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1

Ejs Lagrange Top Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ejs Lagrange Top model displays the motion of a heavy symmetric top under the effect of gravity. The top has an initial angular speed that provides the precessional, nutational, and rotational speeds. The ratio of Lz to Lâ can be set via slider and the initial angular position and angular speeds can be changed via textboxes. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Lagrange Top model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ehu_rigid_bodies_Lagrange.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for rigid body dynamics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Aguirregabiria, Juan

2008-08-18

2

Three-dimensional, Free-Lagrange hydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the algorithms that make up a 3-D version of the Free-Lagrange Method. The basic method involves the explicit integration of the fluid flow equations over control volumes formed by Voronoi cells. A Voronoi cell is an arbitrary, convex polyhedron that has plane polygon faces. The ''nearest'' neighbors of any given mass point are identified by noting the mass point that lies on the opposite side of a given Voronoi face. The nearest neighbors of a mass point are allowed to change in response to the (Lagrange) motion of the mass points. This implies that the mesh reorganizes itself as the mass points move with the fluid motion.

Trease, H.

1987-01-01

3

An Extension of Lagrange's Identity to Matrices. Classroom Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this note the well-known Lagrange identity is extended to matrices. The resulting generalized Lagrange identity is used to give characterizations of symmetry, commutativity of projectors and normality.

Trenkler, Gotz

2004-01-01

4

Structures of the phase space near Lagrange's triangular equilibrium points  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of the restricted circular 3-body problem (Sun-Jupiter-asteroid), the stability of Lagrange's triangular equilibrium points is studied. From the Hamiltonian equations, which describe the evolution of the asteroid, a symplectic mapping is constructed near Lagrange's triangular equilibrium points. By using this mapping method, both the structure of phase space near Lagrange's triangular equilibrium points in the restricted circular

Liyong Zhou; Yisui Sun; Jilin Zhou

1999-01-01

5

Lagrange multiplier method for convex programs.  

PubMed

The problem of minimizing a convex function that is subject to the constraint that a number of other convex functions be nonpositive can be treated by the Lagrange multiplier method. Such a treatment was revived by Kuhn and Tucker and further studied by many other scientists. These studies led to an associated maximizing problem on the Lagrange function. The aim of this note is to give a short elementary proof that the infimum of the first problem is equal to the supremum of the second problem. To carry this out it is necessary to relax the constraints of the first (or the second) problem so that the constraints are enforced only in the limit. This relaxation of constraints is not necessary should prescribing upper bounds to all the convex functions define a bounded set of points in the domain of the functions. The domain of the functions can be n-dimensional space or a reflexive Banach space. PMID:16578726

Juffin, R J

1975-05-01

6

IL10 subfamily members: IL19, IL20, IL22, IL24 and IL26  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that the CD4+ T cell is a very important source of interleukin 10 (IL-10), while CD8+ cells produce low amounts. IL-10 exerts several immune stimulating, as well as inhibitory effects. There are at least five novel human IL-10 family-related molecules: IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, and IL-26. Activated T cells produce IL-19, IL-22 and IL-26, while IL-24

P. Conti; D. Kempuraj; S. Frydas; K. Kandere; W. Boucher; R. Letourneau; B. Madhappan; K. Sagimoto; S. Christodoulou; T. C. Theoharides

2003-01-01

7

Imaka: a Lagrange invariant of ELTs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IMAKA project is a ground layer corrected wide field visible imager proposed for CFHT. It consists of three processes or components: The dome and local turbulence will be controlled by ventilation; the remaining ground layer turbulence will be corrected by a GLAO system and the free atmosphere seeing will be locally reduced by using an Orthogonal Transfer CCD to correct for tip-tilt within the isokinetic angle of field stars. In designing the AO system, whether based on an adaptive secondary mirror or using pupil relay optics, it becomes apparent that the conjugation of the deformable mirror is a difficult constraint to achieve given the large field. It turns out this problem is not isolated to IMAKA, because the Lagrange Invariant for our project is in the same range as that of EAGLE on the E-ELT for example. The effects of tilting the deformable mirror with respect to the pupil or compensating for misconjugation of an adaptive secondary mirror using a tomographic reconstructor have been investigated using Monte-Carlo simulation codes, including our code developed specifically for GLAO simulations. We report on quantitative results from IMAKA simulations for a variety of realistic turbulence conditions for each topical scheme, and allude to how these results are applicable to ELTs' adaptive optics.

Lai, Olivier; Chun, Mark R.; Pazder, John; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Jolissaint, Laurent; Andersen, David; Salmon, Derrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles

2010-07-01

8

Superconvergence of bi- k-Lagrange elements for eigenvalue problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study superconvergence of bi- k-Lagrange elements for parameter-dependent problems where k?2. We show that the superconvergence rate of the bi- k-Lagrange elements is two orders higher than that of the kth-order Lagrange elements. This is a significant improvement of the previous results [C.-S. Chien, H.T. Huang, B.-W. Jeng, Z.C. Li, Superconvergence of FEMs and numerical continuation for parameter-dependent problems with folds, Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos 18 (2008) 1321-1336], which is only one order (or a half order) higher than that of the latter. Next, we apply the bi- k-Lagrange elements to the computations of energy levels and wave functions of two-dimensional (2D) Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC), and BEC in a periodic potential. Sample numerical results are reported.

Li, Z.-C.; Chien, C.-S.; Huang, H.-T.; Jeng, B.-W.

2009-11-01

9

A note on the Lagrange polynomials in several variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Chan, Chyan and Srivastava [W.-C.C. Chan, C.-J. Chyan, H.M. Srivastava, The Lagrange polynomials in several variables, Integral Transform. Spec. Funct. 12 (2001) 139–148] introduced and systematically investigated the Lagrange polynomials in several variables. In the present paper, we derive various families of multilinear and multilateral generating functions for the Chan–Chyan–Srivastava multivariable polynomials.

Esra Erkus; Abdullah Altin

2005-01-01

10

77 FR 23504 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Completion: Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL AGENCY: National Park Service...State Museum, 1011 East Ash Street, Springfield, IL 62703-3500, telephone (217...control of the Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL. This notice is published as...

2012-04-19

11

Fractional Euler-Lagrange Equations for Constrained Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fractional calculus is the name for the theory of integrals and derivatives of arbitrary order, which generalize the notions of n-fold integration and integer-order differentiation. Differential equations of fractional order appear in certain applied problems and in theoretical researches. In this paper, the Euler-Lagrange equations of the Lagrangians linear in velocities were derived using the fractional calculus. Two examples of constrained systems possessing a gauge invariance are investigated in details, the explicit solutions of Euler-Lagrange equations are obtained, and the recovery of the classical results is discussed.

Avkar, Tansel; Baleanu, Dumitru

2004-10-01

12

Structural optimization with constraints from dynamics in Lagrange  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural optimization problems are mostly solved under constraints from statics, such as stresses, strains, or displacements under static loads. But in the design process, dynamic quantities like eigenfrequencies or accelerations under dynamic loads become more and more important. Therefore, it is obvious that constraints from dynamics must be considered in structural optimization packages. This paper addresses the dynamics branch in MBB-LAGRANGE. It will concentrate on two topics, namely on the different formulations for eigenfrequency constraints and on frequency response constraints. For the latter the necessity of a system reduction is emphasized. The methods implemented in LAGRANGE are presented and examples are given.

Pfeiffer, F.; Kneppe, G.; Ross, C.

1990-01-01

13

Reactive flow lagrange analysis in plastic bonded explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of Lagrange gauge measurements in PBX-9404 and RX-26-AF is given. The data are used to study the progress of reaction in these explosives. The results are discussed along with the underlying theortetical assumptions. Emphasis is given to the practical problems of constructing a description of the chemical reaction from gauge data.

Gerald L. Nutt; Leroy M. Erickson

1984-01-01

14

Genesis capturing the sun: Solar wind irradiation at Lagrange 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genesis, a member of NASAs Discovery Mission program, is the world's first sample return mission since the Apollo program to bring home solar matter in ultra-pure materials. Outside the protection of Earth's magnetosphere at the Earth-Sun Lagrange 1 point, the deployed sample collectors were directly exposed to solar wind irradiation. The natural process of solar wind ion implantation into a

Michael J. Calaway; Eileen K. Stansbery; Lindsay P. Keller

2009-01-01

15

Lagrange hydrodynamics as extended Euler hydrodynamics: Hamiltonian and GENERIC structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extended Euler hydrodynamics proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 (2000) 3228 as hydrodynamics with correct solid limit is interpreted as a reconstruction of Lagrange hydrodynamics in the Eulerian setting. The geometrical formulation of the classical Euler and the classical Navier-Stokes-Fourier hydrodynamics is shown to be applicable also to the extended theory.

Grmela, Miroslav

2002-04-01

16

Prospect Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While many readers may be aware that trees grow in Brooklyn, few may be cognizant of the fact that, yes, a forest grows in Brooklyn. This urban forest just happens to be in the boroughâÂÂs own lovely Prospect Park, designed by those giants of landscape architects, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. Often overlooked by some who are primarily concerned with that other large swath of green in the middle of Manhattan, Prospect Park contains a 90-acre meadow, a zoo, a celebrated performing arts festival, and a lake. Visitors to the Prospect Park Alliance website can learn all about these things, and also delve into the parkâÂÂs history. Those planning a visit may wish to look at the âÂÂGeneral Infoâ and âÂÂPlaces To Goâ sections for a selection of brief descriptions and photographs. For those seeking a historical perspective the âÂÂHistory & Natureâ area is delightful. Here visitors can learn about the parkâÂÂs historical development and creation, and learn more about those individuals responsible for the parkâÂÂs design and aesthetic appeal. Finally, visitors should look at the online exhibit âÂÂA Glimpse Of Prospect Parkâ for a bit of visual perspective on the parkâÂÂs history.

Prospect Park (New York, N.Y.)

17

Parks Canada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The national park system of Canada is extensive, stretching from Baffin Island to areas in British Columbia. The stated goal of the system is "to establish a system of national parks that represents each of Canada's distinct natural regions." First-time visitors to the site can use the Introduction area to learn more about the system, and there's also a Planning Your Visit link that's quite helpful. The basic document that most users will want to check out here is titled "National Parks System Plan" and it offers a broad overview of the 39 national parks in Canada. Visitors can learn about parks such as Aulavik, Prince Edward Island, and others by clicking over to the Find a National Park area. Naturalists and scientists can use the Species at Risk area to learn about what the Canadian government is doing to protect species such as the whooping crane and the seaside centipede lichen. Finally, the site is rounded out by the Managing Human Use link which talks about their long-range plans to ensure that the parks maintain a balance between visitors and conserving the natural areas.

2008-10-27

18

@central park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Central Park Conservancy, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to restoring, improving, and managing Central Park's grounds and facilities, offers this "official" site, which contains a wealth of information about what is arguably the world's most famous city park. Each of the site's sections contains useful or interesting information; the Then & Now section, for instance, offers an overview of Central Park's history, a bibliography with 43 entries for those seeking further information, and a list of movies with scenes set in the park. Another highlight of the site is the Virtual Park, which consists of a set of clickable maps through which users can explore 72 points of interest, each described in the affectionate style of a travel guidebook. The site's other sections include such features as events schedules, press releases, information on when and where particular varieties of flowers bloom, and a section devoted entirely to activities for families and children. This site will be especially useful to those who are planning a visit to Central Park, but other users will likely find it informative and entertaining as well.

19

Accurate solution of the Dirac equation on Lagrange meshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational method taking the form of equations on a grid because of the use of a Gauss quadrature approximation. With a basis of Lagrange functions involving associated Laguerre polynomials related to the Gauss quadrature, the method is applied to the Dirac equation. The potential may possess a 1/r singularity. For hydrogenic atoms, numerically exact energies and wave functions are obtained with small numbers n +1 of mesh points, where n is the principal quantum number. Numerically exact mean values of powers -2 to 3 of the radial coordinate r can also be obtained with n +2 mesh points. For the Yukawa potential, a 15-digit agreement with benchmark energies of the literature is obtained with 50 or fewer mesh points.

Baye, Daniel; Filippin, Livio; Godefroid, Michel

2014-04-01

20

Accurate solution of the Dirac equation on Lagrange meshes.  

PubMed

The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational method taking the form of equations on a grid because of the use of a Gauss quadrature approximation. With a basis of Lagrange functions involving associated Laguerre polynomials related to the Gauss quadrature, the method is applied to the Dirac equation. The potential may possess a 1/r singularity. For hydrogenic atoms, numerically exact energies and wave functions are obtained with small numbers n+1 of mesh points, where n is the principal quantum number. Numerically exact mean values of powers -2 to 3 of the radial coordinate r can also be obtained with n+2 mesh points. For the Yukawa potential, a 15-digit agreement with benchmark energies of the literature is obtained with 50 or fewer mesh points. PMID:24827362

Baye, Daniel; Filippin, Livio; Godefroid, Michel

2014-04-01

21

Park Shorelines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage of the National Park Service (NPS) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) discusses the environments of coastlines - the narrow strips of land where national parks meet the sea. It covers the formation of waves and beaches, as well as how beaches move through longshore drift. Also included are plans for paper models of island coral reefs, which include shield volcanoes, fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and atolls.

22

Genesis capturing the sun: Solar wind irradiation at Lagrange 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genesis, a member of NASAs Discovery Mission program, is the world’s first sample return mission since the Apollo program to bring home solar matter in ultra-pure materials. Outside the protection of Earth’s magnetosphere at the Earth–Sun Lagrange 1 point, the deployed sample collectors were directly exposed to solar wind irradiation. The natural process of solar wind ion implantation into a

Michael J. Calaway; Eileen K. Stansbery; Lindsay P. Keller

2009-01-01

23

Park Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Its never too early to begin planning your summer vacation, especially in the depths of winter; those with cabin fever can get a jump on their outdoor recreation plans at this site, provided by L.L. Bean. Users can search this database of over 1,400 state and national parks, forests, and wildlife refuges by state, region, and/or activities in which they are interested (including winter sports for all-season recreators). Search returns include contact information, an overview of the park/ forest and its highlights, photos, and a list of approved or available activities.

24

Solutions of Euler-Lagrange equations in fractional mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper Euler-Lagrange equations of fractional mechanics are studied. The characteristic feature of such equations is mixing of left- and right-sided fractional derivatives due to the rules of integration by parts in fractional calculus. We propose to solve a class of equations of this type using transformation to equivalent fractional integral equations and then applying Banach theorem on fixed point of a contractive mapping. The method is explained in detail for nonlinear fractional oscillator equation in two versions, then the results for a wide class of fractional differential equations are reported.

Klimek, M.

2007-11-01

25

Two Lagrange-like optical invariants and some applications.  

PubMed

Geometric optics can be completely derived from Fermat's principle, as classical mechanics can be obtained by the application of the Hamilton principle. In Lagrangian optics, for optical systems with rotational symmetry, is known the invariant L?, the Lagrange optical invariant. For systems built only with spherical lenses, we demonstrate there are two other optical invariants, L? and L?, analogous to L?. A proof based on Snell's law, the Weierstrass-Erdman jump condition, and the expression of the ray between two optical surfaces in the Hamiltonian formalism is reported. The presence of a conserved vector, L, allows us to write the equation of an emerging ray without any approximation. PMID:21540974

Corrente, Fabio; Onorato, Pasquale

2011-05-01

26

Convergence of a Substructuring Method with LaGrange Multipliers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We analyze the convergence of a substructuring iterative method with Lagrange multipliers, proposed recently by Farhat and Roux. The method decomposes finite element discretization of an elliptic boundary value problem into Neumann problems on the subdomains and a coarse problem for the subdomain nullspace components. For linear conforming elements and preconditioning by the Dirichlet problems on the subdomains, we prove the asymptotic bound on the condition number C(1 + log(H/h))(sup gamma), gamma = 2 or 3, where h is the characteristic element size and H is the subdomain size.

Mandel, Jan; Tezaur, Radek

1996-01-01

27

Park Smart  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Parking Garage Automation System (PGAS) is based on a technology developed by a NASA-sponsored project called Robot sensorSkin(TM). Merritt Systems, Inc., of Orlando, Florida, teamed up with NASA to improve robots working with critical flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The system, containing smart sensor modules and flexible printed circuit board skin, help robots to steer clear of obstacles using a proximity sensing system. Advancements in the sensor designs are being applied to various commercial applications, including the PGAS. The system includes a smartSensor(TM) network installed around and within public parking garages to autonomously guide motorists to open facilities, and once within, to free parking spaces. The sensors use non-invasive reflective-ultrasonic technology for high accuracy, high reliability, and low maintenance. The system is remotely programmable: it can be tuned to site-specific requirements, has variable range capability, and allows remote configuration, monitoring, and diagnostics. The sensors are immune to interference from metallic construction materials, such as rebar and steel beams. Inside the garage, smart routing signs mounted overhead or on poles in front of each row of parking spots guide the motorist precisely to free spaces.

1999-01-01

28

16QAM Blind Equalization via Maximum Entropy Density Approximation Technique and Nonlinear Lagrange Multipliers  

PubMed Central

Recently a new blind equalization method was proposed for the 16QAM constellation input inspired by the maximum entropy density approximation technique with improved equalization performance compared to the maximum entropy approach, Godard's algorithm, and others. In addition, an approximated expression for the minimum mean square error (MSE) was obtained. The idea was to find those Lagrange multipliers that bring the approximated MSE to minimum. Since the derivation of the obtained MSE with respect to the Lagrange multipliers leads to a nonlinear equation for the Lagrange multipliers, the part in the MSE expression that caused the nonlinearity in the equation for the Lagrange multipliers was ignored. Thus, the obtained Lagrange multipliers were not those Lagrange multipliers that bring the approximated MSE to minimum. In this paper, we derive a new set of Lagrange multipliers based on the nonlinear expression for the Lagrange multipliers obtained from minimizing the approximated MSE with respect to the Lagrange multipliers. Simulation results indicate that for the high signal to noise ratio (SNR) case, a faster convergence rate is obtained for a channel causing a high initial intersymbol interference (ISI) while the same equalization performance is obtained for an easy channel (initial ISI low).

Mauda, R.; Pinchas, M.

2014-01-01

29

16QAM blind equalization via maximum entropy density approximation technique and nonlinear Lagrange multipliers.  

PubMed

Recently a new blind equalization method was proposed for the 16QAM constellation input inspired by the maximum entropy density approximation technique with improved equalization performance compared to the maximum entropy approach, Godard's algorithm, and others. In addition, an approximated expression for the minimum mean square error (MSE) was obtained. The idea was to find those Lagrange multipliers that bring the approximated MSE to minimum. Since the derivation of the obtained MSE with respect to the Lagrange multipliers leads to a nonlinear equation for the Lagrange multipliers, the part in the MSE expression that caused the nonlinearity in the equation for the Lagrange multipliers was ignored. Thus, the obtained Lagrange multipliers were not those Lagrange multipliers that bring the approximated MSE to minimum. In this paper, we derive a new set of Lagrange multipliers based on the nonlinear expression for the Lagrange multipliers obtained from minimizing the approximated MSE with respect to the Lagrange multipliers. Simulation results indicate that for the high signal to noise ratio (SNR) case, a faster convergence rate is obtained for a channel causing a high initial intersymbol interference (ISI) while the same equalization performance is obtained for an easy channel (initial ISI low). PMID:24723813

Mauda, R; Pinchas, M

2014-01-01

30

15. City parking lot, and rear of the commercial buildings ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. City parking lot, and rear of the commercial buildings on the east side of State Street. - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL

31

Stability of the triangular Lagrange points beyond Gascheau's value  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the stability of the triangular Lagrange points L 4 and L 5 for secondary masses larger than the Gascheau’s value {?_G= (1-sqrt{23/27}/2)= 0.0385208ldots} (also known as the Routh value) in the restricted, planar circular three-body problem. Above that limit the triangular Lagrange points are linearly unstable. Here we show that between ? G and {? ? 0.039}, the L 4 and L 5 points are globally stable in the sense that a particle released at those points at zero velocity (in the corotating frame) remains in the vicinity of those points for an indefinite time. We also show that there exists a family of stable periodic orbits surrounding L 4 or L 5 for {? ge ?_G}. We show that ? G is actually the first value of a series {?_0 (=?_G), ?_1,ldots, ?_i,ldots} corresponding to successive period doublings of the orbits, which exhibit {1, 2, ldots, 2^i,ldots} cycles around L 4 or L 5. Those orbits follow a Feigenbaum cascade leading to disappearance into chaos at a value {?_infty = 0.0463004ldots} which generalizes Gascheau’s work.

Sicardy, B.

2010-06-01

32

Theodore Roosevelt National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website contains information on: the park history; park activities such as hiking and camping; and natural history such as the wildlife, geology and paleontology of the park. The kids' section contains coloring pages, a park trivia quiz, reference sections on the wildlife and natural history of the park, and information on Theodore Roosevelt and his involvement in the Badlands. There are also images of the wildlife and scenery of the park.

33

Sensitivity of Constrained Linear Inversions to the Selection of the Lagrange Multiplier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of constrained linear inversions to the selection of the Lagrange multiplier is demonstrated for the case of inferring columnar aerosol size distributions from spectral aerosol optical depth measurements. Since negative values of the aerosol size distribution constitute an unphysical solution, the Lagrange mul- tiplier is varied within a restricted range until a range of values is reached for

Michael D. King

1982-01-01

34

Partitioned formulation of internal fluid–structure interaction problems by localized Lagrange multipliers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partitioned formulation of compressible internal fluid–structure interaction problems is presented by employing a displacement model for both the fluid and structure. Partitioning is effected by a localized version of the method of Lagrange multipliers, which assigns two independent sets of Lagrange multipliers to the structural and fluid interfaces. Two major features of the present formulation include: an interface compliance

K. C. Park; Carlos A. Felippa; Roger Ohayon

2001-01-01

35

A Mortar Finite Element Method Using Dual Spaces For The Lagrange Multiplier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mortar finite element method allows the coupling of different discretization schemes and triangulations across subregion boundaries. In the original mortar approach the matching at the interface is realized by enforcing an orthogonality relation between the jump and a modified trace space which serves as a space of Lagrange multipliers. In this paper, this Lagrange multiplier space is replaced by

Barbara I. Wohlmuth

1998-01-01

36

Identifying FMRI model violations with Lagrange multiplier tests.  

PubMed

The standard modeling framework in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is predicated on assumptions of linearity, time invariance and stationarity. These assumptions are rarely checked because doing so requires specialized software, although failure to do so can lead to bias and mistaken inference. Identifying model violations is an essential but largely neglected step in standard fMRI data analysis. Using Lagrange multiplier testing methods we have developed simple and efficient procedures for detecting model violations such as nonlinearity, nonstationarity and validity of the common double gamma specification for hemodynamic response. These procedures are computationally cheap and can easily be added to a conventional analysis. The test statistic is calculated at each voxel and displayed as a spatial anomaly map which shows regions where a model is violated. The methodology is illustrated with a large number of real data examples. PMID:22542665

Cassidy, Ben; Long, Christopher J; Rae, Caroline; Solo, Victor

2012-07-01

37

Lagrange and average interpolation over 3D anisotropic elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An average interpolation is introduced for 3-rectangles and tetrahedra, and optimal order error estimates in the H1 norm are proved. The constant in the estimate depends "weakly" (improving the results given in Durán (Math. Comp. 68 (1999) 187-199) on the uniformity of the mesh in each direction. For tetrahedra, the constant also depends on the maximum angle of the element. On the other hand, merging several known results (Acosta and Durán, SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 37 (1999) 18-36; Durán, Math. Comp. 68 (1999) 187-199; Krízek, SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 29 (1992) 513-520; Al Shenk, Math. Comp. 63 (1994) 105-119), we prove optimal order error for the -Lagrange interpolation in W1,p, p>2, with a constant depending on p as well as the maximum angle of the element. Again, under the maximum angle condition, optimal order error estimates are obtained in the H1 norm for higher degree interpolations.

Acosta, Gabriel

2001-10-01

38

Wavelet Techniques for the Fictitious-Domain-Lagrange-Multiplier-Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider second order elliptic boundary value problems when essential boundary conditions are enforced with the aid of Lagrange multipliers. This is combined with a fictitious domain approach into which the physical domain is embedded. The resulting saddle point problem will be discretized in terms of wavelets, resulting in an operator equation in l2. Stability of the discretization and consequently the uniform boundedness of the condition number of the finite-dimensional operator independent of the discretization is guaranteed by an appropriate LBB condition. For the iterative solution of the saddle point system, an incomplete Uzawa algorithm is employed. It can be shown that the iterative scheme combined with a nested iteration strategy is asymptotically optimal in the sense that it provides the solution up to discretization error on discretization level J in an overall amount of iterations of order O(NJ), where NJ is the number of unknowns on level J. Finally, numerical results are provided.

Kunoth, Angela

2001-07-01

39

A Lagrange multiplier based divide and conquer finite element algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel domain decomposition method based on a hybrid variational principle is presented. Prior to any computation, a given finite element mesh is torn into a set of totally disconnected submeshes. First, an incomplete solution is computed in each subdomain. Next, the compatibility of the displacement field at the interface nodes is enforced via discrete, polynomial and/or piecewise polynomial Lagrange multipliers. In the static case, each floating subdomain induces a local singularity that is resolved very efficiently. The interface problem associated with this domain decomposition method is, in general, indefinite and of variable size. A dedicated conjugate projected gradient algorithm is developed for solving the latter problem when it is not feasible to explicitly assemble the interface operator. When implemented on local memory multiprocessors, the proposed methodology requires less interprocessor communication than the classical method of substructuring. It is also suitable for parallel/vector computers with shared memory and compares favorably with factorization based parallel direct methods.

Farhat, C.

1991-01-01

40

LAGRANGE: LAser GRavitational-wave ANtenna in GEodetic Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new space gravitational wave observatory design called LAG-RANGE that maintains all important LISA science at about half the cost and with reduced technical risk. It consists of three drag-free spacecraft in a geocentric formation. Fixed antennas allow continuous contact with the Earth, solving the problem of communications bandwidth and latency. A 70 mm diameter sphere with a 35 mm gap to its enclosure serves as the single inertial reference per spacecraft, operating in “true” drag-free mode (no test mass forcing). Other advantages are: a simple caging design based on the DISCOS 1972 drag-free mission, an all optical read-out with pm fine and nm coarse sensors, and the extensive technology heritage from the Honeywell gyroscopes, and the DISCOS and Gravity Probe B drag-free sensors. An Interferometric Measurement System, designed with reflective optics and a highly stabilized frequency standard, performs the ranging between test masses and requires a single optical bench with one laser per spacecraft. Two 20 cm diameter telescopes per spacecraft, each with infield pointing, incorporate novel technology developed for advanced optical systems by Lockheed Martin, who also designed the spacecraft based on a multi-flight proven bus structure. Additional technological advancements include updated drag-free propulsion, thermal control, charge management systems, and materials. LAGRANGE subsystems are designed to be scalable and modular, making them interchangeable with those of LISA or other gravitational science missions. We plan to space qualify critical technologies on small and nano satellite flights, with the first launch (UV-LED Sat) in 2013.

Buchman, S.; Conklin, J. W.; Balakrishnan, K.; Aguero, V.; Alfauwaz, A.; Aljadaan, A.; Almajed, M.; Altwaijry, H.; Saud, T. A.; Byer, R. L.; Bower, K.; Costello, B.; Cutler, G. D.; DeBra, D. B.; Faied, D. M.; Foster, C.; Genova, A. L.; Hanson, J.; Hooper, K.; Hultgren, E.; Klavins, A.; Lantz, B.; Lipa, J. A.; Palmer, A.; Plante, B.; Sanchez, H. S.; Saraf, S.; Schaechter, D.; Shu, K.; Smith, E.; Tenerelli, D.; Vanbezooijen, R.; Vasudevan, G.; Williams, S. D.; Worden, S. P.; Zhou, J.; Zoellner, A.

2013-01-01

41

Park It!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The difference between an architect and an engineer is sometimes confusing because their roles in building design can be similar. Students experience a bit of both professions by following a set of requirements and meeting given constraints as they create a model parking garage. They experience the engineering design process first-hand as they design, build and test their models. They draw a blueprint for their design, select the construction materials and budget their expenditures. They also test their structures for strength and find their maximum loads.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program And Laboratory

42

Designer of the Legendary IL's.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book is a popular biography of the aircraft designer, S. V. Il'yushen, highlighting his successful aircraft. Brief descriptions are given of the IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-16, IL-20, IL-22, IL-28, IL-30, IL-46, IL-54, IL-12, IL-18, and the IL-62 jet ...

P. Astashenkov

1972-01-01

43

Interferometric Characterization of the Earth's Atmosphere from Lagrange Point 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part of the NASA plans for future Earth Science missions calls for observations using novel vantage points that can produce science products otherwise unobtainable. Observations of the Earth from the Lagrange-2 point, L-2, (1.5 million km behind the Earth on the Earth-Sun line) affords a unique vantage point for atmospheric science. Spectral observation of the Earth's atmosphere using solar occultation techniques in the near infrared (1 to 4 microns) provides one of the most accurate methods of passively sensing attitude profiles of the major species (CO2, O3, O2, CH4, H2O N2O). While traditional polar orbiting occultation measurements can obtain about 14 measurements per day (2 per orbit), solar occultation observations from the Lagrange-2 point will yield hourly profile measurements at all latitudes. The expected spatial resolution is 2 km in altitude, 0.5 degrees in latitude, and 2 degrees in longitude. The result from 24 hours of observations will be a three-dimensional map of atmospheric composition. To accomplish this task from L-2 requires the development of a large moderate spectral resolution instrument whose entrance aperture is about 10 meters. Use of a standard telescope design with a 10-meter circular mirror or a 10-meter strip mirror would be prohibitively expensive and excessively massive. Instead, we are proposing the development of a 10-meter linear interferometer coupled to a Fourier transform imaging spectrometer. The result will be a highly efficient design with sufficient sensitivity, while having both spatial and spectral resolution to produce the desired results. Preliminary calculations show that seven species (CO2, O3, O2, CH4, H2O N2O) have clearly separated spectral features in the I to 4 microns range with sufficient absorption to produce profile information from near the Earth's surface to the middle stratosphere. For CO2 the estimated sensitivity to change is 0.33% or 1 part in 330. This should be sufficient to detect changes that are significant for the carbon cycle studies. Initial instrument design studies are underway to determine the optimum optical design for the interferometer-spectrometer as well as the necessary highly stable mechanical designs. Separate design studies are being conducted for the spacecraft. shuttle launch facility, low-light solar power design, thermal control, and unique navigation requirements to reach and maintain the tight halo orbit about L-2.

Herman, Jay R.; Komar, George (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

44

Lagrange stability of memristive neural networks with discrete and distributed delays.  

PubMed

Memristive neuromorphic system is a good candidate for creating artificial brain. In this paper, a general class of memristive neural networks with discrete and distributed delays is introduced and studied. Some Lagrange stability criteria dependent on the network parameters are derived via nonsmooth analysis and control theory. In particular, several succinct criteria are provided to ascertain the Lagrange stability of memristive neural networks with and without delays. The proposed Lagrange stability criteria are the improvement and extension of the existing results in the literature. Three numerical examples are given to show the superiority of theoretical results. PMID:24807947

Wu, Ailong; Zeng, Zhigang

2014-04-01

45

What Did We Think Could Be Learned About Earth From Lagrange Point Observations?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific excitement surrounding the NASA Lagrange point mission Triana, now called DSCOVR, tended to be forgotten in the brouhaha over other aspects of the mission. Yet a small band of scientists in 1998 got very excited about the possibilities offered by the Lagrange-point perspective on our planet. As one of the original co-investigators on the Triana mission, I witnessed that scientific excitement firsthand. I will bring to life the early period, circa 1998 to 2000, and share the reasons that we thought the Lagrange-point perspective on Earth would be scientifically revolutionary.

Wiscombe, Warren

2011-01-01

46

75 FR 52013 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY: National Park...possession of the Field Museum of Natural History (Field Museum), Chicago, IL, that...OR, for the Field Museum of Natural History. The items were accessioned into...

2010-08-24

47

Grand Teton National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website provides a trip planner, information on natural and cultural history, publications, a park fact sheet for students, park maps, student bibliography, and a newspaper for kids. There is information on the geology, rock formations, mountain building, volcanism, and glaciation of the Teton Range. Educational resources for students and teachers consist of links to other National Park Service sites.

48

Genesis capturing the sun: Solar wind irradiation at Lagrange 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genesis, a member of NASAs Discovery Mission program, is the world's first sample return mission since the Apollo program to bring home solar matter in ultra-pure materials. Outside the protection of Earth's magnetosphere at the Earth-Sun Lagrange 1 point, the deployed sample collectors were directly exposed to solar wind irradiation. The natural process of solar wind ion implantation into a highly pure silicon (Si) bulk composition array collector has been measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Ellipsometry results show that bulk solar wind ions composed of approximately 95% H +, 4% He + and <1% other elements physically altered the first 59-63 nm of crystalline silicon substrate during 852.8 days of solar exposure. STEM analysis confirms that the solar accelerated ions caused significant strain and visible structural defects to the silicon structure forming a 60-75 nm thick irradiation damage region directly below the surface SiO 2 native oxide layer. Monte Carlo simulations of solar wind H, He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe ion collisions in the Si collector with fluences calculated from the Genesis and ACE spacecrafts were used to estimate the energy deposited and Si vacancies produced by nuclear stopping in a flight-like Si bulk array collector. The coupled deposited energy model with the flown Genesis Si in situ measurements provides new insight into the basic principles of solar wind diffusion and space weathering of materials outside Earth's magnetosphere.

Calaway, Michael J.; Stansbery, Eileen K.; Keller, Lindsay P.

2009-04-01

49

Glacier National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of Glacier National Park. Users can access materials on the park's ecology and environment (plants and animals, biodiversity and air quality, geology, and fires), the culture and history of the park, park activities, and publications on naturalist activities. There are also video clips of park wildlife and scenery, a photo gallery, and live webcams. Links are provided to additional information, such as research activities on bear DNA and global climate change.

50

Wind Cave National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website contains environmental education units for elementary and middle school students which consist of activities centered around an environmental theme. These themes include biodiversity, habitats, natural adaptation, patterns and order in nature, environmental cycles and change, interactions and interdependence within an ecosystem, and water in the environment. There is also information on: planning a visit to the park; the wildlife, geology, cave exploration and paleontology of the park; the park history; and the role of fire in the park.

51

Unit Commitment Scheduling by Lagrange Relaxation Method Taking into Account Transmission Losses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the application of the Lagrange relaxation method to the unit commitment scheduling by Muckstadt in 1979, many papers using this method have been reported so far. The greatest advantage of applying the Lagrange relaxation method for the unit commitment problem is that it can relax (ignore) each generator’s output dependency caused by demand-supply balance constraint so that an unit commitment of each generator is determined independently by Dynamic Programming. However, when we introduce the transmission loss into the demand-supply balance constraint, we cannot decompose the problem into the partial problems in which each generator’s unit commitment is determined independently and have to take some measures to get an optimal schedule by Lagrange relaxation method directly. In this paper, we present an algorithm for the unit commitment schedule using the Lagrange relaxation method for the case of taking into account transmission losses.

Murata, Daisuke; Yamashiro, Susumu

52

High Resolution Extensions of Lagrange-Galerkin Finite-Element Schemes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study showing how two typical one dimensional finite volume high resolution schemes, like FCT (Flux Corrected Transport) or MUSCL can be introduced in the multidimensional background of a class of Lagrange-Galerkin finite element methods, is presented. ...

A. Dervieux L. Fezoui F. Loriot

1992-01-01

53

Compressible Two-Phase Flow Instabilities Simulated with a Hybrid Lagrange-Euler Pseudospectral Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pseudospectral collocation procedure has been developed specifically for studying unsteady, compressible flow instability growth and subsequent random flow states signaling turbulence onset. A mass centered Lagrange moving mesh is used for resolving com...

A. C. Buckingham

1985-01-01

54

Robust Choice of the Lagrange Multiplier in the SQP Newton Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We study the choice of the Lagrange multipliers in the successive quadratic programming method (SQP) for equality constrained optimization. It is known that the augmented Lagrangian SQP-Newton method depends on the penalty parameter only through the multi...

D. Cores R. A. Tapia

1994-01-01

55

Application of the Cross-Entropy Method to Dual Lagrange Support Vector Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, cross entropy method is used for solving dual Lagrange support vector machine (SVM). Cross entropy (CE) method\\u000a is a new practical approach which is widely used in some applications such as combinatorial optimization, learning algorithm\\u000a and simulation. Our approach refers to Kernel Adatron which is solving dual Lagrange SVM using gradient ascent method. Hereby,\\u000a the cross entropy

Budi Santosa

2009-01-01

56

Acadia National Park: Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website contains information on: saving the habitats of peregrine falcons; the water cycle; becoming a junior ranger; and ranger-led school programs, which contain student field activities about the history, biology and geology of the park. Teacher resources include information on a library for educators at the visitor center of the park and teacher guides for preparing to visit the park. The kids' section explains what rangers do, gives tips on leaving no trace in the park, provides a history of Mount Desert Island, and contains an activity to match some park animals to their habitats.

57

Tour of Park Geology: Cave and Karst Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Park Geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas with caves and other karst features. Where appropriate, park sites contain park geology information, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Mammoth Cave National Park, Sequoia National Park, and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways.

58

Yellowstone Park  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thirteen years after devastating forest fires burned over 1.6 million acres in Yellowstone National Park, the scars are still evident. In this simulated natural color ASTER image, burned areas appear gray, in contrast to the dark green of unburned forests. The image covers an area of 60 x 63 km. This image was acquired on July 2, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the technologies needed to explore the universe and search for life beyond our home planet.

Size: 60 x 63 km (37.2 x 39.1 miles) Location: 44.7 deg. North lat., 110.7 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: July 2, 2001

2002-01-01

59

Lagrange constraint neural networks for massive pixel parallel image demixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have shown that the remote sensing optical imaging to achieve detailed sub-pixel decomposition is a unique application of blind source separation (BSS) that is truly linear of far away weak signal, instantaneous speed of light without delay, and along the line of sight without multiple paths. In early papers, we have presented a direct application of statistical mechanical de-mixing method called Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN). While the BSAO algorithm (using a posteriori MaxEnt ANN and neighborhood pixel average) is not acceptable for remote sensing, a mirror symmetric LCNN approach is all right assuming a priori MaxEnt for unknown sources to be averaged over the source statistics (not neighborhood pixel data) in a pixel-by-pixel independent fashion. LCNN reduces the computation complexity, save a great number of memory devices, and cut the cost of implementation. The Landsat system is designed to measure the radiation to deduce surface conditions and materials. For any given material, the amount of emitted and reflected radiation varies by the wavelength. In practice, a single pixel of a Landsat image has seven channels receiving 0.1 to 12 microns of radiation from the ground within a 20x20 meter footprint containing a variety of radiation materials. A-priori LCNN algorithm provides the spatial-temporal variation of mixture that is hardly de-mixable by other a-posteriori BSS or ICA methods. We have already compared the Landsat remote sensing using both methods in WCCI 2002 Hawaii. Unfortunately the absolute benchmark is not possible because of lacking of the ground truth. We will arbitrarily mix two incoherent sampled images as the ground truth. However, the constant total probability of co-located sources within the pixel footprint is necessary for the remote sensing constraint (since on a clear day the total reflecting energy is constant in neighborhood receiving pixel sensors), we have to normalized two image pixel-by-pixel as well. Then, the result is indeed as expected.

Szu, Harold H.; Hsu, Charles C.

2002-03-01

60

Canyonlands National Park. State of the Parks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Located on the Colorado Plateau in southeastern Utah, Canyonlands National Park preserves 337,598 acres of diverse natural and cultural treasures. The park is home to 628 species of vascular plants, 31 fish (although most of these are non-native), ten amp...

2004-01-01

61

Carlsbad Caverns National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) website contains details about Carlsbad Caverns National Park in New Mexico. It highlights the natural resources of the park, such as the wilderness, wildlife and caves. The geologic history and formation of caves is covered in detail. There is a teacher's guide with activities, field trip ideas, and factsheets about the park. Topics covered include rocks, erosion, speleothems, mapping caves, fossils, plants and animals, cave bats and fire. Links are provided for more information.

62

National Park Service Careers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides profiles of career opportunities in the National Park Service. Careers profiled include park ranger, park police, guard, administrator, design and construction, and maintenance, trade and craft positions, and other opportunities. Each career description includes information on some or all of the following: duties; location;…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

63

Name That Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive, learners are introduced to the basic function of Geographic Information System (GIS) maps in relation to national parks. Recognizable park boundaries are presented and learners are given the option to add layers such as lakes, rivers and visitor centers, until the learner is able to identify the park map from a list of choices.

Service, National P.

2013-05-15

64

NATIONAL PARK BOUNDARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Park Service has produced a data base of boundaries for its National Parks. A copy of this data was downloaded from the National Parks Service ftp site by Region 10. These digital boundaries represent the best guess and data that could be collected in a short time....

65

Great Basin National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service site describes the biology of Great Basin's plants and animals; geology and ecology of the Lehman Caves; air quality of the park; and past human activities in the Great Basin such as farming, ranching, and gold mining. There is a list of historical, geological, and archeological dates important to the park and an instructor guide containing activities such as creating a nature notebook and adopting a tree. There is also information on: planning a visit to the park and the Lehman Caves, park projects such as weeding out non-native plants and the reintroduction of Bonneville Cutthroat Trout, and a self-guided geology field trip.

66

Theme Park Insider  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As summer enters full swing, more and more people will travel to America's numerous amusement parks and traveling carnivals. Quite a few of these people would do well to take a look at the Theme Park Insider website for reviews of various parks and the best (and worst) attractions at each particular place of amusement before they venture onto the open road. Edited by Robert Niles, the site contains reviews of new amusement park rides, an "Accident Watch" (which documents the latest accidents at each park), and reviews of theme park hotels as well. The site also has a number of discussion boards for visitors to chime in with their own take on a number of topics, such as which rides have the longest rides and general amusement park lore.

Niles, Robert.

67

Chicago Park District  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chicago Park District is one of the largest municipal park systems in the United States, containing over 8,100 acres of green space. All told, the District has 580 parks, including two city conservatories, a number of historic lagoons, and the iconic Clarence Buckingham Memorial Fountain. This website allows visitors the opportunity to learn about the District's mission, history, and long-range planning for existing parks and potential new sites. On the homepage, visitors can use the Find a Park feature to learn about these diverse spaces. Additionally, they can use the I Want To area to learn about park permits, volunteering, and reporting problems within the park system. The Events area is quite a find, as visitors can learn about some of the hundreds of events sponsored each year by the District. Finally, visitors can also use the Doing Business area to learn about the various entrepreneurial activities which are possible via the District.

2013-01-01

68

The National Park Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the National Park Service. It features links to subpages on special topics such as Parks and Recreation, which inludes links to individual national park pages, and History and Culture, which includes archeological, anthropological, and historical material. The Nature and Science pages feature classroom materials and information on the uses of science in protecting and restoring park ecosystems and research projects which are being conducted in the park system. The Interpretation and Education pages include games, online activities, and material for younger students who are researching park topics, as well as classroom materials for teachers. There are also links to the Park Service online bookshop, news articles, and special features.

69

Some applications of the Lagrange identity in thermoelasticity with one relaxation time  

SciTech Connect

Consideration is given to the uniqueness and continuous data dependence questions appropriate to the fundamental initial/boundary-value problems in thermoelasticity with one relaxation time. On the basis of the Lagrange identity, results are obtained for bounded domains as well as for exterior unbounded domains, without definiteness conditions on the thermoelastic coefficients other than the positiveness of the product between the thermal conductivity and the relaxation time. The applicability of the Lagrange identity in order to obtain some reciprocal theorems is outlined. 24 references.

Chirita, S.

1988-01-01

70

Compressible two-phase flow instabilities simulated with a hybrid Lagrange-Euler pseudospectral method  

SciTech Connect

A pseudospectral collocation procedure has been developed specifically for studying unsteady, compressible flow instability growth and subsequent random flow states signaling turbulence onset. A mass centered Lagrange moving mesh is used for resolving compressibility and material interfaces. The Lagrange mesh is combined with a fixed Eulerian mesh over which spanwise components are resolved with a spectral transform method. Time evolution is approximated by means of a conventional third-order Runge Kutta procedure. A Rayleigh-Taylor unstable liquid propellant gas vapor interface situation is simulated during the initial growth phase of the perturbation. The influence of super-imposed pressure oscillations on the fuel sheet breakup is examined.

Buckingham, A.C.

1985-03-29

71

Tennessee State Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

People might know Tennessee for its fabulous Great Smoky Mountains, but have you ever heard of the Cedars of Lebanon or Fall Creek Falls? Oh yes, those two gems are just a small part of the Tennessee State Park system. After looking at some of the beautiful images on the Tennessee State Parks homepage, visitors can explore the Popular Places People Want to Go section to get a taste of the diverse hiking trails, restaurants, camp sites, and other features that are contained throughout the park system. Visitors can also look over over a dozen topical areas, including What to do?, Park Information, and Resource Management. Policy enthusiasts will appreciate the "Estimated Economic Impacts of Tennessee State Parks" report, that is also featured on the homepage, and travelers will love the "Upcoming Events at Tennessee State Parks" area, as it provides a taste of what they might expect on a visit to the Volunteer State.

72

Mammoth Cave National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website contains an online park guide, cave tour information, park maps and news, photographs of the caves and trails, and an educational section. Educational resources include planning a field trip to Mammoth Cave, curricula for teachers, fact sheets for kids, an environmental educational program, a glossary of cave terms, information on becoming a Mammoth Cave Junior Ranger, and links to other cave education sites.

73

A Desert Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service site describes the desert and oasis ecosystems of Joshua Tree National Park as well as the cultural history of humans occupying the area. Nature sections describe the animals, plants, cryptobiotic crusts, and the geology of the park. There are sections on environmental factors such as air quality, disturbed lands, exotic species and fire ecology. There is also information on natural history and cultural history education programs provided for different grade levels.

74

Resolution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with the imaginary-time method on a Lagrange mesh.  

PubMed

The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational calculation which has the simplicity of a mesh calculation. Combined with the imaginary-time method, it is applied to the iterative resolution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Two variants of a fourth-order factorization of the exponential of the Hamiltonian and two types of mesh (Lagrange-Hermite and Lagrange-sinc) are employed and compared. The accuracy is checked with the help of these comparisons and of the virial theorem. The Lagrange-Hermite mesh provides very accurate results with short computing times for values of the dimensionless parameter of the nonlinear term up to 10?. For higher values up to 10?, the Lagrange-sinc mesh is more efficient. Examples are given for anisotropic and nonseparable trapping potentials. PMID:21230613

Baye, D; Sparenberg, J-M

2010-11-01

75

Perturbed motions of a rigid body close to regular Lagrange precessions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical study is made of the asymptotic behavior of Lagrange gyroscope motions, close to regular precession, due to a small perturbation moment. An averaged system of equations of motion is obtained in terms of special evolution variables. The cases of a small constant moment and presence of a cavity filled by a high-viscosity fluid are considered in detail.

Sazonov, V. V.; Sidorenko, V. V.

1990-12-01

76

1. Mill village dwelling at 817 Forest St. in LaGrange. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Mill village dwelling at 817 Forest St. in LaGrange. Note the hipped roof and wrap-around porch with heavy cornice and Doric columns. The quality of decorative detail here suggests that this house would have been for a mill manager. - 817 Forest Street (House), 817 Forest Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

77

Parallel Full Space SQP Lagrange-Newton-Krylov-Schwarz Algorithms for PDE-Constrained Optimization Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization problems constrained by nonlinear partial difierential equations have been the focus of intense research in scientiflc computing lately. Current methods for the parallel numerical solution of such problems involve sequential quadratic programming (SQP), with either reduced or full space approaches. In this paper we propose and investigate a class of parallel full space SQP Lagrange-Newton-Krylov-Schwarz (LNKSz) algorithms. In LNKSz,

Ernesto E. Prudencio; Richard H. Byrd; Xiao-chuan Cai

2006-01-01

78

Lagrange releaxation based method for the QoS routing problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—In this paper a practically efficient QoS routing method is presented, which provides a solution to the delay constrained least cost routing problem. The algorithm uses the concept of aggregated costs and provides an efficient method to find the optimal multiplier based on Lagrange relaxation. This method is proven to be polynomial and it is also efficient in practice. The

A. Juttner; B. Szyiatovszki; I. Mecs; Z. Rajko

2001-01-01

79

Lagrange stability and performance analysis of discrete-time piecewise affine systems with logic states  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider discrete-time piecewise affine systems with boolean inputs, outputs and states and show that they can be represented in a logic canonical form where the logic variables influence the switching between different submodels but not the continuous-valued dynamics. We exploit this representation for studying Lagrange stability and developing performance analysis procedures based on linear matrix inequalities.

Giancarlo Ferrari-Trecate; Francesco Alessandro Cuzzola; Manfred Morari

2003-01-01

80

Generalized Hermite formula for the two-sided Lagrange-Sylvester interpolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classical Hermite formula of the scalar polynomial interpolation is generalized to the setting of two-sided Lagrange-Sylvester interpolation for matrix polynomials. The formula then is applied to a description of the set of all matrix polynomial solutions to that two-sided interpolation.

Hu, Yong-Jian; Yang, Zheng-Hong; Chen, Gong-Ning

2005-01-01

81

Lagrange multiplier approach to the design of FIR filters for multirate applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of Lagrange multipliers is presented for the design of optimal finite-duration impulse-response (FIR) digital filters for multirate signal processing applications. The filter passbands are constrained to be maximally flat, and the integral of the aliasing error is minimized. The use of these optimality criteria for practical applications is justified. It is shown that the overall frequency response can

G. W. Medlin; J. W. Adams; C. T. Leondes

1988-01-01

82

The Zero-Removing Property and Lagrange-Type Interpolation Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical Kramer sampling theorem, which provides a method for obtaining orthogonal sampling formulas, can be formulated in a more general nonorthogonal setting. In this setting, a challenging problem is to characterize the situations when the obtained nonorthogonal sampling formulas can be expressed as Lagrange-type interpolation series. In this article a necessary and sufficient condition is given in terms of

P. E. Fernàndez-Moncada; A. G. García; M. A. Hernández-Medina

2011-01-01

83

Hierarchical A Posteriori Error Estimators For Mortar Finite Element Methods With Lagrange Multipliers  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Hierarchical a posteriori error estimators are introduced and analyzed for mortar finite elementmethods. A weak continuity condition at the interfaces is enforced by means of Lagrange multipliers. The twoproposed error estimators are based on a defect correction in higher order finite element spaces and an adequatehierarchical two-level splitting. The first provides upper and lower bounds for the discrete energy

Barbara I. Wohlmuth

1997-01-01

84

Oscillatory nonlinear electron flow in a Pierce diode using Lagrange transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electron beam is considered flowing in a one-dimensional electrostatic planar diode with both electrodes grounded. Two integral equations for the electric field, characterizing the Pierce (1944) diode in the cold fluid regime are obtained by using Lagrange transform. These equations agree exactly with those obtained by Godfrey (1987).

El-Labany, S. K.; Rowlands, G.

1989-11-01

85

Petrified Forest National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website offers reference sections on: park wildlife such as reptiles, pronghorns, and the Gunnison prairie dog; the archaeology of park petroglyphs, including some that may be solar calendars; the geology and main features of the Painted Desert; paleontology, which describes dinosaurs of the area; and petrified wood, which explains the petrification process and how the different colors of petrified wood are produced. There are also tips for avoiding diseases such as hantavirus, the plague, and rabies while in the park.

86

IL-17 and IL-22 mediate IL-20 subfamily cytokine production in cultured keratinocytes via increased IL-22 receptor expression.  

PubMed

IL-20 cytokine subfamily members, including IL-19, IL-20, and IL-24, are highly expressed in psoriatic skin lesions. Here, we demonstrate that psoriasis mediators IL-17 and IL-22 synergistically induce the production of IL-20 subfamily proteins in cultured human keratinocytes. Interestingly, expression of the IL-22 receptor (IL-22R) also increased in epidermal lesions versus normal skin. IL-22R over-expression using an adenoviral vector to mimic psoriatic conditions in cultured keratinocytes significantly enhanced IL-17- and IL-22-induced production of IL-20 subfamily cytokines. Furthermore, IL-17 and IL-22 coordinately enhanced MIP-3alpha, IL-8, and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) production, depending on the amount of IL-22R expression. Additionally, because IL-20 and IL-24 share the IL-22R with IL-22, the function of IL-20 and IL-24 was also increased. IL-20 and IL-24 have effects similar to that of IL-22; IL-24 showed more potent expression than IL-20. A combination of IL-24 and IL-17 increased the production of MIP-3alpha, IL-8, and HB-EGF, as did a combination of IL-22 and IL-17. These data indicate that increased IL-22R expression in epidermal keratinocytes contributes to the pathogenesis of psoriasis through enhancing the coordinated effects of IL-22 and IL-17, inducing the production of the IL-20 subfamily, chemokines, and growth factors. PMID:19731362

Tohyama, Mikiko; Hanakawa, Yasushi; Shirakata, Yuji; Dai, Xjuju; Yang, Lujun; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Tokumaru, Sho; Okazaki, Hidenori; Sayama, Koji; Hashimoto, Koji

2009-10-01

87

Amusement Park Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will research various types of amusement park rides and use their findings to design a feasible ride of their own. They will summarize their findings and present their ride design to the class. Each student will then write a persuasive letter to a local amusement park describing the reasons their ride design is the best.

Fox, Janet

2012-06-25

88

Yellowstone National Park Facts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website provides a fact sheet with a wide range of physical and cultural information. Key topics include general park facts, wildlife, flora, geology, Yellowstone Lake, cultural resources, visitation, facilities, roads, trails, and the latitude/longitude of several significant features.

Park, Yellowstone N.

89

Yellowstone National Park Interactive Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park Map is a handy way to quickly find locations and buildings located in the park. It is currently the most detailed map of Yellowstone national park that can be viewed online. The pull down menu has Yellowstone features such as geyser basins, campgrounds, trails, mountains, and historical points and park structures. Popular geysers, and park locations such as Norris geyser basin, Yellowstone visitor centers, park housing, lodging, and park dining can be easily found. All Yellowstone National Park named structures are indexed so you can easily find the sites that you want to locate.

Census, Nps S.

90

Defunct Amusement Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While there are many sites on existing amusement parks, this particular Web site contains detailed information on "pleasure palaces" that have gone out of business or that have since been demolished. Created and maintained by Joel Styer, the site features an interactive map of the United States that allows visitors to click on any one of the states to find out information about now-defunct amusement parks. Many of the former parks have additional material available for viewing, such as photographs, postcards, and brief essays and personal remembrances. Also, there is an extensive links page, which directs visitors to other sites dealing with different aspects of amusement park memorabilia such as popular rides from the past and newsgroups. The site also has different contact information for persons seeking to donate materials and recollections related to amusement parks.

1995-01-01

91

Unconditional global exponential stability in Lagrange sense of genetic regulatory networks with SUM regulatory logic  

PubMed Central

In this paper, the global exponential stability in Lagrange sense for genetic regulatory networks (GRNs) with SUM regulatory logic is firstly studied. By constructing appropriate Lyapunov-like functions, several criteria are presented for the boundedness, ultimate boundedness and global exponential attractivity of GRNs. It can be obtained that GRNs with SUM regulatory logic are unconditionally globally exponentially stable in Lagrange sense. These results can be applied to analyze monostable as well as multistable networks. Furthermore, to analyze the stability for GRNs more comprehensively, the existence of equilibrium point of GRNs is proved, and some sufficient conditions of the global exponential stability in Lyapunov sense for GRNs are derived. Finally two numerical examples are given to illustrate the application of the obtained results.

Luo, Qi; Liao, Xiaoxin

2010-01-01

92

A Polyconvex Integrand; Euler-Lagrange Equations and Uniqueness of Equilibrium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this manuscript we are interested in stored energy functionals W defined on the set of d × d matrices, which not only fail to be convex but satisfy {lim_{det ? ? 0^+} W(?)=infty.} We initiate a study which we hope will lead to a theory for the existence and uniqueness of minimizers of functionals of the form {E({u})=int_? (W(nabla {u}) -{F} \\cdot {u}) dx} , as well as their Euler-Lagrange equations. The techniques developed here can be applied to a class of functionals larger than those considered in this manuscript, although we keep our focus on polyconvex stored energy functionals of the form {W(?)=f(?) +h( det ?)} - such that {lim_{t ? 0^+} h(t)=infty} - which appear in the study of Ogden material. We present a collection of perturbed and relaxed problems for which we prove uniqueness results. Then, we characterize these minimizers by their Euler-Lagrange equations.

Awi, Roméo; Gangbo, Wilfrid

2014-04-01

93

A Convection Stefan Problem by Lagrange-Bürmann Expansions. I. Small Time Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A convection Stefan problem with Newton’s radiation condition has been solved by a power series method based on the method of Lagrange-Bürmann expansion. After formulating the moving boundary problem as a fixed boundary problem by variable transformation, a series solution is developed in powers of a new ‘time-like’ variable. The nonlinear interfacial and boundary conditions reduce to Lagrange-Bürmann expansions for new dependent variables from which the interface position and the wall temperature functions are recovered by inverting the transformation. Compared with the classical series solution, the convergence of the new expansions is markedly improved, in fact extending over the entire physical time domain of t{\\in}[0, ?) for sufficiently small Stefan number.

Tokuda, Naoyuki

1985-12-01

94

Interleukin10 (IL10)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Class II alpha helical family of cytokines now includes the extended Interleukin-10 family (IL-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22,\\u000a and IL-26) as well as the closely related Interferon-a, Interferon-?, and Interferon-? (1–22). The importance of the distaff side of this family, the interferons (22,23), for cancer biology and tumor immunology has been well defined since the initial report of substances interfering

Shin-ichiro Fujii; Michael T. Lotze

95

Shock-induced collapse of a cylindrical air cavity in water: a Free-Lagrange simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A Free-Lagrange CFD code is used to simulate the collapse of a cylindrical air cavity in water by a 1.9 GPa incident shock.\\u000a The Lagrangian treatment allows the air\\/water interface to be tracked throughout the interaction. The incident shock is partially\\u000a transmitted into the cavity, within which it experiences multiple reflections. The upstream cavity wall involutes to form\\u000a a

G. J. Ball; B. P. Howell; T. G. Leighton; M. J. Schofield

2000-01-01

96

A distributed Lagrange multiplier\\/fictitious domain method for particulate flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new Lagrange-multiplier based fictitious-domain method is presented for the direct numerical simulation of viscous incompressible flow with suspended solid particles. The method uses a finite-element discretization in space and an operator-splitting technique for discretization in time. The linearly constrained quadratic minimization problems which arise from this splitting are solved using conjugate-gradient algorithms.A key feature of the method is that

R. Glowinski; T.-W. Pan; T. I. Hesla; D. D. Joseph

1999-01-01

97

Lagrange–Euler–Euler CFD approach for modeling deep-bed filtration in trickle flow reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Lagrange–Euler–Euler computational fluid dynamic approach was developed to represent the evolution of two-phase pressure gradients in trickle-bed reactors undergoing deposition of colloidal\\/non-colloidal fines under deep-bed filtration conditions. The ballistic trajectory equation to analyze fines interception was extended to two-phase flows using the inclined slit as the basic collector geometry. New equations for the collection efficiencies and filter coefficients were

A. Ortiz-Arroyo; F. Larachi

2005-01-01

98

75 FR 435 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY: National Park...possession of the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL. The human remains were...remains was made by Field Museum of Natural History professional staff in consultation...

2010-01-05

99

75 FR 45659 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY: National Park...possession of the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL. The human remains and...was made by the Field Museum of Natural History professional staff in consultation...

2010-08-03

100

75 FR 52022 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY: National Park...possession of the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL. The human remains and...remains was made by Field Museum of Natural History professional staff in consultation...

2010-08-24

101

Parallel finite element simulations of incompressible viscous fluid flow by domain decomposition with Lagrange multipliers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A parallel approach to solve three-dimensional viscous incompressible fluid flow problems using discontinuous pressure finite elements and a Lagrange multiplier technique is presented. The strategy is based on non-overlapping domain decomposition methods, and Lagrange multipliers are used to enforce continuity at the boundaries between subdomains. The novelty of the work is the coupled approach for solving the velocity-pressure-Lagrange multiplier algebraic system of the discrete Navier-Stokes equations by a distributed memory parallel ILU (0) preconditioned Krylov method. A penalty function on the interface constraints equations is introduced to avoid the failure of the ILU factorization algorithm. To ensure portability of the code, a message based memory distributed model with MPI is employed. The method has been tested over different benchmark cases such as the lid-driven cavity and pipe flow with unstructured tetrahedral grids. It is found that the partition algorithm and the order of the physical variables are central to parallelization performance. A speed-up in the range of 5-13 is obtained with 16 processors. Finally, the algorithm is tested over an industrial case using up to 128 processors. In considering the literature, the obtained speed-ups on distributed and shared memory computers are found very competitive.

Rivera, Christian A.; Heniche, Mourad; Glowinski, Roland; Tanguy, Philippe A.

2010-07-01

102

Kruger National Park  

... and to the right of image center is the Palabora Copper Mine, and the water body near upper right is Lake Massingir in Mozambique. ... South Africa showing Kruger Park, the Palabora Copper Mine, and Lake Massingir. project:  MISR category:  ...

2013-04-15

103

Jurassic Park Safety Audit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the first 30 minutes of the film Jurassic Park, the student will audit it for violations of safety rules and regulations, OSHA violations, and violations of HASP's. Access to the activity required free and quick registration with ATEEC.

2007-09-18

104

A Lagrange multiplier method for the finite element solution of elliptic interface problems using non-matching meshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. In this paper we propose a Lagrange multiplier method for the finite element solution of multi-domain elliptic partial differential equations using non-matching meshes. The interface Lagrange multiplier is chosen with the purpose of avoiding the cumbersome integration of products of functions on unrelated meshes (e.g, we will consider global polynomials as multiplier). The ideas are illustrated using Poisson’s equation

Peter Hansbo; Carlo Lovadina; Ilaria Perugia; Giancarlo Sangalli

2005-01-01

105

The National Park Service: Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A National Park Service (NPS) site primarily composed of three main sections corresponding to the following program areas within the Geologic Resources Division (GRD): Disturbed Lands Restoration and Abandoned Mineral Lands (AML), Mineral Management Programs, and Geology and Soils Programs. Of these, the first two consist principally of textual resources pertaining to Park System procedures, policies, and regulations - as well as reports on example restoration projects with a focus on stream corridor restoration, bioengineering, riparian management, and revegetation. Perhaps of most interest to educators will be the third main program area, the Geology and Soils Programs section. Here are included textual resources pertaining to NPS-GRD programs on cave and karst formations, coastal and shoreline geology, paleontology, soils (e.g., soil biology and soil surveying), geological indicators (geoindicators), and stratigraphy. Lastly, a searchable photographic collection and geologic glossary are available.

106

Geology Fieldnotes: Great Basin National Park, Nevada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Great Basin National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, visitor information, and teacher features (educational resources and links for teaching geology using National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the region's biogeography, glacial history, and the Lehman Caves. A park map and a features/relief map of the Great Basin National Park are included.

107

IL-32 promotes angiogenesis.  

PubMed

IL-32 is a multifaceted cytokine with a role in infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer, and it exerts diverse functions, including aggravation of inflammation and inhibition of virus propagation. We previously identified IL-32 as a critical regulator of endothelial cell (EC) functions, and we now reveal that IL-32 also possesses angiogenic properties. The hyperproliferative ECs of human pulmonary arterial hypertension and glioblastoma multiforme exhibited a markedly increased abundance of IL-32, and, significantly, the cytokine colocalized with integrin ?V?3. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor blockade, which resulted in EC hyperproliferation, increased IL-32 three-fold. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of IL-32 negated the 58% proliferation of ECs that occurred within 24 h in scrambled-transfected controls. Reduction of IL-32 neither affected apoptosis (insignificant changes in Bak-1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, lactate dehydrogenase, annexin V, and propidium iodide) nor VEGF or TGF-? levels, but siIL-32-transfected adult and neonatal ECs produced up to 61% less NO, IL-8, and matrix metalloproteinase-9, and up to 3-fold more activin A and endostatin. In coculture-based angiogenesis assays, IL-32? dose-dependently increased tube formation up to 3-fold; an ?V?3 inhibitor prevented this activity and reduced IL-32?-induced IL-8 by 85%. In matrigel plugs loaded with IL-32?, VEGF, or vehicle and injected into live mice, we observed the anticipated VEGF-induced increase in neocapillarization (8-fold versus vehicle), but unexpectedly, IL-32? was equally angiogenic. A second signal such as IFN-? was required to render cells responsive to exogenous IL-32?; importantly, this was confirmed using a completely synthetic preparation of IL-32?. In summary, we add angiogenic properties that are mediated by integrin ?V?3 but VEGF-independent to the portfolio of IL-32, implicating a role for this versatile cytokine in pulmonary arterial hypertension and neoplastic diseases. PMID:24337385

Nold-Petry, Claudia A; Rudloff, Ina; Baumer, Yvonne; Ruvo, Menotti; Marasco, Daniela; Botti, Paolo; Farkas, Laszlo; Cho, Steven X; Zepp, Jarod A; Azam, Tania; Dinkel, Hannah; Palmer, Brent E; Boisvert, William A; Cool, Carlyne D; Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laima; Heinhuis, Bas; Joosten, Leo A B; Dinarello, Charles A; Voelkel, Norbert F; Nold, Marcel F

2014-01-15

108

Terrain Park Injuries  

PubMed Central

Background: This study examined demographics, injury pattern, and hospital outcome in patients injured in winter resort terrain parks. Methods: The study included patients ?12 years of age who presented to a regional trauma center with an acute injury sustained at a winter resort. Emergency department (ED) research assistants collected patient injury and helmet use information using a prospectively designed questionnaire. ED and hospital data were obtained from trauma registry and hospital records. Results: Seventy-two patients were injured in a terrain park, and 263 patients were injured on non-terrain park slopes. Patients injured in terrain parks were more likely to be male [68/72 (94%) vs. 176/263 (67%), p<0.0001], younger in age [23 ± 7 vs. 36 ± 17, p<0.0001], live locally [47/72 (65%) vs. 124/263 (47%), p=0.006], use a snowboard [50/72 (69%) vs. 91/263 (35%), p<0.0001], hold a season pass [46/66 (70%) vs. 98/253 (39%), p<0.0001], and sustain an upper extremity injury [29/72 (40%) vs. 52/263 (20%), p<0.001] when compared to patients injured on non-terrain park slopes. There were no differences between the groups in terms of EMS transport to hospital, helmet use, admission rate, hospital length of stay, and patients requiring specialty consultation in the ED. Conclusions: Patients injured in terrain parks represent a unique demographic within winter resort patrons. Injury severity appears to be similar to those patients injured on non-terrain park slopes.

Moffat, Craig; McIntosh, Scott; Bringhurst, Jade; Danenhauer, Karen; Gilmore, Nathan; Hopkins, Christy L.

2009-01-01

109

Assessment of Interleukins IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 in Acute Urticaria  

PubMed Central

Background Urticaria is a skin disease that affects approximately 5% of the general population and manifests itself, not only as an acute but also as a chronic disease. The etiology of the disease varies as well as its clinical manifestations which extend from the presence of urticarial hives to the potentially mortal angioedema. There is a great interest to the disease not only due to its special clinical manifestation but also due to its pathogenetic mechanism. New data in the medical bibliography support the participation of interleukins (ILs) in the pathophysiology of urticaria. The aim of the study is to contribute in the comprehension of possible participation of certain ILs in the pathogenesis of acute urticaria. Methods Our study concerns four ILs, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10, simultaneously and their quantitative changes during the acute phase of urticaria as well as 2 weeks after drug administration. Moreover, ILs levels of patients were compared with those of matched healthy controls. All measurements have been done by the ELISA method. The statistical analysis was done by SPSS. Results The results present increased levels (in 51 patients vs. 22 matched healthy controls) of all four ILs during the acute phase. Especially for IL-4 this increase was statistically very significant (P < 0.001). Statistically marginally significant decrease was also observed for IL-10 concentrations (P < 0.059), for the two blood samples (acute phase and 2 weeks later). Conclusion It is suggested by the present study that certain ILs might play an important role in the pathogenetic mechanism of urticaria. IL-4 and IL-10 participation seems to be relatively more significant. Possibly, ILs, liberated by mast cells, induce an influx of leukocytes in the dermis, therefore participating in the development of acute urticaria inflammation.

Papadopoulos, Jordan; Karpouzis, Anthony; Tentes, John; Kouskoukis, Constantin

2014-01-01

110

Parking Structures and the Space Race.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents some solutions to overcrowded parking on college campuses. Tips on selecting sites for parking garages, making parking decks blend with adjacent communities, and turning parking garages into multi use facilities are addressed. (GR)

Milshtein, Amy

2000-01-01

111

The Economics of Parking: Road Congestion and Search for Parking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the bene…ts of pricing of parking for a central planner and for private operators. We treat on street parking as a common property resource. Without pricing, con- gestion will be excessive close to the destination, and will fall omore rapidly that is socially optimal. The optimal pattern is attained under private ownership if each owner controls parking

Simon P. Andersonyand; André de Palmaz

112

Stability of Lagrange's particular solution in the plane photogravitational unrestricted problem of three bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motion in a sun-planet system of a body (such as a cosmic dust particle) affected by the radiation pressure of the solar wind is investigated analytically in the framework of the unrestricted three-body problem of celestial mechanics, assuming that the planet's motion is unaffected by the solar wind. The stability of the Lagrange particular solution is examined by normalizing the Hamiltonian, and the characteristic exponents of motion near this solution are explored and found to indicate the existence of resonance cases. It is shown that the region of stability is reduced, and some stable regions rendered unstable, by the inclusion of radiation-pressure effects.

Kumari, Manju; Choudhary, R. K.

113

Inexactness Issues in the Lagrange-Newton-Krylov-Schur Method for PDE-constrained Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present an overview of the Lagrange-Newton-Krylov-Schur (LNKS) method for solution of optimization problems that are governed\\u000a by systems of partial differential equations. We discuss how to improve LNKS’s work efficiency by carrying out certain computations\\u000a inexactly, without compromising convergence. LNKS solves the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions using a NewtonKrylov\\u000a algorithm. Its key component is a preconditioner based on variants of

George Birosl; Omar Ghattas

114

Domain decomposition methods for nonconforming finite element spaces of Lagrange-type  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this article, we consider the application of three popular domain decomposition methods to Lagrange-type nonconforming finite element discretizations of scalar, self-adjoint, second order elliptic equations. The additive Schwarz method of Dryja and Widlund, the vertex space method of Smith, and the balancing method of Mandel applied to nonconforming elements are shown to converge at a rate no worse than their applications to the standard conforming piecewise linear Galerkin discretization. Essentially, the theory for the nonconforming elements is inherited from the existing theory for the conforming elements with only modest modification by constructing an isomorphism between the nonconforming finite element space and a space of continuous piecewise linear functions.

Cowsar, Lawrence C.

1993-01-01

115

Glacier (?) National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity engages learners in examining data pertaining to the disappearing glaciers in Glacier National Park. After calculating percentage change of the number of glaciers from 1850 (150) to 1968 (50) and 2009 (26), students move on to the main glacier-monitoring content of the module--area vs. time data for the Grinnell Glacier, one of 26 glaciers that remain in the park. Using a second-order polynomial (quadratic function) fitted to the data, they extrapolate to estimate when there will be no Grinnell Glacier remaining (illustrating the relevance of the question mark in the title of the module).

Mcllrath, University O.; Curriculum/serc, Spreadsheets A.

116

IL10 family of cytokines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001, six immune mediators (IL-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, and IL-26) were grouped into the so-called IL-10 family of cytokines based on their similarities with respect to the structure and location of their encoding genes, their primary and secondary protein structures, and the receptor complexes used. Surprisingly, despite all these similarities, IL-10 family members possess different biological functions. The

Robert Sabat

2010-01-01

117

Park Policy for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current problems within the national parks are detailed and the author determines the crux of the problems to be the inability of the National Park Service to control concessionnaires and resist pressure from natural resource developers. Changes in future national parks policy stressing more planning are advocated. (BT)

Haefele, Mina Hamilton

1976-01-01

118

Peppy's Day in the Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math activity, learners build Peppy the dog the best trail and park for running around. Learners calculate the perimeter and area of Peppy's park and modify the shape of the park to observe how the perimeter and area change. This activity guide contains a material list, sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Houston, Children'S M.

2004-01-01

119

Research of Auxiliary Parking System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design an auxiliary parking system based on fuzzy control on the basis of ultrasonic radar system. It could give an auxiliary instruction to drivers when parking through fuzzy reasoning of distance and gradient. The simulation results show the validity of this system. The decision-making is in line with the parking rules.

Cheng Anyu; Dai Hongda

2010-01-01

120

The Clover Park Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an aviation trades training program offered by the Clover Park schools in Washington which exposes students to all facets of the aviation industry from record keeping to air traffic control in addition to the specific skill of piloting the aircraft. (BR)

Norris, Don

1974-01-01

121

A three-dimensional free-Lagrange code for multimaterial flow simulations  

SciTech Connect

A time-dependent, three-dimensional, compressible, multicomponent, free-Lagrange code is currently under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The code uses fixed-mass particles (called mass points) surrounded by median Lagrangian cells. These mass points are free to change their nearest-neighbor connections as they follow the fluid motion, which ensures accuracy in the differencing of equations and allows us to simulate flows with extreme distortions. All variables, including velocity, are mass-point centered and time-advancement is performed using the finite-volume technique. The code conserves mass, momentum, and energy exactly, except in some pathological situations. We utilize the Voronoi connections algorithm for Delaunay tetrahedralization of the median mesh during mesh generations and mesh reconnections. The code is highly vectorized and utilizes all eight processors on a Cray YMP. Also, we have recently mapped the code to the massively parallel Connection Machine. Some of the applications for the free-Lagrange method include atomspheric and ocean-circulation models, oil-reservoir and high-velocity impact simulations. These applications are in addition to our standard model problems of high-explosive driven shock-wave problems that involve high degree of deformation, shear flow, and turbulent mixing. 9 refs., 12 figs.

Sahota, M.S.; Trease, H.E.

1991-01-01

122

How to zoom: bias, contamination and Lagrange volumes in multimass cosmological simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform a suite of multimass cosmological zoom simulations of individual dark matter haloes and explore how to best select Lagrangian regions for resimulation without contaminating the halo of interest with low-resolution particles. Such contamination can lead to significant errors in the gas distribution of hydrodynamical simulations, as we show. For a fixed Lagrange volume, we find that the chance of contamination increases systematically with the level of zoom. In order to avoid contamination, the Lagrangian volume selected for resimulation must increase monotonically with the resolution difference between parent box and the zoom region. We provide a simple formula for selecting Lagrangian regions (in units of the halo virial volume) as a function of the level of zoom required. We also explore the degree to which a halo's Lagrangian volume correlates with other halo properties (concentration, spin, formation time, shape, etc.) and find no significant correlation. There is a mild correlation between Lagrange volume and environment, such that haloes living in the most clustered regions have larger Lagrangian volumes. Nevertheless, selecting haloes to be isolated is not the best way to ensure inexpensive zoom simulations. We explain how one can safely choose haloes with the smallest Lagrangian volumes, which are the least expensive to resimulate, without biasing one's sample.

Oñorbe, Jose; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Bullock, James S.; Rocha, Miguel; Hahn, Oliver

2014-01-01

123

76 FR 28067 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY: National Park...possession of the Field Museum of Natural History (Field Museum), Chicago, IL, that...the items to the Field Museum of Natural History. The items were accessioned into...

2011-05-13

124

76 FR 28067 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY: National Park...possession of the Field Museum of Natural History (Field Museum), Chicago, IL, that...In 1999, the Field Museum of Natural History acquired the cultural items as a...

2011-05-13

125

Il problema del litio.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contents: 1. Introduzione. 2. La nucleosintesi del Big Bang. 3. Il litio nelle stelle di popolazione II. 4. I modelli stellari standard. 5. Il litio negli ammassi aperti. 6. Meccanismi di distruzione "non standard". 7. I modelli non-standard applicati alla popolazione II. 8. L'evoluzione Galattica del litio. 9. Quali stelle producono litio? 10. Il litio come elemento chiave per dare un nome agli oggetti stellari più minuscoli. 11. Conclusioni.

D'Antona, F.

1995-03-01

126

Lincoln Park Architectural Photographs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Lincoln Park neighborhood in Chicago is home to a number of architectural landmarks, including 19th century mansions with bold mansard roofs, a former seminary on the grounds of DePaul University, and other delights. In 2000, DePaul sociologist Wanda Harold set out to photograph a number of these unique structures. This digital collection includes 200 of her images, and this project was made possible in part through a grant from the Library Services and Technology Act. First-time visitors can get started by using a clickable map of Lincoln Park to explore the photos, and they can also browse around by architect or street. Visitors shouldn't miss the photos of the workers' cottages at 1756 N. Clybourn and 2715 N. Kenmore Avenue. Overall, the site is a nice resource for students of Chicago architecture and urban geography.

Harold, Wanda

2012-01-13

127

The energy Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If world development is to continue, per capita energy use in the developing world must increase to levels in the developed world. Restrictions on how much CO2 mankind can responsibly put into the atmosphere complicate the task further. Studies show that by 2050 the world will require an additional 10-30 terawatts (TW) of carbon free power, at least as much additional, as the 10 TW generated today with fossil fuel. Neither mined uranium nor renewable energy is capable of sustained power production at this level. This paper proposes, an "energy park", a self contained unit a square mile or two in area which supplies about 7 GW of electrical power or hydrogen, emits no CO2, has little or no proliferation problem, and cleans up its own waste. Most of the energy is supplied by conventional nuclear power plants. However the nuclear fuel is bred by a fusion reactor, which is the key to the energy park. The waste cleanup is done by a combination of fission, fusion, and patience. There is neither long time storage nor long distance travel for materials with proliferation risk or long lived radio nuclides. Thus only thorium comes into the park, and only electricity and hydrogen go out.

Manheimer, Wallace

2005-10-01

128

Rocking the Parks: Geological Stories of the National Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rocking the Parks: Geological Stories of the National Parks is an online book by Richard B. Alley of Penn State Universities e-Education Institute. The site contains thirty chapters that relate geology and the US National Parks, such as plate tectonics and Death Valley, volcanoes and Yellowstone, and glaciers and Yosemite. Each Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) file can be downloaded and viewed free of charge.

Alley, Richard B.

129

On a Lagrange-Hamilton formalism describing position and momentum uncertainties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, in quantum mechanics it is not possible to determine, simultaneously, exact values for the position and the momentum of a material system. Calculating the mean value of the Hamiltonian operator with the aid of exact analytic Gaussian wave packet solutions, these uncertainties cause an energy contribution additional to the classical energy of the system. For the harmonic oscillator, e.g., this nonclassical energy represents the ground state energy. It will be shown that this additional energy contribution can be considered as a Hamiltonian function, if it is written in appropriate variables. With the help of the usual Lagrange-Hamilton formalism known from classical particle mechanics, but now considering this new Hamiltonian function, it is possible to obtain the equations of motion for position and momentum uncertainties.

Schuch, Dieter

1993-01-01

130

Augmented Lagrange methods for quasi-incompressible materials--applications to soft biological tissue.  

PubMed

Arterial walls in the healthy physiological regime are characterized by quasi-incompressible, anisotropic, hyperelastic material behavior. Polyconvex material functions representing such materials typically incorporate a penalty function to account for the incompressibility. Unfortunately, the penalty will affect the conditioning of the stiffness matrices. For high penalty parameters, the performance of iterative solvers will degrade, and when direct solvers are used, the quality of the solutions will deteriorate. In this paper, an augmented Lagrange approach is used to cope with the quasi-incompressibility condition. Here, the penalty parameter can be chosen much smaller, and as a consequence, the arising linear systems of equations have better properties. An improved convergence is then observed for the finite element tearing and interconnecting-dual primal domain decomposition method, which is used as an iterative solver. Numerical results for an arterial geometry obtained from ultrasound imaging are presented. PMID:23345136

Brinkhues, S; Klawonn, A; Rheinbach, O; Schröder, J

2013-03-01

131

Error estimates of Lagrange interpolation and orthonormal expansions for Freud weights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let Sn[f] be the nth partial sum of the orthonormal polynomials expansion with respect to a Freud weight. Then we obtain sufficient conditions for the boundedness of Sn[f] and discuss the speed of the convergence of Sn[f] in weighted Lp space. We also find sufficient conditions for the boundedness of the Lagrange interpolation polynomial Ln[f], whose nodal points are the zeros of orthonormal polynomials with respect to a Freud weight. In particular, if W(x)=e-(1/2)x2 is the Hermite weight function, then we obtain sufficient conditions for the inequalities to hold:andwhere and k=0,1,2...,r.

Kwon, K. H.; Lee, D. W.

2001-08-01

132

A fictitious domain formulation for flows with rigid particles: A non-Lagrange multiplier version  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a development of the fictitious domain method proposed in Ref. [C. Diaz-Goano, P. Minev, K. Nandakumar, A fictitious domain/finite element method for particulate flows, J. Comput. Phys. 192 (2003) 105]. The main new feature of the modified method is that after a proper splitting, it avoids the need to use Lagrange multipliers for imposition of the rigid body motion and instead, it resolves the interaction force between the two phases explicitly. Then, the end-of-step fluid velocity is a solution of an integral equation. The most straightforward way to resolve it is via an iteration but a direct extrapolation is also possible. If the latter approach is applied then the fictitious domain formulation becomes fully explicit with respect to the rigid body constraint and therefore, the corresponding numerical procedure is much cheaper. Most of the numerical results presented in this article are obtained with such an explicit formulation.

Veeramani, C.; Minev, P. D.; Nandakumar, K.

2007-06-01

133

Testing of Lagrange multiplier damped least-squares control algorithm for woofer-tweeter adaptive optics  

PubMed Central

A Lagrange multiplier-based damped least-squares control algorithm for woofer-tweeter (W-T) dual deformable-mirror (DM) adaptive optics (AO) is tested with a breadboard system. We show that the algorithm can complementarily command the two DMs to correct wavefront aberrations within a single optimization process: the woofer DM correcting the high-stroke, low-order aberrations, and the tweeter DM correcting the low-stroke, high-order aberrations. The optimal damping factor for a DM is found to be the median of the eigenvalue spectrum of the influence matrix of that DM. Wavefront control accuracy is maximized with the optimized control parameters. For the breadboard system, the residual wavefront error can be controlled to the precision of 0.03 ?m in root mean square. The W-T dual-DM AO has applications in both ophthalmology and astronomy.

Zou, Weiyao; Burns, Stephen A.

2012-01-01

134

LAGRANGE SOLUTIONS TO THE DISCRETE-TIME GENERAL THREE-BODY PROBLEM  

SciTech Connect

There is no known integrator that yields exact orbits for the general three-body problem (G3BP). It is difficult to verify whether a numerical procedure yields the correct solutions to the G3BP because doing so requires knowledge of all 11 conserved quantities, whereas only six are known. Without tracking all of the conserved quantities, it is possible to show that the discrete general three-body problem (d-G3BP) yields the correct orbits corresponding to Lagrange solutions of the G3BP. We show that the d-G3BP yields the correct solutions to the G3BP for two special cases: the equilateral triangle and collinear configurations. For the triangular solution, we use the fact that the solution to the three-body case is a superposition of the solutions to the three two-body cases, and we show that the three bodies maintain the same relative distances at all times. To obtain the collinear solution, we assume a specific permutation of the three bodies arranged along a straight rotating line, and we show that the d-G3BP maintains the same distance ratio between two bodies as in the G3BP. Proving that the d-G3BP solutions for these cases are equivalent to those of the G3BP makes it likely that the d-G3BP and G3BP solutions are equivalent in other cases. To our knowledge, this is the first work that proves the equivalence of the discrete solutions and the Lagrange orbits.

Minesaki, Yukitaka [Tokushima Bunri University, Nishihama, Yamashiro-cho, Tokushima 770-8514 (Japan)

2013-03-15

135

Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique  

SciTech Connect

Fluid particulate flows are common phenomena in nature and industry. Modeling of such flows at micro and macro levels as well establishing relationships between these approaches are needed to understand properties of the particulate matter. We propose a computational technique based on the direct numerical simulation of the particulate flows. The numerical method is based on the distributed Lagrange multiplier technique following the ideas of Glowinski et al. (1999). Each particle is explicitly resolved on an Eulerian grid as a separate domain, using solid volume fractions. The fluid equations are solved through the entire computational domain, however, Lagrange multiplier constrains are applied inside the particle domain such that the fluid within any volume associated with a solid particle moves as an incompressible rigid body. Mutual forces for the fluid-particle interactions are internal to the system. Particles interact with the fluid via fluid dynamic equations, resulting in implicit fluid-rigid-body coupling relations that produce realistic fluid flow around the particles (i.e., no-slip boundary conditions). The particle-particle interactions are implemented using explicit force-displacement interactions for frictional inelastic particles similar to the DEM method of Cundall et al. (1979) with some modifications using a volume of an overlapping region as an input to the contact forces. The method is flexible enough to handle arbitrary particle shapes and size distributions. A parallel implementation of the method is based on the SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure) library, which allows handling of large amounts of rigid particles and enables local grid refinement. Accuracy and convergence of the presented method has been tested against known solutions for a falling sphere as well as by examining fluid flows through stationary particle beds (periodic and cubic packing). To evaluate code performance and validate particle contact physics algorithm, we performed simulations of a representative experiment conducted at the University of California at Berkley for pebble flow through a narrow opening.

Kanarska, Y

2010-03-24

136

Economic Load Dispatch for Piecewise Quadratic Cost Function using Hybrid Self-adaptive Differential Evolution with Augmented Lagrange Multiplier Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an efficient method for solving economic load dispatch (ELD) problems using a hybrid self- adaptive differential evolution with augmented Lagrange multiplier method (SADE_ALM). Treated as additional control variables, two strategic parameters called the mutation factor (F) and the crossover constant (CR) are dynamically self-adaptive throughout the evolutionary process. Since tuning of the parameters is a tedious task

C. Thitithamrongchai; B. Eua-Arporn

2006-01-01

137

Tour of Park Geology: Human Use Sites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site provides links to geolgy field notes about National Parks, National Monuments, and National Recreation Areas having to do with geology and human use (such as mining). Information includes geology, photographs, multimedia tools, park maps, visitor information, geologic research, and additional links. Parks covered include Klondike Gold Rush National Historic Park, Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument, and more.

138

Regulation of interferon-? production by IL12 and IL18  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-18 (interferon-inducing factor) and IL-12 exhibit a marked synergism in interferon-? induction in T cells. Investigations into the mechanism of this synergism have revealed that IL-12 upregulates expression of the IL-18 receptor on cells producing interferon-?. Although IL-18 does not induce the development of Th1 cells, it is essential for the effective induction and activation of Th1 cells by IL-12.

Haruki Okamura; Shin-ichiro Kashiwamura; Hiroko Tsutsui; Tomohiro Yoshimoto; Kenji Nakanishi

1998-01-01

139

Differences in signaling pathways by IL1 and IL18  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-1 and IL-18 are members of the IL-1 family of ligands, and their receptors are members of the IL-1 receptor family. Although several biological properties overlap for these cytokines, differences exist. IL-18 uniquely induces IFN- from T lymphocytes and natural killer cells but does not cause fever, whereas fever is a prominent characteristic of IL-1 in humans and animals. In

Jae-Kwon Lee; Soo-Hyun Kim; Eli C. Lewis; Tania Azam; Leonid L. Reznikov; Charles A. Dinarello

2004-01-01

140

Geology of Badlands National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is an introduction to the 75 million years of accumulation and intermittent periods of erosion that has resulted in the Badlands National Park. The history of the Oglicene beds of the Park, one of the world's richest vertebrate fossil sites, is also described. A downloadable PDF that describes the erosion that is responsible for the geology of the Park in more detail is linked to the site.

National Park Service (NPS)

141

IL-10 family of cytokines.  

PubMed

In 2001, six immune mediators (IL-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, and IL-26) were grouped into the so-called IL-10 family of cytokines based on their similarities with respect to the structure and location of their encoding genes, their primary and secondary protein structures, and the receptor complexes used. Surprisingly, despite all these similarities, IL-10 family members possess different biological functions. The currently known facts regarding the biological effects of these six immune mediators give the impression that at least IL-10, IL-20, and IL-22 play an important role in the pathogenesis of some chronic inflammatory diseases. This review provides an overview of the most important and common aspects of the IL-10 family members. PMID:21112807

Sabat, Robert

2010-10-01

142

T PARK: AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE FOR SECURITY IN PUBLIC PARKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present joint research activities in com- puter vision and sensor networks for a distributed surveil- lance of urban parks. Distributed visual surveillance of ur- ban environments is one of the most interesting scenario in Ambient Intelligence; in addition, the automated monitor- ing of public parks, often crowded by children and adults, is still a very difficult

Luca Benini; Elisabetta Farella

143

US National Parks and management of park soundscapes: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than 17years the US National Park Service has been developing the methods, processes and skills required to effectively manage the soundscapes of the National Parks. The author and his company have had the honor of providing technical acoustics related assistance throughout much of this period. This article presents his reflections on the process, its technical and political complexities,

Nicholas P. Miller

2008-01-01

144

Salute to the National Park Service  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current National Parks Service's design policy is summarized and the manner in which this policy produces national park transportation, planning, visitor center siting, architecture, preservation, and exhibits, is detailed. Organizations lobbying for better parks are listed. (BT)

Carpenter, Edward K.

1976-01-01

145

Prince William Forest Park: An Administrative History,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study is presented of the mosaic encompassing the original residents of the area, park administrators, military forces and Washington officials. An overview of the park's history detailing critical periods in the parks development is provided.

S. C. Strickland

1986-01-01

146

76 FR 22001 - National Park Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...be waived during National Park Week. All Americans can visit www...have fun. During National Park Week, we reaffirm our need to maintain...proclaim April 16 through April 24, 2011, as National Park Week. I encourage all Americans...

2011-04-20

147

Kalaupapa National Historical Park: Museum Management Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Kalaupapa National Historical Park Museum Management Plan identifies a series of collections management issues facing the park and presents corresponding actions to address them. The park is currently managing an archives estimated at 137,000 items; a...

B. Sullivan C. DeRooy J. Bayless K. Bush S. Buchel

2006-01-01

148

Geology Fieldnotes: Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Guadalupe Mountains National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the geologic history of Guadalupe Mountains' ancient marine fossil reef and the structural geology of the Mountains' Western Escarpment (including the Frijole Ranch area, the Pine Springs area, and the Capitan Limestone structures). The park maps section includes a map of the Capitan Reef today.

149

Geology Fieldnotes: Canyonlands National Park, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains park maps, visitor information, details about park geology, and a teacher feature (lessons for teaching science using National Park examples) for Canyonlands National Park in Utah. It discusses the creation of the canyons by the Green and Colorado rivers, as well as the geologic and human histories of the park. Also covered is information about the surrounding mountains (La Sals, Abajos, and Henry Mountains), the famous Upheaval Dome, The Maze, The Needles, and arches found within the park.

150

Geology Fieldnotes: Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Petrified Forest National Park was established to preserve large deposits of petrified wood and to prevent removal of the wood by the public. Site featues include park geology information, maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and resources for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the park's geologic history, structural geology, petrified wood, and dinosaur fossils. The maps section includes a map of the park itself and the surrounding area.

151

A low diffusive Lagrange-remap scheme for the simulation of violent ai-water free-surface flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2002, Després and Lagoutière [17] proposed a low-diffusive advection scheme for pure transport equation problems, which is particularly accurate for step-shaped solutions, and thus suited for interface tracking procedure by a color function. This has been extended by Kokh and Lagoutière [28] in the context of compressible multifluid flows using a five-equation model. In this paper, we explore a simplified variant approach for gas-liquid three-equation models. The Eulerian numerical scheme has two ingredients: a robust remapped Lagrange solver for the solution of the volume-averaged equations, and a low diffusive compressive scheme for the advection of the gas mass fraction. Numerical experiments show the performance of the computational approach on various flow reference problems: dam break, sloshing of a tank filled with water, wate-water impact and finally a case of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. One of the advantages of the present interface capturing solver is its natural implementation on parallel processors or computers. wave formation and wave breaking; wall wave impacts, local pressure peaks and pressure loadings; formation of air pockets; ejection, fragmentation of liquid droplets; Archimedes buoyancy effect with rising of bubbles and fall of droplets; effects of gas compressibility inducing a gas-to-liquid response by a pressure wave, etc. In this paper, we consider immiscible gas-liquid two-phase flow problems. The strong ratio of mass density between gas and liquid (typically 1:1000) is known to be a source of numerical stiffness and numerical instability. Therefore robust computational approaches supporting high density ratio have to be considered. Among the family of conservative Finite Volume methods (FVM), the Lagrange-remapped solvers (see e.g. [42,45,6,4,25,2]) provide both robustness and stability with achievement of mathematical properties of positiveness and entropy compatibility.Lagrange-remap numerical schemes (also referred to as Eule-Lagrange schemes) are a particular family of Eulerian FVM where, at each time step, the equations are solved according to a Lagrangian evolution with a mesh that is convected by the flow itself, then the "Lagrange solutions" are remapped on the initial mesh into a conservative way by estimating both fluxed mass and momentum. Because of the Lagrangian step of these methods, code coupling or coupling of different physics is made easier against conventional FV methods. Moreover, the Lagrangian description is very practical for multi-material flows of multi-phase flows because we are a natural control of the fluxed quantities material-by-material. Lagrange and Lagrange-remap solvers still know strong developments today with major contributions as e.g. energy-preserving compatible schemes for staggered methods [11], collocated variables and cell-centered entropy-satisfying schemes, see [18,32,12].In this paper, we rather consider a simpler staggered Lagrange-remap solver with a direction-by-direction remapping. More precisely, the 2D multidimensional Lagrange step (operator Lxy?t) completely solves the fluid equations while an operator splitting alternating direction (AD) for the projection (operators Rx and Ry respectively) is used to interpolate on the reference Cartesian Eulerian grid into a conservative manner, involving convective flux balances. Symmetrized operator splitting can be used to ensure second order accuracy. Both linear and nonlinear numerical stabilities are ensured by the use of standard pseudo-viscosity (viscous pressure) terms, detailed into Appendix B at the end of this paper. Actually, we use this simple Euler solver because of its simplicity of code implementation and because it can be vectorized/parallelized into a natural manner. Moreover, the aim of this paper is not about the hydrodynamics solver: the article mostly focuses on numerical antidiffusive methods for interface capturing, as part of a global multifluid hydrodynamics solver. At the present time, the antidiffusive approaches assume a direction-by-direction remapping whic

Bernard-Champmartin, Aude; De Vuyst, Florian

2014-10-01

152

Parking Strategies for Genome Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The parking strategy is an iterative approach to DNA sequencing. Each iteration consists of sequencing a novel portion of target DNA that does not overlap any previously sequenced region. Subject to the constraint of no overlap, each new region is chosen randomly. A parking strategy is often ideal in the early stages of a project for rapidly generating unique data. As a project progresses, parking becomes progressively more expensive and eventually prohibitive. We present a mathematical model with a generalization to allow for overlaps. This model predicts multiple parameters, including progress, costs, and the distribution of gap sizes left by a parking strategy. The highly fragmented nature of the gaps left after an initial parking strategy may make it difficult to finish a project efficiently. Therefore, in addition to our parking model, we model gap closing by walking. Our gap-closing model is generalizable to many other strategies. Our discussion includes modified parking strategies and hybrids with other strategies. A hybrid parking strategy has been employed for portions of the Human Genome Project.

Roach, Jared C.; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Siegel, Andrew F.

2000-01-01

153

National Park Service Geologic Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of images shows geologic features in many of the country's national parks. The collection is searchable by park name, state, year, or by the name of the photograph. Each photo is accompanied by a brief caption that provides the photographer's name, the date, and a description of the photo.

154

Educational Resources: Everglades National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These educational resources of the Everglades National Park include classroom activities, information for school visits with or without a ranger, teacher resources such as reference material on the geology and biology of the park, and recommended study resources. The classroom activities involve water resources, endangered species, extinction, and the food chain.

155

Nevada Division of State Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Carson City, the Nevada Division of State Parks helps to preserve and promote notable parts of the Nevada natural and cultural environment. One of the goals of their website is to provide visitors with "an introduction to the other side of Nevada, the side that is wild scenic and full of western history." First-time visitors may wish to click on the "State parks map" area to learn more about the location of the state parks, and the interactive map also includes direct links to each site. Scholars and students of park management will want to click on over to the "Park General and Resource Management Plans" area. Here they can learn about the completed general management plans for parks such as the Mormon Station and the Valley of Fire, and learn about plans that are currently under review. Visitors looking for helpful information about upcoming events can look over the "Other Park News!" area on the right hand side of the homepage. Finally, there's also detailed information about park fees, several photo galleries, and news releases.

156

Cytokines (interleukin-9, IL-17, IL-22, IL-25 and IL-33) and asthma.  

PubMed

Asthma is a reversible airway obstruction that is characterized by constriction of airway smooth muscle, hyper secretion of mucus, edema and airway hyper responsiveness (AHR), mucus secretion and thickening of the basement membrane underlying the airway epithelium. During the process of airway inflammation, complex interactions of innate and adaptive immune cells as well as structural cells and their cytokines have many important roles. It was believed that airway inflammation is orchestrated by allergen specific T helper (Th) 2 cells, which recruit and accumulate in the lungs and produce a range of different effector cytokines. However, more recent studies have revealed the potential collaboration of other helper T cells and their cytokines in this process. Th17 cell may have a role in severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Interleukin (IL)-9-producing subset called Th9 cell, Th22 cells which primarily secrete IL-22, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor-? and Th25 cells via producing IL-25 are believed to be important for initiating allergic reactions and developing airway inflammation. Cytokines are important in asthma and play a critical role in orchestrating the allergic inflammatory response, although the precise role of each cytokine remains to be determined. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the possible roles of newly identified helper T cells derived cytokines (IL-9, 17, 22, 25 and IL-33) in asthma. The potential therapeutic applications emerging from the roles of these cytokines will be discussed as well. PMID:24949298

Farahani, Rahim; Sherkat, Roya; Hakemi, Mazdak Ganjalikhani; Eskandari, Nahid; Yazdani, Reza

2014-01-01

157

Cytokines (interleukin-9, IL-17, IL-22, IL-25 and IL-33) and asthma  

PubMed Central

Asthma is a reversible airway obstruction that is characterized by constriction of airway smooth muscle, hyper secretion of mucus, edema and airway hyper responsiveness (AHR), mucus secretion and thickening of the basement membrane underlying the airway epithelium. During the process of airway inflammation, complex interactions of innate and adaptive immune cells as well as structural cells and their cytokines have many important roles. It was believed that airway inflammation is orchestrated by allergen specific T helper (Th) 2 cells, which recruit and accumulate in the lungs and produce a range of different effector cytokines. However, more recent studies have revealed the potential collaboration of other helper T cells and their cytokines in this process. Th17 cell may have a role in severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Interleukin (IL)-9-producing subset called Th9 cell, Th22 cells which primarily secrete IL-22, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor-? and Th25 cells via producing IL-25 are believed to be important for initiating allergic reactions and developing airway inflammation. Cytokines are important in asthma and play a critical role in orchestrating the allergic inflammatory response, although the precise role of each cytokine remains to be determined. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the possible roles of newly identified helper T cells derived cytokines (IL-9, 17, 22, 25 and IL-33) in asthma. The potential therapeutic applications emerging from the roles of these cytokines will be discussed as well.

Farahani, Rahim; Sherkat, Roya; Hakemi, Mazdak Ganjalikhani; Eskandari, Nahid; Yazdani, Reza

2014-01-01

158

Study on public parking problems and countermeasures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid growth of motorization, public parking has become a distinct problem influences urban development and people's life quality. Unscientific method of urban planning and lagging of related studies lead to parking problem becoming more and more seriously day by day. The propose of this paper is to put forward several solutions for public parking problem, including parking management policies, building with construction parking policies, regional differentiation policy, parking industrial policy, self-parking policy and so on, from the point of regulatory plan and related policy. It is significant to guide new urban areas construction and improve the parking situation.

Hu, Hongbing; Wen, Zhaokang

2011-12-01

159

Wheeling and Dealing in the National Parks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motor vehicles and commercialism have generated serious problems within the national park system. A Conservation Foundation suggests new directions in management for the National Park Service. (Editors)

Howe, Sydney

1973-01-01

160

Science in the National Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new addition to The National Park Service's website provides an overview of a huge array of research projects being conducted in US National Parks. Scientific studies are listed and summarized here (by Park), and include research on Nitrogen fixation, Neotropical migratory birds, meadow restoration, glacier research, and monitoring of wolf populations, to name a few. In addition, a list of Partners in Scientific Research is available at the site, as are current and archived copies of the agency's quarterly research and resource management bulletin Park Science. The exceptional value of the site is that it provides what most researchers don't have: detailed insights into different components (and scales) of the same ecosystem. Application procedures are included for those interested in conducting research at National Parks.

Service., United S.

161

National Park Service Photo Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past century, a host of photographers have documented the grounds and buildings of the National Parks for the National Park Service, and in doing so have created a collection that contains over two million images. Some of these eminent photographers include such personages as Jack Boucher, Arno B. Cammerer, and Abbie Rowe. The National Park Service has recently placed 2000 of these images online, and added a fine search feature so that users can look for images by year, photographer, theme, parksite, or keyword. Some of these images included early photographs of the Virgin Islands National Park, rangers on location in Yosemite National Park, and Canyon de Chelly National Monument. The site is rounded out with links to other digital image archives, such as those housed on the American Memory website at the Library of Congress.

162

Parallel Lagrange-Newton-Krylov-Schur Methods for PDE-Constrained Optimization. Part II: The Lagrange-Newton Solver and Its Application to Optimal Control of Steady Viscous Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

In part I of this article, we proposed a Lagrange-Newton-Krylov-Schur (LNKS) method for the solution of optimization problems that are constrained by partial differential equa- tions. LNKS uses Krylov iterations to solve the linearized Karush-Kuhn-Tucker system of optimality conditions in the full space of states, adjoints, and decision variables, but invokes a preconditioner in- spired by reduced space sequential quadratic

George Biros; Omar Ghattas

2005-01-01

163

PARALLEL LAGRANGE-NEWTON-KRYLOV-SCHUR ALGORITHMS FOR PDE-CONSTRAINED OPTIMIZATION PART II: THE LAGRANGE-NEWTON SOLVER AND ITS APPLICATION TO OPTIMAL CONTROL OF STEADY VISCOUS FLOWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we follow up our discussion on algorithms suitable for optimization of systems gov- erned by partial differential equations. In the first part of of this paper we proposed a Lagrange-Newton-Krylov-Schur method (LNKS) that uses Krylov iterations to solve the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker system of optimality conditions, but invokes a preconditioner inspired by reduced space quasi-Newton algorithms. In the second

GEORGE BIROS; OMAR GHATTAS

1999-01-01

164

IL-12/IL-12R system in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

IL-12/IL-12 receptor (IL-12R) system orchestrates the Th1 pathway of the immune system by maintaining one of the major bridges between innate and adaptive immune responses. Here, we studied both sides of this system in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and in controls. MS patients displayed elevated IL-12Rbeta1 and IL-12Rbeta2 expression on PHA-activated T cells compared to healthy subjects. Higher percentages of IL-12Rbeta1 and IL-12Rbeta2 positive T cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compared to blood were observed both in MS and other neurological diseases (OND). In contrast, numbers of IL-12 secreting blood mononuclear cells (MNC) were similar in MS and controls. The functional importance of high IL-12Rbeta2 in MS was underlined by the finding that IL-12 stimulated IFN-gamma production and proliferation of PHA-activated T cells correlated with levels of IL-12Rbeta2 expression. Our data indicates a dysregulation of the IL-12/IL-12R system in MS. It is suggested that even in the absence of increased IL-12 levels, the net effect of IL-12 might be augmented in MS by elevated expression of its receptor. PMID:11240038

Ozenci, V; Pashenkov, M; Kouwenhoven, M; Rinaldi, L; Söderström, M; Link, H

2001-03-01

165

Free-Lagrange simulations of the expansion and jetting collapse of air bubbles in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A free-Lagrange numerical method is implemented to simulate the axisymmetric jetting collapse of air bubbles in water. This is performed for both lithotripter shock-induced collapses of initially stable bubbles, and for free-running cases where the bubble initially contains an overpressure. The code is validated using two test problems (shock-induced bubble collapse using a step shock, and shock10 MPa tensile waves, interacts with a bubble of initial radius 0.04 mm located in a free field (case 1) and near a rigid boundary (case 2). The interaction of the shock with the bubble causes it to involute and a liquid jet is formed that achieves a velocity exceeding 1.2 km s1 for case 2. The impact of the jet on the downstream wall of the bubble generates a blast wave with peak overpressure exceeding 1 GPa and 1.75 GPa for cases 1 and 2, respectively. The results show that the simulation technique retains sharply resolved gas/liquid interfaces regardless of the degree of geometric deformation, and reveal details of the dynamics of bubble collapse. The effects of compressibility are included for both liquid and gas phases, whereas stress distributions can be predicted within elastic-plastic solid surfaces (both planar and notched) in proximity to cavitation events. There is a movie with the online version of the paper.

Turangan, C. K.; Jamaluddin, A. R.; Ball, G. J.; Leighton, T. G.

166

Lincoln Park Neighborhood Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today, the Lincoln Park neighborhood on Chicago's North Side is a relatively affluent area, complete with Victorian mansions and rather tony elevator apartment buildings. By the late 1940s, the area was experiencing the same type of urban disinvestment as other inner-city neighborhoods throughout the United States. In the early 1960s, the city of Chicago, working with funds from the federal government, began an ambitious urban renewal program designed to reduce the density of the built environment in the community and to remove "blighted" properties. This excellent collection from the DePaul University Libraries Digital Collections contains over 400 documents related to this ambitious project, including maps, zoning documents, policy statements, neighborhood organization planning documents, and photographs. First-time visitors may wish to start with the first document here, "A Brief Explanation of the Urban Community Conservation Act." Moving on, visitors can view the rest of the documents by title, thumbnail, subject, and brief description.

167

Gravitational wave forms for a three-body system in Lagrange's orbit: Parameter determinations and a binary source test  

SciTech Connect

Continuing work initiated in an earlier publication [Y. Torigoe, K. Hattori, and H. Asada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 251101 (2009)], gravitational wave forms for a three-body system in Lagrange's orbit are considered especially in an analytic method. First, we derive an expression of the three-body wave forms at the mass quadrupole, octupole, and current quadrupole orders. By using the expressions, we solve a gravitational-wave inverse problem of determining the source parameters to this particular configuration (three masses, a distance of the source to an observer, and the orbital inclination angle to the line of sight) through observations of the gravitational wave forms alone. For this purpose, the chirp mass to a three-body system in the particular configuration is expressed in terms of only the mass ratios by deleting initial angle positions. We discuss also whether and how a binary source can be distinguished from a three-body system in Lagrange's orbit or others.

Asada, Hideki [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan)

2009-09-15

168

A Lagrange-multiplier-based XFEM to solve pressure Poisson equations in problems with quasi-static interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The XFEM (extended finite element method) has a lot of advantages over other numerical methods to resolve discontinuities across quasi-static interfaces due to the jump in fluidic parameters or surface tension. However, singularities corresponding to enriched degrees of freedom (DOFs) embedded in XFEM arise in the discrete pressure Poisson equations. In this paper, constraints on these DOFs are derived from the interfacial equilibrium condition and introduced in terms of stabilized Lagrange multipliers designed for non-boundary-fitted meshes to address this issue. Numerical results show that the weak and strong discontinuities in pressure with straight and circular interfaces are accurately reproduced by the constraints. Comparisons with the SUPG/PSPG (streamline upwind/pressure stabilizing Petrov-Galerkin) method without Lagrange multipliers validate the applicability and flexibility of the proposed constrained algorithm to model problems with quasi-static interfaces.

Liao, JianHui; Zhuang, Zhuo

2012-04-01

169

76 FR 80393 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY: National Park...SUMMARY: The Field Museum of Natural History has completed an inventory of human remains...may contact the Field Museum of Natural History. Repatriation of the human remains...

2011-12-23

170

Experimental Validation of Boeing 747 ILS Signal Scattering Calculations for Critical Area Determination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Charts showing recommended designated critical areas for aircraft parking on an airdrome are presented. These have been derived from data taken from extensive mathematical modeling of the effects of the Boeing 747 on the ILS signal in space and the recent...

R. A. Rondini R. H. McFarland

1974-01-01

171

Perception of urban park soundscape.  

PubMed

A number of studies have been initiated to explore how to improve the soundscape quality in urban parks. However, good soundscape quality in parks cannot be provided without a thorough understanding of the complex relationships among sound, environment, and individuals. As acoustic comfort is considered to be an important outcome of soundscape quality, this study investigates the relative impacts of the factors influencing acoustic comfort evaluation by formulating a multivariate ordered logit model. This study also explores the inter-relationships among acoustic comfort evaluation, acceptability of the environment, and preference to stay in a park using a path model. A total of 595 valid responses were obtained from interview surveys administered in four parks in Hong Kong while objective sound measurements were carried out at the survey spots concurrently. The findings unveil that acoustic comfort evaluation, besides visual comfort evaluation of landscape, also plays an important role on users' acceptability of the urban park environment. Compared with all the studied acoustic related factors, acoustic comfort evaluation serves as a better proxy for park users' preference to stay in urban parks. Hearing the breeze will significantly increase the likelihood of individuals in giving high acoustic comfort evaluation. Conversely, hearing the sounds from heavy vehicles or sounds from bikes will significantly reduce the likelihood in giving a high acoustic evaluation. PMID:22501055

Tse, Man Sze; Chau, Chi Kwan; Choy, Yat Sze; Tsui, Wai Keung; Chan, Chak Ngai; Tang, Shiu Keung

2012-04-01

172

An eXtended Finite Element Method\\/Lagrange multiplier based approach for fluid–structure interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new fixed grid fluid–structure interaction scheme that can be applied to the interaction of most general structures with incompressible flow. It is based on an eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) based strategy. The extended Eulerian fluid field and the Lagrangian structural field are partitioned and iteratively coupled using Lagrange multiplier techniques for non-matching grids. The approach

Axel Gerstenberger; Wolfgang A. Wall

2008-01-01

173

1.OA At the Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: There were 7 children at the park. Then 4 more showed up. How many children were at the park all together? There were 7 children at the park. Some more...

174

Yellowstone National Park: Historic 3-D Photographs Featuring Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This source provides a series of 34 historic photographs of well-known geologic landmarks in Yellowstone National Park. The photographs can be viewed individually or as part of a tour that begins at Old Faithful and proceeds in a clockwise route around the park. The images were created by digital manipulation of antique stereographs and they may be viewed as black and white photos or in 3-D using special stereographic glasses.

Phil, Stoffer; Team, Usgs W.

175

Logistics park development in Slovak Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the actual situation in the Slovak Republic concerning the logistics parks development. It presents the theoretical base of the logistics park development, i.e. the comparative analysis, SWOT analysis, transport infrastructure survey, marketing study and marketing plan for logistics park. It also presents the basic characteristic of logistics park, logistics chains and activities connected with the transport,

Marián Šulgan

2006-01-01

176

Planning and Design for Industry Logistics Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regarding a single industry as the target, industry logistics park is the professional logistics park that is specially planned according to industry characteristics. Considering that the industry logistics park has special functions, such as economize on resources, improvement of logistics efficiency and service quality, protection of the environment and so on, industry logistics park's planning and design is different from

Guo Yi; Zhang Xinxin

2011-01-01

177

Teacher's Guide to Independence National Historical Park.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Independence National Historical Park, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is operated by the National Park Service. The park was authorized by an Act of Congress on June 28, 1948, and formally established on July 4, 1956. The mission of Independence National Historical Park is to preserve its stories, buildings, and artifacts as a source of…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Philadelphia, PA. Independence National Historical Park.

178

Association of Park Size, Distance, and Features With Physical Activity in Neighborhood Parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We studied whether park size, number of features in the park, and distance to a park from participants' homes were related to a park being used for physical activity. Methods. We collected observational data on 28 specific features from 33 parks. Adult residents in surrounding areas (n = 380) completed 7-day physical activity logs that included the location of

Andrew T. Kaczynski; Luke R. Potwarka; Brian E. Saelens

2008-01-01

179

SPARK: A New VANET-Based Smart Parking Scheme for Large Parking Lots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Searching for a vacant parking space in a congested area or a large parking lot and preventing auto theft are major concerns to our daily lives. In this paper, we propose a new smart parking scheme for large parking lots through vehicular communication. The proposed scheme can provide the drivers with real-time parking navigation service, intelligent anti- theft protection, and

Rongxing Lu; Xiaodong Lin; Haojin Zhu; Xuemin Shen

2009-01-01

180

IL-6 and IL-1 synergistically enhanced the production of MMPs from synovial cells by up-regulating IL-6 production and IL-1 receptor I expression.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated potential synergism between IL-6 and IL-1 for the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by the synovial cell line SW982. Cells were cultured with different combinations of IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) and IL-1beta for 24h and production of MMPs was then measured. IL-6+sIL-6R, but not IL-6 alone, induced MMP-13 and MMP-3 production. IL-1beta also induced production of MMPs. Of interest, addition of IL-6+sIL-6R together with IL-1beta synergistically increased MMP production. Next, we analyzed the mechanism responsible for the synergistic effects of IL-6+sIL-6R and IL-1beta in combination. IL-1beta-induced MMP production was significantly augmented in the presence of sIL-6R. IL-1beta as well as IL-6+sIL-6R induced IL-6 production. Moreover, IL-6+sIL-6R significantly augmented expression of IL-1RI, but not IL-1RII, in SW982 cells. Responsiveness to IL-1beta was much higher in IL-6+sIL-6R-pretreated cells than non-treated cells in terms of MMP production. Finally, IL-6+sIL-6R-induced IL-1RI expression was inhibited by a STAT pathway inhibitor, but not a MAPK pathway inhibitor. These results suggest that increased expression of IL-1RI stimulated by IL-6+sIL-6R and the increased production of IL-6 on exposure to IL-1beta and IL-6+sIL-6R are involved in the observed synergistic effect on the production of MMPs by SW982 cells. PMID:20403707

Suzuki, Miho; Hashizume, Misato; Yoshida, Hiroto; Shiina, Masashi; Mihara, Masahiko

2010-08-01

181

Regulation of Antitumor Immune Responses by the IL-12 Family Cytokines, IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27  

PubMed Central

The interleukin (IL)-12 family, which is composed of heterodimeric cytokines including IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27, is produced by antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells and plays critical roles in the regulation of helper T (Th) cell differentiation. IL-12 induces IFN-? production by NK and T cells and differentiation to Th1 cells. IL-23 induces IL-17 production by memory T cells and expands and maintains inflammatory Th17 cells. IL-27 induces the early Th1 differentiation and generation of IL-10-producing regulatory T cells. In addition, these cytokines induce distinct immune responses to tumors. IL-12 activates signal transducers and activator of transcription (STAT)4 and enhances antitumor cellular immunity through interferon (IFN)-? production. IL-27 activates STAT1, as does IFN-? and STAT3 as well, and enhances antitumor immunity by augmenting cellular and humoral immunities. In contrast, although exogenously overexpressed IL-23 enhances antitumor immunity via memory T cells, endogenous IL-23 promotes protumor immunity through STAT3 activation by inducing inflammatory responses including IL-17 production.

Xu, Mingli; Mizoguchi, Izuru; Morishima, Noriko; Chiba, Yukino; Mizuguchi, Junichiro; Yoshimoto, Takayuki

2010-01-01

182

Park and Burgess: An Appreciation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though virtually fifty years separate contemporary sociology from publication of Introduction to the Science of Sociology by Park and Burgess, this volume proposes an orientation to the descipline still worthy of consideration. (Author)

Braude, Lee

1970-01-01

183

Science and the National Parks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In conducting the study, the National Research Council's Committee on Improving the Science and Technology Programs of the National Park Service originally set out to evaluate the scope and organization of current NPS natural and social science by perform...

1992-01-01

184

Jurassic Park: Adventure in Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes using the movie "Jurassic Park" as a foundation for a middle school interdisciplinary unit involving science, math, language arts, history, and geography. Suggested books and activities are presented. (PR)

Shams, Marcia; Boteler, Trina

1993-01-01

185

Views of the National Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There is no true substitute for visiting one of America's great national parks, but this website, designed "to present the natural, cultural, and historical resources of our national parks," is a nice surrogate for an in-person jaunt. On the homepage, visitors can select a park or theme from several dozen headings, including National Mall, Whiskeytown, Glaciers, and Devils Tower. Within each area, visitors can examine a series of high-quality images, along with four or five sections that address different aspects of each topic or specific park. Perhaps the most useful elements of the site are the very fine resources for teachers. Clicking on the Teachers' Lounge area will bring up a number of high-quality educational articles, lesson plans, and educational standards guidelines. All told, there are 14 different lesson plans here, which are complemented by links to external resources and additional readings. [KMG

186

Tour of Park Geology: Colorado Plateau  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides links to geology fieldnotes about National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas that are part of the Colorado Plateau. Each park site provides links to visitor information, photographs, park maps, multimedia resources, and teacher features (tools for teaching geology with National Park examples). Some of the areas linked to this site include: Dinosaur National Monument, Mesa Verde National Park, and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area.

187

Adiponectin and IL-6  

PubMed Central

Aim The objective of the study was to identify the association if any, of inflammatory markers (adiponectin and IL-6) with fasting glucose in normoglycemic (healthy), prediabetic (impaired fasting glucose), and hyperglycemic (diabetic) people in Indian population. Methods Total 162 volunteers were distributed into 3 groups (normoglycemic, individuals with impaired fasting glucose, and hyperglycemic) as per ADA criterion. The blood chemistry parameters were analyzed and serum adiponectin and IL-6 levels were measured by ELISA. Results Significant reduction was observed in serum adiponectin level in hyperglycemic and impaired fasting glucose population compared with normoglycemic population. Significant reduction in adiponectin was also observed in impaired fasting glucose group compared with hyperglycemic group. Similarly significant increase was also observed in IL-6 level in hyperglycemic and impaired fasting glucose groups compared with normoglycemic group. Conclusions From our data it can be summarized that there is a significant change in both adiponectin (reduction) and IL-6 (increase) levels in normoglycemic (healthy), prediabetic (impaired fasting glucose), and hyperglycemic (diabetic) population in Indian population. There is a significant but gradual change during the progression of healthy toward diabetic population via pre-diabetic condition.

Upadhyaya, Smitha; Kadamkode, Vinitha; Mahammed, Rafi; Doraiswami, Chandraprabha; Banerjee, Gautam

2014-01-01

188

Helping You Buy ILS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the fourth in a series of articles published annually by "Computers in Libraries" surveying integrated library systems and services (ILSs). The purpose of the annual survey is to enable comparison of the ILSs that are available. ILS vendors are in constant pursuit of an ever-changing, consistently vague definition of what the…

Cibbarelli, Pamela R.

2010-01-01

189

Interleukin-13 (IL-13) Pathway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interleukin-13 (IL-13), like IL-4, is a cytokine produced by TH2 type helper T cells in response to signaling through the T cell antigen receptor and by mast cells and basophils upon cross-linkage of the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE). It is also produced by activated eosinophils. IL-13 induces many of the same responses as IL-4 and shares a receptor subunit with IL-4. IL-13 has been implicated in airway hypersensitivity and mucus hypersecretion, inflammatory bowel disease, and parasitic nematode expulsion.

Ann Kelly-Welch (Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center and University of Maryland;Program in Oncology and Department of Microbiology and Immunology REV); Erica M. Hanson (University of Maryland Baltimore County;Department of Biology REV); Achsah D. Keegan (Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center and University of Maryland;Program in Oncology and Department of Microbiology and Immunology REV)

2005-07-19

190

IL28A, IL28B, and IL29: Promising cytokines with type I interferon-like properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-28A, IL-28B and IL-29 (also designated type III interferons) constitute a new subfamily within the IL-10–interferon family. They are produced by virtually any nucleated cell type, particularly dendritic cells, following viral infection or activation with bacterial components, and mediate their effects via the IL-28R1\\/IL-10R2 receptor complex. Although IL-28\\/IL-29 are closer to the IL-10-related cytokines in terms of gene structure, protein

Katrin Witte; Ellen Witte; Robert Sabat; Kerstin Wolk

2010-01-01

191

Cleaning National Parks: Using Environmentally Preferable Janitorial Products at Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the process that the National Park Services and two consultants used at Yellowstone National Park to introduce environmentally preferable cleaning products. Grand Teton National Park implemented a similar program started in April 199...

S. Wakefiled A. Ferre

2000-01-01

192

Comparison of serum NO, TNF-?, IL1?, sIL2R, IL6 and IL8 levels with grades of retinopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Vitreal interleukin (IL)-1beta (IL-1?), IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and nitric oxide (NO) levels have previously been determined in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). However, at present there is no cohort study linking serum levels of NO and many inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-1?, soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R), IL-6 and IL-8 to the grade of the

S Doganay; C Evereklioglu; H Er; Y Türköz; A Sevinç; N Mehmet; H ?avli

2002-01-01

193

IL-33 Enhanced the Proliferation and Constitutive Production of IL-13 and IL-5 by Fibrocytes  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-33 appears to play important roles in the induction of allergic airway inflammation. However, whether IL-33 is involved in airway remodeling remains unclear. Because fibrocytes contribute to tissue remodeling in the setting of chronic inflammation, we examined the effects of IL-33 on fibrocyte functions. Fibrocytes were generated in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by culturing in the presence of platelet derived growth factors and the cells were stimulated with IL-33. IL-33 enhanced cell proliferation, ?-SMA expression, and pro-MMP-9 activity by the fibrocytes without increasing endogenous transforming growth factor-?1 production. Fibrocytes constitutively expressed IL-13 and IL-5, and their production was augmented by stimulation with IL-33. Dexamethasone inhibited the functions of fibrocytes, but IL-33 made fibrocytes slightly refractory to the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone in terms of IL-13 production. Montelukast suppressed IL-13 production by nonstimulated fibrocytes but not those stimulated by IL-33. These findings suggest that IL-33 is involved in the airway remodeling process through its modulation of fibrocyte function independent of antigen stimulation. IL-33 might partially reduce the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoid and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist on fibrocyte-mediated Th2 responses.

Hayashi, Hisako; Kawakita, Akiko; Okazaki, Shintaro; Murai, Hiroki; Yasutomi, Motoko; Ohshima, Yusei

2014-01-01

194

IL-33 enhanced the proliferation and constitutive production of IL-13 and IL-5 by fibrocytes.  

PubMed

Interleukin-33 appears to play important roles in the induction of allergic airway inflammation. However, whether IL-33 is involved in airway remodeling remains unclear. Because fibrocytes contribute to tissue remodeling in the setting of chronic inflammation, we examined the effects of IL-33 on fibrocyte functions. Fibrocytes were generated in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by culturing in the presence of platelet derived growth factors and the cells were stimulated with IL-33. IL-33 enhanced cell proliferation, ?-SMA expression, and pro-MMP-9 activity by the fibrocytes without increasing endogenous transforming growth factor-?1 production. Fibrocytes constitutively expressed IL-13 and IL-5, and their production was augmented by stimulation with IL-33. Dexamethasone inhibited the functions of fibrocytes, but IL-33 made fibrocytes slightly refractory to the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone in terms of IL-13 production. Montelukast suppressed IL-13 production by nonstimulated fibrocytes but not those stimulated by IL-33. These findings suggest that IL-33 is involved in the airway remodeling process through its modulation of fibrocyte function independent of antigen stimulation. IL-33 might partially reduce the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoid and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist on fibrocyte-mediated Th2 responses. PMID:24822215

Hayashi, Hisako; Kawakita, Akiko; Okazaki, Shintaro; Murai, Hiroki; Yasutomi, Motoko; Ohshima, Yusei

2014-01-01

195

Influence of Myelopeptides on IL-1 and IL-2 Activities.  

PubMed

Myelopeptides are immunoregulatory molecules originally isolated from porcine bone marrow cell culture. The influence of synthetic analogous of these peptides on IL-1 and IL-2 activities was studied. Myelopeptide-1 but not myelopeptide-2 replaced IL-1 activity in a test of costimulation of thymocyte proliferation in the presence of mitogen. Conversely, myelopeptide-2, but not myelopeptide-1, stimulated both production of IL-2 by murine splenocytes and IL-2-dependent proliferation of CTLL-2 cell line. The enhancing effect of myelopeptide-2 on IL-2-associated processes was the most pronounced at the early stages of cell activation. The resting T cells stimulated with suboptimum doses of concanavalin A and activated T cells, expressing low level of IL-2R, were sensitive to myelopeptide-2 action. The possible role of myelopeptides in differentiation of T0 helper into T1 helper and T2 helper is discussed. PMID:12687052

Svirshchevskaya, E. V.; Belevskaya, R. G.; Roslavtzeva, T. A.; Sapozhnikov, A. M.; Mikhailova, A. A.

1997-04-01

196

Euler-Lagrange Modeling of Vortex Interaction with a Particle-Laden Turbulent Boundary Layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotorcraft operation in austere environments can result in difficult operating conditions, particularly in the vicinity of sandy areas. The uplift of sediment by rotorcraft downwash, a phenomenon known as brownout, hinders pilot visual cues and may result in a potentially dangerous situation. Brownout is a complex multiphase flow problem that is not unique and depends on both the characteristics of the rotorcraft and the sediment. The lack of fundamental understanding constrains models and limits development of technologies that could mitigate the adverse effects of brownout. This provides the over-arching motivation of the current work focusing on models of particle-laden sediment beds. The particular focus of the current investigations is numerical modeling of near-surface fluid-particle interactions in turbulent boundary layers with and without coherent vortices superimposed on the background flow, that model rotorcraft downwash. The simulations are performed with two groups of particles having different densities both of which display strong vortex-particle interaction close to the source location. The simulations include cases with inter-particle collisions and gravitational settling. Particle effects on the fluid are ignored. The numerical simulations are performed using an Euler- Lagrange method in which a fractional-step approach is used for the fluid and with the particulate phase advanced using Discrete Particle Simulation. The objectives are to gain insight into the fluid-particle dynamics that influence transport near the bed by analyzing the competing effects of the vortices, inter-particle collisions, and gravity. Following the introduction of coherent vortices into the domain, the structures convect downstream, dissipate, and then recover to an equilibrium state with the boundary layer. The particle phase displays an analogous return to an equilibrium state as the vortices dissipate and the boundary layer recovers, though this recovery is slower than for the fluid and is sensitive to the particle response time. The effects of inter-particle collisions are relatively strong and apparent throughout the flow, being most effective in the boundary layer. Gravitational settling increases the particle concentration near the wall and consequently increase inter-particle collisions.

Morales, Fernando

197

Mesa Verde National Park: Educational Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service site contains general information on planning a visit to the park; information on plants, animals, geology, cliff dwellings, surface archaeological sites, and history of the park; and a classroom activities section. School group activities at the park include identifying geologic formations, seeing museum videos and dioramas, going on trails and tours, and attending evening campground programs. Classroom activities involve the use of a park map, the development of ancestral Puebloan society from about AD 1 to AD 1300, and the history of the National Park Service.

198

Tour of Park Geology: Plate Tectonics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site provides links to geology field notes providing information about National Parks, National Monuments, and National Recreation Areas that have to do with plate tectonics. The site also has illustrations and descriptions of different plate boundaries. The parks are divided into categories depending on which type of plate boundary they are located on. This includes divergent boundaries(active and ancient), convergent boundaries (ocean-ocean, continent-continent, continent-ocean), transform faults, hot spots, and accreted terrains. Parks referenced include Virgin Islands National Park, Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, and many more.

199

Geology Fieldnotes: Badlands National Park, South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Badlands National Park, located in southwestern South Dakota, consists of 244,000 acres of sharply eroded buttes, pinnacles and spires blended with the largest, protected mixed grass prairie in the United States. Features include information on park geology, maps, photographs, visitor information, links to related publications, and lesson plans for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the Park's geologic history during the Eocene and Oligocene epochs and the rich fossil deposits found there. Maps of the park and the surrounding area are included.

200

IL-19, IL-20 and IL-24: potential therapeutic targets for autoimmune diseases.  

PubMed

IL-19, IL-20 and IL-24 are members of the IL-10 family of cytokines, the human IL-19, IL-20 and IL-24 genes are all located on the q32 region of chromosome 1, and the three cytokines also share a common receptor IL-20R1/IL-20R2 heterodimer. These cytokines due to the similarity and shared receptor usage, are quite overlapping in function. Recently, the available evidence has indicated that interaction of these cytokines with their receptors might exhibit pro-inflammatory effects on autoimmune diseases, particularly psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. Since an imbalance between anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to the development of autoimune diseases, these cytokines may be implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. In this paper, we concisely discuss the biological features of IL-19, IL-20 and IL-24, and focus on their potential roles in autoimmune diseases. Hopefully the information obtained will lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis and development of novel therapeutic strategies for autoimmune diseases. PMID:21073280

Leng, Rui-Xue; Pan, Hai-Feng; Tao, Jin-Hui; Ye, Dong-Qing

2011-02-01

201

Bibliography of Doctor Chul Park  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains a comprehensive bibliography of the published works, and a short biography, of Dr. Chul Park. The contents of this bibliography were compiled primarily from the NASA RECON data base. The RECON citations have been modified to appear in a uniform format with all other listed citations . These other citations were located by computer searches in the INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, and Chemical Abstracts data bases, as well as through the cooperation of Dr. Chul Park, and his associates in the Reacting Flow Environments Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. All citations are presented in an approximate reverse chronological order from the present date. This work was created to honor the occasion of Dr. Chul Park's retirement on December 14, 1994, after 27 years of distinguished government service at the NASA Ames Research Center.

Gochberg, Lawrence A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Park, Chul

1995-01-01

202

IL-17 Promotes Murine Lupus.  

PubMed

The proinflammatory activity of IL-17-producing Th17 cells has been associated with the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. In this article, we provide direct evidence for a role of IL-17 in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The induction of SLE by pristane in IL-17-sufficient wild-type mice did not occur in IL-17-deficient mice, which were protected from development of lupus autoantibodies and glomerulonephritis. The protection from SLE in IL-17-deficient mice was associated with a reduced frequency of CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative T cells and an expansion of CD4(+) regulatory T cells, and did not depend on Stat-1 signaling. These data affirm the key role of IL-17 in the pathogenesis of SLE and strengthen the support for IL-17 blockade in the therapy of SLE. PMID:24920843

Amarilyo, Gil; Lourenço, Elaine V; Shi, Fu-Dong; La Cava, Antonio

2014-07-15

203

36 CFR 7.37 - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Historical Park. 7.37 Section 7.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.37 Jean Lafitte...

2013-07-01

204

36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.78 Harpers Ferry...

2013-07-01

205

Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks Action Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As participants in the Climate Friendly Parks program, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks belong to a network of parks that are putting climate friendly behavior at the forefront of sustainability planning in national parks. By conducting an emission...

2013-01-01

206

IL17A- versus IL17F-induced intracellular signal transduction pathways and modulation by IL17RA and IL17RC RNA interference in rheumatoid synoviocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to compare the effects of interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-17F on gene expression and signalling in human rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviocytes.MethodsIL-17A- and IL-17F-induced mRNA expression was analysed using Affymetrix microarrays. IL-6 and IL-8 secretion was evaluated by ELISA. Inhibition of two receptors (IL-17RA and IL-17RC) was achieved by small interfering RNA (saran). The effects on

Arnaud Hot; Saloua Zrioual; Myew-Ling Toh; Vanina Lenief; Pierre Miossec

2011-01-01

207

A complex of the IL1 homologue IL1F7b and IL18-binding protein reduces IL18 activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-1F7 was discovered in expressed sequence tag databases as a member of the increasing family of proteins sharing sequence homology to IL-1\\/, IL-1Ra, and IL-18. In the present study using immunohistochemical staining, IL-1F7 was localized in human peripheral monocytic cells, suggesting its role in immune regulation. Recombinant human IL-1F7b was shown to bind to the IL-18R but without IL-18 agonistic

Philip Bufler; Tania Azam; Fabia Gamboni-Robertson; Leonid L. Reznikov; Sanjay Kumar; Charles A. Dinarello; Soo-Hyun Kim

2002-01-01

208

Guadalupe Mountains National Park - Historic Resource Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report includes basic historical data relating to Guadalupe Mountains National Park. While the report was written to assist the park planners, much of the information is also of general interest. The study identifies the historical themes relevant to ...

1971-01-01

209

National Park Service Paleontolological Research. Volumne 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During this last year of the century, the list of National Park Service areas identified with paleontological resources has grown to 134. Along with redwoods, grizzlies, geysers, and ancient ruins, the national parks preserve a remarkable record of life e...

V. L. Santucci L. McClelland

1999-01-01

210

Vandalism Control Management for Parks and Recreation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vandalism nationally costs park and recreation departments over $500 million a year. This handbook, therefore, is designed to help park and recreation administrators systematically address vandalism as a management issue with solutions that have been prov...

M. L. Christiansen

1983-01-01

211

Hearts' N' Parks: Community Mobilization Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hearts N' Parks is a national, community-based program supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA). It is designed to help local agencies promote heart healthy lifestyle change...

2001-01-01

212

Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

Ruehrwein, Dick

213

Interleukin-18 and IL-18 Binding Protein  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines. Similar to IL-1?, IL-18 is synthesized as an inactive precursor requiring processing by caspase-1 into an active cytokine but unlike IL-1?, the IL-18 precursor is constitutively present in nearly all cells in healthy humans and animals. The activity of IL-18 is balanced by the presence of a high affinity, naturally occurring IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP). In humans, increased disease severity can be associated with an imbalance of IL-18 to IL-18BP such that the levels of free IL-18 are elevated in the circulation. Increasing number of studies have expanded the role of IL-18 in mediating inflammation in animal models of disease using the IL-18BP, IL-18-deficient mice, neutralization of IL-18, or deficiency in the IL-18 receptor alpha chain. A role for IL-18 has been implicated in several autoimmune diseases, myocardial function, emphysema, metabolic syndromes, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, hemophagocytic syndromes, macrophage activation syndrome, sepsis, and acute kidney injury, although in some models of disease, IL-18 is protective. IL-18 plays a major role in the production of interferon-? from T-cells and natural killer cells. The IL-18BP has been used safely in humans and clinical trials of IL-18BP as well as neutralizing anti-IL-18 antibodies are in clinical trials. This review updates the biology of IL-18 as well as its role in human disease.

Dinarello, Charles A.; Novick, Daniela; Kim, Soohyun; Kaplanski, Gilles

2013-01-01

214

Geology Fieldnotes: Capitol Reef National Park, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Capitol Reef National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, visitor information, and a teacher feature (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). Geologic data includes descriptions of the Waterpocket Fold, a monocline formed in the Laramide Orogeny and made of sedimentary rock. Also covered is erosion, and details about the Cathedral Valley outcrop of gypsum. This formation is Permian to Cretaceous in age (270-80 million years old).

215

Nature and Science at Canyonlands National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) website highlights the environment and ecosystems found in Canyonlands National Park. Topics include animals in the park (amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish and mammals), plant life (cacti, grasses, lichens, mosses, liverworts, trees, shrubs and wildflowers), environmental factors (air quality, invasive species, endangered fish, noise pollution, peregrine falcons and bighorn sheep), and natural features (deserts, pools, rivers and stream, geology). Links are provided to downloadable brochures and reports on park research activities and additional information on wildlife and plants.

216

The planning of environmental logistics park  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the opening of China's efforts to increase, the service levels of logistics industry should be improved and more powerful logistics park should be built. Logistics park is important infrastructures to modern logistics industry, at present, logistics parks is land development hot issue own to its superiority on accumulative and radiation effect. For the railway as a less polluting in

Ping Guo; Desheng Zhang

2010-01-01

217

Geology Fieldnotes: Virgin Islands National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) website discusses the geology of Virgin Islands National Park, examining the coral reefs that line this park, forests of the island, and the history of the area. There are maps and photos, and links to visitor information and additional resources.

218

Parking, energy consumption and air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impacts of different ways of parking on environmental effects, mainly vehicle emissions and air pollution. Vehicle energy consumption and the urban air quality at street level, related to location and design of parking establishments, need to be assessed and quantified. In addition, the indoor parking environment needs attention.This paper gives a description of a methodological approach

Paul G. Höglund

2004-01-01

219

Geology Fieldnotes: Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) website examines the geology of Kenai Fjords National Park in Alaska. It highlights the glacier-carved valleys, 1964 Alaskan earthquake, nunataks (peaks), and wildlife of the park. There are links to visitor information, maps, and additional resources.

220

Moon Park: A research and educational facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moon Park has been proposed as an International Space Year (ISY) event for international cooperative efforts. Moon Park will serve as a terrestrial demonstration of a prototype lunar base and provide research and educational opportunities. The kind of data that can be obtained in the Moon Park facilities is examined taking the minimum number of lunar base residents as an example.

Kuriki, Kyoichi; Saito, Takao; Ogawa, Yukimasa

1992-01-01

221

Yellowstone National Park Online Slide File  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website contains thousands of photographs of the Park. Images are organized by category including fire, thermal features, mammals, park structures, petrified trees, water, weather, scenics, and more. The photographs may be freely downloaded and more are being added through time.

Park, Yellowstone N.

222

IL22 and IL17: Common and different properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies over the last few years have shown that a subpopulation of T helper cells called Th17 cells play a major role\\u000a in both the defense against certain microbes and the development and maintenance of chronic inflammatory diseases. IL-22,\\u000a IL-17A, and IL-17F may be the most important effector mediators of this novel cell population. This chapter illuminates the\\u000a common

Robert Sabat; Katrin Witte; Kerstin Wolk

223

Serum IL8 and IL12 levels in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukins (ILs) are known to play a fundamental role in cancer. We investigated the serum levels of IL-8 and IL-12, in\\u000a breast cancer patients, and their relationship with the prognostic parameters and therapy. Fortyeight patients with pathologically\\u000a verified breast carcinoma and 21 healthy controls were enrolled into the study. Serum samples were obtained at baseline and\\u000a after two cycles of

Duygu Derin; Hilal Oguz Soydinc; Nese Guney; Faruk Tas; Hakan Camlica; Derya Duranyildiz; Vildan Yasasever; Erkan Topuz

2007-01-01

224

UV - RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK NC  

EPA Science Inventory

Brewer 087 is located in Research Triangle Park NC, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instru...

225

Egmont National Park, New Zealand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lush forests of Egmont National Park, on New Zealand's North Island, contrast with the pasturelands outside the circular park boundaries. The unique shape of the park results from its first protection in 1881, which specified that a forest reserve would extend in a 9.6 km radius from the summit of Mt. Taranaki (named Mt. Egmont by Captain Cook). The park covers about 33,500 hectares and Mt. Egmont stands at 2518 m. The volcano began forming 70,000 years ago, and last erupted in 1755. A series of montane habitats occur in procession up the flanks of the volcano-from rainforest, to shrubs, to alpine, and finally snow cover. Image STS110-726-6, was taken by Space Shuttle crewmembers on 9 April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

226

LeDroit Park Conserved.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document serves as a guide for historic restoration and is addressed to all residents of the LeDroit Park Historic District. The guide describes the history of the area from its beginning after the Civil War as an affluent white suburb, its evolution ...

1979-01-01

227

Symmetry in the Car Park  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents a lesson on rotational symmetry which she developed for her students. The aim of the lesson was "to identify objects with rotational symmetry in the staff car park" and the success criteria were "pictures or sketches of at least six objects with different orders of rotation". After finding examples of…

Hancock, Karen

2007-01-01

228

Rosa Parks: The Movement Organizes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This biography for younger readers describes the life of Rosa Parks, the Alabama black woman whose refusal to give up her seat on a segregated bus helped establish the civil rights movement. The book is introduced by an overview of the movement by Andrew Young and a timeline indicating major historical events from 1954 through 1968. Highlights in…

Friese, Kai

229

Possible relations between the polymorphisms of the cytokines IL19, IL20 and IL24 and plaque-type psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of present study was to elucidate the role of the interleukin (IL)-24 gene in predicting risk for plaque-type psoriasis and to describe the linkage disequilibrium (LD) pattern emerging from the genes of IL-19, IL-20 and IL-24. Genes encoding IL-19, IL-20 and IL-24 locate in the region q32 of chromosome 1. The association between the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or

S Kõks; K Kingo; K Vabrit; R Rätsep; M Karelson; H Silm; E Vasar

2005-01-01

230

IL33 Induces IL9 Production in Human CD4+ T Cells and Basophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-33, an IL-1 family member and ligand for the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2, has been associated with induction of Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Here, we report that IL-33 can initiate IL-9 protein secretion in vitro in human CD4+ T cells and basophils isolated from peripheral blood. TGF-? has been described as a critical factor for IL-9

Lars Blom; Britta C. Poulsen; Bettina M. Jensen; Anker Hansen; Lars K. Poulsen

2011-01-01

231

IL15R? Recycles and Presents IL15 In trans to Neighboring Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report intriguing aspects of the contribution of IL-15R? to IL-15 functions. Consistent with high-affinity interactions between IL-15 and IL-15R?, these two molecules form stable complexes on the cell surface of activated monocytes. The formation of IL-15\\/IL-15R? complexes on cell surfaces induces a trans-endosomal recycling of IL-15 leading to the persistence of surface-bound IL-15 due to the constantreappearance of IL-15

Sigrid Dubois; Jennifer Mariner; Thomas A Waldmann; Yutaka Tagaya

2002-01-01

232

Seattle Parks & Recreation Sherwood History Files  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Seattle Parks & Recreation Sherwood History Files are the work of one Donald N. Sherwood, who worked as an engineer for the department for 22 years. In the course of his work, he began compiling sketch maps of the parks, and annotating them with historical tidbits and other pieces of information. Also, he began writing individual histories for each facility when the information didn't quite fit on the maps. This site afford interested parties access to these remarkable and truly unusual documents. All told, there are over 80 separate files here, documenting unique pieces of the Seattle parks landscape, including Alki Beach Park, Golden Gardens Park, and the celebrated Gas Works Park on Lake Union. For anyone with an interest in parks and recreation management or the Emerald City, this site will be a most welcome find.

2012-02-14

233

IL1 and IL18 receptors, and their extended family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytokines IL-1 and IL-18 are key molecules in both the innate and the adaptive immune response. Recently, important insights have been gained into the regulation of their functions. Moreover, it has become apparent that they are members of a larger family of related receptors, some of which can also be shown to contribute to host defense.

John E Sims

2002-01-01

234

IL-27 and IL-12 oppose pro-inflammatory IL-23 in CD4+ T cells by inducing Blimp1.  

PubMed

Central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity is regulated by the balance of pro-inflammatory cytokines and IL-10. Here we identify the transcriptional regulator Blimp1 as crucial to induce IL-10 in inflammatory T helper cells. Pre-committed Th17 cells respond to IL-27 and IL-12 by upregulating Blimp1 and adopt a Tr-1-like phenotype characterized by IL-10 and IFN-? production. Accordingly, Blimp1-deficient effector T cells fail to produce IL-10, and deficiency in Tr-1 cell function leads to uncontrolled Th17 cell-driven CNS pathology without the need to stabilize the Th17 phenotype with IL-23. IL-23 counteracts IL-27 and IL-12-mediated effects on Tr-1-development reinforcing the pro-inflammatory phenotype of Th17 cells. Thus, the balance of IL-23 vs IL-12/IL-27 signals into CD4(+) effector T cells determines whether tissue inflammation is perpetuated or resolves. PMID:24796719

Heinemann, Christina; Heink, Sylvia; Petermann, Franziska; Vasanthakumar, Ajithkumar; Rothhammer, Veit; Doorduijn, Elien; Mitsdoerffer, Meike; Sie, Christopher; Prazeres da Costa, Olivia; Buch, Thorsten; Hemmer, Bernhard; Oukka, Mohamed; Kallies, Axel; Korn, Thomas

2014-01-01

235

IL4 and IL13 Stimulate Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells to Release IL8  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokine networks are important in regulating the traffic of inflammatory cells in the airways. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) released by human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) is thought to be of particular importance in attracting neutrophils and monocytes to sites of inflammation. Increased release of IL-8 by HBECs in response to Th-1 cytokines such as TNF alpha and IL-1 beta may be an

I. St?íž; T. Mio; Y. Adachi; R. A. Robbins; D. J. Romberger; S. I. Rennard

1999-01-01

236

IL-24 transgenic mice: in vivo evidence of overlapping functions for IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24 in the epidermis.  

PubMed

IL-20 and IL-24 share two different heterodimeric receptors consisting of either IL-20R1 or IL-22R1 and a common IL-20R2 subunit, whereas IL-22 signals through IL-22R1/IL-10R2. However, until now, only IL-20 and IL-22 have been proven to play important roles in vivo in the epidermis where all four receptor subunits are expressed. In this study, we show that IL-24 transgenic mice manifest many similar phenotypes to that of IL-20 and IL-22, including neonatal lethality, epidermal hyperplasia, and abnormality in keratinocyte differentiation. These results support a largely redundant role in epidermal functions for IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24, which seem to be IL-22R1 dependent. Moreover, we show that IL-24 transgenic mice exhibit infiltrating macrophages in the dermis with concomitant increases in MCP-1 production from both keratinocytes in the epidermis and immune infiltrates in the adjacent dermal layer below. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the homodimeric IL-20R2 soluble receptor is a potent blocker for IL-24 and can be used to further dissect the crosstalk among the IL-20 family of cytokines in normal development as well as in autoimmune diseases. PMID:20061404

He, Miao; Liang, Peng

2010-02-15

237

IL-1? Suppresses Innate IL-25 and IL-33 Production and Maintains Helminth Chronicity  

PubMed Central

Approximately 2 billion people currently suffer from intestinal helminth infections, which are typically chronic in nature and result in growth retardation, vitamin A deficiency, anemia and poor cognitive function. Such chronicity results from co-evolution between helminths and their mammalian hosts; however, the molecular mechanisms by which these organisms avert immune rejection are not clear. We have found that the natural murine helminth, Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hp) elicits the secretion of IL-1? in vivo and in vitro and that this cytokine is critical for shaping a mucosal environment suited to helminth chronicity. Indeed in mice deficient for IL-1? (IL-1??/?), or treated with the soluble IL-1?R antagonist, Anakinra, helminth infection results in enhanced type 2 immunity and accelerated parasite expulsion. IL-1? acts to decrease production of IL-25 and IL-33 at early time points following infection and parasite rejection was determined to require IL-25. Taken together, these data indicate that Hp promotes the release of host-derived IL-1? that suppresses the release of innate cytokines, resulting in suboptimal type 2 immunity and allowing pathogen chronicity.

Zaiss, Mario M.; Maslowski, Kendle M.; Mosconi, Ilaria; Guenat, Nadine; Marsland, Benjamin J.; Harris, Nicola L.

2013-01-01

238

IL-1? suppresses innate IL-25 and IL-33 production and maintains helminth chronicity.  

PubMed

Approximately 2 billion people currently suffer from intestinal helminth infections, which are typically chronic in nature and result in growth retardation, vitamin A deficiency, anemia and poor cognitive function. Such chronicity results from co-evolution between helminths and their mammalian hosts; however, the molecular mechanisms by which these organisms avert immune rejection are not clear. We have found that the natural murine helminth, Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hp) elicits the secretion of IL-1? in vivo and in vitro and that this cytokine is critical for shaping a mucosal environment suited to helminth chronicity. Indeed in mice deficient for IL-1? (IL-1?(-/-)), or treated with the soluble IL-1?R antagonist, Anakinra, helminth infection results in enhanced type 2 immunity and accelerated parasite expulsion. IL-1? acts to decrease production of IL-25 and IL-33 at early time points following infection and parasite rejection was determined to require IL-25. Taken together, these data indicate that Hp promotes the release of host-derived IL-1? that suppresses the release of innate cytokines, resulting in suboptimal type 2 immunity and allowing pathogen chronicity. PMID:23935505

Zaiss, Mario M; Maslowski, Kendle M; Mosconi, Ilaria; Guenat, Nadine; Marsland, Benjamin J; Harris, Nicola L

2013-01-01

239

National Association for Olmsted Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1980, the National Association for Olmsted Parks (NAOP) is a coalition of various design and preservation professionals concerned with the legacy of landscape work left by noted landscape designer Frederick Law Olmsted Sr. and his colleagues. On their website, visitors can learn about Olmsted's primary works via a master list of design projects by his firm and some profiles of some of his most prominent work, including Central Park and the landscape at the Biltmore Estate. Scholars will want to look through the "Research" area for resources that include a set of suggested links and an extensive bibliography. Visitors will also want to look at the "News and Publications" area for more details about the NAOP's work and their newsletter.

240

Parks and golf course workers.  

PubMed

Most of the work done by parks and golf course workers is performed outside, and they are subject to risks similar to those of other outdoor workers, such as temperature and weather-related problems, infectious diseases, and poisonous plants, snakes, and spiders. They are also exposed to physical hazards related to noise and operation of heavy equipment. Chemical hazards result from use of pesticides and solvents. This chapter reviews pertinent OSHA regulations, pre-placement strategies, and medical surveillance exams, and recommends preventive programs. More research is needed to determine specific hazards and work-related injury and illness rates for parks and golf course workers, so that effective preventive programs can be designed. PMID:11107230

Duvall, K

2001-01-01

241

The Bronx Park Postcard Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the years since its origins in the late 1880s, the Bronx Park has been expanded several times. In 1891, the city of New York allotted 250 acres of the park to the New York Botanical Garden, and in 1897 assigned 250 more to the Bronx Zoo. This particular digital collection brings together postcards of the grounds held by the Wildlife Conservation Society Library and the Garden's LuEsther T. Mertz Library. The collection here includes over 450 postcards, which visitors can browse by subject headings, including Zoo animals, Paths and walkways, and Bronx River. The Zoo animals area is well worth a look, as it features a range of animals, including a Noah's Ark exhibit, camels, and Indian elephants. It's an amazing archive of documents related to one of the most famous zoos in the United States, and historians and others will find it quite marvelous.

242

National Park Service Web Cameras  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Park Service (NPS) operates digital cameras at many parks in the lower 48 states, Alaska, and Hawaii to help educate the public on air quality issues. These cameras often show the effects of air pollution, especially visibility impairment. Because the cameras are typically located near air quality monitoring sites, their web pages display other information along with the photo, such as current levels of ozone, particulate matter, or sulfur dioxide, visual range, and weather conditions. The digital photos are usually updated every 15 minutes, while air quality data values are revised hourly. Charts of the last ten days of hourly weather, ozone, particulate matter, or sulfur dioxide data are also available. The cameras are accessible by clicking on an interactive map.

243

Oregon State Parks and Recreation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What can you do in the great Oregon outdoors? From the world of Cannon Beach to the wild and rugged Snake River, the experiences are diverse, to say the least. The homepage features dramatic vistas, isolated lighthouses, and a whole range of wonderful images to entice visitors. In the Visit area, there is an interactive map of the state that will help plan any trip. Here visitors can select Activities and Facilities to look for specific amenities. Moving along, the Event Calendar area allows visitors to look for upcoming events at a specific park or by category. Policy folks will appreciate the About Us area, as it includes detailed information on the Oregon Parks and Recreation Department's budget, their annual report, information about upcoming initiatives, and construction projects.

244

Science Enabled by the Ares V: A Large Monolithic Telescope Placed at the Second Sun-Earth Lagrange Point  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The payload mass and volume capabilities of the planned Ares V launch vehicle provide the science community with unprecedented opportunities to place large science payloads into low earth orbit and beyond. One example, the outcome of a recent study conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, is a large, monolithic telescope with a primary mirror diameter of 6.2 meters placed into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point, or L2, approximately 1.5 million kin beyond Earth's orbit. Operating in the visible and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, such a large telescope would allow astronomers to detect bio-signatures and characterize the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets, provide high resolution imaging three or more times better than the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope, and observe the ultraviolet light from warm baryonic matter.

Hopkins, Randall C.; Stahl, H. Philip

2007-01-01

245

Bridgeview Park facility solar retrofit  

SciTech Connect

The weatherization and insulation of a presently unheated frame park building and the installation of a Trombe wall on the south side of the structure for passive solar heating are planned. The major objectives of the project are to increase the exposure of local residents and visitors to passive solar technology and to demonstrate the applicability of passive solar technology to residential, commercial and recreational buildings. Some changes in the original plans are discussed. Five blueprints illustrate the planned improvements. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-01-01

246

Coordinating OBS Parks in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within Europe there are more than 380 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) distributed across 10 instrument parks in 6 countries. At least 120 of these OBS are wideband or broadband, over 260 can be deployed for at least 6 months at a time and 140 for at least one year. New parks are planned in two other European countries, which should add over 70 OBSs to this "fleet". However, these parks are under the control of individual countries or universities and hence to date this has made it difficult to organize large-scale experiments, especially for seismologists without marine experience. There has recently been an initiative to coordinate the use of these distributed instruments and their data products, to encourage large-scale experiments, possibly with onshore and offshore components, by seismologists who have not necessarily used OBSs before. The ongoing or planned developments include: Helping scientists with marine-specific formalities such as ship requests; clearer explanations of the noise floors of OBS instrumentation; improved clarity of instrument pricing and availability; standardized data output formats and data validation; and archiving in established seismological data centers. These efforts should allow improved experiment design in scientifically interesting regions with an offshore component and an easier, clearer way to organize large-scale, multi-country experiments. We will present details of this initiative to help organize large-scale experiments, the particularities of OBS sensors and marine deployments, the available instrumentation and new developments.

Crawford, W.; Brisbourne, A.; D'Anna, G.; Flüh, E. R.; Galve, A.; Graindorge, D.; Harmon, N.; Henstock, T.; Klingelhöfer, F.; Mangano, G.; Matias, L.; Peirce, C.; Sallares, V.; Schmidt-Aursch, M.; Tilmann, F.; Voss, P.

2012-04-01

247

The IL-23/IL-17 axis in psoriatic arthritis.  

PubMed

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease, affecting both the skin and joints. Disease progression is associated with aberrant cytokine expression, and TNF blockade is the most successful therapy to date. However, not all patients are responsive to anti-TNF treatment, highlighting the need to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern the disease. PsA associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL23R as well as TRAF3IP2 (Act1), a molecule downstream of the IL-17 receptor (IL-17R), have linked the IL-23/IL-17 axis to disease pathology. Although both cytokines are implicated in PsA, a full picture of their cellular targets and pathogenic mechanisms has not yet emerged. In this review, we focus on the IL-23/IL-17 axis-elicited responses mediated by osteoclasts, keratinocytes and neutrophils. Expanding our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that dictate pathogenicity in PsA will contribute to developing novel treatment strategies to combat disease. PMID:24424175

Suzuki, Erika; Mellins, Elizabeth D; Gershwin, M Eric; Nestle, Frank O; Adamopoulos, Iannis E

2014-01-01

248

Pivotal Roles of T-Helper 17-Related Cytokines, IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23, in Inflammatory Diseases  

PubMed Central

T-helper 17 (Th17) cells are characterized by producing interleukin-17 (IL-17, also called IL-17A), IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-22 and potentially TNF-? and IL-6 upon certain stimulation. IL-23, which promotes Th17 cell development, as well as IL-17 and IL-22 produced by the Th17 cells plays essential roles in various inflammatory diseases, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, colitis, and Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of the functional role of Th17 cells, with particular focus on the Th17 cell-related cytokines such as IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23, in mouse models and human inflammatory diseases.

Qu, Ning; Xu, Mingli; Mizoguchi, Izuru; Furusawa, Jun-ichi; Kaneko, Kotaro; Watanabe, Kazunori; Mizuguchi, Junichiro; Itoh, Masahiro; Kawakami, Yutaka; Yoshimoto, Takayuki

2013-01-01

249

IL1H, AN INTERLEUKIN 1RELATED PROTEIN THAT BINDS IL18 RECEPTOR\\/IL1Rrp  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-18, or IGIF (interferon-gamma inducing factor), is an IL-1-related, pro-inflammatory cytokine, which plays a pivotal role in systemic and local inflammation. We have identified and characterized IL-1H, a novel IL-1-related molecule. IL-1H appears to be expressed in most tissues with relatively high levels in testis, thymus and uterus. The IL-1H transcripts were stimulated by phorbol ester (PMA) in human cell

Guohua Pan; Phillip Risser; Weiguang Mao; Daryl T. Baldwin; Alan W. Zhong; Ellen Filvaroff; Dan Yansura; Lhney Lewis; Charles Eigenbrot; William J. Henzel; Richard Vandlen

2001-01-01

250

INTERLEUKIN18 (IL18) And IL18 binding protein (IL18bp) And acute graft versus host disease (Gvhd)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously demonstrated increased levels of soluble interferon-? receptor (SIFN-?R) and interferon-? (IFN-?) in pts with acute GVHD post SCT. IL-18 is an obligatory cytokine for IFN-? production, while IL-18BP is an inhibitor of IL-18 mediated induction of IFN-?. We have now studied IL-18 and IL-18BP levels in pts undergoing SCT. IL-18 was assessed in the sera of 20

A. Nagler; D. Novick; G. Zecchina; S. Slavin; C. A. Dinarello; V. Barak

2000-01-01

251

IFN  regulates IL21 and IL21R expression in human NK and T cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin (IL)-21 is a T cell-derived cytokine that regulates innate and adaptive im- mune responses. IL-21 receptor (IL-21R), which is expressed in natural killer (NK) and T cells, is structurally homologous to IL-2R and IL-15R. These receptors also share a common cytokine receptor -chain with IL-4, IL-7, and IL-9. Mac- rophage- or dendritic cell-derived interferon (IFN)-\\/ is a key cytokine

Mari Strengell; Ilkka Julkunen; Sampsa Matikainen

2004-01-01

252

Association analysis of IL20RA and IL20RB genes in psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interleukin-20-receptor I complex (IL-20-RI) is composed of two chains, IL20RA and IL20RB. Its ligands are the three members of the IL19 subfamily of cytokines, IL-19, IL-20 and IL-24. These cytokines are important in the manifestation of psoriatic lesions and, recently, an association of polymorphisms of IL20 with psoriasis has been described. In the present study we tested the hypotheses

K Kingo; R Mössner; R Rätsep; K Raud; U Krüger; H Silm; E Vasar; K Reich; S Kõks

2008-01-01

253

Geology Fieldnotes: Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Theodore Roosevelt National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the Park's geologic history and the region's role in shaping Theodore Roosevelt's conservation efforts while he was President. The section also contains a link to information on the geology of Theodore Roosevelt National Park. The park maps section contains an area map as well as two maps detailing the North and South Units of the Park.

254

National Park Service, Nature & Science: Teacher Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Park Service has developed this exemplary set of educational resources which draws on their greatest assets, namely national parks from Maine to Utah. The materials are specifically designed for teaching geology, but it's easy to see how these items could be incorporated into general science classes. The main area on their homepage features over a dozen teacher guides and park programs that feature detailed geology lessons that draw on the landscapes of Yosemite National Park and the dynamic volcanoes of Hawaii. On the right side of the page, visitors can scan through the "Highlights" area to learn more about online park images, park maps, and even peruse a calendar of upcoming educator workshops. The site is rounded out by the "Geology Books and Media" area, which features information about technical reports, textbooks, and geology-themed children's books.

255

Water resources management plan: Great Basin National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enabling legislation creating Great Basin National Park calls for the National Park Service (NPS) to protect, manage, and administer the park in such manner as to conserve and protect the scenery as well as the natural, geologic, historic, and archaeological resources of the park. NPS policies require that each unit of the National Park System develop and implement a

R. W. Jacobs; M. Flora

1994-01-01

256

Geology Fieldnotes: Death Valley National Park, California/Nevada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Death Valley National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology using National Park examples). The Park Geology section contains an exaggerated cross-section showing the vertical rise within Death Valley. A link is provided to Death Valley's expanded geology page.

257

Geology Fieldnotes: Arches National Park, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This park is located on the Colorado Plateau near Moab, Utah, and contains many arches and sculpted sedimentary rocks. The visible rock formations in the park are the Entrada and Navajo sandstones. Covered topics include the formation of arches in stages, different types of arches, as well as sizes and names (Delicate Arch being the most famous). The site also provides visitor information, photos, maps, additional links, and a teacher feature (tools for teaching geology with National Park examples).

Foos, Annabelle

258

USGS Repeat Photography Project: Glacier National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project, conducted by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), documents changes over time in the landscape of Glacier National Park, particularly the retreat of the park's glaciers. The project involves pairing historic photos from the park's archives with recent photos to illustrate how the landscape has changed. Users can view and download the photos in pairs with dates and a caption describing the scene and the changes that have taken place.

259

Prostaglandin mediates IL-23/IL-17-induced neutrophil migration in inflammation by inhibiting IL-12 and IFN? production  

PubMed Central

IL-23/IL-17-induced neutrophil recruitment plays a pivotal role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the mechanism of the neutrophil recruitment is obscure. Here we report that prostaglandin enhances the IL-23/IL-17-induced neutrophil migration in a murine model of RA by inhibiting IL-12 and IFN ? production. Methylated BSA (mBSA) and IL-23-induced neutrophil migration was inhibited by anti-IL-23 and anti-IL-17 antibodies, COX inhibitors, IL-12, or IFN? but was enhanced by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). IL-23-induced IL-17 production was increased by PGE2 and suppressed by COX-inhibition or IL-12. Furthermore, COX inhibition failed to reduce IL-23-induced neutrophil migration in IL-12- or IFN?-deficient mice. IL-17-induced neutrophil migration was not affected by COX inhibitors, IL-12, or IFN? but was inhibited by MK886 (a leukotriene synthesis inhibitor), anti-TNF?, anti-CXCL1, and anti-CXCL5 antibodies and by repertaxin (a CXCR1/2 antagonist). These treatments all inhibited mBSA- or IL-23-induced neutrophil migration. IL-17 induced neutrophil chemotaxis through a CXC chemokines-dependent pathway. Our results suggest that prostaglandin plays an important role in IL-23-induced neutrophil migration in arthritis by enhancing IL-17 synthesis and by inhibiting IL-12 and IFN? production. We thus provide a mechanism for the pathogenic role of the IL-23/IL-17 axis in RA and also suggest an additional mechanism of action for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Lemos, Henrique P.; Grespan, Renata; Vieira, Silvio M.; Cunha, Thiago M.; Verri, Waldiceu A.; Fernandes, Karla S. S.; Souto, Fabricio O.; McInnes, Iain B.; Ferreira, Sergio H.; Liew, Foo Y.; Cunha, Fernando Q.

2009-01-01

260

IL-15/IL-15Ralpha intracellular trafficking in human melanoma cells and signal transduction through the IL-15Ralpha.  

PubMed

There are two IL-15 isoforms and eight isoforms for the IL-15Ralpha chain whose biological role is poorly understood. Here, we have analysed the intracellular trafficking of IL-15 and IL-15Ralpha and tried to shed some light on their function(s). In IL-15/GFP CHO transfectants both IL-15 isoforms show nuclear localization. Two melanoma cell lines (MELP and MELREO) spontaneously expressing the IL-15 isoforms, display different intracellular trafficking of the IL-15/IL-15Ralpha complex. In MELP cells only IL-15Ralpha is detected inside the nucleus, whereas IL-15 and IL-15Ralpha assemble at the cell surface and are internalized. Moreover, the transducing molecule TRAF2 co-immunoprecipitates with IL-15Ralpha and may be deflected to TNFRI using anti-IL-15 blocking mAbs and TNF-alpha. By contrast, MELREO cells display IL-15Ralpha and IL-15 nuclear localization but only a partial co-localization of these molecules on the cell surface. In these cells, TRAF2 is strongly associated with IL-15Ralpha and cannot be deflected by any treatment. Since TRAF2 activates the transcription factor NF-kappaB, IL-15 through IL-15Ralpha, could have a role in the control of this pathway. Indeed, anti-IL-15 MaB inhibit the constitutive nuclear localization of NFkappaB and the phosphorylation of its inhibitor Ikappa-Balpha. Thus, IL-15Ralpha controls NF-kappaB activation, however differences in the intracellular trafficking of the IL-15 and/or IL-15Ralpha suggest a different biological role for this complex in MELP versus MELREO cells. PMID:11064452

Pereno, R; Giron-Michel, J; Gaggero, A; Cazes, E; Meazza, R; Monetti, M; Monaco, E; Mishal, Z; Jasmin, C; Indiveri, F; Ferrini, S; Azzarone, B

2000-10-26

261

Phenotype and frequency of cells secreting IL2, IL4, IL6, IL10, IFN and TNF-? in human peripheral blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenotype and frequency of cells in normal human peripheral blood spontaneously secreting IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFN and TNF-? ex vivo was determined using ELIspot assays. CD4+T cells were the dominant source of IL-2 and IL-4 while multiple cell types (primarily CD8+lymphocytes) produced IFN. Fewer than 0.05% of mononuclear cells were spontaneously secreting these T cell derived factors. By

Eri Hagiwara; Fatima Abbasi; Gil Mor; Yoshiaki Ishigatsubo; Dennis M. Klinman

1995-01-01

262

ParkNet: a mobile sensor network for harvesting real time vehicular parking information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the architecture and design of ParkNet, a mobile sensor network consisting of vehicles, which collects and disseminates real-time information about the availability of parking spaces in urban areas. We outline the broad challenges in real-time data collection and consumption by a mobile sensor network, as well as the design issues specific to ParkNet. Sensor nodes in ParkNet

Suhas Mathur; Sanjit Kaul; Marco Gruteser; Wade Trappe

2009-01-01

263

Neighborhood Poverty, Park Use, and Park-Based Physical Activity in a Southern California City  

PubMed Central

A rich literature indicates that individuals of lower socio-economic status engage in less leisure time physical activity than individuals of higher socio-economic status. However, the source of the difference is believed to be, in part, due to differential access to resources that support physical activity. However, it has not been shown as to whether equal access to parks can mitigate differences in leisure time physical activity. Using systematic direct observation, we quantified physical activity in neighborhood parks in a large Southern California city located in areas with high, medium, and a low percentage of households in poverty. We documented how neighborhood parks are managed and programmed and also interviewed both a sample of park users and a random sample of households within a mile radius of the parks. We found that parks are used less in high-poverty areas compared to medium- and low-poverty area parks, even after accounting for differences in size, staffing, and programming. The strongest correlates of park use were the number of part time staff, the number of supervised and organized programs, and knowing the park staff. Perceptions of safety were not relevant to park use among those interviewed in the park, however it had a small relationship with reported frequency of park use among local residents. Among park users, time spent watching electronic media was negatively correlated with the frequency of visiting the park. Future research should test whether increasing park staffing and programming will lead to increased park use in high-poverty neighborhoods.

Cohen, Deborah; Han, Bing; Derose, Kathryn; Williamson, Stephanie; Marsh, Terry; Rudick, Jodi; McKenzie, Thomas L.

2013-01-01

264

Tour of Park Geology: Sand Dunes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Park Geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas with sand dunes. Where appropriate for each park, links are provided to maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as Death Valley and Mojave National Preserve, along with less well-known areas such as the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore in Michigan and the Wright Brothers National Memorial in North Carolina.

265

Pupils and Parks: Environmental Education in National Parks of Developing Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two conservation education programs that target local primary schools and use national parks in Malaysian Borneo (Kinabalu Park) and central Brazil (Morro do Diabo Park). Both were designed using a comprehensive systems evaluation model and both resulted in cognitive and affective gains for students. (LB)

Jacobson, Susan K.; Padua, Suzana M.

1992-01-01

266

Water Resources Management Plan: Arches National Park & Canyonlands National Park, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Park Service recognizes the importance of preserving, conserving, and protecting water resources within its boundaries. Water resources, whether as large as the Colorado River or as small as a seep in Ernie's Country of Canyonlands National Park, play a distinctive role in linking ecosystems and , in general, provide habitat for a number of organisms. To protect park

Lynn Cudlip; Kevin Berghoff; David Vana-Miller

1999-01-01

267

Development of Models for Park Rangers' Perceived Isolation of National Park Service Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asurvey of U.S. National Park Service (NPS) rangers examined perceived isolation, personality, and organizational variables. Park areas in a variety of isolated and nonisolated settings were sampled. Statistical indices in this study address issues of isolation previously noted as important in NPS areas. Indices relating to park distance from small urban areas reflect substantial elements of perceived isolation ratings. Models

Barrett Caldwell

1990-01-01

268

The US National Park Service's partnership parks: collaborative responses to middle landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, the US National Park Service (NPS) has been an uneasy, often unwelcome, presence in rural communities. Broader recent acceptance of non-traditional types of national park units has opened the door to more positive collaborative relationships between the NPS and rural communities. I present three case studies of ‘partnership parks’ that vary from extensive federal land ownership while retaining traditional

Elisabeth M Hamin

2001-01-01

269

Parks as Resources for Knowledge in Science (PARKS) National Program Evaluation Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document evaluates the Parks as Resources for Knowledge in Science (PARKS) project which supports environmental education in 36 National Parks across the United States and provides curriculum-based learning opportunities that integrate National Science Education Standards for teachers and students. Contents include: (1) "Executive…

Wiltz, L. Kate

270

Variola virus IL18 binding protein interacts with three human IL18 residues that are part of a binding site for human IL18 receptor alpha subunit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-18 (IL-18) plays an important role in host defense against microbial pathogens. Many poxviruses encode homologous IL-18 binding proteins (IL-18BP) that neutralize IL-18 activity. Here, we examined whether IL-18BP neutralizes IL-18 activity by binding to the same region of IL-18 where IL-18 receptor (IL-18R) binds. We introduced alanine substitutions to known receptor binding sites of human IL-18 and found that

Xiangzhi Meng; Michael Leman; Yan Xiang

2007-01-01

271

Amphibians of Olympic National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Amphibians evolved from fishes about 360 million years ago and were the first vertebrates adapted to life on land. The word amphibian means "double life." It refers to the life history of many amphibians, which spend part of their life in water and part on land. There are three major groups of amphibians: salamanders, frogs, and toads, and caecilians. Salamanders, frogs, and toads can be found in Olympic National Park (ONP), but caecilians live only in tropical regions. Many amphibians are generalist predators, eating almost any prey they can fit into their mouths.

U.S. Geological Survey

2000-01-01

272

Everglades National Park: Educational Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational resource from the Everglades National Park provides a variety of activities for grades K-6. Covering a wide variety of life science subjects, lesson plans include habitat, food chains, biodiversity, and more. A geography lesson is included, but is most applicable for those living in Florida. There are lots of additional teacher resources for honing up on Everglades-related topics, as well as reading lists for students and teachers. These lesson plans provide some good information that can be incorporated into science or geography classrooms, regardless of where the students live.

2007-11-28

273

Il museo virtuale dei mosaici  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nell'ambito del progetto internazionale di ricerca GIANO (acronimo di Grafica Innovativa per il patrimonio Artistico Nazionale e per l'Occupazione giovanile), promosso e coordinato dall'ENEA di Bologna, è stato realizzato un sistema informatico prototipale per la gestione e la fruizione di decorazioni musive. Il progetto si è posto, come obiettivo principale, quello di sfruttare le potenzialità insite nelle più progredite tecniche

Giuseppe Maino; Daniele Visparelli

274

Interleukin-4 (IL-4) Pathway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a cytokine produced by TH2 type helper T cells and by mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils. This cytokine can elicit many responses, some of which are associated with allergy and asthma. Studies with long-term cell lines and primary cells have revealed differences in the signaling between these two experimental systems. Understanding these differences is important because therapeutic strategies targeting IL-4 and its signaling pathways are currently being tested to treat allergy and asthma.

Ann Kelly-Welch (University of Maryland and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center;Program in Oncology at Marlene and Department of Microbiology and Immunology REV); Erica M. Hanson (University of Maryland Baltimore County;Department of Biology REV); Achsah D. Keegan (University of Maryland and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center;Program in Oncology at Marlene and Department of Microbiology and Immunology REV)

2005-07-19

275

36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...accompanied by a uniformed National Park Service employee. However, the...demonstrable value to the National Park Service in its management or...

2013-07-01

276

36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...supervision of employees of the National Park Service, no person shall enter any...demonstrable value to the National Park Service in its management or...

2013-07-01

277

36 CFR 7.22 - Grand Teton National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...September 14, 1950, which the National Park Service recognized as base lands appurtenant...grazing recognized by the National Park Service. (iv) If title to...

2010-07-01

278

36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01...Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...taking into consideration public health and safety, natural and cultural resource...

2013-07-01

279

Structural analysis of cytokines comprising the IL10 family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) family of cytokines includes a number of its viral homologs and eight cellular cytokines (IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, IL-28A, IL-28B, and IL-29). The latter three proteins are also known as IFN-?2, IFN-?3, and IFN-?1, and are recognized as type III (or ?) interferons. Most of the cellular homologs of IL-10 are monomeric in solution, whereas IL-10 and

Alexander Zdanov

2010-01-01

280

United States Park Police: A History.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Park Police is a unique organization within the National Park Service (NPS). It is the oldest NPS component, predating its adoptive parent by half a century (or more, some would argue). Its personnel wear distinctive uniforms, perform sp...

B. Mackintosh

1989-01-01

281

NATIONAL PARK SITING AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice of a site for a national park includes an evaluation of the natural beauty and value of the physical geography as well as socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding area. For some parks, consideration of the human geography was of little import because of the sparse population, but in other cases (primarily in the East), whole communities were displaced

Margaret F. Boorstein

1992-01-01

282

PARKING MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR REDUCING AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report defines the concept of parking management and explores how parking management can be used to improve air quality, support mass transit, reduce energy consumption and improve the amenities of life in urban areas. Specific aspects of this analysis were developments of a...

283

How Safe Are School and Park Playgrounds?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Playgrounds traditionally have been found in both schools and parks in America. Each year, parent-teacher associations and school administrations, as well as park and recreation departments, spend millions of dollars to provide playground structures. However, since 1981, HPER professionals and the public have become increasingly aware that these…

Hudson, Susan D.; Thompson, Donna; Olsen, Heather

2005-01-01

284

Logistics service quality evaluation on logistics park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Logistics parks as infrastructures promoting modern logistics, have an extremely important role in the modern logistics system. This article firstly analyses the logistics services process of logistics parks, and finds out the elements of logistics services quality. Then, the paper designs a service quality evaluation model through analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation methods. The evaluation model could help

Feng Ning; Zhang Mingli; Tang Saili

2011-01-01

285

Geology Fieldnotes: Keweenaw National Historic Park, Michigan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service site provides geological history, visitor information, maps, and selected links for further details. This park is located on the Keweenaw Peninsula on Lake Superior in Michigan, situated on a 1.1 billion year old (Precambrian) continental rift. The history is traced back to the days of copper mining by the Calumet and Hecla Mining Company.

286

Design of Parking Lots and Garages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Layout, control, and sign posting in the design of parking facilities is discussed emphasizing self parking and automated control. Considerations such as site, traffic, function of the facility, city codes, and sizes are related to design considerations. Traffic control factors are related to the direction and placement of cars and the collection…

McConochie, William R.

287

Private Sector Thinking Saves Park U.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recounts the restructuring and resulting survival of Park University (Missouri) over the last decade. A process of evaluating the university's competitive strategy resulted in changes in tuition pricing; development of the Park School of Distance Learning, which serves primarily military installations; minority student marketing; and development…

Breckon, Donald; Gibb, John

2000-01-01

288

Fuzzy Parking Manoeuvres of Wheeled Mobile Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with the parking manoeuvres problem for a wheeled mobile robot (WMR). The robot has the same non-holonomic kinematic constraint that has a car vehicle. This constraint makes the robot having its direction always tangent to the trajectory. Two sub-cases of parking problems are considered. These are forward and backward maneuvers, aiming to stabilize the robot at a

Amar KHOUKHI; Luc BARON; Marek BALAZINSKI

2007-01-01

289

Geologic Education in Some Wisconsin State Parks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is a geology education program which includes hikes, lectures, naturalist training sessions, workshops, writing, collecting, upgrading park facilities, and producing exhibits in state parks in the Lake Michigan District of Wisconsin. The importance of public education and sources of public information are stressed. (CW)

Schneider, Allan F.

1989-01-01

290

Instruction and Delight: Theme Parks and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education continues to operate as an enclave of elite culture and is battling for interest and respect with the mass media, technology, and the popular arts. These cultures must be brought together. Using the creative ideas generated by theme parks is an effective method of importing popular culture into the schools. Theme parks provide a total…

King, Margaret J.

291

iParking: An Intelligent Indoor Location-Based Smartphone Parking Service  

PubMed Central

Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution.

Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang

2012-01-01

292

IL1 Receptor Accessory Protein and ST2 Comprise the IL33 Receptor Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-33 (IL-1F11) is a recently described member of the IL-1 family of cytokines that stimulates the generation of cells, cytokines, and Igs characteristic of a type 2 immune response. IL-33 mediates signal transduction through ST2, a receptor expressed on Th2 and mast cells. In this study, we demonstrate that IL-33 and ST2 form a complex with IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP),

Alissa A. Chackerian; Elizabeth R. Oldham; Erin E. Murphy; Jochen Schmitz; Stefan Pflanz; Robert A. Kastelein

293

IL10 fails to inhibit the production of IL18 in response to inflammatory stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-10 is an inhibitor of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-12 and IL-1?, but it is not known whether it can inhibit the production of IL-18. Therefore, a variety of in vivo and in vitro models were used to determine whether IL-10 is an inhibitor of IL-18 production. Infection of IL-10?\\/? mice with Toxoplasma gondii results in increased

Valerie P Zediak; Christopher A Hunter

2003-01-01

294

Interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and IL-8 predict mucosal toxicity of vaginal microbicidal contraceptives.  

PubMed

Inflammation of the female reproductive tract increases susceptibility to HIV-1 and other viral infections and, thus, it becomes a serious liability for vaginal products. Excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines may alter the mucosal balance between tissue destruction and repair and be linked to enhanced penetration and replication of viral pathogens upon chemical insult. The present study evaluates four surface-active microbicide candidates, nonoxynol-9 (N-9), benzalkonium chloride (BZK), sodium dodecyl sulfate, and sodium monolaurate for their activity against human sperm and HIV, and their capacity to induce an inflammatory response on human vaginal epithelial cells and by the rabbit vaginal mucosa. Spermicidal and virucidal evaluations ranked N-9 as the most potent compound but were unable to predict the impact of the compounds on vaginal cell viability. Interleukin (IL)-1 release in vitro reflected their cytotoxicity profiles more accurately. Furthermore, IL-1 concentrations in vaginal washings correlated with cumulative mucosal irritation scores after single and multiple applications (P < 0.01), showing BZK as the most damaging agent for the vaginal mucosa. BZK induced rapid cell death, IL-1 release, and IL-6 secretion. The other compounds required either more prolonged or repeated contact with the vaginal epithelium to induce a significant inflammatory reaction. Increased IL-8 levels after multiple applications in vivo identified compounds with the highest cumulative mucosal toxicity (P < 0.01). In conclusion, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8 in the vaginal secretions are sensitive indicators of compound-induced mucosal toxicity. The described evaluation system is a valuable tool in identifying novel vaginal contraceptive microbicides, selecting out candidates that may enhance, rather than decrease, HIV transmission. PMID:15128598

Fichorova, R N; Bajpai, M; Chandra, N; Hsiu, J G; Spangler, M; Ratnam, V; Doncel, G F

2004-09-01

295

Geologic Heritage in the National Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is geologic heritage, you ask? In short, it "encompasses the significant geologic features, landforms, and landscapes characteristic of our Nation." The National Park Service has a special program to document these sites and to provide the public with resources about these unique destinations. The materials here are divided into four featured programs: Fossil Resources, Geologic Heritage Conservation, Park Geology Tour, and Cave and Karst Resources. Using the Park Geology Tour, visitors can search through thematic areas such as glaciers, fossils, and plate tectonics to find highlights from a vast array of National Park units. The Cave and Karst Resources program brings together resources on some of the over 4,900 caves in the National Park system, along with detailed photo galleries, newsletters, and brochures. Finally, under Fossil Resources visitors can find information about National Fossil Day and even helpful lesson plans for teachers.

2013-03-22

296

Characterization and Favorable in Vivo Properties of Heterodimeric Soluble IL-15?IL-15R? Cytokine Compared to IL-15 Monomer*  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-15 (IL-15), a 114-amino acid cytokine related to IL-2, regulates immune homeostasis and the fate of many lymphocyte subsets. We reported that, in the blood of mice and humans, IL-15 is present as a heterodimer associated with soluble IL-15 receptor ? (sIL-15R?). Here, we show efficient production of this noncovalently linked but stable heterodimer in clonal human HEK293 cells and release of the processed IL-15·sIL-15R? heterodimer in the medium. Purification of the IL-15 and sIL-15R? polypeptides allowed identification of the proteolytic cleavage site of IL-15R? and characterization of multiple glycosylation sites. Administration of the IL-15·sIL-15R? heterodimer reconstituted from purified subunits resulted in sustained plasma IL-15 levels and in robust expansion of NK and T cells in mice, demonstrating pharmacokinetics and in vivo bioactivity superior to single chain IL-15. These identified properties of heterodimeric IL-15 provide a strong rationale for the evaluation of this molecule for clinical applications.

Chertova, Elena; Bergamaschi, Cristina; Chertov, Oleg; Sowder, Raymond; Bear, Jenifer; Roser, James D.; Beach, Rachel K.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Felber, Barbara K.; Pavlakis, George N.

2013-01-01

297

Interaction network mapping among IL-32 isoforms.  

PubMed

IL-32 has been studied for its pleiotropic effects ranging from host immune responses to cell differentiation. Although several IL-32 isoforms have been characterized for their effects on cells, the roles of the others remain unclear. We previously reported that IL-32? interacted with IL-32? and inhibited IL-32?-mediated IL-10 production. Thus, we performed comprehensive analyses to reveal more interactions between IL-32 isoforms in this study. We screened the interactions of 81 combinations of nine IL-32 isoforms by using a yeast two-hybrid assay, which identified 13 heterodimeric interactions. We verified these results by using reciprocal immunoprecipitation assays and reconfirmed 10 interactions, and presented the interaction network map between IL-32 isoforms. Our data suggest that IL-32 may have diverse intracellular effects through the interactions with its different isoforms. PMID:24472437

Kang, Jeong-Woo; Park, Yun Sun; Lee, Dong Hun; Kim, Man Sub; Bak, Yesol; Ham, Sun Young; Park, Su Ho; Kim, Heejong; Ahn, Joong Hoon; Hong, Jin Tae; Yoon, Do-Young

2014-06-01

298

Treatment of acoustic fluid-structure interaction by Localized Lagrange Multipliers and comparison to alternative interface coupling methods.  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a sequel on the topic of localized Lagrange multipliers (LLM) for applications of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between finite-element models of an acoustic fluid and an elastic structure. The prequel paper formulated the spatial-discretization methods, the LLM interface treatment, the time-marching partitioned analysis procedures, and the application to 1D benchmark problems. Here, we expand on formulation aspects required for successful application to more realistic 2D and 3D problems. Additional topics include duality relations at the fluid-structure interface, partitioned vibration analysis, reduced-order modeling, handling of curved interface surfaces, and comparison of LLM with other coupling methods. Emphasis is given to non-matching fluid-structure meshes. We present benchmark examples that illustrate the benefits and drawbacks of competing interface treatments. Realistic application problems involving the seismic response of two existing dams are considered. These include 2D modal analyses of the Koyna gravity dam, transient-response analyses of that dam with and without reduced-order modeling, incorporation of nonlinear cavitation effects, and the 3D transient-response analysis of the Morrow Point arch dam.

Felippa, Carlos A. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Sprague, Michael A. (University of California, Merced, CA); Ross, Michael R.; Park, K. C. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO)

2008-11-01

299

Numerical Analysis of the Dynamics of Two- and Three-Dimensional Fluidized Bed Reactors using an Euler-Lagrange Approach  

SciTech Connect

Biomass thermochemical conversion, often done in fluidized beds, recently gained a lot of attention due to its potential to efficiently produce renewable liquid fuels. Optimization of reactor design and operating conditions, however, requires a fundamental understanding of bed dynamics. In this work, a numerical framework based on an Euler-Lagrange approach is developed and used to perform and analyze large-scale simulations of two- and three-dimensional periodic fluidized beds. Collisions are handled using a soft-sphere model. An efficient parallel implementation allows one to explicitly track over 30 million particles, which is representative of the number of particles found in lab-scale reactor, therefore demonstrating the capability of Lagrangian approaches to simulate realistic systems at that scale. An on-the-fly bubble identification and tracking algorithm is used to characterize bubble dynamics for inlet velocities up to 9 times the minimum fluidization velocity. Statistics for gas volume fraction, gas and particle velocities, bed expansion, and bubble size and velocity, is compared across the two- and three-dimensional configurations, and comparison with literature data generally shows good agreement. The wide distribution of gas residence times observed in the simulations is linked to the different gas hold-up characteristics of the gas-solid system.

Pepiot, P.; Desjardins, O.

2012-04-01

300

Structure of IL22 Bound to Its High-Affinity IL22R1 Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-22 is an IL-10 family cytokine that initiates innate immune responses against bacterial pathogens and contributes to immune disease. IL-22 biological activity is initiated by binding to a cell-surface complex composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains and further regulated by interactions with a soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). IL-22R1

Brandi C. Jones; Naomi J. Logsdon; Mark R. Walter

2008-01-01

301

Role of IL18 in inflammatory diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-18 is a member of the interleukin (IL)-1 family. IL-1? and IL-18 are closely related, and both require the intracellular\\u000a cysteine protease caspase-1 for biological activity. Several autoimmune diseases are thought to be mediated, in part, by IL-18.\\u000a Many are those with associated elevated interferon-? (IFN-?) levels, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, macrophage activation\\u000a syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, psoriasis

Charles A. Dinarello

302

Cutting Edge: IL26 Signals through a Novel Receptor Complex Composed of IL20 Receptor 1 and IL10 Receptor 21  

Microsoft Academic Search

The receptor for IL-26 (AK155), a cytokine of the IL-10 family, has not previously been defined. We demonstrate that the active receptor complex for IL-26 is a heterodimer composed of two receptor proteins: IL-20R1 and IL-10R2. Signaling through the IL-26R results in activation of STAT1 and STAT3 which can be blocked by neutralizing Abs against IL-20R1 or IL-10R2. IL-10R2 is

Faruk Sheikh; Vitaliy V. Baurin; Anita Lewis-Antes; Nital K. Shah; Sergey V. Smirnov; Shubha Anantha; Harold Dickensheets; Laure Dumoutier; Jean-Christophe Renauld; Alexander Zdanov; Raymond P. Donnelly; Sergei V. Kotenko

303

A second-order time-accurate ALE Lagrange–Galerkin method applied to wind engineering and control of bridge profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a second-order time-accurate ALE formulation of Lagrange–Galerkin methods for the transient solution of Navier–Stokes equations for an incompressible fluid in a moving domain. Following a previous work [Rev. Européenne Élém. Finis 8 (1999) 659], we show that this time discretization, based on a backward differentiation formula and the construction of characteristic paths in a grid-relative

Gilles Fourestey; Serge Piperno

2004-01-01

304

The Transition from Three-Dimensional Embedding to Two-Dimensional Euler-Lagrange Deformation Tensor of the Second Kind: Variation of Curvature Measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the Stein formulation of changes of curvature parameters, we describe the changes of Riemann two-dimensional manifolds of surface geometries. The three-dimensional left and right Euclidean manifolds with the curvature parameters "geodetic curvature, normal curvature, geodetic torsion" characterize the embedding "Riemann to Euclid" or 2d into 3d. The variation in time of the Euler-Lagrange deformation tensor of the second kind, in short "curvature variation" is studied.

Grafarend, Erik W.

2012-08-01

305

A natural experiment to examine the impact of park renewal on park-use and park-based physical activity in a disadvantaged neighbourhood: the REVAMP study methods  

PubMed Central

Background Modifying the built environment by improving parks is potentially a sustainable way to increase population level physical activity. Despite considerable investment in parks and park renovations, few natural experiments on the impact of improving amenities on park use and park-based physical activity have been conducted. REVAMP is a natural experiment that aims to examine whether park improvement increases overall park usage, park-based physical activity and active travel to and from the park in the intervention compared with the control park over a two-year period; and to identify which specific aspects of the park refurbishment attracts park visitors and encourages park users to be more active. This paper describes the methods of the REVAMP study. Methods The intervention park is a large regional park (329 hectares) located in a low socio-economic status (SES) area in the north-eastern suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. The control park is a regional park (120 hectares) located in a high SES area in the eastern suburbs of Melbourne. Multiple methodologies to evaluate the impact of the park renovation are being employed including: cross-sectional surveys of local residents living near the two parks, direct observations of park users, intercept surveys with park users, and electronic monitoring of path usage and car traffic within the parks. Baseline measures were conducted in April-May 2013 (T1), and an innovative play space suitable for children of all ages and abilities was installed at the intervention park between September 2013 and February 2014. Follow-up measures will be repeated in April-May 2014 (T2) and April-May 2015 (T3). All methodologies will be completed at both the intervention and control parks at all three time-points, with the exception of the cross-sectional survey of local residents which will only be conducted at T1 and T3. Conclusion This research will inform future park developments, and will contribute to creating an evidence base of the impact of park refurbishment, and the development of natural experiment methodology. Trial Registration Current controlled trial ISRCTN50745547, registration date 11.1.2014.

2014-01-01

306

Happy Hollow Park and Zoo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Happy Hollow Park and Zoo participates in conservation and propagation of rare and endangered species by providing hands-on experience with many animals along with the education that's necessary to secure the future of endangered species. The Zoo is in partnership with a number of organizations, including the Belize Audubon Society, the Bushmeat Crisis Task Force, the Center for Ecosystem Survival, the Orangutan Conservancy, and the Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary, to help educate the public and raise funds to protect endangered species. The interactive exhibit, Backyard Habitat, was constructed in partnership with Watershed Watch by the Happy Hollow staff using conservation grant dollars. It provides visitors with ideas on how they might turn their own backyard into wildlife habitats. Guests may also obtain a handy pamphlet at this exhibit, Invite Wildlife Into Your Backyard. Educational programs also include Pre-K classes, teacher/classroom programs, camps, Scouts programs and Zoofaris guided tours.

307

New Literacies in Schome Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter I deploy a synthesis of methods I term virtual literacy ethnography to investigate the diverse literacy practices of the Schome Park project (SPP). This project worked with teenagers on the first European "closed" (i.e. protected) island in the 3D virtual world Teen Second LifeTM (TSL) as described in the previous chapter. Firstly I introduce an ethnographic perspective on this lengthy, rich project and reflect on my own interpretive approach. Introducing my own focus of interest, the new literacy practices fostered by the environment and in particular activities I judge to be especially creative, I begin to develop the methodology of a "virtual literacy ethnography". I show how the diverse multimodal affordances of the communicative domains are imaginatively exploited by the students, supported by peers and staff in an environment characterised by "fluid leadership". I include some analysis of literacy work around a genre traditionally valued by educators, a dictionary, which I was not involved in at the time. I suggest this is an exemplar literacy practice, creative in itself and illustrative of the methodological possibilities and of course limitations linked with the technologies utilised. Traditional distinctions between "reading" and "writing" become permeable in interesting ways as new creative practices, fostered by the environment of the Schome Park programme, emerged. I offer support for Kress's (2005) claim that changes in writing and reading practices amount to a "revolution in the world of communication." In conclusion, I claim that virtual literacy ethnography, as I have proposed it here, can be fruitful in exploring the complexity and creativity of the students' literacy practices, although more developmental work is needed.

Gillen, Julia

308

Cratylia mollis 1, 4 Lectin: A New Biotechnological Tool in IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 Induction and Generation of Immunological Memory  

PubMed Central

Cratylia mollis lectin has already established cytokine induction in Th1 and Th2 pathways. Thereby, this study aimed to evaluate Cramoll 1, 4 in IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 induction as well as analyze immunologic memory mechanism by reinducing lymphocyte stimulation. Initially we performed a screening in cultured splenocytes where Cramoll 1, 4 stimulated IL-6 production 5x more than ConA (P < 0.05). The same behavior was observed with IL-22 where the increase was greater than 4x. Nevertheless, IL-17A induction was similar for both lectins. In PBMCs, the same splenocytes course was observed for IL-6 and IL-17A. Concerning the stimulation of IL-22 and IL-23 Cramoll 1, 4 was more efficient than ConA in cytokines stimulation mainly in IL-23 (P < 0.01). Analyzing reinduced lymphocyte stimulation, IL-17A production was higher (P < 0.001) when the first stimulus was realized with Cramoll 1, 4 at 1??g/mL and the second at 5??g/mL. IL-22 shows significant differences (P < 0.01) at the same condition. Nevertheless, IL-23 revels the best response when the first stimuli was realized with Cramoll1, 4 at 100?ng/mL and the second with 5??g/mL. We conclude that the Cramoll 1, 4 is able to induce IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 cytokines in vitro better than Concavalin A, besides immunologic memory generation, being a potential biotechnological tool in Th17 pathway studies.

de Oliveira, Priscilla Stela Santana; Rego, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; da Silva, Rafael Ramos; Cavalcanti, Mariana Brayner; Galdino, Suely Lins; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

2013-01-01

309

Geology of Death Valley National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site of the United States Geologic Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS) highlights the geologic history of Death Valley National Park in Nevada and California. The story begins 1.8 billion years ago with the formation of rocks and continues through uplift, faulting, volcanism, early animals of the area, glaciers, and the making of deserts and dunes. A geologic timescale connects to specific events in the history of Death Valley. There are topographic maps of the area, a field trip of the park, an image gallery, and technical papers available to download.

310

Geology Fieldnotes: Yosemite National Park, California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site details Yosemite National Park in California with information such as geology, photographs, links to maps and other facts, and visitor information. Yosemite's landscape is shaped by alpine glaciation landforms such as moraines, plucking, scouring, and U-shaped valleys. Part of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, formation of the area began 500 million years ago (Cambrian). This site details the geologic history of the park up to the present time with continued evolution through weathering and erosion. Also discussed are the wilderness and vegetation (sub-alpine and Sequoia groves).

311

Terrain classification maps of Yellowstone National Park  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cooperative ERTS-1 investigation involving U. S. Geological Survey, National Park Service, and Environmental Research Institure of Michigan (ERIM) personnel has as its goal the preparation of terrain classification maps for the entire Yellowstone National Park. Excellent coverage of the park was obtained on 6 August 1972 (frame 1015-17404). Preliminary terrain classification maps have been prepared at ERIM by applying multispectral pattern recognition techniques to ERTS-MSS digital taped data. The color coded terrain maps are presented and discussed. The discussion includes qualitative and quantitative accuracy estimates and discussion of processing techniques.

Thomson, F. J.; Roller, N. E. G.

1973-01-01

312

A novel functional rabbit IL- 7 isoform  

PubMed Central

IL-7 is required for B cell development in mouse and is a key regulator of T cell development and peripheral T cell homeostasis in mouse and human. Recently, we found that IL-7 is expressed in rabbit bone marrow and in vitro, is required for differentiation of lymphoid progenitors to B and T lineage cells. Herein, we report the identification of a novel rabbit IL-7 isoform, IL-7II. Recombinant IL-7II (rIL-7II) binds lymphocytes via the IL-7R and induces phosphorylation of STAT5. Further, rIL-7II supports proliferation and differentiation of BM progenitor cells into B and T lineage cells. IL7-II is generated by alternative splicing, with an 11 amino acid insertion encoded by a separate exon, exon 2b. Exon 2b is conserved in other lagomorphs, in Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Carnivora, but is absent in mouse and human.

Siewe, Basile T.; Kalis, Susan L.; Esteves, Pedro J.; Zhou, Tong; Knight, Katherine L.

2010-01-01

313

Suggestions for China's Logistics Parks Based on Japan's Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan, as one of the most developed country in logistics field in the world, has developed its logistics parks earlier. This paper takes Japan's logistics park as the subject in research. By analyzing Japan's experiences of developing logistics parks, this paper tempts to find out problems in China's logistics parks and put forward suggestions for further development and construction .The

Fuhua Wang

2009-01-01

314

Study on the Layout Planning of Logistics Park Using SLP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Logistics park is a product of modem Logistics. One of the most important and fundamental problems about logistics park is the planning of logistics park. The reasonable layout planning of logistics park would effectively lower the work intensity and difficulty of internal logistics, which also would improve the competitive ability of enterprise. The influence of logistics sequence and amount of

Zhang Changsen

2010-01-01

315

Old People in Urban Parks: An Exploratory Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined how older adults in five large American cities use their local parks. Specifically, the study examined: (1) user motivation and satisfaction; (2) logistics of park use; (3) onsite behavior and attitudes; and (4) criticisms of the park environment. Implications for park management are given. (Author/PP)

Godbey, Geoffrey; Blazey, Michael

1983-01-01

316

Analysis of China's Logistics Parks Based on Germany's Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germany, as one of the most developed country in logistics field in the world, has developed its logistics parks earlier. This paper takes Germany's logistics park as the subject in research. By analyzing Germany's experiences of developing logistics parks, this paper tempts to find out problems in China's logistics parks and put forward suggestions for further development and construction.

Fuhua Wang

2009-01-01

317

36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

2013-07-01

318

Building for Quality Education--The Educational Park Concept.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speakers and discussions at this one day conference were dedicated to building for quality education, with major emphasis on the concept of educational parks. The five major speeches are--(1) Advantages and Disadvantages of Educational Parks, (2) Educational Parks: Appalachian Style, emphasizing a twist in the park idea in order to accommodate…

McClurkin, W.D.

319

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation problems stemming from expanding park visitation are a major concern of national park system officials. Visitor use during peak seasons strain the capacity of visitor facilities, park roads, and parking facilities and threaten sensitive natural and cultural resources. This article focuses on meeting the needs of visitors and the alternative means of transporting those visitors. Well-conceived visitor transportation systems

W D Byrne; E J Schumm

1995-01-01

320

36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...commercial automobiles and buses to Mesa Verde National Park, contained in §...

2009-07-01

321

36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...commercial automobiles and buses to Mesa Verde National Park, contained in §...

2010-07-01

322

36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7.2 Section 7...AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a) Fishing. Fishing in Crater Lake and park streams is permitted...

2010-07-01

323

36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7.2 Section 7...AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a) Fishing. Fishing in Crater Lake and park streams is permitted...

2009-07-01

324

9. VIEW FROM MANY PARKS CURVE (ON TRAIL RIDGE ROAD) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW FROM MANY PARKS CURVE (ON TRAIL RIDGE ROAD) OF HORSESHOE PARK, SHOWING FALL RIVER ROAD FAINTLY AT LEFT AT BASE OF SHEEP MOUNTAIN AND CROSSING ALLUVIAL FAN FROM LAWN LAKE FLOOD. - Fall River Road, Between Estes Park & Fall River Pass, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

325

36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7.2 Section 7.2...THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a) Fishing. Fishing in Crater Lake and park streams is permitted from May...

2013-07-01

326

Economic Benefits to Local Communities from National Park Visitation, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Park System received 278.9 million recreation visits in 2011. Park visitors spent $12.95 billion in local gateway regions (within roughly 60 miles of the park). Visitors staying overnight outside the park (in motels, hotels, cabins, and bed a...

E. Mahoney T. Herbowicz Y. Cui

2013-01-01

327

Parks and People: An Environmental Justice Inquiry in Baltimore, Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the distribution of parks in Baltimore, Maryland, as an environmental justice issue. In addition to established methods for measuring distribution of and access to parks, we employ a novel park service area approach that uses Thiessen polygons and dasymetric reapportioning of census data to measure potential park congestion as an equity outcome measure. We find that a

Christopher G. Boone; Geoffrey L. Buckley; J. Morgan Grove; Chona Sister

2009-01-01

328

Rural Latino Youth Park Use: Characteristics, Park Amenities, and Physical Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Less than half of youth engage in sufficient physical activity to achieve health benefits. Key environmental factors of park\\u000a and recreation spaces may influence youth physical activity. We sought to ascertain youth characteristics and behaviors that\\u000a attract youth to parks with specific amenities and encourage physical activity while at the parks in a rural, predominantly\\u000a Latino community. We examined the

Cynthia K. PerryBrain; Brain E. Saelens; Beti Thompson

2011-01-01

329

Brain IL-6 and autism.  

PubMed

Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication, and repetitive behavior and restricted interests. Emerging evidence suggests that aberrant neuroimmune responses may contribute to phenotypic deficits and could be appropriate targets for pharmacologic intervention. Interleukin (IL)-6, one of the most important neuroimmune factors, has been shown to be involved in physiological brain development and in several neurological disorders. For instance, findings from postmortem and animal studies suggest that brain IL-6 is an important mediator of autism-like behaviors. In this review, a possible pathological mechanism behind autism is proposed, which suggests that IL-6 elevation in the brain, caused by the activated glia and/or maternal immune activation, could be an important inflammatory cytokine response involved in the mediation of autism-like behaviors through impairments of neuroanatomical structures and neuronal plasticity. Further studies to investigate whether IL-6 could be used for therapeutic interventions in autism would be of great significance. PMID:23994594

Wei, H; Alberts, I; Li, X

2013-11-12

330

Azimuthal extent and properties of midtail plasmoids from two-point ARTEMIS observations at the Earth-Moon Lagrange points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

distant-tail plasmoids are perceived to extend across most of the magnetotail (~40 RE), recent studies in the near-Earth region (X > -30 RE) have revealed that near-Earth reconnection (where plasmoids originate) is likely localized and takes place preferentially on the duskside. This discrepancy in plasmoid azimuthal extent suggests that a plasmoid may grow as it moves from near-Earth to the distant tail. Comprehensive multipoint, midtail plasmoid observations can be used to test this hypothesis. Between October 2010 and July 2011 the ARTEMIS spacecraft (P1 and P2) at the Earth-Moon Lagrange points (midtail, X ~ -45 to -65 RE) provided simultaneous two-point observations across the magnetotail for 4 days every lunar month, with a large range of spacecraft separations (0.1 to 25 RE). We find that plasmoids near lunar orbit, like other near-Earth reconnection-related phenomena, occur preferentially on the duskside of the magnetotail. Two-point ARTEMIS observations reveal that the typical plasmoid azimuthal size in our data set is about 5 to 10 RE, much smaller than expected from previous distant-tail observations. Plasmoids with an azimuthal size greater than 9 RE also exist but only at geomagnetic activity levels higher (AEpeak > 400 nT) than typically found in our data set (median AEpeak ~ 230 nT for our plasmoid data set and median AE ~ 100 nT during the entire period of ARTEMIS magnetotail observations). We conclude that plasmoids during small to moderate substorms (AEpeak < 400 nT) do not grow beyond ~10 RE until they have moved tailward of ~ -45 to -65 RE. Plasmoids during large substorms (AEpeak > 400 nT), however, either grow beyond ~10 RE before they reach lunar distance or initially extend across a large portion of the magnetotail.

Li, S.-S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.; Kiehas, S. A.

2014-03-01

331

IL-12 family cytokines: immunological playmakers.  

PubMed

The interleukin 12 (IL-12) family is unique in having the only heterodimeric cytokines, including IL-12, IL-23, IL-27 and IL-35. This feature endows these cytokines with a unique set of connections and functional interactions not shared by other cytokine families. Despite sharing many structural features and molecular partners, cytokines of the IL-12 family mediate surprisingly diverse functional effects. Here we discuss the unique and unusual structural and functional characteristics of this cytokine family. We outline how cells might interpret seemingly similar cytokine signals to give rise to the diverse functional outcomes that characterize this cytokine family. We also discuss the therapeutic implications of this complexity. PMID:22814351

Vignali, Dario A A; Kuchroo, Vijay K

2012-08-01

332

Free IL-18 and IL-33 cytokines in chronic spontaneous urticaria.  

PubMed

Overproduction of IL-18 has been described in chronic urticaria. To evaluate free IL-18 and IL-33 in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). IL-18, its inhibitor IL-18BP, IL-33 and its soluble receptor ST2 (sST2) were measured (ELISA) in the sera of 73 CSU patients. Free IL-18 was calculated (law of mass action). Autologous serum skin test (ASST) was performed in all patients. Total IL-18, IL-18BP and free IL-18 serum levels were significantly higher in CSU than in controls. IL-18 and IL-18BP increased significantly in both ASST-positive and negative subgroups. Free IL-18 resulted significantly higher in the ASST-negative, but not in the ASST-positive subgroup. No differences in IL-33/sST2 levels were detected between CSU and controls. Increased levels of free IL-18 and IL-18BP, but not IL-33, was detected in CSU. Whether IL-18 up-regulation is a consequence of inflammation or one of the causes of the pathology needs to be addressed. PMID:23433789

Puxeddu, I; Italiani, P; Giungato, P; Pratesi, F; Panza, F; Bartaloni, D; Rocchi, V; Del Corso, I; Boraschi, D; Migliorini, P

2013-03-01

333

Spinal injection of IL-2 or IL-15 alters mechanical and thermal withdrawal thresholds in rats  

PubMed Central

IL-2 and IL-15 were tested for effects on responses to mechanical or thermal stimuli when spinally administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats with surgically implanted intrathecal catheters. Restricted doses of both IL-2 and IL-15 produced increased responsiveness to mechanical stimulation of the hindpaws. This effect lasted up to 48 hours. IL-2 had biphasic effects on thermal responses whereas IL-15 produced thermal hypalgesia alone. These effects dissipated within 24 hours. These results suggest that IL-2 and IL-15 may participate in the generation of hyperalgesia in some pain conditions.

Cata, Juan P.; Weng, Han-Rong

2009-01-01

334

Directing traffic: IL-17 and IL-22 coordinate pulmonary immune defense.  

PubMed

Respiratory infections and diseases are among the leading causes of death worldwide, and effective treatments probably require manipulating the inflammatory response to pathogenic microbes or allergens. Here, we review mechanisms controlling the production and functions of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-22, cytokines that direct several aspects of lung immunity. Innate lymphocytes (?? T cells, natural killer cells, innate lymphoid cells) are the major source of IL-17 and IL-22 during acute infections, while CD4(+) T-helper 17 (Th17) cells contribute to vaccine-induced immunity. The characterization of dendritic cell (DC) subsets has revealed their central roles in T-cell activation. CD11b(+) DCs stimulated with bacteria or fungi secrete IL-1? and IL-23, potent inducers of IL-17 and IL-22. On the other hand, recognition of viruses by plasmacytoid DCs inhibits IL-1? and IL-23 release, increasing susceptibility to bacterial superinfections. IL-17 and IL-22 primarily act on the lung epithelium, inducing antimicrobial proteins and neutrophil chemoattractants. Recent studies found that stimulation of macrophages and DCs with IL-17 also contributes to antibacterial immunity, while IL-22 promotes epithelial proliferation and repair following injury. Chronic diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been associated with IL-17 and IL-22 responses directed against innocuous antigens. Future studies will evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of targeting the IL-17/IL-22 pathway in pulmonary inflammation. PMID:24942687

McAleer, Jeremy P; Kolls, Jay K

2014-07-01

335

Regulation and function of IL-17A- and IL-22-producing ?? T cells  

PubMed Central

The regulation of IL-17A and IL-22 production differs between human and murine ?? T cells. We find that human ?? T cells expressing V?2V?2 T cell receptors are peripherally polarized to produce IL-17A or IL-22, much like CD4 ?? Th17 T cells. This requires IL-6, IL-1?, and TGF-?, whereas expansion and maintenance requires IL-23, IL-1?, and TGF-?. In contrast, IL-17A and IL-22 production by murine ?? T cells is innately programmed during thymic ontogeny but requires IL-23 and IL-1? for maintenance. Murine ?? cells producing IL-17A and IL-22 play important roles in microbial, autoimmune, and inflammatory responses. However, the roles played by human IL-17A- and IL-22-producing ?? T cells are less clear but are also likely to be important. These observations highlight differences between humans and murine ?? T cells and underscore the importance of IL-17A- and IL-22-producing ?? T cells.

Ness-Schwickerath, Kristin J.

2011-01-01

336

Urban region parks and black minorities: Subculture, marginality, and interracial relations in park use in the Detroit metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares participation in Detroit city parks and surrounding regional parks by black and white Detroit residents. Black Detroit residents participate more than whites in Detroit city parks, but less than whites in surrounding region parks. The paper explores a variety of explanations for these findings including “marginality”; (economic barriers), subcultural preferences, and interracial relations. Marginality plays some role

Patrick C. West

1989-01-01

337

Earth Parking Orbit and Translunar Injection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this slide presentation are to (1) Describe the general characteristics of the Earth Parking Orbit (EPO) and Translunar Injection (TLI) (2) List the general activities that occurred during EPO (4) State what went into verifying a working...

M. Interbartolo

2009-01-01

338

Yellowstone National Park Visitor Study, Summer 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This visitor study report profiles a systematic random sample of Yellowstone National Park (NP) visitors during July 23-29, 2011. In total, 1314 questionnaires were distributed to visitor groups. Of those, 900 questionnaires were returned, resulting in a ...

C. Kulesza J. Gramann S. J. Hollenhorst Y. Le

2012-01-01

339

National Park Service: Data and Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Park Service Data and Information Web site contains several helpful links for data related to the Parks. The Data Clearinghouse link has national and regional data sets such as civil war and land status data, local and regional historic and scenic trails data sets, and information on the Virgin Islands in a well designed and easily browseable format. The Interactive Map Center allows visitors to explore the National Parks using interactive interfaces, while other links explain the National Park Service's standards and specifications, and how to use metadata correctly with other data. The unique and limited scope of the data makes the site a good example of how the Web is increasingly becoming an excellent source for hard-to-find free information.

340

Metropolitan and Regional Parks. Phase II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second phase of the Council's Regional and Metropolitan Parks Report has re-evaluated the regional facilities of the phase one report in relation to new definitions, criteria, and standards; recently adopted goals, objectives, and policies; and variou...

L. D. Leitner

1971-01-01

341

32 CFR 263.10 - Parking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.10 Parking. (a) No person, unless otherwise authorized by a posted traffic sign or...

2013-07-01

342

Everglades National Park Annual Report, 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are pleased to submit this annual report for Everglades National Park. 1998 continued a record of progress in meeting the challenges and opportunities of preserving this great natural treasure for the benefit of current and future generations of Americ...

1998-01-01

343

Macroscopic car condensation in a parking garage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An asymmetric exclusion process type process, where cars move forward along a closed road that starts and terminates at a parking garage, displays dynamic phase transitions into two types of condensate phases where the garage becomes macroscopically occupied. The total car density ?o and the exit probability ? from the garage are the two control parameters. At the transition, the number of parked cars Np diverges in both cases, with the length of the road Ns, as Np~Nyps with yp=1/2. Towards the transition, the number of parked cars vanishes as Np~?? with ?=1, ?=|?-?*| or ?=|?*o-?o| being the distance from the transition. The transition into the normal phase represents also the onset of transmission of information through the garage. This gives rise to unusual parked car autocorrelations and car density profiles near the garage, which depend strongly on the group velocity of the fluctuations along the road.

Ha, Meesoon; den Nijs, Marcel

2002-09-01

344

15 CFR 265.17 - Parking permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND CONDUCT ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS & TECHNOLOGY, GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Traffic and Vehicular Regulations § 265.17 Parking permits. No person, except visitors, shall...

2009-01-01

345

Jackson Park Hospital Green Building Medical Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Jackson Park Hospital completed the construction of a new Medical Office Building on its campus this spring. The new building construction has adopted the City of Chicago's recent focus on protecting the environment, and conserving energy and resources, w...

N. Vasquez W. Dorsey

2010-01-01

346

Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the IL20IL20R1IL20R2 complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-20 (IL-20) is an IL-10-family cytokine that regulates innate and adaptive immunity in skin and other tissues. In addition to protecting the host from various external pathogens, dysregulated IL-20 signaling has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of human psoriasis. IL-20 signals through two cell-surface receptor heterodimers, IL-20R1-IL-20R2 and IL-22R1-IL-20R2. In this report, crystals of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 ternary complex

Naomi J. Logsdon; Christopher E. Allen; Kanagalaghatta R. Rajashankar; Mark R. Walter

2012-01-01

347

Jackson Park Hospital Green Building Medical Center  

SciTech Connect

Jackson Park Hospital completed the construction of a new Medical Office Building on its campus this spring. The new building construction has adopted the City of Chicago�s recent focus on protecting the environment, and conserving energy and resources, with the introduction of green building codes. Located in a poor, inner city neighborhood on the South side of Chicago, Jackson Park Hospital has chosen green building strategies to help make the area a better place to live and work.

William Dorsey; Nelson Vasquez

2010-03-01

348

IL-22 in tissue-protective therapy  

PubMed Central

IL-22, a member of the IL-10 cytokine family, has recently gained significant attention as a protective agent in murine models of diseases driven by epithelial injury. Like its biochemical and functional sibling IL-10, IL-22 elicits cellular activation primarily by engaging the STAT3 signalling pathway. Exclusively produced by leukocytes, but targeting mostly cells of epithelial origin, IL-22 has been proposed as a specialized cytokine messenger acting between leukocytic and non-leukocytic cell compartments. A lack of response in leukocytes to IL-22 mirrors tightly controlled IL-22 receptor expression and probably explains the apparent lack of instant adverse effects after systemic IL-22 administration to mice. Anti-apoptotic, pro-proliferative and pro-regenerative characteristics the major biological properties of this cytokine. Specifically, application of IL-22 is associated with tissue protection and/or regeneration in murine models of infection/microbe-driven inflammation at host/environment interfaces, ventilator-induced lung injury, pancreatitis and liver damage. Overall, preclinical studies would support therapeutic administration of seemingly well-tolerated recombinant IL-22 for treatment of an array of acute diseases manifested in epithelial tissues. However, the feasibility of prolonged administration of this cytokine is expected to be restricted by the tumourigenic potential of the IL-22/STAT3 axis. IL-22, moreover, apparently displays an inherent context-specific capacity to amplify distinct aspects of autoimmune inflammation. Here, the prospects, expectations and restrictions of IL-22 administration in tissue-protective therapy are discussed.

Muhl, Heiko; Scheiermann, Patrick; Bachmann, Malte; Hardle, Lorena; Heinrichs, Anika; Pfeilschifter, Josef

2013-01-01

349

Acid Rain in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Visitors to Shenandoah National Park (SNP) enjoy the animal and plant life and the scenery but may not realize how vulnerable these features are to various threats, such as invasion of exotic plants and insects, improper use of park resources by humans, and air and water pollution. The National Park Service strives to protect natural resources from such threats to ensure that the resources will be available for enjoyment now and in the future. Because SNP has limited influence over the air pollution that envelops the region, acidic deposition--commonly known as acid rain--is one of the more challenging threats facing park managers. With the help of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists, park managers can understand how acid rain interacts with ground- and surface-water resources, which enables them to explain why reductions in air pollution can help preserve park resources. Such understanding also provides essential insight into ecosystem processes, as managers strive to unravel and resolve other environmental problems that are interrelated to acid rain.

Rice, Karen C.; Deviney, Frank A., Jr.; Olson, Gordon

2007-01-01

350

IL-10 induces gene expression in macrophages: partial overlap with IL-5 but not with IL-4 induced genes.  

PubMed

The hypothesis that IL-10, in addition to down-regulating pro-inflammatory activities of macrophages, induces an alternative state of macrophage reactivity was tested. We therefore conducted a systematic search for genes induced by IL-10 using the method of suppression subtractive hybridisation. Of an initial 1,300 candidate clones obtained, several screening rounds led to the identification of 51 clones which were reproducibly at least twofold up-regulated in mouse J774 macrophages in response to treatment with IL-10. Of these, 41 genes were homologous to known genes involved in cell metabolism or immunoregulation, five contained novel sequences and another five were homologous to ESTs without known function. One major finding was that about 25% of the IL-10 genes were also found expressed in response to IFNgamma, and several of these also reappeared in IL-4 or IL-5 induced mRNA species. Hence, Th1 and Th2 type cytokines may elicit a common basal activation response in macrophages. The second major finding was that 57% of IL-10 induced genes reappeared in IL-5 induced mRNA but no more than 18% were also found in IL-4 induced mRNA of J774 cells. We conclude that the gene expression response to IL-10 in macrophages is partially different from the response to IL-5 and is substantially different from the response to IL-4, which suggests an unexpected diversity of biological phenotypes induced by different Th2 type cytokines. PMID:14561490

Stumpo, Rita; Kauer, Manfred; Martin, Stephan; Kolb, Hubert

2003-10-01

351

Serum IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-? Levels in Early Diagnosis and Management of Neonatal Sepsis  

PubMed Central

Aim. To determine serum IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-? levels in neonatal sepsis at the time of diagnosis and after therapy, and to show the meaningful on the follow up. Methods. This prospective study was performed on newborns who were hospitalized for neonatal sepsis and who were classified as culture-proven sepsis (n=12), as culture-negative sepsis (n=21), and as healthy newborns (n=17). Results. At the time of diagnosis, serum IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-? levels of culture-proven sepsis were significantly higher than those of the control groups (P<.05). At the time of diagnosis, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-? levels of culture-proven sepsis and culture-negative sepsis were significantly higher than levels at the seventh day after antibiotic treatment. Conclusion. Serum IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-? are mediators of inflammation and can be used at the diagnosis and at the evaluation of the therapeutic efficiency in neonatal sepsis.

Kurt, A. Nese Citak; Aygun, A. Denizmen; Godekmerdan, Ahmet; Kurt, Abdullah; Dogan, Yasar; Yilmaz, Erdal

2007-01-01

352

Divergent expression patterns of IL-4 and IL-13 define unique functions in allergic immunity  

PubMed Central

Interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-13 are critical for responses against parasitic helminthes. Here we used genetically engineered reporter mice to assess the temporal and spatial production of these cytokine in vivo. In lymph nodes, IL-4 was confined to T follicular helper (TFH) cells, however these cells did not make IL-13. In contrast, tissue type 2 helper T TH2 cells produce both cytokines. Divergent IL-4 and IL-13 production also occurred among innate immune cells, where basophils produced IL-4, while innate helper type 2 (Ih2) cells produced IL-13. IL-13 production by TH2 and Ih2 cells was dependent on high GATA-3 levels, in contrast to low GATA-3 levels in TFH cells and basophils. Distinct localization and cellular expression of IL-4 and IL-13 explains their unique roles during allergic immunity.

Liang, Hong-Erh; Reinhardt, R. Lee; Bando, Jennifer K.; Sullivan, Brandon M.; Ho, I-Cheng; Locksley, Richard M.

2011-01-01

353

Concept of Lunar Energy Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new concept of energy supply system named Lunar Energy Park (LEP) as one of the next-generation clean energy sources. In this concept, electricity is generated by nuclear power plants built on the moon and then transmitted to receiving stations on the earth by laser beam through transporting systems situated in geostationary orbit. The lunar nuclear power plants use a high-efficiency composite energy conversion system consisting of thermionic and thermoelectric generators to change nuclear thermal energy into electricity directly. The nuclear resources are considered to be available from the moon, and nuclear fuel transport from earth to moon is not necessary. Because direct energy conversion systems are employed, the lunar nuclear plants can be operated and controlled by robots and are maintenance-free, and so will cause no pollution to humans. The key technologies for LEP include improvements of conversion efficiency of both thermionic and thermoelectric converters, and developments of laser-beam power transmission technology as well. The details, including the construction of lunar nuclear plants, energy conversion and energy transmission systems, as well as the research plan strategies for this concept are reviewed.

Niino, Masayuki; Kisara, Katsuto; Chen, Lidong

1993-10-01

354

National Park Service: Dry Tortugas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website for the Dry Tortugas, a group of seven islands 70 miles off the coast of Key West, and a National Park site, will warm visitors instantly with its photos of the blue and green waters and sun-kissed lands. The website also offers visitors lots of background on these islands that are "near-pristine natural resources including sea grass beds, fisheries, and sea turtle and bird nesting habitat." On the left hand side of the homepage are links to "History and Culture", "Photos and Multimedia", "Nature and Science", and "For Kids". The "History and Culture" section called "Places" provides the Tortugas' history as a "ship trap" with the subcategories "Windjammer Shipwreck", "Fort Jefferson" and "Lighthouses". Visitors shouldn't miss checking out the "Preservation" category, which includes "Submerged Cultural Resources". Visitors can view a short slide show of the underwater cultural treasures on which archaeological survey crews conduct condition assessments. Some of the treasures include cannons and anchors that now reside in the South Florida Collections Management Center.

355

Recombinant Hu IL-6 Product Data Sheet  

Cancer.gov

RECOMBINANT HUMAN INTERLEUKIN-6 (IL-6) - BULK 07030801 Lot Number: L0406011 Amount Provided: 200 mcg/3 ml vial Presentation: Lyophilized, buffered, IL-6 - See instructions for proper reconstitution. Description: White to off-white cake. Colorless, clear

356

Telomerase upregulates expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL1?, IL6, IL8, and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor in normal human fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in normal human fibroblast cell strain, TIG-3, extends their replicative life span. We found that expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mRNA were up-regulated in hTERT-induced fibroblasts irrespective of population doubling level (PDL). Expression levels of these cytokines were low in growing young TIG-3 cells and

Yukari Kanzaki; Fumikazu Onoue; Hiroaki Sakurai; Toshinori Ide

2003-01-01

357

Proximity to Urban Parks and Mental Health  

PubMed Central

Background Urban parks have received attention in recent years as a possible environmental factor that could encourage physical activity, prevent obesity, and reduce the incidence of chronic conditions. Despite long hypothesized benefits of parks for mental health, few park studies incorporate mental health measures. Aims of the Study To test the association between proximity to urban parks and psychological distress. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of individual health survey responses. Data were collected for a study of capital improvements of neighborhood parks in Los Angeles. A survey was fielded on a sample of residential addresses, stratified by distance from the park (within 400m, 800m, 1.6 km, and 3.2km; N=1070). We used multiple regression to estimate the relationship between the psychological distress as measured by the MHI-5 (outcome variable) and distance to parks (main explanatory variable), controlling for observed individual characteristics. Results Mental health is significantly related to residential distance from parks, with the highest MHI-5 scores among residents within short walking distance from the park (400m) and decreasing significantly over the next distances. The number of visits and physical activity minutes are significantly and independently related to distance, although controlling for them does not reduce the association between distance and mental health. Discussion and Limitations This paper provides a new data point for an arguably very old question, but for which empirical data are sparse for the US. A nearby urban park is associated with the same mental health benefits as decreasing local unemployment rates by 2 percentage points, suggesting at least the potential of environmental interventions to improve mental health. The analysis is cross-sectional, making it impossible to control for important confounders, including residential selection. Implications for Health Policy Mental health policy has traditionally focused on individual-centered interventions. Just as health policy for preventable chronic illnesses has shifted attention to modifiable environmental determinants, population mental health may benefit substantially from environmental interventions. Implications for Future Research Policy evaluations should incorporate mental health measures when assessing neighborhood improvement programs and physical environments. Many recent and ongoing studies have excluded mental health measure in the belief that they are too burdensome for respondents or irrelevant. If a causal relationship is confirmed, then ameliorating neighborhood conditions and physical environments could represent a scalable way to improve mental health issues for large populations.

Sturm, Roland; Cohen, Deborah

2014-01-01

358

Allelic polymorphism in IL-1 beta and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) genes in inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed Central

Recent reports have shown that allele 2 of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) gene is over-represented in ulcerative colitis (UC). Healthy individuals carrying allele 2 of this gene have increased production of IL-1Ra protein. Since the final outcome of the biological effects of IL-1 beta may depend on the relative proportion of these two cytokines, we have studied if a TaqI polymorphism in the IL-1 beta gene, which is relevant to IL-1 beta protein production, may be involved in the genetic susceptibility to UC and Crohn's disease (CD), in association with the established IL-1Ra gene polymorphism. Polymorphisms in the closely linked genes for IL-1 beta and IL-1Ra were typed in 100 unrelated Dutch patients with UC, 79 with CD, and 71 healthy controls. The polymorphic regions in exon 5 of the IL-1 beta gene and in intron 2 of the IL-1Ra gene, were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. The IL-1 beta allele frequencies in UC and CD patients did not differ from those in healthy controls. In order to study if the IL-1 beta gene polymorphism might participate synergistically with the IL-1Ra gene polymorphism in susceptibility to UC and CD, individuals were distributed into carriers and non-carriers of allele 2 of the genes encoding IL-1 beta and IL-1Ra, in each of the patient groups and controls. Results indicated a significant association of this pair of genes, estimated by the odds ratio (OR) after performing Fisher's exact test, in the UC group (P = 0.023, OR = 2.81), as well as in the CD group (P = 0.01, OR = 3.79). Thus, non-carriers of IL-1 beta allele 2 were more often present in the subgroup of patients carrying the IL-1Ra allele 2. By contrast, no association of these alleles was detected in the group of healthy controls (P = 1.00, OR = 0.92). These results suggest that the IL-1 beta/IL-1Ra allelic cluster may participate in defining the biological basis of predisposition to chronic inflammatory bowel diseases.

Bioque, G; Crusius, J B; Koutroubakis, I; Bouma, G; Kostense, P J; Meuwissen, S G; Pena, A S

1995-01-01

359

Association of IL-12, IL-18 variants and serum IL-18 with bladder cancer susceptibility in North Indian population.  

PubMed

IL-12 and IL-18 are immunomodulatory cytokines that play important roles in host immune response against cancers. Variation in DNA sequence in gene promoter may lead to altered IL-18 production and/or activity, and hence can modulate an individual's susceptibility to BC. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship of IL-18 gene promoter -137 G/C and -607C/A polymorphisms and IL12 (-16974) A/C with the risk of BC in North Indian population. Polymorphisms in IL-18 and IL-12 genes were analyzed in 200 BC patients and 200 age, ethnicity and sex-matched controls, using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP) and amplification refractory mutation specific-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS) method. The concentrations of IL-18 in serum were determined by ELISA. Significant association was observed with IL18 (-137) G/C heterozygous genotype (GC) with 1.96 folds risk of BC as well at C allele carrier and variant C allele having 2 fold and 1.6 fold risk for BC respectively. IL18 (-607) C/A, heterozygous CA genotype also showed a high risk (OR=1.59) for BC. While IL12 (-16974) A/C heterozygote genotype and C allele carrier demonstrated reduced risk of BC. Hetero genotype of IL18 (-137) G/C was associated with risk of recurrence (HR=2.35) in superficial BC patients receiving BCG treatment thus showing least survival. The distributions of IL-18 gene haplotypes were not significantly different between patients and controls. Serum IL-18 levels were significantly higher in BC patients than in the healthy subjects (p=0.025). Serum IL-18 levels was also significantly associated with IL18 (-137) G/C in heterozygous genotype (GC) (p=0.048). Our results suggest that IL-18 gene polymorphism contributes to bladder cancer risk whereas IL-12 is protective. A relation between IL18 (-137) G/C in heterozygous genotype with elevated IL-18 serum level and bladder cancer risk has been registered in the present study. PMID:23403235

Jaiswal, Praveen Kumar; Singh, Vibha; Srivastava, Priyanka; Mittal, Rama Devi

2013-04-25

360

77 FR 59662 - National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission Program; Open Public...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-AKR-ANIA-11187; 9924-PYS] National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence...Teleconference AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION:...

2012-09-28

361

78 FR 62658 - Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Leasing Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-BSAD-CONC-13365...Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Leasing Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION:...

2013-10-22

362

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park. State of the Parks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park (C&O Canal) extends 184.5 miles along the Potomac River, a treasure hidden in plain sight. From Georgetown in the District of Columbia to Cumberland, Maryland, the park preserves a wealth of our natio...

2004-01-01

363

Advancing the National Park Idea: National Parks Second Century Commission Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Park Service has taken positive steps to enhance branding and recognition of the parks through more uniform design standards for signage and publications. To carry that work forward, we call on Congress to simplify as far as possible the more than two...

2008-01-01

364

Grasshopper assemblage response to a restored national park (Mountain Zebra National Park, South Africa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve grassland sites were sampled inside and outside the Mountain Zebra National Park (MZNP), South Africa to assess changes in grasshopper assemblages to grazing by indigenous mammals inside the park compared to grazing by domestic cattle outside. The MZNP has been restored from cattle-grazed farmland to indigenous mammal parkland for 62 years. The number of grasshopper species and families inside

S. Gebeyehu; M. J. Samways

2002-01-01

365

Urban parks as green walls or green magnets? Interracial relations in neighborhood boundary parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent paper in this journal (Solecki and Welch, 1995) describes how urban parks that lie between racially different neighborhoods can become “green walls” or barriers to use and appreciation. Although this phenomenon is well grounded in the experience of many who plan for, manage, and live near parks in racially and ethnically segregated cities, an analysis of the authors'

Paul H. Gobster

1998-01-01

366

Il ruolo di Guglielmo Marconi  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Marconi, come risulta dai verbali, non era molto assiduo alle riunioni del Direttorio del CNR. In quel periodo, nonostante\\u000a il manifestarsi dei primi sintomi dellamalattia cardiaca che l’avrebbe condotto alla morte nel 1937, continuava a dividersi\\u000a fra numerosi impegni: la Reale Accademia d’Italia di cui era stato nominato da poco presidente, la costruzione della prima\\u000a stazione radio del Vaticano, gli

Franco Foresta Martin; Geppi Calcara

367

Role of Interleukin-23 (IL-23) Receptor Signaling for IL-17 Responses in Human Lyme Disease ?  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of T helper 17 cells. It has been previously demonstrated that IL-17 is involved in experimental Lyme arthritis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria. However, the precise role of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) for the B. burgdorferi-induced IL-17 responses or human Lyme disease has not yet been elucidated. IL-23R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11209026 was genotyped using the TaqMan assay. Functional studies were performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and cytokines were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dose-dependent production of IL-23 and IL-17 by B. burgdorferi could be observed. Interestingly, when IL-23 bioactivity was inhibited by a specific antibody against IL-23p19, IL-17 production was significantly downregulated. In contrast, production of gamma interferon (IFN-?) was not affected after the blockade of IL-23 activity. Moreover, individuals bearing a single nucleotide polymorphism in the IL-23R gene (Arg381Gln) produced significantly less IL-17 after B. burgdorferi stimulation compared with that of the individuals bearing the wild type. Despite lower IL-17 production, the IL-23R gene polymorphism did not influence the development of chronic Lyme disease in a cohort of patients with Lyme disease. This study demonstrates that IL-23R signaling is needed for B. burgdorferi-induced IL-17 production in vitro and that an IL-23R gene SNP leads to impaired IL-17 production. However, the IL-23R gene polymorphism is not crucial for the pathogenesis of chronic Lyme.

Oosting, Marije; ter Hofstede, Hadewych; van de Veerdonk, Frank L.; Sturm, Patrick; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Netea, Mihai G.; Joosten, Leo A. B.

2011-01-01

368

Role of interleukin-23 (IL-23) receptor signaling for IL-17 responses in human Lyme disease.  

PubMed

Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of T helper 17 cells. It has been previously demonstrated that IL-17 is involved in experimental Lyme arthritis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria. However, the precise role of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) for the B. burgdorferi-induced IL-17 responses or human Lyme disease has not yet been elucidated. IL-23R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11209026 was genotyped using the TaqMan assay. Functional studies were performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and cytokines were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dose-dependent production of IL-23 and IL-17 by B. burgdorferi could be observed. Interestingly, when IL-23 bioactivity was inhibited by a specific antibody against IL-23p19, IL-17 production was significantly downregulated. In contrast, production of gamma interferon (IFN-?) was not affected after the blockade of IL-23 activity. Moreover, individuals bearing a single nucleotide polymorphism in the IL-23R gene (Arg381Gln) produced significantly less IL-17 after B. burgdorferi stimulation compared with that of the individuals bearing the wild type. Despite lower IL-17 production, the IL-23R gene polymorphism did not influence the development of chronic Lyme disease in a cohort of patients with Lyme disease. This study demonstrates that IL-23R signaling is needed for B. burgdorferi-induced IL-17 production in vitro and that an IL-23R gene SNP leads to impaired IL-17 production. However, the IL-23R gene polymorphism is not crucial for the pathogenesis of chronic Lyme. PMID:21896776

Oosting, Marije; ter Hofstede, Hadewych; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Sturm, Patrick; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van der Meer, Jos W M; Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B

2011-11-01

369

Evaluation of IL10, IL19, and IL20 gene polymorphisms and chronic hepatitis B infection outcome  

PubMed Central

Summary Hepatitis B viral infection remains a serious global health problem despite the availability of a highly effective vaccine. Approximately 5% of HBV-infected adults develop chronic hepatitis B, which may result in liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Variants of interleukin-10 (IL10) have been previously associated with chronic hepatitis B infection and progression to hepatocellular carcinoma. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, n = 42) from the IL10, IL19, and IL20 gene regions were examined for an association with HBV infection outcome, either chronic or recovered, in a nested case-control study of African Americans and European Americans. Among African Americans, three nominally statistically significant SNP associations in IL10, two in IL20, and one haplotype association were observed with different HBV infection outcomes (P = 0.005–0.04). The SNP, rs1518108, in IL20 nominally deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in African Americans, with a large excess of heterozygotes in chronic HBV-infected cases (P = 0.0006), which suggests a strong genetic effect. Among European Americans, a nominally statistically significant SNP association in IL20, as well as an IL20 haplotype were associated with HBV recovery (P = 0.01–0.04). These results suggest that IL10 and IL20 gene variants influence HBV infection outcome and encourage the pursuit of further studies of these cytokines in HBV pathogenesis.

Truelove, Ann L.; Oleksyk, Taras K.; Shrestha, Sadeep; Thio, Chloe L.; Goedert, James J.; Donfield, Sharyne M.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Thomas, David L.; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Smith, Michael W.

2010-01-01

370

Climate Change in Voyageurs National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voyageurs National Park was created in 1975. This beautifully forested and lake-dominated landscape shared between Minnesota and Canada has few roads and must be seen by water. The islands and Kabetogama Peninsula are part of the Canadian Shield, some of the oldest exposed rock in the world. Voyageurs National Park boasts many unique landscape and climatic attributes, and like most mid-latitude regions of the northern hemisphere climate change is in play there. The statistical signals of change in the climate record are evident from both temperature and precipitation measurements. The history of these measurements goes back over 100 years. Additionally, studies and measurements of the lakes and general ecosystem already show some consequences of these climate changes. Mean temperature measurements are generally warmer than they once were, most notably in the winter season. Minimum temperatures have changed more than maximum temperatures. Precipitation has trended upward, but has also changed in character with greater frequency and contribution from thunderstorm rainfalls across the park. In addition variability in annual precipitation has become more amplified, as the disparity between wet and dry years has grown wider. Some changes are already in evidence in terms of bird migration patterns, earlier lake ice-out dates, warmer water temperatures with more algal blooms, decline in lake clarity, and somewhat longer frost-free seasons. Climate change will continue to have impacts on Voyageurs National Park, and likely other national parks across the nation. Furthermore scientists may find that the study, presentation, and discussion about climate impacts on our national parks is a particularly engaging way to educate citizens and improve climate literacy as we contemplate what adaptation and mitigation policies should be enacted to preserve the quality of our national parks for future generations.

Seeley, M. W.

2011-12-01

371

Climate Regulation by Urban Parks (Mexico)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban parks play an important role in cities; they regulate the environmental conditions because of its microclimate and human comfort (15°C-20°C for temperature and 30%-50% for humidity). The park coverage is quite important to preserve a good life quality, the World Health Organization (WHO) suggests a surface of 9 to 11m2/hab. In Mexico, the urbanization has drastically changed the landscape. It has become much more important to build economical and profitable spaces rather than increase the vegetal coverage. The city of Toluca is one of the most important cities in Mexico with an urban growth rate high, which represents a barely vegetation of 4m2/hab. The aim of this study was to analyze the climate effect that urban parks have in the city of Toluca. This was reached by temperature and moisture measurements in urban parks and nearby areas during autumn-winter period, 2012-2013.It was performed 20 measurements trough inside and outside transects of 4 parks with a HM70 Hand-Held Humidity (±0.60…100%) and Temperature Meter (±0.2°C). The transected areas were divided into homogeneous sections (e.g. same vegetation). To determine the possible microclimate similarities between park sections, a cluster analysis was made. In general, it was found that temperature can be decreased whilst moisture can be increased in a range of 1-3°C and 4-8% respectively. The cluster analysis made possible to perceive that these variation ranges are due to several factors such as: traffic jam, the amount of pedestrians, vegetal coverage and water bodies as well as hour and season in where transects were performed. Finally, the study allows features proposing that parks must have in order to optimize the human comfort.

Bobadilla Lagunas, E.; Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Arévalo Mejía, R.; Magaña-Lona, D.; Romero Contreras, T.

2013-05-01

372

IL-10 -1082 SNP and IL-10 in primary CNS and vitreoretinal lymphomas  

PubMed Central

Objectives Most primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) and primary vitreoretinal lymphomas (PVRLs) are B-cell lymphomas that produce high levels of interleukin (IL)-10, which is linked to rapid disease progression. The IL-10-1082G?A polymorphism (IL-10 SNP) is associated with improved survival in certain non-CNS lymphoma patients. PDCD4 is a tumor suppressor gene and upstream regulator of IL-10. This study examined the correlation between the IL-10 SNP, PDCD4 mRNA expression, and IL-10 expression (at transcript and protein levels) in these lymphoma cells. Materials and methods Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-typing at IL-10-1082 was performed after micro-dissecting cytospun PVRL cells from 26 specimens. Vitreal IL-10 and IL-6 levels were measured by ELISA. PCNSL cells from 52 paraffin-embedded sections were microdissected and SNP typed on genomic DNA. RT-PCR was performed to analyze expression of IL-10 and PDCD4 mRNA. IL-10-1082 SNP typing was performed on blood samples of 96 healthy controls. We measured IL-10-1082 SNP expression in 26 PVRLs and 52 PCNSLs and examined its relationship with IL-10 protein and gene expression, respectively. Results More PVRL patients expressed one copy of the IL-10-1082G?A SNP with the GA genotype compared to controls. The frequencies of the three genotypes (AA, AG, GG) significantly differed in PVRL versus controls and in PCNSL versus controls. In PVRLs, the vitreal IL-10/IL-6 ratio was higher in IL-10-1082 AG and IL-10-1082 AA patients, compared to IL-10-1082 GG patients. IL-10 mRNA expression was higher in IL-10-1082 AG and IL-10-1082 AA PCNSLs, compared to IL-10-1082 GG PCNSLs. No correlation was found between IL-10 and PDCD4 expression levels in 37 PCNSL samples. Conclusions PVRL and PCNSL patients had similar IL-10-1082 A allele frequencies, but genotype distributions differed from healthy controls. The findings suggest that the IL-10-1082 A allele is a risk factor for higher IL-10 levels in PVRLs and PCNSLs. Higher IL-10 levels have been correlated with more aggressive disease in both PVRLs and PCNSLs, making this finding an important and potentially clinically significant observation.

Ramkumar, Hema L.; Shen, De Fen; Tuo, Jingsheng; Braziel, Rita M.; Coupland, Sarah E.; Smith, Justine R.

2012-01-01

373

Association of IL10, IL10RA, and IL10RB Polymorphisms with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia in Korean Population  

PubMed Central

Cytokines such as interleukin 10 (IL10) may play an important role in the process of inflammation. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between IL10, IL10RA and IL10RB single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in Korean population. All patients with BPH were divided into two groups according to international porostate symptom score (IPSS), prostate specific antigen (PSA) level, Qmax, and prostate volume. We selected two IL10 SNPs (rs1518111 and rs1554286), three IL10RA SNPs (rs2256111, rs4252243, and rs2228054), and two IL10RB SNPs (rs999788 and rs2834167). Genotypes of seven SNPs were determined through direct sequencing. The G/G genotype of IL10RB polymorphism (rs2834167) was associated with a high PSA level compared with the A/G + A/A genotypes (P = 0.009). Of IL10 SNP, the A/A genotype of rs1518111 and T/T genotype of rs1554286 were associated with small prostate volume, respectively (P = 0.011, P = 0.014). Moreover, the T/T genotype of IL10RB polymorphism (rs999788) was associated with high prostatic volume compared with the T/C + C/C genotypes (P = 0.033). The linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks were formed in IL10 and IL10RA. However, haplotypes in the LD block were not associated with BPH. It is concluded that there is a strong association between the IL10 and IL10RB SNPs, and BPH in Korean population.

Yoo, Koo Han; Kim, Su Kang; Chung, Joo-Ho

2011-01-01

374

IL-13 Signaling in Liver Fibrogenesis  

PubMed Central

Liver fibrosis is the final common pathway of chronic liver diseases irrespective of etiology. However, etiology deeply impacts progression and characteristics of liver fibrogenesis. IL-13 is the dominant pro-fibrotic cytokine in Schistosomiasis associated liver fibrogenesis. In vitro, IL-13 directly induces expression of fibrosis-associated genes, e.g., collagens or connective tissue growth factor, in hepatic stellate cells. Recently, potential effects of IL-13 in non-Schistosomiasis associated liver fibrosis have been uncovered. This review summarizes the potential roles of IL-13 in chronic liver disease of different etiologies, and the downstream events mediating IL-13 signaling in liver fibrogenesis.

Liu, Yan; Munker, Stefan; Mullenbach, Roman; Weng, Hong-Lei

2012-01-01

375

IL-6 in diabetes and cardiovascular complications.  

PubMed

IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine that participates in normal functions of the immune system, haematopoiesis, metabolism, as well as in the pathogenesis of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Both pro- and anti-inflammatory roles of IL-6 have been described, which are distinguished by different cascades of signalling transduction, namely classic and trans-signalling. The present review summarizes the basic principles of IL-6 signalling and discusses its roles in diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications, with emphasis on the different outcomes mediated by the two modes of IL-6 signalling and the value of developing therapeutic strategies to specifically target the deleterious trans-signalling of IL-6. PMID:24697653

Qu, Dan; Liu, Jian; Lau, Chi Wai; Huang, Yu

2014-08-01

376

Disease-associated functions of IL33: the new kid in the IL1 family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-33 (IL-33), a newly described member of the IL-1 family, is expressed by many cell types following pro-inflammatory stimulation and is thought to be released on cell lysis. The IL-33 receptor, consisting of ST2 and IL-1 receptor accessory protein, is also widely expressed, particularly by T helper 2 (TH2) cells and mast cells. IL-33 is host-protective against helminth infection and

Nick I. Pitman; Iain B. McInnes; Foo Y. Liew

2010-01-01

377

Genetic epistasis of IL23/IL17 pathway genes in Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

The IL23/IL17 pathway is pivotal in the development of chronic mucosal inflammation seen in Crohn’s disease (CD). Genetic variants in the IL23R and IL12B have been associated with CD susceptibility. We investigated ten genes within the IL23/IL17 pathway in a case-control study of 763 CD cases and 254 healthy controls. We identified novel association in haplotypes in IL17A (empirical p value = 0.02), IL17RA (p = 0.001), IL17RD (p = 0.001), IL12RB1 (p = 0.003) and IL12RB2 (p = 0.001) as well as confirming the association with IL12B variants (p = 0.003). The cumulative risk for carrying increased number of CD risk haplotypes from genes in this pathway rises to an odds ratio of 4.3 for carrying 5 risk haplotypes. We have previously demonstrated an association between this cohort and IL23R haplotypes. Pairwise analyses suggest that there is statistical interaction between variants in IL17A and IL23R (p = 0.047) and between variants in IL17RA and IL23R (p = 0.036). Furthermore, a significant association between CD and the widely replicated IL23R variants is only seen in the presence of IL17A or IL17RA variants. These data support the investigation of pathways implicated in CD pathogenesis in order to identify further susceptibility genes and also suggest that important gene-gene interaction is present in CD susceptibility.

McGovern, Dermot P.B.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Mei, Ling; Haritunians, Talin; Landers, Carol; Derkowski, Carrie; Dutridge, Deb; Dubinsky, Marla; Ippoliti, Andy; Vasiliauskas, Eric; Mengesha, Emebet; King, Lily; Pressman, Sheila; Targan, Stephan R.; Taylor, Kent D.

2010-01-01

378

Role of interleukin-23 (IL23) receptor signaling for IL17 responses in human Lyme disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of T helper 17 cells. It has been previously demonstrated that IL-17 is involved in experimental Lyme arthritis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria. However, the precise role of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) for the B. burgdorferi-induced IL-17 responses or human Lyme disease has not yet been

M. Oosting; H. J. M. ter Hofstede; F. L. van de Veerdonk; P. D. J. Sturm; B. J. Kullberg; M. G. Netea; L. A. B. Joosten

2011-01-01

379

IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 Are Associated with Hyperferritinemia in Rapidly Progressive Interstitial Lung Disease with Polymyositis/Dermatomyositis  

PubMed Central

Objective. Hyperferritinemia is frequently accompanied by rapidly progressive (RP) interstitial lung disease (ILD) with polymyositis (PM)/dermatomyositis (DM). To clarify the mechanism of RP-ILD with hyperferritinemia, we investigated the associations between serum ferritin levels and various cytokines in patients with PM/DM. Methods. This retrospective study included 38 patients admitted to our hospital with PM/DM. Levels of serum ferritin and cytokines (IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, IL-18, TNF-?, IFN-?, IFN-?, and IP-10) were measured. Disease activity was evaluated using the tool proposed by the International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies Group. We analyzed the associations between disease activity and levels of serum ferritin and cytokines. Results. The levels of serum ferritin, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, and TNF-?, were significantly correlated with disease activity. In a multivariate analysis, IL-6 (t = 3.6, P = 0.0010), IL-8 (t = 4.8, P < 0.0001), and IL-10 (t = 5.7, P < 0.0001) significantly contributed to serum ferritin levels. The levels of serum ferritin, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10, were higher in the RP-ILD subset than in the non-ILD subset or the chronic ILD subset. Conclusion. IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 are significant contributors to hyperferritinemia in PM/DM. The regulation of these cytokines might offer a possible treatment strategy for RP-ILD with PM/DM.

Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Kaneko, Hirotaka; Katsumata, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Sayuri; Yamanaka, Hisashi

2014-01-01

380

Signaling by IL-31 and functional consequences.  

PubMed

Cytokines are key to control cellular communication. Interleukin-31 (IL-31) was recently discovered as a new member of the IL-6 family of cytokines. IL-31 signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of OSMR and IL-31RA, a complex that stimulates the JAK-STAT, the RAS/ERK and the PI3K/AKT signal transduction pathways. The available data suggests that IL-31 is important for both innate and adaptive immunity in tissues that are in close contact with the environment, i.e. the skin, the airways and the lung, and the lining of the intestine. Enhanced expression of IL-31 is associated with a number of diseases, including pruritic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, but also in allergy and inflammatory bowel disease. In these tissues IL-31 coordinates the interaction of different immune cells, including T-cells, mast cells, and eosinophils, with epithelial cells. In this review we have summarized the available data on IL-31 and its receptor, their expression pattern and how they are regulated. We describe the current state of knowledge of the involvement of IL-31 in diseases, both in humans and in mouse models. From these studies it is becoming clear that IL-31 plays an important role in the proper functioning of the skin and of airway and intestinal epithelia. The findings available suggest that IL-31 might be an interesting target for directed drug therapy. PMID:21982586

Cornelissen, Christian; Lüscher-Firzlaff, Juliane; Baron, Jens Malte; Lüscher, Bernhard

2012-01-01

381

A Brief History of IL-9  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-9 was first described in the late 1980s as a member of a growing number of cytokines that had pleiotropic functions in the immune system. Although many biological functions have been attributed to IL-9, it remains an understudied cytokine. A resurgence of interest in IL-9 has been spurred by recent work demonstrating a role for IL-9 in regulating inflammatory immunity, and in defining the transcription factors that activate the Il9 gene in cells that most efficiently produce IL-9. In this review we summarize the characterization of IL-9 biological activities, highlight roles for the cytokine that are clearly defined, and outline questions regarding IL-9 functions that still require further exploration.

Goswami, Ritobrata; Kaplan, Mark H.

2011-01-01

382

IL-21 and IL-21 Receptor Expression in Lymphocytes and Neurons in Multiple Sclerosis Brain  

PubMed Central

IL-17–producing CD4+ T cells (Th-17) contribute to the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and are associated with active disease in multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition to IL-17, Th-17 cells can also express IL-21, IL-22, and IL-6 under Th-17–polarizing conditions (IL-6 and transforming growth factor-?). In this study we investigated IL-21 and IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) expression in MS lesions by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. We detected strongly IL-21+ infiltrating cells predominantly in acute but also in chronic active white matter MS lesions in which IL-21 expression was restricted to CD4+ cells. In contrast, IL-21R was much more broadly distributed on CD4+, CD19+, and CD8+ lymphocytes but not major histocompatibility complex class-II+ macrophages/microglia. Interestingly, in cortical areas we detected both IL-21 and IL-21R expression by neurons. These findings suggest role(s) for IL-21 in both the acute and chronic stages of MS via direct effects on T and B lymphocytes and, demonstrated for the first time, also on neurons.

Tzartos, John S.; Craner, Matthew J.; Friese, Manuel A.; Jakobsen, Karen B.; Newcombe, Jia; Esiri, Margaret M.; Fugger, Lars

2011-01-01

383

IL4 Function Can Be Transferred to the IL2 Receptor by Tyrosine Containing Sequences Found in the IL4 Receptor ? Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-4 binds to a cell surface receptor complex that consists of the IL-4-binding protein (IL-4R?) and the ? chain of the IL-2 receptor complex (?c). The receptors for IL-4 and IL-2 have several features in common; both use the ?c as a receptor component, and both activate the Janus kinases JAK-1 and JAK-3. In spite of these similarities, IL-4 evokes

Helen Y Wang; William E Paul; Achsah D Keegan

1996-01-01

384

Regulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis-induced IFN-? in whole human blood: the role of endogenous IL18, IL12, IL1, and TNF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin 12 (IL-12) and IL-18 act synergistically to stimulate interferon gamma (IFN-?) production; moreover, IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) may also augment IFN-? synthesis. We have investigated the relative contributions of these cytokines in the production of IFN-? and TNF by the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis, using the specific cytokine inhibitors IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra),

Rogier J. l. stuyt; Soo-Hyun Kim; Leonid L. Reznikov; Giamila Fantuzzi; Daniela Novick; Menachem Rubinstein; Bart Jan Kullberg; Charles A. Dinarello; Mihai G. Netea

2003-01-01

385

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) inhibits Borrelia burgdorferi-induced IL-17 production and attenuates IL-17-mediated Lyme arthritis.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that cells and cytokines associated with interleukin-17 (IL-17)-driven inflammation are involved in the arthritic response to Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Here, we report that IL-17 is a contributing factor in the development of Lyme arthritis and show that its production and histopathological effects are regulated by interleukin-10 (IL-10). Spleen cells obtained from B. burgdorferi-infected, "arthritis-resistant" wild-type C57BL/6 mice produced low levels of IL-17 following stimulation with the spirochete. In contrast, spleen cells obtained from infected, IL-10-deficient C57BL/6 mice produced a significant amount of IL-17 following stimulation with B. burgdorferi. These mice developed significant arthritis, including erosion of the bones in the ankle joints. We further show that treatment with antibody to IL-17 partially inhibited the significant hind paw swelling and histopathological changes observed in B. burgdorferi-infected, IL-10-deficient mice. Taken together, these findings provide additional evidence of a role for IL-17 in Lyme arthritis and reveal an additional regulatory target of IL-10 following borrelial infection. PMID:24042116

Hansen, Emily S; Medi?, Velinka; Kuo, Joseph; Warner, Thomas F; Schell, Ronald F; Nardelli, Dean T

2013-12-01

386

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) Inhibits Borrelia burgdorferi-Induced IL-17 Production and Attenuates IL-17-Mediated Lyme Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that cells and cytokines associated with interleukin-17 (IL-17)-driven inflammation are involved in the arthritic response to Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Here, we report that IL-17 is a contributing factor in the development of Lyme arthritis and show that its production and histopathological effects are regulated by interleukin-10 (IL-10). Spleen cells obtained from B. burgdorferi-infected, “arthritis-resistant” wild-type C57BL/6 mice produced low levels of IL-17 following stimulation with the spirochete. In contrast, spleen cells obtained from infected, IL-10-deficient C57BL/6 mice produced a significant amount of IL-17 following stimulation with B. burgdorferi. These mice developed significant arthritis, including erosion of the bones in the ankle joints. We further show that treatment with antibody to IL-17 partially inhibited the significant hind paw swelling and histopathological changes observed in B. burgdorferi-infected, IL-10-deficient mice. Taken together, these findings provide additional evidence of a role for IL-17 in Lyme arthritis and reveal an additional regulatory target of IL-10 following borrelial infection.

Hansen, Emily S.; Medic, Velinka; Kuo, Joseph; Warner, Thomas F.; Schell, Ronald F.

2013-01-01

387

IL-22 reduces the severity of collagen arthritis in association with increased levels of IL-10  

PubMed Central

Objective The mechanism of action of IL-22 in inflammatory arthritis remains unknown. IL-22 deficient mice have intact humoral and cellular immune response to collagen and yet have a reduced incidence of collagen induced arthritis. Further, administration of anti-IL-22 does not reduce severity of clinical arthritis but improves only certain aspects of joint inflammation as assessed by histology. In this report we studied the mechanism of action and the role of systemic IL-22 in modulating target organ inflammation. Methods CIA was induced in DBA mice following immunization with collagen and complete Freund's adjuvant. Expression of IL-22 and its receptor was elucidated in lymphoid organ and target tissues during various phases of arthritis. The effector functions of IL-22 on induction/regulation of various cytokines in in-vitro restimulation cultures were analyzed by ELISA. Recombinant IL-22 with or without anti-IL-10 antibodies was administered to mice following immunization with collagen and prior to the onset of arthritis. Severity of arthritis was evaluated by clinical scoring and histopathology. Anti-collagen antibodies in sera of mice were analyzed by ELISA. Results IL-22 and IL-22 receptor were upregulated in lymphoid organs and joints during the course of arthritis. In vitro IL-22 augmented IL-10, IL-17 and IL-6 in lymphoid tissues. Administration of recombinant IL-22 was associated with increase in IL-10 in-vivo and significant reduction in the progression of severity of arthritis. Anti-IL-10 antibody was associated with the abrogation of this protective effect of IL-22. Conclusion Our data shows, for the first time, that IL-22 plays a protective role in inflammatory arthritis.

Sarkar, Sujata; Zhou, Xiaoqun; Justa, Shivali; Bommireddy, Swaroopa Rani

2013-01-01

388

Surface ozone in Joshua Tree National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface ozone concentrations are high throughout Joshua Tree National Park (JOTR), as demonstrated by direct monitoring at multiple sites within JOTR. Multiple years of data from continuous ozone monitors and passive samplers indicate that the highest ozone concentrations occur in the northwest corner of JOTR, and decrease as one moves to the south and east. Analysis of long-term (1994–2010) hourly data from the Black Rock monitoring station indicates that average summertime ozone concentrations have remained essentially constant, with a concurrent decrease in the number, and magnitude, of high ozone events. Calculation of ozone exposure indices suggests that ozone concentrations may be high enough to adversely affect local flora, especially in the northwestern region of the park. Back-trajectory analysis using the HYSPLIT model suggests that most of the ozone measured in JOTR is transported into the park from a high source area (Los Angeles and surrounding suburbs) to the west.

Burley, Joel D.; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Ray, John D.; Schilling, Susan; Allen, Edith B.

2014-04-01

389

The Schome Park Programme: Exploring Educational Alternatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Schome Park Programme set out to extend thinking about what the education system for the information age (Schome) should be like. The first three phases of the programme spanned 13 months and involved the use of Schome Park, our "closed" island(s) in Teen Second LifeTM (TSL) virtual world alongside a wiki and forum. During this time approximately two hundred 13-17 year olds and around 50 adults were given access to Schome Park. Having explained the context in which this work took place the paper outlines the initial educational design underpinning the programme and describes some of the activities which took place. It goes on to explore some dimensions of practice which emerged from the data analysis towards the end of Phase 3, focusing on learner experiences of experimentation, playfulness, curriculum, choice, participation and the expression of the learner voice.

Twining, Peter; Footring, Shri

390

77 FR 11567 - Notice of Extension of Visitor Services-Mount Rainier National Park  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2410-OYC] Notice of Extension...Rainier National Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice...concession contract, the National Park Service intends to request an...

2012-02-27

391

36 CFR 6.8 - National Park Service solid waste responsibilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false National Park Service solid waste responsibilities...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.8 National Park Service solid waste...

2013-07-01

392

36 CFR 6.8 - National Park Service solid waste responsibilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 false National Park Service solid waste responsibilities...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.8 National Park Service solid waste...

2009-07-01

393

76 FR 52013 - Notice of Continuation of Visitor Services-Yosemite National Park  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Continuation of...Yosemite National Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice...concession contract, the National Park Service intends to request a...

2011-08-19

394

36 CFR 6.8 - National Park Service solid waste responsibilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false National Park Service solid waste responsibilities...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.8 National Park Service solid waste...

2010-07-01

395

Geologic Resource Evaluation of Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Hawaii; Geology and Coastal Landforms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify ...

A. E. Gibbs B. M. Richmond S. A. Cochran

2009-01-01

396

IL33 induces IL13 production by mouse mast cells independently of IgE-Fc RI signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IL-1-related molecules, IL-1 and IL-18, can promote Th2 cytokine production by IgE\\/antigen-FcRI-stimulated mouse mast cells. Another IL-1-related molecule, IL-33, was identi- fied recently as a ligand for T1\\/ST2. Although mouse mast cells constitutively express ST2, the effects of IL-33 on mast cell function are poorly understood. We found that IL-33, but not IL-1 or IL-18, induced IL-13 and IL-6

Lien H. Ho; Tatsukuni Ohno; Keisuke Oboki; Naoki Kajiwara; Hajime Suto; Motoyasu Iikura; Yoshimichi Okayama; Shizuo Akira; Hirohisa Saito; Stephen J. Galli; Susumu Nakae

2007-01-01

397

Requirement for IL-13 Independently of IL-4 in Experimental Asthma  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of asthma reflects, in part, the activity of T cell cytokines. Murine models support participation of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and the IL-4 receptor in asthma. Selective neutralization of IL-13, a cytokine related to IL-4 that also binds to the ? chain of the IL-4 receptor, ameliorated the asthma phenotype, including airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophil recruitment, and mucus over-production. Administration of either IL-13 or IL-4 conferred an asthma-like phenotype to nonimmunized T cell–deficient mice by an IL-4 receptor ? chain–dependent pathway. This pathway may underlie the genetic associations of asthma with both the human 5q31 locus and the IL-4 receptor.

Grunig, Gabriele; Warnock, Martha; Wakil, Adil E.; Venkayya, Rajeev; Brombacher, Frank; Rennick, Donna M.; Sheppard, Dean; Mohrs, Markus; Donaldson, Debra D.; Locksley, Richard M.; Corry, David B.

2014-01-01

398

The Parkes 21 CM multibeam receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several extragalactic HI surveys using a 21-cm 13-beam focal plane array will begin in late 1996 using the Parkes 64-m telescope. These surveys are designed to detect efficiently nearby galaxies that have failed to be identified optically because of low optical surface brightness or high optical extinction. We discuss scientific and technical aspects of the multibeam receiver including astronomical objectives, feed, receiver and correlator design and data acquisition. A comparison with other telescopes shows that the Parkes multibeam receiver has significant speed advantages for any large-area 21- cm galaxy survey in the velocity range range 0 - 14000 km per sec.

Staveley-Smith, L.; Wilson, W. E.; Bird, T. S.; Disney, M. J.; Ekers, R. D.; Freeman, K. C.; Haynes, R. F.; Sinclair, M. W.; Vaile, R. A.; Webster, R. L.; Wright, A. E.

1996-11-01

399

IL-21 Receptor Expression in Human Tendinopathy  

PubMed Central

The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying tendinopathy remain unclear, with much debate as to whether inflammation or degradation has the prominent role. Increasing evidence points toward an early inflammatory infiltrate and associated inflammatory cytokine production in human and animal models of tendon disease. The IL-21/IL-21R axis is a proinflammatory cytokine complex that has been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. This project aimed to investigate the role and expression of the cytokine/receptor pair IL-21/IL-21R in human tendinopathy. We found significantly elevated expression of IL-21 receptor message and protein in human tendon samples but found no convincing evidence of the presence of IL-21 at message or protein level. The level of expression of IL-21R message/protein in human tenocytes was significantly upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines (TNF?/IL-1?) in vitro. These findings demonstrate that IL-21R is present in early human tendinopathy mainly expressed by tenocytes and macrophages. Despite a lack of IL-21 expression, these data again suggest that early tendinopathy has an inflammatory/cytokine phenotype, which may provide novel translational targets in the treatment of tendinopathy.

Campbell, Abigail L.; Smith, Nicola C.; Reilly, James H.; Kerr, Shauna C.; Leach, William J.; Fazzi, Umberto G.; Rooney, Brian P.; Murrell, George A. C.; Millar, Neal L.

2014-01-01

400

IL-33 Exacerbates Acute Kidney Injury  

PubMed Central

Inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI). IL-33 is a proinflammatory cytokine, but its role in AKI is unknown. Here we observed increased protein expression of full-length IL-33 in the kidney following induction of AKI with cisplatin. To determine whether IL-33 promotes injury, we administered soluble ST2 (sST2), a fusion protein that neutralizes IL-33 activity by acting as a decoy receptor. Compared with cisplatin-induced AKI in untreated mice, mice treated with sST2 had fewer CD4 T cells infiltrate the kidney, lower serum creatinine, and reduced acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and apoptosis. In contrast, administration of recombinant IL-33 (rIL-33) exacerbated cisplatin-induced AKI, measured by an increase in CD4 T cell infiltration, serum creatinine, ATN, and apoptosis; this did not occur in CD4-deficient mice, suggesting that CD4 T cells mediate the injurious effect of IL-33. Wildtype mice that received cisplatin and rIL-33 also had higher levels of the proinflammatory chemokine CXCL1, which CD T cells produce, in the kidney compared with CD4-deficient mice. Mice deficient in the CXCL1 receptor also had lower serum creatinine, ATN, and apoptosis than wildtype mice following cisplatin-induced AKI. Taken together, IL-33 promotes AKI through CD4 T cell-mediated production of CXCL1. These data suggest that inhibiting IL-33 or CXCL1 may have therapeutic potential in AKI.

Akcay, Ali; Nguyen, Quocan; He, Zhibin; Turkmen, Kultigin; Won Lee, Dong; Hernando, Ana Andres; Altmann, Christopher; Toker, Aysun; Pacic, Arijana; Ljubanovic, Danica Galesic; Jani, Alkesh; Faubel, Sarah

2011-01-01

401

IL-15 deficient tax mice reveal a role for IL-1? in tumor immunity.  

PubMed

IL-15 is recognized as a promising candidate for tumor immunotherapy and has been described as both a promoter of cancer and a promoter of anti-cancer immunity. IL-15 was discovered in cells transformed by HTLV-1, the etiologic agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and the human retrovirus that carries the Tax oncogene. We have developed the TAX-LUC mouse model of ATL in which Tax expression drives both malignant transformation and luciferase expression, enabling non-invasive imaging of tumorigenesis in real time. To identify the role of IL-15 in spontaneous development of lymphoma in vivo, an IL-15(-/-) TAX-LUC strain was developed and examined. The absence of IL-15 resulted in aggressive tumor growth and accelerated mortality and demonstrated that IL-15 was not required for Tax-mediated lymphoma but was essential for anti-tumor immunity. Further analysis revealed a unique transcriptional profile in tumor cells that arise in the absence of IL-15 that included a significant increase in the expression of IL-1? and IL-1?-regulated cytokines. Moreover, anti-IL-1? antibodies and an IL-1 receptor antagonist (Anakinra) were used to interrogate the potential of IL-1? targeted therapies in this model. Taken together, these findings identify IL-15 and IL-1? as therapeutic targets in lymphoma. PMID:24416335

Rauch, Daniel A; Harding, John C; Ratner, Lee

2014-01-01

402

IL-15 positively regulates IL-21 production in celiac disease mucosa.  

PubMed

Celiac disease (CD)-associated inflammation is characterized by high interleukin- 21 (IL-21), but the mechanisms that control IL-21 production are not fully understood. Here we analyzed IL-21 cell sources and examined how IL-21 production is regulated in CD. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs), isolated from CD patients and non-CD controls, were analyzed for cell markers, cytokines, and transcription factors by flow cytometry. IL-21 was highly produced by CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ IELs and LPLs in active CD. IL-21-producing cells coexpressed interferon-? (IFN-?) and to a lesser extent T helper type 17 (Th17) cytokines. Treatment of control LPLs with IL-15, a cytokine overproduced in CD, activated Akt and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), thus enhancing IL-21 synthesis. Active CD biopsies contained elevated levels of Akt, and blockade of IL-15 in those samples reduced IL-21. Similarly, neutralization of IL-15 in biopsies of inactive CD patients inhibited peptic-tryptic digest of gliadin-induced IL-21 expression. These findings indicate that in CD, IL-15 positively regulates IL-21 production. PMID:22785229

Sarra, M; Cupi, M L; Monteleone, I; Franzè, E; Ronchetti, G; Di Sabatino, A; Gentileschi, P; Franceschilli, L; Sileri, P; Sica, G; Del Vecchio Blanco, G; Cretella, M; Paoluzi, O A; Corazza, G R; Pallone, F; Monteleone, G

2013-03-01

403

Research in practice: IL-22 and IL-20: significance for epithelial homeostasis and psoriasis pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Psoriasis vulgaris is a frequent, chronically relapsing, immune-mediated, systemic disease with characteristic skin changes. Despite the importance of this disease there are currently limited therapeutic options indicating a need for effective, long-lasting treatment strategies with few side effects. The most recent discoveries regarding psoriasis pathogenesis, particularly our results regarding two cytokines - IL-22 and IL-20 - could prove to be the foundation for such therapies. Whereas IL-22 is mainly produced by activated T-cell sub-populations (Th22, Th1, Th17), monocytes, dendritic cells and keratinocytes produce IL-20. Blood and lesional skin samples from psoriasis patients demonstrate high levels of IL-22 and IL-20. Interestingly, both cytokines act principally on keratinocytes and do not impact the immune system. Similar to the changes in the psoriasis epidermis these cytokines inhibit the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes although they simultaneously increase their innate defense, mobility, and the production of some chemokines. Some IL-22 effects are amplified by TNF-?, IL-17, and IFN-?. IL-22/IL-20 lends the reconstructed epidermis a psoriasis-like appearance with acanthosis, hypogranularity, and hyperkeratosis. In addition, mice that constitutively express high levels of IL-22 or IL-20 demonstrate a psoriasis-like appearance. A therapy counteracting IL-22 and IL-20 would be an innovative treatment with the potential for few side effects that would act on the final phase of psoriasis pathogenesis. PMID:21251229

Sabat, Robert; Wolk, Kerstin

2011-07-01

404

IL-12 elispot assays to detect and enumerate IL-12 secreting cells.  

PubMed

The cytokine IL-12 promotes Th(1)type immune responses and plays a key role in immune regulation. The complex nature of IL-12 hampered its detection without use of stimulants that might give less relevant information. To detect circulating IL-12 p40, we developed enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays that allow enumeration of IL-12 p40 secreting cells without prior in vitro stimulation of the cells. In parallel, intracellular staining of IL-12 p40 by flow cytometry was performed to compare the two methods. IL-12 p40 secreting cells were detected in healthy subjects at a mean number of 103+/-155 per 10(5)blood mononuclear cells (MNC). Numbers of IL-12 p40 secreting blood MNC correlated with IL-12 p40 positive blood MNC detected by flow cytometry. Bacterial endotoxins and the inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma control IL-12 production by antigen presenting cells. Utilizing IL-12 p40 ELISPOT assays, we could confirm occurrence of elevated numbers of IL-12 p40 secreting blood MNC after stimulation with TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, LPS, LPS+TNF-alpha or LPS+IFN-gamma, compared to cultures without stimulant. Due to its central role in inflammation and autoimmunity, IL-12 is an attractive target for immunotherapy. IL-12 p40 ELISPOT assays represent a sensitive, specific and reliable tool for investigating the role of IL-12 in both health and disease. PMID:10930299

Ozenci, V; Kouwenhoven, M; Press, R; Link, H; Huang, Y M

2000-08-01

405

Comparison of Vascular Leak Syndrome in Mice Treated with IL21 or IL2  

PubMed Central

Interleukin 21 (IL21) is a T-cell–derived 4-helix–bundle cytokine that has sequence homology to the IL2 family. Recombinant human interleukin 2 (rIL2) is approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. However, toxicity of rIL2, including induction of vascular leak syndrome (VLS), has limited use of this cytokine to a small proportion of eligible patients. Both rIL2 and murine IL21 (mIL21) have potent antitumor efficacy in murine models. The purpose of the current study was to compare the ability of mIL21 and rIL2 to induce vascular leakage in a mouse model. Pulmonary and hepatic uptake of Evans blue dye, serum cytokine levels, spleen cell immunophenotype, and histologic changes in lung and liver were evaluated to detect VLS. High-dose (200 µg) rIL2 treatment induced vascular leakage in mice, evidenced by inflammatory cell infiltration and fluid extravasation into the lung and liver and increased levels of TNF?, IFN?, IL5, MCP1, and IL6 in serum. In contrast, an equivalent dose of mIL21 resulted in minimal vascular leakage with no evidence of cytopenia or cytokine production. These results support the use of IL21 as a cancer immunotherapeutic agent, potentially providing an antitumor response without induction of VLS.

Sivakumar, Pallavur V; Garcia, Richard; Waggie, Kimberly S; Anderson-Haley, Monica; Nelson, Andrew; Hughes, Steven D

2013-01-01

406

IL-3 and IL-4 affect thymocyte differentiation in organ culture.  

PubMed Central

The ability of lymphokines to affect the development and differentiation of mouse thymocytes in vitro was evaluated in a carefully controlled 3-day organ culture system. Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced supernatant (SN) from the T-cell clone D10.G4, which contains high concentrations of interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-4 and IL-5, but lacks IL-1, IL-2 and interferon (IFN), markedly increased the proportion of CD4+CD8- cells, and decreased the proportion of CD4+CD8+ cells. These effects were unaffected by dialysing the SN, showing them to be caused by macromolecular factors. Highly purified recombinant IL-3 and IL-4 could exert similar effects, rIL-3 and rIL-4 both increasing the proportion of CD4+CD8- cells, and rIL4 in addition reducing the proportion of CD4+CD8+ cells. In conjunction with the findings of other investigators, these results indicate that at least four lymphokines (IL-1, IL-2, IL-3 and IL-4) can control T-cell development in the thymus.

Wood, P M; Jordan, R K; Givan, A L; Brooks, C G

1990-01-01

407

IL-17 Mediates Immunopathology in the Absence of IL-10 Following Leishmania major Infection  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis, resulting from infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania, consists of a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, from healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral infections. A particularly severe form of cutaneous leishmaniasis, termed mucosal leishmaniasis, exhibits decreased IL-10 levels and an exaggerated inflammatory response that perpetuates the disease. Using a mouse model of leishmaniasis, we investigated what cytokines contribute to increased pathology when IL-10-mediated regulation is absent. Leishmania major infected C57BL/6 mice lacking IL-10 regulation developed larger lesions than controls, but fewer parasites. Both IFN-? and IL-17 levels were substantially elevated in mice lacking the capacity to respond to IL-10. IFN-? promoted an increased infiltration of monocytes, while IL-17 contributed to an increase in neutrophils. Surprisingly, however, we found that IFN-? did not contribute to increased pathology, but instead regulated the IL-17 response. Thus, blocking IFN-? led to a significant increase in IL-17, neutrophils and disease. Similarly, the production of IL-17 by cells from leishmaniasis patients was also regulated by IL-10 and IFN-?. Additional studies found that the IL-1 receptor was required for both the IL-17 response and increased pathology. Therefore, we propose that regulating IL-17, possibly by downregulating IL-1?, may be a useful approach for controlling immunopathology in leishmaniasis.

Gonzalez-Lombana, Claudia; Gimblet, Ciara; Bacellar, Olivia; Oliveira, Walker W.; Passos, Sara; Carvalho, Lucas P.; Goldschmidt, Michael; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Scott, Phillip

2013-01-01

408

IL-2/IL-2Ab Complexes Induce Regulatory T Cell Expansion and Protect against Proteinuric CKD  

PubMed Central

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) help protect against autoimmune renal injury. The use of agonist antibodies and antibody/cytokine combinations to expand Tregs in vivo may have therapeutic potential for renal disease. Here, we investigated the effects of administering IL-2/IL-2Ab complexes in mice with adriamycin nephropathy, a model of proteinuric kidney disease that resembles human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Injecting IL-2/IL-2Ab complexes before or, to a lesser extent, after induction of disease promoted expansion of Tregs. Furthermore, administration of this complex was renoprotective, evidenced by improved renal function, maintenance of body weight, less histologic injury, and reduced inflammation. IL-2/IL-2Ab reduced serum IL-6 and renal expression of IL-6 and IL-17 but enhanced expression of IL-10 and Foxp3 in the spleen. In vitro, the addition of IL-2/IL-2Ab complexes induced rapid STAT-5 phosphorylation in CD4 T cells. In summary, these data suggest that inducing the expansion of Tregs by administering IL-2/IL-2Ab complexes is a possible strategy to treat renal disease.

Polhill, Tania; Zhang, Geoff Yu; Hu, Min; Sawyer, Andrew; Zhou, Jimmy Jianheng; Saito, Mitsuru; Webster, Kylie E.; Wang, Ya; Wang, Yiping; Grey, Shane T.; Sprent, Jonathan; Harris, David C.H.; Wang, Yuan Min

2012-01-01

409

25-Hydroxyvitamin D, IL-31, and IL-33 in Children with Allergic Disease of the Airways  

PubMed Central

Low vitamin D is involved in allergic asthma and rhinitis. IL-31 and IL-33 correlate with Th2-associated cytokines in allergic disease. We investigated whether low vitamin D is linked with circulating IL-31 and IL-33 in children with allergic disease of the airways. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) Vit D], IL-31, and IL-33 plasma levels were measured in 28 controls (HC), 11 allergic rhinitis (AR) patients, and 35 allergic asthma with rhinitis (AAR) patients. We found significant lower levels of 25(OH) Vit D in AR and in AAR than in HC. IL-31 and IL-33 plasma levels significantly increased in AAR than HC. IL-31 and IL-33 positively correlated in AR and AAR. 25(OH) Vit D deficient AAR had higher levels of blood eosinophils, exacerbations, disease duration, and total IgE than patients with insufficient or sufficient 25(OH) Vit D. In AAR 25(OH) Vit D levels inversely correlated with total allergen sIgE score and total atopy index. IL-31 and IL-33 did not correlate with 25(OH) Vit D in AR and AAR. In conclusion, low levels of 25(OH) Vit D might represent a risk factor for the development of concomitant asthma and rhinitis in children with allergic disease of the airways independently of IL-31/IL-33 Th2 activity.

Bonanno, Anna; Gangemi, Sebastiano; La Grutta, Stefania; Malizia, Velia; Profita, Mirella

2014-01-01

410

IL-15 Deficient Tax Mice Reveal a Role for IL-1? in Tumor Immunity  

PubMed Central

IL-15 is recognized as a promising candidate for tumor immunotherapy and has been described as both a promoter of cancer and a promoter of anti-cancer immunity. IL-15 was discovered in cells transformed by HTLV-1, the etiologic agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and the human retrovirus that carries the Tax oncogene. We have developed the TAX-LUC mouse model of ATL in which Tax expression drives both malignant transformation and luciferase expression, enabling non-invasive imaging of tumorigenesis in real time. To identify the role of IL-15 in spontaneous development of lymphoma in vivo, an IL-15?/? TAX-LUC strain was developed and examined. The absence of IL-15 resulted in aggressive tumor growth and accelerated mortality and demonstrated that IL-15 was not required for Tax-mediated lymphoma but was essential for anti-tumor immunity. Further analysis revealed a unique transcriptional profile in tumor cells that arise in the absence of IL-15 that included a significant increase in the expression of IL-1? and IL-1?-regulated cytokines. Moreover, anti-IL-1? antibodies and an IL-1 receptor antagonist (Anakinra) were used to interrogate the potential of IL-1? targeted therapies in this model. Taken together, these findings identify IL-15 and IL-1? as therapeutic targets in lymphoma.

Rauch, Daniel A.; Harding, John C.; Ratner, Lee

2014-01-01

411

20. Photocopy of National Park Service photograph, US Department of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Photocopy of National Park Service photograph, US Department of Interior, Washington, DC. Photograph No. 8005.B, 4 July 1963. CASCADE FROM ABOVE - Meridian Hill Park, Bounded by Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Euclid & W Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

412

12. Photocopy of photograph, National Park Service, US Department of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Photocopy of photograph, National Park Service, US Department of Interior, Washington, DC. Photograph No. 9525-A, 15 December 1965 ARMILLARY SPHERE AT EXEDRA - Meridian Hill Park, Bounded by Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Euclid & W Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

413

124. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the flat ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

124. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the flat top manor porch, carriage road, and pasture. View looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

414

128. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the stone ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

128. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the stone faced bridge on the bass lake carriage trail. Facing west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

415

125. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of carriage trail ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

125. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of carriage trail and flat top mountain from cone cemetery. Looking north-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

416

127. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the flat ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

127. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the flat top manor from the bass lake carriage road. Looking north-northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

417

View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, from building 746 parking lot across Walnut Avenue; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

418

Partial southwest side and view of stairway to parking area ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Partial southwest side and view of stairway to parking area - Glacier Park Villas, Edna Sears Graham Cabin, South of Lake McDonald Lodge on Lake Mcdonald Lodge Loop Road, Lake McDonald, Flathead County, MT

419

3. EXTERIOR, VIEW TO NORTHEAST, AT NEW SITE (HERITAGE PARK). ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EXTERIOR, VIEW TO NORTHEAST, AT NEW SITE (HERITAGE PARK). SHERMAN-GILBERT HOUSE AT LEFT; BUSHYLEAD HOUSE IN CENTER; CHRISTIAN HOUSE AT RIGHT - Sherman-Gilbert House, Heritage Park, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

420

Proposed Wilderness, Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park, North Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Park Service recommends that 28,335 acres of Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park be designated by Congress as wilderness. Environmental impacts discussed include ecological, social and economic considerations. The values of these impact...

1973-01-01

421

Geology Fieldnotes: Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This park is home to the Fairweather Mountains, which formed during the Laramide Orogeny, as well as many glaciers. The site includes introductory information about glacial formation and icebergs, links to park maps, and visitor information.

422

8. Detail of Clingman's Dome parking area looking NW. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Detail of Clingman's Dome parking area looking NW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Clingmans Dome Road, Between Newfound Gap Road & Clingmans Dome, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

423

272. GENERAL VIEW INTO KIEFFER PARK. VIEW WEST DOWN LANGLEY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

272. GENERAL VIEW INTO KIEFFER PARK. VIEW WEST DOWN LANGLEY ROAD THROUGH BASE FENCE AND GATE INTO KIEFFER PARK HOUSING AREA. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

424

Secretary Salazar: Announcing Investments in America's National Parks  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Secretary Salazar at the podium, behind him left to right Craig Obey, Vice President of the National Parks Conservation Association, Tom Kiernan, President of the National Parks Conservation Association and Terry Jones, President of the Wolftrap Foundation....

2009-04-23

425

Morristown National Historical Park Water Resources Scoping Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resource inventory and monitoring activities are integral components of resource management at Morristown National Historical Park. The Water Resources Scoping Report assists park management by: (1) providing an overview of existing water resource i...

1993-01-01

426

2. FORMER DENVER, SOUTH PARK AND PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. FORMER DENVER, SOUTH PARK AND PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER CHALK CREEK, NEAR MT. PRINCETON HOT SPRINGS. VIEW UPSTREAM - Denver South Park & Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Chalk Creek, near Mount Princeton Hot Spring, Romley (historical), Chaffee County, CO

427

1. FORMER DENVER, SOUTH PARK AND PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. FORMER DENVER, SOUTH PARK AND PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER CHALK CREEK, NEAR MT. PRINCETON HOT SPRINGS. VIEW DOWNSTREAM - Denver South Park & Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Chalk Creek, near Mount Princeton Hot Spring, Romley (historical), Chaffee County, CO

428

Adams National Historical Park: Expanded Transit Service Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2005 and 2006, Adams National Historical Park piloted expanded shuttle service, with the aim of promoting car-free access for its visitors. This report evaluates the 2006 season of operation. Adams National Historical Park (NHP) is located approximatel...

E. Chan J. Bryan M. Sorrell P. Christner S. Lian

2009-01-01

429

IL18, Although Antiallergic When Administered with IL12, Stimulates IL4 and Histamine Release by Basophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-18 is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in natural killer cell activation and T helper 1 (Th1) cell responses. Mast cells and basophils are major inducers and effectors of allergic inflammation. Here we show that basophils and mast cells derived by culture of bone marrow cells with IL-3 for 10 days express IL-18Ralpha chain and that basophils

Tomohiro Yoshimoto; Hiroko Tsutsui; Kouji Tominaga; Katsuaki Hoshino; Haruki Okamura; Shizuo Akira; William E. Paul; Kenji Nakanishi

1999-01-01

430

IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction promoted metastasis of osteosarcoma cells  

PubMed Central

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common human primary malignant bone tumor in children and young adults with poor prognosis because of their high metastatic potential. Identification of key factors that could regulate the aggressive biologic behavior of OS, particularly with respect to metastasis, would be necessary if significant improvements in therapeutic outcome are to occur. In this study, we carefully evaluated the potential role of IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction in metastasis of OS. We found that serum IL-17A was higher in OS patients with metastasis and was associated with their clinical stage. The elevated expression of IL-17RA was observed in tumor tissue from OS patients with metastasis. Of note, we showed that IL-17A could promote the metastasis of U-2 OS cells which expression high IL-17RA, but not MG63 cells which expression low IL-17RA. Further, we revealed that downregulation of IL-17RA in U-2 cells could abrogated the enhanced metastasis induced by IL-17A, while upregulation of IL-17RA in MG63 cells could elevate their response to IL-17A and exerted enhanced metastasis. We observed that IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction promoted the expression of VEGF, MMP9 and CXCR4 in OS cells, which might partly explain the enhanced metastasis of OS cells. Furthermore, we showed that Stat3 activity was crucial for IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction to promote OS metastasis. Finally, we confirmed that IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction promoted the metastasis of OS in nude mice. Our findings might provide a mechanistic explanation for metastasis of OS in vivo, and suggested that targeting IL-17A signaling was a novel promising strategy to treat patients with OS.

Wang, Mingmin; Wang, Luanqiu; Ren, Tao; Xu, Lin; Wen, Zhenke

2013-01-01

431

IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction promoted metastasis of osteosarcoma cells.  

PubMed

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common human primary malignant bone tumor in children and young adults with poor prognosis because of their high metastatic potential. Identification of key factors that could regulate the aggressive biologic behavior of OS, particularly with respect to metastasis, would be necessary if significant improvements in therapeutic outcome are to occur. In this study, we carefully evaluated the potential role of IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction in metastasis of OS. We found that serum IL-17A was higher in OS patients with metastasis and was associated with their clinical stage. The elevated expression of IL-17RA was observed in tumor tissue from OS patients with metastasis. Of note, we showed that IL-17A could promote the metastasis of U-2 OS cells which expression high IL-17RA, but not MG63 cells which expression low IL-17RA. Further, we revealed that downregulation of IL-17RA in U-2 cells could abrogated the enhanced metastasis induced by IL-17A, while upregulation of IL-17RA in MG63 cells could elevate their response to IL-17A and exerted enhanced metastasis. We observed that IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction promoted the expression of VEGF, MMP9 and CXCR4 in OS cells, which might partly explain the enhanced metastasis of OS cells. Furthermore, we showed that Stat3 activity was crucial for IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction to promote OS metastasis. Finally, we confirmed that IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction promoted the metastasis of OS in nude mice. Our findings might provide a mechanistic explanation for metastasis of OS in vivo, and suggested that targeting IL-17A signaling was a novel promising strategy to treat patients with OS. PMID:23192273

Wang, Mingmin; Wang, Luanqiu; Ren, Tao; Xu, Lin; Wen, Zhenke

2013-02-01

432

IL-23/IL-27 Ratio in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-27 are two IL-12-related cytokines which their function may dramatically influence the inflammatory response to tumor development. IL-12 and IL-27 seem to have antagonistic roles with IL-23 in tumor site. In this study, IL-23 and IL-27 mRNA expressions were analyzed in peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer and healthy volunteers using quantitative real-time PCR. Methods: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 50 women with breast cancer and 50 healthy ones. The total RNA was extracted from peripheral blood after lysis with ammonium chloride and TRizol reagent and the cDNA was synthesized. The expression of IL-23 and IL-27 gene transcripts was determined with real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using Syber Green PCR Master Mix. Results: It is found that IL-23 and IL-27 transcripts had significantly higher expression in peripheral blood of patients compared with the healthy controls. The ratio of IL-23 transcript expression to IL-27 was 3.4 fold lower in the studied patients compared with the normal individuals. Conclusion: It is concluded that the over expression of IL-23 and IL-27 gene transcript in peripheral blood of breast cancer patients may be an immune response against tumor development and the inflammatory response plays a critical role in tumor development via up regulating the corresponding cytokines. However, the IL-23/IL-27 ratio may play an important role in cytokine-based immunotherapy against cancer. Further research should be carried out to assess these cytokines in a larger sample size. .

Khodadadi, Ali; Razmkhah, Mahboobeh; Eskandari, Ali-Reza; Hosseini, Ahmad; Habibagahi, Mojtaba; Ghaderi, Abbas; Jaberipour, Mansooreh

2014-01-01

433

IFN-? Reverses IL-2- and IL-4-Mediated T-Cell Steroid Resistance  

PubMed Central

Corticosteroids are the most common therapeutic approach for control of tissue inflammation. Combination IL-2/IL-4 is known to induce T-cell steroid resistance. This can be reversed with IFN-?; however, the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. In the current study, we found that treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with combination IL-2/IL-4 for 48 hours, but not with IL-2 or IL-4 alone, abrogated dexamethasone (DEX)-induced glucocorticoid receptor (GCR)-? nuclear translocation in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The presence of IL-4 significantly down-regulated IFN-? production by IL-2–stimulated cells. Importantly, addition of IFN-? to the IL-2/IL-4 combination restored GCR? nuclear translocation in response to DEX. Furthermore, DEX-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase-1 induction, used as a readout for corticosteroid-induced transactivation, was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in media and IL-2/IL-4/IFN-?–treated conditions compared with IL-2/IL-4–treated cells. The combination of IL-2/IL-4 induced p38 MAPK activation in CD3+ cells (30.5 ± 5.7% cells expressed phospho-p38 MAPK versus no phospho-p38 MAPK expression after media treatment). The presence of the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, or IFN-? inhibited p38 MAPK phosphorylation and enhanced GCR? nuclear translocation in response to DEX. These data indicate that combination IL-2/IL-4 inhibits GCR? nuclear translocation in human T cells, and this effect is reversed by IFN-? via inhibition of p38 MAPK activation.

Goleva, Elena; Li, Ling-bo; Leung, Donald Y. M.

2009-01-01

434

IL-15.IL-15R? complex shedding following trans-presentation is essential for the survival of IL-15 responding NK and T cells.  

PubMed

Interleukin (IL)-15 and its specific receptor chain, IL-15R?, support the development of various effector cells, including NK and CD8 T cells via a mechanism called trans-presentation. Whereas the dynamic of trans-presentation has been shown to involve the recycling of IL-15R? by presenting cells, the way responding cells integrate, or take advantage of this process has not been evaluated yet. To address this question, we set up a trans-presentation model using a membrane-bound IL-15.IL-15R? fusion protein, and found that IL-15 is detectable within responding cells following IL-15 trans-presentation. The role of the proteolytic cleavage of IL-15R? in this process was investigated by generating an uncleavable form of IL-15R?. We showed that IL-15 entry into responding cells necessitates the cleavage of IL-15.IL-15R? complex from the surface of IL-15 presenting cells, and observed that IL-15R? cleavage is associated with a decrease of the duration of Stat5 signaling. Once separated from presenting cells, responding cells are able to recycle IL-15.IL-15R? complexes via intracellular compartments, for residual proliferation in a time-limited manner. These studies define an unprecedented cytokine pathway in which the IL-15.IL-15R? complex cleaved from presenting cells allows responding cells to internalize, store and use IL-15.IL-15R? complex for their own proliferation and survival. PMID:24912180

Tamzalit, Fella; Barbieux, Isabelle; Plet, Ariane; Heim, Julie; Nedellec, Steven; Morisseau, Sébastien; Jacques, Yannick; Mortier, Erwan

2014-06-10

435

IL-1-induced murine osteoblast IL-6 production is mediated by the type 1 IL-1 receptor and is increased by 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3.  

PubMed Central

IL-1-induced osteoblast IL-6 production represents one possible mechanism by which IL-1 augments bone resorption. In this report, we show that the murine osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1) expresses type 1 IL-1 receptors based on 125I-HrIL1 alpha binding, blocked by type 1 IL-1R antibodies (35F5), and analysis of MC3T3 RNA by reverse transcription (RT)-DNA amplification and Northern analysis. MC3T3 cells do not express detectable type 2 IL-1R mRNA by RT-DNA amplification. IL-1 induces (IL-1 ED50, 0.1 pM) IL-6 production through the type 1 IL-1R as 35F5 antibodies block IL-1-stimulated IL-6 production. Vitamin D3 increases IL-1R expression dose- and metabolite-dependently, with 1,25-(OH)2D3 having the greatest potency, and also enhances IL-1's capacity to stimulate IL-6 production at low IL-1 levels. Both IL-1 and 1,25-(OH)2D3 induce type 1 IL-1R and not type 2 IL-1R upregulation based on ligand binding and RT-DNA amplification. Increased IL-1R expression requires a 5-7-h treatment and is protein/RNA synthesis dependent. These observations imply that IL-1-induced IL-6 production in osteoblasts is mediated by type 1 IL-1Rs and that increased IL-1R expression could play a role in mediating IL-1-induced skeletal responses. Images

Lacey, D L; Grosso, L E; Moser, S A; Erdmann, J; Tan, H L; Pacifici, R; Villareal, D T

1993-01-01

436

Maturing dendritic cells are an important source of IL29 and IL20 that may cooperatively increase the innate immunity of keratinocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, IL- 28, and IL-29 are new members of the IL-10 inter- feron family. Monocytes are well-known sources of IL-19, IL-20, and IL-24. We demonstrated here that monocytes also expressed IL-29, and monocyte dif- ferentiation into macrophages (M) or dendritic cells (DCs) strongly changed their production capacity of these cytokines. Maturation of DCs with bacterial stimuli

Kerstin Wolk; Katrin Witte; Ellen Witte; Susanna Proesch; Gundula Schulze-Tanzil; Katarzyna Nasilowska; John Thilo; Khusru Asadullah; Wolfram Sterry; Hans-Dieter Volk; Robert Sabat

2008-01-01

437

Differential regulation of human eosinophil IL-3, IL-5, and GM-CSF receptor alpha-chain expression by cytokines: IL-3, IL-5, and GM-CSF down-regulate IL-5 receptor alpha expression with loss of IL-5 responsiveness, but up-regulate IL-3 receptor alpha expression.  

PubMed

Our recent data suggested that tissue eosinophils may be relatively insensitive to anti-IL-5 treatment. We examined cross-regulation and functional consequences of modulation of eosinophil cytokine receptor expression by IL-3, IL-5 GM-CSF, and eotaxin. Incubation of eosinophils with IL-3, IL-5, or GM-CSF led to reduced expression of IL-5R alpha, which was sustained for up to 5 days. Eosinophils incubated with IL-5 or IL-3 showed diminished respiratory burst and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase phosphorylation in response to further IL-5 stimulation. In contrast to these findings, eosinophil expression of IL-3R alpha was increased by IL-3, IL-5, and GM-CSF, whereas GM-CSF receptor alpha was down-regulated by GM-CSF, but was not affected by IL-3 or IL-5. CCR3 expression was down-regulated by IL-3 and was transiently reduced by IL-5 and GM-CSF, but rapidly returned toward baseline. Eotaxin had no effect on receptor expression for IL-3, IL-5, or GM-CSF. Up-regulation of IL-3R alpha by cytokines was prevented by a phosphoinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, whereas this and other signaling inhibitors had no effect on IL-5R alpha down-regulation. These data suggest dynamic and differential regulation of eosinophil receptors for IL-3, IL-5, and GM-CSF by the cytokine ligands. Since these cytokines are thought to be involved in eosinophil development and mobilization from the bone marrow and are present at sites of allergic inflammation, tissue eosinophils may have reduced IL-5R expression and responsiveness, and this may explain the disappointing effect of anti-IL-5 therapy in reducing airway eosinophilia in asthma. PMID:12759409

Gregory, Bernard; Kirchem, Antje; Phipps, Simon; Gevaert, Phillipe; Pridgeon, Carol; Rankin, Sara M; Robinson, Douglas S

2003-06-01

438

Investment of logistic park based on the game theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the proportion of investment about logistic park between government and corporation, and builds the model to analyze the proportion of investment in the logistic park's basal establishments and vehicles between government and corporation. The paper explains the applicability of the model, and gives an example. It is helpful to develop the logistic park.

Zhang Peilin; Dai Hang

2010-01-01

439

Modeling and functional design of logistic park using IDEFO method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China, almost every metropolitan has one or even more Logistics Parks planned. Unfortunately most of built Logistic Parks are not very well in revenue and operation. In order to visually present the activities and functions of Logistics Park, a graphical and structured modeling method, IDEFO is chosen, for it can be used to demonstrate the logistics processes, activities and

Cunlu Zhang; Xiaolan Chen; Yongbo Feng; Ruibin Luo

2010-01-01

440

Research on traffic volume forecast and assignment of Logistics Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an important phase in the plan of Logistics Park, traffic volume forecast and traffic assignment are always the research focus.In this paper, the improved traffic volume non-repeated coefficient method was introduced to forecast the Traffic Volume of Logistics Park, based on the results, system optimization assignment model was used for traffic assignment of Logistics Park with the aid of

Haiyao Xie; Shouwen Ji; Jinsheng Shen; Xiangyu Han

2008-01-01

441

Optimal location planning of logistics park with variable capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study a logistics park location planning problem in which logistics park has variable capacities related to the park size that is decided in the given range and the size ranges are different in every potential location site. We introduce the design modes to deal with the nonlinear tracts cost function and obtain an integer programming model.

Jianxun Tang; Lixin Tang

2009-01-01

442

AHP-based site planning of the logistics park  

Microsoft Academic Search

The site planning of the logistics park is a significant process of the construction of logistic system. An appropriate site planning of the logistics park could promote the development of regional economy, social environment and logistics corporation. This article demonstrates the principle of the site planning of the logistics park and analyzes the Baumol-Wolfe Method, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), CFLP

Liu Xiaohui; Wang Lin; Zhang Lu; Ning Jinhua; Zhao Xueyu

2011-01-01

443

Estimating the parking lot footprint across the Great Lakes region  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we determine the areal footprint of parking lots in the Great Lakes Basinand outline policies to provide smart growth of parking lots. Our poster addresses the question: “what is the areal footprint and the ensuing economic and ecological consequences of parking lots?”. Our research addresses whether land use in the in the Great Lakes is efficient and

Amélie Y Davis; Bryan C Pijanowski; Kimberly D Robinson; Paul B Kidwell

2007-01-01

444

Law Enforcement in the National Park Service: The Ranger's Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The duties of the National Park Service have grown dramatically since its creation in 1916. One area in which the Park Service has had to assume a major new role is in law enforcement. This paper addresses the issue of law enforcement in the National Park Service from the perspective of the rangers. It finds that rangers appear to accept

Dennis L. Soden; Worth H. Hester

1989-01-01

445

Power quality improvement with an extended custom power park  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the operation principles of an extended custom power park (CPP). The proposed park is more effective when it is compared to the conventional power parks regarding the yield of improving both current and voltage quality of linear and nonlinear loads using dynamic voltage restorer (DVR), active power filter (APF), static transfer switch (STS) and diesel generator (DG).

M. Emin Meral; Ahmet Teke; K. Cagatay Bayindir; Mehmet Tumay

2009-01-01

446

America's National Parks: Their Principles, Purposes, and Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the history of National Parks and the controversy over their use. Emphasizing the lack of definitive legislation, Frederick Law Olmsted's original philosophy for establishing national parks is proposed for defining the role of parks today. Concludes that activities not directly enhancing nature (e.g., ski runs) are not appropriate in the…

Sax, Joseph L.

1976-01-01

447

36 CFR 7.74 - Virgin Islands National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Virgin Islands National Park. 7.74 Section...THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.74 Virgin Islands National Park. (a) [Reserved...States Coast Guard and Territory of the Virgin Islands. (e) Fishing. (1)...

2013-07-01

448

Man & Nature in the National Parks: Reflections on Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report on an inquiry into some of the social/political/ecological problems of the national parks of the United States. The authors examined the impact of man on the national parks and concluded that the parks now face dangers from within, in addition to the older and more generally recognized external pressures for economic exploitation…

Darling, F. Fraser; Eichhorn, Noel D.

449

ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF EXOTIC VASCULAR PLANTS IN YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Documentation of the arrival of exotic vascular plants in Yellowstone National Park has been sporadic. An annotated checklist of exotic vascular plants is presented, with information about the approximate arrival time in the park of each species and the current extent of the infestation. Yellowstone's flora includes 187 exotic vascular plant species (14.8% of the flora), and the park has

Jennifer J. Whipple

450

POLLINATION ECOLOGY OF CASTILLEJA IN MOUNT RAINIER NATIONAL PARK1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pollination ecology of four species of Castilleja was studied in the Berkeley Park- Yakima Park area of Mt. Rainier National Park, Washington, from 2 July to 13 August 1970. One species, C. cryptantha, was found to be self-pollinating, while the other three, C. miniata, C. oreopola, and C. rupicola, are primarily hummingbird-pollinated. Bumble- bees were observed to forage on

W. JAMES DUFFIELD

451

36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Channel Islands National Park. 7.84 Section 7...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.84 Channel Islands National Park. (a) [Reserved...the following areas: (i) Anacapa Island. Northside to exterior boundary of...

2013-07-01

452

Celebrating the Life and Legacy of Rosa Parks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents the life and legacy of Rosa Parks. The author highlights four children's books that accurately portray Parks as an activist and acknowledge the broader context of her life's story--and the years of struggle of the black community against Jim Crow laws. The four children's books share Rosa Park's story in ways…

Stewart, Loraine

2006-01-01

453

Redwood National and State Parks Lassen Volcanic National Park Whiskeytown - Shasta - Trinity National Recreation Area: Museum Management Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Redwood National and State Parks (REDW), Lassen Volcanic National Park (LAVO), and Whiskeytown National Recreation Area (WHIS) have museum and archive collections that reflect their rich heritage and biodiversity. This Museum Management Plan describes an ...

J. Bayless J. OBarr K. Kvam M. Benterou S. Floray

2008-01-01

454

Autophagy and IL-1 Family Cytokines  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is an important intracellular homeostatic mechanism for the targeting of cytosolic constituents, including organelles, for lysosomal degradation. Autophagy plays roles in numerous physiological processes, including immune cell responses to endogenous and exogenous pathogenic stimuli. Moreover, autophagy has a potentially pivotal role to play in the regulation of inflammatory responses. In particular, autophagy regulates endogenous inflammasome activators, as well as inflammasome components and pro-IL-1?. As a result, autophagy acts a key modulator of IL-1? and IL-18, as well as IL-1?, release. This review focuses specifically on the role autophagy plays in regulating the production, processing, and secretion of IL-1 and IL-18 and the consequences of this important function.

Harris, James

2013-01-01

455

75 FR 11555 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Great...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Interior, National Park Service, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Mosca...Interior, National Park Service, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Mosca...responsibility of the superintendent, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve. A...

2010-03-11

456

36 CFR 13.954 - Where can I operate a snowmachine in Denali National Park and Preserve?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Park and Preserve? 13.954 Section 13.954 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve...

2013-07-01

457

"Parks as Classrooms" Field Trips: Just Another Day in the Park?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the history of the educational role of the National Park Service under various leaders. Details the types of educational outreach programs that are thriving today and discusses their merits and successes. (DDR)

Athman, Julie

1997-01-01

458

Health Hazard Evaluation Report: HETA 99-0283-2855, Yellowstone National Park, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On July 6, 1999, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a request from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for assistance in conducting an ergonomic evaluation of National Park Service (NPS) personn...

D. J. Habes R. B. Dick R. L. Tubbs F. R. Biggs S. E. Burt

2001-01-01

459

Characterisation and expression analysis of the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) cytokines: IL-1?, IL-6, IL-11, IL-12? and IFN?.  

PubMed

Genes encoding the five Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) cytokines; interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-11b, IL-12?c, and interferon (IFN) ?, were cloned and characterised at a molecular level. The genomic organisation of the halibut cytokine genes was similar to that seen in mammals and/or other fish species. Several mRNA instability motifs were found within the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of all cytokine cDNA sequences. The putative cytokine protein sequences showed a low sequence identity with the corresponding homologues in mammals, avian and other fish species. Nevertheless, important structural features were presumably conserved such as the presence, or absence in the case of IL-1?, of a signal peptide, secondary structure and family signature motifs. The relative expression pattern of the cytokine genes was analyzed in several halibut organs, revealing a constitutive expression in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs. Interestingly, the gills showed a relatively high expression of IL-1?, IL-12?c and IFN?. The real time RT-PCR data also showed that the mRNA level of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-12?c and IFN? was high in the thymus, while IL-11b was relatively highly expressed in the posterior kidney and posterior gut. Moreover, the halibut brain showed a relatively high level of IL-6 transcripts. Anterior kidney leucocytes in vitro stimulated with imiquimod showed a significant increase in mRNA level of the five halibut cytokine genes. The sequence and characterisation data presented here will be useful for further investigation of both innate and adaptive immune responses in halibut, and be helpful in the design of vaccines for the control of various infectious diseases. PMID:21643951

Øvergård, Aina-Cathrine; Nepstad, Ina; Nerland, Audun Helge; Patel, Sonal

2012-03-01

460

IL20: biological functions and clinical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  IL-20 belongs to the IL-10 family and plays a role in skin inflammation and the development of hematopoietic cells. Little is known about its other biological functions and clinical implications, however. Updated information about IL-20, such as its identification, expression, receptors, signaling, biological activities, and potential clinical implications, is illustrated in this review based on our research and on data

Chi-Chen Wei; Yu-Hsiang Hsu; Hsing-Hui Li; Yo-Ching Wang; Mei-Yi Hsieh; Wei-Yu Chen; Chung-Hsi Hsing; Ming-Shi Chang

2006-01-01

461

Expression of IL18 in psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a novel cytokine that plays an important role in the T-helper 1 (Th1) response, primarily via its\\u000a ability to induce IFN-? production in T cells and NK cells. Human keratinocytes produce IL-18, as do monocytes and macrophages,\\u000a which are the two major sources of this molecule. It is thought that IL-18 derived from keratinocytes might be

Yukinori Ohta; Yuko Hamada; Kensei Katsuoka

2001-01-01

462

IL-27 Limits Central Nervous System Viral Clearance by Promoting IL-10 and Enhances Demyelination  

PubMed Central

IL-27 is a pleiotropic member of the IL-6 and IL-12 cytokine family composed of the IL-27p28 and the EBV-induced gene 3. IL-27 and its receptor mRNA are both upregulated in the CNS during acute encephalomyelitis induced by the JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) and sustained during viral persistence. Contributions of IL-27 to viral pathogenesis were evaluated by infection of IL-27R?-chain–deficient (IL-27R??/?) mice. The absence of IL-27 signaling accelerated virus control within the CNS associated with increased IFN-? secreting virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Abrogation of IL-27 signaling did not affect virus-specific CD8+ T cell–mediated IL-10 production or cytolytic activity or Foxp3+ regulatory T cell populations. However, IL-10 production by virus-specific CD4+ T cells was reduced significantly. Despite increased T cell–mediated antiviral function in IL-27R??/? mice, the virus persisted in the CNS at similar levels as in wild-type mice. Nevertheless, IL-27R??/? mice exhibited decreased clinical disease during persistence, coincident with less severe demyelination, the hallmark tissue damage associated with JHMV infection. Overall, these data demonstrate that in contrast to viral infections at other sites, IL-27 does not play a proinflammatory role during JHMV-induced encephalomyelitis. Rather, it limits CNS inflammation and impairs control of CNS virus replication via induction of IL-10 in virus-specific CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, in contrast to its protective role in limiting CNS autoimmunity and preventing immunopathology, these data define a detrimental role of IL-27 in promoting demyelination by delaying viral control.

de Aquino, Maria Teresa P.; Kapil, Parul; Hinton, David R.; Phares, Timothy W.; Puntambekar, Shweta S.; Savarin, Carine; Bergmann, Cornelia C.

2014-01-01

463

A Soluble Form of IL-27R? Is a Natural IL-27 Antagonist.  

PubMed

IL-27 is a cytokine of the IL-12 family that plays a key role in the regulation of inflammatory and T cell responses. Its receptor is composed of IL-27R? and gp130 and activates the STAT pathway. We show in this study, using an ELISA that we developed, that a naturally occurring soluble form of IL-27R? (sIL-27R?) is produced by human activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, B cells, myeloid cells, and various cell lines. sIL-27R? is present at a mean concentration of 10,344 ± 1,274 pg/ml in the sera from healthy individuals. Biochemical studies showed that sIL-27R? is released as two N-glycosylated variants of ?90 and ?70 kDa. In IL-27R?-transfected COS7 cells, primary cells, and cell lines, production of sIL-27R? is inhibited by the metalloprotease inhibitors GM6001 and TAPI-0. Importantly, natural sIL-27R? binds rIL-27, inhibits IL-27 binding to its cell surface receptor, and is a potent inhibitor of IL-27 signaling, as shown by its ability to specifically block IL-27-mediated STAT activation, at low molar excess over IL-27. Also, we found that serum levels of sIL-27R? were elevated in patients with Crohn's disease, a Th1-mediated disease. These findings suggest that sIL-27R? may play important immunoregulatory functions under normal and pathological conditions. PMID:24771852

Dietrich, Céline; Candon, Sophie; Ruemmele, Frank M; Devergne, Odile

2014-06-01

464

Pro-Inflammatory Signaling by IL-10 and IL-22: Bad Habit Stirred Up by Interferons?  

PubMed

Interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-22 are key members of the IL-10 cytokine family that share characteristic properties such as defined structural features, usage of IL-10R2 as one receptor chain, and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 as dominant signaling mode. IL-10, formerly known as cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor, is key to deactivation of monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. Accordingly, pre-clinical studies document its anti-inflammatory capacity. However, the outcome of clinical trials assessing the therapeutic potential of IL-10 in prototypic inflammatory disorders has been disappointing. In contrast to IL-10, IL-22 acts primarily on non-leukocytic cells, in particular epithelial cells of intestine, skin, liver, and lung. STAT3-driven proliferation, anti-apoptosis, and anti-microbial tissue protection is regarded a principal function of IL-22 at host/environment interfaces. In this hypothesis article, hidden/underappreciated pro-inflammatory characteristics of IL-10 and IL-22 are outlined and related to cellular priming by type I interferon. It is tempting to speculate that an inherent inflammatory potential of IL-10 and IL-22 confines their usage in tissue protective therapy and beyond that determines in some patients efficacy of type I interferon treatment. PMID:23382730

Mühl, Heiko

2013-01-01

465

Role of IL-21 and IL-21 Receptor on B Cells in HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

Interleukin (IL)-21 is a member of a family of cytokines which includes IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9 and IL-15 all of which utilize a common ? chain in their individual receptor complexes for delivering intracellular signals in their target cells. IL-21 is produced by CD4+ T cells, in particular T follicular helper cells, and is critically important in the regulation and maintenance of T cells and B cells in innate and adaptive immunity. Effects of IL-21 are pleiotropic, owing to the broad cellular distribution of the IL-21 receptor and it plays a critical role in T cell-dependent and independent human B cell differentiation for generating humoral immune responses. This chapter reviews current knowledge about the importance of IL-21 and IL-21 receptor interaction in human B cell responses, immune defects of B cells and IL-21 in HIV infection and the potential applicability of IL-21 in vaccines/immunotherapeutic approaches to augment relevant immune responses.

Pallikkuth, Suresh; Parmigiani, Anita; Pahwa, Savita

2013-01-01

466

Comprehensive Evaluation System for Operating Logistics Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the operation conditions of operating logistics parks systematically, and promote their development, this article build an integrated evaluation system using analytic hierarchy process. This system include 4 Classes of guidelines layer indicators which reflect the operating basis, operating capacity, operating efficiency and operating potential, as well as 66 index layers indicators, and then illustrate how to

Zhou Ren; Zhou Yang

2010-01-01

467

Bostwick Park Project: Colorado River Storage Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The former small west-central Colorado town of Bostwick Park barely made a blip on most maps and atlases, if it even showed up at all. A small farming community of roughly fortyfive families, the town offered little in the way of tourist attractions, whic...

T. R. Linenberger

2009-01-01

468

Classical Physics Experiments in the Amusement Park  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An amusement park is a large physics laboratory, full of rotating and accelerated coordinate systems. The forces are experienced throughout the body and can be studied with simple equipment or with electronics depending on age and experience. In this paper, we propose adaptations of classical physics experiments for use on traditional rides.…

Bagge, Sara; Pendrill, Ann-Marie

2002-01-01

469

Olympic Park Recreational Reserve Reserve Management Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is a Management Plan for the Olympic Park Reserve within Waitakere and Auckland Cities. The Plan has been developed as a guide for the protection, use and development of the Reserve, with an emphasis on managing its organised and informal recreation while recognising its cultural heritage and ecological rehabilitation opportunities.

470

Vicksburg National Military Park Cultural Landscape Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vicksburg National Military Park was established on February 21, 1899, to commemorate the campaign, siege, and defense of Vicksburg, Mississippi, and to preserve the history of the battles and operations of the siege and defense on the ground where they w...

2009-01-01

471

NURE and the National Park Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the National Resource Evaluation (NURE), massive amounts of geological, geochemical, and geophysical data, covering the entire conterminous 48 states and Alaska, are being collected and made public. In addition to NURE goals, these data are applicable to various other researches on and in the vicinity of lands controlled by the National Park Service. Airborne geophysical and hydrogeochemical survey NURE

1979-01-01

472

Photovoltaic applications for the National Park Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

ERDA has engaged MIT\\/Lincoln Laboratory in its field tests and applications project for solar photovoltaic systems. This paper describes one of the applications of the project: namely, the placement, test and monitoring of solar photovoltaic systems that serve installations of the U.S. National Park Service (NPS). Attention is given to site selection procedures and an NPS photovoltaic site investigation summary

P. O. Jarvinen; C. R. Peatfield; H. Haiges

1977-01-01

473

New Hyde Park Public Library; A Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the fall of 1974, the Nassau County Library System conducted a study of the New Hyde Park Public Library at the request of that library's directing board. Relevant documents and statistics were reviewed, building usage was studied, and the library staff and community organizations were questioned. The library was analyzed in terms of the…

Nassau Library System, Garden City, NY.

474

Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens Reference Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens, founded in 1868, is supported in its goals and purposes by its reference library. The library offers a full range of services based on its specialized reference collections. It addition to a description of these features, the paper contains an introduction to zoos as societal entities, and the future trends in information requirements of zoos are

Joyce M. Shaw

1988-01-01

475

Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens Reference Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the range of services offered by the Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens reference library, and discusses the concept of zoos as societal entities and future trends in their information requirements. A bibliography of 20 articles on library and information services in zoos and aquariums is included. (17 references) (Author/CLB)

Shaw, Joyce M.

1988-01-01

476

PARKS AND LANDSCAPE EMPLOYEE. TEACHERS COPY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT IS TO PROVIDE VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE EDUCATION STUDENTS PREPARING FOR EMPLOYMENT IN THE PARK AND LANDSCAPING FIELD WITH READING MATERIAL AND A GUIDE FOR STUDY. THE MATERIAL WAS DESIGNED BY SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS ON THE BASIS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS. THE MATERIAL WAS TESTED IN…

FITTS, JAMES; JOHNSON, JOHNNY

477

Protecting Your Park When Lightning Strikes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A formula for assessing specific risk of lightning strikes is provided. Recent legal cases are used to illustrate potential liability. Six actions park managers can take to minimize danger from lightning are presented, and commonsense rules which should be publicly posted are listed. (MT)

Frydenlund, Marvin M.

1987-01-01

478

Black rhino in South Luangwa National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

It became clear in 1979 that commercial poaching was drastically reducing the num- bers of rhino in Luangwa Valley and the Zambian Government, through its National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) and the World Wildlife Fund, responded by setting up Save the Rhino Trust (SRT). Neither past nor present numbers and distribution of these animals were sufficiently known to provide

479

Portraits of Exemplary Secondary Schools: Highland Park.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the effects of community values on Highland Park High School's strong emphasis on academic achievement. The author concludes that high achievers benefit from this approach while mediocre or nonacademically inclined students are neglected. For journal availability, see SO 509 295. (AM)

Lightfoot, Sara Lawrence

1981-01-01

480

Oak Park Middle School and General Electric.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a partnership between Oak Park Middle School in Decatur, Alabama, and the General Electric Company that features the use of the quality circle approach. Not only were teachers, administrators, and parents organized into school quality circles, but students also formed quality circles to solve problems at the school. (CH)

Buckley, Anita

1987-01-01