potential candidates for prophylactic or therapeutic treatments against diverse viruses in animal and humans. PMID:25609307

  4. Preliminary results from LADEE's Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benna, Mehdi; Mahaffy, Paul; Hodges, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission is a high sensitivity quadrupole mass spectrometer designed to measure the composition and variability of the tenuous lunar atmosphere. The instrument has been observing the lunar exosphere since 10/17/2013, initially from a near circular 250 km altitude orbit and since 11/11/2013 from an elliptical orbit that reaches to 30-60 km altitude near the sunrise terminator. During its first four months in orbit, the NMS instrument successfully detected exospheric helium, argon and neon and mapped their spatial and temporal variability. Furthermore, the NMS instrument was able to establish new upper limits for many other exospheric species either sputtered or thermally evolved from the lunar surface. This talk will summarize these preliminary results from the NMS measurements.

  5. What We Have Learned from the LADEE Mission (So Far)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, Richard; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Cook, Amanda; Stubbs, Timothy; Colaprete, Anthony; Delory, Gregory; Glenar, David; Wooden, Diane; Szalay, Jamey; Hurley, Dana; Halekas, Jasper; Poppe, Andrew; Mahaffy, Paul; Hodges, Richard; Horanyi, Mihaly; Kempf, Sascha

    2016-07-01

    NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer, LADEE, concluded a fully successful investigation of the Moon's tenuous gas and dust atmosphere on April 18, 2014. LADEE hosted three science instruments to address atmospheric and dust objectives. The three science instruments were an ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (UVS), a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), and a lunar dust experiment (LDEX). A mission overview and science instrument descriptions are available. LADEE entered a low-altitude, retrograde lunar orbit optimized for observations at the sunrise terminator, where surface temperatures rise abruptly. LADEE carried out observations over a wide range of local times and altitudes. Here we describe some of the initial results. LDEX measurements have revealed the presence of a tenuous but persistent "cloud" of small dust grains, from <0.3 to >0.7 μm in radius. The number density of these grains maximizes over the morning side of the Moon, the hemisphere on the "upstream" side of the Moon's motion about the sun. The cloud, with observed densities ranging between 0.4 - 4 x 10 ^{-3} m ^{-3}, is made up of ballistic ejecta from micrometeoroidal impacts on the lunar surface. The cloud density increases as the Earth-Moon system passes through known meteoroid streams, such as the Geminids, which are derived from cometary debris trails. LDEX data show no evidence for an electrostatically-lofted dust component. LADEE's NMS instrument immediately detected helium ( ^{4}He) in the lunar atmosphere during high altitude commissioning. At lower altitudes it also measured neon ( ^{20}Ne) and argon ( ^{40}Ar). NMS measurements revealed systematic variations in density and scale height for these three noble gas species. The diurnal variation of helium, neon and argon are largely controlled by surface temperature. Helium density closely tracks the input of He ^{++} from the solar wind; loss is by way of thermal escape. ^{ 20}Ne is a minor solar wind constituent, but it has a

  6. What We Have Learned from the LADEE Mission (So Far)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, Richard; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Cook, Amanda; Stubbs, Timothy; Colaprete, Anthony; Delory, Gregory; Glenar, David; Wooden, Diane; Szalay, Jamey; Hurley, Dana; Halekas, Jasper; Poppe, Andrew; Mahaffy, Paul; Hodges, Richard; Horanyi, Mihaly; Kempf, Sascha

    2016-07-01

    NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer, LADEE, concluded a fully successful investigation of the Moon's tenuous gas and dust atmosphere on April 18, 2014. LADEE hosted three science instruments to address atmospheric and dust objectives. The three science instruments were an ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (UVS), a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), and a lunar dust experiment (LDEX). A mission overview and science instrument descriptions are available. LADEE entered a low-altitude, retrograde lunar orbit optimized for observations at the sunrise terminator, where surface temperatures rise abruptly. LADEE carried out observations over a wide range of local times and altitudes. Here we describe some of the initial results. LDEX measurements have revealed the presence of a tenuous but persistent "cloud" of small dust grains, from <0.3 to >0.7 μm in radius. The number density of these grains maximizes over the morning side of the Moon, the hemisphere on the "upstream" side of the Moon's motion about the sun. The cloud, with observed densities ranging between 0.4 - 4 x 10 ^{-3} m ^{-3}, is made up of ballistic ejecta from micrometeoroidal impacts on the lunar surface. The cloud density increases as the Earth-Moon system passes through known meteoroid streams, such as the Geminids, which are derived from cometary debris trails. LDEX data show no evidence for an electrostatically-lofted dust component. LADEE's NMS instrument immediately detected helium ( ^{4}He) in the lunar atmosphere during high altitude commissioning. At lower altitudes it also measured neon ( ^{20}Ne) and argon ( ^{40}Ar). NMS measurements revealed systematic variations in density and scale height for these three noble gas species. The diurnal variation of helium, neon and argon are largely controlled by surface temperature. Helium density closely tracks the input of He ^{++} from the solar wind; loss is by way of thermal escape. ^{ 20}Ne is a minor solar wind constituent, but it has a

  7. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    On September 6, 2013, a nearperfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a higheccentricity geocentric orbit. The launch, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, was visible from much of the eastern seaboard. Over the next 30 days, LADEE performed three phasing orbits, with near-perfect maneuvers that placed apogee at ever higher altitudes in preparation for rendezvous with the Moon. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, during the government shutdown. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any.

  8. First Results from NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M; Mahaffy, Paul; Boroson, D.; Delory, G.; Noble, s; Hine, B; Salute, J.

    2013-01-01

    As of early August, 2013, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission is scheduled for launch on a Minotaur V rocket from Wallops Flight Facility during a five-day launch period that opens on Sept. 6, 2013 (early Sept. 7 UTC). LADEE will address 40 year-old mysteries of the lunar atmosphere and the question of levitated lunar dust. It will also pioneer the next generation of optical space communications. LADEE will assess the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes occurring at many objects throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. Following a successful launch, LADEE will enter a series of phasing orbits, which allows the spacecraft to arrive at the Moon at the proper time and phase. This approach accommodates any dispersion in the Minotaur V launch injection. LADEE's arrival at the moon in early October. The spacecraft will approach the moon from its leading edge, travel behind the Moon out of sight of the Earth, and then re-emerge and execute a three-minute Lunar Orbit Insertion maneuver. This will place LADEE in an elliptical retrograde equatorial orbit with an orbital period of approximately 24 hours. A series of maneuvers is then performed to reduce the orbit to become nearly circular with a 156-mile (250- kilometer) altitude. Spacecraft checkout and science instrument commissioning will commence in early-October and will nominally span 30 days but can be extended for an additional 30 days in the event of contingencies. Following commissioning, the 100-day Science Phase is

  9. Epimedium koreanum Nakai Displays Broad Spectrum of Antiviral Activity in Vitro and in Vivo by Inducing Cellular Antiviral State

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Weeratunga, Prasanna; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Park, Jun-Seol; Kim, Chul-Joong; Ma, Jin Yeul; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Epimedium koreanum Nakai has been extensively used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases. Despite the plant’s known immune modulatory potential and chemical make-up, scientific information on its antiviral properties and mode of action have not been completely investigated. In this study, the broad antiviral spectrum and mode of action of an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai was evaluated in vitro, and moreover, the protective effect against divergent influenza A subtypes was determined in BALB/c mice. An effective dose of Epimedium koreanum Nakaimarkedly reduced the replication of Influenza A Virus (PR8), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in RAW264.7 and HEK293T cells. Mechanically, we found that an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai induced the secretion of type I IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the subsequent stimulation of the antiviral state in cells. Among various components present in the extract, quercetin was confirmed to have striking antiviral properties. The oral administration of Epimedium koreanum Nakai exhibited preventive effects on BALB/c mice against lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2). Therefore, an extract of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and its components play roles as immunomodulators in the innate immune response, and may be potential candidates for prophylactic or therapeutic treatments against diverse viruses in animal and humans. PMID:25609307

  10. LADES: a software for constructing and analyzing longitudinal designs in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Alcocer, Alan; Garzón-Cortes, Daniel Ladislao; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa María

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important steps in biomedical longitudinal studies is choosing a good experimental design that can provide high accuracy in the analysis of results with a minimum sample size. Several methods for constructing efficient longitudinal designs have been developed based on power analysis and the statistical model used for analyzing the final results. However, development of this technology is not available to practitioners through user-friendly software. In this paper we introduce LADES (Longitudinal Analysis and Design of Experiments Software) as an alternative and easy-to-use tool for conducting longitudinal analysis and constructing efficient longitudinal designs. LADES incorporates methods for creating cost-efficient longitudinal designs, unequal longitudinal designs, and simple longitudinal designs. In addition, LADES includes different methods for analyzing longitudinal data such as linear mixed models, generalized estimating equations, among others. A study of European eels is reanalyzed in order to show LADES capabilities. Three treatments contained in three aquariums with five eels each were analyzed. Data were collected from 0 up to the 12th week post treatment for all the eels (complete design). The response under evaluation is sperm volume. A linear mixed model was fitted to the results using LADES. The complete design had a power of 88.7% using 15 eels. With LADES we propose the use of an unequal design with only 14 eels and 89.5% efficiency. LADES was developed as a powerful and simple tool to promote the use of statistical methods for analyzing and creating longitudinal experiments in biomedical research. PMID:24983945

  11. Validation and Verification of LADEE Models and Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission will orbit the moon in order to measure the density, composition and time variability of the lunar dust environment. The ground-side and onboard flight software for the mission is being developed using a Model-Based Software methodology. In this technique, models of the spacecraft and flight software are developed in a graphical dynamics modeling package. Flight Software requirements are prototyped and refined using the simulated models. After the model is shown to work as desired in this simulation framework, C-code software is automatically generated from the models. The generated software is then tested in real time Processor-in-the-Loop and Hardware-in-the-Loop test beds. Travelling Road Show test beds were used for early integration tests with payloads and other subsystems. Traditional techniques for verifying computational sciences models are used to characterize the spacecraft simulation. A lightweight set of formal methods analysis, static analysis, formal inspection and code coverage analyses are utilized to further reduce defects in the onboard flight software artifacts. These techniques are applied early and often in the development process, iteratively increasing the capabilities of the software and the fidelity of the vehicle models and test beds.

  12. 27 CFR 28.41 - Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. 28.41 Section 28.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. The lading of distilled spirits or wine for use...

  13. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  14. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  15. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  16. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  17. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  18. 27 CFR 28.41 - Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. 28.41 Section 28.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. The lading of distilled spirits or wine for use...

  19. Contingency Trajectory Design for a Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver Failure by the LADEE Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a contingency trajectory analysis performed for the Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission in the event of a missed lunar-orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver by the LADEE spacecraft. The effects of varying solar perturbations in the vicinity of the weak stability boundary (WSB) in the Sun-Earth system on the trajectory design are analyzed and discussed. It is shown that geocentric recovery trajectory options existed for the LADEE spacecraft, depending on the spacecraft's recovery time to perform an Earth escape-prevention maneuver after the hypothetical LOI maneuver failure and subsequent path traveled through the Sun-Earth WSB. If Earth-escape occurred, a heliocentric recovery option existed, but with reduced science capacapability for the spacecraft in an eccentric, not circular near-equatorial retrograde lunar orbit.

  20. Observations of Titanium, Aluminum and Magnesium in the Lunar Exosphere by LADEE UVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colaprete, A.; Wooden, D.; Cook, A.; Shirley, M.; Sarantos, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was an orbital lunar science mission designed to address the goals of the 2003 National Research Council decadal survey, the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group Roadmap, and the "Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon" (SCEM) report, and has been recommended for execution by the 2011 Planetary Missions Decadal Survey. The LADEE mission goal was to determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. It will monitor variations in known gasses, such as sodium, potassium, argon and helium, and will search for other, as-yet-undetected gasses of both lunar and extra-lunar origin. Another goal of LADEE was to determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal the processes that contribute to its sources and variability.

  1. Comm for Small Sats: The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Communications Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuroda, Vanessa M.; Allard, Mark R.; Lewis, Brian; Lindsay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    September 6, 2013 through April 21, 2014 marked the mission lifecycle of the highly successful LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer) mission that orbited the moon to gather detailed information about the thin lunar atmosphere. This paper will address the development, risks, and lessons learned regarding the specification, selection, and deployment of LADEE's unique Radio Frequency based communications subsystem and supporting tools. This includes the Electronic Ground Support Equipment (EGSE), test regimes, and RF dynamic link analysis environment developed to meet mission requirements for small, flexible, low cost, high performance, fast turnaround, and reusable spacecraft communication capabilities with easy and reliable application to future similar low cost small satellite missions over widely varying needs for communications and communications system complexity. LADEE communication subsystem key components, architecture, and mission performance will be reviewed toward applicability for future mission planning, design, and utilization.

  2. Influence of Meteoroid Streams on the Lunar Environment: Results from LADEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.; Wang, Y.; Sarantos, M.; Hermalyn, B.; Colaprete, A.; Wooden, D. H.; Benna, M.; Elphic, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Impacts on the lunar surface from meteoroid streams encountered by the Earth-Moon system can result in measurable enhancements in both the lunar atmosphere and dust environment. Here we describe the annual meteoroid streams incident at the Moon during the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission, and discuss their effects on the lunar environment. The LADEE science payload consisted of three instruments: the Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS); the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX); and the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS). All three instruments detected the effects of encounters with meteoroid streams. During its time in lunar orbit, the LADEE mission coincided with 18 out of 35 IAU established annual streams. As stream meteoroids move on near-parallel trajectories we expect to observe asymmetries in their effects on the lunar environment. Based on predicted incident meteoroid mass fluxes at the Moon, one might expect the Geminids and Quadrantids to have had the most significant effect on the lunar environment during the mission. While a substantial exospheric response was clearly observed by the LADEE instruments during the Geminids, the apparent response during the Quadrantids was more subdued. One contribution to this difference was likely due to the location of the stream radiant on the lunar surface relative to LADEE's orbit. The Geminids radiant was predicted to be very close to LADEE's equatorial orbit, whereas the Quadrantids radiant was much farther poleward. This could explain the diminished exospheric activity and suggests that the response of the lunar environment to meteoroid streams could be relatively localized in some instances. Both short-term and long-term variations observed in the lunar sodium exosphere could be attributed to the instantaneous and cumulative effects of meteoroid stream bombardment. These and other effects will be discussed.

  3. The Impact of Meteoroid Streams on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment During the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.; Wang, Y.; Hermalyn, B.; Sarantos, M.; Colaprete, A.; Elphic, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission are: (1) determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling distribution and variability - sources, sinks, and surface interactions; and (2) characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure spatial and temporal variability, and influences on the lunar atmosphere. Impacts on the lunar surface from meteoroid streams encountered by the Earth-Moon system are anticipated to result in enhancements in the both the lunar atmosphere and dust environment. Here we describe the annual meteoroid streams expected to be incident at the Moon during the LADEE mission, and their anticipated effects on the lunar environment.

  4. Genetic Authentication of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis var. grandiflora Nakai by Improved RAPD-Derived DNA Markers.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Boxu; Wei, Chunli; Cheng, Jingliang; Imani, Saber; Chen, Hanchun; Fu, Junjiang

    2015-01-01

    The evergreen shrub, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis var. grandiflora Nakai is one of the most popular garden-plants, with significant ornamental importance. Here, we have cloned improved random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) derived fragments into T-vector, and developed sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. These markers have been deposited in GenBank database with the accession numbers KP641310, KP641311, KP641312 and KP641313 respectively. The BLAST search of database confirmed the novelty of these markers. The four SCAR markers, namely ZZH11, ZZH31, ZZH41 and ZZH51 can specifically recognize the genetic materials of G. jasminoides from other plant species. Moreover, SCAR marker ZZH31 can be used to distinguish G. jasminoides Ellis var. grandiflora Nakai from other G. jasminoides on the market. Together, this study has developed four stably molecular SCAR markers by improved RAPD-derived DNA markers for the genetic identification and authentication, and for ecological conservation of medicinal and ornamental plant G. jasminoides. PMID:26569205

  5. Purification, characterization and anti-proliferation activities of polysaccharides extracted from Viscum coloratum (Kom.) Nakai.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yangyang; Zhao, Min

    2016-09-20

    Three polysaccharides, VCP1, VCP2 and VCP3 were isolated from Viscum coloratum (Kom.) Nakai using DEAE-cellulose chromatography. VCP1 (32KDa) was composed of glucose, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose and mannose, while VCP2 (280KDa) and VCP3 (21KDa) were consisted of glucose, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, mannose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid. The optical rotation was measured at 20+1°C. The characteristic absorptive bands of purified fraction were determined by FT-IR. (13)C NMR spectroscopy analysis showed that VCP1 was a neutral polysaccharide, and VCP2 and VCP3 were RG-I type pectin. The linkage patterns of VCP2 were evaluated by methylation analysis: 1,5-linked Araf, 1,4-linked Galp, 1,2-linked Rhap, and 1,2,4-linked Rhap. The degree of esterification was 50%. The anti-proliferation ability against HepG2 cells and HepG2.2.15 cells of VCP2 was stronger than VCP1 and VCP3. So the polysaccharides from Viscum coloratum (Kom.) Nakai could be used as potential natural sources with inhibiting tumor cells proliferation. PMID:27261737

  6. Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) for the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd T.; Hodges, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission currently scheduled for launch in early 2013 aboard a Minotaur V will orbit the moon at a nominal periselene of 50 km to characterized the lunar atmosphere and dust environment. The science instrument payload includes a neutral mass spectrometer as well as an ultraviolet spectrometer and a dust detector. Although to date only He, Ar-40, K, Na and Rn-222 have been firmly identified in the lunar exosphere and arise from the solar wind (He), the lunar regolith (K and Na) and the lunar interior (Ar-40, Rn-222), upper limits have been set for a large number of other species, LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) observations will determine the abundance of several species and substantially lower the present upper limits for many others. Additionally, LADEE NMS will observe the spatial distribution and temporal variability of species which condense at nighttime and show peak concentrations at the dawn terminator (e,g, Ar-40), possible episodic release from the lunar interior, and the results of sputtering or desorption processes from the regolith. In this presentation, we describe the LADEE NMS hardware and the anticipated science results.

  7. Early Results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, Richard C.; Hine, Butler; Delory, Gregory T.; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Horanyi, Mihaly; Colaprete, Anthony; Noble, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    On 6 September, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket success-fully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. After 30 days of phasing, LADEE arrived at the Moon on 6 October, 2013. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any. After a successful commissioning phase, the three science instruments have made systematic observations of the lunar dust and exospheric environment. These include initial observations of argon, neon and helium exospheres, and their diurnal variations; the lunar micrometeoroid impact ejecta cloud and its variations; spatial and temporal variations of the sodium exosphere; and the search for sunlight extinction caused by dust. LADEE also made observations of the effects of the Chang'e 3 landing on 14 December 2013.

  8. 27 CFR 44.212 - Delay in lading at port of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE... Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse Proprietors Miscellaneous Provisions § 44.212 Delay in lading at port of exportation. If, on arrival of tobacco products, and...

  9. 27 CFR 44.212 - Delay in lading at port of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE... Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse Proprietors Miscellaneous Provisions § 44.212 Delay in lading at port of exportation. If, on arrival of tobacco products, and...

  10. 27 CFR 44.212 - Delay in lading at port of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Delay in lading at port of exportation. 44.212 Section 44.212 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF...

  11. 27 CFR 44.212 - Delay in lading at port of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE... Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse Proprietors Miscellaneous Provisions § 44.212 Delay in lading at port of exportation. If, on arrival of tobacco products, and...

  12. 27 CFR 44.212 - Delay in lading at port of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE... Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse Proprietors Miscellaneous Provisions § 44.212 Delay in lading at port of exportation. If, on arrival of tobacco products, and...

  13. Early Results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Horanyi, Mihaly; Colaprete, Anthony; Noble, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    On 6 September, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. After 30 days of phasing, LADEE arrived at the Moon on 6 October, 2013. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any. After a successful commissioning phase, the three science instruments have made systematic observations of the lunar dust and exospheric environment. These include initial observations of argon, neon and helium exospheres, and their diurnal variations; the lunar micrometeoroid impact ejecta cloud and its variations; spatial and temporal variations of the sodium exosphere; and the search for sunlight extinction caused by dust. LADEE also made observations of the effects of the Chang'e 3 landing on 14 December 2013.

  14. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated. 173.9 Section 173.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  15. First Results from NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Delory, G. T.; Noble, S. K.; Boroson, D.; Hine, B.; Salute, J.

    2013-12-01

    As of early August, 2013, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission is scheduled for launch on a Minotaur V rocket from Wallops Flight Facility during a five-day launch period that opens on Sept. 6, 2013 (early Sept. 7 UTC). LADEE will address 40 year-old mysteries of the lunar atmosphere and the question of levitated lunar dust. It will also pioneer the next generation of optical space communications. LADEE will assess the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes occurring at many objects throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. Following a successful launch, LADEE will enter a series of phasing orbits, which allows the spacecraft to arrive at the Moon at the proper time and phase. This approach accommodates any dispersion in the Minotaur V launch injection. LADEE's arrival at the moon depends on the launch date, but with the Sept. 6 launch date it should arrive at the Moon in early October. The spacecraft will approach the moon from its leading edge, travel behind the Moon out of sight of the Earth, and then re-emerge and execute a three-minute Lunar Orbit Insertion maneuver. This will place LADEE in an elliptical retrograde equatorial orbit with an orbital period of approximately 24 hours. A series of maneuvers is then performed to reduce the orbit to become nearly circular with a 156-mile (250-kilometer) altitude. Spacecraft checkout and science instrument commissioning will commence in early-October and will nominally span 30 days but can be extended for an additional 30

  16. Evaluation of Processing Technology for Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai for Ethanol Production

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, He; Sun, Qizhong; Zhang, Yunwei; Brown, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dilute H2SO4 concentration, forage:sulfuric acid ratio, digestion time, and digestion temperature were evaluated to determine effects on ethanol yield of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai. Twenty single factor experiments were conducted to evaluate H2SO4 concentration (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%, w/w), forage:sulfuric acid ratio (1∶6, 1∶8, 1∶10, 1∶12, and 1∶14, g/ml), digestion time (15, 30, 45, 60, and 90, min), digestion temperature (80, 100, 110, 120, and 125 °C) for 3 replicates of the 5 levels of each factor. Based on results of the single factor experiments, an incomplete factorial was designed to evaluate ethanol yield from the best combinations of single factors. Finally, the best combination was tested by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation experiment in selected combinations according to pretreatment results. Percentage cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents of forage residue after pretreatment, and glucose and xylose concentrations of the filtrate were analyzed prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, and percentage crystallinity was observed in untreated grass and pretreated residue. In addition, the solid residues were then hydrolysed and fermented by cellulase and yeast, the concentrations of glucose and ethanol being monitored for 96 h. Results showed that the order of the effect of main effect factors was as follows: digestion temperature > dilute H2SO4 concentration > digestion time > forage:sulfuric acid ratio. The best process parameters evaluated were sulfuric acid concentration of 1.5%, forage:sulfuric acid ratio of 1∶6, digestion time of 15 min, and digestion temperature of 120°C. With this combination of factors, 80% of the cellulose was hydrolysed in 96 h, and 78% converted to ethanol. The findings identified that hemicelluloses were the key deconstruction barrier for pretreatment of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai for ethanol production. The results of this research provide evidence of appropriate

  17. The effects of meteoroid streams on the lunar environment: Observations from the LADEE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, Timothy; Horanyi, Mihaly; Mahaffy, Paul; Wang, Yongli; Benna, Mehdi; Elphic, Richard; Sarantos, Menelaos; Kempf, Sascha; Colaprete, Anthony; Hurley, Dana; Delory, Gregory; Glenar, David; Hermalyn, Brendan; Wooden, Diane; Szalay, Jamey

    The scientific objectives of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission are: (1) determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling distribution and variability - sources, sinks, and surface interactions; and (2) characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure spatial and temporal variability, and influences on the lunar atmosphere. Impacts on the lunar surface from meteoroid streams encountered by the Earth-Moon system can result in measurable enhancements in both the lunar atmosphere and dust environment. Here we describe the annual meteoroid streams incident at the Moon during the LADEE mission and their effects on the environment. The LADEE science payload consists of three instruments: the Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) for measuring emission lines from exospheric species and scattered light from exospheric dust; the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) for in situ measurement of exospheric dust; and the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) for in situ measurement of exospheric species. All three instruments are capable of detecting the effects of an encounter with a meteoroid stream. LADEE nominally has a 100-day science mission in which its retrograde equatorial orbit (inclination ≈157(°) ) will take it below 50 km altitude at periapsis near lunar sunrise. Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) occurred on 6 October 2013 and the current End-of-Mission (EOM) is planned for around 21 April 2014 following the lunar eclipse on 15 April 2014. The Earth-Moon system frequently encounters debris trails from comets and asteroids, which are referred to as meteoroid streams. The meteoroids in these streams have similar velocities and are on near-parallel trajectories, so when they enter the Earth's atmosphere the resulting shower of meteors appears to be emanating from a virtual point on the sky called the radiant. Meteor (and meteoroid) rates vary as a function of the Earth's position in its orbit, with an

  18. Implementation the NASA Planetary Data System PDS4 Providing Access to LADEE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beebe, Reta F.; Huber , Lyle; Neakrase, Lynn; Reese, Shannon; Crichton, Daniel; Hardman, Sean; Delory, Gregory; Neese, Carol

    2014-11-01

    The NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) is responsible for archiving all planetary data acquired by robotic missions, and observational campaigns with ground/space-based observatories. PDS has moved to version 4 of its archive system. PDS4 uses XML to enhance search and retrieval capabilities. Although the efforts are system wide, the Atmospheres Node has acted as the lead node and is presenting a preliminary users interface for retrieval of LADEE data. LADEE provides the first opportunity to test out the end-to-end process of archiving data from an active mission into the new PDS4 architecture. The limited number of instruments, with simple data structures, is an ideal test of PDS4. XML uses schema (analogous to blueprints) to control the structure of the corresponding XML labels. In the case of PDS4, these schemas allow management of the labels and their content by forcing validation dictated by the underlying Information Model (IM). The use of a central IM is a vast improvement over PDS3 because of the uniformity it provides across all nodes. PDS4 has implemented a product-centric approach for archiving data and supplemental documentation. Another major change involves the Central Registry, where all products are registered and accessible to search engines. Under PDS4, documents, data, and other ancillary data are all products that are registered in the system. Together with the XML implementation, the Registry allows the search routines to be more complex and inclusive than they have been in the past. For LADEE, the PDS nodes and LADEE instrument teams worked together to identify data products that LADEE would produce. Documentation describing instruments and data products were produced by the teams and peer reviewed by PDS. XML label templates were developed by the PDS and provided to the instrument teams to integrate into their pipelines. Data from the primary mission (100 days) have been certified and harvested into the registry and are accessible through the

  19. Understanding temporal and spatial variability of the lunar helium atmosphere using simultaneous observations from LRO, LADEE, and ARTEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Dana M.; Cook, Jason C.; Benna, Mehdi; Halekas, Jasper S.; Feldman, Paul D.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Hodges, R. Richard; Grava, Cesare; Mahaffy, Paul; Gladstone, G. Randall; Greathouse, Thomas; Kaufmann, David E.; Elphic, Richard C.; Stern, S. Alan

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous measurements of helium in the exosphere of the Moon are made from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) and the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) through the entire 5-month span of the LADEE mission. In addition, the ARTEMIS mission monitored the solar wind alpha particle flux to the Moon. Modeling the lunar helium exosphere, we relate the LAMP polar observations to the LADEE equatorial observations. Further, using the ARTEMIS alpha flux in the Monte Carlo model reproduces the temporal variations in helium density. Comparing the LAMP data to the LADEE data shows excellent agreement. Comparing those with the ARTEMIS data reveals that the solar wind alpha flux is the primary driver to variability in the helium exosphere throughout the LADEE mission. Using a decay time for exospheric helium of 5 days, we determine that the solar wind contributes 64 ± 5% of the helium to the lunar exosphere. The remaining 36 ± 5% is presumed to come from outgassing of radiogenic helium from the interior of the Moon. Furthermore, the model reproduces the measurements if 63 ± 6% of the incident alpha particles are converted to thermalized helium atoms through the interaction between the alphas and the lunar surface. However, these values are dependent on both inferred source rates from LAMP and LADEE observations and on the assumed time constant of the exospheric decay rate.

  20. LADEE/LDEX observations of lunar pickup ion distribution and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, A. R.; Halekas, J. S.; Szalay, J. R.; Horányi, M.; Levin, Z.; Kempf, S.

    2016-04-01

    We report fortuitous observations of low-energy lunar pickup ion fluxes near the Moon while in the solar wind by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) on board the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). We describe the method of observation and the empirical calibration of the instrument for ion observations. LDEX observes several trends in the exospheric ion production rate, including a scale height of approximately 100 km, a positive, linear correlation with solar wind flux, and evidence of a slight enhancement near 7-8 h local time. We compare the LDEX observations to both LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer ion mode observations and theoretical models. The LDEX data are best fit by total exospheric ion production rates of ≈6 × 103 m-3 s-1 with dominant contributions from Al+, CO+, and Ar+, although the LDEX data suggest that the aluminum neutral density and corresponding ion production rate are lower than predicted by recent models.

  1. Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Woronowicz, M. S.

    2011-05-20

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is being designed for a mission featuring low altitude orbits of the Moon to take relevant ambient measurements before that environment becomes altered by future exploration activities. Instruments include a neutral mass spectrometer capable of measuring ambient species density levels below 100 molecules/cm{sup 3}. Coincidentally, with a favorable combination of spacecraft orientations, it is also possible to measure plume gases from LADEE attitude control system thruster operations as they are reflected from the daytime lunar surface and subsequently intercepted by the spacecraft as it orbits overhead. Under such circumstances, it may be possible to test a variety of properties and assumptions associated with various transient plume models or to infer certain aspects regarding lunar surface properties.

  2. Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is being designed for a mission featuring low altitude orbits of the Moon to take relevant ambient measurements before that environment becomes altered by future exploration activities. Instruments include a neutral mass spectrometer capable of measuring ambient species density levels below 100 molecules/cu cm. Coincidentally, with a favorable combination of spacecraft orientations, it is also possible to measure plume gases from LADEE attitude control system thruster operations as they are reflected from the daytime lunar surface and subsequently intercepted by the spacecraft as it orbits overhead. Under such circumstances, it may be possible to test a variety of properties and assumptions associated with various transient plume models or to infer certain aspects regarding lunar surface properties.

  3. Ethanol extract of Chaenomeles speciosa Nakai induces apoptosis in cancer cells and suppresses tumor growth in mice

    PubMed Central

    YAO, GENDONG; LIU, CHAOQI; HUO, HONGQI; LIU, AIMIN; LV, BAIRUI; ZHANG, CAN; WANG, HAIDONG; LI, JINNONG; LIAO, LIANMING

    2013-01-01

    Chaenomeles speciosa Nakai is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for a variety of health-promoting effects. The present study aimed to investigate the antitumor effects of Chaenomeles speciosa Nakai. The tumor-inhibitory activity of the ethanol extract of Chaenomeles speciosa Nakai (EEC) was evaluated by in vitro growth assays of tumor cells and in vivo H22 tumor formation assays in mice. Mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA ladder assays were used to detect tumor cell apoptosis in the presence of EEC. To investigate the cellular targets of EEC, the immunomodulatory genes PD-L1, Foxp3 and TGF-β were detected in the tumor tissue using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immune responses were determined by hemolysis and lymphocyte proliferation assays. EEC markedly inhibited the proliferation of the H22 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, it induced DNA fragmentation and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. In vivo, EEC inhibited tumor growth and enhanced the immune responses in mice, while the expression of PD-L1, Foxp3 and TGF-β was inhibited in the tumor tissue. These results provide the first evidence that EEC may inhibit tumor growth by directly killing tumor cells and enhancing immune function. Thus, it is a natural source for safe anticancer medicine. PMID:23946814

  4. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Activity of Cultivated and Wild Angelica gigas Nakai Extracts Prepared Using Different Extraction Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Bo-Young; Lee, Hye-Jin; Do, Jeong-Ryong; Kim, Hyun-Ku

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological activities of cultivated Angelica gigas Nakai (CAG) and wild Angelica gigas Nakai (WAG) extracts prepared by extraction with water, 30% ethanol, 60% ethanol, or 90% ethanol. The electron donating ability of the WAG extracts was higher than that of the CAG extracts and 0.1% and 1.0% solutions of the comparative substance, L-ascorbic acid. The superoxide dismutase-like activity of the CAG extracts was higher than that of WAG extracts. Superoxide dismutase-like activity was highest (33.95%) in the CAG water extract. The total polyphenol content was highest in the 60% ethanol extracts of WAG. The nitrite scavenging ability of the CAG and WAG extracts was highest at a pH of 1.2. The tyrosinase inhibitory effect was highest (43.72%) in the water extract of WAG. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity was highest (83.84%) in the 60% ethanol extract of WAG. The results of the present study will be useful for understanding the antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activities of Angelica gigas Nakai extracts. PMID:25580391

  5. Overview of the LADEE Ultraviolet-visible Spectrometer: Design, Performance and Planned Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colaprete, A.; Elphic, R. C.; Landis, D.; Karcz, J.; Osetinsky, L.; Shirley, M.; Vargo, K.; Wooden, D.

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is an orbital lunar science mission currently under development to address the goals of the 2003 National Research Council decadal survey, the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group Roadmap, and the "Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon" (SCEM) report, and has been recommended for execution by the 2011 Planetary Missions Decadal Survey. The mission s focus is to study the pristine state of the lunar atmosphere and dust environment prior to possible lunar exploration activities by countries, including the United States, China, India, and Japan, among others. Activity on the lunar surface has the potential of altering the tenuous lunar atmosphere, but changing the type and concentration of gases in the atmosphere. Before these activities occur it is important to make measurements of the current lunar atmosphere in its unmodified state. LADEE will determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. It will monitor variations in known gases, such as sodium, potassium, argon and helium, and will search for other, as-yet-undetected gases of both lunar and extra-lunar origin. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal the processes that contribute to its sources and variability. Launch is planned for August, 2013.

  6. Metallic Species, Oxygen and Silicon in the Lunar Exosphere: Upper Limits and Prospects for LADEE Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarantos, Menelaos; Killen, Rosemary Margaret; Glenar, David A.; Benna, Mehdi; Stubbs, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The only species that have been so far detected in the lunar exosphere are Na, K, Ar,and He. However, models for the production and loss of species derived from the lunarregolith through micrometeoroid impact vaporization, sputtering, and photon-stimulateddesorption, predict that a host of other species should exist in the lunar exosphere.Assuming that loss processes are limited to ballistic escape, photoionization, and recyclingto the surface, we have computed column abundances and compared them to publishedupper limits for the Moon. Only for Ca do modeled abundances clearly exceed theavailable measurements. This result suggests the relevance of some loss processes thatwere not included in the model, such as the possibility of gas-to-solid phasecondensation during micrometeoroid impacts or the formation of stable metallic oxides.Our simulations and the recalculation of efficiencies for resonant light scattering showthat models for other species studied are not well constrained by existingmeasurements. This fact underlines the need for improved remote and in situmeasurements of the lunar exosphere such as those planned by the Lunar Atmosphereand Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. Our simulations of the LADEEneutral mass spectrometer and visibleultraviolet spectrometer indicate that LADEE measurements promise to provide definitive observations or set stringent upper limitsfor all regolith-driven exospheric species. We predict that observations by LADEE willconstrain assumed model parameters for the exosphere of the Moon.

  7. Metallic Species, Oxygen and Silicon in the Lunar Exosphere: Upper Limits and Prospects for LADEE Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarantos, Menelaos; Killen, Rosemary M.; Glenar, David A.; Benna, Mehdi; Stubbs, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    The only species that have been continued in the lunar exosphere are Na, K, Ar, and He. Models for the production and loss of lunar regolith-derived exospheric species from source processes including micrometeoroid impact vaporization, sputtering. and, for Na and K, photon-stimulated desorption, predict a host of other species should exist in the lunar exosphere. Assuming that loss processes are limited to ballistic escape and recycling to the surface, we have computed column abundances and compared them to published upper limits from the Moon and to detected abundances from Mercury. Only for Ca do the available measurements show a clear deficiency compared to the model estimates. This result suggests the importance of loss processes not included in the model, such as the possibility of gas-to-solid phase condensation during micrometeoroid impacts or the formation of stable metallic oxides, and underlines the need for improved spectroscopic measurements of the lunar exosphere. Simulations of the neutral mass (NMS) and visible/ultraviolet spectrometry (UVS) investigations planned by the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft are presented. Our calculations indicate that LADEE measurements promise to make definitive observations or set stringent upper limits for all regolith-driven exospheric species. Our models, along with LADEE observations, will constrain assumed model parameters for the Moon, such as sticking coefficients, source processes. and velocity distributions.

  8. Artemisia asiatica Nakai Attenuates the Expression of Proinflammatory Mediators in Stimulated Macrophages Through Modulation of Nuclear Factor-κB and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Tang, Yujiao; Cha, Kwang-Suk; Choi, Heeri; Lee, Chun Bok; Yoon, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Sang Bae; Kim, Jong-Shik; Kim, Jong Moon; Han, Weon Cheol; Choi, Suck-Jun; Lee, Sangmin; Choi, Eun-Ju; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory effects and potential mechanism of action of Artemisia asiatica Nakai (A. asiatica Nakai) extract in activated murine macrophages. A. asiatica Nakai extract showed dose-dependent suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 activity. It also showed dose-dependent inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus and as an inhibitor of NF-κB-alpha phosphorylation. The extract's inhibitory effects were found to be mediated through NF-κB inhibition and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 murine macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of A. asiatica Nakai. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the anti-inflammatory effects of A. asiatica Nakai on J774A.1 murine macrophages; these results may help develop functional foods possessing an anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:26061361

  9. Artemisia asiatica Nakai Attenuates the Expression of Proinflammatory Mediators in Stimulated Macrophages Through Modulation of Nuclear Factor-κB and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Tang, Yujiao; Cha, Kwang-Suk; Choi, Heeri; Lee, Chun Bok; Yoon, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Sang Bae; Kim, Jong-Shik; Kim, Jong Moon; Han, Weon Cheol; Choi, Suck-Jun; Lee, Sangmin; Choi, Eun-Ju; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory effects and potential mechanism of action of Artemisia asiatica Nakai (A. asiatica Nakai) extract in activated murine macrophages. A. asiatica Nakai extract showed dose-dependent suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 activity. It also showed dose-dependent inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus and as an inhibitor of NF-κB-alpha phosphorylation. The extract's inhibitory effects were found to be mediated through NF-κB inhibition and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 murine macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of A. asiatica Nakai. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the anti-inflammatory effects of A. asiatica Nakai on J774A.1 murine macrophages; these results may help develop functional foods possessing an anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:26061361

  10. Erwinia pyrifoliae sp. nov., a novel pathogen that affects Asian pear trees (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    PubMed

    Kim, W S; Gardan, L; Rhim, S L; Geider, K

    1999-04-01

    A novel pathogen from Asian pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) was analysed by sequencing the 16S rDNA and the adjacent intergenic region, and the data were compared to related Enterobacteriaceae. The 16S rDNA of the Asian pear pathogen was almost identical with the sequence of Erwinia amylovora, in contrast to the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region of both species. A dendrogram was deduced from determined sequences of the spacer regions including those of several related species such as Erwinia amylovora, Enterobacter pyrinus, Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii and Escherichia coli. Dendrograms derived from 121 biochemical characteristics including Biotype 100 data placed the Asian pear pathogen close to Erwinia amylovora and more distantly to other members of the species Erwinia and to the species Pantoea and Enterobacter. Another DNA relatedness study was performed by DNA hybridizations and estimation of delta Tm values. The Asian pear strains constituted a tight DNA hybridization group (89-100%) and were barely related to strains of Erwinia amylovora (40-50%) with a delta Tm in the range of 5.2-6.8. The G + C content of DNA from the novel pathogen is 52 mol%. Therefore, it is proposed that strains isolated from Asian pears constitute a new species and the name Erwinia pyrifoliae is suggested; the type strain is strain Ep 16/96T (= CFBP 4172T = DSM 12163T). PMID:10319516

  11. Candidate Resistant Genes of Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) to Alternaria alternata Revealed by Transcriptome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoping; Hu, Hongju; Yu, Dazhao; Sun, Zhonghai; He, Xiujuan; Zhang, Jingguo; Chen, Qiliang; Tian, Rui; Fan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Pear black spot (PBS) disease, which is caused by Alternaria alternata (Aa), is one of the most serious diseases affecting sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivation worldwide. To investigate the defense mechanisms of sand pear in response to Aa, the transcriptome of a sand pear germplasm with differential resistance to Aa was analyzed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Four libraries derived from PBS-resistant and PBS-susceptible sand pear leaves were characterized through inoculation or mock-inoculation. In total, 20.5 Gbp of sequence data and 101,632,565 reads were generated, representing 44717 genes. Approximately 66% of the genes or sequenced reads could be aligned to the pear reference genome. A large number (5213) of differentially expressed genes related to PBS resistance were obtained; 34 microsatellites were detected in these genes, and 28 genes were found to be closely related to PBS resistance. Using a transcriptome analysis in response to PBS inoculation and comparison analysis to the PHI database, 4 genes (Pbr039001, Pbr001627, Pbr025080 and Pbr023112) were considered to be promising candidates for sand pear resistance to PBS. This study provides insight into changes in the transcriptome of sand pear in response to PBS infection, and the findings have improved our understanding of the resistance mechanism of sand pear to PBS and will facilitate future gene discovery and functional genome studies of sand pear. PMID:26292286

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids incorporated colloidal systems for the delivery of Angelica gigas Nakai extract.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Jun; Park, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Young; Jeong, Jae Young; Lee, Song Yi; Yoon, In-Soo; Kang, Wie-Soo; Kim, Dae-Duk; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2016-04-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) fish oil-enriched colloidal systems were developed for the oral delivery of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) extract (ext). By constructing a pseudo-ternary phase diagram, the composition of oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsion (ME) systems based on ω-3 (oil), Labrasol (surfactant), and water was determined. AGN ext was dissolved into the ME system and d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was added to the ME formulation in order to enhance the mucosal absorption of the pharmacologically active ingredients in the AGN ext. The droplet size of AGN-loaded MEs was 205-277 nm and their morphology was spherical. The release of major components of AGN, decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA), from ME formulations in pH 1.2 and 6.8 buffers was significantly greater (P<0.05) than that from the AGN suspension group. The pharmacokinetic properties of AGN-loaded MEs in rats were evaluated by measuring decursinol (DOH) concentrations in plasma after oral administration. TPGS-included ME (F2) resulted in significantly greater (P<0.05) systemic exposure of DOH than that with ME without TPGS (F1), AGN ext+TPGS, and AGN in suspension. Severe toxicity of F1 and F2 on the intestinal epithelium was not observed by histological staining. The colloidal carriers described herein are promising delivery systems for oral administration of AGN ext. PMID:26764107

  13. Decursin from Angelica gigas Nakai Inhibits B16F10 Melanoma Growth Through Induction of Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Soo; Seo, Hyobin; Kim, Ha-Jeong; Bae, Sang Mun; Son, Hye-Nam; Lee, Yoon Jeong; Ryu, Sungpil; Park, Rang-Woon; Nam, Ju-Ock

    2015-10-01

    Decursin, a bioactive phytochemical isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai (danggwi), has shown preclinical anticancer efficacy in various cancer models. However, the antitumor effect of decursin in melanoma models remains undefined. The antitumor activities of decursin were investigated in B16F10 cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we show that treatment with decursin inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells, but not in normal cells. Decursin also induced apoptosis in B16F10 cells, as determined by annexin V-staining assay and transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining assay. Decursin increased the phosphorylation of p38 as well as the expression of Bax while decreasing the phosphorylation of extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) and the expression of Bcl-2 in B16F10 cells. Moreover, decursin activated caspase-3 in B16F10 cells and xenograft tumor tissue. Together, these findings support further investigations into the potential use of decursin in the treatment of melanoma cells. PMID:26336081

  14. Identification of QTLs controlling harvest time and fruit skin color in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Nishio, Sogo; Onoue, Noriyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Inoue, Eiichi; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Itai, Akihiro; Saito, Toshihiro

    2014-12-01

    Using an F1 population from a cross between Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivars 'Akiakari' and 'Taihaku', we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of seven fruit traits (harvest time, fruit skin color, flesh firmness, fruit weight, acid content, total soluble solids content, and preharvest fruit drop). The constructed simple sequence repeat-based genetic linkage map of 'Akiakari' consisted of 208 loci and spanned 799 cM; that of 'Taihaku' consisted of 275 loci and spanned 1039 cM. Out of significant QTLs, two QTLs for harvest time, one for fruit skin color, and one for flesh firmness were stably detected in two successive years. The QTLs for harvest time were located at the bottom of linkage group (LG) Tai3 (nearest marker: BGA35) and at the top of LG Tai15 (nearest markers: PPACS2 and MEST050), in good accordance with results of genome-wide association study. The PPACS2 gene, a member of the ACC synthase gene family, may control harvest time, preharvest fruit drop, and fruit storage potential. One major QTL associated with fruit skin color was identified at the top of LG 8. QTLs identified in this study would be useful for marker-assisted selection in Japanese pear breeding programs. PMID:25914590

  15. Contingency Trajectory Design for a Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver Failure by the Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Loucks, Michael; Carrico, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this extended abstract is to present results from a failed lunar-orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver contingency analysis for the Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission, managed and operated by NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, CA. The LADEE spacecrafts nominal trajectory implemented multiple sub-lunar phasing orbits centered at Earth before eventually reaching the Moon (Fig. 1) where a critical LOI maneuver was to be performed [1,2,3]. If this LOI was missed, the LADEE spacecraft would be on an Earth-escape trajectory, bound for heliocentric space. Although a partial mission recovery is possible from a heliocentric orbit (to be discussed in the full paper), it was found that an escape-prevention maneuver could be performed several days after a hypothetical LOI-miss, allowing a return to the desired science orbit around the Moon without leaving the Earths sphere-of-influence (SOI).

  16. Meteoritic influence on sodium and potassium abundance in the lunar exosphere measured by LADEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Jamey R.; Horányi, Mihály; Colaprete, Anthony; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2016-06-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) orbited the Moon for approximately 6 months, taking data with the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrometer (UVS), and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS). Here we compare coincident LDEX measurements of meteoritic influx to exospheric column densities of Na and K derived by UVS. We report a strong correlation of exospheric potassium and meteoroid ejecta during the Geminids meteoroid shower, exhibiting a much stronger response than sodium. With the exception of the Geminids, we find a weak correlation between the sporadic meteoroid influx as measured by LDEX and exospheric density as measured by UVS.

  17. Lunar meteoritic gardening rate derived from in situ LADEE/LDEX measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Jamey R.; Horányi, Mihály

    2016-05-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) orbited the Moon for approximately 6 months, taking data with the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX). LDEX was uniquely equipped to characterize the current rate of lunar impact gardening as it measured the very particles taking part in this process. By deriving an average lunar dust density distribution, we calculate the rate at which exospheric dust rains back down onto the lunar surface. Near the equatorial plane, we find that approximately 40 μm/Myr of lunar regolith, with a cumulative size distribution index of 2.7, is redistributed due to meteoritic bombardment, a process which occurs predominantly on the lunar apex hemisphere.

  18. Transient Plume Model Testing Using LADEE Spacecraft Attitude Control System Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We have learned it is conceivable that the Neutral Mass Spectrometer on board the Lunarr Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) could measure gases from surface-reflected Attitude Control System (ACS) thruster plume. At minimum altitude, the measurement would be maximized, and gravitational influence minimized ("short" time-of-flight (TOF) situation) Could use to verify aspects of thruster plume modeling Model the transient disturbance to NMS measurements due to ACS gases reflected from lunar surface Observe evolution of various model characteristics as measured by NMS Species magnitudes, TOF measurements, angular distribution, species separation effects

  19. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    On September 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, dur-ing the government shutdown. The spacecraft impact-ed the lunar surface on April 18, 2014, following a completely successful mission. LADEE's science objectives were twofold: (1) De-termine the composition and variability of the lunar atmosphere; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, and its variability. The LADEE science payload consisted of the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), which sensed dust impacts in situ, for parti-cles between 100 nm and 5 micrometers; a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), which sampled lunar exo-spheric gases in situ, over the 2-150 Dalton mass range; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer (UVS) ac-quired spectra of atmospheric emissions and scattered light from tenuous dust, spanning a 250-800 nm wave-length range. UVS also performed dust extinction measurements via a separate solar viewer optic. The following are preliminary results for the lunar exosphere: (1) The helium exosphere of the Moon, first observed during Apollo, is clearly dominated by the delivery of solar wind He++. (2) Neon 20 is clearly seen as an important constituent of the exosphere. (3) Argon 40, also observed during Apollo and arising from interior outgassing, exhibits variations related to surface temperature-driven condensation and release, and is also enhanced over specific selenographic longi-tudes. (4) The sodium abundance varies with both lu-nar phase and with meteoroid influx, implicating both solar wind sputtering and impact vaporization process-es. (5) Potassium was also routinely monitored and exhibits some of the same properties as sodium. (6) Other candidate species were seen by both NMS and UVS, and await confirmation. Dust measurements have revealed a persistent "shroud" of small dust particles

  20. Molecular Characterization of FT and FD Homologs from Eriobotrya deflexa Nakai forma koshunensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Yu, Hao; Lin, Shunquan; Gao, Yongshun

    2016-01-01

    In angiosperms, regulation of flowering is a vital process for successful reproduction. To date, the molecular mechanism of flowering is well-studied in the model plant, Arabidopsis, in which key genes such as FLOWERING LOCUST (FT) or FD have been identified to regulate flowering. However, the flowering mechanisms are still largely unknown in fruit trees like loquat. To this end, we first cloned one FT- and two FD-like genes from the loquat (Eriobotrya deflexa Nakai f. koshunensis) and referred to as EdFT, EdFD1, and EdFD2, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that EdFT, EdFD1, and EdFD2 are conserved during the evolution process. EdFT is mainly expressed in reproductive tissues (e.g., flower buds, flowers, and fruits), while EdFD1 and EdFD2 are mainly expressed in apical buds including leaf buds and flower buds. EdFT is localized in the whole cell, while EdFD1 or EdFD2 is localized in the nucleus. Ectopic expression of EdFT, EdFD1, and EdFD2 in Arabidopsis results in early flowering. In addition, we have also revealed that the EdFT interacts with both EdFD1 and EdFD2. Overall, these data suggest that the EdFT, EdFD1, and EdFD2 are the functional homologs of FT and FD, respectively, which might act together to regulate loquat flowering through a similar mechanism found in Arabidopsis. PMID:26834775

  1. Oral administration of Trapa taiwanensis Nakai fruit skin extracts conferring hepatoprotection from CCl4-caused injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Hao; Kao, Ming-Yuan; Wu, She-Ching; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Wu, Jin-Yi; Chang, Ju-Chun; Chiou, Robin Y-Y

    2011-04-27

    As a folk medicine, the hot-water infusion of water caltrop fruits has been used to protect the liver. In this study, the outer skins of mature water caltrop fruits ( Trapa taiwanensis Nakai) were removed, forced-air-dried, pulverized, and subjected to extraction with hot water, and the infusion was lyophilized and pulverized to prepare a hot water extract of T. taiwanensis (HWETT). HWETT was subjected to assays of α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, reducing power, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and antioxidative potency, and all determinations showed HWETT to be a potent antioxidant. As further analyzed with LC-MS, two major HPLC-detected components were elucidated as gallic acid and ellagic acid. Hepatoprotective activity of HWETT was assessed with Sprague-Dawley male rats by oral administration. Six groups of rats (n = 8 for each) were respectively treated, namely, control, CCl(4) (20% CCl(4)/olive oil by 2.0 mL/kg bw), CCl(4) and Silymarin (200 mg/kg bw), CCl(4) and low HWETT dose (12.5 mg/kg bw), CCl(4) and medium HWETT dose (25 mg/kg bw), and CCl(4) and high HWETT dose (125 mg/kg bw). After 8 weeks, all animals were fasted for an additional day and sacrificed to collect blood, liver, and kidney for analyses. Histopathological examinations showed that oral administrations with Silymarin and HWETT were effective in protecting the liver from CCl(4)-caused fatty change. Oral administration of HWETT at 125 mg/kg bw was more effective than was Silymarin at 200 mg/kg bw. On biochemical analyses, oral administrations with HWETT at medium and high doses were effective (p < 0.05) in lowering CCl(4)-caused increases of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. It is of merit to demonstrate HWETT as a potent source of antioxidants and hepatoprotective agents. PMID:21381650

  2. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Rosa taiwanensis Nakai in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Der-Shiang; Huang, Mei-Hsuen; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Chang, Yuan-Shuang; Chiu, Yung-Jia; Lin, Yen-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of a 70% ethanol extract from Rosa taiwanensis Nakai (RTEtOH). The analgesic effect was determined using acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin test. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of RTEtOH was examined by measuring the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the paw edema tissue and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver tissue. The betulinic acid and oleanolic acid contents of RTEtOH were assayed by HPLC. The results showed that RTEtOH decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing responses (1.0 g/kg) and the late phase of the formalin-induced licking time (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg). In the anti-inflammatory models, RTEtOH (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) reduced the paw edema at 3, 4, and 5 h after λ-carrageenan administration. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms might be due to the decreased levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, as well as the inhibition of NO and MDA levels through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd. The contents of two active compounds, betulinic acid and oleanolic acid, were quantitatively determined. This study demonstrated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of RTEtOH and provided evidence to support its therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases. PMID:25494361

  3. Buxus Microphylla var. Koreana Nakai Extract for the Treatment of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Min Chul; Lim, Bora; Kim, Byung Joo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Buxus Microphylla var. Koreana Nakai Extract (BMKNE) is used as a folk remedy for malaria and veneral disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BMKNE in the growth and the survival of AGS cells, the most common human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. Methods: The AGS cells were treated with varying concentrations of BMKNE. Analyses of the sub G1 peak, the caspase-3 and -9 activities, and the mitochondrial depolarization were conducted to determine whether AGS cell death occured by apoptosis. Also, to identify the role of transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 7 channels in AGS cell growth and survival, we used human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells overexpressed with TRPM7 channels. Results: Experimental results showed that the sub G1 peak, the caspase-3 and -9 activities, and the mitochondrial depolarization were increased. Therefore, BMKNE was found to induce the apoptosis of these cells, and this apoptosis was inhibited by SB203580 (a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor), and by a c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) II inhibitor. Furthermore, BMKNE inhibited TRPM7 currents and TRPM7 channel over-expressions in HEK 293 cells, exacerbating BMKNE-induced cell death. Conclusions: These findings indicate that BMKNE inhibits the growth and the survival of gastric cancer cells due to a blockade of the TRPM7 channel’s activity and MAPK signaling. Therefore, BMKNE is a potential drug for treatment of gastric cancer, and both the TRPM7 channel and MAPK signaling may play an important role in survival in gastric cancer cells. PMID:25780674

  4. Antioxidant Activities of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract and Its Application to the Pork Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. H.; Kang, S. N.; Shin, D.; Hur, I. C.; Kim, I. S.; Jin, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Influence of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract (AJNE) on properties of pork sausages were studied in the present investigation. AJNE was added to sausages alone or in combination with ascorbic acid to obtain a comparative analysis on properties of control and ascorbic acid added-sausages. Results showed that addition of 0.05% AJNE led to a decrease in color L* and whiteness (W), and an increase in color b* of pork sausage samples (p<0.05). Although color a* of pork sausages containing AJNE was not significantly different, ascorbic acid added-sausages were highest amongst other treatments (p<0.05). Sausages containing AJNE had lower non-heme iron values and peroxide value (POV) than control sausages (p<0.05); however, high nitrosomyoglobin content was observed in AJNE added-sausages (p<0.05). Ascorbic acid led to a decrease in residual nitrite concentration of sausages (p<0.05), but no difference was found in AJNE added-sausages. Free radical scavenging analysis showed that AJNE did not affect 1,1-diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of sausages, whereas ascorbic acid added-sausages showed relatively higher activity among the samples (p<0.05). Addition of AJNE had no influence on texture properties of sausages. In sensory evaluation, AJNE treatment had significant effects on color (p<0.05), but no significant effects on aroma, flavor, springiness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. In conclusion, the addition of AJNE, as a natural supplement may offer natural antioxidants for pork sausages, and appears to be particularly effective in inducing changes in non-heme iron concentration, POV value and nitrosomyglobin content. PMID:25049789

  5. NASA's LADEE Mission: Opportunities for Citizen Science and Student Participatory Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, B. H.

    2010-12-01

    NASA’s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is scheduled to launch in early 2013. Its goals include: 1. Determine the global density, composition, and time variability of the fragile lunar atmosphere before it is perturbed by further human activity. 2. Determine the size, charge, and spatial distribution of electrostatically transported dust grains. 3. Test laser communication capabilities. 4. Demonstrate a low-cost lunar mission utilizing a simple multi-mission modular bus design and a low-cost launch vehicle. Most students and adults today grew up learning that the Moon has no atmosphere. The fact that it does have an atmosphere provides an excellent opportunity for learning. The lunar surface boundary exosphere represents the most common type of atmosphere in the solar system. Mercury, the larger asteroids, some of the larger moons of other planets, and larger Kuiper Belt Objects likely have surface boundary exospheres. Yet in spite of being so common, these types of atmospheres are poorly understood. Fortunately, with the Moon, we have one in our own backyard to study. LADEE Education and public outreach will provide opportunities for students and citizen scientists to be direct participants in the science supporting the mission.

  6. LADEE UVS Observations of Solar Occulation by Exospheric Dust above the Lunar Limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane; Cook, Amanda Marie; Colaprete, A.; Shirley, M. H.; Vargo, K. E.; Elphic, R. C.; Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a lunar orbiter launched in September 2012 that investigates the composition and temporal variation of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment. The primary goals of the mission are to characterize the pristine gas and dust exosphere prior to future lunar exploration activities, which may alter the lunar environment. To address this goal, the LADEE instrument suite includes an Ultraviolet/ Visible Spectrometer (UVS), which searches for dust, Na, K, and trace gases such as OH, H2O, Si, Al, Mg, Ca, Ti, Fe, as well as other previously undetected species. UVS has two sets of optics: a limb-viewing telescope, and a solar viewing telescope. The solar viewer is equipped with a diffuser (see Figure 1a) that allows UVS to stare directly at the solar disk as the Sun starts to set (or rise from) behind the lunar limb. Solar viewer measurements generally have very high signal to noise (SNR>500) for 20-30 ms integration times. The 1-degree solar viewer field of view subtends a diameter of 8 km at a distance of 400-450 km

  7. LADEE UVS Observations of Solar Occultation by Exospheric Dust Above the Lunar Limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, D. H.; Cook, A. M.; Colaprete, A.; Shirley, M. H.; Vargo, K. E.; Elphic, R. C.; Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a lunar orbiter launched in September 2012 that investigates the composition and temporal variation of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment. The primary goals of the mission are to characterize the pristine gas and dust exosphere prior to future lunar exploration activities, which may alter the lunar environment. To address this goal, the LADEE instrument suite includes an Ultraviolet/ Visible Spectrometer (UVS), which searches for dust, Na, K, and trace gases such as OH, H2O, Si, Al, Mg, Ca, Ti, Fe, as well as other previously undetected species. UVS has two sets of optics: a limb-viewing telescope, and a solar viewing telescope. The solar viewer is equipped with a diffuser (see Figure 1a) that allows UVS to stare directly at the solar disk as the Sun starts to set (or rise from) behind the lunar limb. Solar viewer measurements generally have very high signal to noise (SNR greater than 500) for 20-30 ms integration times. The 1-degree solar viewer field of view subtends a diameter of approximately 8 km at a distance of 400-450 km.

  8. Hybridization Between Natural Extract of Angelica gigas Nakai and Inorganic Nanomaterial of Layered Double Hydroxide via Reconstruction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Jun; Choi, Ae-Jin; Choi, Hyun-Jin; Oh, Jae-Min

    2016-01-01

    We have hybridized layered double hydroxide (LDH) with Angelica gigas Nakai root extract (AGNR) through reversible dehydration-rehydration reaction which is known as reconstruction. LDHs having well-ordered hydrotalcite-like crystal structure and average size 250 ± 20 nm were prepared by hydrothermal method. The root of Angelica gigas Nakai, which has been utilized in the treatment of female disorders as herbal medicine, was treated with methanol to obtain extract. Pristine LDHs were calcined at 400 °C for 8 hours to obtain layered double oxide (LDO), which was further dispersed into extract solution with various AGNR/LDO weight ratios, 0.11, 0.21 and 0.43. The extract content in each hybrid increased in proportion to initial AGNR/LDO ratio, showing the highest content of ~12%. The zeta potential of LDH shifted from +44 mV to +20 mV upon hybridization with extract, which was attributed to the adsorption of negatively charged organic moieties in AGNR on LDH surface. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) results exhibited that the random stacking of LDH nanolayers resulted in LDH-AGNR hybrid with house-of-cards structure, of which inter-particle cavity serves nano-reservoir for natural extract. According to quantitative analyses, it was revealed that the content of active components in AGNR increased when they were hybridized with LDHs compared with those in AGNR alone. PMID:27398576

  9. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) Juice Modulates Oxidative Damage Induced by Low Dose X-Ray in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Mohd Khairul Amran; Mohamed, Muhamad Idham; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Saad, Wan Mazlina Md.

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon is a natural product that contains high level of antioxidants and may prevent oxidative damage in tissues due to free radical generation following an exposure to ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice against oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure in mice. Twelve adult male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups consisting of radiation (Rx) and supplementation (Tx) groups. Rx received filtered tap water, while Tx was supplemented with 50% (v/v) watermelon juice for 28 days ad libitum prior to total body irradiation by 100 μGy X-ray on day 29. Brain, lung, and liver tissues were assessed for the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibition activities. Results showed significant reduction of MDA levels and AP sites formation of Tx compared to Rx (P < 0.05). Mice supplemented with 50% watermelon juice restore the intracellular antioxidant activities by significantly increased SOD inhibition activities and GSH levels compared to Rx. These findings may postulate that supplementation of 50% watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice could modulate oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure. PMID:24877107

  10. Comparative studies on antioxidant activities of extracts and fractions from the leaves and stem of Epimedium koreanum Nakai.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Haixia; Wang, Zhaoshuai; Lan, Gaoshuang; Zhang, Likang

    2013-12-01

    The antioxidant potency of various extracts and fractions from the leaves and stem of Epimedium koreanum Nakai was evaluated using three esteblished methods, specifically the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radica-scavenging activity assay, the inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation induced by Fe(2+)/ascorbate (MDA) assay and the ferric reducing power (FRP) assay. The amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extracts and fractions were determined by spectrophotometric methods and the content of icariin was determined by HPLC. The results showed that all the extracts and fractions exhibited antioxidant activities at different magnitudes of potency. The leaf extract and fractions demonstrated superior antioxidant activity in most of the assays. The decreasing order of antioxidant activities among the extracts/fractions assayed through the three methods were found to be n-BuOH fraction>ethyl acetate fraction>ethanol extract>petroleum ether fraction>water fraction. A positive correlation was found between the amounts of total phenolics, total flavonoids and icariin and DPPH radical scavenging activity (R(2) = 0.9935, 0.9944 and 0.9997, respectively) and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation (R(2) = 0.9987, 0.9830 and 0.9886, respectively). The results suggested that Icariin was one of the main constituents contribute to the antioxidant activity of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and the n-BuOH fractions of leaf extract might be valuable antioxidant natural sources. PMID:24426024

  11. 15 CFR 30.7 - Annotating the bill of lading, air waybill, or other commercial loading documents with proof of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Annotating the bill of lading, air... Section 30.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General Requirements § 30.7 Annotating the...

  12. 15 CFR 30.7 - Annotating the bill of lading, air waybill, or other commercial loading documents with proof of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Annotating the bill of lading, air... Section 30.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General Requirements § 30.7 Annotating the...

  13. Effects of high temperatures on UV-B/visible irradiation induced postharvest anthocyanin accumulation in ‘Yunhongli No. 1’ (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) pears

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red Chinese sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) have seen increased cultivation in China in recent years, prized for their attractive market value and nutritional benefits. However, poor fruit coloration has been a noticeable problem. Postharvest ultraviolet-B (UV-B)/visible irradiation has been used...

  14. Dehydration improves cryopreservation of mat rush (Juncus decipiens Nakai) basal stem buds on cryo-plates.

    PubMed

    Niino, T; Yamamoto, S I; Fukui, K; Castillo Martinez, C R; Arizaga, M V; Matsumoto, T; Engelmann, F

    2013-01-01

    Two cryopreservation procedures using aluminium cryo-plates, termed V-Cryo-plate and D-Cryo-plate, were successfully developed for in vitro mat rush (Juncus decipiens Nakai) basal stem buds. Multiple stems induced in liquid MS medium containing 8.9 μM BA by roller culture were cut into small clumps, plated on solid MS medium and cultured for 1 week at 25 degree C. Clumps that had produced many buds were cold-hardened at 5 degree C for 1-2 months. The buds with basal stems were dissected from small clumps and precultured overnight at 25 degree C on solid MS medium containing 0.3 M sucrose. Precultured buds were placed on aluminium cryo-plates and embedded in calcium alginate gel. Osmoprotection was performed by immersing the cryo-plates for 30 min at 25 degree C in loading solution (2 M glycerol + 1.0 M sucrose). In the D-Cryo-plate procedure, the buds were dehydrated to 27-25% moisture content (fresh weight) by placing the cryo-plates in the air current of a laminar flow cabinet for 2 to 3 h. In the V-Cryo-plate procedure, buds were dehydrated by immersing the cryo-plates in PVS2 vitrification solution for 40 min at 25 degree C. In both procedures, cooling was performed by placing the cryo-plates in uncapped cryotubes, which were immersed in liquid nitrogen. For rewarming, cryo-plates were immersed in medium with 1.0 M sucrose for 20 min at room temperature. Regrowth of cryopreserved buds of line 'Kitakei 2' using D-Cryo-plate and V-Cryo-plate procedures, was 90% and 80%, respectively. The two procedures were applied to 20 additional mat rush lines. Using the V-Cryo-plate procedure resulted in regrowth ranging between 13.3 and 86.7%, with an average of 52.5%. The D-Cryo-plate led to regrowth ranging between 73.3 and 96.7%, with an average of 86.3%. The D-Cryo-plate procedure will facilitate cryostorage of mat rush germplasm. PMID:24441366

  15. LRO-LAMP Observations of the Lunar Exosphere Coordinated with LADEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grava, C.; Retherford, K. D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Gladstone, R.; Hurley, D.; Cook, J. C.; Stern, S. A.; Feldman, P. D.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Miles, P. F.; Pryor, W. R.; Halekas, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    The polar orbiting Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) carried out an atmospheric campaign during the month of December 2013, at the same time the Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission was sampling the lunar exosphere in a retrograde equatorial orbit. Observations of the lunar exosphere were performed by LAMP during a solar "beta-90" geometry, i.e. riding along the lunar terminator. During this geometry, the LAMP nadir-pointed line of sight to the nightside surface also includes illuminated columns of foreground emissions from exospheric species, which is invaluable in the study of the tenuous lunar exosphere. Other types of maneuvers to probe the lunar exosphere were also performed by LAMP/LRO during this campaign. During backward pitch slews, the LRO spacecraft was pitched to look opposite its direction of motion to a point just inside the limb in the nightside region around the polar terminator. Forward pitch slews were also obtained, and the angles of 63 deg or 77 deg from nadir were set depending on the polar region observed. Finally, during lateral roll slews, LRO rotated by ~60 deg towards the nightside limb, maximizing the amount of illuminated atmosphere in the foreground probed by the LAMP field of view. We extract day to day density variations on helium and/or upper limits for numerous other species that were accessible to both LAMP and LADEE (e.g., Ar, Ne, O, and H2). Moreover, constraints on helium density will complement measurements of solar wind alpha particles (He++) from the ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, & Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun) mission. This comparison will provide a comprehensive picture of composition, abundance, and spatial and temporal variations of volatiles of the lunar exosphere, combining equatorial (LADEE) and polar (LAMP) measurements for the first time. Volatiles in the lunar exosphere, especially water, are of paramount

  16. LADEE UVS Observations of Atoms and Dust in the Lunar Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Colaprete, Anthony; Cook, Amanda M.; Shirley, Mark H.; Vargo, Kara E.; Elphic, Richard C.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Glenar, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was a lunar orbiter launched in September 2013 that investigated the composition and temporal variation of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment. A major goal of the mission was to characterize the dust exosphere prior to future lunar exploration activities, which may alter the lunar environment. The Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) onboard LADEE addresses this goal, utilizing two sets of optics: a limbviewing telescope, and a solar-viewing telescope. We report on spectroscopic (approximately 280 - 820 nm) observations viewing down the lunar wake or along the 'lunar tail' from lunar orbit. Prior groundbased studies have observed the emission from neutral sodium atoms extended along the lunar tail, so often this region is referred to as the lunar sodium tail. UVS measurements were made on the dark side of the moon, with the UVS limb-viewing telescope pointed outward in the direction of the Moon's wake (almost anti-sun), during different lunar phases. These UVS observation activities sample a long column and allow the characterization of scattered light from dust and emission lines from atoms in the lunar tail. Observations in this UVS configuration show the largest excess of scattered blue light in our data set, indicative of the presence of small dust grains in the tail. Once lofted, nanoparticles may become charged and picked up by the solar wind, similar to the phenomena witnessed above Enceladus's northern hemisphere or by the STEREO/WAVES instrument while close to Earth's orbit. The UVS data show that small dust grains as well as atoms become entrained in the lunar tail.

  17. LADEE UVS (UltraViolet Visible Spectrometer) and the Search for Lunar Exospheric Dust: A Detailed Spectral Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Cook, Amanda; Colaprete, Anthony; Shirley, Mark; Vargo, Kara; Elphic, Richard C.; Hermalyn, Brendan; Stubbs, Timothy John; Glenar, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) executed science observations in lunar orbit spanning 2013-Oct-16- 2014-04-18 UT. LADEE's Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) studies the composition and temporal variations of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment, utilizing two sets of optics: a limb-viewing telescope, and a solar-viewer. The limb-viewing telescope observes illuminated dust and emitting gas species while the Sun is just behind the lunar limb. The solar viewer, with its diffuser, allows UVS to also stare directly at the solar disk as it approaches the limb, sampling progressively lower exosphere altitudes. Solar viewer "Occultation" activities occur at the lunar sunrise limb, as the LADEE spacecraft passes into the lunar night side, facing the Sun (the spacecraft orbit is near-equatorial retrograde). A loss of transmission of sunlight occurs by the occultation of dust grains along the line-of-sight. So-called "Inertial Limb" activities have the limb-viewing telescope pointed at the lit exosphere just after the Sun has set. Inertial Limb activities follow a similar progression of diminishing sampling altitudes but hold the solar elongation angle constant so the zodiacal light contribution remains constant while seeking to observe the weak lunar horizon glow. On the dark side of the moon, "Sodium Tail" activities pointed the limb-viewing telescope in the direction of the Moon's sodium tail (similar to anti-sunward), during different lunar phases. Of the UVS data sets, these show the largest excess of scattered blue light, indicative of the presence of small (approximately 100 nm) dust grains in the tail. Correlations are sought between dust in the sodium tail and meteor streams and magnetotail crossings to investigate impact- versus electrostatic-lofting. Once lofted, nanoparticles can become charged and picked up by the solar wind. The LADEE UVS Occultation, Inertial Limb, and Sodium Tail spectral datasets provide evidence of

  18. LADEE UVS Observations of Atoms and Dust in the Lunar Tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Colaprete, Anthony; Cook, Amanda M.; Shirley, Mark H.; Vargo, Kara E.; Elphic, Richard C.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Glenar, David A.

    2014-11-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was a lunar orbiter launched in September 2013 that investigated the composition and temporal variation of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment. A major goal of the mission was to characterize the dust exosphere prior to future lunar exploration activities, which may alter the lunar environment. The Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) onboard LADEE addresses this goal, utilizing two sets of optics: a limb-viewing telescope, and a solar-viewing telescope (Colaprete et al. 2014a). We report on spectroscopic 280-820 nm) observations viewing down the lunar wake or along the ‘lunar tail’ from lunar orbit. Prior ground-based studies have observed the emission from neutral sodium atoms extended along the lunar tail, so often this region is referred to as the lunar sodium tail (e.g., Smith et al. 1999, Wilson et al. 1999).UVS measurements were made on the dark side of the moon, with the UVS limb-viewing telescope pointed outward in the direction of the Moon’s wake (almost anti-sun), during different lunar phases. These UVS observation activities sample a long column and allow the characterization of scattered light from dust and emission lines from atoms in the lunar tail (Colaprete et al. 2014b). Observations in this UVS configuration show the largest excess of scattered blue light in our data set, indicative of the presence of small dust grains in the tail. Once lofted (e.g., Stubbs et al. 2006), nanoparticles may become charged and picked up by the solar wind, similar to the phenomena witnessed above Enceladus’s northern hemisphere (Farrell et al. 2012) or by the STEREO/WAVES instrument while close to Earth’s orbit (Meyer-Vernet et al 2009). The UVS data show that small dust grains as well as atoms become entrained in the lunar tail. References:Colaprete, A. et al. (2014a), Space Sci. Rev., submittedColaprete, A. et al. (2014b), SSERVI Exploration Forum, http://nesf2014.arc

  19. The Na exosphere reservoir for Mercury and the Moon: Models constrained by MESSENGER and LADEE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantos, M.; Killen, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Na exosphere of Mercury is flux-limited, and a careful accounting of the surface reservoir is necessary in order to understand the relative importance of proposed source mechanisms for this exosphere. At the Moon, a similar analysis has not yet been performed, but recent data acquired by the Kaguya spacecraft suggest an analogous depletion of the dayside reservoir for exospheric Na. New measurements of the lunar exosphere obtained by the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) and of Mercury's exosphere by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft provide the opportunity to constrain the main parameters determining the reservoirs for these exospheres. We present a model of the exosphere-surface system that attempts to unify these two datasets. We have developed a simulator that accepts as input partially constrained microphysical parameters of the gas-surface interaction (e.g., source rates/cross sections for different source processes, degree of thermal accommodation) to make testable predictions regarding the exosphere and uppermost surface (top 10-10 m). These flux-balance simulations demonstrate that the lunar exosphere is limited by the recycling rate of Na atoms mobilized by micrometeoroid vaporization. An important consequence is that, to obtain consistency with ground-based observations of the Na exosphere, the inferred impact vapor at the Moon must peak near the equator and decrease towards the poles because of migration of surface particles toward the poles through exospheric transport. Micrometeoroid streams can have a long-term effect on the lunar exosphere because, as shown in our model, particles introduced by such streams survive in the soil and exosphere for at least two lunations. Important but secondary effects must be provided by the solar wind in order to account for the variations observed within one lunation by LADEE. In its application to Mercury, the code uses new estimates of

  20. Detections of lunar exospheric ions by the LADEE neutral mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halekas, J. S.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Poppe, A. R.; Delory, G. T.

    2015-07-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS), operating in ion mode, provides sensitive detections of ions from the lunar exosphere. By analyzing ion-mode data from the entire mission, utilizing Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) plasma and magnetic field measurements to organize NMS data and eliminate background sources, we identify highly significant detections of lunar ions at mass per charge of 2, 4, 12, 20, 28, 39, and 40, moderately significant detections at 14 and 23, and weak detections at 24, 25, and 36. Unlike many previous observations of Moon-derived ions, an outward pointing viewing geometry ensures that these ions originate from the exosphere, rather than directly from the surface. For species with known neutral distributions, inferred ion production rates appear consistent with expectations for both magnitude and spatial distribution, assuming photoionization as the predominant source mechanism. Unexpected signals at mass per charge 12 and 28 suggest the presence of a significant exospheric population of carbon-bearing molecules.

  1. LADEE NMS Observations of Sporadic Water and Carbon Dioxide Signatures in the Lunar Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Hurley, D.; Stubbs, T. J.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Elphic, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    During its six months in orbit, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) has detected signatures of water and carbon dioxide in the exosphere of the Moon. The signature of these two volatile gases has been measured by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) as sporadic short-lived signal increases above instrument background. Following the detection of these two species in the exosphere, a systematic measurement campaign with a cadence of few hours over four main lunar local time sectors (sunrise, midnight, sunset, and noon) was put in place and continued to the end of the mission. While this measurement campaign did not reveal any local time dependence for these sporadic signal events, it showed that they are globally correlated with predicted micrometeoroid streams. Moreover, a subset of these NMS observations were acquired at low altitudes when water and carbon dioxide signals were below instrumental background, and used to establish new upper limits of the background abundances of these two gases in the exosphere.

  2. Ground-based Efforts to Support a Space-based Experiment: the Latest LADEE Results (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudnik, B.; Rahman, M.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) The much anticipated launch of NASA’s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer happened flawlessly last October and the satellite has been doing science (and sending a few images) since late Novermber. [The LADEE mission ended with the crash-landing of the spacecraft on the lunar far side on April 17, 2014, capping a successful 140-day mission.] We also have launched our campaign to document lunar meteroid impact flashes from the ground to supply ground truth to inform of any changes in dust concentration encountered by the spacecraft in orbit around the moon. To date I have received six reports of impact flashes or flash candidates from the group I am coordinating; other groups around the world may have more to add when all is said and done. In addition, plans are underway to prepare a program at Prairie View A&M University to involve our physics majors in lunar meteoroid, asteroid occultation, and other astronomical work through our Center for Astronomical Sciences and Technology. This facility will be a control center to not only involve physics majors, but also to include pre-service teachers and members of the outside community to promote pro-am collaborations.

  3. Ground-based Efforts to Support a Space-Based Experiment: the Latest LADEE Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudnik, Brian; Rahman, Mahmudur

    2014-05-01

    The much anticipated launch of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer happened flawlessly last October and the satellite has been doing science (and sending a few images) since late November. [the LADEE mission ended with the crash-landing of the spacecraft on the lunar far side on April 17, 2014, capping a successful 140 day mission] .We also have launched our campaign to document lunar meteoroid impact flashes from the ground to supply ground truth to inform of any changes in dust concentration encountered by the spacecraft in orbit around the moon. To date I have received six reports of impact flashes or flash candidates from the group I am coordinating; other groups around the world may have more to add when all is said and done. In addition, plans are underway to prepare a program at Prairie View A&M University to involve our physics majors in lunar meteoroid, asteroid occultation, and other astronomical work through our Center for Astronomical Sciences and Technology. This facility will be a control center to not only involve physics majors, but also to include pre-service teachers and member of the outside community to promote pro-am collaborations.

  4. Fine mapping of the gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai).

    PubMed

    Terakami, Shingo; Moriya, Shigeki; Adachi, Yoshihiko; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Saito, Toshihiro; Abe, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-03-01

    Black spot disease, which is caused by the Japanese pear pathotype of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. We mapped a gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar 'Kinchaku' (Aki gene) at the top of linkage group 11, similar to the positions of the susceptibility genes Ani in 'Osa Nijisseiki' and Ana in 'Nansui'. Using synteny-based marker enrichment, we developed novel apple SSR markers in the target region. We constructed a fine map of linkage group 11 of 'Kinchaku' and localized the Aki locus within a 1.5-cM genome region between SSR markers Mdo.chr11.28 and Mdo.chr11.34. Marker Mdo.chr11.30 co-segregated with Aki in all 621 F1 plantlets of a 'Housui' × 'Kinchaku' cross. The physical size of the Aki region, which includes three markers (Mdo.chr11.28, Mdo.chr11.30, and Mdo.chr11.34), was estimated to be 250 Kb in the 'Golden Delicious' apple genome and 107 Kb in the 'Dangshansuli' Chinese pear genome. Our results will help to identify the candidate gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear. PMID:27162498

  5. Epimedium koreanum Nakai Water Extract Exhibits Antiviral Activity against Porcine Epidermic Diarrhea Virus In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Kim, Hyunil; Choi, Yu Jeong; Yim, Nam-Hui; Yang, Hye Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2012-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes diarrhea of pigs age-independently and death of young piglets, resulting in economic loss of porcine industry. We have screened 333 natural oriental herbal medicines to search for new antiviral candidates against PEDV. We found that two herbal extracts, KIOM 198 and KIOM 124, contain significant anti-PED viral effect. KIOM 198 and KIOM 124 were identified as Epimedium koreanum Nakai and Lonicera japonica Thunberg, respectively. The further plaque and CPE inhibition assay in vitro showed that KIOM 198 has much stronger antiviral activity than KIOM 124. Additionally, KIOM 198 exhibited a similar extent of antiviral effect against other subtypes of Corona virus such as sm98 and TGE viruses. Cytotoxicity results showed that KIOM 198 is nontoxic on the cells and suggest that it can be delivered safely for therapy. Furthermore, when we orally administered KIOM 198 to piglets and then infected them with PEDV, the piglets did not show any disease symptoms like diarrhea and biopsy results showed clean intestine, whereas control pigs without KIOM 198 treatment exhibited PED-related severe symptoms. These results imply that KIOM 198 contains strong antiviral activity and has a potential to be developed as an antiviral phytomedicine to treat PEDV-related diseases in pigs. PMID:23259003

  6. Fine mapping of the gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    PubMed Central

    Terakami, Shingo; Moriya, Shigeki; Adachi, Yoshihiko; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Saito, Toshihiro; Abe, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Black spot disease, which is caused by the Japanese pear pathotype of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. We mapped a gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar ‘Kinchaku’ (Aki gene) at the top of linkage group 11, similar to the positions of the susceptibility genes Ani in ‘Osa Nijisseiki’ and Ana in ‘Nansui’. Using synteny-based marker enrichment, we developed novel apple SSR markers in the target region. We constructed a fine map of linkage group 11 of ‘Kinchaku’ and localized the Aki locus within a 1.5-cM genome region between SSR markers Mdo.chr11.28 and Mdo.chr11.34. Marker Mdo.chr11.30 co-segregated with Aki in all 621 F1 plantlets of a ‘Housui’ × ‘Kinchaku’ cross. The physical size of the Aki region, which includes three markers (Mdo.chr11.28, Mdo.chr11.30, and Mdo.chr11.34), was estimated to be 250 Kb in the ‘Golden Delicious’ apple genome and 107 Kb in the ‘Dangshansuli’ Chinese pear genome. Our results will help to identify the candidate gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear. PMID:27162498

  7. Early Operations Flight Correlation of the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume; Yang, Kan; Nguyen, Daniel; Cornwell, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission launched on September 7, 2013 with a one month cruise before lunar insertion. The LADEE spacecraft is a power limited, octagonal, composite bus structure with solar panels on all eight sides with four vertical segments per side and 2 panels dedicated to instruments. One of these panels has the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD), which represents a furthering of the laser communications technology demonstration proved out by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). LLCD increases the bandwidth of communication to and from the moon with less mass and power than LROs technology demonstrator. The LLCD Modem and Controller boxes are mounted to an internal cruciform composite panel and have no dedicated radiator. The thermal design relies on power cycling of the boxes and radiation of waste heat to the inside of the panels, which then reject the heat when facing cold space. The LADEE mission includes a slow roll and numerous attitudes to accommodate the challenging thermal requirements for all the instruments on board. During the cruise phase, the internal Modem and Controller avionics for LLCD were warmer than predicted by more than modeling uncertainty would suggest. This caused concern that if the boxes were considerably warmer than expected while off, they would also be warmer when operating and could limit the operational time when in lunar orbit. The thermal group at Goddard Space Flight Center evaluated the models and design for these critical avionics for LLCD. Upon receipt of the spacecraft models and audit was performed and data was collected from the flight telemetry to perform a sanity check of the models and to correlate to flight where possible. This paper describes the efforts to correlate the model to flight data and to predict the thermal performance when in lunar orbit and presents some lessons learned.

  8. LADEE UVS (UltraViolet Visible Spectrometer) and the Search for Lunar Exospheric Dust: A Detailed Spectral Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooden, D. H.; Cook, A.; Colaprete, A.; Shirley, M.; Vargo, K.; Elphic, R. C.; Hermalyn, B.; Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) executed science observations in lunar orbit spanning 2013-Oct-16- 2014-04-18 UT. LADEE's Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) studies the composition and temporal variations of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment, utilizing two sets of optics: a limb-viewing telescope, and a solar-viewer. The limb-viewing telescope observes illuminated dust and emitting gas species while the Sun is just behind the lunar limb. The solar viewer, with its diffuser, allows UVS to also stare directly at the solar disk as it approaches the limb, sampling progressively lower exosphere altitudes. Solar viewer "Occultation" activities occur at the lunar sunrise limb, as the LADEE spacecraft passes into the lunar night side, facing the Sun (the spacecraft orbit is near-equatorial retrograde). A loss of transmission of sunlight occurs by the occultation of dust grains along the line-of-sight [1, 2]. So-called "Inertial Limb" activities have the limb-viewing telescope pointed at the lit exosphere just after the Sun has set. Inertial Limb activities follow a similar progression of diminishing sampling altitudes but hold the solar elongation angle constant so the zodiacal light contribution remains constant while seeking to observe the weak lunar horizon glow [2,3,4]. On the dark side of the moon, "Sodium Tail" activities pointed the limb-viewing telescope in the direction of the Moon's sodium tail (~anti-sunward), during different lunar phases. Of the UVS data sets, these show the largest excess of scattered blue light, indicative of the presence of small (~100 nm) dust grains in the tail. Correlations are sought between dust in the sodium tail and meteor streams [5] and magnetotail [3] crossings to investigate impact- versus electrostatic-lofting [6]. Once lofted, nanoparticles can become charged and picked up by the solar wind [7,8]. The LADEE UVS Occultation, Inertial Limb, and Sodium Tail spectral datasets provide

  9. The expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAL1 gene increases salt tolerance in transgenic watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsun. & Nakai.].

    PubMed

    Ellul, P; Ríos, G; Atarés, A; Roig, L A; Serrano, R; Moreno, V

    2003-08-01

    An optimised Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer protocol was developed in order to obtain watermelon transgenic plants [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsun. & Nakai.]. Transformation efficiencies ranged from 2.8% to 5.3%, depending on the cultivar. The method was applied to obtain genetically engineered watermelon plants expressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAL1 gene related to salt tolerance. In order to enhance its constitutive expression in plants, the HAL1 gene was cloned in a pBiN19 plasmid under control of the 35S promoter with a double enhancer sequence from the cauliflower mosaic virus and the RNA4 leader sequence of the alfalfa mosaic virus. This vector was introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 for further inoculation of watermelon half-cotyledon explants. The introduction of both the neomycin phosphotransferase II and HAL1 genes was assessed in primary transformants (TG1) by polymerase chain reaction analysis and Southern hybridisation. The expression of the HAL1 gene was determined by Northern analysis, and the diploid level of transgenic plants was confirmed by flow cytometry. The presence of the selectable marker gene in the expected Mendelian ratios was demonstrated in TG2 progenies. The TG2 kanamycin-resistant plantlets elongated better and produced new roots and leaves in culture media supplemented with NaCl compared with the control. Salt tolerance was confirmed in a semi-hydroponic system (EC=6 dS m(-1)) on the basis of the higher growth performance of homozygous TG3 lines with respect to their respective azygous control lines without the transgene. The halotolerance observed confirmed the inheritance of the trait and supports the potential usefulness of the HAL1 gene of S. cerevisiae as a molecular tool for genetic engineering of salt-stress protection in other crop species. PMID:12783167

  10. 41 CFR 102-118.140 - What are the major mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... may not demand prepayment or collect charges from the consignee. The TSP, providing service under the... is available, unless indicated on the GBL or bill of lading. (This is commonly referred to as an..., or shrinkage on the delivering TSP's documents and the consignee's copy of the same documents....

  11. 41 CFR 102-118.140 - What are the major mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... may not demand prepayment or collect charges from the consignee. The TSP, providing service under the... is available, unless indicated on the GBL or bill of lading. (This is commonly referred to as an..., or shrinkage on the delivering TSP's documents and the consignee's copy of the same documents....

  12. 41 CFR 102-118.140 - What are the major mandatory terms and conditions governing the use of GBLs and bills of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... may not demand prepayment or collect charges from the consignee. The TSP, providing service under the... is available, unless indicated on the GBL or bill of lading. (This is commonly referred to as an..., or shrinkage on the delivering TSP's documents and the consignee's copy of the same documents....

  13. 41 CFR 102-118.210 - May my agency use bills of lading other than the GBL for a transportation shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May my agency use bills of lading other than the GBL for a transportation shipment? 102-118.210 Section 102-118.210 Public... the GBL for a transportation shipment? Yes, as long as the mandatory terms and conditions contained...

  14. Variability of helium, neon, and argon in the lunar exosphere as observed by the LADEE NMS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Halekas, J. S.; Elphic, R. C.; Delory, G. T.

    2015-05-01

    The Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) provided the first global characterization of He and Ar along with the discovery of Ne in the lunar exosphere. The mapping of the equatorial distribution of these noble gases revealed new selenographic and temporal variations. Helium was found to be controlled by the supply of solar wind alpha particles and by the presence of an endogenous source that supplies the exosphere at a rate of 1.9 × 1023 atoms s-1. Neon was detected over the nightside at levels comparable to He and was found to exhibit the spatial distribution of a surface accommodated noncondensable gas. The global measurements of NMS revealed the presence of a localized Ar enhancement that has never been identified before at the western maria. The variability resulting from this local enhancement is coupled to a more global but transient source.

  15. Modelling Niche Differentiation of Co-Existing, Elusive and Morphologically Similar Species: A Case Study of Four Macaque Species in Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area, Laos

    PubMed Central

    Coudrat, Camille N. Z.; Nekaris, K. Anne-Isola

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary We investigated the niche separation of four macaque species (Macaca arctoides, M. assamensis, M. leonina, M. mulatta) occurring within Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area, central-eastern Laos using the environmental niche modelling software MaxEnt. The respective suitable habitat predicted for each species reveals niche segregation between the four species with a gradual geographical distribution following an environmental gradient of, notably, temperature, precipitation, elevation and slope within the study area. This means that the four species seem adapted to different ecological conditions within the area. This information has implications for future research on these species and for their management and conservation. Abstract Species misidentification often occurs when dealing with co-existing and morphologically similar species such as macaques, making the study of their ecology challenging. To overcome this issue, we use reliable occurrence data from camera-trap images and transect survey data to model their respective ecological niche and potential distribution locally in Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area (NNT NPA), central-Eastern Laos. We investigate niche differentiation of morphologically similar species using four sympatric macaque species in NNT NPA, as our model species: rhesus Macaca mulatta (Taxonomic Serial Number, TSN 180099), Northern pig-tailed M. leonina (TSN not listed); Assamese M. assamensis (TSN 573018) and stump-tailed M. arctoides (TSN 573017). We examine the implications for their conservation. We obtained occurrence data of macaque species from systematic 2006–2011 camera-trapping surveys and 2011–2012 transect surveys and model their niche and potential distribution with MaxEnt software using 25 environmental and topographic variables. The respective suitable habitat predicted for each species reveals niche segregation between the four species with a gradual geographical distribution following an

  16. Modeling the Impact Ejected Dust Contribution to the Lunar Exosphere: Results from Experiments and Ground Truth from LADEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermalyn, B.; Colaprete, A.

    2013-12-01

    A considerable body of evidence indicates the presence of lofted regolith dust above the lunar surface. These observations range from multiple in-situ and orbital horizon glow detections to direct measurement of dust motion on the surface, as by the Apollo 17 Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) experiment. Despite this evidence, the specific mechanisms responsible for the lofting of regolith are still actively debated. These include impact ejection, electrostatic lofting, effects of high energy radiation, UV/X- rays, and interplay with solar wind plasma. These processes are highly relevant to one of the two main scientific objectives of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission (due to launch September, 2013): to directly measure the lunar exospheric dust environment and its spatial and temporal variability towards the goal of better understanding the dust flux. Of all the proposed mechanisms taking place on the lunar surface, the only unequivocal ongoing process is impact cratering. Hypervelocity impact events, which mobilize and redistribute regolith across planetary surfaces, are arguably the most pervasive geologic process on rocky bodies. While many studies of dust lofting state that the impact flux rate is orders of magnitude too low to account for the lunar horizon glow phenomenon and discount its contribution, it is imperative to re-examine these assumptions in light of new data on impact ejecta, particularly from the contributions from mesoscale (impactor size on the order of grain size) and macroscale (impactor > grain size) cratering. This is in large part due to a previous lack of data, for while past studies have established a canonical ejecta model for main-stage ejection of sand targets from vertical impacts, only recent studies have been able to begin quantitatively probing the intricacies of the ejection process outside this main-stage, vertical regime. In particular, it is the high-speed early-time ejecta that will reach

  17. Summary of the results from the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment (LADEE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, Mihaly

    2016-07-01

    The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission (9/2013 - 4/2014) discovered a permanently present dust cloud engulfing the Moon. The size, velocity, and density distributions of the dust particles are consistent with ejecta clouds generated from the continual bombardment of the lunar surface by sporadic interplanetary dust particles. Intermittent density enhancements were observed during several of the annual meteoroid streams, especially during the Geminids. LDEX found no evidence of the expected density enhancements over the terminators where electrostatic processes were predicted to efficiently loft small grains. LDEX is an impact ionization dust detector, it captures coincident signals and full waveforms to reliably identify dust impacts. LDEX recorded average impact rates of approximately 1 and 0.1 hits/minute of particles with impact charges of q > 0.5 and q > 5 fC, corresponding to particles with radii of a > 0.3 and a> 0.7~μm, respectively. Several of the yearly meteor showers generated sustained elevated levels of impact rates, especially if their radiant direction intersected the lunar surface near the equatorial plane, greatly enhancing the probability of crossing their ejecta plumes. The characteristic velocities of dust particles in the cloud are on the order of ~100 m/s which we neglect compared to the typical spacecraft speeds of 1.6 km/s. Hence, with the knowledge of the spacecraft orbit and attitude, impact rates can be directly turned into particle densities as functions of time and position. LDEX observations are the first to identify the ejecta clouds around the Moon sustained by the continual bombardment of interplanetary dust particles. Most of the dust particles generated in impacts have insufficient energy to escape and follow ballistic orbits, returning to the surface, 'gardening' the regolith. Similar ejecta clouds are expected to engulf all airless planetary objects, including

  18. Ethanolic Extract of Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai Alleviates Alcoholic Liver Damage Combined with a High-Fat Diet in C57BL/6J Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haein; Park, Minyoung; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kwon, Oran

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver steatosis have an indistinguishable spectrum of histological features and liver enzyme elevations. In this study, we investigated the potential of the ethanolic extract of Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai (AK) to protect against experimental alcoholic liver disease in a mouse model that couples diet and daily ethanol bolus gavage. Fifty-six C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into seven groups: normal control (NC), alcohol control (AC), alcohol/HFD control (AH), low-dose (1%) AK in alcohol group (ACL), high-dose (3%) AK in alcohol group (ACH), low-dose AK in alcohol/HFD group (AHL), and high-dose AK in alcohol/HFD group (AHH). The AH group showed more severe damage than the AC group in terms of biochemical and molecular data that were observed in this study. The administration of AK exerted remarkable effects in: plasma ALT (p < 0.0001), total lipid (p = 0.014), TG (p = 0.0037) levels; CPT-1α (p = 0.0197), TLR4 (p < 0.0001), CD14 (p = 0.0002), IL-6 (p = 0.0264) and MCP-1 (p = 0.0045) gene expressions; and ALDH (p < 0.0001) and CAT (p = 0.0076) activities. The data suggested that at least the high dose AK might confer protection against alcoholic liver damage combined with an HFD by accelerating lipid oxidation and alcohol metabolism and by suppressing the inflammatory response, including the TLR pathway. PMID:27231887

  19. Combined treatment with Epimedium koreanum Nakai extract and gefitinib overcomes drug resistance caused by T790M mutation in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie; Zhong, Rongling; Huang, Houcai; Zhang, Zhenhai; Ding, Dongmei; Yan, Hongmei; Sun, E; Jia, Xiaobin

    2014-01-01

    Although the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as gefitinib, have shown promising therapeutic efficacy in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring EGFR activating mutation, development of acquired resistance is almost inevitable. We investigated whether the addition of Epimedium koreanum Nakai extract (EEF) to gefitinib could overcome the resistance of NSCLC cells to gefitinib. In our study, the growth inhibitory effects of cotreatment differed between mutant EGFR and wild type EGFR. A synergistic antiproliferative effect was observed in the combined treatments in H1975 and PC-9GR cells carrying T790M EGFR. In addition, the cotreatment exhibited a much greater inhibition than either agent alone on the following metastatic processes: (a) invasion, (b) wound healing, and (c) tubule formation by endothelial cells. The phosphorylations of EGFR family (EGFR, HER-2, and HER-3) and EGFR downstream PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in H1975 and PC-9/GR cells were also attanuated, whereas EEF or gefitinib alone had no obvious effects. Similarly, the combination effectively suppressed tumor growth and increased mice survival in PC-9GR xenografts. The results indicate that the addition of EEF to gefitinib is a promising strategy to overcome T790M-mediated drug resistance. PMID:24738693

  20. Angelica gigas Nakai and Soluplus-Based Solid Formulations Prepared by Hot-Melting Extrusion: Oral Absorption Enhancing and Memory Ameliorating Effects

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Jingpei; Lee, Jae-Young; Weon, Jin Bae; Ma, Choong Je; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Dae-Duk; Kang, Wie-Soo; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Oral solid formulations based on Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) and Soluplus were prepared by the hot-melting extrusion (HME) method. AGN was pulverized into coarse and ultrafine particles, and their particle size and morphology were investigated. Ultrafine AGN particles were used in the HME process with high shear to produce AGN-based formulations. In simulated gastrointestinal fluids (pH 1.2 and pH 6.8) and water, significantly higher amounts of the major active components of AGN, decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA), were extracted from the HME-processed AGN/Soluplus (F8) group than the AGN EtOH extract (ext) group (p < 0.05). Based on an in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats, the relative oral bioavailability of decursinol (DOH), a hepatic metabolite of D and DA, in F8-administered mice was 8.75-fold higher than in AGN EtOH ext-treated group. In scopolamine-induced memory-impaired mice, F8 exhibited a more potent cognitive enhancing effect than AGN EtOH ext in both a Morris water maze test and a passive avoidance test. These findings suggest that HME-processed AGN/Soluplus formulation (F8) could be a promising therapeutic candidate for memory impairment. PMID:25915423

  1. Development of an efficient callus proliferation system for Rheum coreanum Nakai, a rare medicinal plant growing in Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Mun, Song-Chol; Mun, Gwan-Sim

    2016-07-01

    A clonal mass propagation to obtain mountainous sources of Rheum coreanum Nakai, a rare medicinal plant in Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established by rhizome tissue culture. Whole plants were selected and collected as a vigorous individual free from blights and harmful insects among wild plants of R. coreanum grown on the top of Mt. Langrim (1.540 m above the sea) situated at the northern extremity of Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Induction of the callus was determined using four organs separated from the whole plant and different plant growth regulators. The callus was successfully induced from rhizome explant on MS medium containing 2.4-D (0.2-0.3 mg/l). In the MS medium supplemented with a combination of BAP (2 mg/l) and NAA (0.2 mg/l), single NAA (0.5 mg/l), or IBA (0.5 mg/l), a higher number of shoot, root and plantlets was achieved. The survival rate on the mountainous region of the plantlets successfully acclimatized (100%) in greenhouse reached 95%, and yields of crude drug and contents of active principles were higher than those obtained by sexual and vegetative propagation. This first report of R. coreanum tissue culture provides an opportunity to control extinction threats and an efficient callus proliferation system for growing resources rapidly on a large scale. PMID:27298581

  2. Heat Shock Protein Augmentation of Angelica gigas Nakai Root Hot Water Extract on Adipogenic Differentiation in Murine 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lumbera, Wenchie Marie L; Dela Cruz, Joseph; Yang, Seung-Hak; Hwang, Seong Gu

    2016-03-01

    There is a high association of heat shock on the alteration of energy and lipid metabolism. The alterations associated with thermal stress are composed of gene expression changes and adaptation through biochemical responses. Previous study showed that Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root extract promoted adipogenic differentiation in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes under the normal temperature condition. However, its effect in heat shocked 3T3-L1 cells has not been established. In this study, we investigated the effect of AGN root hot water extract in the adipogenic differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes following heat shock and its possible mechanism of action. Thermal stress procedure was executed within the same stage of preadipocyte confluence (G0) through incubation at 42°C for one hour and then allowed to recover at normal incubation temperature of 37°C for another hour before AGN treatment for both cell viability assay and Oil Red O. Cell viability assay showed that AGN was able to dose dependently (0 to 400 μg/mL) increase cell proliferation under normal incubation temperature and also was able to prevent cytotoxicity due to heat shock accompanied by cell proliferation. Confluent preadipocytes were subjected into heat shock procedure, recovery and then AGN treatment prior to stimulation with the differentiation solution. Heat shocked preadipocytes exhibited reduced differentiation as supported by decreased amount of lipid accumulation in Oil Red O staining and triglyceride measurement. However, those heat shocked preadipocytes that then were given AGN extract showed a dose dependent increase in lipid accumulation as shown by both evaluation procedures. In line with these results, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis showed that AGN increased adipogenic differentiation by upregulating heat shock protection related genes and proteins together with the adipogenic markers. These findings imply the potential of AGN in heat

  3. Heat Shock Protein Augmentation of Angelica gigas Nakai Root Hot Water Extract on Adipogenic Differentiation in Murine 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lumbera, Wenchie Marie L.; dela Cruz, Joseph; Yang, Seung-Hak; Hwang, Seong Gu

    2016-01-01

    There is a high association of heat shock on the alteration of energy and lipid metabolism. The alterations associated with thermal stress are composed of gene expression changes and adaptation through biochemical responses. Previous study showed that Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root extract promoted adipogenic differentiation in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes under the normal temperature condition. However, its effect in heat shocked 3T3-L1 cells has not been established. In this study, we investigated the effect of AGN root hot water extract in the adipogenic differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes following heat shock and its possible mechanism of action. Thermal stress procedure was executed within the same stage of preadipocyte confluence (G0) through incubation at 42°C for one hour and then allowed to recover at normal incubation temperature of 37°C for another hour before AGN treatment for both cell viability assay and Oil Red O. Cell viability assay showed that AGN was able to dose dependently (0 to 400 μg/mL) increase cell proliferation under normal incubation temperature and also was able to prevent cytotoxicity due to heat shock accompanied by cell proliferation. Confluent preadipocytes were subjected into heat shock procedure, recovery and then AGN treatment prior to stimulation with the differentiation solution. Heat shocked preadipocytes exhibited reduced differentiation as supported by decreased amount of lipid accumulation in Oil Red O staining and triglyceride measurement. However, those heat shocked preadipocytes that then were given AGN extract showed a dose dependent increase in lipid accumulation as shown by both evaluation procedures. In line with these results, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis showed that AGN increased adipogenic differentiation by upregulating heat shock protection related genes and proteins together with the adipogenic markers. These findings imply the potential of AGN in heat

  4. Involvement of EARLY BUD-BREAK, an AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Gene, in Bud Break in Japanese Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) Lateral Flower Buds: Expression, Histone Modifications and Possible Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Anh Tuan, Pham; Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-05-01

    In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) 'Kosui', three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering phase, i.e. rapid enlargement, sprouting and flowering. Here, we report an APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor gene, named pear EARLY BUD-BREAK (PpEBB), which was highly expressed during the rapid enlargement stage occurring prior to the onset of bud break in flower buds. Gene expression analysis revealed that PpEBB expression was dramatically increased during the rapid enlargement stage in three successive growing seasons. PpEBB transcript levels peaked 1 week prior to onset of bud break in 'Kosui' potted plants treated with hydrogen cyanamide or water under forcing conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR showed that higher levels of active histone modifications (trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at Lys4) in the 5'-upstream and start codon regions of the PpEBB gene were associated with the induced expression level of PpEBB during the rapid enlargement stage. In addition, we provide evidence that PpEBB may interact with and regulate pear four D-type cyclin (PpCYCD3) genes during bud break in 'Kosui' lateral flower buds. PpEBB significantly increased the promoter activities of four PpCYCD3 genes in a dual-luciferase assay using tobacco leaves. Taken together, our findings uncovered aspects of the bud break regulatory mechanism in the Japanese pear and provided further evidence that the EBB family plays an important role in bud break in perennial plants. PMID:26940832

  5. Pawsey, Joseph Lade (1908-62)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Radiophysicist and astronomer, born Ararat, Victoria, Australia, pioneered the use of a Lloyd's mirror arrangement for radio interferometry at Dover Heights in Australia, and located the source of solar radio noise within the disc of the Sun. As John Hey had suggested, the radio noise came from sunspots....

  6. Ultrahigh hydrostatic pressure extraction of flavonoids from Epimedium koreanum Nakai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lili; Zhang, Shouqin; Dou, Jianpeng; Zhu, Junjie; Liang, Qing

    2011-02-01

    Herba Epimedii is one of the most famous Chinese herbal medicines listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, as one of the representatives of traditional Chinese herb, it has been widely applied in the field of invigorate the kidney and strengthen 'Yang'. The attention to Epimedium extract has more and more increased in recent years. In this work, a novel extraction technique, ultra-high hydrostatic pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract the total flavonoids of E. koreanum. Three factors (pressure, ethanol concentration and extraction time) were chosen as the variables of extraction experiments, and the optimum UPE conditions were pressure 350 MPa; ethanol concentration 50% (v/v); extraction time 5 min. Compared with Supercritical CO2 extraction, Reflux extraction and Ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE has excellent advantages (shorter extraction time, higher yield, better antioxidant activity, lower energy consumption and eco-friendly).

  7. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... foreign commerce containing the following information: (a) Names of consignor and consignee. (b) Origin and destination points. (c) Number of packages. (d) Description of freight. (e) Weight, volume, or... information as prescribed in 49 CFR part 379....

  8. Gravity measured at the apollo 14 lading site.

    PubMed

    Nance, R L

    1971-12-01

    The gravity at the Apollo 14 landing site has been determined from the accelerometer data that were telemetered from the lunar module. The values for the lunar gravity measured at the Apollo 11, 12, and 14 sites were reduced to a common elevation and were then compared between sites. A theoretical gravity, based on the assumption of a spherical moon, was computed for each landing site and compared with the observed value. The observed gravity was also used to compute the lunar radius at each landing site. PMID:17757030

  9. Pear Skin Stain Caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola on Niitaka Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ki-Woong; Oh, Soh-Young; Yoon, Deok-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Pear skin stains on ‘Niitaka’ pears, which occur from the growing stage to the cold storage stage, reportedly negatively influence the marketing of pears. These stains on fruit skin are likely due to a pathogenic fungus that resides on the skin and is characterized by dark stains; however, the mycelium of this fungus does not penetrate into the sarcocarp and is only present on the cuticle layer of fruit skin. A pathogenic fungus was isolated from the skin lesions of infected fruits, and its pathogenicity was subsequently tested. According to the pathogenicity test, Mycosphaerella sp. was strongly pathogenic, while Penicillium spp. and Alternaria spp. showed modest pathogenicity. In this present study, we isolated the pathogenic fungus responsible for the symptoms of pears (i.e., dark brown-colored specks) and identified it as Mycosphaerella graminicola based on its morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequence of the beta-tubulin gene. M. graminicola was pathogenic to the skin of ‘Niitaka’ pears, which are one of the most widely growing varieties of pears in South Korea. PMID:25289008

  10. Crystal structure of sepaconitine, a C19-diterpenoid alkaloid from the roots of Aconitum sinomontanum Nakai

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xin-Wei; Lu, Qiang-Qiang; Zhou, Jun-Hui; Cui, Xin-Ai

    2015-01-01

    The title compound [systematic name: [(1α,14α,16β)-20-ethyl-8,9,10-trihy­droxy-1,14,16-tri­meth­oxy­aconitan-4-yl 2-amino­benzoate], C30H42N2O8, a natural C19-diterpenoid alkaloid, possesses an aconitane carbon skeleton with four six-membered rings and two five-membered rings. The fused ring system contains two chair, one boat, one twist-boat and two envelope conformations. Intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed between the amino and carbonyl groups. The mol­ecules are linked together via O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional framework. PMID:26396791

  11. Antifungal and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil from Angelica koreana Nakai

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Junghyun; Shin, Seungwon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine the antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oil from Angelica koreana. Methods. Essential oil was obtained from the dried roots of A. koreana by steam distillation, and its composition was identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the oil fraction and its main components were determined by broth dilution assay using common pathogenic Aspergillus and Trichophyton species. The combined effects of the oils with itraconazole were evaluated using a checkerboard titer test. In addition, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging, nitrite inhibition, and reducing power were determined to assess the antioxidant activity of this oil. Results. The essential oil fraction and its main components showed inhibitory activity against all of the tested fungi, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 250–1000 μg/mL. Furthermore, this oil exhibited synergism when combined with itraconazole. Conclusion. In the treatment of infections caused by Aspergillus and Trichophyton species, combining itraconazole with either A. koreana essential oil or its main components may reduce the minimum effective dose of itraconazole required and, thus, minimize its side effects. In addition, this oil is a promising source of natural antioxidant agents. PMID:25197308

  12. Pharmacognostical stucies on the seeds of mulam citrullus lanatus (thunb.) mats & nakai (cucurbitacae).

    PubMed

    Shantha, T R; Kumar, K G; Pasupathy, S; Vijayalakshmi, B; Bikshapathi, T

    2001-07-01

    In the Siddha system of Medicine cotyledons of the seeds of C. Lanatus are known as Mulam/Pullum/Pitcha (Tamil) and used as Pulukolli (Vermifuge), Karpa moolikai (General tonic) and as Aanmeiperukki (Aphrodisiac). In the Ayurvedic system of Medicine seeds are said to have properties like Sheeta (cooling), Mootrala (Diuretic) and Vrshya (Aphrodisiac). The present paper deals with macro and microscopical studies, maceration, histochemical tests, solubility, physical contents, extractive values, tests for inorganic and organic constituents, U.V. and thin layer chromatographic studies. PMID:22557025

  13. Antifungal and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil from Angelica koreana Nakai.

    PubMed

    Roh, Junghyun; Shin, Seungwon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine the antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oil from Angelica koreana. Methods. Essential oil was obtained from the dried roots of A. koreana by steam distillation, and its composition was identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the oil fraction and its main components were determined by broth dilution assay using common pathogenic Aspergillus and Trichophyton species. The combined effects of the oils with itraconazole were evaluated using a checkerboard titer test. In addition, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging, nitrite inhibition, and reducing power were determined to assess the antioxidant activity of this oil. Results. The essential oil fraction and its main components showed inhibitory activity against all of the tested fungi, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 250-1000 μg/mL. Furthermore, this oil exhibited synergism when combined with itraconazole. Conclusion. In the treatment of infections caused by Aspergillus and Trichophyton species, combining itraconazole with either A. koreana essential oil or its main components may reduce the minimum effective dose of itraconazole required and, thus, minimize its side effects. In addition, this oil is a promising source of natural antioxidant agents. PMID:25197308

  14. 41 CFR 102-117.85 - What is the difference between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the difference... Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Acquiring Transportation or...

  15. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR...

  16. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR...

  17. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... must consist of red or black letters on a white background that is at least 30 cm (11.8 inches) wide... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR...

  18. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR part... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight...

  19. 19 CFR 4.30 - Permits and special licenses for unlading and lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... which transits the Panama Canal and no cargo, baggage, or other article shall be laden on a vessel... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at...

  20. 19 CFR 4.30 - Permits and special licenses for unlading and lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... which transits the Panama Canal and no cargo, baggage, or other article shall be laden on a vessel... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at...

  1. 19 CFR 4.30 - Permits and special licenses for unlading and lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... which transits the Panama Canal and no cargo, baggage, or other article shall be laden on a vessel... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at...

  2. 19 CFR 4.30 - Permits and special licenses for unlading and lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... which transits the Panama Canal and no cargo, baggage, or other article shall be laden on a vessel... Federal Register citations affecting § 4.30, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in...

  3. 19 CFR 4.30 - Permits and special licenses for unlading and lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the customs officers and employees assigned to duty in connection with such unlading at night or... demand by the port director, does not furnish a written list of the names, addresses, social security... port director in writing of the names, addresses, social security numbers, and dates and places...

  4. Effect of the successive steps of a cryopreservation protocol on the structural integrity of Rubia akane Nakai hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Salma, Mohammad; Engelmann-Sylvestre, Isabelle; Collin, Myriam; Escoute, Jacques; Lartaud, Marc; Yi, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Haeng-Hoon; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Engelmann, Florent

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we studied the impact of the successive steps of the droplet-vitrification protocol technique employed for cryopreservation of Rubia akane hairy roots on the features of cortical, pericycle and endoderm cells of apical and central root segments, using histology techniques and combining qualitative and quantitative observations. In apical segments, plasmolysis (22-71 %, depending on cell type) was observed only after the loading treatment and did not increase after the following steps of the protocol. By contrast, in central segments, plasmolysis (39-45 %) was already observed after the sucrose pretreatment; it increased to 54-68 %, depending on cell type, after the loading treatment, but no further changes were noted after treatment with the vitrification solution. After liquid nitrogen exposure and unloading treatment, deplasmolysis was more rapid in apical segments, with cortical and pericycle cells having retrieved their original features. In central segments, only cortical cells had retrieved their original features and endoderm and pericycle cells were still highly plasmolysed. Nuclei were more strongly impacted by the cryopreservation protocol in central segments, where they displayed a highly condensed nucleoplasm from the loading treatment onwards and had not retrieved their original aspect after the unloading treatment. By contrast, nuclei had a much less condensed nucleoplasm in cells of apical segments, and they had retrieved their original aspect after the unloading treatment. PMID:24150426

  5. 19 CFR 123.8 - Permit or special license to unlade or lade a vessel or vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO General Provisions... vessel of less than 5 net tons arriving from Canada or Mexico by any route, or from a vehicle, permission... vehicle arriving from or departing for Canada or Mexico by any route at night, on a Sunday or holiday,...

  6. 15 CFR 30.7 - Annotating the bill of lading, air waybill, or other commercial loading documents with proof of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... identified in the ITAR (22 CFR 120 through 130) for the U.S. State Department requirements concerning the..., exemption or exclusions legends. (c) Exports of rough diamonds classified under HS subheadings 7102.10, 7102.21, and 7102.31, in accordance with the Clean Diamond Trade Act, will require the proof of...

  7. 15 CFR 30.7 - Annotating the bill of lading, air waybill, or other commercial loading documents with proof of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... identified in the ITAR (22 CFR 120 through 130) for the U.S. State Department requirements concerning the..., exemption or exclusions legends. (c) Exports of rough diamonds classified under HS subheadings 7102.10, 7102.21, and 7102.31, in accordance with the Clean Diamond Trade Act, will require the proof of...

  8. 15 CFR 30.7 - Annotating the bill of lading, air waybill, or other commercial loading documents with proof of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... identified in the ITAR (22 CFR 120 through 130) for the U.S. State Department requirements concerning the..., exemption or exclusions legends. (c) Exports of rough diamonds classified under HS subheadings 7102.10, 7102.21, and 7102.31, in accordance with the Clean Diamond Trade Act, will require the proof of...

  9. FURTHER EVALUATION OF TRICKLE BED BIOFILTER PERFORMANCE AS A FUNCTION OF LADING, RESIDENCE TIME, AND BIOMASS CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act have stimulated strong interest in the use of biofiltration for the economical engineered control of VOCs in effluent air streams. rickle bed air biofilters (TBABS) are especially applicable for treating VOCs at high loadings. or long term...

  10. 19 CFR 123.8 - Permit or special license to unlade or lade a vessel or vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO General Provisions § 123... less than 5 net tons arriving from Canada or Mexico by any route, or from a vehicle, permission to... vehicle arriving from or departing for Canada or Mexico by any route at night, on a Sunday or holiday,...

  11. Expression for the granular elastic energy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yimin; Zheng, Hepeng; Peng, Zheng; Fu, Liping; Song, Shixiong; Sun, Qicheng; Mayer, Michael; Liu, Mario

    2012-05-01

    Granular solid hydrodynamics (GSH) is a broad-ranged continual mechanical description of granular media capable of accounting for static stress distributions, yield phenomena, propagation and damping of elastic waves, the critical state, shear band, and fast dense flow. An important input of GSH is an expression for the elastic energy needed to deform the grains. The original expression, though useful and simple, has some drawbacks. Therefore a slightly more complicated expression is proposed here that eliminates three of them: (1) The maximal angle at which an inclined layer of grains remains stable is increased from 26^{∘} to the more realistic value of 30^{∘}. (2) Depending on direction and polarization, transverse elastic waves are known to propagate at slightly different velocities. The old expression neglects these differences, the new one successfully reproduces them. (3) Most importantly, the old expression contains only the Drucker-Prager yield surface. The new one contains in addition those named after Coulomb, Lade-Duncan, and Matsuoka-Nakai-realizing each, and interpolating between them, by shifting a single scalar parameter. PMID:23004747

  12. Resistance of Polish lines and hybrids of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum et Nakai] to Fusarium oxysporum at the seedling stage.

    PubMed

    Swiader, Magdalena; Prończuk, Maria; Niemirowicz-Szczyt, Katarzyna

    2002-01-01

    Watermelon is a species cultivated in the hot climate or in the greenhouse. Since recently it has also started to be grown in the open in the Polish climate. This species is frequently at risk of Fusarium oxysporum infection. Between 1996 and 1997 ten inbred lines and nine hybrids of Polish origin were tested for resistance to this pathogen. The test was conducted with the use of four isolates of F. oxysporum: three from Polish infected plants (formae speciales not determined), while the fourth from U.K. (F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum). In the three series of tests the control plants were Pannonia F(1) and Sugar Baby. No inbred line or hybrid was found to be highly resistant to the pathogen. However, it was possible to identify four lines and five hybrids showing a higher level of resistance as compared with the control. The level of hybrid resistance was determined by comparison with the parental genotypes. PMID:12080172

  13. Effect of heat treatment around the fruit set region on growth and yield of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai].

    PubMed

    Noh, Jaejong; Kim, Jeong Man; Sheikh, Sameena; Lee, So Geun; Lim, Jeong Hyeon; Seong, Moon Ho; Jung, Gi Tai

    2013-10-01

    The present experiment was aimed to study the effect of imposing modulated temperature treatments 14 °C and 18 °C, around the fruiting region of watermelon plants, and to estimate the economic feasibility of the temperature treatments based on energy consumption for heating. Watermelon cultivar 'Sambok-gul' was selected and sown on perlite beds in a plastic house under controlled conditions at Watermelon Farm, Jeongeup-Jeonbuk, longitude 35° 31' 47.51N, 126° 48'48.84E, altitude 37 m during the early spring season (2010-2011). The findings revealed that the temperature treatment at 18 °C caused significant increase in weight (2.0 kg plant(-1)), fruit weight (8.3 kg plant(-1)), soluble solid content (11.5 %), and fruit set rate (96.5 %) at harvest stage. Higher contents of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions were observed in the 1st upper leaf of the fruit set node (79.3 mg L(-1)) and the 1st lower leaf of the fruit set node (12.0 mg L(-1)), respectively at 14 °C. The power consumption and extra costs of the temperature treatment 18 °C were suggested as affordable and in range of a farmer's budget (41.14 USD/22 days). Hence, it was concluded that modulating temperature treatments could be utilized successfully to optimize the temperature range for enhancing the fruit yield and quality in the winter watermelon crops. PMID:24431519

  14. Identification and validation of a core set of microsatellite markers for genetic diversity analysis in watermelon, Citrullus lanatus Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Watermelon has a narrow genetic base, which makes it difficult in detection and utilization of the genetic variations, cultivar identification and increasing genetic diversity that are some important tasks for watermelon breeders. Molecular marker...

  15. 41 CFR 102-118.200 - Can a TSP demand advance payment for the transportation charges submitted on a bill of lading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can a TSP demand advance... 102-118.200 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use...

  16. 41 CFR 102-117.90 - May I use U.S. Government bill of lading (GBL) (Optional Forms 1103 and 1203), to acquire freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I use U.S... related transportation services? 102-117.90 Section 102-117.90 Public Contracts and Property Management... transportation services offered under a contract or rate tender until March 31, 2002. The GBL will...

  17. 49 CFR 178.338-18 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pounds. (7) Maximum design density of lading (Max. Lading density), in pounds per gallon. (8) Material... cryogenic liquid, in hours, and the name of that cryogenic liquid (MRHT __ hrs, name of cryogenic...

  18. 49 CFR 178.337-17 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... design density of lading (Max. Lading density), in pounds per gallon. (7) Material specification number... the alloy type. (8) Material specification number—heads (Head matl. yyy***), where “yyy” is...

  19. 49 CFR 178.337-17 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... design density of lading (Max. Lading density), in pounds per gallon. (7) Material specification number... the alloy type. (8) Material specification number—heads (Head matl. yyy***), where “yyy” is...

  20. Development of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and a CAPS-based genetic linkage map in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. and Nakai) constructed using whole-genome re-sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shi; Gao, Peng; Zhu, Qianglong; Luan, Feishi; Davis, Angela R.; Wang, Xiaolu

    2016-01-01

    Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers are useful tools for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This study detected and converted SNP sites into CAPS markers based on high-throughput re-sequencing data in watermelon, for linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Two inbred lines, Cream of Saskatchewan (COS) and LSW-177 had been re-sequenced and analyzed by Perl self-compiled script for CAPS marker development. 88.7% and 78.5% of the assembled sequences of the two parental materials could map to the reference watermelon genome, respectively. Comparative assembled genome data analysis provided 225,693 and 19,268 SNPs and indels between the two materials. 532 pairs of CAPS markers were designed with 16 restriction enzymes, among which 271 pairs of primers gave distinct bands of the expected length and polymorphic bands, via PCR and enzyme digestion, with a polymorphic rate of 50.94%. Using the new CAPS markers, an initial CAPS-based genetic linkage map was constructed with the F2 population, spanning 1836.51 cM with 11 linkage groups and 301 markers. 12 QTLs were detected related to fruit flesh color, length, width, shape index, and brix content. These newly CAPS markers will be a valuable resource for breeding programs and genetic studies of watermelon. PMID:27162496

  1. Development of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and a CAPS-based genetic linkage map in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. and Nakai) constructed using whole-genome re-sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi; Gao, Peng; Zhu, Qianglong; Luan, Feishi; Davis, Angela R; Wang, Xiaolu

    2016-03-01

    Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers are useful tools for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This study detected and converted SNP sites into CAPS markers based on high-throughput re-sequencing data in watermelon, for linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Two inbred lines, Cream of Saskatchewan (COS) and LSW-177 had been re-sequenced and analyzed by Perl self-compiled script for CAPS marker development. 88.7% and 78.5% of the assembled sequences of the two parental materials could map to the reference watermelon genome, respectively. Comparative assembled genome data analysis provided 225,693 and 19,268 SNPs and indels between the two materials. 532 pairs of CAPS markers were designed with 16 restriction enzymes, among which 271 pairs of primers gave distinct bands of the expected length and polymorphic bands, via PCR and enzyme digestion, with a polymorphic rate of 50.94%. Using the new CAPS markers, an initial CAPS-based genetic linkage map was constructed with the F2 population, spanning 1836.51 cM with 11 linkage groups and 301 markers. 12 QTLs were detected related to fruit flesh color, length, width, shape index, and brix content. These newly CAPS markers will be a valuable resource for breeding programs and genetic studies of watermelon. PMID:27162496

  2. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Delory, G. T.; Hine, Butler P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Horanyi, M.; Colaprete, A.; Benna, M.; Noble, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission was designed to address long-standing scientific questions about the Moon's environment, including the assessment of the composition of the lunar atmosphere, and characterization of the lunar dust environment at low orbital altitudes. LADEE was derived from the Modular Common Spacecraft Bus design that was developed at NASA Ames Research Center; it used modularized subassemblies and existing commercial spaceflight hardware to reduce cost. LADEE was launched on the very first Minotaur V, and was also the first deep space mission launched from Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. LADEE was equipped with two in situ instruments and a remote sensing instrument to address the atmosphere and dust measurement requirements. LADEE also carried the first deep-space optical communications demonstration, the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration. LADEE was launched in early September, 2013, took science data for over 140 days in low lunar orbit, and impacted the surface on April 18, 2014.

  3. Resistance of Citrullus Colocynthis to Whiteflies and Spidermites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly (SPWF), Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), and the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) are serious pests of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus) (Cucurbitaceae). United ...

  4. 19 CFR 181.47 - Completion of claim for drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shall include a bill of lading, air waybill, freight waybill, export ocean bill of lading, Canadian... documentary evidence shall establish fully the time and fact of exportation, the identity of the exporter, and... returned to Customs custody; (B) Customs Form 7501 to establish the fact of importation, the receipt of...

  5. 78 FR 23945 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Entry and Immediate Delivery Application and Simplified...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... (78 FR 9719) on February 11, 2013, allowing for a 60-day comment period. This notice allows for an... lading; house air waybill number; bill of lading issuer code; entry number; entry type; and estimated shipment value. Three optional data elements are the container stuffing location; consolidator name...

  6. 49 CFR 178.337-17 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... after October 1, 2004 must have a corrosion-resistant metal name plate (ASME Plate) and specification... letters into the metal of the plate, with the information required in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... design density of lading (Max. Lading density), in pounds per gallon. (7) Material specification...

  7. 49 CFR 178.345-14 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (c) of this section, and by preparing the certificate prescribed in § 178.345-15. Metal plates.... (7) Maximum design density of lading (Max. lading density), in pounds per gallon. (8) Material... cargo tank motor vehicle must have an additional corrosion resistant metal specification plate...

  8. 49 CFR 1005.2 - Filing of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., within the specified time limits applicable thereto and as otherwise may be required by law, the terms of the bill of lading or other contract of carriage, and all tariff provisions applicable thereto. (b... specified in the bill of lading or contract of carriage or transportation and: (1) Containing...

  9. 19 CFR 141.54 - Separate entries for consolidated shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Quantity of Merchandise To Be Included in an... by the port director. (b) Waiver of right to have bill of lading or air waybill returned. If a bill... granted by section 484(j), Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, to have this bill of lading or air...

  10. 19 CFR 143.23 - Form of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at... chapter may be entered by presenting the bill of lading or a manifest listing each bill of lading (see...) Ultimate consignee name and address; (4) Specific description of the merchandise; (5) Quantity;...

  11. 49 CFR 370.7 - Investigation of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of an investigation, each claim shall be supported by the original bill of lading, evidence of the... been invoiced to the consignee shown on the bill of lading or where an invoice does not show price or... establish the destination value in the quantity, shipped, transported, or involved; Provided, further,...

  12. 19 CFR 141.53 - Procedure for separate entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Quantity of Merchandise To Be Included in an Entry § 141... are made for merchandise covered by a single bill of lading or air waybill, the provisions of § 141.54 shall be complied with, except that the endorsement on the bill of lading or air waybill required...

  13. 19 CFR 141.53 - Procedure for separate entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Quantity of Merchandise To Be Included in an Entry § 141... are made for merchandise covered by a single bill of lading or air waybill, the provisions of § 141.54 shall be complied with, except that the endorsement on the bill of lading or air waybill required...

  14. 49 CFR 370.7 - Investigation of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of an investigation, each claim shall be supported by the original bill of lading, evidence of the... been invoiced to the consignee shown on the bill of lading or where an invoice does not show price or... establish the destination value in the quantity, shipped, transported, or involved; Provided, further,...

  15. 19 CFR 141.57 - Single entry for split shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Quantity of Merchandise To Be Included in an Entry... carrier in the exporting country under one bill of lading or waybill, and is thus intended by the importer... same port of entry in the United States, as listed in the original bill of lading or waybill; and...

  16. 19 CFR 141.54 - Separate entries for consolidated shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Quantity of Merchandise To Be Included in an... by the port director. (b) Waiver of right to have bill of lading or air waybill returned. If a bill... granted by section 484(j), Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, to have this bill of lading or air...

  17. 19 CFR 141.54 - Separate entries for consolidated shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Quantity of Merchandise To Be Included in an... by the port director. (b) Waiver of right to have bill of lading or air waybill returned. If a bill... granted by section 484(j), Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, to have this bill of lading or air...

  18. 40 CFR 279.56 - Tracking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... processing/re-refining. These records may take the form of a log, invoice, manifest, bill of lading or other...-refiner from whom the used oil was sent for processing/re-refining; (5) The quantity of used oil accepted... facility. These records may take the form of a log, invoice, manifest, bill of lading or other...

  19. 19 CFR 141.53 - Procedure for separate entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Quantity of Merchandise To Be Included in an Entry § 141... are made for merchandise covered by a single bill of lading or air waybill, the provisions of § 141.54 shall be complied with, except that the endorsement on the bill of lading or air waybill required...

  20. 19 CFR 141.54 - Separate entries for consolidated shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Quantity of Merchandise To Be Included in an... by the port director. (b) Waiver of right to have bill of lading or air waybill returned. If a bill... granted by section 484(j), Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, to have this bill of lading or air...

  1. 19 CFR 143.23 - Form of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at... chapter may be entered by presenting the bill of lading or a manifest listing each bill of lading (see...) Ultimate consignee name and address; (4) Specific description of the merchandise; (5) Quantity;...

  2. 19 CFR 143.23 - Form of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at... chapter may be entered by presenting the bill of lading or a manifest listing each bill of lading (see...) Ultimate consignee name and address; (4) Specific description of the merchandise; (5) Quantity;...

  3. 49 CFR 370.7 - Investigation of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of an investigation, each claim shall be supported by the original bill of lading, evidence of the... been invoiced to the consignee shown on the bill of lading or where an invoice does not show price or... establish the destination value in the quantity, shipped, transported, or involved; Provided, further,...

  4. 49 CFR 375.401 - Must I estimate charges?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... carrier must retain a copy of the waiver agreement as an addendum to the bill of lading with the... service and the bill of lading for binding or non-binding estimates. If you fail to ask the shipper about such charges and fail to determine such charges before preparing the order for service and the bill...

  5. 19 CFR 141.53 - Procedure for separate entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Quantity of Merchandise To Be Included in an Entry § 141... are made for merchandise covered by a single bill of lading or air waybill, the provisions of § 141.54 shall be complied with, except that the endorsement on the bill of lading or air waybill required...

  6. 7 CFR 318.13-3 - General requirements for all regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the accompanying waybill, manifest, or bill of lading. (f) Withdrawal of certification, transit... clearly marked on each container or on the waybill, manifest, or bill of lading accompanying the articles: Nature and quantity of contents; name and address of shipper, owner, or person shipping or forwarding...

  7. 19 CFR 143.23 - Form of entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on... chapter may be entered by presenting the bill of lading or a manifest listing each bill of lading (see...) Ultimate consignee name and address; (4) Specific description of the merchandise; (5) Quantity;...

  8. 19 CFR 141.57 - Single entry for split shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Quantity of Merchandise To Be Included in an Entry... carrier in the exporting country under one bill of lading or waybill, and is thus intended by the importer... same port of entry in the United States, as listed in the original bill of lading or waybill; and...

  9. 49 CFR 179.201-3 - Lined tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... heads. Interior of tank must be free from scale, oxidation, moisture, and all foreign matter during the... the corrosive or solvent action of the lading in the liquid or gas phase and is suitable for the... resistant to the corrosive or solvent action of the lading in the liquid or gas phase and is suitable...

  10. 48 CFR 47.104-2 - Fixed-price contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contractor shall use a commercial bill of lading and be reimbursed for the direct and actual transportation cost as a separate item in the invoice. The clause at 52.247-1, Commercial Bill of Lading Notations, will ensure that the Government in this type of arrangement obtains the benefit of 49 U.S.C. 10721...

  11. 49 CFR 174.200 - Special handling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... mechanism utilizing an internal combustion engine in its operation. (b) Division 2.1 (flammable gas... not non-sparking or explosion-proof; (2) There is no combustion apparatus in the lading space; (3) There is no connection for the return of air from the lading space to any combustion apparatus; and...

  12. Dynamics of lateral magnetoelectronic thin-film nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Gerrit

    2006-03-01

    Hybrid nanostructures made from ferromagnetic and normal metals come in two main flavors: perpendicular multilayer nanopillars and lateral thin film devices. Current-induced magnetization dynamics have until now mainly been studied in perpendicular structures. However, lateral devices have several advantages compared to perpendicular ones, such as relative ease to study multi-terminal configurations and to directly observe the magnetic order parameter. In this talk I will discuss the magnetization dynamics of lateral thin-film structures in the framework of magnetoelectronic circuit theory. The research has been done in collaboration with Xuhui Wang, Yaroslav Tserkovnyak, Arne Brataas, Bart van Wees, Axel Hoffmann, and Teruo Ono.

  13. 49 CFR 178.345-9 - Pumps, piping, hoses and connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... damage resulting in loss of lading from the cargo tank. (h) Use of a nonmetallic pipe, valve or connection that is not as strong and heat resistant as the cargo tank material is authorized only if...

  14. 19 CFR 191.72 - Exportation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., 191.36, 191.42, and 191.91 of this part)). Supporting documentary evidence shall establish fully the... consisting of documentary evidence, such as an originally signed bill of lading, air waybill, freight...

  15. 49 CFR 175.33 - Shipping paper and notification of pilot-in-command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... air bill or bill of lading, as an alternative to the date the shipment is picked up or accepted by the... (dry ice), only the UN number, proper shipping name, hazard class, total quantity in each hold...

  16. 48 CFR 52.247-65 - F.o.b. Origin, Prepaid Freight-Small Package Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-65 F.o.b. Origin, Prepaid Freight—Small Package Shipments. As... do not have a security classification shall move on prepaid commercial bills of lading or...

  17. 48 CFR 52.247-65 - F.o.b. Origin, Prepaid Freight-Small Package Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-65 F.o.b. Origin, Prepaid Freight—Small Package Shipments. As... do not have a security classification shall move on prepaid commercial bills of lading or...

  18. 78 FR 9719 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Entry and Immediate Delivery Application and Simplified...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... ] address; Harmonized Tariff Schedule 10-digit number; country of origin; bill of lading; house air waybill... optional data elements are the container stuffing location; consolidator name and address, and ship...

  19. 49 CFR 178.815 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... recorded as zero deformation. The force “A” then to be applied must be calculated using the applicable... container in pounds. s = specific gravity (liquids) or density (solids) of the lading. v = actual...

  20. 27 CFR 26.275 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...' invoices, delivery receipts, bills or lading, etc., or exact copies of the same, may be filed in accordance... shall be filed not later than one business day following the date of transaction. (c) If an...

  1. 27 CFR 26.275 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...' invoices, delivery receipts, bills or lading, etc., or exact copies of the same, may be filed in accordance... shall be filed not later than one business day following the date of transaction. (c) If an...

  2. 49 CFR 178.345-2 - Material and material thickness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... by 49 CFR part 173 for a particular lading, a cargo tank or a part thereof, subject to thinning by... alloys suitable for fusion welding and conforming with the 0, H32 or H34 tempers of one of the...

  3. 49 CFR 178.345-2 - Material and material thickness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... by 49 CFR part 173 for a particular lading, a cargo tank or a part thereof, subject to thinning by... alloys suitable for fusion welding and conforming with the 0, H32 or H34 tempers of one of the...

  4. 77 FR 33266 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... a noninsular tourist railroad that is not connected to the general system. HVRR exercises complete... service by speed, lading, and territory. HVRR's track is not connected to the general system. The...

  5. 49 CFR 172.604 - Emergency response telephone number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... limited quantities; and (2) Materials properly described under the following shipping names: Battery powered equipment. Battery powered vehicle. Carbon dioxide, solid. Castor bean. Castor flake. Castor meal... powered. Wheelchair, electric. (3) Transportation vehicles or freight containers containing lading...

  6. 49 CFR 179.400-3 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... inner tank and outer jacket limited in accordance with Paragraph UG-80 in Section VIII of the ASME Code... piping systems for vapor venting and transfer of lading, and with pressure relief devices,...

  7. 49 CFR 179.103-3 - Venting, loading and unloading valves, measuring and sampling devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT.... When the interior pipe of the gaging device provides a means for the passage of lading from...

  8. 49 CFR 173.31 - Use of tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the greatest of the following: (1) Except for shipments of carbon dioxide, anhydrous hydrogen chloride, vinyl fluoride, ethylene, or hydrogen, 133 percent of the sum of lading vapor pressure at the...

  9. 49 CFR 173.31 - Use of tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the greatest of the following: (1) Except for shipments of carbon dioxide, anhydrous hydrogen chloride, vinyl fluoride, ethylene, or hydrogen, 133 percent of the sum of lading vapor pressure at the...

  10. 49 CFR 173.31 - Use of tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the greatest of the following: (1) Except for shipments of carbon dioxide, anhydrous hydrogen chloride, vinyl fluoride, ethylene, or hydrogen, 133 percent of the sum of lading vapor pressure at the...

  11. 49 CFR 173.31 - Use of tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the greatest of the following: (1) Except for shipments of carbon dioxide, anhydrous hydrogen chloride, vinyl fluoride, ethylene, or hydrogen, 133 percent of the sum of lading vapor pressure at the...

  12. 46 CFR 520.11 - Non-vessel-operating common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... because of death, disability or unavailability, the Commission's Secretary will be deemed to be its legal... of lading with the identity of any other NVOCC to which the shipment has been tendered for...

  13. 46 CFR 520.11 - Non-vessel-operating common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... because of death, disability or unavailability, the Commission's Secretary will be deemed to be its legal... of lading with the identity of any other NVOCC to which the shipment has been tendered for...

  14. 27 CFR 26.296 - Record of shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of shipment shall consist of an invoice, bill of lading or similar document which shows the following... containers; (4) Total quantity shipped; and (5)(i) For completely denatured alcohol, the words...

  15. 77 FR 60454 - Proposed Information Collection; Declaration for Importation or Exportation of Fish or Wildlife

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... wildlife. (3) Permit numbers (if permits are required). (4) Description, quantity, and value of the fish or... the airway bill or bill of lading number, the location of the fish or wildlife for inspection, and...

  16. 19 CFR 191.185 - Unused merchandise drawback and merchandise not conforming to sample or specification, shipped...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the bill of lading required by § 191.156. (d) Modification of drawback entry—(1) Indication of... and belief, said merchandise is the same in quantity, quality, value, and package as specified in...

  17. 48 CFR 552.211-77 - Packing List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requisition number; (4) Government bill of lading number covering the shipment (if any); and (5) Description of the material shipped, including item number, quantity, number of containers, and package...

  18. 40 CFR 279.65 - Tracking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shipment accepted for burning. These records may take the form of a log, invoice, manifest, bill of lading... the burner; (5) The quantity of used oil accepted; and (6) The date of acceptance. (b)...

  19. 7 CFR 17.10 - Refunds and insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... addresses of the supplier and importer, the nature of the claim, the quantity of the commodity involved in the claim, the date of shipment, the bill of lading number, and the name of the vessel. CCC...

  20. 7 CFR 1499.13 - Recordkeeping and reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be submitted through an electronic media approved by FAS or by providing the carrier's on board bill of lading. The evidence of export must show the kind and quantity of commodities exported, the...

  1. 27 CFR 20.171 - Record of shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... section. (c) Record. The record of shipment shall consist of an invoice, bill of lading or similar..., and (iii) The total quantity; and, (5) If the specially denatured spirits are recovered, the...

  2. 19 CFR 191.185 - Unused merchandise drawback and merchandise not conforming to sample or specification, shipped...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the bill of lading required by § 191.156. (d) Modification of drawback entry—(1) Indication of... and belief, said merchandise is the same in quantity, quality, value, and package as specified in...

  3. 19 CFR 191.185 - Unused merchandise drawback and merchandise not conforming to sample or specification, shipped...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the bill of lading required by § 191.156. (d) Modification of drawback entry—(1) Indication of... and belief, said merchandise is the same in quantity, quality, value, and package as specified in...

  4. 7 CFR 1599.13 - Recordkeeping and reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... be submitted through an electronic media approved by FAS or by providing the carrier's on board bill of lading. The evidence of export must show the kind and quantity of commodities exported, the...

  5. 27 CFR 18.62 - Record of transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... consist of a commercial invoice, bill of lading, or any other similar document. The proprietor shall... mash; (d) Quantity (in wine gallons); and (e) For concentrate, percent of alcohol by volume....

  6. 19 CFR 191.185 - Unused merchandise drawback and merchandise not conforming to sample or specification, shipped...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the bill of lading required by § 191.156. (d) Modification of drawback entry—(1) Indication of... and belief, said merchandise is the same in quantity, quality, value, and package as specified in...

  7. 19 CFR 19.44 - Carrier responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... responsible for assuring that the provisions of subpart A, part 158 of this chapter, relating to quantity... abstract manifest showing the bill of lading number, the marks and numbers of the container, and the...

  8. 49 CFR 179.102-4 - Vinyl fluoride, stabilized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....-lb. minimum for any one specimen, at minus 50 °F or colder, in accordance with ASTM A 370 (IBR, see..., or in fittings in contact with the lading. (h) The jacket must be stenciled, adjacent to the...

  9. 46 CFR 151.50-5 - Cargoes having toxic properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... gauge pressure exceeding 4 pounds per square inch, or where air or water pressure is used to discharge... gauge, of the lading at 115 °F, or the maximum air or water pressure used to discharge the...

  10. 49 CFR 173.323 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and gaskets must be constructed of materials which are compatible with ethylene oxide and do not lower... the lading. (h) Neoprene, natural rubber and asbestos gaskets are prohibited. All packing and...

  11. 49 CFR 173.323 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and gaskets must be constructed of materials which are compatible with ethylene oxide and do not lower... the lading. (h) Neoprene, natural rubber and asbestos gaskets are prohibited. All packing and...

  12. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must not be capable of causing any adverse chemical reaction with the cargo tank lading in the event of... citations affecting § 178.337-9, see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding...

  13. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... causing any adverse chemical reaction with the cargo tank lading in the event of leakage. The unit... affecting § 178.337-9, see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section...

  14. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... causing any adverse chemical reaction with the cargo tank lading in the event of leakage. The unit... affecting § 178.337-9, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section...

  15. 49 CFR 179.18 - Thermal protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... there will be no release of any lading within the tank car, except release through the pressure release device, when subjected to: (1) A pool fire for 100 minutes; and (2) A torch fire for 30 minutes....

  16. 49 CFR 179.18 - Thermal protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... there will be no release of any lading within the tank car, except release through the pressure release device, when subjected to: (1) A pool fire for 100 minutes; and (2) A torch fire for 30 minutes....

  17. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... causing any adverse chemical reaction with the cargo tank lading in the event of leakage. The unit... affecting § 178.337-9, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section...

  18. 27 CFR 44.259 - To noncontiguous foreign countries and possessions of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... direct delivery to a vessel or aircraft for transportation to a noncontiguous foreign country, Puerto... aircraft on which the shipment has been laden clears or departs from the port of lading the...

  19. 75 FR 38765 - Domestic Origin Verification System Questionnaire and Regulations Governing Inspection and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ..., container number, country of origin, customs entry number, bill of lading number, broker reference number... Agricultural Marketing Service Domestic Origin Verification System Questionnaire and Regulations Governing... submitting the comments will be made public. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: ``Domestic Origin...

  20. Observations on anatomical aspects of the fruit, leaf and stem tissues of four Citrullus spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morphological characteristics of the fruit, stem and leaf tissues of four species of Citrullus (L.) Schrad. were examined using standard histological methods. Plant materials included the cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) and three of its related species; C. colocynthis (...

  1. Evaluation of watermelon and related species for resistance to race 1W powdery mildew resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Race 1 and race 2 powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) has been reported on watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) in the United States for six years. In this study, the entire available U.S. Plant Introduction collection of Citrullus sp. was evaluated for resistance to P. xanthii r...

  2. First report of Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum Race 2 in Georgia watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is the number one specialty crop grown in Georgia, a state that ranks fourth nationally in watermelon production. In the last five years, Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), has been the greatest yield-limiting dise...

  3. Wild Forms of Watermelon and Genomic Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this chapter, we reviewed the characteristics, phylogenetic information of all the species in Citrullus genera, including Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai., C. lanatus var. citrides (Bailey; Mansf.), C. ecirrhosus Cogn., C. rehmii De Winter., C. colocynthis (L.) Schrad, an...

  4. Identifying resistance to powdery mildew race 2W in the USDA-ARS watermelon germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii has become a common disease of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] in the United States. The disease can be controlled with fungicides. However, it is more economical and environmentally safe to use genetic resistance against this di...

  5. Notes on Citrullius spp. and Acanthosicyos naudinianus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron and light microscopy were utilized to examine pollen of the currently recognized species (and forms) within the genus Citrullus (Cucurbitaceae). Materials examined included: C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai including the citron (C. amarus Schrad.) and egusi (C. lanatus subsp. mu...

  6. Inhibition of bacterial, fungal and plant growth by testa extracts of Citrullus genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai) seed exudates inhibit germination and seedling growth of several plant species and growth of pathogenic fungi and bacteria. This study was conducted to determine if extractable components in testae contribute to the inhibition. T...

  7. Host resistance to pear psylla of breeding program selections and cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-one pear cultivars and breeders’ selections with interspecific pedigrees involving Pyrus ussuriensis Max. or P. pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai crossed with P. communis were assessed to resistance pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Förster) using a nymphal feeding antixenosis assay. The proportion of ...

  8. Watermelon quality traits as affected by ploidy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers offering high quality watermelons [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.), Matsum & Nakai] that are also high in phytonutrients will have stronger market opportunities. In order to offer highly nutritious fruit, the industry must understand the nature of phytonutrient accumulation as it is affected by ...

  9. A survey of bee species found pollinating watermelons in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a combination of flower traps and visual observations, we surveyed three watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] fields in the Lower Rio Grande Valley to determine what bees inhabit this crop in this region. No managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives were in any of the fie...

  10. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microarray and Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruit, a...

  11. Turkmenistan Melon (Cucumis melo), and Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Germplasm Expedition 2008.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkmenistan has a rich tradition of melon (Cucumis melo L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) production, but like in many countries land races and old varieties are in danger of genetic erosion. In July-August 2008, a collaborative Turkmenistan–United States germplasm exp...

  12. Genetic Diversity among Watermelon Citrullus spp. Accessions Based on HFO-TAG Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to enhance watermelon cultivars for disease and pest resistance. U.S. Plant Introductions (PIs) of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai subsp. lanatus var. citroides (Bailey) Mansf. ex Greb. collected in southern Africa are a valuable source for enhancing disease and pest resi...

  13. L-citrulline levels in watermelon cultigens tested in two environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melon producers face increasing production costs and international market competition. Maximizing marketability of high quality watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai], that also contain high levels of the amino acid phytonutrient L-citrulline, can provide new market niches for th...

  14. Combining Reflective Mulch and Host Plant Resistance for Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Management in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of reflective mulch and host plant resistance for the management of the B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunberg) Matsum & Nakai]. Whitefly abundance data were collected under both g...

  15. Cytomolecular characterization of rRNA gene sequences among Citrullus species and subspecies using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous studies, many DNA markers showed strong preferential (non-Mendelian) segregation in F2 and BC1 genetic populations derived from crosses between wild type watermelon [C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai subsp. lanatus var. citroides (Bailey) Mansf. ex Greb.] (CLC) and watermelon cultivar...

  16. Fusarium wilt in seedless watermelons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai], caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) Snyd. & Hans., was first reported in the United States in 1894. Historically, Fusarium wilt has been the greatest yield-limiting disease of watermelon worldwide. The stat...

  17. USVL-370, A zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant watermelon breeding line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the development of a novel watermelon line ‘USVL-370’ [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] containing resistance to the zucchini yellow mosaic virus-Florida strain (ZYMV-FL). This breeding line is homozygous for the recessive eukaryotic elongation factor eIF4E allele associated wit...

  18. Resistance of breeding program selections and cultivars to pear psylla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four Pyrus communis L. clones and sixteen breeders’ selections and cultivars with interspecific pedigrees involving Pyrus ussuriensis Max. or P. pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai crossed with P. communis were evaluated for resistance to pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Forster) using a nymphal feeding antixen...

  19. Rapid method for total carotenoid detection in canary yellow-fleshed watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lycopene is the predominant carotenoid in red watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) and pro-lycopene is the predominant carotenoid in most orange watermelon. However, yellow watermelons contain many different carotenoids, all in low to trace amounts. Since carotenoids have anti...

  20. The Bukkyo University and University of Hawai'i College of Education Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Hunter; Goto, Sunao; Horike, Yukiyo

    2010-01-01

    For the past ten years, the College of Education at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa (UHM-COE) and Bukkyo University in Kyoto, Japan have enjoyed a special relationship designed to promote cooperation and academic exchanges between the two institutions. The agreement of cooperation was signed on June 5, 2000 by President Shinko Nakai of Bukkyo…

  1. Design and Development of an Equipotential Voltage Reference (Grounding) System for a Low-Cost Rapid-Development Modular Spacecraft Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukash, James A.; Daley, Earl

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the design and development effort to adapt rapid-development space hardware by creating a ground system using solutions of low complexity, mass, & cost. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is based on the modular common spacecraft bus architecture developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The challenge was building upon the existing modular common bus design and development work and improving the LADEE spacecraft design by adding an Equipotential Voltage Reference (EVeR) system, commonly referred to as a ground system. This would aid LADEE in meeting Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) requirements, thereby making the spacecraft more compatible with itself and its space environment. The methods used to adapt existing hardware are presented, including provisions which may be used on future spacecraft.

  2. Synodic and semiannual oscillations of argon-40 in the lunar exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, R. Richard; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    The neutral mass spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft collected a trove of exospheric data, including a set of high-quality measurements of radiogenic 40Ar over a period of 142 days. Data synthesis studies, using well-established exosphere simulation tools, show that the LADEE argon data are consistent with an exosphere-regolith interaction that is dominated by adsorption and that the desorption process generates the Armand distribution of exit velocities. The synthesis work has uncovered an apparent semiannual oscillation of argon that is consistent with temporal sequestration in the seasonal cold traps created at the poles by the obliquity of the Moon. In addition, the LADEE data provide new insight into the pristine nature of lunar regolith, its spatially varying sorption properties, and the influence of sorption processes on the synodic oscillation of the argon exosphere.

  3. Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Paschalidis, N.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Jones, S. L.; Stubbs, T. J.; Sarantos, M.; Khurana, K. K.; Angelopoulos, V.; Jordan, A. P.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX) is a 6U CubeSat designed to further confirm the existence of lunar exospheric water, and to determine source processes and surface sites, through ion mass spectrometer measurements of water group (O+, OH+, H2O+) and related ions at energy charge up to 2 keV/e. and mass/charge 1-40amu/e. HYDROX would follow up on the now-concluded exospheric compositional measurements by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the NASA LADEE mission and on other remote sensing surface and exospheric measurements (LADEE,LRO, etc.).

  4. Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Paschalidis, N.; Sittler, E. C.; Jones, S. L.; Stubbs, T. J.; Sarantos, M.; Khurana, K. K.; Angelopoulos, V.; Jordan, A. P.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2015-10-01

    The Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX) is a 6U CubeSat designed to further confirm the existence of lunar exospheric water, and to determine source processes and surface sites, through ion mass spectrometer measurements of water group (O+, OH+, H2O+) and related ions at energy/charge up to 2 keV/e. and mass/charge 1 - 40 amu/e. HYDROX would follow up on the now-concluded exospheric compositional measurements by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the NASA LADEE mission and on other remote sensing surface and exospheric measurements (LADEE, LRO, etc.).

  5. Crystal structure of (4-aminopyridine)bis-1, 10-phenanthroline copper(II) hexaflourophosphate acetone adduct, [Cu(C[sub 5]H[sub 6]N[sub 2])(C[sub 12]H[sub 8]N[sub 2])[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Jeter, D.Y.; Castell, W.J. Jr. ); Condren, S.M.; Hobson, A.M.; Stiles, T.E. ); Cordes, A.W. )

    1993-03-01

    Numerous examples of five coordination of Cu(II) are known and have been reviewed by O'Brien (1984) and Hathaway (1982, 1983). The ability of the bis (1, 10-phenanthroline) copper (II) cation to add an additional ligand to make a five coordinate species is well documented. Structures previously reported for Cu(phen)[sub 2] X cations include complexes in which X is a small molecule or ion such as Cl- (Boys et al., 1981), CN- (Anderson, 1975) and H[sub 2]O (Nakai et al., 1975; Nakai et al., 1978) and, more recently, a large heterocycle such as 3,5-dimethyl-pyridine (Jeter et al., 1988). With a small ligand near trigonal bipyramidal geometry seems to prevail, but, with the large heterocylic ligand the geometry approximately a square pyramid. In this work, we report the structure of a second complex with a large heterocylic ligand, 4-aminopyridine.

  6. 41 CFR 102-118.195 - What documents must a transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a transportation billing? 102-118.195 Section... Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading... must a transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a transportation billing?...

  7. 49 CFR 179.400-20 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... foreign material in the vent system. (4) Evaporation control. The routine release of vaporized lading may..., when the discharge is equal to twice the normal venting rate during transportation, with normal vacuum... Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) §...

  8. 22 CFR 201.52 - Required documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... source country or free port or bonded warehouse. The bill(s) of lading shall indicate the carrier's... the vessel, such as when delivery terms are f.a.s. port of shipment, the importer may request and...

  9. 22 CFR 201.52 - Required documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... source country or free port or bonded warehouse. The bill(s) of lading shall indicate the carrier's... the vessel, such as when delivery terms are f.a.s. port of shipment, the importer may request and...

  10. 22 CFR 201.52 - Required documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... source country or free port or bonded warehouse. The bill(s) of lading shall indicate the carrier's... the vessel, such as when delivery terms are f.a.s. port of shipment, the importer may request and...

  11. 22 CFR 202.7 - Documentation required for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 202.7 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY... entry. Where the shipment is made to a port of entry, ocean or charter party bill of lading (or photostat) evidencing shipment from an eligible port of export as prescribed in § 202.2(a) to the port...

  12. 22 CFR 202.7 - Documentation required for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 202.7 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY... entry. Where the shipment is made to a port of entry, ocean or charter party bill of lading (or photostat) evidencing shipment from an eligible port of export as prescribed in § 202.2(a) to the port...

  13. 22 CFR 202.7 - Documentation required for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 202.7 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY... entry. Where the shipment is made to a port of entry, ocean or charter party bill of lading (or photostat) evidencing shipment from an eligible port of export as prescribed in § 202.2(a) to the port...

  14. 22 CFR 201.52 - Required documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... source country or free port or bonded warehouse. The bill(s) of lading shall indicate the carrier's... the vessel, such as when delivery terms are f.a.s. port of shipment, the importer may request and...

  15. 22 CFR 201.52 - Required documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... source country or free port or bonded warehouse. The bill(s) of lading shall indicate the carrier's... the vessel, such as when delivery terms are f.a.s. port of shipment, the importer may request and...

  16. 22 CFR 202.7 - Documentation required for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 202.7 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY... entry. Where the shipment is made to a port of entry, ocean or charter party bill of lading (or photostat) evidencing shipment from an eligible port of export as prescribed in § 202.2(a) to the port...

  17. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of the static head and gas padding pressure and the lading vapor pressure at the following reference... tank burst pressure but no more than 33 percent of the minimum tank burst pressure. (3) The vapor tight... detection device must be closed during transportation. (3) The vapor tight pressure and the...

  18. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of the static head and gas padding pressure and the lading vapor pressure at the following reference... tank burst pressure but no more than 33 percent of the minimum tank burst pressure. (3) The vapor tight... detection device must be closed during transportation. (3) The vapor tight pressure and the...

  19. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of the static head and gas padding pressure and the lading vapor pressure at the following reference... tank burst pressure but no more than 33 percent of the minimum tank burst pressure. (3) The vapor tight... detection device must be closed during transportation. (3) The vapor tight pressure and the...

  20. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... equal to the sum of the static head and gas padding pressure and the lading vapor pressure at the.... (3) The vapor tight pressure of a reclosing pressure relief valve must be at least 80 percent of the... indicator. The detection device must be closed during transportation. (3) The vapor tight pressure and...

  1. 27 CFR 28.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... exportation, lading for use on vessels and aircraft, and the transfer to a foreign-trade zone or a... Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... provided for in 26 U.S.C. 5066 and 5362, whether without payment of tax, free of tax, or with benefit...

  2. 27 CFR 28.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... exportation, lading for use on vessels and aircraft, and the transfer to a foreign-trade zone or a... Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... provided for in 26 U.S.C. 5066 and 5362, whether without payment of tax, free of tax, or with benefit...

  3. 27 CFR 28.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... exportation, lading for use on vessels and aircraft, and the transfer to a foreign-trade zone or a... Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... provided for in 26 U.S.C. 5066 and 5362, whether without payment of tax, free of tax, or with benefit...

  4. 27 CFR 28.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exportation, lading for use on vessels and aircraft, and the transfer to a foreign-trade zone or a... Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... provided for in 26 U.S.C. 5066 and 5362, whether without payment of tax, free of tax, or with benefit...

  5. 27 CFR 28.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... exportation, lading for use on vessels and aircraft, and the transfer to a foreign-trade zone or a... Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... provided for in 26 U.S.C. 5066 and 5362, whether without payment of tax, free of tax, or with benefit...

  6. 46 CFR 151.50-5 - Cargoes having toxic properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargoes having toxic properties. 151.50-5 Section 151.50... gauge pressure exceeding 4 pounds per square inch, or where air or water pressure is used to discharge... gauge, of the lading at 115 °F, or the maximum air or water pressure used to discharge the...

  7. 46 CFR 151.50-5 - Cargoes having toxic properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargoes having toxic properties. 151.50-5 Section 151.50... gauge pressure exceeding 4 pounds per square inch, or where air or water pressure is used to discharge... gauge, of the lading at 115 °F, or the maximum air or water pressure used to discharge the...

  8. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section 151.50... phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be designed and tested for a head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket extended to 8 feet above the tank top. In addition, tank design...

  9. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section 151.50... phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be designed and tested for a head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket extended to 8 feet above the tank top. In addition, tank design...

  10. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section 151.50... phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be designed and tested for a head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket extended to 8 feet above the tank top. In addition, tank design...

  11. 27 CFR 28.253 - Certificate by export carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certificate by export carrier. 28.253 Section 28.253 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Lading § 28.253 Certificate by export carrier. A certificate, executed under the penalties...

  12. 27 CFR 28.253 - Certificate by export carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certificate by export carrier. 28.253 Section 28.253 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Lading § 28.253 Certificate by export carrier. A certificate, executed under the penalties...

  13. 27 CFR 28.253 - Certificate by export carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certificate by export carrier. 28.253 Section 28.253 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Lading § 28.253 Certificate by export carrier. A certificate, executed under the penalties...

  14. Calibration of the Neutral Mass Spectrometer for the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Hodges, R. R.; Harpold, D. N.; King, T. T.; Jaeger, F.; Raaen, E.; Lyness, E.; Collier, M.; Benna, M.

    2012-01-01

    Science objectives of the LADEE Mission are to (1) determine the composition, and time variability of the tenuous lunar atmosphere and (2) to characterize the dust environment and its variability. These studies will extend the in-situ characterization of the environment that were carried out decades ago with the Apollo missions and a variety of ground based studies. The focused LADEE measurements will enable a more complete understanding of dust and gas sources and sinks. Sources of gas include UV photo-stimulated desorption, sputtering by plasma and micrometeorites, as well as thermal release of species such as argon from the cold service or venting from the lunar interior. Sinks include recondensation on the surface and escape through a variety of mechanisms. The LADEE science payload consists of an Ultraviolet Spectrometer, a Neutral Mass Spectrometer, and a Dust Detector. The LADEE orbit will include multiple passes at or below 50 km altitude and will target repeated sampling at the sunrise terminator where exospheric density will be highest for some thermally released species. The science mission will be implemented in approximately three months to allow measurements to be made over a period of one or more lunations In addition to the science mission NASA will use this mission to demonstrate optical communication technology away from low Earth orbit.

  15. 27 CFR 44.227 - Customs procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs procedure. 44.227..., WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.227 Customs procedure. The customs... having inspected the articles and supervised the lading thereof on the export carrier, the...

  16. 49 CFR 180.413 - Repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting of specification cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to each repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting, the cargo tank motor vehicle must be emptied of any hazardous material lading. In addition, cargo tank motor vehicles used to... not required. When a repair is made of defects revealed by the wet fluorescent magnetic...

  17. 49 CFR 180.413 - Repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting of specification cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to each repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting, the cargo tank motor vehicle must be emptied of any hazardous material lading. In addition, cargo tank motor vehicles used to... not required. When a repair is made of defects revealed by the wet fluorescent magnetic...

  18. 49 CFR 178.606 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... calculated based on the specific gravity that will be marked on the packaging. The minimum height of the... between the platens at this time must be recorded as zero deformation. The force A to then be applied must... number of containers that, when stacked, reach a height of 3 meters. s = specific gravity of lading....

  19. 49 CFR 178.606 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... calculated based on the specific gravity that will be marked on the packaging. The minimum height of the... between the platens at this time must be recorded as zero deformation. The force A to then be applied must... number of containers that, when stacked, reach a height of 3 meters. s = specific gravity of lading....

  20. 27 CFR 44.227 - Customs procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Customs procedure. 44.227..., WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.227 Customs procedure. The customs... having inspected the articles and supervised the lading thereof on the export carrier, the...

  1. 27 CFR 44.227 - Customs procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Customs procedure. 44.227..., WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.227 Customs procedure. The customs... having inspected the articles and supervised the lading thereof on the export carrier, the...

  2. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  3. 29 CFR 776.20 - “Goods.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., shipping tags, labels, check books, blank books, book covers, advertising circulars and candy wrappers. 24..., bills of lading, checks, drafts, negotiable notes and other commercial paper. 26 “Goods” includes gold... pointed out in Lenroot v. Western Union Tel. Co., 141 F. 2d 400 (C.A. 2), the legislative history...

  4. 29 CFR 776.20 - “Goods.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., shipping tags, labels, check books, blank books, book covers, advertising circulars and candy wrappers. 24..., bills of lading, checks, drafts, negotiable notes and other commercial paper. 26 “Goods” includes gold... pointed out in Lenroot v. Western Union Tel. Co., 141 F. 2d 400 (C.A. 2), the legislative history...

  5. 29 CFR 776.20 - “Goods.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., shipping tags, labels, check books, blank books, book covers, advertising circulars and candy wrappers. 24..., bills of lading, checks, drafts, negotiable notes and other commercial paper. 26 “Goods” includes gold... pointed out in Lenroot v. Western Union Tel. Co., 141 F. 2d 400 (C.A. 2), the legislative history...

  6. 29 CFR 776.20 - “Goods.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., shipping tags, labels, check books, blank books, book covers, advertising circulars and candy wrappers. 24..., bills of lading, checks, drafts, negotiable notes and other commercial paper. 26 “Goods” includes gold... pointed out in Lenroot v. Western Union Tel. Co., 141 F. 2d 400 (C.A. 2), the legislative history...

  7. 27 CFR 24.282 - Multiple transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the same day to other premises. The proprietor shall prepare a shipment or delivery order for each... gallons or liters. A copy of the shipping or delivery order will be retained by the proprietor and a copy sent with the shipment. On completion of lading the last truck for the day, the proprietor...

  8. 27 CFR 27.136 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... recordkeeping requirements (See 19 CFR part 163). (b) If an importer conducts wholesale operations, one legible copy of each required record of receipt and disposition shall be filed not later than one business day... information. (d) Supporting documents, such as consignors' invoices, delivery receipts, bills of lading,...

  9. 27 CFR 24.282 - Multiple transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the same day to other premises. The proprietor shall prepare a shipment or delivery order for each... gallons or liters. A copy of the shipping or delivery order will be retained by the proprietor and a copy sent with the shipment. On completion of lading the last truck for the day, the proprietor...

  10. 27 CFR 27.136 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... recordkeeping requirements (See 19 CFR part 163). (b) If an importer conducts wholesale operations, one legible copy of each required record of receipt and disposition shall be filed not later than one business day... information. (d) Supporting documents, such as consignors' invoices, delivery receipts, bills of lading,...

  11. 27 CFR 24.282 - Multiple transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the same day to other premises. The proprietor shall prepare a shipment or delivery order for each... gallons or liters. A copy of the shipping or delivery order will be retained by the proprietor and a copy sent with the shipment. On completion of lading the last truck for the day, the proprietor...

  12. 27 CFR 24.282 - Multiple transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the same day to other premises. The proprietor shall prepare a shipment or delivery order for each... gallons or liters. A copy of the shipping or delivery order will be retained by the proprietor and a copy sent with the shipment. On completion of lading the last truck for the day, the proprietor...

  13. 27 CFR 24.282 - Multiple transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the same day to other premises. The proprietor shall prepare a shipment or delivery order for each... gallons or liters. A copy of the shipping or delivery order will be retained by the proprietor and a copy sent with the shipment. On completion of lading the last truck for the day, the proprietor...

  14. 46 CFR 151.50-5 - Cargoes having toxic properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... gauge pressure exceeding 4 pounds per square inch, or where air or water pressure is used to discharge... gauge, of the lading at 115 °F, or the maximum air or water pressure used to discharge the cargo... from the safety or pressure vacuum relief valve as a result of a fire or other casualty. In...

  15. 46 CFR 151.50-5 - Cargoes having toxic properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... gauge pressure exceeding 4 pounds per square inch, or where air or water pressure is used to discharge... gauge, of the lading at 115 °F, or the maximum air or water pressure used to discharge the cargo... from the safety or pressure vacuum relief valve as a result of a fire or other casualty. In...

  16. 49 CFR 179.18 - Thermal protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... there will be no release of any lading within the tank car, except release through the pressure release device, when subjected to: (1) A pool fire for 100 minutes; and (2) A torch fire for 30 minutes. (b... by analyzing the fire effects on the entire surface of the tank car. The analysis must consider...

  17. 27 CFR 44.227 - Customs procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Customs procedure. 44.227..., WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.227 Customs procedure. The customs... having inspected the articles and supervised the lading thereof on the export carrier, the...

  18. 27 CFR 44.227 - Customs procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Customs procedure. 44.227..., WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.227 Customs procedure. The customs... having inspected the articles and supervised the lading thereof on the export carrier, the...

  19. 27 CFR 28.23 - Reciprocating foreign countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reciprocating foreign... Lading for Use on Certain Vessels and Aircraft § 28.23 Reciprocating foreign countries. The appropriate... other countries, which it is claimed reciprocate similar privileges to aircraft of the United...

  20. 49 CFR 178.338-13 - Supporting and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (see appendix G in Section VIII of the ASME Code) (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter), multiplied by... ambient temperature to the extent recognized in the ASME Code for static loadings. Static loadings must... the design weight of lading (see Appendix G of Section VIII, Division 1 of the ASME Code),...

  1. 44 CFR 11.75 - Claims involving carriers and insurers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claims involving carriers and insurers. 11.75 Section 11.75 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Government under this subpart. (1) If more than one bill of lading or contract was issued, a separate...

  2. 7 CFR 35.8 - Date of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES... exporting carrier on which movement of the grapes from the United States is effected. The date of the on board bill of lading (or loading tally sheet) shall be considered to be the date the grapes were...

  3. 7 CFR 35.8 - Date of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES... exporting carrier on which movement of the grapes from the United States is effected. The date of the on board bill of lading (or loading tally sheet) shall be considered to be the date the grapes were...

  4. 32 CFR 861.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Aviation Regulations (14 CFR Chapter I) or equivalent regulations issued by a country's Civil Aviation... required to maintain applicable FAA or CAA standards absent deviation authority obtained pursuant to 14 CFR... card, Government or commercial transportation request (TR), bill of lading, or similar instruments....

  5. 32 CFR 861.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Aviation Regulations (14 CFR Chapter I) or equivalent regulations issued by a country's Civil Aviation... required to maintain applicable FAA or CAA standards absent deviation authority obtained pursuant to 14 CFR... card, Government or commercial transportation request (TR), bill of lading, or similar instruments....

  6. 49 CFR 371.113 - May I provide individual shippers with a written estimate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... agreement must be printed on the written estimate and must be printed at no less than 7-point font size and with the font typeface Universe. (3) A copy of the waiver agreement must be retained as an addendum to... applicable to bills of lading. (d) You must keep the records required by this section for three...

  7. 49 CFR 180.413 - Repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting of specification cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to each repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting, the cargo tank motor vehicle must be emptied of any hazardous material lading. In addition, cargo tank motor vehicles used to... not required. When a repair is made of defects revealed by the wet fluorescent magnetic...

  8. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring... Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories... lading, a written statement of the following: (1) For Category A or B NLS, the cargo's viscosity at 20...

  9. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring... Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories... lading, a written statement of the following: (1) For Category A or B NLS, the cargo's viscosity at 20...

  10. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring... Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories... lading, a written statement of the following: (1) For Category A or B NLS, the cargo's viscosity at 20...

  11. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring... Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories... lading, a written statement of the following: (1) For Category A or B NLS, the cargo's viscosity at 20...

  12. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false When buying freight....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... tender when buying transportation on a bill of lading (including GBLs). However, the...

  13. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false When buying freight....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... tender when buying transportation on a bill of lading (including GBLs). However, the...

  14. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When buying freight....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... tender when buying transportation on a bill of lading (including GBLs). However, the...

  15. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When buying freight....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... tender when buying transportation on a bill of lading (including GBLs). However, the...

  16. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When buying freight....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... tender when buying transportation on a bill of lading (including GBLs). However, the...

  17. 27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 28.281, see the List of CFR Sections Affected in the Finding Aids... distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Ports of Export Lading for Use on Aircraft § 28.281 Certificate of use for distilled spirits and...

  18. 48 CFR 752.247-70 - Preference for privately owned U.S.-flag commercial vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... under P.L. 480 financed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, that may be transported in ocean vessels..., depending on current compliance with Cargo Preference requirements. If freight under the contract is fixed... legible copy of a rated on-board ocean bill of lading for each shipment to both the Division of...

  19. 48 CFR 752.247-70 - Preference for privately owned U.S.-flag commercial vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... under P.L. 480 financed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, that may be transported in ocean vessels..., depending on current compliance with Cargo Preference requirements. If freight under the contract is fixed... legible copy of a rated on-board ocean bill of lading for each shipment to both the Division of...

  20. 40 CFR 279.74 - Tracking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... form of a log, invoice, manifest, bill of lading or other shipping documents. Records for each shipment... identification number of the burner; (5) The quantity of used oil shipped; and (6) The date of shipment. (b) On... receiving the shipment; (2) The quantity of used oil fuel delivered; (3) The date of shipment or...

  1. 27 CFR 22.161 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... identify tax-free alcohol by proof, date of transaction, and quantity involved, and shall include alcohol... shall consist of the consignor's or consignee's (as the case may be) invoice, bill or bill of lading, or another document used for the intended purpose. Records of receipt shall record only the quantity of...

  2. 27 CFR 22.161 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... identify tax-free alcohol by proof, date of transaction, and quantity involved, and shall include alcohol... shall consist of the consignor's or consignee's (as the case may be) invoice, bill or bill of lading, or another document used for the intended purpose. Records of receipt shall record only the quantity of...

  3. 48 CFR 1846.672-3 - Multiple consignee instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... description. (c) Block 17—Enter the “total” quantity shipped by item or, if applicable, grouped identical...) Quantity; (4) The FEDSTRIP requisition number and quantity for each when provided in the contract or shipping instructions; and (5) If applicable, bill of lading number and mode of shipment code....

  4. 48 CFR 1846.672-3 - Multiple consignee instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... description. (c) Block 17—Enter the “total” quantity shipped by item or, if applicable, grouped identical...) Quantity; (4) The FEDSTRIP requisition number and quantity for each when provided in the contract or shipping instructions; and (5) If applicable, bill of lading number and mode of shipment code....

  5. 40 CFR 279.74 - Tracking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... form of a log, invoice, manifest, bill of lading or other shipping documents. Records for each shipment... identification number of the burner; (5) The quantity of used oil shipped; and (6) The date of shipment. (b) On... receiving the shipment; (2) The quantity of used oil fuel delivered; (3) The date of shipment or...

  6. 7 CFR 987.145 - Withholding obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... an adequate quantity of that variety inspected and certified as meeting the applicable grade, size..., the quantity so credited shall never exceed 40 percent of the handler's withholding obligation of the... the inspection service, and in due course a copy of the on board bill of lading or other...

  7. 7 CFR 987.145 - Withholding obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... an adequate quantity of that variety inspected and certified as meeting the applicable grade, size..., the quantity so credited shall never exceed 40 percent of the handler's withholding obligation of the... the inspection service, and in due course a copy of the on board bill of lading or other...

  8. 49 CFR 172.201 - Preparation and retention of shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at..., vessel, or air shipments, the date on the shipment waybill, airbill, or bill of lading may be used in... a record of each shipment made, to include shipping name, identification number,...

  9. 48 CFR 1846.672-3 - Multiple consignee instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... description. (c) Block 17—Enter the “total” quantity shipped by item or, if applicable, grouped identical...) Quantity; (4) The FEDSTRIP requisition number and quantity for each when provided in the contract or shipping instructions; and (5) If applicable, bill of lading number and mode of shipment code....

  10. 7 CFR 1494.701 - Payment of bonus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... other form specified in the applicable Invitation which CCC determines to be appropriate. (b) Quantity on which bonus is paid. The quantity of the eligible commodity exported from the U.S. which is... bill of lading, whichever is less. If the exporter has furnished performance security under “Option...

  11. 7 CFR 1494.701 - Payment of bonus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... other form specified in the applicable Invitation which CCC determines to be appropriate. (b) Quantity on which bonus is paid. The quantity of the eligible commodity exported from the U.S. which is... bill of lading, whichever is less. If the exporter has furnished performance security under “Option...

  12. 7 CFR 987.145 - Withholding obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... an adequate quantity of that variety inspected and certified as meeting the applicable grade, size..., the quantity so credited shall never exceed 40 percent of the handler's withholding obligation of the... the inspection service, and in due course a copy of the on board bill of lading or other...

  13. 49 CFR 1005.4 - Investigation of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... be supported by the original bill of lading, evidence of the freight charges, if any, and either the..., however, That where property involved in a claim has not been invoiced to the consignee shown on the bill... voluntarily paying a claim, require the claimant to establish the destination value in the quantity,...

  14. 27 CFR 24.293 - Wine for Government use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... governmental order will show the kind, quantity and alcohol content of the wine desired; and the purpose for... of tax, from bonded wine premises for analysis, testing, research or experimentation. (b) Bill of... copy of the bill of lading, covering the shipment, with the TTB F 5120.17, Report of Bonded...

  15. 27 CFR 26.294 - Record of shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... The record of shipment shall consist of an invoice, bill of lading or similar document which shows the... total quantity in wine gallons; (4) For industrial spirits— (i) The package identification numbers of containers, and (ii) The total quantity in proof gallons. (b) The record of shipment shall be made...

  16. 27 CFR 26.294 - Record of shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... The record of shipment shall consist of an invoice, bill of lading or similar document which shows the... total quantity in wine gallons; (4) For industrial spirits— (i) The package identification numbers of containers, and (ii) The total quantity in proof gallons. (b) The record of shipment shall be made...

  17. 49 CFR 1005.4 - Investigation of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... be supported by the original bill of lading, evidence of the freight charges, if any, and either the..., however, That where property involved in a claim has not been invoiced to the consignee shown on the bill... voluntarily paying a claim, require the claimant to establish the destination value in the quantity,...

  18. 27 CFR 26.294 - Record of shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... The record of shipment shall consist of an invoice, bill of lading or similar document which shows the... total quantity in wine gallons; (4) For industrial spirits— (i) The package identification numbers of containers, and (ii) The total quantity in proof gallons. (b) The record of shipment shall be made...

  19. 7 CFR 1494.701 - Payment of bonus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to be appropriate. (b) Quantity on which bonus is paid. The quantity of the eligible commodity... Weight Certificate or the export bill of lading, whichever is less. If the exporter has furnished... the entry of the eligible commodity into the eligible country, this quantity will be used...

  20. 48 CFR 1846.672-3 - Multiple consignee instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... description. (c) Block 17—Enter the “total” quantity shipped by item or, if applicable, grouped identical...) Quantity; (4) The FEDSTRIP requisition number and quantity for each when provided in the contract or shipping instructions; and (5) If applicable, bill of lading number and mode of shipment code....

  1. 7 CFR 1494.701 - Payment of bonus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to be appropriate. (b) Quantity on which bonus is paid. The quantity of the eligible commodity... Weight Certificate or the export bill of lading, whichever is less. If the exporter has furnished... the entry of the eligible commodity into the eligible country, this quantity will be used...

  2. 49 CFR 178.345-2 - Material and material thickness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... by 49 CFR part 173 for a particular lading, a cargo tank or a part thereof, subject to thinning by... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Material and material thickness. 178.345-2 Section... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS...

  3. 49 CFR 178.345-2 - Material and material thickness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... by 49 CFR part 173 for a particular lading, a cargo tank or a part thereof, subject to thinning by... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Material and material thickness. 178.345-2 Section... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS...

  4. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... stationary, the heat transfer rate must be determined by measuring the normal evaporation rate (NER) of the... atmosphere. The calculated heat transfer rate must be determined from: q = / Where: q = calculated heat... tank, pounds. q = calculated heat transfer rate to cargo tank with lading, Btu/hr. (iii) The MRHT......

  5. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... stationary, the heat transfer rate must be determined by measuring the normal evaporation rate (NER) of the... atmosphere. The calculated heat transfer rate must be determined from: q = / Where: q = calculated heat... tank, pounds. q = calculated heat transfer rate to cargo tank with lading, Btu/hr. (iii) The MRHT......

  6. 27 CFR 28.267 - Exportation from interior port.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provisions of U.S. Customs regulations (19 CFR chapter I). On completion of the lading, the seals shall be... port. 28.267 Section 28.267 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Proceedings at Ports of Export §...

  7. 49 CFR 174.200 - Special handling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mechanism utilizing an internal combustion engine in its operation. (b) Division 2.1 (flammable gas... operated on a motor vehicle loaded on a flatcar when the motor vehicle is loaded with Division 2.1... not non-sparking or explosion-proof; (2) There is no combustion apparatus in the lading space;...

  8. 49 CFR 174.200 - Special handling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mechanism utilizing an internal combustion engine in its operation. (b) Division 2.1 (flammable gas... operated on a motor vehicle loaded on a flatcar when the motor vehicle is loaded with Division 2.1... not non-sparking or explosion-proof; (2) There is no combustion apparatus in the lading space;...

  9. 41 CFR 109-40.5001 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 109-40.5001 Section 109-40.5001 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations... MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.50-Bills of Lading § 109-40.5001...

  10. 49 CFR 179.400-5 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-5 Materials. (a) Stainless steel of ASTM A 240/A 240M (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter), Type 304 or 304L must be used... the lading. (b) Any steel casting, steel forging, steel structural shape or carbon steel plate used...

  11. 49 CFR 173.33 - Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pressure in accordance with 49 CFR 180.405(k). (3) Any Specification MC 310 or MC 311 cargo tank motor... this subchapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 173.33, see the List of CFR... material lading would have a dangerous reaction with the hazardous material. (2) A cargo tank may not...

  12. 49 CFR 173.33 - Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pressure in accordance with 49 CFR 180.405(k). (3) Any Specification MC 310 or MC 311 cargo tank motor.... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 173.33, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... material lading would have a dangerous reaction with the hazardous material. (2) A cargo tank may not...

  13. 49 CFR 173.33 - Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pressure in accordance with 49 CFR 180.405(k). (3) Any Specification MC 310 or MC 311 cargo tank motor... this subchapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 173.33, see the List of CFR... material lading would have a dangerous reaction with the hazardous material. (2) A cargo tank may not...

  14. 49 CFR 173.33 - Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... pressure in accordance with 49 CFR 180.405(k). (3) Any Specification MC 310 or MC 311 cargo tank motor.... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 173.33, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... material lading would have a dangerous reaction with the hazardous material. (2) A cargo tank may not...

  15. 49 CFR 179.220-7 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter): Specifications Minimum tensile strength (p.s.i.) welded... materials. (g) All appurtenances on the inner container in contact with the lading must be made of approved material compatible with the plate material of the inner container. These appurtenances must not be...

  16. 49 CFR 179.220-7 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter): Specifications Minimum tensile strength (p.s.i.) welded... materials. (g) All appurtenances on the inner container in contact with the lading must be made of approved material compatible with the plate material of the inner container. These appurtenances must not be...

  17. 27 CFR 28.22 - Vessels employed in the fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... affecting § 28.22, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... fisheries. 28.22 Section 28.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Lading for Use on Certain Vessels and Aircraft § 28.22 Vessels employed in the fisheries. Liquors may...

  18. 27 CFR 28.22 - Vessels employed in the fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... affecting § 28.22, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... fisheries. 28.22 Section 28.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Lading for Use on Certain Vessels and Aircraft § 28.22 Vessels employed in the fisheries. Liquors may...

  19. 46 CFR 151.50-42 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... least 8 feet above the tank top or the highest level the lading may rise, whichever is greater. All openings shall be in the top of the tank. (2) Pressure vessel type tanks shall be designed for the maximum... the design pressure be less than 50 pounds per square inch gauge. All openings shall be in the top...

  20. Simulations of Water Migration in the Lunar Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, D.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Goldstein, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    We perform modeling and analysis of water in the lunar exosphere. There were two controlled experiments of water interactions with the surface of the Moon observed by the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS). The Chang'e 3 landing on the Moon on 14 Dec 2013 putatively sprayed ~120 kg of water on the surface on the Moon at a mid-morning local time. Observations by LADEE near the noon meridian on six of the orbits in the 24 hours following the landing constrain the propagation of water vapor. Further, on 4 Apr 2014, LADEE's Orbital Maintenance Manuever (OMM) #21 sprayed the surface of the Moon with an estimated 0.73 kg of water in the pre-dawn sector. Observations of this maneuver and later in the day constrain the adsorption and release at dawn of adsorbed materials. Using the Chang'e 3 exhaust plume and LADEE's OMM-21 as control experiments, we set limits to the adsorption and thermalization of water with lunar regolith. This enables us to predict the efficiency of the migration of water as a delivery mechanism to the lunar poles. Then we simulate the migration of water through the lunar exosphere using the rate of sporadic inputs from meteoritic sources (Benna et al., this session). Simulations predict the amount of water adsorbed to the surface of the Moon and the effective delivery rate to the lunar polar cold traps.

  1. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section 151.50... phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be designed and tested for a head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket extended to 8 feet above the tank top. In addition, tank design...

  2. 46 CFR 515.42 - Forwarder and carrier; compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section 19(e)(4) of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40904(d)) and 46 CFR part 535. (e) Electronic data interchange. A... of lading, dock receipt, or other similar document with respect to the shipment. (d) Compensation... interchange-based computer system in its forwarding business; however, the forwarder must directly...

  3. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... service temperature of the tank. The tank must be charged to its maximum permitted filling density with... approximately one atmosphere, absolute, lb/hr. Δ h = latent heat of vaporization of test fluid at test pressure... lading at maximum loading pressure, °F. tf = equilibrium temperature of test fluid at one atmosphere,...

  4. 49 CFR 178.815 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... composite IBCs with outer packagings constructed of other than plastic materials must be subject to the test for 24 hours. (3) Rigid plastic IBC types and composite IBC types with plastic outer packagings (11HH1... container in pounds. s = specific gravity (liquids) or density (solids) of the lading. v = actual...

  5. 49 CFR 178.815 - Stacking test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... composite IBCs with outer packagings constructed of other than plastic materials must be subject to the test for 24 hours. (3) Rigid plastic IBC types and composite IBC types with plastic outer packagings (11HH1... container in pounds. s = specific gravity (liquids) or density (solids) of the lading. v = actual...

  6. 48 CFR 47.303-1 - F.o.b. origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... within the same city or commercial zone as the f.o.b. origin point specified in the contract (the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372). (b... ordering agency or, when a Government bill of lading is not supplied, prepare a commercial bill of...

  7. 49 CFR 177.838 - Class 4 (flammable solid) materials, Class 5 (oxidizing) materials, and Division 4.2 (pyroforic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... such dangerous materials are charcoal screenings, ground, crushed, or pulverized charcoal, and lump charcoal. (c) Lading ventilation, precautions against spontaneous combustion. Whenever a motor carrier...

  8. 49 CFR 177.838 - Class 4 (flammable solid) materials, Class 5 (oxidizing) materials, and Division 4.2 (pyroforic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... such dangerous materials are charcoal screenings, ground, crushed, or pulverized charcoal, and lump charcoal. (c) Lading ventilation, precautions against spontaneous combustion. Whenever a motor carrier...

  9. 49 CFR 177.838 - Class 4 (flammable solid) materials, Class 5 (oxidizing) materials, and Division 4.2 (pyroforic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... such dangerous materials are charcoal screenings, ground, crushed, or pulverized charcoal, and lump charcoal. (c) Lading ventilation, precautions against spontaneous combustion. Whenever a motor carrier...

  10. 49 CFR 177.838 - Class 4 (flammable solid) materials, Class 5 (oxidizing) materials, and Division 4.2 (pyroforic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... such dangerous materials are charcoal screenings, ground, crushed, or pulverized charcoal, and lump charcoal. (c) Lading ventilation, precautions against spontaneous combustion. Whenever a motor carrier...

  11. 49 CFR 177.838 - Class 4 (flammable solid) materials, Class 5 (oxidizing) materials, and Division 4.2 (pyroforic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... such dangerous materials are charcoal screenings, ground, crushed, or pulverized charcoal, and lump charcoal. (c) Lading ventilation, precautions against spontaneous combustion. Whenever a motor carrier...

  12. 19 CFR 123.91 - Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... train as contained in the carrier's bill of lading, either master or house, as applicable (this means... acceptable information; for example, a container holding 10 pallets with 200 cartons should be described as...) and weight of the cargo; or, for a sealed container, the shipper's declared description and weight...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 1035 - Contract Terms and Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract Terms and Conditions B Appendix B to Part 1035 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BILLS OF LADING Pt. 1035, App. B Appendix B to Part 1035—Contract Terms...

  14. 7 CFR 1488.9 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Documents Required... exporter shall furnish to the Treasurer, CCC, one copy of the bill of lading covering the commodity..., the exporter shall furnish to the Treasurer, CCC, one non-negotiable copy or photo copy or other...

  15. 7 CFR 1488.9 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Documents Required... exporter shall furnish to the Treasurer, CCC, one copy of the bill of lading covering the commodity..., the exporter shall furnish to the Treasurer, CCC, one non-negotiable copy or photo copy or other...

  16. 7 CFR 1488.9 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Documents Required... exporter shall furnish to the Treasurer, CCC, one copy of the bill of lading covering the commodity..., the exporter shall furnish to the Treasurer, CCC, one non-negotiable copy or photo copy or other...

  17. 7 CFR 1488.9 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5... truck, the exporter shall furnish to the Treasurer, CCC, one copy of the bill of lading covering the... carrier, the exporter shall furnish to the Treasurer, CCC, one non-negotiable copy or photo copy or...

  18. 27 CFR 28.22 - Vessels employed in the fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... affecting § 28.22, see the List of CFR Sections Affected in the Finding Aids section of this volume. ... fisheries. 28.22 Section 28.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Lading for Use on Certain Vessels and Aircraft § 28.22 Vessels employed in the fisheries. Liquors may...

  19. 27 CFR 28.22 - Vessels employed in the fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... affecting § 28.22, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... fisheries. 28.22 Section 28.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Lading for Use on Certain Vessels and Aircraft § 28.22 Vessels employed in the fisheries. Liquors may...

  20. 27 CFR 28.22 - Vessels employed in the fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... affecting § 28.22, see the List of CFR Sections Affected in the Finding Aids section of this volume and at... fisheries. 28.22 Section 28.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Lading for Use on Certain Vessels and Aircraft § 28.22 Vessels employed in the fisheries. Liquors may...

  1. 48 CFR 847.303-1 - F.o.b. origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... within this category must be shipped on a bill of lading, except as provided in 41 CFR 102-118.40. Contracting officers must comply with 41 CFR Parts 102-117 and 102-118. Contact the Traffic Manager for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. origin....

  2. 48 CFR 847.303-1 - F.o.b. origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... within this category must be shipped on a bill of lading, except as provided in 41 CFR 102-118.40. Contracting officers must comply with 41 CFR Parts 102-117 and 102-118. Contact the Traffic Manager for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. origin....

  3. 49 CFR 179.300-13 - Venting, loading and unloading valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Venting, loading and unloading valves. 179.300-13..., loading and unloading valves. (a) Valves shall be of approved type, made of metal not subject to rapid deterioration by lading, and shall withstand tank test pressure without leakage. The valves shall be...

  4. 49 CFR 179.300-13 - Venting, loading and unloading valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Venting, loading and unloading valves. 179.300-13..., loading and unloading valves. (a) Valves shall be of approved type, made of metal not subject to rapid deterioration by lading, and shall withstand tank test pressure without leakage. The valves shall be...

  5. 49 CFR 179.300-13 - Venting, loading and unloading valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Venting, loading and unloading valves. 179.300-13..., loading and unloading valves. (a) Valves shall be of approved type, made of metal not subject to rapid deterioration by lading, and shall withstand tank test pressure without leakage. The valves shall be...

  6. 49 CFR 176.27 - Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., the shipper may certify on the bill of lading or other shipping paper that the hazardous material is... part 171 of this subchapter. (c)(1) A person responsible for packing or loading a freight container or... by vessel, with a signed container packing certificate stating, at a minimum, that— (i) The...

  7. 32 CFR 861.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Aviation Regulations (14 CFR Chapter I) or equivalent regulations issued by a country's Civil Aviation... required to maintain applicable FAA or CAA standards absent deviation authority obtained pursuant to 14 CFR... card, Government or commercial transportation request (TR), bill of lading, or similar instruments....

  8. 32 CFR 861.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Aviation Regulations (14 CFR Chapter I) or equivalent regulations issued by a country's Civil Aviation... required to maintain applicable FAA or CAA standards absent deviation authority obtained pursuant to 14 CFR... card, Government or commercial transportation request (TR), bill of lading, or similar instruments....

  9. 49 CFR 375.407 - Under what circumstances must I relinquish possession of a collect-on-delivery shipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requested by the shipper after the bill of lading has been issued and/or charges, if applicable, for... after the individual shipper offers to pay you up to 110 percent of the approximate costs of a non... to part 370 of this chapter. (c) If you make only a partial delivery of the shipment, you may...

  10. 40 CFR 279.56 - Tracking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Processors and Re-Refiners § 279.56 Tracking. (a) Acceptance. Used oil processors/re-refiners must keep a record of each used oil shipment accepted for processing/re-refining. These records may take the form of a log, invoice, manifest, bill of lading or...

  11. 19 CFR 152.23 - Merchandise imported from intermediate countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Merchandise imported from intermediate countries... Appraisement § 152.23 Merchandise imported from intermediate countries. Merchandise imported from one country... which it is immediately imported. However, if it appears by the invoice, bill of lading, or...

  12. 19 CFR 152.23 - Merchandise imported from intermediate countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merchandise imported from intermediate countries... Appraisement § 152.23 Merchandise imported from intermediate countries. Merchandise imported from one country... which it is immediately imported. However, if it appears by the invoice, bill of lading, or...

  13. 41 CFR 102-117.180 - What transportation documents must I use to ship freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.180 What transportation documents must I use to ship freight? To ship freight: (a) By land (domestic shipments), use a bill of lading; (b) By... documents must I use to ship freight? 102-117.180 Section 102-117.180 Public Contracts and...

  14. 41 CFR 109-40.5005 - Description of property for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., shall be prepared for shipment and described on bills of lading or other shipping documents in accordance with the Department of Transportation Hazardous Materials Regulation, 49 CFR, parts 100-189. ... for shipment. 109-40.5005 Section 109-40.5005 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  15. 49 CFR 375.201 - What is my normal liability for loss and damage when I accept goods from an individual shipper?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of household goods and all related services identified on your lawful bill of lading. (b) Full Value..., or otherwise not delivered to the final destination in an amount equal to the replacement value of the household goods. The maximum amount is the declared value of the shipment. The declared value...

  16. 41 CFR 102-117.225 - What is the difference between a contract or a rate tender and a commuted rate system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... between a contract or a rate tender and a commuted rate system? 102-117.225 Section 102-117.225 Public... What is the difference between a contract or a rate tender and a commuted rate system? (a) Under a contract or a rate tender, the agency prepares the bill of lading and books the shipment. The agency is...

  17. 7 CFR 318.13-10 - Inspection of baggage, other personal effects, and cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the airport security checkpoint or the aircraft boarding gate, at the time they pass through the checkpoint or the gate. Passengers shall offer their check-in baggage for inspection at agricultural..., manifest, or bill of lading that accompanies the consignment. (3) Cargo moved in accordance with §...

  18. 49 CFR 179.201-9 - Gauging device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gauging device. 179.201-9 Section 179.201-9...-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.201-9 Gauging device. A gauging device of an approved design must be applied to permit determining the liquid level of the lading. The gauging...

  19. 49 CFR 179.400-19 - Valves and gages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... liquid flow rates. All valves must be made from approved materials compatible with the lading and having... (ii) A fixed length dip tube, with a manually operated shut-off valve located as close as practicable to the outer jacket. The dip tube must indicate the maximum liquid level for the allowable...

  20. 49 CFR 178.345-1 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... regulates fluid motion in a tank. Bulkhead means a liquid-tight transverse closure at the ends of or between cargo tanks. Charging line means a hose, tube, pipe, or similar device used to pressurize a tank with... radii excluding the closing heads. Stop-valve means a valve that stops the flow of lading. Sump means...

  1. 49 CFR 178.345-1 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... regulates fluid motion in a tank. Bulkhead means a liquid-tight transverse closure at the ends of or between cargo tanks. Charging line means a hose, tube, pipe, or similar device used to pressurize a tank with... radii excluding the closing heads. Stop-valve means a valve that stops the flow of lading. Sump means...

  2. 49 CFR 178.345-1 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... regulates fluid motion in a tank. Bulkhead means a liquid-tight transverse closure at the ends of or between cargo tanks. Charging line means a hose, tube, pipe, or similar device used to pressurize a tank with... radii excluding the closing heads. Stop-valve means a valve that stops the flow of lading. Sump means...

  3. 48 CFR 847.303-1 - F.o.b. origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... within this category must be shipped on a bill of lading, except as provided in 41 CFR 102-118.40. Contracting officers must comply with 41 CFR Parts 102-117 and 102-118. Contact the Traffic Manager for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false F.o.b. origin....

  4. 48 CFR 847.303-1 - F.o.b. origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... within this category must be shipped on a bill of lading, except as provided in 41 CFR 102-118.40. Contracting officers must comply with 41 CFR Parts 102-117 and 102-118. Contact the Traffic Manager for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false F.o.b. origin....

  5. 48 CFR 847.303-1 - F.o.b. origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... within this category must be shipped on a bill of lading, except as provided in 41 CFR 102-118.40. Contracting officers must comply with 41 CFR Parts 102-117 and 102-118. Contact the Traffic Manager for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false F.o.b. origin....

  6. The Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Richard Hodges, R.; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Bendt, Mirl; Carigan, Daniel; Errigo, Therese; Harpold, Daniel N.; Holmes, Vincent; Johnson, Christopher S.; Kellogg, James; Kimvilakani, Patrick; Lefavor, Matthew; Hengemihle, Jerome; Jaeger, Ferzan; Lyness, Eric; Maurer, John; Nguyen, Daniel; Nolan, Thomas J.; Noreiga, Felix; Noriega, Marvin; Patel, Kiran; Prats, Benito; Quinones, Omar; Raaen, Eric; Tan, Florence; Weidner, Edwin; Woronowicz, Michael; Gundersen, Cynthia; Battel, Steven; Block, Bruce P.; Arnett, Ken; Miller, Ryan; Cooper, Curt; Edmonson, Charles

    2014-12-01

    The Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission is designed to measure the composition and variability of the tenuous lunar atmosphere. The NMS complements two other instruments on the LADEE spacecraft designed to secure spectroscopic measurements of lunar composition and in situ measurement of lunar dust over the course of a 100-day mission in order to sample multiple lunation periods. The NMS utilizes a dual ion source designed to measure both surface reactive and inert species and a quadrupole analyzer. The NMS is expected to secure time resolved measurements of helium and argon and determine abundance or upper limits for many other species either sputtered or thermally evolved from the lunar surface.

  7. The Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Hodges, R. Richard; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Bendt, Mirl; Carigan, Daniel; Errigo, Therese; Harpold, Daniel N.; Holmes, Vincent; Johnson, Christopher S.; Kellogg, James; Kimvilakani, Patrick; Lefavor, Matthew; Hengemihle, Jerome; Jaeger, Ferzan; Lyness, Eric; Maurer, John; Nguyen, Daniel; Nolan, Thomas; Noreiga, Felix; Noreiga, Marvin; Patel, Kiran; Prats, Benito; Quinones, Omar; Raaen, Eric; Tan, Florence; Weidner, Edwin; Woronowicz, Michael; Gundersen, Cynthia (Inventor); Battel, Steven; Block, Bruce P.; Arnett, Ken; Miller, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission is designed to measure the composition and variability of the tenuous lunar atmosphere. The NMS complements two other instruments on the LADEE spacecraft designed to secure spectroscopic measurements of lunar composition and in situ measurement of lunar dust over the course of a 100-day mission in order to sample multiple lunation periods. The NMS utilizes a dual ion source designed to measure both surface reactive and inert species and a quadrupole analyzer. The NMS is expected to secure time resolved measurements of helium and argon and determine abundance or upper limits for many other species either sputtered or thermally evolved from the lunar surface.

  8. Methane in the lunar exosphere: Implications for solar wind carbon escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, , R. Richard

    2016-07-01

    A positive identification of methane in the lunar exosphere has been made in data from the neutral mass spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. Like argon-40, methane is adsorbed on the lunar surface during nighttime. However, higher activation energies for methane delay its desorption at sunrise by about an hour local time, creating a postsunrise bulge with peak concentration of approximately 400-450 molecules cm-3 at a reference altitude of 12 km, which is just above the highest topographic feature on the Moon. The rate of escape of carbon as methane derived from the LADEE data is estimated to be in the range 1.5-4.5 × 1021 s-1. A lower bound for solar carbon escape derived separately from Apollo sample analyses is 3.4 × 1021 s-1.

  9. Scattering Properties of Lunar Dust Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S.; Marshall, J.; Richard, D.; Adler, D.; Adler, B.

    2013-01-01

    A number of space missions are planned to explore the lunar exosphere which may contain a small population of dust particles. The objective of this paper is to present preliminary results from scattering experiments on a suspension of lunar simulants to support one such mission. The intensity of the light scattered from a lunar simulant is measured with a commercial version of the spectrometer used in the forthcoming LADEE mission. Physical properties of the lunar simulant are described along with two similarly-sized reference microspheres. We confirm that micron-sized particles tend to form agglomerates rather than remaining isolated entities and that certain general characteristic of the target particles can be predicted from intensity measurements alone. These results can be used directly to assess general features of the lunar exosphere from LADEE instrument data. Further analysis of particle properties from such remote sensing data will require measurements of polarization signatures.

  10. 19 CFR 4.89 - Vessels in foreign trade proceeding via domestic ports and touching at intermediate foreign ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ports and touching at intermediate foreign ports. 4.89 Section 4.89 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... touching at intermediate foreign ports. (a) A vessel proceeding from port to port in the United States in accordance with §§ 4.85, 4.86, or 4.87 may touch at an intermediate foreign port or ports to lade...

  11. 19 CFR 178.2 - Listing of OMB control numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... control numbers. 19 CFR Section Description OMB control No. § 4.7a Unique bill of lading identifier for... declaration) 1651-0001 Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 178.2, see the List of CFR....64, 122.49a, 122.49b, 122.49c, 122.75a, 122.75b Electronic manifest requirements for...

  12. 19 CFR 178.2 - Listing of OMB control numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... control numbers. 19 CFR Section Description OMB control No. § 4.7a Unique bill of lading identifier for... declaration) 1651-0001 Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 178.2, see the List of CFR....64, 122.49a, 122.49b, 122.49c, 122.75a, 122.75b Electronic manifest requirements for...

  13. 19 CFR 178.2 - Listing of OMB control numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... control numbers. 19 CFR Section Description OMB control No. § 4.7a Unique bill of lading identifier for... declaration) 1651-0001 Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 178.2, see the List of CFR....64, 122.49a, 122.49b, 122.49c, 122.75a, 122.75b Electronic manifest requirements for...

  14. 41 CFR 102-117.135 - What are the international transportation restrictions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... mandate the use of U.S. flag carriers for international shipments (see 48 CFR part 47, subparts 47.4 and... 46 CFR part 381 and 48 CFR part 47, subpart 47.5), which require the use of a U.S. flag carrier when... freight forwarder bills of lading are not acceptable (see 48 CFR part 47). They should be attached to...

  15. 41 CFR 102-117.135 - What are the international transportation restrictions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... mandate the use of U.S. flag carriers for international shipments (see 48 CFR part 47, subparts 47.4 and... 46 CFR part 381 and 48 CFR part 47, subpart 47.5), which require the use of a U.S. flag carrier when... freight forwarder bills of lading are not acceptable (see 48 CFR part 47). They should be attached to...

  16. NASA Lunar Robotics for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Lavoie, Anthony R.; Gilbert, Paul A.; Horack, John M.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the robotic missions that NASA and the international partnership are undertaking to investigate the moon to support science and exploration objectives. These missions include the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), Moon Mineralogy Mapper (MMM), Lunar Atmosphere, Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE), and the International Lunar Network (ILN). The goals and instrumentation of these missions are reviewed.

  17. 49 CFR 176.9 - “Order-Notify” or “C.O.D.” shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false âOrder-Notifyâ or âC.O.D.â shipments. 176.9... General § 176.9 “Order-Notify” or “C.O.D.” shipments. A carrier may not transport Division 1.1 or 1.2... “C.O.D.”, except on a through bill of lading to a place outside the United States; or (b)...

  18. 49 CFR 173.249 - Bromine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... density is 300 percent of the tank's water capacity. Minimum filling density is 287 percent of the tank's water capacity. Maximum water capacity is 9,253 kg (20,400 pounds) for DOT 105A300W tank cars. Maximum quantity of lading in DOT 105A300W tank cars is 27,216 kg (60,000 pounds). Maximum water capacity is...

  19. 49 CFR 173.249 - Bromine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... density is 300 percent of the tank's water capacity. Minimum filling density is 287 percent of the tank's water capacity. Maximum water capacity is 9,253 kg (20,400 pounds) for DOT 105A300W tank cars. Maximum quantity of lading in DOT 105A300W tank cars is 27,216 kg (60,000 pounds). Maximum water capacity is...

  20. 49 CFR 173.249 - Bromine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... density is 300 percent of the tank's water capacity. Minimum filling density is 287 percent of the tank's water capacity. Maximum water capacity is 9,253 kg (20,400 pounds) for DOT 105A300W tank cars. Maximum quantity of lading in DOT 105A300W tank cars is 27,216 kg (60,000 pounds). Maximum water capacity is...

  1. 49 CFR 173.249 - Bromine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... density is 300 percent of the tank's water capacity. Minimum filling density is 287 percent of the tank's water capacity. Maximum water capacity is 9,253 kg (20,400 pounds) for DOT 105A300W tank cars. Maximum quantity of lading in DOT 105A300W tank cars is 27,216 kg (60,000 pounds). Maximum water capacity is...

  2. Low-Cost, Class D Testing of Spacecraft Photovoltaic Systems Can Reduce Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forgione, Joshua B.; Kojima, Gilbert K.; Hanel, Robert; Mallinson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The end-to-end verification of a spacecraft photovoltaic power generation system requires light! A lowcost, portable, and end-to-end photovoltaic-system test appropriate for NASA's new generation of Class D missions is presented. High risk, low-cost, and quick-turn satellites rarely have the resources to execute the traditional approaches from higher-class (A-C) missions. The Class D approach, as demonstrated on the Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), utilizes a portable, metalhalide, theatre lamp for an end-to-end photovoltaic system test. While not as precise and comprehensive as the traditional Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator (LAPSS) test, the LADEE method leverages minimal resources into an ongoing assessment program that can be applied through numerous stages of the mission. The project takes a true Class D approach in assessing the technical value of a costly, highfidelity performance test versus a simpler approach with less programmatic risk. The resources required are a fraction of that for a LAPSS test, and is easy to repeat due to its portability. Further, the test equipment can be handed down to future projects without building an on-site facility. At the vanguard of Class D missions, the LADEE team frequently wrestled with and challenged the status quo. The philosophy of risk avoidance at all cost, typical to Class A-C missions, simply could not be executed. This innovative and simple testing solution is contextualized to NASA Class D programs and a specific risk encountered during development of the LADEE Electrical Power System (EPS). Selection of the appropriate lamp and safety concerns are discussed, with examples of test results. Combined with the vendor's panellevel data and periodic inspection, the method ensures system integrity from Integration and Test (I&T) through launch. Following launch, mission operations tools are utilized to assess system performance based on a scant amount of available data.

  3. 46 CFR 35.01-10 - Shipping papers-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shipping papers-TB/ALL. 35.01-10 Section 35.01-10... Requirements § 35.01-10 Shipping papers—TB/ALL. Each loaded tank vessel shall have on board a bill of lading... agent of the owner: Provided, however, That in the case of unmanned barges where shipping papers are...

  4. 49 CFR 176.9 - “Order-Notify” or “C.O.D.” shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false âOrder-Notifyâ or âC.O.D.â shipments. 176.9... General § 176.9 “Order-Notify” or “C.O.D.” shipments. A carrier may not transport Division 1.1 or 1.2... “C.O.D.”, except on a through bill of lading to a place outside the United States; or (b)...

  5. 49 CFR 174.106 - “Order-Notify” or “C.O.D.” shipments, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false âOrder-Notifyâ or âC.O.D.â shipments, Division 1.1... MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Class I (Explosive) Materials § 174.106 “Order-Notify” or “C.O.D... to “order-notify” or “C.O.D.”, except on a through bill of lading to a place outside the...

  6. Marshall Team Complete Testing for Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swofford, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Huu Trinh and his team with the Propulsion Systems and Test Departments at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. successfully complete a simulated cold-flow test series on the propulsion system used for the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., is leading NASA s work on the development of the LADEE spacecraft, and the Marshall center is the program office for the project. The spacecraft, scheduled for launch this fall, will orbit the Moon and gather information about the lunar atmosphere, conditions near the surface of the Moon, and collect samples of lunar dust. A thorough understanding of these characteristics will address long-standing unknowns, and help scientists understand other planetary bodies as well. The test team at the Marshall center conducted the cold flow test to identify how the fluid flows through the propulsion system feed lines, especially during critical operation modes. The test data will be used to assist the LADEE team in identifying any potential flow issues in the propulsion system, and allow them to address and correct them in advance of the launch.

  7. Hydrogen Bearing Material in the Lunar Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, D.; Benna, M.; Colaprete, A.; Retherford, K. D.; Cook, J. C.; Elphic, R. C.; Farrell, W. M.; Killen, R. M.; Sarantos, M.

    2015-12-01

    We report on observations of water and its daughters in the lunar exosphere. Data from LADEE NMS, LADEE UVS, and LRO LAMP indicating the presence of H, H2, OH, and H2O are presented in terms of their relationship to external drivers. These observations point to the roles of solar wind and micrometeoroids in the source and release of hydrogen-bearing atoms and molecules in the exosphere. In particular, the implantation of H via solar wind is found to be the largest contributor to H2 in the moon's exosphere. However, the spatial distribution is more consistent with a release mechanism centered on the morning hemisphere. Thus the data are consistent with H2 created through a 2-step process involving the implantation of solar wind and subsequent release by micrometeoroids. This accounts for >12% of the solar wind H budget, leaving < 50% of the solar wind proton budget unobserved. LADEE data are consistent with water mainly being released by micrometeoroids. We present an overall picture of the present-day water cycle occurring on the Moon.

  8. Anticomplement activity of organic solvent extracts from Korea local Amarantaceae spp.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seil; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In

    2012-04-01

    The study evaluated the anticomplement activity from various solvent extracts of nine Amarantaceae plants (Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai, Amaranthus mangostanus L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Celosia argentea var. spicata., Amaranthus lividus L., Celosia cristata L., Amaranthus viridis L., Gomphrena globosa L.) from South Korea on the classical pathway. We have evaluated various organic solvent extract from nine Amarantaceae plants with regard to its anticomplement activity on the classical pathway. Achyranthes japonica chloroform extracts showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) value of 73.1μg/ml. This is the first report of anticomplement activity from Amarantaceae plants. PMID:21736535

  9. Chemical inhibitors of viviparous germination in the fruit of watermelon.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    It is well known that the seeds of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai] have a high potential to germinate when the fruit has ripened. When removed from the mature fruit, the seeds can germinate under appropriate conditions. However, it is unclear why they cannot germinate in the flesh of the fruit. Here, we show that cis-ABA and its β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (ABA-β-GE) accumulate in the flesh of the fruit at levels high enough to inhibit seed germination. This result indicates the existence of chemical factors that inhibit viviparous seed germination of watermelon. PMID:20630986

  10. Immunotoxicity activity from various essential oils of Angelica genus from South Korea against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Eun-Hye; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In

    2012-02-01

    The leaves of Angelica anomala Lallemant, Angelica cartilagino-marginata var. distans (Nakai) Kitag, Angelica czernevia (Fisch. et Meyer) Kitagawa, Angelica dahurica Benth. et Hooker, Angelica decursiva (Miq.) Franch. & Sav, Angelica fallax Boissieu, Angelica gigas Nakai, Angelica japonica A. gray were essential oil extracted and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The Angelica anomala, A. cartilagino-marginata var. distans, A. czernevia, A. dahurica, A. decursiva, A. fallax, A. gigas, A. japonica essential oil yield were 4.13, 4.83, 4.45, 3.25, 4.11, 4.73, 4.34 and 4.21%. The A. dahurica essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with a lethal concentration 50 (LC₅₀) value of 43.12 ppm and an LC₉₀ value of 65.23 ppm. The above indicates that essential oil contents may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil. PMID:21506693

  11. Inflammation and Vascular Injury

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Daniel I.

    2014-01-01

    . Drs Teruo Inoue, Koichi Node, Tatsuya Fukotomi, Masashi Sakuma, Toshifumi Morooka, and Kohsuke Nakajima, valued Japanese collaborators and post-doctoral fellows, have contributed enormously to these discoveries. PMID:22785436

  12. A micro-spherical heart pump powered by cultured cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yo; Sato, Kae; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2007-02-01

    Miniaturization of chemical or biochemical systems creates extremely efficient devices exploiting the advantages of microspaces. Although they are often targeted for implanted tissue engineered organs or drug-delivery devices because of their highly integrated systems, microfluidic devices are usually powered by external energy sources and therefore difficult to be used in vivo. A microfluidic device powered without the need for external energy sources or stimuli is needed. Previously, we demonstrated the concept of a cardiomyocyte pump using only chemical energy input to cells as a driver (Yo Tanaka, Keisuke Morishima, Tatsuya Shimizu, Akihiko Kikuchi, Masayuki Yamato, Teruo Okano and Takehiko Kitamori, Lab Chip, 6(3), pp. 362-368). However, the structure of this prototype pump described there included complicated mechanical components and fabricated compartments. Here, we have created a micro-spherical heart-like pump powered by spontaneously contracting cardiomyocyte sheets driven without a need for external energy sources or coupled stimuli. This device was fabricated by wrapping a beating cardiomyocyte sheet exhibiting large contractile forces around a fabricated hollow elastomeric sphere (5 mm diameter, 250 microm polymer thickness) fixed with inlet and outlet ports. Fluid oscillations in a capillary connected to the hollow sphere induced by the synchronously pulsating cardiomyocyte sheet were confirmed, and the device continually worked for at least 5 days in this system. This bio/artificial hybrid fluidic pump device is innovative not only because it is driven by cells using only chemical energy input, but also because the design is an optimum structure (sphere). We anticipate that this device might be applied for various purposes including a bio-actuator for medical implant devices that relies on biochemical energy, not electrical interfacing. PMID:17268623

  13. Lunar Missions and Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    There are two slide presentations contained in this document. The first reviews the lunar missions from Surveyor, Galileo, Clementine, the Lunar Prospector, to upcoming lunar missions, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation & Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), Lunar Atmosphere, Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE), ILN and a possible Robotic sample return mission. The information that the missions about the moon is reviewed. The second set of slides reviews the lunar meteorites, and the importance of lunar meteorites to adding to our understanding of the moon.

  14. Limiting performance of ground transportation vehicles subject to transient loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilkey, W. D.; Wang, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    A computational approach to determining the limiting performance of vehicles subject to transient disturbances based on response variable criteria is set forth. For the purposes of a limiting performance study, the transportation system dynamics are described using second- or first-order equations in which the sought for quantity is a vector of time-varying functions called control or isolator forces that have replaced portions of the physical system. Computations are performed as a linear programming problem. As an example of the limiting performance of vehicles in protecting passengers or cargo under crash conditions, the problem of lading damage of a rail vehicle that is struck by another vehicle is considered.

  15. Advances in Lunar Science and Observational Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Lunar science is currently undergoing a renaissance as our understanding of our Moon continues to evolve given new data from multiple lunar mission and new analyses. This talk will overview NASA's recent and future lunar missions to explain the scientific questions addressed by missions such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (Grail), Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS), and the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). The talk will also overview opportunities for participatory exploration whereby professional and amateur astronomers are encouraged to participate in lunar exploration in conjunction with NASA.

  16. Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) Support of Space to Ground Link Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Kovalik, Joseph M.; Wright, Malcolm W.; Roberts, William T.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA/JPL Optical Communication Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) was built for dedicated research and development toward supporting free-space laser communications from space. Recently, the OCTL telescope was used to support the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) from the Lunar Atmospheric Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft and is planned for use with the upcoming Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) demonstration from the International Space Station (ISS). The use of OCTL to support these demonstrations is discussed in this report. The discussion will feed forward to ongoing and future space-to-ground laser communications as it advances toward becoming an operational capability.

  17. CONSTRUCTION OF A SMALL AUTOMATED CORONAGRAPH FOR OBSERVATIONS OF THE LUNAR Na EXOSPHERE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Roy; Morgan, T. H.; Killen, R. M.

    2013-10-01

    We report on the final optical and mechanical design and the construction and initial testing of a small coronagraph at the Winer Observatory, near Sonoita, Arizona. The coronagraph includes a narrow band filter and low-light level camera to observe lunar exospheric sodium in the resonance lines of that element near 590 nm. Without the use of a coronagraph, the signal from sodium would be lost against light scattered by the Earth’s atmosphere and scattered light in the telescope. The design uses Commercial Off the Shelf Technology (COTS), and our goal is to obtain observations while the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission is still in orbit.

  18. Scopoletin from Cirsium setidens Increases Melanin Synthesis via CREB Phosphorylation in B16F10 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Mi-Ja; Hur, Sun-Jung; Kim, Eun-Hyun; Lee, Seung Hoon; Shin, Jun Seob; Kim, Myo-Kyoung; Uchizono, James A.; Whang, Wan-Kyunn

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we isolated scopoletin from Cirsium setidens Nakai (Compositae) and tested its effects on melanogenesis. Scopoletin was not toxic to cells at concentrations less than 50 µM and increased melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. As melanin synthesis increased, scopoletin stimulated the total tyrosinase activity, the rate-limiting enzyme of melanogenesis. In a cell-free system, however, scopoletin did not increase tyrosinase activity, indicating that scopoletin is not a direct activator of tyrosinase. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that scopoletin stimulated the production of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase expression via cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Based on these results, preclinical and clinical studies are needed to assess the use of scopoletin for the treatment of vitiligo. PMID:25177162

  19. Chaenomeles speciosa: A review of chemistry and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Ya; Han, Li-Ya; Zhang, Hong; Xin, Hai-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai (C. speciosa, Rosaceae family) is an effective medicinal plant, which has long been used in China to treat various diseases, such as rheumatism, cholera, dysentery, enteritis, beriberi and vitamin C deficiency syndrome. A series of chemical constituents, including triterpenoid, phenolic and phenylpropionic acids, flavonoids, saccharides, essential oils and alkaloids, have been isolated from this plant and some have already been evaluated for their biological activities. Pharmacological investigations demonstrated that C. speciosa possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunoregulatory, antiparkinsonian, hepatoprotective and antitumor properties. The objective of this review was to summarise available up-to-date and comprehensive information on C. speciosa and provide a relevant reference for further investigations. PMID:24649061

  20. The lunar laser communication demonstration time-of-flight measurement system: overview, on-orbit performance, and ranging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, M. L.; Parenti, R. R.; Willis, M. M.; Greco, J. A.; Khatri, F. I.; Robinson, B. S.; Boroson, D. M.

    2016-03-01

    The Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) flown on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) satellite achieved record uplink and downlink communication data rates between a satellite orbiting the Moon and an Earth-based ground terminal. In addition, the high-speed signals of the communication system were used to accurately measure the round-trip time-of-flight (TOF) of signals sent to the Moon and back to the Earth. The measured TOF data, sampled at a 20-kS/s rate, and converted to distance, was processed to show a Gaussian white noise floor typically less than 1 cm RMS. This resulted in a precision for relative distance measurements more than two orders-of-magnitude finer than the RF-based navigation and ranging systems used during the LADEE mission. This paper presents an overview of the LLCD TOF system, a summary of the on-orbit measurements, and an analysis of the accuracy of the measured data for the mission.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 2-10keV luminosity function of AGN (Ranalli+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranalli, P.; Koulouridis, E.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Fotopoulou, S.; Hsu, L.-T.; Salvato, M.; Comastri, A.; Pierre, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Carrera, F. J.; Chiappetti, L.; Clerc, N.; Gilli, R.; Iwasawa, K.; Pacaud, F.; Paltani, S.; Plionis, E.; Vignali, C.

    2016-02-01

    The XMM-LSS, XMM-CDFS, and XMM-COSMOS are three surveys with complementary properties in terms of luminosity and redshift coverage. We used these three surveys to derive Bayesian estimates of the unabsorbed luminosity function (LF) of AGN in the 2-10keV band. The LF estimates are presented as a set of samples from the posterior probability distribution of the LF parameters. The LF is parameterised as a double power-law, with either the luminosity and density evolution (LADE) model, or the luminosity-dependent density evolution (LDDE) model. The double power-law is described by Eq.(10) in the paper. The LADE and LDDE models are described by Eqs.(11-14) and Eqs.(15-17), respectively. A Fortran 2008 implementation of these models can be found in file src2/lumf_funcs.f90 of the LFTools package, in the classes doublepowerlaw, ladevol, and lddevol (see the paper). (8 data files).

  2. Correlations between LDEX Measurements and the Lunar Plasma Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Jamey; Horanyi, Mihaly; Poppe, Andrew; Halekas, Jasper

    2014-05-01

    The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is an impact ionization dust detector capable of measuring the mass of sub-micron sized dust grains above the lunar surface. LDEX can also search for the putative population of grains with radii on the order of ~ 0.1 μm lofted over the terminator regions by measuring the collective current of dust grains that are below the detection threshold for single impacts. This current, intended to measure the collective impact plasma from multiple small grain impacts, has also shown considerable correlations with plasma measurements from the ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, & Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun) mission. Through LADEE's many orbits, LDEX sees time periods with very low variability, having almost no activity as well as periods with very high variability. Since this type of high activity is also observed in anti-ram pointing measurements, much of this current cannot be explained by collections of small dust grain impacts. Given this, comparisons to ARTEMIS data provide a promising way to explain such measurements. This presentation will focus on the correlations between LDEX and ARTEMIS data.

  3. Dust mobilization on airless planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, M.

    2013-12-01

    There are a number of observations indicating that small dust grains can be mobilized and transported on the surfaces of airless bodies. While not a single measurement to date can unambiguously identify the responsible process, the entire body of existing observations as a whole suggests that electrodynamics remains the most likely candidate. If this is the case, our models have to be able to account for the electrostatic charging and subsequent dynamics of the grains sculpted by surface electric fields. The Colorado Center for Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) of the former NASA Lunar Science Institute conducted a series of small-scale laboratory experiments to address dust charging and mobilization issues, including the effects of flowing plasmas and UV radiation. This talk will draw conclusions based on these series of experiments and use them to guide the analysis and interpretation of the data from the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Mission (LADEE). By the time of this talk, LADEE is expected to collect its initial science measurements. The combination of laboratory and in situ space measurements provides a unique opportunity to advance our theoretical models on the transport of charged dust particles on the lunar surface, and apply these arguments to all other airless planetary bodies.

  4. Modelling strain localization in granular materials using micropolar theory: mathematical formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsaleh, Mustafa I.; Voyiadjis, George Z.; Alshibli, Khalid A.

    2006-12-01

    It has been known that classical continuum mechanics laws fail to describe strain localization in granular materials due to the mathematical ill-posedness and mesh dependency. Therefore, a non-local theory with internal length scales is needed to overcome such problems. The micropolar and high-order gradient theories can be considered as good examples to characterize the strain localization in granular materials. The fact that internal length scales are needed requires micromechanical models or laws; however, the classical constitutive models can be enhanced through the stress invariants to incorporate the Micropolar effects. In this paper, Lade's single hardening model is enhanced to account for the couple stress and Cosserat rotation and the internal length scales are incorporated accordingly. The enhanced Lade's model and its material properties are discussed in detail; then the finite element formulations in the Updated Lagrangian Frame (UL) are used. The finite element formulations were implemented into a user element subroutine for ABAQUS (UEL) and the solution method is discussed in the companion paper. The model was found to predict the strain localization in granular materials with low dependency on the finite element mesh size. The shear band was found to reflect on a certain angle when it hit a rigid boundary. Applications for the model on plane strain specimens tested in the laboratory are discussed in the companion paper. Copyright

  5. Physicochemical characterization and toxicity of decursin and their derivatives from Angelica gigas.

    PubMed

    Mahat, Bimit; Chae, Jung-Woo; Baek, In-Hwan; Song, Gyu-Yong; Song, Jin-Sook; Cho, Seong-Kwon; Kwon, Kwang-Il

    2012-01-01

    Angelica gigas NAKAI is used to treat dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, menopause, abdominal pain, injuries, migraine, and arthritis. The present study provided a physicochemical and toxicological characterization of compounds in A. gigas NAKAI (decursin, decursinol angelate, diketone decursin, ether decursin, epoxide decursin and oxim decursin). Diketone decursin (173.16 μg/mL) and epoxide decursin (122.12 μg/mL) exhibited >100 μg/mL kinetic solubility after applying nephelometry, suggesting a highly soluble compound. The Student’s t-test revealed significant differences in the pKa ranges of the compounds by automatic titration from capillary electrophoresis (p<0.05). Diketone decursin, epoxide decursin and oxim decursin might be formulated into an oral dosage form (log P: 0-3) by an automatic titration analysis. A parallel artificial membrane permeability assay demonstrated permeability coefficients of <10 x 10⁻⁶ cm/s for all of the compounds, suggesting poor permeability. Ether decursin exhibited a toxic effect after being applied to mouse (NIH 3T3, EC₅₀: 57.9 μM) and human (HT-29, EC₅₀: 36.1 μM; Hep-G2, EC₅₀: 4.92 μM) cells. Additionally, epoxide and oxim decursin were toxic through acute oral toxicity (four and three deaths of Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice) and mutation toxicity testing by applying Salmonella typhimurium cells with and without S9. Although diketone decursin exhibited less permeability, it is potentially valuable pharmacological compound that should be investigated. PMID:22791156

  6. Comparison of methods for nutrient measurement in calcareous soils: Ion-exchange resin bag, capsule, membrane, and chemical extractions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, S.K.; Belnap, J.; Miller, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Four methods for measuring quantities of 12 plant-available nutrients were compared using three sandy soils in a series of three experiments. Three of the methods use different ion-exchange resin forms-bags, capsules, and membranes-and the fourth was conventional chemical extraction. The first experiment compared nutrient extraction data from a medium of sand saturated with a nutrient solution. The second and third experiments used Nakai and Sheppard series soils from Canyonlands National Park, which are relatively high in soil carbonates. The second experiment compared nutrient extraction data provided by the four methods from soils equilibrated at two temperatures, "warm" and "cold." The third experiment extracted nutrients from the same soils in a field equilibration. Our results show that the four extraction techniques are not comparable. This conclusion is due to differences among the methods in the net quantities of nutrients extracted from equivalent soil volumes, in the proportional representation of nutrients within similar soils and treatments, in the measurement of nutrients that were added in known quantities, and even in the order of nutrients ranked by net abundance. We attribute the disparities in nutrient measurement among the different resin forms to interacting effects of the inherent differences in resin exchange capacity, differences among nutrients in their resin affinities, and possibly the relatively short equilibration time for laboratory trials. One constraint for measuring carbonate-related nutrients in high-carbonate soils is the conventional ammonium acetate extraction method, which we suspect of dissolving fine CaCO3 particles that are more abundant in Nakai series soils, resulting in erroneously high Ca2+ estimates. For study of plant-available nutrients, it is important to identify the nutrients of foremost interest and understand differences in their resin sorption dynamics to determine the most appropriate extraction method.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of Two Pseudomonas plecoglossicida Phages, Potential Therapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Yasuike, Motoshige; Nakamura, Yoji; Shigenobu, Yuya; Fujiwara, Atushi; Sano, Motohiko; Nakai, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas plecoglossicida is a lethal pathogen of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) in Japan and is responsible for substantial economic costs to ayu culture. Previously, we demonstrated the efficacy of phage therapy against P. plecoglossicida infection using two lytic phages (PPpW-3 and PPpW-4) (S. C. Park, I. Shimamura, M. Fukunaga, K. Mori, and T. Nakai, Appl Environ Microbiol 66:1416–1422, 2000, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.66.4.1416-1422.2000; S. C. Park and T. Nakai, Dis Aquat Org 53:33–39, 2003, http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao053033). In the present study, the complete genome sequences of these therapeutic P. plecoglossicida phages were determined and analyzed for deleterious factors as therapeutic agents. The genome of PPpW-3 (myovirus) consisted of 43,564 bp with a GC content of 61.1% and 66 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Approximately half of the genes were similar to the genes of the Escherichia coli phage vB_EcoM_ECO1230-10 (myovirus). The genome of PPpW-4 (podovirus) consisted of 41,386 bp with a GC content of 56.8% and 50 predicted ORFs. More than 70% of the genes were similar to the genes of Pseudomonas fluorescens phage ϕIBB-PF7A and Pseudomonas putida phage ϕ15 (podoviruses). The whole-genome analysis revealed that no known virulence genes were present in PPpW-3 and PPpW-4. An integrase gene was found in PPpW-3, but other factors used for lysogeny were not confirmed. The PCR detection of phage genes in phage-resistant variants provided no evidence of lysogenic activity in PPpW-3 and PPpW-4. We conclude that these two lytic phages qualify as therapeutic agents. PMID:25416766

  8. Complete genome sequence analysis of two Pseudomonas plecoglossicida phages, potential therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Kawato, Yasuhiko; Yasuike, Motoshige; Nakamura, Yoji; Shigenobu, Yuya; Fujiwara, Atushi; Sano, Motohiko; Nakai, Toshihiro

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas plecoglossicida is a lethal pathogen of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) in Japan and is responsible for substantial economic costs to ayu culture. Previously, we demonstrated the efficacy of phage therapy against P. plecoglossicida infection using two lytic phages (PPpW-3 and PPpW-4) (S. C. Park, I. Shimamura, M. Fukunaga, K. Mori, and T. Nakai, Appl Environ Microbiol 66:1416-1422, 2000, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.66.4.1416-1422.2000; S. C. Park and T. Nakai, Dis Aquat Org 53:33-39, 2003, http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao053033). In the present study, the complete genome sequences of these therapeutic P. plecoglossicida phages were determined and analyzed for deleterious factors as therapeutic agents. The genome of PPpW-3 (myovirus) consisted of 43,564 bp with a GC content of 61.1% and 66 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Approximately half of the genes were similar to the genes of the Escherichia coli phage vB_EcoM_ECO1230-10 (myovirus). The genome of PPpW-4 (podovirus) consisted of 41,386 bp with a GC content of 56.8% and 50 predicted ORFs. More than 70% of the genes were similar to the genes of Pseudomonas fluorescens phage ϕIBB-PF7A and Pseudomonas putida phage ϕ15 (podoviruses). The whole-genome analysis revealed that no known virulence genes were present in PPpW-3 and PPpW-4. An integrase gene was found in PPpW-3, but other factors used for lysogeny were not confirmed. The PCR detection of phage genes in phage-resistant variants provided no evidence of lysogenic activity in PPpW-3 and PPpW-4. We conclude that these two lytic phages qualify as therapeutic agents. PMID:25416766

  9. Incorporation of the Mass Concentration and the New Snow Albedo Schemes into the Global Forecasting Model, GEOS-5 and the Impact of the New Schemes over Himalayan Glaciers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasunari, Teppei

    2012-01-01

    Recently the issue on glacier retreats comes up and many factors should be relevant to the issue. The absorbing aerosols such as dust and black carbon (BC) are considered to be one of the factors. After they deposited onto the snow surface, it will reduce snow albedo (called snow darkening effect) and probably contribute to further melting of glacier. The Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) has developed at NASA/GSFC. However, the original snowpack model used in the land surface model in the GEOS-5 did not consider the snow darkening effect. Here we developed the new snow albedo scheme which can consider the snow darkening effect. In addition, another scheme on calculating mass concentrations on the absorbing aerosols in snowpack was also developed, in which the direct aerosol depositions from the chemical transport model in the GEOS-5 were used. The scheme has been validated with the observed data obtained at backyard of the Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, by Dr. Teruo Aoki (Meteorological Research Institute) et aL including me. The observed data was obtained when I was Ph.D. candidate. The original GEOS-5during 2007-2009 over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau region showed more reductions of snow than that of the new GEOS-5 because the original one used lower albedo settings. On snow cover fraction, the new GEOS-5 simulated more realistic snow-covered area comparing to the MODIS snow cover fraction. The reductions on snow albedo, snow cover fraction, and snow water equivalent were seen with statistically significance if we consider the snow darkening effect comparing to the results without the snow darkening effect. In the real world, debris cover, inside refreezing process, surface flow of glacier, etc. affect glacier mass balance and the simulated results immediately do not affect whole glacier retreating. However, our results indicate that some surface melting over non debris covered parts of the glacier would be

  10. PREFACE: Nanospintronics design and realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Kasai, Hideaki

    2004-12-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains selected papers from the 1st International Conference on Nanospintronics Design and Realization (ICNDR 2004), which was held in Kyoto, Japan, 24--28 May 2004. This conference was organized by the Nanospintronics Design and Realization project members: Hideaki Kasai, Osaka (Chair of the Conference) Hisazumi Akai, Osaka Hajime Asahi, Osaka Wilson Agerico Diño, Osaka Hiroshi Harima, Kyoto Tomoyuki Kakeshita, Osaka Junjiro Kanamori, Kyoto Hiroshi Katayama-Yoshida, Osaka Koichi Kusakabe, Osaka Hiroshi Nakanishi, Osaka (Secretary) Tamio Oguchi, Hiroshima Teruo Ono, Osaka Naoshi Suzuki, Osaka Hitoshi Tabata, Osaka under the auspices of the Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, and the sponsorship of Osaka University and the International Institute for Advanced Studies (IIAS). The conference is intended to provide an international forum for experimental and theoretical researchers, in the rapidly developing field of nanospintronics. It aims to: provide an overview of our current understanding of the physics of spin transport in (magnetic) semiconductors and hybrid magnetic/semiconductor structures; provide a venue to present and discuss the latest developments in using spin-dependent phenomena in nano-(opto-) electronics and computing applications; provide a venue for discussion and assessment of other possible means of exploiting the spin-dependent phenomena in future nano-(opto-) electronic and computing applications; address current (and foreseeable future) problems, of fundamental and applied nature, in an effort to bridge the physics and technology gap between semiconducting and magnetic materials. All of these being geared towards bringing about the realization of a functioning nanospintronics. A total of 127 delegates from 15 countries took part in ICNDR 2004, which was comprised of 62 invited

  11. The Studies on Aerosol Transport, Its Deposition, and Its Impact on Climate - the Study on the Surface Material Circulation can Connect from the Past to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasunari, Teppei

    2012-01-01

    Recently the issue on glacier retreats comes up and many factors should be relevant to the issue. The absorbing aerosols such as dust and black carbon (BC) are considered to be one of the factors. After they deposited onto the snow surface, it will reduce snow albedo (called snow darkening effect) and probably contribute to further melting of glacier. The Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) has developed at NASAlGSFC. However, the original snowpack model used in the land surface model in the GEOS-5 did not consider the snow darkening effect. Here we developed the new snow albedo scheme which can consider the snow darkening effect. In addition, another scheme on calculating mass concentrations on the absorbing aerosols in snowpack was also developed, in which the direct aerosol depositions from the chemical transport model in the GEOS-5 were used. The scheme has been validated with the observed data obtained at backyard of the Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, by Dr. Teruo Aoki (Meteorological Research Institute) et al. including me. The observed data was obtained when I was Ph.D. candidate. The original GEOS-5 during 2007-2009 over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau region showed more reductions of snow than that of the new GEOS-5 because the original one used lower albedo settings. On snow cover fraction, the new GEOS-5 simulated more realistic snow-covered area comparing to the MODIS snow cover fraction. The reductions on snow albedo, snow cover fraction, and snow water equivalent were seen with statistically significance if we consider the snow darkening effect comparing to the results without the snow darkening effect. In the real world, debris-cover, inside refreezing process, surface flow of lacier, etc. affect glacier mass balance and the simu.latedresults immediately do not affect whole glacier retreating. However, our results indicate that some surface melting over non debris-covered parts of the glacier would be

  12. Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Toyonobu

    2013-02-01

    As the successor to Professor Teruo Kishi, the former Editor-in-Chief of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials (STAM), I would like to share some of STAM's journal history with our readers. STAM was launched in 2000 with the financial support of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in recognition of a strong need for an international journal that would be distributed and read across the globe. Five years later, the publication of STAM was transferred to the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) under the initiative of Professor Kishi. As a result of his work, STAM is now positioned as a high-impact journal, 3.512 as listed by the ISI 2011 Science Citation Index Journal Citation Report, with a much higher and faster growth than when I was participating as a co-founder in the past. STAM is well known as a successful open-access journal since shifting from the initial subscription model in 2008. As an editor, I would like to emphasize that STAM will continue to publish with a sense of social mission as an academic journal, allowing space for researchers to contribute to the sustainable development of society and health. However, some contribution from authors would assist us in creating a sustainable journal publishing model, and further enhance services to authors and readers of STAM. With this in mind, I would like to state that STAM's editorial board is planning to introduce an article processing charge from July 2013, in addition to NIMS' continuing financial support. One of our new editorial policies is to aim for reader-oriented publishing. I believe that academic journal publishing can take the role of navigator in advancing the development of materials. Among the many other scientific journals, STAM will lead the rapid growth in materials science, inspiring research into new materials for the future and leading the next generation of materials science and technology. It is my honor to work with members of

  13. EDITORIAL: STAM celebrates its 10th anniversary STAM celebrates its 10th anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushioda, Sukekatsu

    2010-02-01

    I would like to extend my warmest greetings to the readers and staff of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials (STAM), on the occasion of its 10th anniversary. Launched in 2000, STAM marks this year an important milestone in its history. This is a great occasion to celebrate. STAM was founded by Tsuyoshi Masumoto in collaboration with Teruo Kishi and Toyonobu Yoshida as a world-class resource for the materials science community. It was initially supported by several materials research societies and was published as a regular peer-reviewed journal. Significant changes occurred in 2008, when the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) became solely responsible for all the costs of maintaining the journal. STAM was transformed into an open-access journal published by NIMS in partnership with IOP Publishing. As a result, the publication charges were waived and the entire STAM content, including all back issues, became freely accessible through the IOP Publishing website. The transition has made STAM more competitive and successful in global publication communities, with innovative ideas and approaches. The journal has also changed its publication strategy, aiming to publish a limited number of high-quality articles covering the frontiers of materials science. Special emphasis has been placed on reviews and focus issues, providing recent summaries of hot materials science topics. Publication has become electronic only; however, selected issues are printed and freely distributed at major international scientific events. The Editorial Board has been expanded to include leading experts from all over the world and, together with the Editorial Office, the board members are doing their best to transform STAM into a leading materials science journal. These efforts are paying off, as shown by the rapidly increasing number of article downloads and citations in 2009. I believe that the STAM audience can not only deepen their knowledge in their own specialties but

  14. The Various Influences due to Aerosol Depositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasunari, Teppei

    2011-01-01

    Recently the issue on glacier retreats comes up and many factors should be relevant to the issue. The absorbing aerosols such as dust and black carbon (BC) are considered to be one of the factors. After they deposited onto the snow surface, it will reduce snow albedo (called snow darkening effect) and probably contribute to further melting of glacier. The Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) has developed at NASA/GSFC. However, the original snowpack model used in the land surface model in the GEOS-5 did not consider the snow darkening effect. Here we developed the new snow albedo scheme which can consider the snow darkening effect. In addition, another scheme on calculating mass concentrations on the absorbing aerosols in snowpack was also developed, in which the direct aerosol depositions from the chemical transport model in the GEOS-5 were used. The scheme has been validated with the observed data obtained at backyard of the Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, by Dr. Teruo Aoki (Meteorological Research Institute) et al. including me. The observed data was obtained when I was Ph.D.caftdidate. The original GEOS-5 during 2007-2009 over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau region showed more reductions of snow than that of the new GEOS-5 because the original one used lower albedo settings. On snow cover fraction, the new GEOS-5 simulated more realistic snow-covered area comparing to the MODIS snow cover fraction. The reductions on snow albedo, snow cover fraction, and snow water equivalent were seen with statistically significance if we consider the snow darkening effect comparing to the results without the snow darkening effect. In the real world, debris cover, inside refreezing process, surface flow of glacier, etc. affect glacier mass balance and the simulated results immediately do not affect whole glacier retreating. However, our results indicate that some surface melting over non debris covered parts of the glacier would be

  15. Science from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, Richard; Delory, Gregory; Noble, Sarah; Colaprete, Anthony; Horanyi, Mihaly; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi

    2014-11-01

    On September 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA’s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, during the government shutdown. The spacecraft impacted the lunar surface on April 18, 2014, following a completely successful mission. LADEE’s science objectives were twofold: (1) Determine the composition and variability of the lunar atmosphere; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, and its variability. The LADEE science payload consisted of the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), which sensed dust impacts in situ, for particles between 100 nm and 5 micrometers; a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), which sampled lunar exospheric gases in situ, over the 2-150 Dalton mass range; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer (UVS) acquired spectra of atmospheric emissions and scattered light from tenuous dust, spanning a 250-800 nm wavelength range. UVS also performed dust extinction measurements via a separate solar viewer optic. Among the preliminary results for the lunar exosphere: (1) The helium exosphere of the Moon, first observed during Apollo, is clearly dominated by the delivery of solar wind He++. (2) Neon 20 is clearly seen as an important constituent of the exosphere. (3) Argon 40, also observed during Apollo and arising from interior outgassing, exhibits variations related to surface temperature-driven condensation and release, and is also enhanced over specific selenographic longitudes. (4) The sodium abundance varies with both lunar phase and with meteoroid influx, implicating both solar wind sputtering and impact vaporization processes. (5) Potassium was also routinely monitored and exhibits some of the same properties as sodium. (6) Other candidate species were seen by both NMS and UVS, and await confirmation. Dust measurements have revealed a persistent “shroud” of small dust particles between 0

  16. Detecting meteoroid streams with an in-situ dust detector above an airless body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Jamey R.; Horányi, Mihály

    2016-09-01

    The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), aboard NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) successfully mapped the dust density distribution over the lunar surface up to an altitude of ∼ 250 km. LDEX detected dust grains launched off the surface in ejecta plumes generated by impacts of cometary and asteroidal micrometeoroids striking the Moon. While on average LDEX detected particles at a rate of 1 min-1 , periodically it measured bursts of particles at a rate exceeding the average value by up to two orders of magnitude. The timing and location of the most intense period of bursts is used here to independently determine the radiant for the Geminids meteoroid stream. The method is proposed to be of general interest to characterize meteoroid streams bombarding any of the airless bodies in the solar system using in-situ dust detectors.

  17. NASA's Big Events: A Framework for Public Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Louis; Cline, Troy; Lewis, Elaine; Ng, Carolyn

    2014-11-01

    Through the education and communication programs in its Science Mission Directorate (SMD), NASA supports many nation-wide and international pubic engagement programs aimed at increasing public interest and scientific literacy in space and Earth science. These programs key off of celestial and space mission events as well as historical dates and celebrations and achieve enormous reach (10's to 100's of millions annually) and impact through the involvement of numerous partners and networks of partners including NASA Field Centers and space missions, museums and science centers, schools and school districts, broadcast media, community groups, professional societies, and amateur astronomers. A summary of recent Big Events includes the Transit of Venus, the launches of LADEE and MAVEN, the MSL/Curiosity landing on Mars, and the arrival of Comet ISON. Through this presentation, we will discuss the strategies employed by NASA to stimulate public interest on large scales and preview upcoming NASA Big Events.

  18. Lunar dust simulant charging and transport under UV irradiation in vacuum: Experiments and numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champlain, A.; Matéo-Vélez, J.-C.; Roussel, J.-F.; Hess, S.; Sarrailh, P.; Murat, G.; Chardon, J.-P.; Gajan, A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent high-altitude observations, made by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) experiment on board LADEE orbiting the Moon, indicate that high-altitude (>10 km) dust particle densities are well correlated with interplanetary dust impacts. They show no evidence of high dust density suggested by Apollo 15 and 17 observations and possibly explained by electrostatic forces imposed by the plasma environment and photon irradiation. This paper deals with near-surface conditions below the domain of observation of LDEX where electrostatic forces could clearly be at play. The upper and lower limits of the cohesive force between dusts are obtained by comparing experiments and numerical simulations of dust charging under ultraviolet irradiation in the presence of an electric field and mechanical vibrations. It is suggested that dust ejection by electrostatic forces is made possible by microscopic-scale amplifications due to soil irregularities. At low altitude, this process may be complementary to interplanetary dust impacts.

  19. Corrosion performance of aluminum in coal railcars

    SciTech Connect

    Hersh, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    Aluminum has been used for construction of coal railcars and on an experimental basis as a metallized coating over steel railcars. When aluminum is used in areas which contact the lading, resistance to general corrosion has been outstanding. Galvanic corrosion of joints which connect the aluminum to a steel undercarriage has not been a problem provided appropriate measures were taken during vehicle construction. Laboratory test data are presented which illustrate the impact of variations in joint preparation on galvanic corrosion performance. Painting the steel and the use of a sealant are recommended to obtain satisfactory long term joint performance. The corrosion performance and long term durability of an aluminum metallized coating has been demonstrated when applied to new cars constructed of carbon steel. Test results of coating durability when applied to cars constructed of constructed of weathering steel or carbon steel which were in revenue coal service prior to coating have been mixed.

  20. Tisettanta case study: the interoperation of furniture production companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarilli, Fabrizio; Spreafico, Alberto

    This chapter presents the Tisettanta case study, focusing on the definition of the possible innovations that ICT technologies can bring to the Italian wood-furniture industry. This sector is characterized by industrial clusters composed mainly of a few large companies with international brand reputations and a large base of SMEs that manufacture finished products or are specialized in the production of single components/processes (such as the Brianza cluster, where Tisettanta operates). In this particular business ecosystem, ICT technologies can bring relevant support and improvements to the supply chain process, where collaborations between enterprises are put into action through the exchange of business documents such as orders, order confirmation, bills of lading, invoices, etc. The analysis methodology adopted in the Tisettanta case study refers to the TEKNE Methodology of Change (see Chapter 2), which defines a framework for supporting firms in the adoption of the Internetworked Enterprise organizational paradigm.