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Sample records for laevad olid puust

  1. Elicitin-like proteins Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 from Pythium oligandrum trigger hypersensitive response in Nicotiana benthamiana and induce resistance against Botrytis cinerea in tomato.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Zhigang; Li, Xiaohui; Huang, Lei; Hong, Yongbo; Zhang, Yafen; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2015-04-01

    The biocontrol agent Pythium oligandrum and its elicitin-like proteins oligandrins have been shown to induce disease resistance in a range of plants. In the present study, the ability of two oligandrins, Oli-D1 and Oli-D2, to induce an immune response and the possible molecular mechanism regulating the defence responses in Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato were investigated. Infiltration of recombinant Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 proteins induced a typical immune response in N. benthamiana including the induction of a hypersensitive response (HR), accumulation of reactive oxygen species and production of autofluorescence. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression assays revealed that full-length Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 were required for full HR-inducing activity in N. benthamiana, and virus-induced gene silencing-mediated knockdown of some of the signalling regulatory genes demonstrated that NbSGT1 and NbNPR1 were required for Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 to induce HR in N. benthamiana. Subcellular localization analyses indicated that both Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 were targeted to the plasma membrane of N. benthamiana. When infiltrated or transiently expressed in leaves, Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 induced resistance against Botrytis cinerea in tomato and activated the expression of a set of genes involved in the jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET)-mediated signalling pathway. Our results demonstrate that Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 are effective elicitors capable of inducing immune responses in plants, probably through the JA/ET-mediated signalling pathway, and that both Oli-D1 and Oli-D2 have potential for the development of bioactive formulae for crop disease control in practice. PMID:25047132

  2. Synthesis of alkyl-substituted 2-halo-4-aminomethyl-2-buten-4-olides

    SciTech Connect

    Tyvorskii, V.I.; Tishchenko, I.G.; Kukharev, A.S.; Yushkevich, E.V.; Vlasov, S.F.

    1986-05-01

    The reaction of esters of alkyl-substituted (E)-5-amino-4-hydroxy-2,3,epoxy-valeric acids with some hydrohalic acids gave the corresponding 2-halo-4-amino-methyl-2-buten-4-olides, the hydrochlorides of which have diuretic activity.

  3. Production of a highly potent epoxide through the microbial metabolism of 3β-acetoxyurs-11-en-13β,28-olide by Aspergillus niger culture.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sajid; Nisar, Muhammad; Gulab, Hussain

    2016-09-01

    Context 3β-Acetoxyurs-11-en-13β,28-olide (I), a triterpenoid, is found in most plant species. Pharmacologically triterpenes are very effective compounds with potent anticancer, anti-HIV and antimicrobial activities. Objectives Microbial transformation of 3β-acetoxyurs-11-en-13β,28-olide (I) was performed in order to obtain derivatives with improved pharmacological potential. Materials and methods Compound (I, 100 mg) was incubated with Aspergillus niger culture for 12 d. The metabolite formed was purified through column chromatography. Structure elucidation was performed through extensive spectroscopy (IR, MS and NMR). In vitro α- and β-glucosidase inhibitory, and antiglycation potentials of both substrate and metabolite were evaluated. Results Structure of metabolite II was characterized as 3β-acetoxyurs-11,12-epoxy-13β,28-olide (II). Metabolite II was found to be an oxidized product of compound I. In vitro α- and β-glucosidases revealed that metabolite II was a potent and selective inhibitor of α-glucosidase (IC50 value = 3.56 ± 0.38 μM), showing that the inhibitory effect of metabolite II was far better than compound I (IC50 value = 14.7 ± 1.3 μM) as well as acarbose (IC50 value = 545 ± 7.9 μM). Antiglycation potential of compound II was also high with 82.51 ± 1.2% inhibition. Thus, through oxidation, the biological potential of the substrate molecule can be enhanced. Conclusion Biotransformation can be used as a potential tool for the production of biologically potent molecules. PMID:26736075

  4. Rational design, synthesis and characterization of highly fluorescent optical switches for high-contrast optical lock-in detection (OLID) imaging microscopy in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Petchprayoon, Chutima; Yan, Yuling; Mao, Shu; Marriott, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge in cell biology is to elucidate molecular mechanisms that underlie the spatio-temporal control of cellular processes. These studies require microscope imaging techniques and associated optical probes that provide high-contrast and high-resolution images of specific proteins and their complexes. Auto-fluorescence however, can severely compromise image contrast and represents a fundamental limitation for imaging proteins within living cells. We have previously shown that optical switch probes and optical lock-in detection (OLID) image microscopy improve image contrast in high background environments. Here, we present the design, synthesis and characterization of amino- reactive and cell permeable optical switches that integrate the highly fluorescent fluorophore, tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) and spironaphthoxazine (NISO), a highly efficient optical switch. The NISO moiety in TMR-NISO undergoes rapid and reversible, excited-state driven transitions between a colorless spiro (SP)-state and a colored merocyanine (MC)-state in response to irradiation with 365 nm and >530 nm light. In the MC-state, the TMR (donor) emission is almost completely extinguished by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to the MC probe (acceptor), whereas in the colorless SP-state, the quantum yield for TMR fluorescence is maximal. Irradiation of TMR-NISO with a defined sequence of 365 nm and 546 nm manipulates the levels of SP and MC with concomitant modulation of FRET efficiency and the TMR fluorescence signal. High fidelity optical switching of TMR fluorescence is shown for TMR-NISO probes in vitro and for membrane permeable TMR-NISO within living cells. PMID:20674372

  5. 4-Hydroxy-2,3-Dimethyl-2-Nonen-4-Olide Has an Inhibitory Effect on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Production in CpG-Stimulated Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, Zahid; Koo, Jung-Eun; Ali, Irshad; Kim, Jung-Eun; Byeon, Sang-Hee; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Hyun, Jin-Won; Lee, Nam-Ho; Koh, Young-Sang

    2016-01-01

    This study was intended to assess the anti-inflammatory properties of 4-hydroxy-2,3-dimethyl-2-nonen-4-olide (Comp) isolated from Ulva pertusa Kjellman on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Comp revealed remarkable inhibitory effects on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Comp pre-treatment in the CpG DNA-stimulated BMDCs exhibited strong inhibition of interleukin (IL)-12 p40 and IL-6 production with IC50 values ranging from 7.57 ± 0.2 to 10.83 ± 0.3, respectively. It revealed an inhibitory effect on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38, and on activator protein (AP)-1 reporter activity. Comp displayed noteworthy inhibitory effects on phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, and on NF-κB reporter activity. In summary, these data propose that Comp has substantial anti-inflammatory properties and warrants further study concerning its potential use as a therapeutic agent for inflammation-associated maladies. PMID:27153074

  6. 4-Hydroxy-2,3-Dimethyl-2-Nonen-4-Olide Has an Inhibitory Effect on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Production in CpG-Stimulated Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Manzoor, Zahid; Koo, Jung-Eun; Ali, Irshad; Kim, Jung-Eun; Byeon, Sang-Hee; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Hyun, Jin-Won; Lee, Nam-Ho; Koh, Young-Sang

    2016-01-01

    This study was intended to assess the anti-inflammatory properties of 4-hydroxy-2,3-dimethyl-2-nonen-4-olide (Comp) isolated from Ulva pertusa Kjellman on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Comp revealed remarkable inhibitory effects on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Comp pre-treatment in the CpG DNA-stimulated BMDCs exhibited strong inhibition of interleukin (IL)-12 p40 and IL-6 production with IC50 values ranging from 7.57 ± 0.2 to 10.83 ± 0.3, respectively. It revealed an inhibitory effect on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38, and on activator protein (AP)-1 reporter activity. Comp displayed noteworthy inhibitory effects on phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, and on NF-κB reporter activity. In summary, these data propose that Comp has substantial anti-inflammatory properties and warrants further study concerning its potential use as a therapeutic agent for inflammation-associated maladies. PMID:27153074

  7. A focal adhesion kinase inhibitor 16-hydroxy-cleroda-3,13-dien-16,15-olide incorporated into enteric-coated nanoparticles for controlled anti-glioma drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, Varadharajan; Lin, Shi-Xiang; Lee, Chia-Hung; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2016-05-01

    16-Hydroxy-cleroda-3,13-dien-16,15-olide (HCD) which is extracted from a medicinal plant, Polyalthia longifolia, was shown to exhibit anticancer activity through apoptosis and FAK inhibition in our previous study. To improve its solubility and efficacy, a novel HCD delivery system using copper-substituted mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was designed as a delivery vehicle, and the outer surfaces of MSNs were further coated with enteric polymers to prevent the drug from leaching in the stomach acid. All the data regarding synthesis and physical characterization, including Zeta potential, FT-IR spectra, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms (BET), drug loading, powder X-ray diffraction, Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were well characterized. The non-coated MSN-HCD exposed to acidic pH (1.2) showed a rapid degradation of the drug, whereas the enteric-coated samples presented a sustained release profile in the gastrointestinal pHs. Cell cytotoxicity was further confirmed by the MTT-C6 Glioma cell line, in vitro. When compared with the control and pure HCD, the MSN-HCD revealed a potential anti-proliferation effect via the synergistic effect of the drug and the MSN vehicle. Additionally, this MSN-HCD had the effect of increasing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and altered the Mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) in C6 cell line. The in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of enteric-coated MSN-HCD was evaluated by C6 Glioma bearing xenograft nude mice, and enteric-coated MSN-HCD clearly exhibited the greatest anti-glioma activity, as compared to the pure HCD and the untreated control. In terms of the effective treatment of brain glioma, this study provides conclusive evidence of the successful development of the anti-cancer agent HCD conjugated with enteric-coated MSN as a delivery control mechanism with enhanced dissolution characteristics. PMID:26851441

  8. Evidence for a volatile sex pheromone in Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) that synergizes attraction to a host foliar volatile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of volatiles from virgin female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, confirmed the emission of (3Z)-lactone [(3Z)-dodecen-12-olide] but not its geometric isomer, (3E)-lactone [(3E)-dodecen-12-olide]. Gas chromatographic/ electroa...

  9. ALTERNATIVE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES FOR REMEDIATION OF CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED MATERIALS: BENCH-SCALE TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to determine the most effective of two bioremediation application strategies to ameliorate creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils present at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida: olid-ph...

  10. Three new ursane-type triterpenoids from the aerial parts of Isodon excisoides.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Ke; Li, Huo-Yun; Zhang, Peng; Pi, Hui-Fang; Ruan, Han-Li; Wu, Ji-Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Three new ursane-type triterpenoids, 2α,3β-dihydroxy-11α,12α-epoxy-urs-28,13β-olide (1), 2α,3β,24-trihydroxy-11α,12α-epoxy-urs-28,13β-olide (2), and 2α,3α,24-trihydroxy-11,20(30)-dien-urs-28,13β-olide (6), together with six known ursane-type triterpenoids (3-5, 7-9), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the aerial parts of Isodon excisoides. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D NMR and 2D NMR analyses as well as HRMS experiments. PMID:24152070

  11. Hikiokoshins A-I, diterpenes from the leaves of Isodon japonicus.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naonobu; Tsuji, Eri; Sakai, Kanae; Gonoi, Tohru; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2014-06-01

    Diterpenes, hikiokoshins A-I, and twelve known diterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Isodon japonicus (Burm. f.) H. Hara (Lamiaceae). The hikiokoshins A-I possess various skeletons such as ternifonane {hikiokoshin A}, ent-6,7:8,15-diseco-6,8-cyclokauran-7,20-olide {hikiokoshin B}, ent-6,7-secokauran-7,20-olide {hikiokoshin C}, and ent-7,20-epoxykaurane {hikiokoshins D-I}. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Antimicrobial activities of hikiokoshins A and B were evaluated. PMID:24702849

  12. Two new triterpenoids from the resin of Styrax tonkinensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Yi-Bo; Chen, Huan; Chen, Lei; Liang, Sheng-Wang; Wang, Shu-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Two new triterpenoids, 3β,6β-dihydroxy-12-oxo-13Hα-olean-28,19β-olide (1) and 3-oxo-olean-11,13(18)-dien-28,19β-olide (2) were isolated from the resin of Styrax tonkinensis (Pier.) Craib. The structures of both triterpenoids were determined by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 is the second triterpene found with cis-fused C/D ring from the resin, which is rarely observed in oleanane-type triterpenes. PMID:25908248

  13. Antennally active macrolide from the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis emitted predominantly by females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide was identified from the emissions of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, feeding on ash foliage. The compound was detected from both sexes but was at least 8 times more abundant from females. It was readily sensed by both male and female antenn...

  14. Putative pheromone for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide was identified from the emissions of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, feeding on ash foliage. The compound was detected from both sexes but was about 10 times more abundant from females. It was readily sensed by both male and female antennae...

  15. Phytotoxic Eremophilanes from Ligularia macrophylla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systematic bioassay-guided fractionation of the methylene chloride roots extract of Ligularia macrophylla was performed to identify both phytotoxic and antifungal compounds. Four phytotoxic eremophilanes [furanoeremophilan-14B,6a-olide, 6B-angeloyloxy-10B-hydroxyfuranoeremophilane, eremophil-7(11)-e...

  16. Immunotoxic sesquiterpene lactone from Carpesium rosulatum Miq.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyung-In; Zee, Okpyo

    2011-06-01

    The whole plants of Carpesium rosulatum were chloroform extracted and the isolated sesquiterpene lactones and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The structures and stereochemistry of these compounds were established on the basis of analysis of spectra including mp, [α](D)(25), IR, UV, EI-MS, MS, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and some chemical transformations as follows: 1 (4β,10α-dihydroxy-guaia-8α,12-olide), 2 (4β,10α-dihydroxy-1(2),11 (13)-guaiadien -8α,12-olide), 3 (3β,8β-dihydroxy-1α,5α-guaian-10(14)-ene-6α,12-olide). 4 (2β,5-epoxy-5,10-dihydroxy-6α,9β-diangeloyloxy-germacran-8α,12-olide) The chloroform extracted had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 13.11 ppm and an LC(90) value of 20.33 ppm. The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural immunotoxicity agents against A. aegypti. PMID:20738151

  17. New sesquiterpenoids from Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wenbing; Huang, Rui; Zhou, Zhongshi; Li, Youzhi

    2015-01-01

    A new pseudoguaianolide 1 and two new guaiane-type sesquiterpene glucosides 2 and 3, were isolated from the aerial parts of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L together with two known sesquiterpene dilactones 4 and 5. The new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods to be 3β-acetoxy-4β-hydroxy-1α,7α, 10β,11αH-pseudoguaia-12,8β-olide (1), 1β,7β,9β,10β,13αH-guaia-4(5)-en-12,6β-olide 9-O-β-d-glucoside (2) and 4β-hydroxy-1α,5α,7α,9αH-guaia-10(14),11(13)-dien-12-acid 9-O-β-d-glucoside (3). The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell lines in vitro, but were all inactive. PMID:25764487

  18. New Antiplasmodial Diterpenes from Gutierrezia sarothrae.

    PubMed

    Su, Qingxi; Dalal, Seema; Goetz, Michael; Cassera, Maria B; Kingston, David G I

    2016-06-01

    Bioassay guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of the plant Gutierrezia sarothrae (Asteraceae) using an assay for antiplasmodial activity against the drug-resistant Dd2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum led to the isolation of the two new diterpenes 3α-angeloyloxy-15-hydroxylabda-7,13-dien-16,15-olid-18-oic acid (1) and 3α-angeloyloxy-15-methoxylabda-7,13-dien-16,15-olid-18-oic acid (2). The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data, mass spectrometry, and comparison with the data of related compounds reported in the literature. Compound 1 exhibited moderate antiplasmodial activity with an IC50 values of 10.4 ± 4.3 μM. PMID:27534100

  19. Cytotoxic effect of triterpenoids from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Li-Shian; Wu, Chao-Hsuan; Yang, Te-Chun; Yao, Chen-Wen; Lin, Hang-Ching; Chang, Wen-Liang

    2014-09-01

    In this study, 4 new triterpenoids-3β- acetoxy-olean-11-en,28,13β-olide (1), 3β- acetoxy-11α,12α-epoxy-olean-28,13β-olide (2), 19α-epi-betulin (3), and 20, 28-epoxy-17β,19β-lupan-3β-ol (4)-and 12 known compounds, were isolated from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus L. by using acetone extraction. Their structures were characterized by extensive spectroscopic analysis. To investigate cytotoxicity, A549 human lung cancer cells were exposed to the extract and the compounds identified from it. Significantly reduced cell viability was observed with betulin-3-caffeate (12) (IC50, 4.3 μM). The results of this study indicate that betulin-3-caffeate (12) identified from H. syriacus L. may warrant further investigation for potential as anticancer therapies. PMID:24862067

  20. Guaianolide sesquiterpenes from Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv.

    PubMed

    Stavri, Michael; Mathew, K T; Gordon, Andrew; Shnyder, Steven D; Falconer, Robert A; Gibbons, Simon

    2008-06-01

    A phytochemical study of the asteraceous herb Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv. resulted in the characterisation of three guaianolide sesquiterpenes, 2alpha,4alpha-dihydroxy-7alphaH,8alphaH,10alphaH-guaia-1(5),11(13)-dien-8beta,12-olide (1), 1alpha,2alpha-epoxy-4beta-hydroxy-5alphaH,7alphaH,8alphaH,10alphaH-guaia-11(13)-en-8beta,12-olide (2) and 5,10-epi-2,3-dihydroaromatin (3). The structures were assigned on the basis of extensive 1 and 2D NMR experiments. Compound 3 exhibited weak antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium phlei with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.52 mM and cytotoxicity (IC50 of 5.8+/-0.2 microM) in a human bladder carcinoma cell line, EJ-138. PMID:18448140

  1. Identification and synthesis of macrolide pheromones of the grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis and the frog Spinomantis aglavei.

    PubMed

    Hötling, Susann; Haberlag, Birte; Tamm, Matthias; Collatz, Jana; Mack, Patrick; Steidle, Johannes L M; Vences, Miguel; Schulz, Stefan

    2014-03-10

    Macrolide lactones, the so called cucujolides derived from unsaturated fatty acids, are aggregation pheromones of cucujid grain beetles. Thirty years ago, Oehlschlarger et al. showed that (3Z,6Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-11-olide (4) and the respective 12-olide (7) attract the sawtoothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis, whereas (5Z,8Z,13R)-tetradeca-5,8-dien-13-olide (5) increases the response synergistically. The frass of this beetle is attractive for its parasitoid Cephalonomia tarsalis, which potentially can be used for pest control. A GC/MS analysis of attractive frass showed the presence of 5, together with an unknown isomer. Cucujolide V was tentatively identified also in the femoral glands, pheromone-releasing structures, of the Madagascan mantelline frog Spinomantis aglavei. Therefore, a new route to synthesize doubly unsaturated macrolides allowing the flexible attachment of the side chain was developed. A straightforward method to obtain Z configured macrolides involves ring-closing alkyne metathesis (RCAM) followed by Lindlar-catalyzed hydrogenation. This methodology was extended to homoconjugated diene macrolides by using RCAM after introduction of one Z configured double bond in the precursor by Wittig reaction. A tungsten benzylidyne complex was used as the catalyst in the RCAM reaction, which afforded the products in high yield at room temperature. With the synthetic material at hand, the unknown isomer was identified as the new natural product (5Z,8Z,12R)-tetradeca-5,8-dien-12-olide, cucujolide X (8). Furthermore, the route also allowed the synthesis of cucujolide V in good yield. The natural products were identified by the synthesis of enantiomerically pure or enriched material and gas chromatography on chiral phases. The new macrolide (R)-8 proved to be biologically active, attracting female O. surinamensis, but no males. The synthetic material allowed the identification of (R)-5 in both the beetle and the frog. PMID:24523150

  2. The chafer pheromone buibuilactone and ant pyrazines are also produced by marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dickschat, Jeroen S; Wagner-Döbler, Irene; Schulz, Stefan

    2005-04-01

    Headspace extracts obtained from agar plate cultures of two marine bacteria from the North Sea (Germany), Loktanella strain BIO-204 and Dinoroseobacter shibae strain DFL-27, were analyzed by GC-MS. Several gamma-lactones and one delta-lactone were identified, besides pyrazines and some sulfur compounds. The absolute configuration of the major lactone (R,Z)-dodec-5-en-4-olide, known as buibuilactone, a pheromone of several scarab beetles, was determined by a new catalytic enantioselective synthesis and GC on a chiral stationary phase. Unsaturated lactones in the extracts included (E)-dodec-5-en-4-olide and the regioisomer (Z)-dodec-6-en-4-olide, previously identified as a component of black-tailed deer urine. The pyrazines 2-butyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine and 2-isopentyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine were identified by comparison with synthesized material. The latter compound is a known ant pheromone, as is another identified pyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine. The striking similarity between insect pheromones and these bacterial volatiles is discussed, suggesting the possibility of more widespread occurrence of symbiosis between microorganisms and insects than previously thought. PMID:16124260

  3. New cembranolide analogues from the formosan soft coral Sinularia flexibilis and their cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Chang, Fang-Rong; McPhail, Andrew T; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2003-12-01

    Using a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure, five cembranolides, 11-epi-sinulariolide acetate (1), 11-dehydrosinulariolide (2), sinulariolide (3), dihydrosinularin (4), and 3,4:8,11-bisepoxy-7-acetoxycembra-15(17)-en-1,12-olide (5), along with two nucleosides, 2'-deoxyadenosine and thymidine, were isolated from the Formosan soft coral Sinularia flexibilis. Moreover, 7,8-epoxy-11-epi-sinulariolide acetate (1a), 11-sinulariolide acetate (3a), dihydrosinulariolide (3b), 3,4:8,11-bisepoxy-7-hydroxycembra-15(17)-en-1,12-olide (3c), 11-acetoxyl-15(17)-dihydrosinulariolide (3d), 7,8-epoxy-11-sinulariolide acetate (3e), and 3,4:8,11-bisepoxy-7-hydroxycembra-15(17)-dihydro-1,12-olide (3f) were derived from compounds 1 and 3, respectively. These structures were deduced on the basis of physical and chemical evidence. Among them, 1a, 3d, 3e, and 3f are new cembranolide analogues. The structure of compound 1 was further confirmed by X-ray analysis. In addition, the isolated cembranolides and the analogues under went a cytotoxicity assay, and the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of these compounds was studied. PMID:14577690

  4. Antimicrobial evaluation of clerodane diterpenes from Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula.

    PubMed

    Sashidhara, Koneni V; Singh, Suriya P; Shukla, P K

    2009-03-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of leaves of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula has led to the isolation of seven clerodane diterpenoids and five alkaloids. (-)-14, 15-bisnor-3, 11E-kolavadien-13-one (1), (-)-16-oxocleroda-3,13(14)E-dien-15-oic acid (2), (-)-16alpha-hydroxycleroda-3,13 (14)Z-dien-15,16-olide (3), (+)-(4-->2)-abeo-16(R/S)-2, 13Z-kolavadien-15, 16-olide-3-al (4), (-)-3beta, 16beta-dihydroxycleroda-4(18), 13(14)Z-dien-15,16-olide (5), (-)-3, 12E-kolavadien-15-oic acid-16-al (6), (-)-labd-13E-en-8-ol-15-oic acid (7), liriodenine (8), (-)-anonaine (9), (+)-isoboldine (10), (-)-asimilobine (11) and hordenine (12) have been isolated. This is the first report of 1, 6 and 10 from this plant species while 12 is reported for first time from this genus. Clerodane derivatives 1-7 were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Diterpene 3 was found to be most potent agent with MIC value of 6.25 microg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and Sporothrix schenckii. PMID:19413108

  5. A Biologically Active Analog of the Sex Pheromone of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Silk, P J; Ryall, K; Mayo, P; MaGee, D I; Leclair, G; Fidgen, J; Lavallee, R; Price, J; McConaghy, J

    2015-03-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) (EAB), is an invasive species causing unprecedented levels of mortality to ash trees in its introduced range. The female-produced sex pheromone of EAB has been shown to contain the macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide. This compound and its geometrical isomer, (3E)-dodecen-12-olide, have been demonstrated previously to be EAG active and, in combination with a host-derived green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol, to be attractive to male EAB in green prism traps deployed in the ash tree canopy. In the current study, we show that the saturated analog, dodecan-12-olide, is similarly active, eliciting an antennal response and significant attraction of EAB in both olfactometer and trapping bioassays in green traps with (3Z)-hexenol. Conformational modeling of the three lactones reveals that their energies and shapes are very similar, suggesting they might share a common receptor in EAB antennae. These findings provide new insight into the pheromone ecology of this species, highlighting the apparent plasticity in response of adults to the pheromone and its analog. Both of the unsaturated isomers are costly to synthesize, involving multistep, low-yielding processes. The saturated analog can be made cheaply, in high yield, and on large scale via Mitsunobu esterification of a saturated ω-hydroxy acid or more simply by Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of commercially available cyclododecanone. The analog can thus provide an inexpensive option as a lure for detection surveys as well as for possible mitigation purposes, such as mating disruption. PMID:25786893

  6. Inuloxins A-D, phytotoxic bi-and tri-cyclic sesquiterpene lactones produced by Inula viscosa: potential for broomrapes and field dodder management.

    PubMed

    Andolfi, Anna; Zermane, Nadjia; Cimmino, Alessio; Avolio, Fabiana; Boari, Angela; Vurro, Maurizio; Evidente, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    Four phytotoxic bi- and tri-cyclic sesquiterpene lactones, named inuloxins A-D, were isolated together with the known α-costic acid, from the aerial parts of Inula viscosa (family Asteraceae), a widespread Mediterranean plant well known for its content of pharmacologically active metabolites. The structures of inuloxins A-D were established by spectroscopic and chemical methods and determined to be: (4E,7R*,8R*,10S*)-3-oxo-germacra-4,11(13)-dien-8β-12-olide (A), its 11,13-dihydro analogue (B), (5R*,7R*,8R*,10R*)-1,15-methylene-5β-hydroxy-eudesm-1(15),11(13)-dien-8β-12-olide (C), and (7R*,8R*)-1,4-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-secoeudesm-5(10),11(13)-dien-8β-12-olide (D). The S absolute stereochemistry at C-5 of 5-hydroxyhexan-2-yl side chain of inuloxin D was assigned by applying an advanced Mosher's method. The phytotoxic activity of inuloxins A-D, that of the diazo and monoacetyl derivatives (of inuloxin A and C, resply), as well as that of α-costic acid was evaluated against two parasitic plant species, i.e. crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata) and field dodder (Cuscuta campestris). Inuloxins A, C and D were the most active on both parasites and caused up to 100% inhibition of the seed germination. Inuloxin B was less active on Cuscuta and completely inactive against Orobanche. The main metabolite α-costic acid had a suppressive effect on the dodder seed germination but had a stimulating action on the broomrape seed germination. These preliminary results allowed to suppose some structure-activity relationships. PMID:23137725

  7. Metabolomic Profiling and Genomic Study of a Marine Sponge-Associated Streptomyces sp

    PubMed Central

    Viegelmann, Christina; Margassery, Lekha Menon; Kennedy, Jonathan; Zhang, Tong; O’Brien, Ciarán; O’Gara, Fergal; Morrissey, John P.; Dobson, Alan D. W.; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomics and genomics are two complementary platforms for analyzing an organism as they provide information on the phenotype and genotype, respectively. These two techniques were applied in the dereplication and identification of bioactive compounds from a Streptomyces sp. (SM8) isolated from the sponge Haliclona simulans from Irish waters. Streptomyces strain SM8 extracts showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. NMR analysis of the active fractions proved that hydroxylated saturated fatty acids were the major components present in the antibacterial fractions. Antimycin compounds were initially putatively identified in the antifungal fractions using LC-Orbitrap. Their presence was later confirmed by comparison to a standard. Genomic analysis of Streptomyces sp. SM8 revealed the presence of multiple secondary metabolism gene clusters, including a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of the antifungal antimycin family of compounds. The antimycin gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. SM8 was inactivated by disruption of the antimycin biosynthesis gene antC. Extracts from this mutant strain showed loss of antimycin production and significantly less antifungal activity than the wild-type strain. Three butenolides, 4,10-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (1), 4,11-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (2), and 4-hydroxy-10-methyl-11-oxo-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (3) that had previously been reported from marine Streptomyces species were also isolated from SM8. Comparison of the extracts of Streptomyces strain SM8 and its host sponge, H. simulans, using LC-Orbitrap revealed the presence of metabolites common to both extracts, providing direct evidence linking sponge metabolites to a specific microbial symbiont. PMID:24893324

  8. Two new lignans from the aerial part of Vitex negundo.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xiu-Fang; Yu, Li-Li; Tao, Yuan; Huang, Jian; Ding, Li-Qin; Feng, Xin-Chi; Jiang, Miao-Miao; Zheng, Lin; Chen, Li-Xia; Qiu, Feng

    2016-07-01

    A new phenyldihydronaphthalene-type lignan, (3R,4S)-6-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxy- 3-methoxyphenyl)-5,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydro-2-naphthaldehyde-3a-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), and a new phenylnaphthalene-type lignan, 6,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxy-2,3- cycloligna-1,4-dien-2a,3a-olide (2), along with 10-known lignan derivatives (3-12) were isolated from the aerial part of Vitex negundo var. heterophylla. Their structures were established by comprehensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analyses. PMID:26999269

  9. Screening of Thai medicinal plant extracts and their active constituents for in vitro antimalarial activity.

    PubMed

    Ichino, C; Soonthornchareonnon, N; Chuakul, W; Kiyohara, H; Ishiyama, A; Sekiguchi, H; Namatame, M; Otoguro, K; Omura, S; Yamada, H

    2006-04-01

    To discover antimalarial substances from plants cultivated in Thailand 80%-EtOH extracts from selected plants were screened for in vitro antimalarial activity against the drug resistant K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. In total, 86 Thai medicinal plant samples representing 48 species from 35 genera in 16 families were screened and two species (Polyalthia viridis and Goniothalamus marcanii) were found to show notable antimalarial activity (IC50: 10.0 and 6.3 microg/mL). Marcanine A and 16-hydroxycleroda-3,13(14)Z-dien-15,16-olide were identified as the respective major active constituents in P. viridis and G. marcanii, respectively. PMID:16557615

  10. Grindelane diterpenoids from Stevia subpubescens.

    PubMed

    Román, L U; Cambrón, J I; del Río, R E; Hernández, J D; Cerda-García-Rojas, C M; Joseph-Nathan, P

    2000-02-01

    Four new 9R,13R-epoxylabdane diterpenes (1-4) and a known clerodane derivative, 3,4beta-epoxy-5beta,10beta-cis-17alpha, 20alpha-clerod-13(14)-en-15,16-olide, were isolated from the leaves of Stevia subpubescens. The structures, which correspond to the grindelane class of diterpenoids, were elucidated by NMR data, chemical correlation, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of monoacetate 5. The absolute configuration of 1-4 is based on the optical activity of ketone 3 as compared with data of closely related substances. PMID:10691714

  11. A new labdane diterpene from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum.

    PubMed

    Zou, Qiong-Yu; Wu, Hai-Feng; Tang, Yu-Lian; Chen, Di-Zhao

    2016-01-01

    A new labdane diterpene, (Z)-12,14-labdadien-15(16)-olide-17-oic acid (1), and a new natural cadinane sesquiterpene, 4-isopropyl-6-methyl-1-naphthalenemethanol (2), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum, together with three other products, galangin (3), kaempferol (4) and quercetin (5). Their structures were elucidated by using extensive spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1 and 2 showed no remarkable cytotoxic activity against HeLa and HepG2 cancer cell lines with IC50>50 μg mL(- 1). PMID:26189919

  12. A new picrotoxane sesquiterpene from the berries of Baccaurea ramiflora with antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zheng-Hong; Ning, De-Sheng; Huang, Si-Si; Wu, Yun-Fei; Ding, Tao; Luo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Three picrotoxane sesquiterpenes including one new glycoside and two known constituents, sapidolide A (2) and picrotoximaesin (3), were isolated from the berries of Baccaurea ramiflora. The structure of the new sesquiterpene glycoside, ramifloside (1), was elucidated as 2-one-6α-hydroxy-13-nor-11-picrotoxen-3(15β)-olide 10-O-β-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-3 exhibited antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides with MICs of 12.5, 12.5 and 50 μg/mL. PMID:25583324

  13. Eudesmanolides, aromatic derivatives, and other constituents from Carpesium cernuum.

    PubMed

    Yang, C; Zhu, Q X; Zhang, Q; Wang, Q; Jia, Z J

    2001-10-01

    A new eudesmanolide 13-hydroxy-4 alpha H-eudesman-5,7(11)-dien-12,8 beta-olide (1) and a new aromatic derivative 3-methyl-8-acetoxy-9,10-diisobutanoyloxy-p-cymene (6), along with ten known compounds were isolated from the roots of Carpesium cernuum L. Their structures were elucidated by spectral methods (IR, EIMS, FAB-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Compound 2, 3 and compound 10 exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:11683134

  14. Two new aliphatic lactones from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present paper describes the isolation and characterization of two new aliphatic δ-lactones along with three glycerides and n-nonadecanyl cetoleate from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae). The structures of all the isolated phytoconstituents have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. Results Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of C. sativum L. (Apiaceae) fruits resulted in the isolation of two new aliphatic δ-lactones characterized as 2α-n-heptatriacont-(Z)-3-en-1,5-olide (1) (coriander lactone) and 2α-n-tetracont-(Z,Z)-3,26-dien-18α-ol-1,5-olide (2) (hydroxy coriander lactone) together with glyceryl-1,2-dioctadec-9,12-dienoate-3-octadec-9-enoate (3); glyceryl-1,2,3-trioctadecanoate (4); n-nonadecanyl-n-docos-11-enoate (5) and oleiyl glucoside (6). Conclusions Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of C. sativum gave coriander lactone and hydroxy coriander lactone as the new phytoconstituents. PMID:22800677

  15. Alkylphloroglucinol derivatives and triterpenoids with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitory activity from Callistemon citrinus.

    PubMed

    Khanh, Pham Ngoc; Duc, Ho Viet; Huong, Tran Thu; Son, Ninh The; Ha, Vu Thi; Van, Doan Thi; Tai, Bui Huu; Kim, Ji Eun; Jo, Ah Reum; Kim, Young Ho; Cuong, Nguyen Manh

    2016-03-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the leaves and stems of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels led to the isolation of two new alkylphloroglucinols, gallomyrtucommulone E and F (1 and 2), along with four other known alkylphloroglucinol derivatives, gallomyrtucommulone A (3), endoperoxide G3 (4), myrtucommulone B (5), callistenone B (6) and five known triterpenoids, including betulinic acid (7), 3β-acetylmorolic acid (8), 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-13(28)-olide (9), diospyrolide (10) and ursolic acid (11). The structures of the natural compounds were determined from the spectroscopic evidences including 1D-/2D-NMR and HR-MS spectrometry. All the isolated compounds were assessed for the effects on the sEH inhibitory activity. The acylphloroglucinols myrtucommulone B (5)/callistenone B (6) (in mixture), and two triterpenoids, ursolic acid (11) and 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-13(28)-olide (9) displayed strong inhibition of sEH activity, with IC50 values of 0.7, 11.2 and 24.8 μM, respectively. PMID:26548595

  16. Degradation of toluene by ortho cleavage enzymes in Burkholderia fungorum FLU100

    PubMed Central

    Dobslaw, Daniel; Engesser, Karl-Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia fungorum FLU100 simultaneously oxidized any mixture of toluene, benzene and mono-halogen benzenes to (3-substituted) catechols with a selectivity of nearly 100%. Further metabolism occurred via enzymes of ortho cleavage pathways with complete mineralization. During the transformation of 3-methylcatechol, 4-carboxymethyl-2-methylbut-2-en-4-olide (2-methyl-2-enelactone, 2-ML) accumulated transiently, being further mineralized only after a lag phase of 2 h in case of cells pre-grown on benzene or mono-halogen benzenes. No lag phase, however, occurred after growth on toluene. Cultures inhibited by chloramphenicol after growth on benzene or mono-halogen benzenes were unable to metabolize 2-ML supplied externally, even after prolonged incubation. A control culture grown with toluene did not show any lag phase and used 2-ML as a substrate. This means that 2-ML is an intermediate of toluene degradation and converted by specific enzymes. The conversion of 4-methylcatechol as a very minor by-product of toluene degradation in strain FLU100 resulted in the accumulation of 4-carboxymethyl-4-methylbut-2-en-4-olide (4-methyl-2-enelactone, 4-ML) as a dead-end product, excluding its nature as a possible intermediate. Thus, 3-methylcyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-diol, 3-methylcatechol, 2-methyl muconate and 2-ML were identified as central intermediates of productive ortho cleavage pathways for toluene metabolism in B. fungorum FLU100. PMID:25130674

  17. Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones from the aerial parts of Inula aucheriana.

    PubMed

    Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Naghibi, Farzaneh; Eslami-Tehrani, Bahara; Pirani, Atefeh; Hamzeloo-Moghadam, Maryam; Read, Roger W

    2015-01-01

    Inula aucheriana DC is a member of the family Asteraceae which is known to produce cytotoxic secondary metabolites noted as sesquiterpene lactones. In the present study, sesquiterpene lactones inuchinenolide B, 6-deoxychamissonolide (stevin) and 14-acetoxy-1β,5α,7αH-4β-hydroxy-guai-9(10),11(13)-dien-12,8α-olide were isolated from I. aucheriana. Inuchinenolide B and 14-acetoxy-1β,5α,7αH-4β-hydroxy-guai-9(10),11(13)-dien-12,8α-olide were further evaluated by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay to demonstrate cytotoxic activity with IC50 values of (56.6, 19.0), (39.0, 11.8), and (55.7, 15.3) μg/mL against HepG-2, MCF-7 and A-549 cells, respectively. The cytotoxic activity of the two evaluated sesquiterpene lactones partly explains the cytotoxic activity that was previously observed for the extracts of Inula aucheriana. The isolated compounds could be further investigated in cancer research studies. PMID:25993354

  18. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy: Reliable techniques for analysis of Parthenium mediated vermicompost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajiv, P.; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Venckatesh, Rajendran

    2013-12-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy have been carried out to investigate the chemical composition of Parthenium mediated vermicompost. Four different concentrations of Parthenium and cow dung mixtures were vermicomposted using the earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae). FT-IR spectra reveal the absence of Parthenin toxin (sesquiterpene lactone) and phenols in vermicompost which was obtained from high concentration of cow dung mixed treatments. GC-MS analysis shows no phenolic compounds and predominant level of intermediate metabolites such as 4,8,12,16-Tetramethylheptadecan-4-olide (7.61%), 2-Pentadecanone, 6,10,14-trimethyl- (5.29%) and Methyl 16-methyl-heptadecanoate (4.69%) during the vermicomposting process. Spectral results indicated that Parthenin toxin and phenols can be eradicated via vermicomposting if mixed with appropriate quantity of cow dung.

  19. Antitumour-Promoting and Cytotoxic Constituents of Etlingera Elatior

    PubMed Central

    Habsah, M; Ali, AM; Lajis, NH; Sukari, MA; Yap, YH; Kikuzaki, H; Nakatani, N

    2005-01-01

    Phytochemical studies on rhizome of Etlingera elatior have resulted in the isolation of 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,4,6-heptatrienone (1), demethoxycurcumin (2), 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one (3), 16-hydroxylabda-8(17),11,13-trien-16,15-olide (4), stigmast-4-en-3-one (5), stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione (6), stigmast-4-en-6b-ol-3-one (7), 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (8). 1 and 4 were new compounds. Compounds 5 and 7 displayed high antitumour-promoting activity. Ethyl acetate extract showed a very significant cytotoxic activity against CEM-SS and MCF-7 cell lines (4 μg/ml and 6.25 μg/ml respectively). The antitumour-promoting activity was determined by EBV-EA assay and cytotoxic activity was determined by MTT assay. PMID:22605941

  20. Antioxidative constituents of Etlingera elatior.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Habsah; Lajis, Nordin H; Abas, Faridah; Ali, Abdul Manaf; Sukari, Mohamad Aspollah; Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Nakatani, Nobuji

    2005-02-01

    Phytochemical studies on the rhizomes of Etlingera elatior have resulted in the isolation of 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,4,6-heptatrienone (1), demethoxycurcumin (2), 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one (3), 16-hydroxylabda-8(17),11,13-trien-15,16-olide (4), stigmast-4-en-3-one, stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione, stigmast-4-en-6beta-ol-3-one, and 5alpha,8alpha-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3beta-ol. Compounds 1 and 4 are new, and their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data. Diarylheptanoids 1-3 were found to inhibit lipid peroxidation in a more potent manner than alpha-tocopherol. PMID:15730265

  1. Antitumour-promoting and cytotoxic constituents of etlingera elatior.

    PubMed

    Habsah, M; Ali, Am; Lajis, Nh; Sukari, Ma; Yap, Yh; Kikuzaki, H; Nakatani, N

    2005-01-01

    Phytochemical studies on rhizome of Etlingera elatior have resulted in the isolation of 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,4,6-heptatrienone (1), demethoxycurcumin (2), 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one (3), 16-hydroxylabda-8(17),11,13-trien-16,15-olide (4), stigmast-4-en-3-one (5), stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione (6), stigmast-4-en-6b-ol-3-one (7), 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (8). 1 and 4 were new compounds. Compounds 5 and 7 displayed high antitumour-promoting activity. Ethyl acetate extract showed a very significant cytotoxic activity against CEM-SS and MCF-7 cell lines (4 μg/ml and 6.25 μg/ml respectively). The antitumour-promoting activity was determined by EBV-EA assay and cytotoxic activity was determined by MTT assay. PMID:22605941

  2. Antiproliferative Scalarane-Based Metabolites from the Red Sea Sponge Hyrtios erectus.

    PubMed

    Elhady, Sameh S; Al-Abd, Ahmed M; El-Halawany, Ali M; Alahdal, Abdulrahman M; Hassanean, Hashim A; Ahmed, Safwat A

    2016-01-01

    Two new sesterterpenes analogs, namely, 12-acetoxy,16-epi-hyrtiolide (1) and 12β-acetoxy,16β-methoxy,20α-hydroxy-17-scalaren-19,20-olide (2), containing a scalarane-based framework along with seven previously reported scalarane-type sesterterpenes (3-9) have been isolated from the sponge Hyrtios erectus (order Dictyoceratida) collected from the Red Sea, Egypt. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data and comparison with reported NMR data. Compounds 1-9 exhibited considerable antiproliferative activity against breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), colorectal carcinoma (HCT-116) and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). Compounds 3, 5 and 9 were selected for subsequent investigations regarding their mechanism of cell death induction (differential apoptosis/necrosis assessment) and their influence on cell cycle distribution. PMID:27399730

  3. Two new labdane diterpenoids from the rhizomes of Isodon yuennanensis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen-Yuan; Huang, Bo; Xiao, Chao-Jiang; Dong, Xiang; Jiang, Bei

    2015-01-01

    Two new labdane diterpenoids, s-trans-8(17),12E,14-labdatrien-20-oic acid (1), s-trans-12E,14-labdadien-20,8β-olide (2), along with 10 known compounds, hinokiol (3), ursonic acid (4), 2α,3α-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (5), 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (6), ethyl 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)lactate (7), ethyl rosmarinate (8), (Z,E)-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethenyl caffeic ester (9), tridecanoic acid (10), β-sitosterol (11) and daucosterol (12), were isolated from the 70% acetone extract of the rhizomes of Isodon yuennanensis. Their structures were elucidated based on the analyses of extensive spectroscopic data and physicochemical properties. PMID:25420949

  4. Antiproliferative Scalarane-Based Metabolites from the Red Sea Sponge Hyrtios erectus

    PubMed Central

    Elhady, Sameh S.; Al-Abd, Ahmed M.; El-Halawany, Ali M.; Alahdal, Abdulrahman M.; Hassanean, Hashim A.; Ahmed, Safwat A.

    2016-01-01

    Two new sesterterpenes analogs, namely, 12-acetoxy,16-epi-hyrtiolide (1) and 12β-acetoxy,16β-methoxy,20α-hydroxy-17-scalaren-19,20-olide (2), containing a scalarane-based framework along with seven previously reported scalarane-type sesterterpenes (3–9) have been isolated from the sponge Hyrtios erectus (order Dictyoceratida) collected from the Red Sea, Egypt. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data and comparison with reported NMR data. Compounds 1–9 exhibited considerable antiproliferative activity against breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), colorectal carcinoma (HCT-116) and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). Compounds 3, 5 and 9 were selected for subsequent investigations regarding their mechanism of cell death induction (differential apoptosis/necrosis assessment) and their influence on cell cycle distribution. PMID:27399730

  5. A new sesquiterpenoid from Polyalthia petelotii.

    PubMed

    Yang, Caiqiong; Peng, Wei; Yang, Bijuan; Zhang, Junjie; Chen, Yegao

    2016-07-01

    A new sesquiterpenoid (‒)-ethyl dihydrophaseate (1) was isolated from the stems and leaves of Polyalthia petelotii, together with two clerodane diterpenoids, 16α-hydroxycleroda-3,13(14)Z-dien-15,16-olide (2), 15-hydroxy-cis-ent-cleroda-3,13(E)-diene (3), a eudesmane sesquiterpenoid, eudesm-4(15)-ene-7α,11-diol (4), an aromatic aldehyde, vanillin (5), a bisisoquinolines alkaloid, spinosine (6) and an aporphine alkaloid, (‒)-oliveroline-β-N-oxide (7). Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 2D-NMR techniques. Compounds 3, 4 and 6 were isolated from the genus Polyalthia for the first time and the others obtained originally from P. petelotii. The isolates were assessed for their cytotoxicity against five human tumour lines (HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW-480), and the result showed that only 2 displayed weak inhibitory activity. PMID:26666779

  6. (R)-desmolactone, a female-produced sex pheromone component of the cerambycid beetle Desmocerus californicus californicus (subfamily Lepturinae).

    PubMed

    Ray, Ann M; Swift, Ian P; McElfresh, J Steven; Alten, Ronald L; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2012-02-01

    We report the identification, synthesis, and field bioassays of a female-produced sex attractant pheromone for the cerambycid beetle Desmocerus californicus californicus Horn. Headspace volatiles from females contained a sex-specific compound, (R)-desmolactone [(4R,9Z)-hexadec-9-en-4-olide], which elicited strong responses from the antennae of adult males in coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses. Short syntheses of both enantiomers were developed from commercial chiral synthons. In field bioassays, significant numbers of males were collected in traps baited with (R)-desmolactone, whereas the (S)-enantiomer attracted no males. The racemate was less attractive than the pure (R)-enantiomer, indicating some degree of antagonism by the unnatural enantiomer. This compound is the first example of a new structural class of cerambycid pheromones, and is the second pheromone identified for a species in the subfamily Lepturinae. PMID:22350519

  7. Two new triterpenoids from Gypsophila oldhamiana.

    PubMed

    Xie, Long-Xiao; Zhang, Hao-Chao; Wang, Hai-Yang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Feng-Ling; Sun, Jing-Yong

    2016-05-01

    Two new triterpenoids (1-2) were isolated and elucidated from the roots of Gypsophila oldhamiana, together with four known triterpenoids (3-6). Their structures were identified to be 3β-hydroxyolean-13(18)-ene-23, 28-dioic acid (1), 3β, 12α-dihydroxy-23-carboxyolean-28, 13β-olide (2), 3β, 16α-dihydroxy-23-oxoolean-13(18)-en-28-oic acid (3), gypsogenin (4), quillaic acid (5) and gypsogenic acid (6) by spectral methods. All compounds were tested for their cytotoxicities against human tumour cell lines (lung cancer H460 and gastric cancer SGC-7901) and for their antiangiogenic effects using a zebra fish model. All compounds showed interesting antiangiogenic activities and the significant cytotoxicities against H460. PMID:26539898

  8. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy: reliable techniques for analysis of Parthenium mediated vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Rajiv, P; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Venckatesh, Rajendran

    2013-12-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy have been carried out to investigate the chemical composition of Parthenium mediated vermicompost. Four different concentrations of Parthenium and cow dung mixtures were vermicomposted using the earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae). FT-IR spectra reveal the absence of Parthenin toxin (sesquiterpene lactone) and phenols in vermicompost which was obtained from high concentration of cow dung mixed treatments. GC-MS analysis shows no phenolic compounds and predominant level of intermediate metabolites such as 4,8,12,16-Tetramethylheptadecan-4-olide (7.61%), 2-Pentadecanone, 6,10,14-trimethyl- (5.29%) and Methyl 16-methyl-heptadecanoate (4.69%) during the vermicomposting process. Spectral results indicated that Parthenin toxin and phenols can be eradicated via vermicomposting if mixed with appropriate quantity of cow dung. PMID:23998948

  9. Identification of a Grain Beetle Macrolide Pheromone and Its Synthesis by Ring-Closing Metathesis Using a Terminal Alkyne.

    PubMed

    Hötling, Susann; Bittner, Celine; Tamm, Matthias; Dähn, Sonja; Collatz, Jana; Steidle, Johannes L M; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-10-16

    A major C18-macrolide was found during analysis of the frass of the storage beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis to be (9Z,12Z,15R)-octadeca-9,12-dien-15-olide (10, cucujolide XI). The synthesis used ring-closing alkyne metathesis as a key step. The highly active 2,4,6-trimethylbenzylidyne molybdenum complex [MesCMo{OC(CF3)2Me}3] (12) allowed the use of a terminal alkyne and afforded the product in excellent yield. Bioassays proved the activity of the R-enantiomer 10 in the aggregation of the beetle. Cucujolide XI is the first macrolide pheromone oxidized at the ω-4 position. PMID:26406161

  10. Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and toxicological studies of Xanthium strumarium L.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Rashedul; Uddin, Mohammad Zashim; Rahman, Mohammad Sharifur; Tutul, Ershad; Rahman, Mohammed Zakiur; Hassan, Md Abul; Faiz, M A; Hossain, Moazzem; Hussain, Maleeha; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur

    2009-12-01

    The present study describes the ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and toxicological evaluations of Xanthium strumarium L. growing in Bangladesh. In toxicity evaluation on rats, the methanol extract of seedlings showed mortality, while both seedling and mature plant extracts raised the serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase values and produced significant abnormalities in the histopathology of liver and kidney of rats. On the other hand, the aqueous soluble fraction of methanol extract of mature plant (LC50 = 0.352 microg/mL) and methanol crude extract of seedlings (LC50 = 0.656 microg/mL) demonstrated significant toxicity in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. A total of four compounds were purified and characterized as stigmasterol (1), 11-hydroxy-11-carboxy-4-oxo-1(5),2(Z)-xanthadien-12,8-olide (2), daucosterol (3) and lasidiol-10-anisate (4). The present study suggests that X. strumarium is toxic to animal. PMID:20922910

  11. Isolation of an alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone derivative, a toxin from the plant pathogen Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    PubMed

    He, Guochun; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Yoshihara, Teruhiko

    2004-10-01

    Lasiodiplodia theobromae is known as a multi-infectious microorganism that causes considerable crop damage, particularly to tropical fruits. When the fruits are infected by L. theobromae, the typical symptom is the appearance of black spots on the surface of the infected fruit. When injected in to the peel of banana, the culture filtrate of L. theobromae induced formation of black spots. The structure of the isolated compound responsible for this effect was determined to be (3S,4R)-3-carboxy-2-methylene-heptan-4-olide on the basis of analysis of MS, IR, and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic data, including HMQC, HMBC, and 1H-1H COSY experiments. The active compound was not only isolated from the culture filtrate derived from potato dextrose medium, but also from the extract of infected peels of bananas. PMID:15474567

  12. Evidence for a volatile pheromone in Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) that increases attraction to a host foliar volatile.

    PubMed

    Silk, Peter J; Ryall, Krista; Mayo, Peter; Lemay, Matthew A; Grant, Gary; Crook, Damon; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Sweeney, Jon D; Lyons, D Barry; Pitt, Doug; Scarr, Taylor; Magee, David

    2011-08-01

    Analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of volatiles from virgin female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire confirmed the emission of (3Z)-lactone [(3Z)-dodecen-12-olide] but not its geometric isomer, (3E)-lactone [(3E)-dodecen-12-olide]. Gas chromatographic/electroantennographic (GC/EAD) analysis of synthetic (3Z)-lactone, which contained 10% (3E)-lactone, showed a strong response of male and female antennae to both isomers. EAG analysis with 0.01- to 100-μg dosages showed a positive dose response, with females giving significantly higher responses than males. In field experiments with sticky purple prism traps, neither lactone isomer affected catches when combined with ash foliar or cortical volatiles (green leaf volatiles or Phoebe oil, respectively). However, on green prism traps, the (3Z)-lactone significantly increased capture of male A. planipennis when traps were deployed in the canopy. Captures of males on traps with both (3E)-lactone and (3Z)-hexenol or with (3Z)-lactone and (3Z)-hexenol were increased by 45-100%, respectively, compared with traps baited with just (3Z)-hexenol. In olfactometer bioassays, males were significantly attracted to (3E)-lactone, but not the (3Z)-lactone or a 60:40 (3E):(3Z) blend. The combination of either (3E)- or (3Z)-lactone with Phoebe oil was not significantly attractive to males. Males were highly attracted to (3Z)-hexenol and the (3Z)-lactone + (3Z)-hexenol combination, providing support for the field trapping results. These data are the first to demonstrate increased attraction with a combination of a pheromone and a green leaf volatile in a Buprestid species. PMID:22251692

  13. Enzymatic formation, stability, and spontaneous reactions of 4-fluoromuconolactone, a metabolite of the bacterial degradation of 4-fluorobenzoate.

    PubMed Central

    Schlömann, M; Fischer, P; Schmidt, E; Knackmuss, H J

    1990-01-01

    Enzymatic conversion of 4-fluorocatechol in the simultaneous presence of partially purified preparations of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas cepacia and muconate cycloisomerase from Alcaligenes eutrophus 335 yielded a product that was unambiguously identified as (+)-4-fluoromuconolactone [(+)-4-carboxymethyl-4-fluoro-but-2-en-4-olide]. This compound was shown to be the only major product formed from 3-fluoro-cis,cis-muconate by the action of muconate cycloisomerases from A. eutrophus 335, A. eutrophus JMP134, and P. cepacia as well as by the action of dichloromuconate cycloisomerase from A. eutrophus JMP134. This finding implies that dichloromuconate cycloisomerase, like the muconate cycloisomerases, catalyzes primarily a cycloisomerization reaction, which only in the case of chloro- and bromo-substituted substrates is connected to a dehalogenation. 4-Fluoromuconolactone at pH 7 decomposes by spontaneous reactions mainly to maleylacetate, which then decarboxylates to give cis-acetylacrylate. Although significant amounts of an unidentified compound are also formed from the fluorolactone, HF elimination to the two isomeric dienelactones (4-carboxymethylenebut-2-en-4-olides) is negligible. However, all spontaneous reactions proceed so slowly that an enzymatic conversion of 4-fluoromuconolactone must be assumed. Participation of dienelactone hydrolases in this reaction is indicated by their induction during growth of various strains with 4-fluorobenzoate. However, experiments with cell extracts of P. putida A3.12 suggest that at least one other hydrolytic enzyme is able to contribute to 4-fluoromuconolactone conversion. In light of these observations, earlier proposals for a 4-fluorobenzoate degradative pathway are discussed. PMID:2394680

  14. Differential and stereoselective in vitro cytotoxicity of eremophilane sesquiterpenes of Petasites hybridus rhizomes in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Bodensieck, Antje; Gaunitz, Frank; Gebhardt, Rolf; Danesch, Ulrich; Bauer, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    We tested two CO (2) extracts of Petasites hybridus L. rhizomes, A (rich in furanoeremophilanes) and B (rich in petasins), for IN VITRO cytotoxicity in rat hepatocytes by means of the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay (EC (50) values of 0.64 mg/mL for A and 0.32 mg/mL for B). Eight eremophilane sesquiterpene lactones (SL) (1- 8) and one petasin (9) isolated from A were nontoxic or showed moderate cytotoxicity. The presence and type of the ester side chain most probably control the extent of cytotoxicity of the eremophilanolides. (8 R)-2-[(angeloyl)oxy]eremophil-7(11)-en-12,8-olide (1) damaged the hepatocytes most. The 8 α-stereoisomers of both 8-H epimeric couples of the 2-angeloyloxy- and 2-methacroyloxy-esters seem to be more cytotoxic (up to approx. 10-fold) than the corresponding 8 β-H stereoisomers. Moreover, the results of the MTT assay depended on the cell density being more pronounced with both 8 α-stereoisomers. Further investigations were conducted to study the influence of the stereochemistry on cell respiration, energy metabolism, and membrane integrity [release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)] with both couples of the 2-angeloyloxy- and 2-methacroyloxy-esters. In the LDH-leakage assay, (8 R)-2-[(methacroyl)oxy]eremophil-7(11)-en-12,8-olide (2) was the most toxic eremophilane. The stereoselectivity of cell damage of some SL points to a specific, yet unidentified molecular cytotoxicity target. PMID:20652855

  15. Screening alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitors from natural compounds by molecular docking in silico.

    PubMed

    Jhong, Chien-Hung; Riyaphan, Jirawat; Lin, Shih-Hung; Chia, Yi-Chen; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor is a common oral anti-diabetic drug used for controlling carbohydrates normally converted into simple sugars and absorbed by the intestines. However, some adverse clinical effects have been observed. The present study seeks an alternative drug that can regulate the hyperglycemia by down-regulating alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase activity by molecular docking approach to screen the hyperglycemia antagonist against alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase activities from the 47 natural compounds. The docking data showed that Curcumin, 16-hydroxy-cleroda-3,13-dine-16,15-olide (16-H), Docosanol, Tetracosanol, Antroquinonol, Berberine, Catechin, Quercetin, Actinodaphnine, and Rutin from 47 natural compounds had binding ability towards alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase as well. Curcumin had a better biding ability of alpha-amylase than the other natural compounds. Analyzed alpha-glucosidase activity reveals natural compound inhibitors (below 0.5 mM) are Curcumin, Actinodaphnine, 16-H, Quercetin, Berberine, and Catechin when compared to the commercial drug Acarbose (3 mM). A natural compound with alpha-amylase inhibitors (below 0.5 mM) includes Curcumin, Berberine, Docosanol, 16-H, Actinodaphnine/Tetracosanol, Catechin, and Quercetin when compared to Acarbose (1 mM). When taken together, the implication is that molecular docking is a fast and effective way to screen alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitors as lead compounds of natural sources isolated from medicinal plants. PMID:26154585

  16. A Modeling and Experimental Framework for Controls for Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2006-03-15

    OLID oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) hold the promise of playing a major role in future power grids either as distributed generators (DGs) or as stand-alone power units because of their higher efficiency, lower emission, modular structure, and higher generation capability over other DGs or batteries. SOFCs operate at temperatures ranging from 600 C to 1000 C. To avoid thermal shock during heat-up as well as operation, inlet flow (fuel and air) temperatures and speeds must be carefully controlled to maintain the temperature gradient within the SOFC stack. Furthermore, increased fuel flow tends to decrease the fuel utilization and increase uniformity of the reaction rates across the active area, while decreased fuel flow tends to increase the fuel utilization but it can cause local fuel depletion and cold spots that exacerbate temperature non-uniformities [1]. Therefore, when maintaining reasonable fuel utilization at any loading level, the air flow rate and the fuel flow rate must be adjusted so that the fuel distribution and temperature gradient across the cell is more uniform.

  17. New phytoconstituents from the aerial parts of Fumaria parviflora Lam

    PubMed Central

    Jameel, Mohammad; Ali, Abuzer; Ali, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumariaceae) is an annual herb found throughout the world. Traditionally it has great significance in various disorders. In folk medicine of Turkey it is used against hepato-biliary dysfunction and imported from Iran. In Charaka and Sushruta, it is recommended for treatment of fevers, blood disorders, chronic skin diseases, urinary diseases and cough. The compounds were isolated from methanolic extract of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel (60-120 mesh) as stationary phase and structure of the isolated compounds have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. Phytochemical investigation of its aerial parts led to the isolation of five new compounds characterized as (5αH,11αH)-8-oxo-homoiridolide (1), n-docosanyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl salicylate (2), 2-methyl-6-hydroxymethylenedodecan-10-oyl-12, 15-olide14-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (3), 4-oxo-stigmast-5-en-3β-ol-D-glucopyranoside (4) and salicylic acid-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (5) along with the known compounds α-D-glucopyranosyl hexadecanoate (6) and α-D-glucopyranosyl- (2 → 1ʹ)-α-D-glucopyranoside (7). The isolated compounds are useful as they will provide essential data and information for the further researchers and development of effective analytical marker for identity, purity and quality control of this traditional plant in future. PMID:24959414

  18. Three new triterpenoid saponins from root of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Lu, Jincai; Lv, Chongning; Xu, Tanye; Jia, Lingyun

    2012-12-01

    Three new compounds (Gardeniside A-C), 11α,12α-epoxy-3β-[(O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside-6'-O-methly ester)oxy]olean-28,13-olide (1), siaresinolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside-6'-O-methly ester (2), and 3-O-β-D- glucuronopyranoside-6'-O-methly ester-siaresinolic acid-28-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (3), with seven known compounds oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D- glucuronopyranoside-6'-O-methly ester (4), oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D- glucuropyranoside (5), hederagenin 3-O-β-D- glucuronopyranoside-6'-O- methly ester (6), chikusetsusaponin IVa methyl ester (7), chikusetsusaponin (8), chikusetsusaponin IVa butyl ester (9), siaresinolic acid 28-o-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (10) were isolated from the root of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. Six compounds (1, 4-7, and 9) showed cytotoxic activities against HeLa, A549, MCF-7 and A354-S2 cell lines. PMID:22796399

  19. Improving detection tools for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of multifunnel traps, prism traps, and lure types at varying population densities.

    PubMed

    Crook, Damon J; Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Lance, David R; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Mastro, Victor C; Silk, Peter J; Ryall, Krista L

    2014-08-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) that has caused devastating mortality since it was first identified in North America in 2002. In 2012, we conducted field trapping assays that tested the efficacy of purple prism and fluon-coated green multifunnel (Lindgren funnel) traps. Traps were baited with combinations of several lures that were previously shown to be attractive to A. planipennis: manuka oil--a sesquiterpene-rich oil, (3Z)-hexenol--a green leaf volatile, or (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide [= (3Z)-lactone], a sex pheromone. Eighty-nine blocks (trap lines) were tested throughout nine states along the outer edges of the currently known A. planipennis infestation in North America. Trap catch was highest on fluon-coated green multifunnel traps, and trap detections at sites with low A. planipennis population density ranged from 72 to 76% for all trap and lure types tested. (3Z)-hexenol and (3Z)-lactone baited traps functioned as well as (3Z)-hexenol and manuka oil-baited traps. Independent of the lure used, detection rates on green fluon-coated multifunnel traps were comparable with glued purple prism traps in areas with low A. planipennis population densities. PMID:25195441

  20. Antiproliferative and Antimalarial Sesquiterpene Lactones from Piptocoma antillana from Puerto Rico [1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yixi; Rakotondraibe, L. Harinantenaina; Brodie, Peggy J.; Wiley, Jessica D.; Cassera, Maria B.; Goetz, Michael; Kingston, David G. I.

    2015-01-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of an antiproliferative ethanol extract of the leaves and twigs of Piptocoma antillana (Asteraceae) afforded two new goyazensolide-type sesquiterpene lactones named 5-O-methyl-5-epiisogoyazensolide (1) and 15-O-methylgoyazensolide (2), together with the known compounds 1-oxo-3,10-epoxy-8-(2-methylacryloxy)-15-acetoxygermacra-2,4,11(13)-trien-6(12)-olide (3) and 5-epiisogoyazensolide (4). The structure elucidation of all compounds was carried out based on NMR and mass spectroscopic data analyses. The relative and absolute configurations of all the isolated compounds were determined from their CD and NOESY NMR spectra. Compounds 1–4 showed moderately potent antiproliferative activities against A2780 ovarian cancer cells, with IC50 values of 1.5±0.5, 0.6±0.3, 1.62±0.05, and 1.56±0.04 µM, respectively. They also displayed antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum, with IC50 values of 6.2 ± 0.5, 2.2 ± 0.5, 8.0 ±0.4, and 9.0±0.6 µM, respectively. PMID:25522525

  1. Chemical composition of volatile oils of Aquilaria malaccensis (Thymelaeaceae) from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tajuddin, Saiful Nizam; Yusoff, Mashitah M

    2010-12-01

    Volatile oils of Aquilaria malaccensis Benth. (Thymelaeaceae) from Malaysia were obtained by hydrodistillation and subjected to detailed GC-FID and GC/MS analyses to determine possible similarities and differences in their chemical composition in comparison with the commercial oil. A total of thirty-one compounds were identified compared with twenty-nine identified in the commercial oil. The major compounds identified were 4-phenyl-2-butanone (32.1%), jinkoh-eremol (6.5%) and alpha-guaiene (5.8%), while the major compounds in the commercial oil were alpha-guaiene (10.3%), caryophellene oxide (8.6%), and eudesmol (3.2%). The results of the present study showed that more than nine sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were present, which is more than previously reported. Analysis also showed that the number of oxygenated sesquiterpenes in this study were much less than previously reported. Among the compounds detected were alpha-guaiene, beta-agarofuran, alpha-bulnesene, jinkoh-eremol, kusunol, selina-3,11-dien-9-one, oxo-agarospirol and guaia-1 (10), 11-dien-15,2-olide. PMID:21299133

  2. (R)-Desmolactone is a sex pheromone or sex attractant for the endangered valley elderberry longhorn beetle Desmocerus californicus dimorphus and several congeners (Cerambycidae: Lepturinae).

    PubMed

    Ray, Ann M; Arnold, Richard A; Swift, Ian; Schapker, Philip A; McCann, Sean; Marshall, Christopher J; McElfresh, J Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2014-01-01

    We report here that (4R,9Z)-hexadec-9-en-4-olide [(R)-desmolactone] is a sex attractant or sex pheromone for multiple species and subspecies in the cerambycid genus Desmocerus. This compound was previously identified as a female-produced sex attractant pheromone of Desmocerus californicus californicus. Headspace volatiles from female Desmocerus aureipennis aureipennis contained (R)-desmolactone, and the antennae of adult males of two species responded strongly to synthetic (R)-desmolactone in coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses. In field bioassays in California, Oregon, and British Columbia, traps baited with synthetic (R)-desmolactone captured males of several Desmocerus species and subspecies. Only male beetles were captured, indicating that this compound acts as a sex-specific attractant, rather than as a signal for aggregation. In targeted field bioassays, males of the US federally threatened subspecies Desmocerus californicus dimorphus responded to the synthetic attractant in a dose dependent manner. Our results represent the first example of a "generic" sex pheromone used by multiple species in the subfamily Lepturinae, and demonstrate that pheromone-baited traps may be a sensitive and efficient method of monitoring the threatened species Desmocerus californicus dimorphus, commonly known as the valley elderberry longhorn beetle. PMID:25521293

  3. Mono- and sesquiterpenes and antifungal constituents from Artemisia species.

    PubMed

    Tan, R X; Lu, H; Wolfender, J L; Yu, T T; Zheng, W F; Yang, L; Gafner, S; Hostettmann, K

    1999-02-01

    In addition to beta-sitosterol and alpha-amyrin detected in all the investigated species, the extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia giraldii var. giraldii gave stigmasterol, daucosterol, sesamine, luteolin, eupafolin, hispidulin, eupatilin, belamcanidin, pinitol, artemin, ridentin, and a new antifungal monoterpene (named santolinylol) while that of the aerial parts of A. mongolica afforded sesamine, eupafolin, eupatilin, matricarin, and a new germacranolide (3-oxo-11 alpha H-germacra-1(10)E,4Z-dien-12,6 alpha-olide), and that of the aerial parts of A. vestita yielded stigmasterol, daucosterol, umbelliferone, scopolin, scoparone, and isoscopoletin-O-glucoside. Pinitol, first reisolated from Artemisia genus, was shown to inhibit the growth of the human pathogenic fungi Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Geotrichun candidum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. Umbelliferone was also active against Candida tropicalis, A. flavus, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum. The flavones hispidulin and belamcanidin were almost equally inhibitory to the growth of A. flavus, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum, and santolinylol to C. albicans, A. flavus, A. niger, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum. In addition, ridentin was active against the growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum. PMID:10083848

  4. Antimicrobial activities of novel mannosyl lipids isolated from the biocontrol fungus Simplicillium lamellicola BCP against phytopathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Le Dang, Quang; Shin, Teak Soo; Park, Myung Soo; Choi, Yong Ho; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Kim, In Seon; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2014-04-16

    The antagonistic fungus Simplicillium lamellicola BCP has been developed as a microbial biopesticide that effectively controls the development of various plant diseases caused by both pathogenic bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Antibacterial bioassay-directed fractionation was used to isolate mannosyl lipids from S. lamellicola BCP, and the structures of these compounds were elucidated using spectral analysis and chemical degradation. Three novel mannosyl lipids were characterized and identified as halymecins F and G and (3R,5R)-3-O-β-D-mannosyl-3,5-dihydrodecanoic acid. Massoia lactone and (3R, 5R)-3-hydroxydecan-5-olide were also isolated from S. lamellicola BCP. The three novel compounds inhibited the growth of the majority of phytopathogenic bacteria that were tested, and halymecin F displayed the strongest antibacterial activity. Agrobacterium tumefaciens was the most sensitive to the three novel compounds, with IC₅₀ values ranging from 1.58 to 24.8 μg/mL. The ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth from the antagonistic fungus effectively reduced the bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum on tomato seedlings. These results indicate that S. lamellicola BCP suppresses the development of plant bacterial diseases through the production of antibacterial metabolites. PMID:24660753

  5. Differential growth inhibitory effects of highly oxygenated guaianolides isolated from the Middle Eastern indigenous plant Achillea falcata in HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tohme, Rita; Al Aaraj, Lamis; Ghaddar, Tarek; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala; Saliba, Najat A; Darwiche, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants play a crucial role in traditional medicine and in the maintenance of human health worldwide. Sesquiterpene lactones represent an interesting group of plant-derived compounds that are currently being tested as lead drugs in cancer clinical trials. Achillea falcata is a medicinal plant indigenous to the Middle Eastern region and belongs to the Asteraceae family, which is known to be rich in sesquiterpene lactones. We subjected Achillea falcata extracts to bioassay-guided fractionation against the growth of HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells and identified four secotanapartholides, namely 3-β-methoxy-isosecotanapartholide (1), isosecotanapartholide (2), tanaphallin (3), and 8-hydroxy-3-methoxyisosecotanapartholide (4). Three highly oxygenated guaianolides were isolated for the first time from Achillea falcata, namely rupin A (5), chrysartemin B (6), and 1β, 2β-epoxy-3β,4α,10α-trihydroxyguaian-6α,12-olide (7). These sesquiterpene lactones showed no or minor cytotoxicity while exhibiting promising anticancer effects against HCT-116 cells. Further structure-activity relationship studies related the bioactivity of the tested compounds to their skeleton, their lipophilicity, and to the type of functional groups neighboring the main alkylating center of the molecule. PMID:23860275

  6. (R)-Desmolactone Is a Sex Pheromone or Sex Attractant for the Endangered Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle Desmocerus californicus dimorphus and Several Congeners (Cerambycidae: Lepturinae)

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Ann M.; Arnold, Richard A.; Swift, Ian; Schapker, Philip A.; McCann, Sean; Marshall, Christopher J.; McElfresh, J. Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G.

    2014-01-01

    We report here that (4R,9Z)-hexadec-9-en-4-olide [(R)-desmolactone] is a sex attractant or sex pheromone for multiple species and subspecies in the cerambycid genus Desmocerus. This compound was previously identified as a female-produced sex attractant pheromone of Desmocerus californicus californicus. Headspace volatiles from female Desmocerus aureipennis aureipennis contained (R)-desmolactone, and the antennae of adult males of two species responded strongly to synthetic (R)-desmolactone in coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses. In field bioassays in California, Oregon, and British Columbia, traps baited with synthetic (R)-desmolactone captured males of several Desmocerus species and subspecies. Only male beetles were captured, indicating that this compound acts as a sex-specific attractant, rather than as a signal for aggregation. In targeted field bioassays, males of the US federally threatened subspecies Desmocerus californicus dimorphus responded to the synthetic attractant in a dose dependent manner. Our results represent the first example of a “generic” sex pheromone used by multiple species in the subfamily Lepturinae, and demonstrate that pheromone-baited traps may be a sensitive and efficient method of monitoring the threatened species Desmocerus californicus dimorphus, commonly known as the valley elderberry longhorn beetle. PMID:25521293

  7. Antioxidant compounds from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Nee; Khairuddean, Melati; Wong, Keng-Chong; Tong, Woei-Yenn; Ibrahim, Darah

    2016-08-01

    A new xanthone, namely garcinexanthone G (1), along with eight known compounds, stigmasta-5,22-dien-3β-ol (2), stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (3), 3β-acetoxy-11α,12α-epoxyoleanan-28,13β-olide (4), 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone (5), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone (6), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (7), kaempferol (8) and quercetin (9), were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-1D and 2D), UV, IR, and mass spectrometry. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant properties based on the DPPH radical scavenging activities. Results showed that 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone and quercetin showed significant antioxidant activities with EC50 values of 16.20 and 12.68 μg/ml, respectively, as compared to the control, ascorbic acid (7.4 μg/ml). PMID:26999039

  8. Differential cytotoxic activity of the petroleum ether extract and its furanosesquiterpenoid constituents from Commiphora molmol resin.

    PubMed

    Ayyad, Seif-Eldin N; Hoye, Thomas R; Alarif, Walied M; Al Ahmadi, Sana'a M; Basaif, Salim A; Ghandourah, Mohamed A; Badria, Farid A

    2015-01-01

    This study revealed a differential cytotoxic activity of the petroleum ether extract (IC₅₀ =5 μg/mL) of the resinous exudates of Commiphora molmol against two mouse cell lines KA31T and NIH3T3 (untransformed and transformed mouse fibroblasts, respectively). Four new compounds (1-4) and five known compounds (5-9) were isolated from the petroleum ether extract. The identity of these new compounds was determined as γ-elemane lactone (1), 5-αH,8-βH-eudesma-1,3,7(11)-trien-8,12-olide (2), 2-hydroxy-11,12-dihydrofuranodiene (3), and 2-hydroxyfuranodiene (4). 1 and 2 displayed the highest cytotoxic activity against NIH3T3 cells. 7 and 9 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against KA31T cells. Compounds 3-6 showed weak cytotoxic activities against both cell lines. These results may explain the high efficacy of the petroleum ether fraction in several myrrh-derived pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:26020558

  9. Influence of Finite Element Software on Energy Release Rates Computed Using the Virtual Crack Closure Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald; Goetze, Dirk; Ransom, Jonathon (Technical Monitor)

    2006-01-01

    Strain energy release rates were computed along straight delamination fronts of Double Cantilever Beam, End-Notched Flexure and Single Leg Bending specimens using the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT). Th e results were based on finite element analyses using ABAQUS# and ANSYS# and were calculated from the finite element results using the same post-processing routine to assure a consistent procedure. Mixed-mode strain energy release rates obtained from post-processing finite elem ent results were in good agreement for all element types used and all specimens modeled. Compared to previous studies, the models made of s olid twenty-node hexahedral elements and solid eight-node incompatible mode elements yielded excellent results. For both codes, models made of standard brick elements and elements with reduced integration did not correctly capture the distribution of the energy release rate acr oss the width of the specimens for the models chosen. The results suggested that element types with similar formulation yield matching results independent of the finite element software used. For comparison, m ixed-mode strain energy release rates were also calculated within ABAQUS#/Standard using the VCCT for ABAQUS# add on. For all specimens mod eled, mixed-mode strain energy release rates obtained from ABAQUS# finite element results using post-processing were almost identical to re sults calculated using the VCCT for ABAQUS# add on.

  10. Fragrant volatile sesquiterpenoids isolated from the essential oil of Laggera pterodonta by using olfactory-guided fractionation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jian-Long; Li, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Du, Zhi-Zhi

    2014-09-01

    Chemical composition of the essential oil from Laggera pterodonta (Compositae) was inverstigated. GC/MS Analyses led to the identification of 68 components, representing more than 96% of the total oil. By focusing on the woody note fraction of the essential oil, one new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoid, bisabola-2,7(14),11-trien-10-ol (1), together with ten known compounds, bisabolol oxide B (2), ylangenol (3), copaborneol (4), guai-11-en-10-ol (5), spathulenol (6), aromadendran-10-ol (7), caryophyllenol (8), 5α,7α-eudesm-11(13)-en-4α-ol (9), γ-costic acid (10), and eudesma-4(15),11(13)-diene-12,5β-olide (11), were isolated by using olfactory-guided fractionation. The structures of the eleven compounds were determined by NMR and MS analyses. All the volatile compounds reported here were isolated for the first time from this plant. On the basis of preliminary odor assessment, the odor of the woody-note fractions of the essential oil was assumed to be due to these isolated sesquiterpenoids. PMID:25238080

  11. Effects of Pheromone Release Rate and Trap Placement on Trapping of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ryall, Krista L; Silk, Peter J; Fidgen, Jeff; Mayo, Peter; Lavallée, Robert; Guertin, Claude; Scarr, Taylor

    2015-06-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a devastating insect pest in its introduced range. A trapping system that increases trap catches or detection rates in low-density populations would be beneficial for survey programs. Five trapping experiments were conducted to investigate factors influencing capture rates of male beetles on dark green traps baited with the A. planipennis pheromone, (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide ((3Z)-lactone), plus the green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol. Low doses (0.001-1.0 mg) of (3Z)-lactone + (3Z)-hexenol did not consistently increase captures of male A. planipennis. In other experiments, mean captures of males were significantly higher on traps baited with a moderate dose (3.0 mg/septum) of (3Z)-lactone + (3Z)-hexenol, compared with lower doses (0.001, 0.1, and 1.0 mg) or (3Z)-hexenol alone. Next, we demonstrated that addition of (3Z)-lactone to traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol resulted in significantly greater increases in male captures when pairs of traps were placed on the same tree, than when traps were placed on adjacent trees. Moreover, significantly more A. planipennis were captured on pheromone-baited traps placed in the southern versus northern aspect of the crown. These results highlight the importance of experimental set-up for elucidating lure treatment effects and also suggests the (3Z)-lactone may be more active at close range. Our findings increase our understanding of the pheromone ecology of this species and lend support toward the use of dark green traps baited with 3.0 mg (3Z)-lactone + (3Z)-hexenol deployed in the south aspect of the canopy for detection programs for this insect. PMID:26313980

  12. Interaction of Visual and Chemical CUES in Promoting Attraction of Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Domingue, Michael J; Andreadis, Stefanos S; Silk, Peter J; Ryall, Krista L; Baker, Thomas C

    2016-06-01

    Female emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), emit a macrocyclic lactone, (Z)-3-dodecen-12-olide, that increases field trap captures on large-panel prism traps when co-emitted with the green leaf volatile (Z)-3-hexenol. We assessed attraction to these compounds by using visual decoy-baited branch traps, which attract males by mimicking a living female resting upon a leaf. Pairs of branch traps, with and without visual decoy beetles, were placed on green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, trees, which were assigned different odor treatments: 1) no odor, 2) (Z)-3-hexenol alone, and 3) (Z)-3-hexenol-plus-lactone. Male captures were positively affected by the presence of decoys and the emission of either (Z)-3-hexenol or (Z)-3-hexenol plus lactone. The decoy-baited traps with the combination of (Z)-3-hexenol plus lactone caught more males than any other treatment. Greater male captures were associated with continuing captures later in the season, suggesting that decoy and odor attractants remain attractive throughout the flight period. Female captures were not affected by the visual decoys, but odors did influence captures, with the (Z)-3-hexenol plus lactone treatment catching the greatest number of females. The rare female trap captures were negatively correlated with the more common male captures on the odorless and (Z)-3-hexenol-baited traps, but were not correlated with male captures when the lactone was added. Thus, in the absence of the lactone, the visual signal of other conspecifics can inhibit female attraction. However, the pheromone attracts both sexes independently of the visual signal on the trap. PMID:27234006

  13. Attraction of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to a volatile pheromone: effects of release rate, host volatile, and trap placement.

    PubMed

    Ryall, Krista L; Silk, Peter J; Mayo, Peter; Crook, Damon; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard A; Sweeney, Jon; Scarr, Taylor

    2012-06-01

    Attraction of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, to a volatile pheromone was demonstrated in three field experiments using baited green sticky traps. A dose-response curve was generated for male A. planipennis to increasing release rates of (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide ((3Z)-lactone) in combination with the green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol. Only the lowest release rate (<2.50 μg/d) of (3Z)-lactone significantly increased captures of male A. planipennis, as compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. Effect of trap height, (3Z)-lactone, and (3Z)-hexenol and their interactions on the trap capture of A. planipennis was determined in a factorial experiment. Number of males per trap was significantly and positively affected by (3Z)-lactone, (3Z)-hexenol, and trap height whereas number of females per trap was affected by trap height only; none of the interactions were significant. As predicted, the greatest mean catch of males was in traps baited with (3Z)-lactone and (3Z)-hexenol placed high in the canopy. Electroantennogram tests on the bark volatile, 7-epi-sesquithujene, demonstrated the ability of male and female A. planipennis antennae to detect and respond to this compound, particularly the (+)-7-epi-sesquithujene isomer. Results from an olfactometer bioassay and field testing did not demonstrate attraction of either males or females to (+)-7-epi-sesquithujene. These data increase our understanding of the pheromone ecology of the invasive emerald ash borer, provide further confirmation of the behavioral activity of the female-produced lactone pheromone, and should increase the ability to detect A. planipennis infestations where they are present. PMID:22732623

  14. Different types of dienelactone hydrolase in 4-fluorobenzoate-utilizing bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Schlömann, M; Schmidt, E; Knackmuss, H J

    1990-01-01

    Of various benzoate-utilizing bacteria tested, Alcaligenes eutrophus 335, A. eutrophus H16, A. eutrophus JMP222, A. eutrophus JMP134, Alcaligenes strain A7, and Pseudomonas cepacia were able to grow with 4-fluorobenzoate as the sole source of carbon and energy. P. cepacia also utilizes 3-fluorobenzoate. Except for A. eutrophus JMP134, which is known to grow with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate and 3-chlorobenzoate (R. H. Don and J. M. Pemberton, J. Bacteriol. 145:681-686, 1981), the strains were unable to grow at the expense of these compounds or 4-chlorobenzoate. Assays of cell extracts revealed that all strains express dienelactone hydrolase and maleylacetate reductase activities in addition to enzymes of the catechol branch of the 3-oxoadipate pathway when growing with 4-fluorobenzoate. Induction of dienelactone hydrolase and maleylacetate reductase apparently is not necessarily connected to synthesis of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase type II and chloromuconate cycloisomerase activities, which are indispensable for the degradation of chlorocatechols. Substrate specificities of the dienelactone hydrolases provisionally differentiate among three types of this activity. (i) Extracts of A. eutrophus 335, A. eutrophus H16, A. eutrophus JMP222, and Alcaligenes strain A7 convert trans-4-carboxymethylenebut-2-en-4-olide (trans-dienelactone) much faster than the cis-isomer (type I). (ii) The enzyme present in P. cepacia shows the opposite preference for the isomeric substrates (type II). (iii) Cell extracts of A. eutrophus JMP134, as well as purified dienelactone hydrolase from Pseudomonas strain B13 (E. Schmidt and H.-J. Knackmuss, Biochem. J. 192:339-347, 1980), hydrolyze both dienelactones at rates that are of the same order of magnitude (type III). This classification implies that A. eutrophus JMP134 possesses at least two different dienelactone hydrolases, one of type III encoded by the plasmid pJP4 and one of type I, which is also present in the cured strain JMP222. PMID

  15. Degradation of p-chlorotoluene by a mutant of Pseudomonas sp. strain JS6

    SciTech Connect

    Haigler, B.E.; Spain, J.C. )

    1989-02-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain JS6 grows on chlorobenzene, p-dichlorobenzene, or toluene as a sole source of carbon and energy. It does not grow on p-chlorotoluene (p-CT). Growth on glucose in the presence of p-CT resulted in the accumulation of 4-chloro-2,3- dihydroxy-1-methyl benzene (3-chloro-6- methylcatechol), 4-chloro- 2,3-dihydroxy-1-methyl cyclohexa- 4,6-diene (p-CT dihydrodoil), and 2-methyl-4-carboxy methylenebut-2-en-4-olide (2-methyl dienelactone). Strain JS21, a spontaneous mutant capable of growth on p-CT, was isolated from cultures of strain JS6 after extended exposure to p-CT. In addition to growing on p-CT, JS21 grew on all of the substrates that supported growth of the parent strain, including p-dichlorobenzene, chlorobenzene, benzene, toluene, benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, phenol, and ethylbenzene. The pathway for degradation of p-CT by JS21 was investigated by respirometry, isolation of intermediates, and assay of enzymes in cell extracts. p-CT was converted to 3-chloro-6-methylcatechol by dioxygenase and dihydrodiol dehydrogenase enzymes. 3-Chloro-6-methylcatechol underwent ortho ring cleavage catalyzed by a catechol 1,2-dioxygenase to form 2-chloro-5-methyl-cis,cis-muconate, which was converted to 2-methyl dienelactone. A dienelactone hydrolase converted 2-methyl dienelactone to 2-methylmaleylacetic acid. Preliminary results indicate that a change in wild-type induction patterns allows JS21 to grow on p-CT.

  16. Mechanism of Chloride Elimination from 3-Chloro- and 2,4-Dichloro-cis,cis-Muconate: New Insight Obtained from Analysis of Muconate Cycloisomerase Variant CatB-K169A†

    PubMed Central

    Kaulmann, Ursula; Kaschabek, Stefan R.; Schlömann, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Chloromuconate cycloisomerases of bacteria utilizing chloroaromatic compounds are known to convert 3-chloro-cis,cis-muconate to cis-dienelactone (cis-4-carboxymethylenebut-2-en-4-olide), while usual muconate cycloisomerases transform the same substrate to the bacteriotoxic protoanemonin. Formation of protoanemonin requires that the cycloisomerization of 3-chloro-cis,cis-muconate to 4-chloromuconolactone is completed by protonation of the exocyclic carbon of the presumed enol/enolate intermediate before chloride elimination and decarboxylation take place to yield the final product. The formation of cis-dienelactone, in contrast, could occur either by dehydrohalogenation of 4-chloromuconolactone or, more directly, by chloride elimination from the enol/enolate intermediate. To reach a better understanding of the mechanisms of chloride elimination, the proton-donating Lys169 of Pseudomonas putida muconate cycloisomerase was changed to alanine. As expected, substrates requiring protonation, such as cis,cis-muconate as well as 2- and 3-methyl-, 3-fluoro-, and 2-chloro-cis,cis-muconate, were not converted at a significant rate by the K169A variant. However, the variant was still active with 3-chloro- and 2,4-dichloro-cis,cis-muconate. Interestingly, cis-dienelactone and 2-chloro-cis-dienelactone were formed as products, whereas the wild-type enzyme forms protoanemonin and the not previously isolated 2-chloroprotoanemonin, respectively. Thus, the chloromuconate cycloisomerases may avoid (chloro-)protoanemonin formation by increasing the rate of chloride abstraction from the enol/enolate intermediate compared to that of proton addition to it. PMID:11443090

  17. Investigation of the Antiproliferative Properties of Natural Sesquiterpenes from Artemisia asiatica and Onopordum acanthium on HL-60 Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, Judit; Szebeni, Gábor J.; Csupor-Löffler, Boglárka; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Szekeres, Thomas; Saiko, Philipp; Ocsovszki, Imre; Puskás, László G.; Hohmann, Judit; Zupkó, István

    2016-01-01

    Plants and plant extracts play a crucial role in the research into novel antineoplastic agents. Four sesquiterpene lactones, artecanin (1), 3β-chloro-4α,10α-dihydroxy-1α,2α-epoxy-5α,7αH-guaia-11(13)-en-12,6α-olide (2), iso-seco-tanapartholide 3-O-methyl ether (3) and 4β,15-dihydro-3-dehydrozaluzanin C (4), were isolated from two traditionally used Asteraceae species (Onopordum acanthium and Artemisia asiatica). When tested for antiproliferative action on HL-60 leukemia cells, these compounds exhibited reasonable IC50 values in the range 3.6–13.5 μM. Treatment with the tested compounds resulted in a cell cycle disturbance characterized by increases in the G1 and G2/M populations, while there was a decrease in the S phase. Additionally, 1–3 elicited increases in the hypodiploid (subG1) population. The compounds elicited concentration-dependent chromatin condensation and disruption of the membrane integrity, as revealed by Hoechst 33258–propidium staining. Treatment for 24 h resulted in significant increases in activity of caspases-3 and -9, indicating that the tested sesquiterpenes induced the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. The proapoptotic properties of the sesquiterpene lactones were additionally demonstrated withannexin V staining. Compounds 1 and 2 increased the Bax/Bcl-2 expression and decreased the expressions of CDK1 and cyclin B2, as determined at the mRNA level by means of RT-PCR. These experimental results indicate that sesquiterpene lactones may be regarded as potential starting structures for the development of novel anticancer agents. PMID:26901188

  18. Clerodane type diterpene as a novel antifungal agent from Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Asish K; Chand, Hemender R; John, Jyothis; Deshpande, Mukund V

    2015-04-13

    Bioactivity-guided chemical examination of methanolic extract of leaves of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula led to the isolation of the active constituent, a diterpene 1 which was identified as 16α-hydroxycleroda-3,13(14)Z-dien-15,16-olide on the basis of its spectral data. Among the tested strains, diterpene 1 was found to exhibit antifungal activities having MIC90 values of 50.3, 100.6 and 201.2 μM against Candida albicans NCIM3557, Cryptococcus neoformans NCIM3542 (human pathogens) and Neurospora crassa NCIM870 (saprophyte), respectively. Initial, structure-activity-relationship (SAR) data generated by synthesizing some derivatives revealed that the double bond between C3-C4 and the free hydroxyl group at C16 are crucial for the antifungal activity of the diterpene 1. The mode of action of 1 in C. albicans is due to compromised cell membrane permeability and also probably due to disruption of cell wall structures. The red blood cell haemolysis of all the compounds (1-4) did not show any significant haemolysis and was found to be less than 15% for all the compounds when tested at highest concentration, i.e. 1200 μM. Interestingly, all the tested compounds inhibited Y-H transition in dimorphic C. albicans NCIM3557 at much lower concentration than their MIC90 values. Determination of ROS generation by diterpene 1 using DCFH-DA and DHR123 (dihydrorhodamine) staining of C. albicans NCIM3557 indicated production of intracellular ROS as a mechanism of antifungal activity. PMID:25747495

  19. Possible cometary bioorganic compounds as sources of planetary biospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Takano, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Hashimoto, H.; Saito, T.

    Complex organi c compound s were discovered in the coma of Comet Halley [1], whi c h suggested that they w er e p ossibl e sources of the terr estria l biosp here. It has not been confirmed, however, that bioorganic compounds like amino acids were contained in comet ary nuclei. It has been hypothe sized that cometary organic compounds wer e formed in interstellar dust particles (ISDs) [2]. A great nu mber of experiments have been done s imulat i ng the condition o ISDf environments. Amino acids were reported to form in simulated ISD environments by proton irradiation [3] and by UV irradiation [4] of simulat ed ISD ice mantles. Here w e discuss nature of bioorganic compounds formed in simul a t e d ISD environments, and compare wit h those f ormed in simulated primitive planet ary atmospheres. A gas mixt ure of carbon monoxi d e, ammonia and water was irradiated wit h high - energy protons, gamma rays or UV light. All of hydrolysates o f the products gave a wide variety of a ino acids, t ogethe r with uracil a d cytosine. When amn mixture of methanol, ammonia and w at e r (1:1:2.8) was irradiated wit h gamma rays or UV light at 77K, 293K or 353K, am ino acids were also detect e d in each hydrolysates: The G-value ( energy yield) of glycine (the most abundant amino acids in the products) was ca. 0.01, which was independent from the temp eratur e or the phase (s olid, liquid or gas). These results s ugg est that amino acid precursors can be formed in ISD environments quite effe c t i vely even if the materials were frozen in low temperature. If comets can bring sufficient kinds and amount of bioorganic co mpou nds to planets, planetary biospheres can be generated, regardless of the comp osit ion of planet ary atmospheres. It will be quite interesting to find and analyze cometary organics left in planets and satellites such as the moon, as wel l as in cometary bodies. [1] J. Kissel and F. R. Kreuger, Natur e, 326, 755 (1987). [2] J. M. Greenberg and A. Li, Adv. Space

  20. New Abietane Diterpenes from Euphorbia Pseudocactus Berger (Euphorbiaceae) and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Monem, Azza Ramy; Abdelrahman, Enas Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Euphorbia is the largest genus in Euphorbiaceae. Terpenoids were isolated from most species of this genus. Objective: Since no previous study was reported about Euphorbia pseudocactus Berger, we started here a phytochemical investigation on this species to isolate and identify its terpenoid constituents and to estimate the antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds. Materials and Methods: The n-hexane fraction of the ethanolic extract of E. pseudocactus Berger was chromatographed on silica gel columns, the structures of the isolated compounds (1–5) were identified based on their MS, 1 D, and 2 D NMR spectral data. The antimicrobial activity of the n-hexane fraction and the isolated compounds (1–4) was investigated using diffusion plate method against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus [12600] and Bacillus subtilis [6051]) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa [10145] and Escherichia coli [11775]) bacteria, yeast (Candida albicans [7102]), and fungi (Aspergillus flavus). Results: Two triterpenes (glut-5-en-3 β-ol [1] and olean-12,15-diene-3 β-ol [2]) and three abietane diterpene (3-hydoxy-19-cyclopropenoyloxy-abietane [3], ent-abieta-9,12,14-triene-12,16-olide [4], and 12,19-dihydroxy-abieta-5-ene [5]) were isolated. Compound 1 exhibited no antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria, compound 2 and n-hexane fraction exhibited weak activity, whereas compounds 3 and 4 showed moderate activity. All samples showed no activity against the tested yeast and fungi. Discussion and Conclusion: Five compounds were isolated for the 1st time from E. pseudocactus Berger, three of them (3–5) are new natural compounds. As the major isolated compound (1) exhibited no antimicrobial activity, the observed activity of the n-hexane fraction is mainly due to its diterpenoid constituents. SUMMARY Two known triterpenes and three new diterpenes were isolated from n-hexane fraction of Euphorbia pseudocactusThe abietane diterpenoids showed higher

  1. Search for constituents with neurotrophic factor-potentiating activity from the medicinal plants of paraguay and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Li, Yushan; Ohizumi, Yasushi

    2004-07-01

    20 medicinal plants of Paraguay and 3 medicinal plants of Thailand were examined on nerve growth factor (NGF)-potentiating activities in PC12D cells. The trail results demonstrated that the methanol extracts of four plants, Verbena littoralis, Scoparia dulcis, Artemisia absinthium and Garcinia xanthochymus, markedly enhanced the neurite outgrowth induced by NGF from PC12D cells. Furthermore, utilizing the bioactivity-guided separation we successfully isolated 32, 4 and 5 constituents from V. littoralis, S. dulcis and G. xanthochymus, respectively, including nine iridoid and iridoid glucosides (1-9), two dihydrochalcone dimers (10 and 11), two flavonoids and three flavonoid glycosides (12-16), two sterols (17 and 18), ten triterpenoids (19-28), five xanthones (29-33), one naphthoquinone (34), one benzenepropanamide (35), four phenylethanoid glycosides (36-39) and two other compounds (40 and 41). Among which, 15 compounds (1-4, 10-11, 14-18, 29-31 and 34) were new natural products. The results of pharmacological trails verified that littoralisone (1), gelsemiol (5), 7a-hydroxysemperoside aglucone (6), verbenachalcone (10), littorachalcone (11), stigmast-5-ene 3beta,7alpha,22alpha-triol (18), ursolic acid (19), 3beta-hydroxyurs-11-en-28,13beta-olide (24), oleanolic acid (25), 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (26), 1,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-7,8-di(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (29), 1,2,6-trihydroxy-5-methoxy-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (30), 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy-4,7,8-tri(3-methyl-2-butenyl)xanthone (31), 12b-hydroxy-des-D-garcigerrin A (32), garciniaxanthone E (33) and (4R)-4,9-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-alpha-lapachone (34) elicited marked enhancement of NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12D cells. These substances may contribute to the basic study and the medicinal development for the neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:15235225