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Sample records for lagrange park il

  1. 75 FR 3253 - Lamb Assembly and Test, LLC, Subsidiary of Mag Industrial Automation Systems, Machesney Park, IL...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... published in the Federal Register on December 11, 2009 (74 FR 65796). Pursuant to 29 CFR 90.18(c... Systems, Machesney Park, IL; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By... negative determination regarding eligibility to apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA), applicable...

  2. The Lagrange Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a derivation of all five Lagrange points by methods accessible to sixth-form students, and provides a further opportunity to match Newtonian gravity with centripetal force. The predictive powers of good scientific theories are also discussed with regard to the philosophy of science. Methods for calculating the positions of the…

  3. The Lagrange Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a derivation of all five Lagrange points by methods accessible to sixth-form students, and provides a further opportunity to match Newtonian gravity with centripetal force. The predictive powers of good scientific theories are also discussed with regard to the philosophy of science. Methods for calculating the positions of the…

  4. The Lagrange-mesh method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baye, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational method taking the form of equations on a grid thanks to the use of a Gauss-quadrature approximation. The variational basis related to this Gauss quadrature is composed of Lagrange functions which are infinitely differentiable functions vanishing at all mesh points but one. This method is quite simple to use and, more importantly, can be very accurate with small number of mesh points for a number of problems. The accuracy may however be destroyed by singularities of the potential term. This difficulty can often be overcome by a regularization of the Lagrange functions which does not affect the simplicity and accuracy of the method. The principles of the Lagrange-mesh method are described, as well as various generalizations of the Lagrange functions and their regularization. The main existing meshes are reviewed and extensive formulas are provided which make the numerical calculations simple. They are in general based on classical orthogonal polynomials. The extensions to non-classical orthogonal polynomials and periodic functions are also presented. Applications start with the calculations of energies, wave functions and some observables for bound states in simple solvable models which can rather easily be used as exercises by the reader. The Dirac equation is also considered. Various problems in the continuum can also simply and accurately be solved with the Lagrange-mesh technique including multichannel scattering or scattering by non-local potentials. The method can be applied to three-body systems in appropriate systems of coordinates. Simple atomic, molecular and nuclear systems are taken as examples. The applications to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and to Hartree-Fock calculations are also discussed as well as translations and rotations on a Lagrange mesh.

  5. Confined helium on Lagrange meshes.

    PubMed

    Baye, D; Dohet-Eraly, J

    2015-12-21

    The Lagrange-mesh method has the simplicity of a calculation on a mesh and can have the accuracy of a variational method. It is applied to the study of a confined helium atom. Two types of confinement are considered. Soft confinements by potentials are studied in perimetric coordinates. Hard confinement in impenetrable spherical cavities is studied in a system of rescaled perimetric coordinates varying in [0,1] intervals. Energies and mean values of the distances between electrons and between an electron and the helium nucleus are calculated. A high accuracy of 11 to 15 significant figures is obtained with small computing times. Pressures acting on the confined atom are also computed. For sphere radii smaller than 1, their relative accuracies are better than 10(-10). For larger radii up to 10, they progressively decrease to 10(-3), still improving the best literature results. PMID:25732054

  6. 78 FR 77771 - PennantPark SBIC Il, LP; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that PennantPark SBIC II, LP, 1590 Madison... exemption under Section 312 of the Act and Section 107.730, Financings which Constitute Conflicts...

  7. Livermore Unstructured Lagrange Explicit Shock Hydrodynamics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-09-21

    LULESH v1.0 is a 3D unstructured Lagrange hydrodynamics simulation written specifically to solve a standard analytical test problem, known as the Sedov problem. In this problem, a quantum of energy is deposited into a gas and propagates through the gas over time.

  8. Lagrange-mesh calculations in momentum space.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Gwendolyn; Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien

    2012-08-01

    The Lagrange-mesh method is a powerful method to solve eigenequations written in configuration space. It is very easy to implement and very accurate. Using a Gauss quadrature rule, the method requires only the evaluation of the potential at some mesh points. The eigenfunctions are expanded in terms of regularized Lagrange functions which vanish at all mesh points except one. It is shown that this method can be adapted to solve eigenequations written in momentum space, keeping the convenience and the accuracy of the original technique. In particular, the kinetic operator is a diagonal matrix. Observables and wave functions in both configuration space and momentum space can also be easily computed with good accuracy using only eigenfunctions computed in the momentum space. The method is tested with Gaussian and Yukawa potentials, requiring, respectively, a small and a large mesh to reach convergence. Corresponding wave functions in both spaces are compared with each other using the Fourier transform. PMID:23005880

  9. Lagrange duality theory for convex control problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, W. W.; Mitter, S. K.

    1976-01-01

    The Lagrange dual to a control problem is studied. The principal result based on the Hahn-Banach theorem proves that the dual problem has an optimal solution if there exists an interior point for the constraint set. A complementary slackness condition holds, if the primal problem has an optimal solution. A necessary and sufficient condition for the optimality of solutions to the primal and the dual problem is also presented.

  10. Long period coupling terms for Lagrange's equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A generalization of that portion of the work of Berger, which deals with the long period coupling effect of certain pairs of zonal harmonics. Long period terms arising from the short short period coupling of zonal harmonics are derived for Lagrange's equations. The formulation is general so that the results are valid for any pairs of zonal harmonics. Formulas are given to generate the various functions and integrals needed for the results given. Checks have been made against the work of Kozai.

  11. Gauss-Bonnet dark energy by Lagrange multipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Makarenko, Andrey N.; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2013-04-01

    A string-inspired effective theory of gravity, containing Gauss-Bonnet invariant interacting with a scalar field, is considered in view of obtaining cosmological dark energy solutions. A Lagrange multiplier is inserted into the action in order to achieve the cosmological reconstruction by selecting suitable forms of couplings and potentials. Several cosmological exact solutions (including dark energy of quintessence, phantom, or Little Rip type) are derived in the presence and in the absence of the Lagrange multiplier showing the difference in the two dynamical approaches. In the models that we consider, the Lagrange multiplier behaves as a sort of dust fluid that realizes the transitions between matter-dominated and dark energy epochs. The relation between Lagrange multipliers and Noether symmetries is discussed.

  12. Lagrange-Lobatto interpolating polynomials in the discrete variable representation.

    PubMed

    Rayson, M J

    2007-08-01

    The discrete variable representation (DVR) is a well known and widely used computational technique in many areas of physics. Recently, the Lagrange-Lobatto basis has attracted increasing attention, especially for radial Hamiltonians with a singular potential at the origin and finite element DVR constructions. However, unlike standard DVR functions, the Lagrange-Lobatto basis functions are not orthogonal. The overlap matrix is usually approximated as the identity using the same quadrature approximation as for the potential. Based on the special properties of overlap matrix of Lagrange-Lobatto polynomials, an explanation of the success of the identity approximation, including error bounds, is presented. Results for hydrogen and the more nontrivial potentials of self-consistent all-electron density functional atomic calculations are also given. PMID:17930171

  13. Lagrange-Lobatto interpolating polynomials in the discrete variable representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayson, M. J.

    2007-08-01

    The discrete variable representation (DVR) is a well known and widely used computational technique in many areas of physics. Recently, the Lagrange-Lobatto basis has attracted increasing attention, especially for radial Hamiltonians with a singular potential at the origin and finite element DVR constructions. However, unlike standard DVR functions, the Lagrange-Lobatto basis functions are not orthogonal. The overlap matrix is usually approximated as the identity using the same quadrature approximation as for the potential. Based on the special properties of overlap matrix of Lagrange-Lobatto polynomials, an explanation of the success of the identity approximation, including error bounds, is presented. Results for hydrogen and the more nontrivial potentials of self-consistent all-electron density functional atomic calculations are also given.

  14. Accurate solution of the Dirac equation on Lagrange meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baye, Daniel; Filippin, Livio; Godefroid, Michel

    2014-04-01

    The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational method taking the form of equations on a grid because of the use of a Gauss quadrature approximation. With a basis of Lagrange functions involving associated Laguerre polynomials related to the Gauss quadrature, the method is applied to the Dirac equation. The potential may possess a 1/r singularity. For hydrogenic atoms, numerically exact energies and wave functions are obtained with small numbers n +1 of mesh points, where n is the principal quantum number. Numerically exact mean values of powers -2 to 3 of the radial coordinate r can also be obtained with n +2 mesh points. For the Yukawa potential, a 15-digit agreement with benchmark energies of the literature is obtained with 50 or fewer mesh points.

  15. The unexplained accuracy of the Lagrange-mesh method.

    PubMed

    Baye, D; Hesse, M; Vincke, M

    2002-02-01

    The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational calculation which resembles a mesh calculation because of the use of a Gauss quadrature. In order to analyze its accuracy, four different Lagrange-mesh calculations based on the zeros of Laguerre polynomials are compared with exact variational calculations based on the corresponding Laguerre basis. The comparison is performed for three solvable radial potentials: the Morse, harmonic-oscillator, and Coulomb potentials. The results show that the accuracies of the energies obtained for different partial waves with the different mesh approximations are very close to the variational accuracy, even in the presence of the centrifugal singularity. The same property holds for the approximate wave functions. This striking accuracy remains unexplained. PMID:11863688

  16. Accurate solution of the Dirac equation on Lagrange meshes.

    PubMed

    Baye, Daniel; Filippin, Livio; Godefroid, Michel

    2014-04-01

    The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational method taking the form of equations on a grid because of the use of a Gauss quadrature approximation. With a basis of Lagrange functions involving associated Laguerre polynomials related to the Gauss quadrature, the method is applied to the Dirac equation. The potential may possess a 1/r singularity. For hydrogenic atoms, numerically exact energies and wave functions are obtained with small numbers n+1 of mesh points, where n is the principal quantum number. Numerically exact mean values of powers -2 to 3 of the radial coordinate r can also be obtained with n+2 mesh points. For the Yukawa potential, a 15-digit agreement with benchmark energies of the literature is obtained with 50 or fewer mesh points. PMID:24827362

  17. Improvement of variational nodal transport methods by Lagrange multiplier techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in earlier work that nodal transport methods can be formulated through the use of a variational form of the even-parity transport equation. The resulting methods have been used to obtain coarse-mesh solutions to two-dimensional P/sub 1/ and P/sub 3/ equations in a response matrix form. The formalism preserves neutron balance in each spatial node, while allowing the flux distribution within a node to be treated as a complete polynomial or other finite element like trial function. Subsequently, the method has been formulated as a global functional in which the odd-parity interface conditions appear as Lagrange multipliers. It is shown that the Lagrange multiplier formulation may be used to reduce the number of basis functions used to specify the interface conditions, thereby reducing the dimension of the nodal response matrices without a commensurate loss of accuracy. Specifically, by careful choice of Lagrange multiplier trial functions, one can cut the number of interface conditions by two and still obtain near P/sub 3/ accuracy. Moreover, the resulting formalism suffers neither from ray effects nor from the inaccuracies for streaming diagonal to the coordinate directions that have been observed in some nodal transport methods.

  18. The elusive d'Alembert-Lagrange dynamics of nonholonomic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flannery, M. R.

    2011-09-01

    While the d'Alembert-Lagrange principle has been widely used to derive equations of state for dynamical systems under holonomic (geometric) and non-integrable linear-velocity (kinematic) constraints, its application to general kinematic constraints with a general velocity and acceleration-dependence has remained elusive, mainly because there is no clear method, whereby the set of linear conditions that restrict the virtual displacements can be easily extracted from the equations of constraint. We show how this limitation can be resolved by requiring that the states displaced by the variation are compatible with the kinematic constraints. A set of linear auxiliary conditions on the displacements is established and adjoined to the d'Alembert-Lagrange equation via Lagrange's multipliers to yield the equations of state. As a consequence, new transpositional relations satisfied by the velocity and acceleration displacements are also established. The theory is tested for a quadratic velocity constraint and for a nonholonomic penny rolling and turning upright on an inclined plane.

  19. Euler-Lagrange formulas for pseudo-Kähler manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, JeongHyeong

    2016-01-01

    Let c be a characteristic form of degree k which is defined on a Kähler manifold of real dimension m > 2 k. Taking the inner product with the Kähler form ?k gives a scalar invariant which can be considered as a generalized Lovelock functional. The associated Euler-Lagrange equations are a generalized Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity theory; this theory restricts to the canonical formalism if c =c2 is the second Chern form. We extend previous work studying these equations from the Kähler to the pseudo-Kähler setting.

  20. Fractional cyclic integrals and Routh equations of fractional Lagrange system with combined Caputo derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin-Li; Fu, Jing-Li

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we develop a fractional cyclic integral and a Routh equation for fractional Lagrange system defined in terms of fractional Caputo derivatives. The fractional Hamilton principle and the fractional Lagrange equations of the system are obtained under a combined Caputo derivative. Furthermore, the fractional cyclic integrals based on the Lagrange equations are studied and the associated Routh equations of the system are presented. Finally, two examples are given to show the applications of the results.

  1. Minimum fuel trajectories for a low-thrust power-limited mission to the moon and to Lagrange points L4 and L5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breakwell, John V.; Golan, Oded M.

    1990-01-01

    Minimum fuel trajectories from a low earth parking orbit to Lagrange points L4 or L5 and to the moon are obtained for a low-thrust limited-power spacecraft, with thrust acceleration levels of the order of 0.001 G. The procedure to find a trajectory to the libration point starts from an analytical description of a slightly elliptical spiral, given by Breakwell and Rauch. The earth moon trajectory is found by matching an earth spiral to a moon spiral on the sphere of influence. Earth oblateness effect is considered.

  2. Lagrange constraint neural network for audio varying BSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold H.; Hsu, Charles C.

    2002-03-01

    Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) is a statistical-mechanical ab-initio model without assuming the artificial neural network (ANN) model at all but derived it from the first principle of Hamilton and Lagrange Methodology: H(S,A)= f(S)- (lambda) C(s,A(x,t)) that incorporates measurement constraint C(S,A(x,t))= (lambda) ([A]S-X)+((lambda) 0-1)((Sigma) isi -1) using the vector Lagrange multiplier-(lambda) and a- priori Shannon Entropy f(S) = -(Sigma) i si log si as the Contrast function of unknown number of independent sources si. Szu et al. have first solved in 1997 the general Blind Source Separation (BSS) problem for spatial-temporal varying mixing matrix for the real world remote sensing where a large pixel footprint implies the mixing matrix [A(x,t)] necessarily fill with diurnal and seasonal variations. Because the ground truth is difficult to be ascertained in the remote sensing, we have thus illustrated in this paper, each step of the LCNN algorithm for the simulated spatial-temporal varying BSS in speech, music audio mixing. We review and compare LCNN with other popular a-posteriori Maximum Entropy methodologies defined by ANN weight matrix-[W] sigmoid-(sigma) post processing H(Y=(sigma) ([W]X)) by Bell-Sejnowski, Amari and Oja (BSAO) called Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Both are mirror symmetric of the MaxEnt methodologies and work for a constant unknown mixing matrix [A], but the major difference is whether the ensemble average is taken at neighborhood pixel data X's in BASO or at the a priori sources S variables in LCNN that dictates which method works for spatial-temporal varying [A(x,t)] that would not allow the neighborhood pixel average. We expected the success of sharper de-mixing by the LCNN method in terms of a controlled ground truth experiment in the simulation of variant mixture of two music of similar Kurtosis (15 seconds composed of Saint-Saens Swan and Rachmaninov cello concerto).

  3. Interferometric Characterization of the Earth's Atmosphere from Lagrange Point 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Part of the NASA plans for future Earth-Science missions calls for observations using novel vantage points that can produce science products otherwise unobtainable. Observations of the Earth from the Lagrange-2 point, L-2, (1.5 million kilometers behind the Earth on the Earth-Sun line) affords a unique vantage point for atmospheric science. Special observation of the Earth's atmosphere using solar occultation techniques in the near infrared (1 to 4 microns) provides one of the most accurate method of passively sensing altitude profiles of the major species (CO2, O3, O2, CH4, H2O, N2O). In addition to observation of the Earth's atmosphere, it will be possible to observe a portion of the solar disk at moderate spatial resolution without interference from the Earth.

  4. Identifying fMRI Model Violations with Lagrange Multiplier Tests

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Ben; Long, Christopher J; Rae, Caroline; Solo, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The standard modeling framework in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is predicated on assumptions of linearity, time invariance and stationarity. These assumptions are rarely checked because doing so requires specialised software, although failure to do so can lead to bias and mistaken inference. Identifying model violations is an essential but largely neglected step in standard fMRI data analysis. Using Lagrange Multiplier testing methods we have developed simple and efficient procedures for detecting model violations such as non-linearity, non-stationarity and validity of the common Double Gamma specification for hemodynamic response. These procedures are computationally cheap and can easily be added to a conventional analysis. The test statistic is calculated at each voxel and displayed as a spatial anomaly map which shows regions where a model is violated. The methodology is illustrated with a large number of real data examples. PMID:22542665

  5. Park It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

  6. Park It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

  7. LAGRANGE: LAser GRavitational-wave ANtenna in GEodetic Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchman, S.; Conklin, J. W.; Balakrishnan, K.; Aguero, V.; Alfauwaz, A.; Aljadaan, A.; Almajed, M.; Altwaijry, H.; Saud, T. A.; Byer, R. L.; Bower, K.; Costello, B.; Cutler, G. D.; DeBra, D. B.; Faied, D. M.; Foster, C.; Genova, A. L.; Hanson, J.; Hooper, K.; Hultgren, E.; Klavins, A.; Lantz, B.; Lipa, J. A.; Palmer, A.; Plante, B.; Sanchez, H. S.; Saraf, S.; Schaechter, D.; Shu, K.; Smith, E.; Tenerelli, D.; Vanbezooijen, R.; Vasudevan, G.; Williams, S. D.; Worden, S. P.; Zhou, J.; Zoellner, A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new space gravitational wave observatory design called LAG-RANGE that maintains all important LISA science at about half the cost and with reduced technical risk. It consists of three drag-free spacecraft in a geocentric formation. Fixed antennas allow continuous contact with the Earth, solving the problem of communications bandwidth and latency. A 70 mm diameter sphere with a 35 mm gap to its enclosure serves as the single inertial reference per spacecraft, operating in “true” drag-free mode (no test mass forcing). Other advantages are: a simple caging design based on the DISCOS 1972 drag-free mission, an all optical read-out with pm fine and nm coarse sensors, and the extensive technology heritage from the Honeywell gyroscopes, and the DISCOS and Gravity Probe B drag-free sensors. An Interferometric Measurement System, designed with reflective optics and a highly stabilized frequency standard, performs the ranging between test masses and requires a single optical bench with one laser per spacecraft. Two 20 cm diameter telescopes per spacecraft, each with infield pointing, incorporate novel technology developed for advanced optical systems by Lockheed Martin, who also designed the spacecraft based on a multi-flight proven bus structure. Additional technological advancements include updated drag-free propulsion, thermal control, charge management systems, and materials. LAGRANGE subsystems are designed to be scalable and modular, making them interchangeable with those of LISA or other gravitational science missions. We plan to space qualify critical technologies on small and nano satellite flights, with the first launch (UV-LED Sat) in 2013.

  8. The third-order Lagrange equation for mechanical systems of variable mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shan-Jun; Ge, Wei-Guo; Huang, Pei-Tian

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, based on the third-order D'Alembert-Lagrange principle for mechanical systems of variable mass, the third-order Lagrange equations of mechanical systems of variable mass are obtained. From the equations the motion of mechanical systems of variable mass can be studied. In addition, the equations may enrich the theory of third-order differential equation.

  9. Interferometric Characterization of the Earth's Atmosphere from Lagrange Point 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Jay R.; Komar, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Part of the NASA plans for future Earth Science missions calls for observations using novel vantage points that can produce science products otherwise unobtainable. Observations of the Earth from the Lagrange-2 point, L-2, (1.5 million km behind the Earth on the Earth-Sun line) affords a unique vantage point for atmospheric science. Spectral observation of the Earth's atmosphere using solar occultation techniques in the near infrared (1 to 4 microns) provides one of the most accurate methods of passively sensing attitude profiles of the major species (CO2, O3, O2, CH4, H2O N2O). While traditional polar orbiting occultation measurements can obtain about 14 measurements per day (2 per orbit), solar occultation observations from the Lagrange-2 point will yield hourly profile measurements at all latitudes. The expected spatial resolution is 2 km in altitude, 0.5 degrees in latitude, and 2 degrees in longitude. The result from 24 hours of observations will be a three-dimensional map of atmospheric composition. To accomplish this task from L-2 requires the development of a large moderate spectral resolution instrument whose entrance aperture is about 10 meters. Use of a standard telescope design with a 10-meter circular mirror or a 10-meter strip mirror would be prohibitively expensive and excessively massive. Instead, we are proposing the development of a 10-meter linear interferometer coupled to a Fourier transform imaging spectrometer. The result will be a highly efficient design with sufficient sensitivity, while having both spatial and spectral resolution to produce the desired results. Preliminary calculations show that seven species (CO2, O3, O2, CH4, H2O N2O) have clearly separated spectral features in the I to 4 microns range with sufficient absorption to produce profile information from near the Earth's surface to the middle stratosphere. For CO2 the estimated sensitivity to change is 0.33% or 1 part in 330. This should be sufficient to detect changes that are significant for the carbon cycle studies. Initial instrument design studies are underway to determine the optimum optical design for the interferometer-spectrometer as well as the necessary highly stable mechanical designs. Separate design studies are being conducted for the spacecraft. shuttle launch facility, low-light solar power design, thermal control, and unique navigation requirements to reach and maintain the tight halo orbit about L-2.

  10. Lagrange stability of memristive neural networks with discrete and distributed delays.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ailong; Zeng, Zhigang

    2014-04-01

    Memristive neuromorphic system is a good candidate for creating artificial brain. In this paper, a general class of memristive neural networks with discrete and distributed delays is introduced and studied. Some Lagrange stability criteria dependent on the network parameters are derived via nonsmooth analysis and control theory. In particular, several succinct criteria are provided to ascertain the Lagrange stability of memristive neural networks with and without delays. The proposed Lagrange stability criteria are the improvement and extension of the existing results in the literature. Three numerical examples are given to show the superiority of theoretical results. PMID:24807947

  11. What Did We Think Could Be Learned About Earth From Lagrange Point Observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiscombe, W. J.

    2011-12-01

    The scientific excitement surrounding the NASA Lagrange point mission Triana, now called DSCOVR, tended to be forgotten in the brouhaha over other aspects of the mission. Yet a small band of scientists in 1998 got very excited about the possibilities offered by the Lagrange-point perspective on our planet. As one of the original co-investigators on the Triana mission, I witnessed that scientific excitement firsthand. I will bring to life the early period, circa 1998 to 2000, and share the reasons that we thought the Lagrange-point perspective on Earth would be scientifically revolutionary.

  12. What Did We Think Could Be Learned About Earth From Lagrange Point Observations?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiscombe, Warren

    2011-01-01

    The scientific excitement surrounding the NASA Lagrange point mission Triana, now called DSCOVR, tended to be forgotten in the brouhaha over other aspects of the mission. Yet a small band of scientists in 1998 got very excited about the possibilities offered by the Lagrange-point perspective on our planet. As one of the original co-investigators on the Triana mission, I witnessed that scientific excitement firsthand. I will bring to life the early period, circa 1998 to 2000, and share the reasons that we thought the Lagrange-point perspective on Earth would be scientifically revolutionary.

  13. Parallel processing a three-dimensional free-lagrange code

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, D.A.; Trease, H.E. )

    1989-01-01

    A three-dimensional, time-dependent free-Lagrange hydrodynamics code has been multitasked and autotasked on a CRAY X-MP/416. The multitasking was done by using the Los Alamos Multitasking Control Library, which is a superset of the CRAY multitasking library. Autotasking is done by using constructs which are only comment cards if the source code is not run through a preprocessor. The three-dimensional algorithm has presented a number of problems that simpler algorithms, such as those for one-dimensional hydrodynamics, did not exhibit. Problems in converting the serial code, originally written for a CRAY-1, to a multitasking code are discussed. Autotasking of a rewritten version of the code is discussed. Timing results for subroutines and hot spots in the serial code are presented and suggestions for additional tools and debugging aids are given. Theoretical speedup results obtained from Amdahl's law and actual speedup results obtained on a dedicated machine are presented. Suggestions for designing large parallel codes are given.

  14. Centrifuge Rotor Models: A Comparison of the Euler-Lagrange and the Bond Graph Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granda, Jose J.; Ramakrishnan, Jayant; Nguyen, Louis H.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on centrifuge rotor models with a comparison using Euler-Lagrange and bond graph methods is shown. The topics include: 1) Objectives; 2) MOdeling Approach Comparisons; 3) Model Structures; and 4) Application.

  15. Confined hydrogen atom by the Lagrange-mesh method: energies, mean radii, and dynamic polarizabilities.

    PubMed

    Baye, D; Sen, K D

    2008-08-01

    The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational calculation which resembles a mesh calculation because of the use of a Gauss quadrature. The hydrogen atom confined in a sphere is studied with Lagrange-Legendre basis functions vanishing at the center and surface of the sphere. For various confinement radii, accurate energies and mean radii are obtained with small numbers of mesh points, as well as dynamic dipole polarizabilities. The wave functions satisfy the cusp condition with 11-digit accuracy. PMID:18850967

  16. Park Smart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Parking Garage Automation System (PGAS) is based on a technology developed by a NASA-sponsored project called Robot sensorSkin(TM). Merritt Systems, Inc., of Orlando, Florida, teamed up with NASA to improve robots working with critical flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The system, containing smart sensor modules and flexible printed circuit board skin, help robots to steer clear of obstacles using a proximity sensing system. Advancements in the sensor designs are being applied to various commercial applications, including the PGAS. The system includes a smartSensor(TM) network installed around and within public parking garages to autonomously guide motorists to open facilities, and once within, to free parking spaces. The sensors use non-invasive reflective-ultrasonic technology for high accuracy, high reliability, and low maintenance. The system is remotely programmable: it can be tuned to site-specific requirements, has variable range capability, and allows remote configuration, monitoring, and diagnostics. The sensors are immune to interference from metallic construction materials, such as rebar and steel beams. Inside the garage, smart routing signs mounted overhead or on poles in front of each row of parking spots guide the motorist precisely to free spaces.

  17. 15. City parking lot, and rear of the commercial buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. City parking lot, and rear of the commercial buildings on the east side of State Street. - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL

  18. Genetic characterization of interleukins (IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18) with relevant biological roles in lagomorphs

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; de Matos, Ana Lemos; Costa, Paulo P

    2015-01-01

    ILs, as essential innate immune modulators, are involved in an array of biological processes. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18 have been implicated in inflammatory processes and in the immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and myxoma virus infections. In this study we characterized these ILs in six Lagomorpha species (European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, two cottontail rabbit species, European brown hare and American pika). Overall, these ILs are conserved between lagomorphs, including in their exon/intron structure. Most differences were observed between leporids and American pika. Indeed, when comparing both, some relevant differences were observed in American pika, such as the location of the stop codon in IL-1? and IL-2, the existence of a different transcript in IL8 and the number of cysteine residues in IL-1?. Changes at N-glycosylation motifs were also detected in IL-1, IL-10, IL-12B and IL-15. IL-1? is the protein that presents the highest evolutionary distances, which is in contrast to IL-12A where the distances between lagomorphs are the lowest. For all these ILs, sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than between human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. PMID:26395994

  19. ACE Parking Workplace Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetwater Union High School District, Chula Vista, CA.

    This manual is designed for use in a four-session workshop to help new parking garage employees enhance their skills in the following areas: understanding the functions of parking employees, computing parking rates and filling out parking lot reconciliation forms, preparing miscellaneous parking lot forms and developing effective communication and…

  20. Position-dependent mass Lagrangians: nonlocal transformations, Euler-Lagrange invariance and exact solvability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Omar

    2015-06-01

    A general nonlocal point transformation for position-dependent mass (PDM) Lagrangians and their mapping into a ‘constant unit-mass’ Lagrangians in the generalized coordinates is introduced. The conditions on the invariance of the related Euler-Lagrange equations are reported. The harmonic oscillator linearization of the PDM Euler-Lagrange equations is discussed through some illustrative examples including harmonic oscillators, shifted harmonic oscillators, a quadratic nonlinear oscillator, and a Morse-type oscillator. The Mathews-Lakshmanan nonlinear oscillators are reproduced and some ‘shifted’ Mathews-Lakshmanan nonlinear oscillators are reported. The mapping of an isotonic nonlinear oscillator into a PDM deformed isotonic oscillator is also discussed.

  1. A Lagrange-Galerkin hp-Finite Element Method for a 3D Nonhydrostatic Ocean Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galán del Sastre, Pedro; Bermejo, Rodolfo

    2015-10-01

    We introduce in this paper a Lagrange-Galerkin hp-finite element method to calculate the numerical solution of a nonhydrostatic ocean model. The Lagrange-Galerkin method yields a Stokes-like problem the solution of which is computed by a second-order rotational splitting scheme that separates the calculation of the velocity and pressure, the latter is decomposed into hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic components. We have tested the method in flows where the nonhydrostatic effects are important. The results are very encouraging.

  2. Lagrange multipliers in elastic-plastic torsion problem for nonlinear monotone operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuffrè, S.; Maugeri, A.; Puglisi, D.

    2015-08-01

    The existence of Lagrange multipliers as a Radon measure is ensured for an elastic-plastic torsion problem associated to a nonlinear strictly monotone operator. A regularization of this result, namely the existence of Lp Lagrange multipliers, is obtained under strong monotonicity assumption on the operator. Moreover, the relationships between elastic-plastic torsion problem and the obstacle problem are investigated. Finally, an example of the so-called "Von Mises functions" is provided, namely of solutions of the elastic-plastic torsion problem, associated to nonlinear monotone operators, which are not obtained by means of the obstacle problem in the case f =constant.

  3. National Environmental Research Parks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The National Environmental Research Parks are outdoor laboratories that provide opportunities for environmental studies on protected lands that act as buffers around Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The research parks are used to evaluate the environmental consequences of energy use and development as well as the strategies to mitigate these effects. They are also used to demonstrate possible environmental and land-use options. The seven parks are: Fermilab National Environmental Research Park; Hanford National Environmental Research Park; Idaho National Environmental Research Park; Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park; Nevada National Environmental Research Park; Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park; and Savannah River National Environmental Research Park. This document gives an overview of the events that led to the creation of the research parks. Its main purpose is to summarize key points about each park, including ecological research, geological characteristics, facilities, and available databases.

  4. Detection of Differential Item Functioning Using Lagrange Multiplier Tests. Research Report 96-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.

    In this paper it is shown that differential item functioning can be evaluated using the Lagrange multiplier test or C. R. Rao's efficient score test. The test is presented in the framework of a number of item response theory (IRT) models such as the Rasch model, the one-parameter logistic model, the two-parameter logistic model, the generalized…

  5. Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua W; Davidson, Ronald C

    2014-10-01

    It is commonly believed as a fundamental principle that energy-momentum conservation of a physical system is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., charged particles interacting through self-consistent electromagnetic or electrostatic fields, such a connection has only been cautiously suggested. It has not been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that the dynamics of particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. We show how to overcome this difficulty and establish the connection by generalizing the Euler-Lagrange equation, the central component of a field theory, to a so-called weak form. The weak Euler-Lagrange equation induces a new type of flux, called the weak Euler-Lagrange current, which enters conservation laws. Using field theory together with the weak Euler-Lagrange equation developed here, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived from the underlying space-time symmetry. PMID:25375609

  6. 1. Mill village dwelling at 817 Forest St. in LaGrange. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Mill village dwelling at 817 Forest St. in LaGrange. Note the hipped roof and wrap-around porch with heavy cornice and Doric columns. The quality of decorative detail here suggests that this house would have been for a mill manager. - 817 Forest Street (House), 817 Forest Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  7. Pointwise convergence of derivatives of Lagrange interpolation polynomials for exponential weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damelin, S. B.; Jung, H. S.

    2005-01-01

    For a general class of exponential weights on the line and on (-1,1), we study pointwise convergence of the derivatives of Lagrange interpolation. Our weights include even weights of smooth polynomial decay near +/-[infinity] (Freud weights), even weights of faster than smooth polynomial decay near +/-[infinity] (Erdos weights) and even weights which vanish strongly near +/-1, for example Pollaczek type weights.

  8. Necessary conditions for weighted mean convergence of Lagrange interpolation for exponential weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damelin, S. B.; Jung, H. S.; Kwon, K. H.

    2001-07-01

    Given a continuous real-valued function f which vanishes outside a fixed finite interval, we establish necessary conditions for weighted mean convergence of Lagrange interpolation for a general class of even weights w which are of exponential decay on the real line or at the endpoints of (-1,1).

  9. Resolution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with the imaginary-time method on a Lagrange mesh

    SciTech Connect

    Baye, D.; Sparenberg, J.-M.

    2010-11-15

    The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational calculation which has the simplicity of a mesh calculation. Combined with the imaginary-time method, it is applied to the iterative resolution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Two variants of a fourth-order factorization of the exponential of the Hamiltonian and two types of mesh (Lagrange-Hermite and Lagrange-sinc) are employed and compared. The accuracy is checked with the help of these comparisons and of the virial theorem. The Lagrange-Hermite mesh provides very accurate results with short computing times for values of the dimensionless parameter of the nonlinear term up to 10{sup 4}. For higher values up to 10{sup 7}, the Lagrange-sinc mesh is more efficient. Examples are given for anisotropic and nonseparable trapping potentials.

  10. Resolution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with the imaginary-time method on a Lagrange mesh.

    PubMed

    Baye, D; Sparenberg, J-M

    2010-11-01

    The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational calculation which has the simplicity of a mesh calculation. Combined with the imaginary-time method, it is applied to the iterative resolution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Two variants of a fourth-order factorization of the exponential of the Hamiltonian and two types of mesh (Lagrange-Hermite and Lagrange-sinc) are employed and compared. The accuracy is checked with the help of these comparisons and of the virial theorem. The Lagrange-Hermite mesh provides very accurate results with short computing times for values of the dimensionless parameter of the nonlinear term up to 10?. For higher values up to 10?, the Lagrange-sinc mesh is more efficient. Examples are given for anisotropic and nonseparable trapping potentials. PMID:21230613

  11. Modified Lagrange invariants and their role in determining transverse and axial imaging resolutions of self-interference incoherent holographic systems

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Joseph; Kelner, Roy

    2014-01-01

    The Lagrange invariant is a well-known law for optical imaging systems formulated in the frame of ray optics. In this study, we reformulate this law in terms of wave optics and relate it to the resolution limits of various imaging systems. Furthermore, this modified Lagrange invariant is generalized for imaging along the z axis, resulting with the axial Lagrange invariant which can be used to analyze the axial resolution of various imaging systems. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the theory, analysis of the lateral and the axial imaging resolutions is provided for Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) systems. PMID:25402144

  12. Yellowstone Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Thirteen years after devastating forest fires burned over 1.6 million acres in Yellowstone National Park, the scars are still evident. In this simulated natural color ASTER image, burned areas appear gray, in contrast to the dark green of unburned forests. The image covers an area of 60 x 63 km. This image was acquired on July 2, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the technologies needed to explore the universe and search for life beyond our home planet.

    Size: 60 x 63 km (37.2 x 39.1 miles) Location: 44.7 deg. North lat., 110.7 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: July 2, 2001

  13. A Polyconvex Integrand; Euler-Lagrange Equations and Uniqueness of Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awi, Roméo; Gangbo, Wilfrid

    2014-10-01

    In this manuscript we are interested in stored energy functionals W defined on the set of d × d matrices, which not only fail to be convex but satisfy We initiate a study which we hope will lead to a theory for the existence and uniqueness of minimizers of functionals of the form , as well as their Euler-Lagrange equations. The techniques developed here can be applied to a class of functionals larger than those considered in this manuscript, although we keep our focus on polyconvex stored energy functionals of the form - such that - which appear in the study of Ogden material. We present a collection of perturbed and relaxed problems for which we prove uniqueness results. Then, we characterize these minimizers by their Euler-Lagrange equations.

  14. Lagrange-Function Approach to Real-Space Order-N Electronic-Structure Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Varga, Kalman; Pantelides, Sokrates T

    2006-01-01

    The Lagrange functions are a family of analytical, complete, and orthonormal basis sets that are suitable for efficient, accurate, real-space, order-N electronic-structure calculations. Convergence is controlled by a single monotonic parameter, the dimension of the basis set, and computational complexity is lower than that of conventional approaches. In this paper we review their construction and applications in linearscaling electronic-structure calculations.

  15. Lunar landing and Sample Return mission Using Lagrange points as exploration staging posts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Qiao; Pingyuan, Cui; Enjie, Luan

    With the success of "Chang'r -1" program for lunar exploration and the development of "Ying- Huo" program for Mars exploration, it will provide the great opportunity for Chinese development of the deep space exploration. Next step of Chinese lunar exploration program will be landed on lunar surface. Here, we investigate ballistic trajectories to and from the Lagrange points L1 and L2, and their Lyapunov orbits, directly to the surfaces of the Earth and Moon. Such trajectories are of importance for landing, sample return missions and future crewed missions that use the Lagrange points as exploration staging posts. We focus on mapping transfers using these trajectories that access the entire surface of the primaries. The lowest velocity-increment transfer for whole-surface coverage is found on based of the circular restricted three-body problem and Earth-Moon systems. Finally, applications of such trajectories are to be found in landing and sample return missions, and future crewed missions which use the Lagrange points as exploration staging posts.

  16. 75 FR 45659 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... remains of 251 individuals of Native American ancestry. Officials of the Field Museum of Natural History... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY... made by the Field Museum of Natural History professional......

  17. Orienting Park Visitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormrod, Richard K.

    1984-01-01

    To utilize park facilities to their fullest, visitors must be well-oriented to the park's physical layout. The results of a study undertaken at Rocky Mountain National Park indicate that information should be readily accessible and easy to use. (DF)

  18. Parks In Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Sally-Jo

    1998-01-01

    More than 50 National Park Service (NPS) sites interpret Native cultures or early Native contact with Europeans. In about 30 of those, American Indians, Alaska Natives, or Native Hawaiians, in partnership with the NPS, present their own heritage and issues. Describes Native-run aspects of Sitka National Historical Park, Glacier National Park, and…

  19. PARKING PROGRAMS FOR UNIVERSITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KINNE, W.S., JR.

    PARKING FACILITIES WERE SURVEYED AT 83 REPRESENTATIVE UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES, AND THE METHODS USED IN ADMINISTERING, CONTROLLING AND FINANCING WERE EVALUTED. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS WERE MADE CONCERNING (1) THE LOCATION AND DESIGN OF PARKING LOTS AND GARAGES, (2) THE PRACTICE OF CURB PARKING ON CAMPUS, AND (3) THE FINANCING OF PARKING…

  20. Parks In Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Sally-Jo

    1998-01-01

    More than 50 National Park Service (NPS) sites interpret Native cultures or early Native contact with Europeans. In about 30 of those, American Indians, Alaska Natives, or Native Hawaiians, in partnership with the NPS, present their own heritage and issues. Describes Native-run aspects of Sitka National Historical Park, Glacier National Park, and…

  1. IL-4 EXACERBATES ANAPHYLAXIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were established to determine if IL-4, a cytokine critical for inducing allergic responses, contributes to the effector phase of allergy. Pretreatment of mice with IL-4 or the related cytokine, IL-13, rapidly and dramatically increased the severity of anaphylaxis induced by cross-linking Fc...

  2. IL-17 and infections.

    PubMed

    Ling, Y; Puel, A

    2014-10-01

    IL-17 immunity has been shown to be essential for mucocutaneous protection against Candida albicans in mice and humans. However, mice with defective IL-17 immunity display broader susceptibility, as they are also prone to infections with diverse infectious agents at various sites. Humans with genetic defects affecting their IL-17 immunity usually suffer from chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC): recurrent or persistent infections of the skin, nails, and mucosae with C. albicans, with or without other clinical signs. Most patients with autosomal dominant (AD) hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) due to STAT3 deficiency or AD STAT1 gain-of-function display impaired IL-17-producing T-cell development, and CMC is one of their principal clinical manifestations. Similarly, patients with autosomal recessive (AR) autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) caused by AIRE deficiency have high levels of neutralizing autoantibodies against IL-17A, IL-17F and/or IL-22 and present CMC as their only infectious disease. Finally, CMC is the main clinical phenotype observed in patients with inborn errors specifically affecting IL-17 immunity. Indeed, patients with AD IL-17F deficiency or AR IL-17RA or ACT1 deficiency display CMC and, to a lesser extent, superficial staphylococcal diseases. Candida infection was recently reported in psoriasis patients treated with anti-IL-17A antibodies. Careful monitoring for CMC is thus important during anti-IL-17 treatment. PMID:25398490

  3. IL-36 receptor antagonist with special emphasis on IL-38.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Y; Sabatino, G; Maccauro, G; Varvara, G; Murmura, G; Saggini, A; Rosati, M; Conti, F; Cianchetti, E; Caraffa, A; Antinolfi, P; Pandolfi, F; Potalivo, G; Galzio, R; Conti, P; Theoharides, T C

    2013-01-01

    IL-36 is another family member of IL-1 and induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines and activates MAPK and NFkB pathways. IL-36 is a common mediator of innate and adaptive immune response and is inhibited by IL-36 receptor antagonist (RA). IL-36RA acts on IL-36 receptor ligand which exerts proinflammatory effect in vivo and in vitro. IL-38 binds to IL-36 receptor as does IL-36RA and has similar biological effects on immune cells. IL-38 is also a member of IL-1 cytokine and shares some characteristics of IL-1RA, binding the same IL-1 receptor type I. IL-38 plays a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, exerting protective effect in some autoimmune diseases. Both IL-38 and IL-36RA have an anti-inflammatory biological effect, however in some cases have contrary effects. PMID:23527706

  4. Investigating Trojan Asteroids at the L4/L5 Sun-Earth Lagrange Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    John, K. K.; Graham, L. D.; Abell, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of Earth's Trojan asteroids will have benefits for science, exploration, and resource utilization. By sending a small spacecraft to the Sun-Earth L4 or L5 Lagrange points to investigate near-Earth objects, Earth's Trojan population can be better understood. This could lead to future missions for larger precursor spacecraft as well as human missions. The presence of objects in the Sun-Earth L4 and L5 Lagrange points has long been suspected, and in 2010 NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) detected a 300 m object. To investigate these Earth Trojan asteroid objects, it is both essential and feasible to send spacecraft to these regions. By exploring a wide field area, a small spacecraft equipped with an IR camera could hunt for Trojan asteroids and other Earth co-orbiting objects at the L4 or L5 Lagrange points in the near-term. By surveying the region, a zeroth-order approximation of the number of objects could be obtained with some rough constraints on their diameters, which may lead to the identification of potential candidates for further study. This would serve as a precursor for additional future robotic and human exploration targets. Depending on the inclination of these potential objects, they could be used as proving areas for future missions in the sense that the delta-V's to get to these targets are relatively low as compared to other rendezvous missions. They can serve as platforms for extended operations in deep space while interacting with a natural object in microgravity. Theoretically, such low inclination Earth Trojan asteroids exist. By sending a spacecraft to L4 or L5, these likely and potentially accessible targets could be identified.

  5. Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua W; Davidson, Ronald C

    2014-10-01

    It is commonly believed that energy-momentum conservation is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., Klimontovich-Maxwell and Klimontovich- Poisson systems, such a connection hasn't been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. To establish the connection, the standard Euler-Lagrange equation needs to be generalized to a weak form. Using this technique, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived.

  6. Real-time image quality assessment with mixed Lagrange time delay estimation autoregressive (MLTDEAR) model.

    PubMed

    Sim, K S; Tso, C P; Tan, Y Y; Lim, W K

    2007-06-01

    A proposal to assess the quality of scanning electron microscope images using mixed Lagrange time delay estimation technique is presented. With optimal scanning electron microscope scan rate information, online images can be quantified and improved. The online quality assessment technique is embedded onto a scanning electron microscope frame grabber card for real-time image processing. Different images are captured using scanning electron microscope and a database is built to optimally choose filter parameters. An optimum choice of filter parameters is obtained. With the optimum choice of scan rate, noise can be removed from real-time scanning electron microscope images without causing any sample contamination or increasing scanning time. PMID:17535262

  7. The Lagrange Points in a Binary Black Hole System: Applications to Electromagnetic Signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnittman, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    We study the stability and evolution of the Lagrange points L_4 and L-5 in a black hole (BH) binary system, including gravitational radiation. We find that gas and stars can be shepherded in with the BH system until the final moments before merger, providing the fuel for a bright electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal. Other astrophysical signatures include the ejection of hyper-velocity stars, gravitational collapse of globular clusters, and the periodic shift of narrow emission lines in AGN.

  8. Domain decomposition methods for nonconforming finite element spaces of Lagrange-type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowsar, Lawrence C.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, we consider the application of three popular domain decomposition methods to Lagrange-type nonconforming finite element discretizations of scalar, self-adjoint, second order elliptic equations. The additive Schwarz method of Dryja and Widlund, the vertex space method of Smith, and the balancing method of Mandel applied to nonconforming elements are shown to converge at a rate no worse than their applications to the standard conforming piecewise linear Galerkin discretization. Essentially, the theory for the nonconforming elements is inherited from the existing theory for the conforming elements with only modest modification by constructing an isomorphism between the nonconforming finite element space and a space of continuous piecewise linear functions.

  9. Taylor-Lagrange renormalization scheme, Pauli-Villars subtraction, and light-front dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Grange, P.; Mutet, B.; Werner, E.

    2010-07-15

    We show how the recently proposed Taylor-Lagrange renormalization scheme can lead to extensions of singular distributions which are reminiscent of the Pauli-Villars subtraction. However, at variance with the Pauli-Villars regularization scheme, no infinite mass limit is performed in this scheme. As an illustration of this mechanism, we consider the calculation of the self-energy in second order perturbation theory in the Yukawa model, within the covariant formulation of light-front dynamics. We show, in particular, how rotational invariance is preserved in this scheme.

  10. Coupled-channel R-matrix method on a Lagrange mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, M.; Sparenberg, J.-M.; Van Raemdonck, F.; Baye, D.

    1998-09-01

    The coupled-channel R-matrix method on a Lagrange mesh is a very simple approximation of the R-matrix method with a basis. The mesh points are zeros of shifted Legendre polynomials. Bound-state energies and scattering matrices are easily calculated with small numbers of potential values at mesh points. A test with an exactly solvable two-channel potential provides an excellent accuracy over a broad energy range with only 30 mesh points. The efficiency of the method is illustrated for a single channel on ? + ? scattering and for two channels on the deuteron ground-state energy and on nucleon-nucleon scattering.

  11. Accuracy of Lagrange-sinc functions as a basis set for electronic structure calculations of atoms and molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Sunghwan; Hong, Kwangwoo; Kim, Jaewook; Kim, Woo Youn

    2015-03-07

    We developed a self-consistent field program based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory using Lagrange-sinc functions as a basis set and examined its numerical accuracy for atoms and molecules through comparison with the results of Gaussian basis sets. The result of the Kohn-Sham inversion formula from the Lagrange-sinc basis set manifests that the pseudopotential method is essential for cost-effective calculations. The Lagrange-sinc basis set shows faster convergence of the kinetic and correlation energies of benzene as its size increases than the finite difference method does, though both share the same uniform grid. Using a scaling factor smaller than or equal to 0.226 bohr and pseudopotentials with nonlinear core correction, its accuracy for the atomization energies of the G2-1 set is comparable to all-electron complete basis set limits (mean absolute deviation ≤1 kcal/mol). The same basis set also shows small mean absolute deviations in the ionization energies, electron affinities, and static polarizabilities of atoms in the G2-1 set. In particular, the Lagrange-sinc basis set shows high accuracy with rapid convergence in describing density or orbital changes by an external electric field. Moreover, the Lagrange-sinc basis set can readily improve its accuracy toward a complete basis set limit by simply decreasing the scaling factor regardless of systems.

  12. Accuracy of Lagrange-sinc functions as a basis set for electronic structure calculations of atoms and molecules.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sunghwan; Hong, Kwangwoo; Kim, Jaewook; Kim, Woo Youn

    2015-03-01

    We developed a self-consistent field program based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory using Lagrange-sinc functions as a basis set and examined its numerical accuracy for atoms and molecules through comparison with the results of Gaussian basis sets. The result of the Kohn-Sham inversion formula from the Lagrange-sinc basis set manifests that the pseudopotential method is essential for cost-effective calculations. The Lagrange-sinc basis set shows faster convergence of the kinetic and correlation energies of benzene as its size increases than the finite difference method does, though both share the same uniform grid. Using a scaling factor smaller than or equal to 0.226 bohr and pseudopotentials with nonlinear core correction, its accuracy for the atomization energies of the G2-1 set is comparable to all-electron complete basis set limits (mean absolute deviation ?1 kcal/mol). The same basis set also shows small mean absolute deviations in the ionization energies, electron affinities, and static polarizabilities of atoms in the G2-1 set. In particular, the Lagrange-sinc basis set shows high accuracy with rapid convergence in describing density or orbital changes by an external electric field. Moreover, the Lagrange-sinc basis set can readily improve its accuracy toward a complete basis set limit by simply decreasing the scaling factor regardless of systems. PMID:25747070

  13. Accuracy of Lagrange-sinc functions as a basis set for electronic structure calculations of atoms and molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sunghwan; Hong, Kwangwoo; Kim, Jaewook; Kim, Woo Youn

    2015-03-01

    We developed a self-consistent field program based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory using Lagrange-sinc functions as a basis set and examined its numerical accuracy for atoms and molecules through comparison with the results of Gaussian basis sets. The result of the Kohn-Sham inversion formula from the Lagrange-sinc basis set manifests that the pseudopotential method is essential for cost-effective calculations. The Lagrange-sinc basis set shows faster convergence of the kinetic and correlation energies of benzene as its size increases than the finite difference method does, though both share the same uniform grid. Using a scaling factor smaller than or equal to 0.226 bohr and pseudopotentials with nonlinear core correction, its accuracy for the atomization energies of the G2-1 set is comparable to all-electron complete basis set limits (mean absolute deviation ?1 kcal/mol). The same basis set also shows small mean absolute deviations in the ionization energies, electron affinities, and static polarizabilities of atoms in the G2-1 set. In particular, the Lagrange-sinc basis set shows high accuracy with rapid convergence in describing density or orbital changes by an external electric field. Moreover, the Lagrange-sinc basis set can readily improve its accuracy toward a complete basis set limit by simply decreasing the scaling factor regardless of systems.

  14. IL-13 Regulates Th17 Secretion of IL-17A in an IL-10-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Dawn C.; Boswell, Madison G.; Huckabee, Matthew M.; Goleniewska, Kasia; Dulek, Daniel E.; Reiss, Sara; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Kolls, Jay K.; Peebles, R. Stokes

    2011-01-01

    IL-13 is a central mediator of airway hyperreactivity and mucus expression, both hallmarks of asthma. IL-13 is found in the sputum of patients with asthma; therefore, IL-13 is an attractive drug target for treating asthma. We have previously shown that IL-13 inhibits Th17 cell production of IL-17A and IL-21 in vitro. Th17 cells are associated with autoimmune diseases, host immune responses, and severe asthma. In this study, we extend our in vitro findings and determine that IL-13 increases IL-10 production from Th17 polarized cells, and that IL-13-induced IL-10 production negatively regulates secretion of IL-17A and IL-21. To determine if IL-13 negatively regulates lung IL-17A expression via an IL-10 dependent mechanism in vivo, we used a model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) strain A2 infection in STAT1 KO mice which increases IL-17A and IL-13 lung expression, cytokines not produced during RSV infection in WT mice. To test the hypothesis that IL-13 negatively regulates lung IL-17A expression, we created STAT1/IL-13 double KO (DKO) mice. We found that RSV-infected STAT1/IL-13 DKO mice had significantly greater lung IL-17A expression compared to STAT1 KO mice, and increased IL-17A expression was abrogated by anti-IL-10 antibody treatment. RSV-infected STAT1/IL-13 DKO mice also had increased neutrophil infiltration RSV-infected STAT1 KO mice. Neutralizing IL-10 increased infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lungs of STAT1 KO mice but not STAT1/IL-13 DKO mice. These findings are vital to understanding potential side effects of therapeutics targeting IL-13. Inhibiting IL-13 may decrease IL-10 production and increase IL-17A production, thus potentiating IL-17A-associated diseases. PMID:22210911

  15. IL-36 in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Towne, J E; Sims, J E

    2012-08-01

    Psoriasis is a common but severe skin disease with significant health consequences, both physical and psychological. Evidence has emerged during the past several years pointing to a key role for IL-36 in psoriasis. Overexpression of IL-36 in mouse skin leads to a disease quite similar to human plaque psoriasis, and inhibition of IL-36 in human psoriatic skin ameliorates the inflammation. Loss of the natural antagonist of IL-36, IL-36Ra, results in a different, more severe skin disease known as pustular psoriasis. These effects are likely a consequence of the actions of IL-36 both on cells of the immune system as well as on components of skin including fibroblasts and keratinocytes. PMID:22398321

  16. Use of maximum entropy principle with Lagrange multipliers extends the feasibility of elementary mode analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Quanyu; Kurata, Hiroyuki

    2010-08-01

    Elementary mode (EM) analysis is potentially effective in integrating transcriptome or proteome data into metabolic network analyses and in exploring the mechanism of how phenotypic or metabolic flux distribution is changed with respect to environmental and genetic perturbations. The EM coefficients (EMCs) indicate the quantitative contribution of their associated EMs and can be estimated by maximizing Shannon's entropy as a general objective function in our previous study, but the use of EMCs is still restricted to a relatively small-scale networks. We propose a fast and universal method that optimizes hundreds of thousands of EMCs under the constraint of the Maximum entropy principle (MEP). Lagrange multipliers (LMs) are applied to maximize the Shannon's entropy-based objective function, analytically solving each EMC as the function of LMs. Consequently, the number of such search variables, the EMC number, is dramatically reduced to the reaction number. To demonstrate the feasibility of the MEP with Lagrange multipliers (MEPLM), it is coupled with enzyme control flux (ECF) to predict the flux distributions of Escherichia coli and Saccharomycescerevisiae for different conditions (gene deletion, adaptive evolution, temperature, and dilution rate) and to provide a quantitative understanding of how metabolic or physiological states are changed in response to these genetic or environmental perturbations at the elementary mode level. It is shown that the ECF-based method is a feasible framework for the prediction of metabolic flux distribution by integrating enzyme activity data into EMs to genetic and environmental perturbations. PMID:20547341

  17. Lagrange-type formulation for finite element analysis of non-linear beam vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, B. S.; Varadan, T. K.

    1983-01-01

    A Lagrange-type formulation for finite element analysis of non-linear vibrations of immovably supported beams is presented. Two equations of motion coupled in axial and transverse displacements are derived by using Lagrange's equations. By neglecting the in-plane inertial effects, these equations are written in terms of the transverse displacement alone. Upon defining certain properties for the non-linear oscillatory behaviour of the transverse displacement, the governing equation is reduced to an equation in space alone from which the eigenvalue-like quantity is computed. The governing equation is solved in two ways. A direct iteration technique is used in the first method to compute a numerically exact mode shape and the corresponding frequency. A Rayleigh quotient type of formulation, similar to linear vibration analysis, is used in the second approach to evaluate the frequency of vibration for a fundamental mode which is determined from a linear FEM model and is maintained constant at all amplitudes. Numerical results are compared with available results and they corroborate the observations of earlier research workers.

  18. Modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity with the Lagrange multiplier constraint as mimetic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Oikonomou, V. K.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we propose and extensively study mimetic f({G}) modified gravity models, with various scenarios of cosmological evolution, with or without extra matter fluids. The easiest formulation is based on the use of the Lagrange multiplier constraint. In certain versions of this theory, it is possible to realize accelerated expansion of the Universe or even unified evolution, which includes inflation with dark energy, and at the same time in the same theoretical framework, dark matter is described by the theory. This is achieved by the re-parametrization of the metric tensor, which introduces a new degree of freedom in the cosmological equations and leads to the appearance of the mimetic ‘dark matter’ component. In the context of the mimetic f({G}) theory, we also provide some quite general reconstruction schemes, which enable us to find which f({G}) gravity generates a specific cosmological evolution. In addition, we also provide the general reconstruction technique for the Lagrange multiplier f({G}) gravity. All our results are accompanied by illustrative examples, with special emphasis on bouncing cosmologies.

  19. Augmented Lagrange Hopfield network for solving economic dispatch problem in competitive environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Dieu Ngoc; Ongsakul, Weerakorn; Nguyen, Khai Phuc

    2012-11-01

    This paper proposes an augmented Lagrange Hopfield network (ALHN) for solving economic dispatch (ED) problem in the competitive environment. The proposed ALHN is a continuous Hopfield network with its energy function based on augmented Lagrange function for efficiently dealing with constrained optimization problems. The ALHN method can overcome the drawbacks of the conventional Hopfield network such as local optimum, long computational time, and linear constraints. The proposed method is used for solving the ED problem with two revenue models of revenue based on payment for power delivered and payment for reserve allocated. The proposed ALHN has been tested on two systems of 3 units and 10 units for the two considered revenue models. The obtained results from the proposed methods are compared to those from differential evolution (DE) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) methods. The result comparison has indicated that the proposed method is very efficient for solving the problem. Therefore, the proposed ALHN could be a favorable tool for ED problem in the competitive environment.

  20. Parks, Recreation and Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ching-Hua; Payne, Laura; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Reviews what current research says about the holistic health benefits of park and recreation services, focusing on: health benefits according to park users; physical activities in parks; stress reduction benefits of park use; social support, self-determination, and stress reduction; observing nature in parks and associated benefits; and the…

  1. 1. PARKING LOT BEFORE SOUTH ENTRANCE STATION, FACING N. PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PARKING LOT BEFORE SOUTH ENTRANCE STATION, FACING N. PARK ENTRANCE SIGN IS IN TREES IN CENTER. - South Entrance Road, Between South park boundary & Village Loop Road, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  2. IL-23 and IL-17 in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Khader, Shabaana A; Cooper, Andrea M

    2008-02-01

    Tuberculosis is a chronic disease requiring the constant expression of cellular immunity to limit bacterial growth. The constant expression of immunity also results in chronic inflammation, which requires regulation. While IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ T helper cells (Th1) are required for control of bacterial growth they also initiate and maintain a mononuclear inflammatory response. Other T cell subsets are induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection including those able to produce IL-17 (Th17). IL-17 is a potent inflammatory cytokine capable of inducing chemokine expression and recruitment of cells to parenchymal tissue. Both the IL-17 and the Th17 response to Mtb are largely dependent upon IL-23. Although both Th17 and Th1 cells are induced following primary infection with Mtb, the protective response is significantly altered in the absence of Th1 cells but not in the absence of Th17. In contrast, in vaccinated animals the absence of memory Th17 cells results in loss of both the accelerated memory Th1 response and protection. Th1 and Th17 responses cross-regulate each other during mycobacterial infection and this may be important for immunopathologic consequences not only in tuberculosis but also other mycobacterial infections. PMID:18218322

  3. Responses of Multipotent Retinal Stem Cells to IL-1β, IL-18, or IL-17

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shida; Shen, Defen; Popp, Nicholas A.; Ogilvy, Alexander J.; Tuo, Jingsheng; Abu-Asab, Mones; Xie, Ting; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate how multipotent retinal stem cells (RSCs) isolated from mice respond to the proinflammatory signaling molecules, IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-17A. Materials and Methods. RSCs were cultured in a specific culture medium and were treated with these cytokines. Cell viability was detected by MTT assay; ultrastructure was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy; expression of IL-17rc and proapoptotic proteins was detected by immunocytochemistry and expression of Il-6 and Il-17a was detected by quantitative RT-PCR. As a comparison, primary mouse retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were also treated with IL-1β, IL-18, or IL-17A and analyzed for the expression of Il-6 and Il-17rc. Results. Treatment with IL-1β, IL-18, or IL-17A decreased RSC viability in a dose-dependent fashion and led to damage in cellular ultrastructure including pyroptotic and/or necroptotic cells. IL-1β and IL-18 could induce proapoptotic protein expression. All treatments induced significantly higher expression of Il-6 and Il-17rc in both cells. However, neither IL-1β nor IL-18 could induce Il-17a expression in RSCs. Conclusions. IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-17A induce retinal cell death via pyroptosis/necroptosis and apoptosis. They also provoke proinflammatory responses in RSCs. Though IL-1β and IL-18 could not induce Il-17a expression in RSCs, they both increase Il-17rc expression, which may mediate the effect of Il-17a. PMID:26504591

  4. Interleukin-36 (IL-36) ligands require processing for full agonist (IL-36?, IL-36?, and IL-36?) or antagonist (IL-36Ra) activity.

    PubMed

    Towne, Jennifer E; Renshaw, Blair R; Douangpanya, Jason; Lipsky, Brian P; Shen, Min; Gabel, Christopher A; Sims, John E

    2011-12-01

    IL-36?, IL-36?, and IL-36? (formerly IL-1F6, IL-1F8, and IL-1F9) are IL-1 family members that signal through the IL-1 receptor family members IL-1Rrp2 (IL-1RL2) and IL-1RAcP. IL-36Ra (formerly IL-1F5) has been reported to antagonize IL-36?. However, our previous attempts to demonstrate IL-36Ra antagonism were unsuccessful. Here, we demonstrate that IL-36Ra antagonist activity is dependent upon removal of its N-terminal methionine. IL-36Ra starting at Val-2 is fully active and capable of inhibiting not only IL-36? but also IL-36? and IL-36?. Val-2 of IL-36Ra lies 9 amino acids N-terminal to an A-X-Asp motif conserved in all IL-1 family members. In further experiments, we show that truncation of IL-36?, IL-36?, and IL-36? to this same point increased their specific activity by ?10(3)-10(4)-fold (from EC(50) 1 ?g/ml to EC(50) 1 ng/ml). Inhibition of truncated IL-36? activity required ?10(2)-10(3)-fold excess IL-36Ra, similar to the ratio required for IL-1Ra to inhibit IL-1?. Chimeric receptor experiments demonstrated that the extracellular (but not cytoplasmic) domain of IL-1Rrp2 or IL-1R1 is required for inhibition by their respective natural antagonists. IL-36Ra bound to IL-1Rrp2, and pretreatment of IL-1Rrp2-expressing cells with IL-36Ra prevented IL-36?-mediated co-immunoprecipitation of IL-1Rrp2 with IL-1RAcP. Taken together, these results suggest that the mechanism of IL-36Ra antagonism is analogous to that of IL-1Ra, such that IL-36Ra binds to IL-1Rrp2 and prevents IL-1RAcP recruitment and the formation of a functional signaling complex. In addition, truncation of IL-36?, IL-36?, and IL-36? dramatically enhances their activity, suggesting that post-translational processing is required for full activity. PMID:21965679

  5. A Lagrange multiplier mixed finite element formulation for three-dimensional contact of biphasic tissues.

    PubMed

    Yang, Taiseung; Spilker, Robert L

    2007-06-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) contact finite element formulation has been developed for biological soft tissue-to-tissue contact analysis. The linear biphasic theory of Mow, Holmes, and Lai (1984, J. Biomech., 17(5), pp. 377-394) based on continuum mixture theory, is adopted to describe the hydrated soft tissue as a continuum of solid and fluid phases. Four contact continuity conditions derived for biphasic mixtures by Hou et al. (1989, ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 111(1), pp. 78-87) are introduced on the assumed contact surface, and a weighted residual method has been used to derive a mixed velocity-pressure finite element contact formulation. The Lagrange multiplier method is used to enforce two of the four contact continuity conditions, while the other two conditions are introduced directly into the weighted residual statement. Alternate formulations are possible, which differ in the choice of continuity conditions that are enforced with Lagrange multipliers. Primary attention is focused on a formulation that enforces the normal solid traction and relative fluid flow continuity conditions on the contact surface using Lagrange multipliers. An alternate approach, in which the multipliers enforce normal solid traction and pressure continuity conditions, is also discussed. The contact nonlinearity is treated with an iterative algorithm, where the assumed area is either extended or reduced based on the validity of the solution relative to contact conditions. The resulting first-order system of equations is solved in time using the generalized finite difference scheme. The formulation is validated by a series of increasingly complex canonical problems, including the confined and unconfined compression, the Hertz contact problem, and two biphasic indentation tests. As a clinical demonstration of the capability of the contact analysis, the gleno-humeral joint contact of human shoulders is analyzed using an idealized 3D geometry. In the joint, both glenoid and humeral head cartilage experience maximum tensile and compressive stresses are at the cartilage-bone interface, away from the center of the contact area. PMID:17536914

  6. Canadian Science Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Charles H.

    1988-01-01

    Only 45 percent of Canadian research is funded and executed by the private sector. Influenced by success stories such as the U.S. Stanford Research Park, Canadians have looked at science parks as a means to diversify their economy and to increase cooperation among government, industry, and universities. (Author/MLW)

  7. Preserving DOE's Research Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Virginia H.; Parr, Patricia D.

    1998-01-01

    Seven sites are designated as Department of Energy (DOE) National Environmental Research Parks and serve as irreplaceable outdoor laboratories for scientific research and education. The DOE has recommended the disposal of nearly one- quarter of the research park land holdings. Offers suggestions for developing a plan for protecting the…

  8. Oregon's first wind park

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The bringing on-line of the 1.25 MW wind park at Whiskey Run, Oregon, is reported. The park features twenty-five 50 KW wind turbine generators and is expected to produce about three million kilowatt-hours per year for the Pacific Power and Light system.

  9. Splendor In The Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anthony Wayne

    1979-01-01

    Civilization is more and more intruding on the esthetic and recreational resources of the National Park System. Increased attention must be paid to controlling noise, pollution, and even the effects of urban lighting which detract from the enjoyment of the parks. (RE)

  10. Acadia National Park Panorama

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A panorama of Acadia National Park with Dorr and Cadillac Mountains on the right side, taken from Cadillac Mountain Road. At 1,528 feet in elevation, Cadillac Mountain is the highest point in Acadia National Park, and is composed of a unique granite, the Cadillac Mountain granite unit....

  11. Consensus of Euler-Lagrange systems networked by sampled-data information with probabilistic time delays.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao; Shi, Peng; Zhao, Xudong; Zeng, Qingshuang

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates the consensus problem of multiple Euler-Lagrange systems under directed topology. Unlike the common assumptions on continuous-time information exchanges, a more realistic sampled-data communication strategy is proposed with probabilistic occurrence of time-varying delays. Both of the sampling period and the delays are assumed to be time-varying, which is more general in some practical situations. In addition, the relative coordinate derivative information is not required in the distributed controllers such that the communication network burden can be further reduced. In particular, a distinct feature of the proposed scheme lies in the fact that it can effectively reduce the energy consumption. By employing the stochastic analysis techniques, sufficient conditions are established to guarantee that the consensus can be achieved. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the applicability and benefits of the theoretical results. PMID:25148678

  12. On a Lagrange-Hamilton formalism describing position and momentum uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuch, Dieter

    1993-01-01

    According to Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, in quantum mechanics it is not possible to determine, simultaneously, exact values for the position and the momentum of a material system. Calculating the mean value of the Hamiltonian operator with the aid of exact analytic Gaussian wave packet solutions, these uncertainties cause an energy contribution additional to the classical energy of the system. For the harmonic oscillator, e.g., this nonclassical energy represents the ground state energy. It will be shown that this additional energy contribution can be considered as a Hamiltonian function, if it is written in appropriate variables. With the help of the usual Lagrange-Hamilton formalism known from classical particle mechanics, but now considering this new Hamiltonian function, it is possible to obtain the equations of motion for position and momentum uncertainties.

  13. Taylor-Lagrange renormalization scheme: Application to light-front dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Grange, P.; Mutet, B.

    2009-11-15

    The recently proposed renormalization scheme based on the definition of field operators as operator valued distributions acting on specific test functions is shown to be very convenient in explicit calculations of physical observables within the framework of light-front dynamics. We first recall the main properties of this procedure based on identities relating the test functions to their Taylor remainder of any order expressed in terms of Lagrange's formulas, hence the name given to this scheme. We thus show how it naturally applies to the calculation of state vectors of physical systems in the covariant formulation of light-front dynamics. As an example, we consider the case of the Yukawa model in the simple two-body Fock state truncation.

  14. A suggested trajectory for a Venus-sun, earth-sun Lagrange points mission, Vela

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, D. F.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility is suggested of investigating the existence of small, as-yet undiscovered, asteroids orbiting in the solar system near the earth-sun or Venus-sun stable Lagrange points by means of a spacecraft which traverses these regions. The type of trajectory suggested lies in the ecliptic plane and has a period of 5/6 years and a perihelion at the Venus orbital distance. The regions in which stable orbits associated with the earth and with Venus may lie are estimated to be a thin and tadpole-shaped area extending from 35 deg to 100 deg from the planet. Crossings of the regions by the trajectory are described, and the requirements for detecting the presence of 1 km sized asteroids are presented and shown to be attainable.

  15. Augmented lagrange hopfield network for economic dispatch with multiple fuel options

    SciTech Connect

    Dieu, Vo Ngoc; Ongsakul, Weerakorn; Polprasert, Jirawadee

    2011-06-20

    This paper proposes an augmented Lagrange Hopfield network (ALHN) for solving economic dispatch (ED) problem with multiple fuel options. The proposed ALHN method is a continuous Hopfield neural network with its energy function based on augmented Lagrangian function. The advantages of ALHN over the conventional Hopfield neural network are easier use, more general applications, faster convergence, better optimal solution, and larger scale of problem implementation. The method solves the problem by directly searching the most suitable fuel among the available fuels of each unit and finding the optimal solution for the problem based on minimization of the energy function of the continuous Hopfield neural network. The proposed method is tested on systems up to 100 units and the obtained results are compared to those from other methods in the literature. The results have shown that the proposed method is efficient for solving the ED problem with multiple fuel options and favorable for implementation in large scale problems.

  16. A study of angular momentum loss in binaries using the free Lagrange method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajasekhar, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of a binary star system depends greatly on the angular momentum losses in the system brought about by gravitational radiation and mass outflow (e.g., evaporating winds and magnetic braking) from the secondary component of the binary. Using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic fluid code based on the free Lagrange method, we study the loss of specific angular momentum from a binary system due to an evaporative wind from the companion of a millisecond pulsar. We consider binaries of different mass ratios and winds of different initial velocities and in particular attempt to model the system PSR 1957+20. We are in the process of incorporating the effect of the radiation force from the pulsar and the magnetic field of the companion on the mass outflow. The latter effect would also enable us to study magnetic braking in cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binaries.

  17. Augmented Lagrange Based on Modified Covariance Matching Criterion Method for DOA Estimation in Compressed Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Si, Weijian; Qu, Xinggen; Liu, Lutao

    2014-01-01

    A novel direction of arrival (DOA) estimation method in compressed sensing (CS) is presented, in which DOA estimation is considered as the joint sparse recovery from multiple measurement vectors (MMV). The proposed method is obtained by minimizing the modified-based covariance matching criterion, which is acquired by adding penalties according to the regularization method. This minimization problem is shown to be a semidefinite program (SDP) and transformed into a constrained quadratic programming problem for reducing computational complexity which can be solved by the augmented Lagrange method. The proposed method can significantly improve the performance especially in the scenarios with low signal to noise ratio (SNR), small number of snapshots, and closely spaced correlated sources. In addition, the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) of the proposed method is developed and the performance guarantee is given according to a version of the restricted isometry property (RIP). The effectiveness and satisfactory performance of the proposed method are illustrated by simulation results. PMID:24678272

  18. Accurate analytical approximation of the OTFTs surface potential by means of the Lagrange Reversion Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colalongo, Luigi; Ghittorelli, Matteo; Torricelli, Fabrizio; Kovács-Vajna, Zsolt Miklos

    2015-12-01

    Surface-potential-based mathematical models are among the most accurate and physically based compact models of Thin-Film Transistors (TFTs) and, in turn, of Organic Thin-Film Transistors (OTFTs), available today. However, the need for iterative computations of the surface potential limits their computational efficiency and diffusion in CAD applications. The existing closed-form approximations of the surface potential are based on regional approximations and empirical smoothing functions that could result not enough accurate to model OTFTs and, in particular, transconductances and transcapacitances. In this paper we present an accurate and computationally efficient closed-form approximation of the surface potential, based on the Lagrange Reversion Theorem, that can be exploited in advanced surface-potential-based OTFTs and TFTs device models.

  19. Error estimates of Lagrange interpolation and orthonormal expansions for Freud weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, K. H.; Lee, D. W.

    2001-08-01

    Let Sn[f] be the nth partial sum of the orthonormal polynomials expansion with respect to a Freud weight. Then we obtain sufficient conditions for the boundedness of Sn[f] and discuss the speed of the convergence of Sn[f] in weighted Lp space. We also find sufficient conditions for the boundedness of the Lagrange interpolation polynomial Ln[f], whose nodal points are the zeros of orthonormal polynomials with respect to a Freud weight. In particular, if W(x)=e-(1/2)x2 is the Hermite weight function, then we obtain sufficient conditions for the inequalities to hold:andwhere and k=0,1,2...,r.

  20. Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kanarska, Y

    2010-03-24

    Fluid particulate flows are common phenomena in nature and industry. Modeling of such flows at micro and macro levels as well establishing relationships between these approaches are needed to understand properties of the particulate matter. We propose a computational technique based on the direct numerical simulation of the particulate flows. The numerical method is based on the distributed Lagrange multiplier technique following the ideas of Glowinski et al. (1999). Each particle is explicitly resolved on an Eulerian grid as a separate domain, using solid volume fractions. The fluid equations are solved through the entire computational domain, however, Lagrange multiplier constrains are applied inside the particle domain such that the fluid within any volume associated with a solid particle moves as an incompressible rigid body. Mutual forces for the fluid-particle interactions are internal to the system. Particles interact with the fluid via fluid dynamic equations, resulting in implicit fluid-rigid-body coupling relations that produce realistic fluid flow around the particles (i.e., no-slip boundary conditions). The particle-particle interactions are implemented using explicit force-displacement interactions for frictional inelastic particles similar to the DEM method of Cundall et al. (1979) with some modifications using a volume of an overlapping region as an input to the contact forces. The method is flexible enough to handle arbitrary particle shapes and size distributions. A parallel implementation of the method is based on the SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure) library, which allows handling of large amounts of rigid particles and enables local grid refinement. Accuracy and convergence of the presented method has been tested against known solutions for a falling sphere as well as by examining fluid flows through stationary particle beds (periodic and cubic packing). To evaluate code performance and validate particle contact physics algorithm, we performed simulations of a representative experiment conducted at the University of California at Berkley for pebble flow through a narrow opening.

  1. LAGRANGE SOLUTIONS TO THE DISCRETE-TIME GENERAL THREE-BODY PROBLEM

    SciTech Connect

    Minesaki, Yukitaka

    2013-03-15

    There is no known integrator that yields exact orbits for the general three-body problem (G3BP). It is difficult to verify whether a numerical procedure yields the correct solutions to the G3BP because doing so requires knowledge of all 11 conserved quantities, whereas only six are known. Without tracking all of the conserved quantities, it is possible to show that the discrete general three-body problem (d-G3BP) yields the correct orbits corresponding to Lagrange solutions of the G3BP. We show that the d-G3BP yields the correct solutions to the G3BP for two special cases: the equilateral triangle and collinear configurations. For the triangular solution, we use the fact that the solution to the three-body case is a superposition of the solutions to the three two-body cases, and we show that the three bodies maintain the same relative distances at all times. To obtain the collinear solution, we assume a specific permutation of the three bodies arranged along a straight rotating line, and we show that the d-G3BP maintains the same distance ratio between two bodies as in the G3BP. Proving that the d-G3BP solutions for these cases are equivalent to those of the G3BP makes it likely that the d-G3BP and G3BP solutions are equivalent in other cases. To our knowledge, this is the first work that proves the equivalence of the discrete solutions and the Lagrange orbits.

  2. IL-19 is a component of the pathogenetic IL-23/IL-17 cascade in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Witte, Ellen; Kokolakis, Georgios; Witte, Katrin; Philipp, Sandra; Doecke, Wolf-Dietrich; Babel, Nina; Wittig, Bianca M; Warszawska, Katarzyna; Kurek, Agata; Erdmann-Keding, Magdalena; Kunz, Stefanie; Asadullah, Khusru; Kadin, Marshall E; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Sterry, Wolfram; Wolk, Kerstin; Sabat, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory disease with characteristic skin alterations and functions as a model of immune-mediated disorders. Cytokines have a key role in psoriasis pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrated that out of 30 individually quantified cytokines, IL-19 showed the strongest differential expression between psoriatic lesions and healthy skin. Cutaneous IL-19 overproduction was reflected by elevated IL-19 blood levels that correlated with psoriasis severity. Accordingly, anti-psoriatic therapies substantially reduced both cutaneous and systemic IL-19 levels. IL-19 production was induced in keratinocytes by IL-17A and was further amplified by tumor necrosis factor-? and IL-22. Among skin cells, keratinocytes were found to be important targets of IL-19. IL-19 alone, however, regulated only a few keratinocyte functions. While increasing the production of S100A7/8/9 and, to a moderate extent, also IL-1?, IL-20, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 8, and matrix metalloproteinase 1, IL-19 had no clear influence on the differentiation, proliferation, or migration of these cells. Importantly, IL-19 amplified many IL-17A effects on keratinocytes, including the induction of ?-defensins, IL-19, IL-23p19, and T helper type 17-cell- and neutrophil-attracting chemokines. In summary, IL-19 as a component of the IL-23/IL-17 axis strengthens the IL-17A action and might be a biomarker for the activity of this axis in chronic inflammatory disorders. PMID:25046339

  3. Cytokines (interleukin-9, IL-17, IL-22, IL-25 and IL-33) and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Rahim; Sherkat, Roya; Hakemi, Mazdak Ganjalikhani; Eskandari, Nahid; Yazdani, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a reversible airway obstruction that is characterized by constriction of airway smooth muscle, hyper secretion of mucus, edema and airway hyper responsiveness (AHR), mucus secretion and thickening of the basement membrane underlying the airway epithelium. During the process of airway inflammation, complex interactions of innate and adaptive immune cells as well as structural cells and their cytokines have many important roles. It was believed that airway inflammation is orchestrated by allergen specific T helper (Th) 2 cells, which recruit and accumulate in the lungs and produce a range of different effector cytokines. However, more recent studies have revealed the potential collaboration of other helper T cells and their cytokines in this process. Th17 cell may have a role in severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Interleukin (IL)-9-producing subset called Th9 cell, Th22 cells which primarily secrete IL-22, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor-? and Th25 cells via producing IL-25 are believed to be important for initiating allergic reactions and developing airway inflammation. Cytokines are important in asthma and play a critical role in orchestrating the allergic inflammatory response, although the precise role of each cytokine remains to be determined. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the possible roles of newly identified helper T cells derived cytokines (IL-9, 17, 22, 25 and IL-33) in asthma. The potential therapeutic applications emerging from the roles of these cytokines will be discussed as well. PMID:24949298

  4. High School Parking Lots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Thomas G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the reorganization of the site of Ben Davis High School in Wayne Township, Indiana as an example of improvements to school parking lot design and vehicle/pedestrian traffic flow and security. Includes design drawings. (EV)

  5. Kruger National Park

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... above and to the right of image center is the Palabora Copper Mine, and the water body near upper right is Lake Massingir in ... South Africa showing Kruger Park, the Palabora Copper Mine, and Lake Massingir. project:  MISR ...

  6. Master Plans for Park Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Meter, Jerry R.

    This booklet is a general guide to park site planning. The four basic steps involved in developing a park site are a) determination of the uses of the site, b) analysis of the site potential for these uses, c) identification of the functional relationship among the uses, and d) coordination of the uses to the park sites. Uses of park sites are…

  7. The IL-23-IL-17 axis in inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lubberts, Erik

    2015-10-01

    The IL-23-IL-17 axis in inflammatory arthritis. Erik Lubberts. Nat. Rev. Rheumatol. 11, 415-429 (2015); published online 28 April 2015; doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2015.53. In Figure 2a of this Review, full protection against CIA was incorrectly stated as an effect of IL-17 deficiency instead of IL-17RA deficiency. PMID:26369609

  8. Combined IL-15/IL-15Ralpha immunotherapy maximizes IL-15 activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Stoklasek, Thomas A; Schluns, Kimberly S; Lefrançois, Leo

    2006-11-01

    IL-15 has substantial potential as an immunotherapeutic agent for augmenting immune responses. However, the activity of IL-15 is mediated by a unique mechanism in which the cytokine is transpresented by cell-bound high-affinity IL-15Ralpha to target cells expressing the IL-15Rbeta and the common gamma-chain. Thus, the efficacy of administered IL-15 alone may be limited by the availability of free IL-15Ralpha. We now show that administration of soluble IL-15/IL-15Ralpha complexes greatly enhanced IL-15 half-life and bioavailability in vivo. Treatment of mice with this complex, but not with IL-15 alone, resulted in robust proliferation of memory CD8 T cells, NK cells, and NK T cells. The activity of the complex required IL-15Rbeta, but not IL-15Ralpha, expression by the responding cells and was IL-7-independent. Interestingly, IL-15/IL-15Ralpha immunotherapy also caused naive CD8 T cell activation and development into effector cells and long-term memory T cells. Lastly, complexed IL-15, as compared with IL-15 alone, dramatically reduced tumor burden in a model of B16 melanoma. These findings hold significant importance for the use of IL-15 as a potential adjuvant/therapeutic and inducer of homeostatic proliferation, without the necessity for prior immunodepletion. PMID:17056533

  9. The Swallow Park Sundials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Villiers, P.

    2014-02-01

    The Hermanus Astronomy Centre recently erected a pair of back-to-back sundials in Swallow Park in the centre of Hermanus as part of the upgrading of this historical public park by the Ward committee. Since these two are intended to be the first of many different design sundials to be erected in Hermanus by the HAC, the designs were purposefully chosen to be "unusual" to illustrate the point that even unfamiliar designs and orientations give the same end result....

  10. Guidelines for Recreation and Park Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, Joseph J.; Storey, Edward H.

    In this publication, written for use in guiding community recreation and park systems, the following topics are discussed: why parks and recreational facilities should be developed, the need for governmental participation, and park-system development. Additionally, neighborhood parks, playlots, community parks, city-wide parks, regional parks and…

  11. Inverse Analysis of North American Methane Emissions Using the CarbonTracker-Lagrange Modeling Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmergui, J. S.; Andrews, A. E.; Thoning, K. W.; Trudeau, M.; Michalak, A. M.; Yadav, V.; Miller, S. M.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Bruhwiler, L.; Masarie, K. A.; Worthy, D. E. J.; Sweeney, C.; Fischer, M. L.; Nehrkorn, T.; Mountain, M. E.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Several recent studies have attempted to quantify methane (CH4) emissions in North America, but large uncertainties remain in the magnitude, spatial and temporal distribution, and source sectors responsible. Estimates of biogenic emissions from wetlands, emissions related to animal husbandry, and the continental scale implications of recent shifts in the oil and gas industry are poorly constrained. We estimate North American CH4 emissions from biogenic and anthropogenic sources using the new CarbonTracker-Lagrange inverse modeling framework. A wide array of measurements taken between 2007 and 2012 provide top-down constraints. These include: in-situ and flask measurements made at surface sites, tall towers, and aboard aircraft; and remote sensing observations. Source region sensitivity is provided by the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model, driven by meteorological fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. CH4 emissions and background values are optimized simultaneously through Bayesian and geostatistical inversion. A restricted maximum likelihood estimation procedure is used to derive uncertainties in both emissions and the mole fraction field. The wide temporal coverage, dense network of measurements, and varied sources of data allow for an analysis of spatio-temporal trends in emissions that has not previously been accomplished with top-down constraints.

  12. Relativistic two-photon decay rates with the Lagrange-mesh method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippin, Livio; Godefroid, Michel; Baye, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Relativistic two-photon decay rates of the 2 s1 /2 and 2 p1 /2 states towards the 1 s1 /2 ground state of hydrogenic atoms are calculated by using numerically exact energies and wave functions obtained from the Dirac equation with the Lagrange-mesh method. This approach is an approximate variational method taking the form of equations on a grid because of the use of a Gauss quadrature approximation. Highly accurate values are obtained by a simple calculation involving different meshes for the initial, final, and intermediate wave functions and for the calculation of matrix elements. The accuracy of the results with a Coulomb potential is improved by several orders of magnitude in comparison with benchmark values from the literature. The general requirement of gauge invariance is also successfully tested, down to rounding errors. The method provides high accuracies for two-photon decay rates of a particle in other potentials and is applied to a hydrogen atom embedded in a Debye plasma simulated by a Yukawa potential.

  13. An Euler-Lagrange method considering bubble radial dynamics for modeling sonochemical reactors.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Rashid; Brenner, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    Unsteady numerical computations are performed to investigate the flow field, wave propagation and the structure of bubbles in sonochemical reactors. The turbulent flow field is simulated using a two-equation Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model. The distribution of the acoustic pressure is solved based on the Helmholtz equation using a finite volume method (FVM). The radial dynamics of a single bubble are considered by applying the Keller-Miksis equation to consider the compressibility of the liquid to the first order of acoustical Mach number. To investigate the structure of bubbles, a one-way coupling Euler-Lagrange approach is used to simulate the bulk medium and the bubbles as the dispersed phase. Drag, gravity, buoyancy, added mass, volume change and first Bjerknes forces are considered and their orders of magnitude are compared. To verify the implemented numerical algorithms, results for one- and two-dimensional simplified test cases are compared with analytical solutions. The results show good agreement with experimental results for the relationship between the acoustic pressure amplitude and the volume fraction of the bubbles. The two-dimensional axi-symmetric results are in good agreement with experimentally observed structure of bubbles close to sonotrode. PMID:23751457

  14. Optimal control of two coupled spinning particles in the Euler–Lagrange picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Téllez, M.; Ibort, A.; Rodríguez de la Peña, T.; Salmoni, R.

    2016-01-01

    A family of optimal control problems for a single and two coupled spinning particles in the Euler–Lagrange formalism is discussed. A characteristic of such problems is that the equations controlling the system are implicit and a reduction procedure to deal with them must be carried out. The reduction of the implicit control equations arising in these problems will be discussed in the slightly more general setting of implicit equations defined by invariant one-forms on Lie groups. As an example the first order differential equations describing the extremal solutions of an optimal control problem for a single spinning particle, obtained by using Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle (PMP), will be found and shown to be completely integrable. Then, again using PMP, solutions for the problem of two coupled spinning particles will be characterized as solutions of a system of coupled non-linear matrix differential equations. The reduction of the implicit system will show that the reduced space for them is the product of the space of states for the independent systems, implying the absence of ‘entanglement’ in this instance. Finally, it will be shown that, in the case of identical systems, the degree three matrix polynomial differential equations determined by the optimal feedback law, constitute a completely integrable Hamiltonian system and some of its solutions are described explicitly.

  15. Extrasolar Planetary Dynamics with a Generalized Planar Laplace-Lagrange Secular Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri; Armitage, Philip J.

    2007-06-01

    The dynamical evolution of nearly half of the known extrasolar planets in multiple-planet systems may be dominated by secular perturbations. The commonly high eccentricities of the planetary orbits calls into question the utility of the traditional Laplace-Lagrange (LL) secular theory in analyses of the motion. We analytically generalize this theory to fourth order in the eccentricities, compare the result with the second-order theory and octupole-level theory, and apply these theories to the likely secularly dominated HD 12661, HD 168443, HD 38529, and ? And multiplanet systems. The fourth-order scheme yields a multiply branched criterion for maintaining apsidal libration and implies that the apsidal rate of a small body is a function of its initial eccentricity, dependencies which are absent from the traditional theory. Numerical results indicate that the primary difference the second- and fourth-order theories reveal is an alteration in secular periodicities and to a smaller extent amplitudes of the planetary eccentricity variation. Comparison with numerical integrations indicates that the improvement afforded by the fourth-order theory over the second-order theory sometimes is dwarfed by the improvement needed to reproduce the actual dynamical evolution. We conclude that LL secular theory, to any order, generally represents a poor barometer for predicting secular dynamics in extrasolar planetary systems, but does embody a useful tool for extracting an accurate long-term dynamical description of systems with small bodies and/or near-circular orbits.

  16. Predicting the safe load on backpacker's arm using Lagrange multipliers method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Faisal Saleh; Rambely, Azmin Sham

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a technique has been suggested to reduce a backpack load by transmitting determined loads to the children arm. The purpose of this paper is to estimate school children arm muscles while load carriage as well as to determine the safe load can be carried at wrist while walking with backpack. A mathematical model, as three DOFs model, was investigated in the sagittal plane and Lagrange multipliers method (LMM) was utilized to minimize a quadratic objective function of muscle forces. The muscle forces were minimized with three different load conditions which are termed as 0-L=0 N, 1-L=21.95 N, and 2-L=43.9 N. The investigated muscles were estimated and compared to their maximum forces throughout the load conditions. Flexor and extensor muscles were estimated and the results showed that flexor muscles were active while extensor muscles showed inactivity. The estimated muscle forces were didn't exceed their maximum forces with 0-L and 1-L conditions whereas biceps and FCR muscles exceeded their maximum forces with 2-L condition. Consequently, 1-L condition is quiet safe to be carried by hand whereas 2-L condition is not. Thus to reduce the load in the backpack the transmitted load shouldn't exceed 1-L condition.

  17. A Lagrange-D'Alembert formulation of the equations of motion of a helicopter carrying an externally suspended load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, J. M.; Greif, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    The exact nonlinear equations of motion are derived for a helicopter with an extenal load suspended by fore and aft, rigid-link cables. Lagrange's form of D'Alembert's principle is used. Ten degrees of freedom are necessary to represent the motion of this system in an inertial reference frame: six for the helicopter relative to inertial space and four for the load relative to the helicopter.

  18. Helping You Buy ILS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibbarelli, Pamela R.

    2010-01-01

    This article is the fourth in a series of articles published annually by "Computers in Libraries" surveying integrated library systems and services (ILSs). The purpose of the annual survey is to enable comparison of the ILSs that are available. ILS vendors are in constant pursuit of an ever-changing, consistently vague definition of what the…

  19. Regulation of Antitumor Immune Responses by the IL-12 Family Cytokines, IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Mingli; Mizoguchi, Izuru; Morishima, Noriko; Chiba, Yukino; Mizuguchi, Junichiro; Yoshimoto, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    The interleukin (IL)-12 family, which is composed of heterodimeric cytokines including IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27, is produced by antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells and plays critical roles in the regulation of helper T (Th) cell differentiation. IL-12 induces IFN-? production by NK and T cells and differentiation to Th1 cells. IL-23 induces IL-17 production by memory T cells and expands and maintains inflammatory Th17 cells. IL-27 induces the early Th1 differentiation and generation of IL-10-producing regulatory T cells. In addition, these cytokines induce distinct immune responses to tumors. IL-12 activates signal transducers and activator of transcription (STAT)4 and enhances antitumor cellular immunity through interferon (IFN)-? production. IL-27 activates STAT1, as does IFN-? and STAT3 as well, and enhances antitumor immunity by augmenting cellular and humoral immunities. In contrast, although exogenously overexpressed IL-23 enhances antitumor immunity via memory T cells, endogenous IL-23 promotes protumor immunity through STAT3 activation by inducing inflammatory responses including IL-17 production. PMID:20885915

  20. FACING NORTHEAST OF NORTHERN BOUNDARY OF PARK Candler Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTHEAST OF NORTHERN BOUNDARY OF PARK - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  1. FACING NORTHWEST TOWARD NORTHERN END OF PARK Candler Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTHWEST TOWARD NORTHERN END OF PARK - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  2. View from Fort Tryon Park of Fort Washington Park, Hudson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from Fort Tryon Park of Fort Washington Park, Hudson River, and Palisades Interstate Park, looking northeast. Dyckman Street viaduct, marina and playing fields are faintly visible below. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York, New York County, NY

  3. Friends of Recreation and Parks...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caverly, Joseph

    1973-01-01

    To acquire additional funding, San Francisco's Department of Recreation and Parks has organized the Friends of Recreation and Parks'' to obtain wide backing from individuals, organizations and businesses, and to coordinate the community's interests. (JA)

  4. On the error propagation of semi-Lagrange and Fourier methods for advection problems?

    PubMed Central

    Einkemmer, Lukas; Ostermann, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the error propagation of numerical schemes for the advection equation in the case where high precision is desired. The numerical methods considered are based on the fast Fourier transform, polynomial interpolation (semi-Lagrangian methods using a Lagrange or spline interpolation), and a discontinuous Galerkin semi-Lagrangian approach (which is conservative and has to store more than a single value per cell). We demonstrate, by carrying out numerical experiments, that the worst case error estimates given in the literature provide a good explanation for the error propagation of the interpolation-based semi-Lagrangian methods. For the discontinuous Galerkin semi-Lagrangian method, however, we find that the characteristic property of semi-Lagrangian error estimates (namely the fact that the error increases proportionally to the number of time steps) is not observed. We provide an explanation for this behavior and conduct numerical simulations that corroborate the different qualitative features of the error in the two respective types of semi-Lagrangian methods. The method based on the fast Fourier transform is exact but, due to round-off errors, susceptible to a linear increase of the error in the number of time steps. We show how to modify the Cooley–Tukey algorithm in order to obtain an error growth that is proportional to the square root of the number of time steps. Finally, we show, for a simple model, that our conclusions hold true if the advection solver is used as part of a splitting scheme. PMID:25844018

  5. Parks or Prisons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Gareth

    1998-01-01

    Presents a simulation activity in which students assume the role of grizzly bears in Banff National Park. Concepts such as species diversity, fitness, natural selection, habitat loss, extinction, and population dynamics are discussed. Children learn how human activities can affect the bear's reproductive success. Lists materials, instructional…

  6. Parks or Prisons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Gareth

    1998-01-01

    Presents a simulation activity in which students assume the role of grizzly bears in Banff National Park. Concepts such as species diversity, fitness, natural selection, habitat loss, extinction, and population dynamics are discussed. Children learn how human activities can affect the bear's reproductive success. Lists materials, instructional…

  7. Learning in the Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chard, Sylvia C.; Flockhart, Marilyn E.

    2002-01-01

    Describes 3 phases of a 12-week project to study a local park in Des Moines, Iowa, developed by 4 4th-and 5th-grade teachers for their students with an emphasis on reading and writing instruction. Suggests benefits for students and teachers. (PKP)

  8. The Clover Park Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Don

    1974-01-01

    Describes an aviation trades training program offered by the Clover Park schools in Washington which exposes students to all facets of the aviation industry from record keeping to air traffic control in addition to the specific skill of piloting the aircraft. (BR)

  9. Park a La Cart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susie; Roell, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Using discovery stations offers solutions for increasing attendance at park interpretive programs. Compact, portable stations can be used in playgrounds, special events, trailheads, picnic areas, campgrounds, nursing homes, and scouts and day camps. Describes a case in which stations were used 85 times and reached 4,927 visitors between July 1996…

  10. Parking Structures and the Space Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    2000-01-01

    Presents some solutions to overcrowded parking on college campuses. Tips on selecting sites for parking garages, making parking decks blend with adjacent communities, and turning parking garages into multi use facilities are addressed. (GR)

  11. IL-33 enhanced the proliferation and constitutive production of IL-13 and IL-5 by fibrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hisako; Kawakita, Akiko; Okazaki, Shintaro; Murai, Hiroki; Yasutomi, Motoko; Ohshima, Yusei

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-33 appears to play important roles in the induction of allergic airway inflammation. However, whether IL-33 is involved in airway remodeling remains unclear. Because fibrocytes contribute to tissue remodeling in the setting of chronic inflammation, we examined the effects of IL-33 on fibrocyte functions. Fibrocytes were generated in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by culturing in the presence of platelet derived growth factors and the cells were stimulated with IL-33. IL-33 enhanced cell proliferation, ?-SMA expression, and pro-MMP-9 activity by the fibrocytes without increasing endogenous transforming growth factor-?1 production. Fibrocytes constitutively expressed IL-13 and IL-5, and their production was augmented by stimulation with IL-33. Dexamethasone inhibited the functions of fibrocytes, but IL-33 made fibrocytes slightly refractory to the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone in terms of IL-13 production. Montelukast suppressed IL-13 production by nonstimulated fibrocytes but not those stimulated by IL-33. These findings suggest that IL-33 is involved in the airway remodeling process through its modulation of fibrocyte function independent of antigen stimulation. IL-33 might partially reduce the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoid and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist on fibrocyte-mediated Th2 responses. PMID:24822215

  12. IL-12 for hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    1999-08-01

    IL-12 (Interleukin-12) is being studied as a treatment for people with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Combination therapy with Interferon-alpha and Ribavirin is the new standard treatment for HCV, but as many as 60 percent of patients on this regimen will not recover. IL-12 is a cytokine, or chemical messenger, that may boost the immune system. Animal experiments with the drug have been promising. In addition, HIV researchers are interested in IL-12's antiviral potential. However, results of treatment with IL-12 alone for HCV remain disappointing, and further research with IL-12 is necessary. PMID:11366933

  13. Euler-Lagrange Modeling of Vortex Interaction with a Particle-Laden Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Fernando

    Rotorcraft operation in austere environments can result in difficult operating conditions, particularly in the vicinity of sandy areas. The uplift of sediment by rotorcraft downwash, a phenomenon known as brownout, hinders pilot visual cues and may result in a potentially dangerous situation. Brownout is a complex multiphase flow problem that is not unique and depends on both the characteristics of the rotorcraft and the sediment. The lack of fundamental understanding constrains models and limits development of technologies that could mitigate the adverse effects of brownout. This provides the over-arching motivation of the current work focusing on models of particle-laden sediment beds. The particular focus of the current investigations is numerical modeling of near-surface fluid-particle interactions in turbulent boundary layers with and without coherent vortices superimposed on the background flow, that model rotorcraft downwash. The simulations are performed with two groups of particles having different densities both of which display strong vortex-particle interaction close to the source location. The simulations include cases with inter-particle collisions and gravitational settling. Particle effects on the fluid are ignored. The numerical simulations are performed using an Euler- Lagrange method in which a fractional-step approach is used for the fluid and with the particulate phase advanced using Discrete Particle Simulation. The objectives are to gain insight into the fluid-particle dynamics that influence transport near the bed by analyzing the competing effects of the vortices, inter-particle collisions, and gravity. Following the introduction of coherent vortices into the domain, the structures convect downstream, dissipate, and then recover to an equilibrium state with the boundary layer. The particle phase displays an analogous return to an equilibrium state as the vortices dissipate and the boundary layer recovers, though this recovery is slower than for the fluid and is sensitive to the particle response time. The effects of inter-particle collisions are relatively strong and apparent throughout the flow, being most effective in the boundary layer. Gravitational settling increases the particle concentration near the wall and consequently increase inter-particle collisions.

  14. Mars parking orbit selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Braun, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    For a Mars mission, the selection of a parking orbit is greatly influenced by the precession caused by the oblateness of the planet. This affects the departure condition for earth return, and therefore, the mass required in LEO for a Mars mission. In this investigation, minimum LEO mass penalties were observed for parking orbits characterized by having near-equatorial inclinations, high eccentricities, and requiring a three-dimensional departure burn. However, because near-equatorial inclination orbits have poor planetary coverage characteristics, they are not desirable from a science viewpoint. To enhance these science requirements along with landing-site accessibility, a penalty in initial LEO mass is required. This study shows that this initial LEO mass penalty is reduced for orbits characterized with low to moderate eccentricities, nonequatorial inclinations, and a tangential periapsis arrival and departure burn.

  15. IL-10 regulates murine lupus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhinan; Bahtiyar, Gul; Zhang, Na; Liu, Lanzhen; Zhu, Ping; Robert, Marie E; McNiff, Jennifer; Madaio, Michael P; Craft, Joe

    2002-08-15

    MRL/MpJ-Tnfrsf6(lpr) (MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr); MRL-Fas(lpr)) mice develop a spontaneous lupus syndrome closely resembling human systemic lupus erythematosus. To define the role of IL-10 in the regulation of murine lupus, IL-10 gene-deficient (IL-10(-/-)) MRL-Fas(lpr) (MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-10(-/-)) mice were generated and their disease phenotype was compared with littermates with one or two copies of an intact IL-10 locus (MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-10(+/-) and MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-10(+/+) mice, respectively). MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-10(-/-) mice developed severe lupus, with earlier appearance of skin lesions, increased lymphadenopathy, more severe glomerulonephritis, and higher mortality than their IL-10-intact littermate controls. The increased severity of lupus in MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-10(-/-) mice was closely associated with enhanced IFN-gamma production by both CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells and increased serum concentration of IgG2a anti-dsDNA autoantibodies. The protective effect of IL-10 in this lupus model was further supported by the observation that administration of rIL-10 reduced IgG2a anti-dsDNA autoantibody production in wild-type MRL-Fas(lpr) animals. In summary, our results provide evidence that IL-10 can down-modulate murine lupus through inhibition of pathogenic Th1 cytokine responses. Modulation of the level of IL-10 may be of potential therapeutic benefit for human lupus. PMID:12165544

  16. 75 FR 438 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... individual of Native American ancestry. Officials of the Field Museum of Natural History also have determined... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the Field Museum of......

  17. 75 FR 52022 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY... Natural History purchased these human remains from Joseph V. Tallman of Pendleton, OR (Field Museum of... County, OR, by Dr. Merton Miller for the Field Museum of Natural History (Field......

  18. 75 FR 435 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... physical remains of 14 individuals of Native American ancestry. Officials of the Field Museum of Natural... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the Field Museum of......

  19. 78 FR 2436 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL AGENCY... inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, and has determined that... Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains under the control...

  20. 77 FR 23504 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL AGENCY... inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, and has determined that... Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains under the control...

  1. 77 FR 49349 - Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL AGENCY... deviation to the Chicago Air and Water Show safety zone on Lake Michigan near Lincoln Park. This action...

  2. Exponential solutions of euler-lagrange equations for field of linear frames in nonlinear model of born-infeld type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewski, Piotr

    2008-10-01

    We investigate a model of the field of linear frames on the product manifold M = ? × G, where G is a semisimple Lie group. The model is invariant under the natural action of the group GL(n, ?) ( n = dim M). It results in a modified Born-Infeld-type nonlinearity of field equations. We find two families of solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equations. The solutions are bases for the Lie algebra of left-invariant vector fields on ? × G "deformed" by a GL(n, ?)-valued mapping of the exponential form.

  3. Modal control of a satellite in an unstable periodic orbit about the Earth-Sun interior Lagrange point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, Douglas J.

    1993-12-01

    A periodic 'halo' orbit which exists about the interior Lagrange point for the Earth-sun system was decomposed using Floquet theory into modal variables, which are dynamically decoupled subspaces for the six degree of freedom system. Modal control consisted of evaluating the diverging mode and maneuvering to counteract its divergence. In the unperturbed system, this was successful. Control costs were low, and the significance is that the controller did nothing to suppress modes that were oscillatory or converging. The effect of the moon's motion allowed the scheme to operate with reasonable control costs, but the effect of eccentricity caused divergence in spite of the controller.

  4. PULSE@Parkes (Pulsar Student Exploration online at Parkes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, George; Hollow, Robert; Bannister, Keith; Ravi, Vikram; Kerr, Matthew; Shannon, Ryan; Petroff, Emily

    2014-10-01

    We propose to continue the PULSE@Parkes project in which high school students from Australia and around the World use the Parkes radio telescope in a remote observing model to observe and analyse pulsar data. The data from some PULSE@Parkes observations are used to support the FERMI Gamma ray mission, other observations supplement the P456 Pulsar Timing Array project and the remainder were chosen in order to make a detailed analysis of pulsar timing irregularities and intermittency.

  5. IL-15 temporally reorients IL-10 biased B-1a cells toward IL-12 expression

    PubMed Central

    Kanti Ghosh, Amlan; Sinha, Debolina; Mukherjee, Subhadeep; Biswas, Ratna; Biswas, Tapas

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-15 is known to strongly modulate T-cell function; however, its role in controlling mucosal immunity, including its ability to modulate B-1a cell activity, remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that IL-15 upregulates activation molecules and the costimulatory molecule CD80 on viable B-1a cells. Cell activation was accompanied by the depletion of sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-G, an inhibitor of cell activation that is present on B-1a cells. The IL-15 receptor CD122 was stimulated on B-1a cells by the cytokine showing its direct involvement in IL-15-mediated responses. IL-10 is responsible for the long term survival of B-1a cells in culture, which is initially promoted by IL-15. The upregulation of IL-10 was followed by the appearance of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 in the presence of IL-15 and the loss of IL-10. This resulted in the cells switching to IL-12 expression. This anti-inflammatory to pro-inflammatory shift in the B-1a cell character was independent of the cell-specific marker CD5, which remained highly expressed throughout the in vitro life of the cells. The presence of the immunosuppressive receptor programmed cell death (PD)-1 and its ligand PD-L2 were features of a predominantly IL-10 response. PD-1 and PD-L2 can mediate juxtacrine signaling. However, the abrogation of PD-1 and its ligand was observed when the cells expressed IL-12. This demonstrates an inverse relationship between the receptor and ligand and the pro-inflammatory cytokine. The induction of IgM and IgA, which can play pivotal roles in mucosal immunity, was promoted in the presence of IL-15. Collectively, the data implicate IL-15 as the master cytokine that induces B-1a cells to mount a mucosal immune response. PMID:25748019

  6. IL-15 temporally reorients IL-10 biased B-1a cells toward IL-12 expression.

    PubMed

    Kanti Ghosh, Amlan; Sinha, Debolina; Mukherjee, Subhadeep; Biswas, Ratna; Biswas, Tapas

    2016-03-01

    Interleukin (IL)-15 is known to strongly modulate T-cell function; however, its role in controlling mucosal immunity, including its ability to modulate B-1a cell activity, remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that IL-15 upregulates activation molecules and the costimulatory molecule CD80 on viable B-1a cells. Cell activation was accompanied by the depletion of sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-G, an inhibitor of cell activation that is present on B-1a cells. The IL-15 receptor CD122 was stimulated on B-1a cells by the cytokine showing its direct involvement in IL-15-mediated responses. IL-10 is responsible for the long term survival of B-1a cells in culture, which is initially promoted by IL-15. The upregulation of IL-10 was followed by the appearance of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 in the presence of IL-15 and the loss of IL-10. This resulted in the cells switching to IL-12 expression. This anti-inflammatory to pro-inflammatory shift in the B-1a cell character was independent of the cell-specific marker CD5, which remained highly expressed throughout the in vitro life of the cells. The presence of the immunosuppressive receptor programmed cell death (PD)-1 and its ligand PD-L2 were features of a predominantly IL-10 response. PD-1 and PD-L2 can mediate juxtacrine signaling. However, the abrogation of PD-1 and its ligand was observed when the cells expressed IL-12. This demonstrates an inverse relationship between the receptor and ligand and the pro-inflammatory cytokine. The induction of IgM and IgA, which can play pivotal roles in mucosal immunity, was promoted in the presence of IL-15. Collectively, the data implicate IL-15 as the master cytokine that induces B-1a cells to mount a mucosal immune response. PMID:25748019

  7. A four-way coupled Euler—Lagrange approach using a variational multiscale method for simulating cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerl, Georg; Wall, Wolfgang A.

    2015-12-01

    An Euler-Lagrange model is developed to simulate bubbly flow around an obstacle with the aim to resolve large and meso-scales of cavitation phenomena. The volume averaged Navier-Stokes equations are discretized using finite elements on an unstructured grid with a variational multiscale method. The trajectory of each bubble is tracked using Newton's second law. Furthermore, bubble interaction is modeled with a soft sphere contact model to obtain a four-way coupled approach. The new features presented in this work, besides using a variational multiscale method in an Euler-Lagrange framework, is an improved computation of the void fraction. A second order polynomial is used as filtering function and the volume integral is transformed by applying the divergence theorem twice, leading to line integrals which can be integrated analytically. Therefore, accuracy of void fraction computation is increased and discontinuities are avoided as is the case when the kernel touches a Gauss point across time steps. This integration technique is not limited to the chosen spatial discretization. The numerical test case considers flow in a channel with a cylindrical obstacle. Bubbles are released close to the inflow boundary and void fractions up to 30% occur at the stagnation point of the obstacle.

  8. Automated Car Park Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  9. IL-21 Signaling in Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Warren J.; Wan, Chi-Keung

    2016-01-01

    IL-21 is a type I cytokine produced by T cells and natural killer T cells that has pleiotropic actions on a wide range of immune and non-immune cell types. Since its discovery in 2000, extensive studies on the biological actions of IL-21 have been performed in vitro and in vivo. Recent reports describing patients with primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations of IL21 or IL21R have further deepened our knowledge of the role of this cytokine in host defense. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that mediate IL-21’s actions has provided the rationale for targeting IL-21 and IL-21 downstream mediators for therapeutic purposes. The use of next-generation sequencing technology has provided further insights into the complexity of IL-21 signaling and has identified transcription factors and co-factors involved in mediating the actions of this cytokine. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the biology and signaling of IL-21 and how this knowledge can be potentially translated into clinical settings. PMID:26966515

  10. IL-18 and skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Miriam; Macdonald, Andrew; Renne, Julius

    2009-09-01

    IL-18 belongs to the IL-1 family of cytokines and has recently regained interest in the context of inflammasome activation. The inflammasome dependent caspase 1 cleaves pro-IL-18 into the active form - similar to what is known for IL-1ss. Still, the action and importance of IL-18 are not completely understood. There are several indications that it plays a pathogenetically important role in chronic inflammatory conditions of epithelial organs (such as skin, gut, kidney) and importantly also in responses against self. Here, we summarise current knowledge on the role of IL-18 in human skin inflammation with a focus on its role in Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (CLE). There is evidence that IL-18 plays a role in CLE upstream of TNFalpha. In CLE but not normal keratinocytes IL-18 strongly induces TNFalpha release, which then results in apoptosis. Blocking TNFalpha in vitro prevents apoptosis of keratinocytes but anti-TNFalpha therapy is not applicable in LE conditions. We will discuss potential approaches to control IL-18 in skin inflammation. PMID:19285156

  11. Efficient cytokine-induced IL-13 production by mast cells requires both IL-33 and IL-3

    PubMed Central

    Junttila, Ilkka S.; Watson, Cynthia; Kummola, Laura; Chen, Xi; Hu-Li, Jane; Guo, Liying; Yagi, Ryoji; Paul, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Background IL-13 is a critical effector cytokine for allergic inflammation. It is produced by several cell types, including mast cells, basophils, and TH2 cells. In mast cells and basophils its induction can be stimulated by cross-linkage of immunoglobulin receptors or cytokines. The IL-1 family members IL-33 and IL-18 have been linked to induction of IL-13 production by mast cells and basophils. In CD4 TH2 cells IL-33–mediated production of IL-13 requires simultaneous signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5 activation. Objective Here we have addressed whether cytokine-induced IL-13 production in mast cells and basophils follows the same logic as in TH2 cells: requirement of 2 separate signals. Methods: By generating a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic IL-13 reporter mouse, we measured IL-13 production in mast cells and basophils. Results In mast cells harvested from peritoneal cavities, 2 cytokine signals are required for IL-13 production: IL-33 and IL-3. In bone marrow mast cells IL-13 production requires IL-33, but the requirement for a STAT5 inducer is difficult to evaluate because these cells require the continuous presence of IL-3 (a STAT5 activator) for survival. Poorer STAT5 inducers in culture (IL-4 or stem cell factor) result in less IL-13 production on IL-33 challenge, but the addition of exogenous IL-3 enhances IL-13 production. This implies that bone marrow–derived mast cells, like peritoneal mast cells and TH2 cells, require stimulation both by an IL-1 family member and a STAT5 inducer to secrete IL-13. Basophils follow the same rule; splenic basophils produce IL-13 in response to IL-18 or IL-33 plus IL-3. Conclusion Optimal IL-13 production from mast cells and basophils requires 2 cytokine signals. PMID:23683462

  12. 76 FR 77131 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ..., Yellowstone National Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule... winter visitation and certain recreational activities in Yellowstone National Park for the 2011-2012... Iobst, Deputy Superintendent, Yellowstone National Park, (307) 344-2002. SUPPLEMENTARY...

  13. Free IL-15 Is More Abundant Than IL-15 Complexed With Soluble IL-15 Receptor-α in Murine Serum: Implications for the Mechanism of IL-15 Secretion.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barbara G; Quinn, LeBris S

    2016-03-01

    IL-15 is a cytokine that is part of the innate immune system, as well as a proposed myokine released from skeletal muscle during physical exercise that mediates many of the positive physiological effects of exercise. Many of the immune functions of IL-15 are mediated by juxtacrine signaling via externalized IL-15 bound to membrane-associated IL-15 receptor-α (IL-15Rα). Serum and plasma samples also contain measurable concentrations of IL-15, believed to arise from proteolytic cleavage of membrane-associated IL-15/IL-15Rα complexes to generate soluble IL-15/IL-15Rα species. Here, we validate commercial assays that can distinguish the free form of IL-15 and IL-15/IL-15Rα complexes. These assays showed that most (86%) IL-15 in mouse serum resides in the free state, with a minor proportion (14%) residing in complex with IL-15Rα. Given the much shorter half-life of free IL-15 compared with IL-15/IL-15Rα complexes, these findings cast doubt on the currently accepted model for IL-15 secretion from cleavage of membrane-bound IL-15/IL-15Rα and suggest that IL-15 is released as a free molecule by an unknown mechanism. PMID:26812159

  14. PARKING FACILITY PROJECTIONS BASED ON THE 1968 STUDENT PARKING SURVEY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DALBY, J. PHILIP; KENDRA, LAWRENCE M.

    RESPONSES FROM 1,309 STUDENTS AND 121 CAMPUS EMPLOYEES AT CUYAHOGA COMMUNITY COLLEGE WERE USED TO PROJECT REQUIREMENTS FOR PARKING FACILITIES AT THE INSTITUTION BY 1971. STUDENTS INDICATED WHETHER OR NOT THEY CURRENTLY DROVE TO SCHOOL AND, IF NOT, IF THEY WOULD INTEND TO DRIVE IF PARKING FACILITIES WERE PROVIDED AT A NOMINAL FEE. FINDINGS SHOWED…

  15. Serum IL-1?, IL-2, and IL-6 in Insulin-Dependent Diabetic Children

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Yasar; Akarsu, Saadet; Ustundag, Bilal; Yilmaz, Erdal; Gurgoze, Metin Kaya

    2006-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a chronic disease characterized by T-cell-dependent autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing ? cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, resulting in an absolute lack of insulin. T cells are activated in response to islet-dominant autoantigens, the result being the development of IDDM. Insulin is one of the islet autoantigens responsible for the activation of T-lymphocyte functions, inflammatory cytokine production, and development of IDDM. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-2, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in children IDDM. The study population consisted of 27 children with IDDM and 25 healthy controls. Children with IDDM were divided into three subgroups: (1) previously diagnosed patients (long standing IDDM) (n : 15), (2) newly diagnosed patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (before treatment) (n : 12), and (3) newly diagnosed patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (after treatment for two weeks) (n : 12). In all stages of diabetes higher levels of IL-1? and TNF- ? and lower levels of IL-2 and IL-6 were detected. Our data about elevated serum IL-1?, TNF- ? and decreased IL-2, IL-6 levels in newly diagnosed IDDM patients in comparison with longer standing cases supports an activation of systemic inflammatory process during early phases of IDDM which may be indicative of an ongoing ?-cell destruction. Persistence of significant difference between the cases with IDDM monitored for a long time and controls in terms of IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-? supports continuous activation during the late stages of diabetes. PMID:16864906

  16. The equations of Lagrange for a continuous deformable body with rigid body degrees of freedom, written in a momentum based formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irschik, H.; Krommer, M.; Nader, M.; Vetyukov, Y.; von Garssen, H.-G.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with Lagrange's Equations, applied to a deformable body in the presence of rigid body degrees of freedom. The Lagrange description of Continuum Mechanics is used. An exact version of the Equations is derived first. This version, which represents an identical extension of the Fundamental Law of Dynamics, does involve the idea of virtual motions. The virtual motion is described in the framework of the Ritz-Ansatz, but our derivation does not make use of D'Alemberts principle, the principle of virtual work, or variational principles. From the exact version, by involving arguments related to the Galerkin approximation technique, we derive an approximate Ritz type version of Lagrange's Equations. This approximate version coincides with the traditional one, which is based on the notion of kinetic energy. However, since our derivation stems from the Fundamental Law of Dynamics, we have at our disposal an alternative formulation, which is based on the notion of local momentum. This momentum based version, which is the main topic of the present contribution, can be used for the purpose of performing independent checks of the energy based version of Lagrange's Equations. The momentum based version also clarifies that and how certain terms in the energy based version do cancel out. The momentum based version is worked out in the framework of the Floating Frame of Reference Formulation of Multibody Dynamics. Explicit formulas for the single terms of Lagrange's Equations are derived for the translational, rotational and flexible degrees of freedom of the deformable body, respectively. Corresponding Lagrange's Equations are explained in the light of the relations of Balance of Total Momentum, Balance of Total Moment of Momentum, of the Mean Stress Theorem and the notion of Virial of Forces. An embedding into the literature is given.

  17. IL-1? Suppresses Innate IL-25 and IL-33 Production and Maintains Helminth Chronicity

    PubMed Central

    Zaiss, Mario M.; Maslowski, Kendle M.; Mosconi, Ilaria; Guenat, Nadine; Marsland, Benjamin J.; Harris, Nicola L.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 2 billion people currently suffer from intestinal helminth infections, which are typically chronic in nature and result in growth retardation, vitamin A deficiency, anemia and poor cognitive function. Such chronicity results from co-evolution between helminths and their mammalian hosts; however, the molecular mechanisms by which these organisms avert immune rejection are not clear. We have found that the natural murine helminth, Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hp) elicits the secretion of IL-1? in vivo and in vitro and that this cytokine is critical for shaping a mucosal environment suited to helminth chronicity. Indeed in mice deficient for IL-1? (IL-1??/?), or treated with the soluble IL-1?R antagonist, Anakinra, helminth infection results in enhanced type 2 immunity and accelerated parasite expulsion. IL-1? acts to decrease production of IL-25 and IL-33 at early time points following infection and parasite rejection was determined to require IL-25. Taken together, these data indicate that Hp promotes the release of host-derived IL-1? that suppresses the release of innate cytokines, resulting in suboptimal type 2 immunity and allowing pathogen chronicity. PMID:23935505

  18. Tuning sensitivity to IL-4 and IL-13: differential expression of IL-4R?, IL-13R?1, and ?c regulates relative cytokine sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Junttila, Ilkka S.; Mizukami, Kiyoshi; Dickensheets, Harold; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin; Yamane, Hidehiro; Donnelly, Raymond P.; Paul, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-4 and -13 are related cytokines sharing functional receptors. IL-4 signals through the type I (IL-4R?/common ?-chain [?c]) and the type II (IL-4R?/-13R?1) IL-4 receptors, whereas IL-13 utilizes only the type II receptor. In this study, we show that mouse bone marrow–derived macrophages and human and mouse monocytes showed a much greater sensitivity to IL-4 than to IL-13. Lack of functional ?c made these cells poorly responsive to IL-4, while retaining full responsiveness to IL-13. In mouse peritoneal macrophages, IL-4 potency exceeds that of IL-13, but lack of ?c had only a modest effect on IL-4 signaling. In contrast, IL-13 stimulated greater responses than IL-4 in fibroblasts. Using levels of receptor chain expression and known binding affinities, we modeled the assemblage of functional type I and II receptor complexes. The differential expression of IL-4R?, IL-13R?1, and ?c accounted for the distinct IL-4–IL-13 sensitivities of the various cell types. These findings provide an explanation for IL-13's principal function as an “effector” cytokine and IL-4's principal role as an “immunoregulatory” cytokine. PMID:18852293

  19. Role of IL-25 in Immunity.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, Azar; Khosravi, Afra; Zadeh, Layla Jafar; Parizad, Elaheh Gholami

    2015-04-01

    IL-25 a 2o KDa protein mostly known as IL-17E, encoded by chromosome 14, and containing 117 amino acids. Cytokine IL-17 family consists of 6 members; IL-17A to IL-17F, among which IL-25 has a unique structure and function. The receptor of IL-25 (IL-17BR) is highly expressed in the main Th2 cells. IL-25 regulates the internal safety of adaptive immune responses which leads to begin allergic diseases and plays a role in stimulation of pulmonary mucosal cells and fibroblasts. IL-25 can also have some effects on production of other cytokines. For instance, production of IL-25 in human and mice or injection of IL-25 to animals has resulted in production of high concentrations of Th2 cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Pilot studies have shown that mRNA of IL-25 has a high expression in Th2 cells. However, the mechanism through which IL-25 leads to Th2 immune response is still unknown. Reaction between IL-25 and IL-17BR leads to activation of transcription factors, such as NF-KB, STAT6, GATA3, NF-ATC1, JUNNB, MAPK, and JNK. IL-25 has been used against the kidney damage in mice. A large number of researchers in various countries, including the U.S. and Taiwan, have stated that IL-25 is a strong inflammatory cytokine protein which is involved in allergic inflammations. PMID:26023586

  20. Professional Preparation in Recreation & Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialeschki, M. Deborah; McAllister, Megan

    1990-01-01

    Presents data from the Society of Park and Recreation Educators' 1988 curriculum study monitoring the status of U.S. and Canadian higher education programs in park, recreation, and leisure studies. Data from 79 schools indicate declining enrollment of such students at the bachelor's level and increasing enrollment at the associate level. (SM)

  1. An Amusement Park Physics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-01-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition…

  2. Parking Strategies for Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Jared C.; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Siegel, Andrew F.

    2000-01-01

    The parking strategy is an iterative approach to DNA sequencing. Each iteration consists of sequencing a novel portion of target DNA that does not overlap any previously sequenced region. Subject to the constraint of no overlap, each new region is chosen randomly. A parking strategy is often ideal in the early stages of a project for rapidly generating unique data. As a project progresses, parking becomes progressively more expensive and eventually prohibitive. We present a mathematical model with a generalization to allow for overlaps. This model predicts multiple parameters, including progress, costs, and the distribution of gap sizes left by a parking strategy. The highly fragmented nature of the gaps left after an initial parking strategy may make it difficult to finish a project efficiently. Therefore, in addition to our parking model, we model gap closing by walking. Our gap-closing model is generalizable to many other strategies. Our discussion includes modified parking strategies and hybrids with other strategies. A hybrid parking strategy has been employed for portions of the Human Genome Project. PMID:10899151

  3. An Amusement Park Physics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-01-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition…

  4. 32 CFR 636.14 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.14 Parking... parking in handicapped and Commanding General reserved parking spaces at Fort Stewart/Hunter Army...

  5. 32 CFR 636.14 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.14 Parking... parking in handicapped and Commanding General reserved parking spaces at Fort Stewart/Hunter Army...

  6. 32 CFR 636.14 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.14 Parking... parking in handicapped and Commanding General reserved parking spaces at Fort Stewart/Hunter Army...

  7. 32 CFR 636.14 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.14 Parking... parking in handicapped and Commanding General reserved parking spaces at Fort Stewart/Hunter Army...

  8. 32 CFR 636.14 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.14 Parking... parking in handicapped and Commanding General reserved parking spaces at Fort Stewart/Hunter Army...

  9. Anticancer Cytokines: Biology and Clinical Effects of Interferon-?2, Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-15, IL-21, and IL-12.

    PubMed

    Floros, Theofanis; Tarhini, Ahmad A

    2015-08-01

    Efforts over nearly four decades have focused on ways to use cytokines to manipulate the host immune response towards cancer cell recognition and eradication. Significant advances were achieved with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-? (IFN-?), primarily in the treatment of patients with melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. However, the utility of other cytokines showing promise in the preclinical setting has not been established largely because of toxicity, the complex functionality of each cytokine and the difficulty mimicking in preclinical models the human environment. Here, we review the basic biology and the clinical experiences with IFN-?, IL-2, IL-15, IL-21, and IL-12. We will also review ongoing clinical trials and discuss future directions including potential use of cytokines in combination with other effective immunotherapy approaches that have come of age in recent years. PMID:26320059

  10. The IL-23/IL-17 Axis in Psoriatic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Erika; Mellins, Elizabeth D.; Gershwin, M. Eric; Nestle, Frank O.; Adamopoulos, Iannis E.

    2014-01-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease, affecting both the skin and joints. Disease progression is associated with aberrant cytokine expression, and TNF blockade is the most successful therapy to date. However, not all patients are responsive to anti-TNF treatment, highlighting the need to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern the disease. PsA associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL23R as well as TRAF3IP2 (Act1), a molecule downstream of the IL-17 receptor (IL-17R), have linked the IL-23/IL-17 axis to disease pathology. Although both cytokines are implicated in PsA, a full picture of their cellular targets and pathogenic mechanisms has not yet emerged. In this review, we focus on the IL-23/IL-17 axis-elicited responses mediated by osteoclasts, keratinocytes and neutrophils. Expanding our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that dictate pathogenicity in PsA will contribute to developing novel treatment strategies to combat disease. PMID:24424175

  11. A Comparative Study of Euler-Euler and Euler-Lagrange Modelling of Wood Gasification in a Dense Fluidized Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, S.; Behrendt, F.; Oevermann, M.

    In this work we compare two different modelling strategies for the simulation of wood gasification in a dense fluidized bed. In the first method we adopt an Euler-Lagrange approach where the fluid phase is modelled as a continuum and the particulate phase is modelled on the individual particle level using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). In the second method we use an Euler-Euler or continuum approach where the multiple solid phases for wood and char particles are treated as a continuum. Both models allow the time-dependent prediction of velocity, temperature, and composition fields. Both models have been run to a statistically stationary state. We compare the numerical results of both methods against each other and with experimental data obtained at a laboratory scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor.

  12. Exponential solutions of euler-lagrange equations for fields of complex linear frames on real space-time manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewski, Piotr

    2010-08-01

    We investigate a model of the field of complex linear frames on the product manifold M = ? × G, where G is a real semisimple Lie group. The model is invariant under the natural action of the group GL( n, ?) ( n = dim M). It results in a modified Born-Infeld-type nonlinearity of field equations. We find a family of solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equations. These solutions are bases for the Lie algebra of left-invariant vector fields on ? × G "deformed" by a GL( n, ?)-valued mapping of the exponential form. Each solution induces a pseudo-Riemannian metric on M = ? × G. The normal-hyperbolic signature (in the physical case where n = 4) of this metric is not something aprioric and absolute, introduced "by hand" into our model but it is an intrinsic feature of solutions we found.

  13. Science Enabled by the Ares V: A Large Monolithic Telescope Placed at the Second Sun-Earth Lagrange Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2007-01-01

    The payload mass and volume capabilities of the planned Ares V launch vehicle provide the science community with unprecedented opportunities to place large science payloads into low earth orbit and beyond. One example, the outcome of a recent study conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, is a large, monolithic telescope with a primary mirror diameter of 6.2 meters placed into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point, or L2, approximately 1.5 million kin beyond Earth's orbit. Operating in the visible and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, such a large telescope would allow astronomers to detect bio-signatures and characterize the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets, provide high resolution imaging three or more times better than the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope, and observe the ultraviolet light from warm baryonic matter.

  14. Analysis of complex elastic structures by a Rayleigh-Ritz component modes method using Lagrange multipliers. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, L. R.

    1974-01-01

    The free vibrations of elastic structures of arbitrary complexity were analyzed in terms of their component modes. The method was based upon the use of the normal unconstrained modes of the components in a Rayleigh-Ritz analysis. The continuity conditions were enforced by means of Lagrange Multipliers. Examples of the structures considered are: (1) beams with nonuniform properties; (2) airplane structures with high or low aspect ratio lifting surface components; (3) the oblique wing airplane; and (4) plate structures. The method was also applied to the analysis of modal damping of linear elastic structures. Convergence of the method versus the number of modes per component and/or the number of components is discussed and compared to more conventional approaches, ad-hoc methods, and experimental results.

  15. The Lagrange Street story: the prevention of aromatics air pollution during the last nine years in a European city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, Roberto; Bugliosi, Elva H.; Schilirò, Tiziana; Gilli, Giorgio

    Benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) air pollution is a very important topic for environmental health, due to the toxicity and/or mutagenetic or carcinogenetic properties of these aromatics and the commercialisation of the unleaded gasoline containing amount of BTX. We measured BTX in the air of Turin city, the capital of Piedmont region (north-western Italy), during 10 years, from 1989 to 1998. The sampling site selected was Lagrange Street (LS), an "urban canyon" placed in the centre of the city. The behaviour of BTX in LS was conditioned by some local and national legislative measures enforced during 1990s for the reduction of automotive traffic and BTX air pollution, respectively. Taking into account the existence of similar measures undertaken also in several cities in the developed countries, largely described but never discussed, the aim of this study was to verify in LS the preventive effects of these regulatory actions by means of a longitudinal survey extended over 10 years. Results obtained in Lagrange Street highlight seasonal trends, typical of this kind of pollutants, and an important reduction (from 42.6 to 15.9 ppbv) of aromatic hydrocarbons (sum of benzene, toluene and xylenes) in atmospheric air from 1990 to 1997. In particular, the annual level of benzene in air showed a mean from 9.2 ppbv in 1990 to 2.0 ppbv in 1997, almost half of the 3.1 ppbv imposed by law since 31 December 1998. In conclusion, the present findings induce a consistent optimism about the usefulness and the effectiveness of these types of regulatory actions enforced to reduce the human exposure to BTX, which could be extended also to other trafficated sites where the aromatics air pollution has to be reduced.

  16. Accelerating cosmologies and the phase structure of F (R ) gravity with Lagrange multiplier constraints: A mimetic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.

    2016-01-01

    We study mimetic F (R ) gravity with a potential and Lagrange multiplier constraint. In the context of these theories, we introduce a reconstruction technique which enables us to realize arbitrary cosmologies, given the Hubble rate and an arbitrarily chosen F (R ) gravity. We exemplify our method by realizing cosmologies that are in concordance with current observations (Planck data) and also well-known bouncing cosmologies. The attribute of our method is that the F (R ) gravity can be arbitrarily chosen, so we can have the appealing features of the mimetic approach combined with the known features of some F (R ) gravities, which unify early-time with late-time acceleration. Moreover, we study the existence and the stability of de Sitter points in the context of mimetic F (R ) gravity. In the case of unstable de Sitter points, it is demonstrated that graceful exit from inflation occurs. We also study the Einstein-frame counterpart theory of the Jordan-frame mimetic F (R ) gravity, and we discuss the general properties of the theory and exemplify our analysis by studying a quite interesting (from a phenomenological point of view) model with two scalar fields. We also calculate the observational indices of the two-scalar-field model, by using the two-scalar-field formalism. Furthermore, we extensively study the dynamical system that corresponds to the mimetic F (R ) gravity, by finding the fixed points and studying their stability. Finally, we modify our reconstruction method to function in the inverse way and thus yield which F (R ) gravity can realize a specific cosmological evolution, given the mimetic potential and the Lagrange multiplier.

  17. IL-12 synergizes with IL-2 and other stimuli in inducing IL-10 production by human T cells.

    PubMed

    Jeannin, P; Delneste, Y; Seveso, M; Life, P; Bonnefoy, J Y

    1996-05-01

    IL-12, a potent inducer of IFN-gamma production by T cells and NK cells, has been recently reported to exacerbate an established Th2 response in vivo. However, the effect of IL-12 on Th2-lymphokine production remains unclear. Since IL-10 is a lymphokine associated with Th2 responses which decreases both IL-12-induced IFN-gamma production and IL-12 production by macrophages, we have analyzed here, in an APC-free system, the ability of IL-12 to modulate the production of human IL-10 by established Th0, Th1, and Th2 T cell clones (TCC), T cell lines, and purified peripheral blood T cells. IL-12 synergized with anti-CD3 mAb, Con A, or IL-2 in inducing IL-10 production by Th0, Th1, and Th2 TCC and by T cell lines. This effect was dose dependent (from 0.1 to 50 U/ml) and associated with an increase of IL-10 mRNA transcription. As previously reported, IL-12 also enhanced IFN-gamma production by stimulated Th1 and Th0 TCC and, to a lesser extent, IL-4 production by stimulated Th0 and Th2 TCC. These observations were extended to peripheral blood T cells stimulated in the presence of exogenous IL-2. Moreover, using neutralizing anti-IL-2 Ab, we report that endogenous IL-2 produced by stimulated Th0 TCC could in part contribute to the effect of IL-12 on IL-10 and IL-4 production. In conclusion, IL-12 synergizes with IL-2 and other stimuli in inducing IL-4 and IL-10 production by T cells. This property may help to explain why IL-12 does not efficiently down-regulate an established Th2 response. PMID:8617936

  18. Aftermath of Griffith Park Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2007, wind-driven flames raced through Griffith Park in Los Angeles, forcing hasty evacuations and threatening numerous famous landmarks and tourist spots, such as the Los Angeles Zoo and the Hollywood Sign. Ultimately, no one was injured in the fire, which may have been started by a cigarette. About 800 acres burned in the urban park, which is itself a Hollywood landmark, having been the location for several movies, including Rebel Without A Cause. This image of the park was captured by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on June 6, 2007, about a month after the fire. ASTER detects both visible and infrared wavelengths of light, and both kinds have been used to make this image. Vegetation appears in various shades of red, while the burned areas appear charcoal. Roads and dense urban areas appear purplish-gray or white. Water is dark blue. Large burned areas are evident in the northwest and southeast parts of the park, with scattered smaller patches along the southern margin. Some botanical gardens and parts of a bird sanctuary, as well as some park structures like restrooms, were destroyed. The park's unburned, natural vegetation appears brick red, while the irrigated golf courses adjacent to the park are bright red. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  19. TLR signals promote IL-6/IL-17-dependent transplant rejection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luqiu; Ahmed, Emily; Wang, Tongmin; Wang, Ying; Ochando, Jordi; Chong, Anita S; Alegre, Maria-Luisa

    2009-05-15

    Acute allograft rejection has often been correlated with Th1 differentiation, whereas transplantation tolerance is frequently associated with induction of regulation. The discovery of the Th17 phenotype has prompted its scrutiny in transplant rejection. Although IL-17 has recently been observed in settings of acute allograft rejection and drives rejection in T-bet-deficient mice that have impaired type 1 T cell responses, there is little evidence of its requirement during acute rejection in wild-type animals. We and others have previously shown that TLR9 signaling by exogenous CpG at the time of transplantation is sufficient to abrogate anti-CD154-mediated acceptance of fully mismatched cardiac allografts. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which acute rejection occurs in this inflammatory context. Our results indicate that CpG targets recipient hemopoietic cells and that its pro-rejection effects correlate both with prevention of anti-CD154-mediated conversion of conventional CD4(+) T cells into induced regulatory T cells and with the expression of IFN-gamma and IL-17 by intragraft CD4(+) T cells. Moreover, the combined elimination of IL-6 and IL-17 signaling abrogated the ability of CpG to promote acute cardiac allograft rejection. Thus, proinflammatory signals at the time of transplantation can change the quality of the effector immune response and reveal a pathogenic function for IL-6 and IL-17 in wild-type recipients. PMID:19414775

  20. 75 FR 13572 - Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... National Park Service Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service... dates of the April 7, 2006 and October 5, 2006 meetings of the Gettysburg National Military Park..., Gettysburg National Military Park, 97 Taneytown Road, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 17325....

  1. Anti–IL-6 neutralizing antibody modulates blood-brain barrier function in the ovine fetus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiyong; Sadowska, Grazyna B.; Chen, Xiaodi; Park, Seon Yeong; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Bodge, Courtney A.; Cummings, Erin; Lim, Yow-Pin; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Besio, Walter G.; Gaitanis, John; Banks, William A.; Stonestreet, Barbara S.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired blood-brain barrier function represents an important component of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the perinatal period. Proinflammatory cytokines could contribute to ischemia-related blood-brain barrier dysfunction. IL-6 increases vascular endothelial cell monolayer permeability in vitro. However, contributions of IL-6 to blood-brain barrier abnormalities have not been examined in the immature brain in vivo. We generated pharmacologic quantities of ovine-specific neutralizing anti-IL-6 mAbs and systemically infused mAbs into fetal sheep at 126 days of gestation after exposure to brain ischemia. Anti–IL-6 mAbs were measured by ELISA in fetal plasma, cerebral cortex, and cerebrospinal fluid, blood-brain barrier permeability was quantified using the blood-to-brain transfer constant in brain regions, and IL-6, tight junction proteins, and plasmalemma vesicle protein (PLVAP) were detected by Western immunoblot. Anti–IL-6 mAb infusions resulted in increases in mAb (P < 0.05) in plasma, brain parenchyma, and cerebrospinal fluid and decreases in brain IL-6 protein. Twenty-four hours after ischemia, anti–IL-6 mAb infusions attenuated ischemia-related increases in blood-brain barrier permeability and modulated tight junction and PLVAP protein expression in fetal brain. We conclude that inhibiting the effects of IL-6 protein with systemic infusions of neutralizing antibodies attenuates ischemia-related increases in blood-brain barrier permeability by inhibiting IL-6 and modulates tight junction proteins after ischemia.—Zhang, J., Sadowska, G. B., Chen, X., Park, S. Y., Kim, J.-E., Bodge, C. A., Cummings, E., Lim, Y.-P., Makeyev, O., Besio, W. G., Gaitanis, J., Banks, W. A., Stonestreet, B. S. Anti–IL-6 neutralizing antibody modulates blood-brain barrier function in the ovine fetus. PMID:25609424

  2. [Basic and clinical aspects of IL-6].

    PubMed

    Nakajima, K; Hirano, T

    1991-04-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine regulating immune response, production of acute phase reactants in hepatocytes, growth of hematopoietic stem cells and other cellular functions in many cell lineages. The increased production of IL-6 is often seen in infections diseases, chronic inflammatory diseases, and certain tumors which accompany polyclonal B cell activation and increased level of CRP. Recent progress in the study of the basic aspects on IL-6 will be discussed, which includes the regulation mechanisms of IL-6 gene, the structure of IL-6 receptor complex (IL-6, 80 KDa IL-6 receptor and signal transducing gp130) and IL-6 signal transduction pathways. PMID:1707253

  3. IL-2R beta agonist P1-30 acts in synergy with IL-2, IL-4, IL-9, and IL-15: biological and molecular effects.

    PubMed

    Eckenberg, R; Moreau, J L; Melnyk, O; Thèze, J

    2000-10-15

    From the sequence of human IL-2 we have recently characterized a peptide (p1-30), which is the first IL-2 mimetic described. P1-30 covers the entire alpha helix A of IL-2 and spontaneously folds into a alpha helical homotetramer mimicking the quaternary structure of a hemopoietin. This neocytokine interacts with a previously undescribed dimeric form of the human IL-2 receptor beta-chain likely to form the p1-30 receptor (p1-30R). P1-30 acts as a specific IL-2Rbeta agonist, selectively inducing activation of CD8 and NK lymphocytes. From human PBMC we have also shown that p1-30 induces the activation of lymphokine-activated killer cells and the production of IFN-gamma. Here we demonstrate the ability of p1-30 to act in synergy with IL-2, -4, -9, and -15. These synergistic effects were analyzed at the functional level by using TS1beta, a murine T cell line endogenously expressing the common cytokine gamma gene and transfected with the human IL-2Rbeta gene. At the receptor level, we show that expression of human IL-2Rbeta is absolutely required to obtain synergistic effects, whereas IL-2Ralpha specifically impedes the synergistic effects obtained with IL-2. The results suggest that overexpression of IL-2Ralpha inhibits p1-30R formation in the presence of IL-2. Finally, concerning the molecular effects, although p1-30 alone induces the antiapoptotic molecule bcl-2, we show that it does not influence mRNA expression of c-myc, c-jun, and c-fos oncogenes. In contrast, p1-30 enhances IL-2-driven expression of these oncogenes. Our data suggest that p1-30R (IL-2Rbeta)(2) and intermediate affinity IL-2R (IL-2Rbetagamma), when simultaneously expressed at the cell surface, may induce complementary signal transduction pathways and act in synergy. PMID:11035066

  4. IL-17A, IL-22, IL-6, and IL-21 Serum Levels in Plaque-Type Psoriasis in Brazilian Patients.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Priscilla Stela Santana; Cardoso, Pablo Ramon Gualberto; Lima, Emerson Vasconcelos de Andrade; Pereira, Michelly Cristiny; Duarte, Angela Luzia Branco Pinto; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by alterations in cytokines produced by both Th1 and Th17 pathways. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of pivotal cytokines and correlate them with clinical parameters. Serum samples from 53 psoriasis patients and 35 healthy volunteers, matched by the proportion of sex and age ratios, were collected for ELISA cytokine detection. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) was assessed at the time of sampling in psoriasis patients. Our findings demonstrate that IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-6 serum concentrations were significantly higher in psoriasis patients than in the control group. No statistical correlation could be found between cytokines concentrations, PASI score, and age in this study. Although our results do not show any correlation between serum levels of IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-6 and disease activity, the present study confirms that they were increased in Brazilian psoriasis patients in comparison to healthy volunteers. PMID:26351408

  5. IL-17A, IL-22, IL-6, and IL-21 Serum Levels in Plaque-Type Psoriasis in Brazilian Patients

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Priscilla Stela Santana; Cardoso, Pablo Ramon Gualberto; Lima, Emerson Vasconcelos de Andrade; Pereira, Michelly Cristiny; Duarte, Angela Luzia Branco Pinto; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by alterations in cytokines produced by both Th1 and Th17 pathways. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of pivotal cytokines and correlate them with clinical parameters. Serum samples from 53 psoriasis patients and 35 healthy volunteers, matched by the proportion of sex and age ratios, were collected for ELISA cytokine detection. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) was assessed at the time of sampling in psoriasis patients. Our findings demonstrate that IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-6 serum concentrations were significantly higher in psoriasis patients than in the control group. No statistical correlation could be found between cytokines concentrations, PASI score, and age in this study. Although our results do not show any correlation between serum levels of IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-6 and disease activity, the present study confirms that they were increased in Brazilian psoriasis patients in comparison to healthy volunteers. PMID:26351408

  6. Distinct roles for IL-13 and IL-4 via IL-13 receptor ?1 and the type II IL-4 receptor in asthma pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Munitz, A.; Brandt, E. B.; Mingler, M.; Finkelman, F. D.; Rothenberg, M. E.

    2008-01-01

    IL-13 and IL-4 are central T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines in the immune system and potent activators of inflammatory responses and fibrosis during Th2 inflammation. Recent studies using Il13ra1?/? mice have demonstrated a critical role for IL-13 receptor (IL-13R) ?1 in allergen-induced airway responses. However, these observations require further attention especially because IL-4 can induce similar lung pathology to IL-13, independent of IL-13, and is still present in the allergic lung. Thus, we hypothesized that IL-13R?1 regulates IL-4-induced responses in the lung. To dissect the role of IL-13R?1 and the type I and II IL-4Rs in experimental asthma, we examined lung pathology induced by allergen, IL-4, and IL-13 challenge in Il13ra1?/? mice. We report that IL-13R?1 is essential for baseline IgE production, but Th2 and IgE responses to T cell-dependent antigens are IL-13R?1-independent. Furthermore, we demonstrate that increased airway resistance, mucus, TGF-?, and eotaxin(s) production, but not cellular infiltration, are critically dependent on IL-13R?1. Surprisingly, our results identify a CCR3- and IL-13R?1-independent pathway for lung eosinophilia. Global expression profiling of lungs from mice stimulated with allergen or IL-4 demonstrated that marker genes of alternatively activated macrophages are differentially regulated by the type I and type II IL-4R. Taken together, our data provide a comprehensive mechanistic analysis of the critical role by which IL-13R?1 mediates allergic lung pathology and highlight unforeseen roles for the type II IL-4R. PMID:18480254

  7. Distinct roles for IL-13 and IL-4 via IL-13 receptor alpha1 and the type II IL-4 receptor in asthma pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Munitz, A; Brandt, E B; Mingler, M; Finkelman, F D; Rothenberg, M E

    2008-05-20

    IL-13 and IL-4 are central T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines in the immune system and potent activators of inflammatory responses and fibrosis during Th2 inflammation. Recent studies using Il13ra1(-/-) mice have demonstrated a critical role for IL-13 receptor (IL-13R) alpha1 in allergen-induced airway responses. However, these observations require further attention especially because IL-4 can induce similar lung pathology to IL-13, independent of IL-13, and is still present in the allergic lung. Thus, we hypothesized that IL-13Ralpha1 regulates IL-4-induced responses in the lung. To dissect the role of IL-13Ralpha1 and the type I and II IL-4Rs in experimental asthma, we examined lung pathology induced by allergen, IL-4, and IL-13 challenge in Il13ra1(-/-) mice. We report that IL-13Ralpha1 is essential for baseline IgE production, but Th2 and IgE responses to T cell-dependent antigens are IL-13Ralpha1-independent. Furthermore, we demonstrate that increased airway resistance, mucus, TGF-beta, and eotaxin(s) production, but not cellular infiltration, are critically dependent on IL-13Ralpha1. Surprisingly, our results identify a CCR3- and IL-13Ralpha1-independent pathway for lung eosinophilia. Global expression profiling of lungs from mice stimulated with allergen or IL-4 demonstrated that marker genes of alternatively activated macrophages are differentially regulated by the type I and type II IL-4R. Taken together, our data provide a comprehensive mechanistic analysis of the critical role by which IL-13Ralpha1 mediates allergic lung pathology and highlight unforeseen roles for the type II IL-4R. PMID:18480254

  8. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, C.W.; Giraud, K.M.

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  9. Forest Park English Department Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Dick; Harris, Angela

    1999-01-01

    Provides a retrospective update of a 1974 profile of the English Department at St. Louis's Forest Park Community College. Describes the campus, English department, internal governance, courses taught, professional activities, and departmental spirit in relationship to its 1974 profile. (SC)

  10. Suicide and the parking garage.

    PubMed

    Mouw, Isaiah; Troth, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Each year over one million Americans attempt suicide, and over 30,000 succeed. One of the most popular and successful, methods of suicide is jumping, the authors point out, and one of the most widely-used venues for jumping are parking garages. Especially vulnerable to such suicide attempts are the parking structures of hospitals, they report, because it has been found that most persons who jump to their death had been previously treated for a mental health condition. (One hospital in Massachusetts recently reported that a man jumped or fell from the second floor of one of its parking decks, the second such incident at one of its garages in five years.) In this article the authors discuss how parking professionals can help prevent suicide from happening and how to handle this situation if it does occur in your garage. PMID:21916292

  11. Jurassic Park: Adventure in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shams, Marcia; Boteler, Trina

    1993-01-01

    Describes using the movie "Jurassic Park" as a foundation for a middle school interdisciplinary unit involving science, math, language arts, history, and geography. Suggested books and activities are presented. (PR)

  12. 45 CFR 3.24 - Parking permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Parking permits. 3.24 Section 3.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.24 Parking permits. Except for visitor parking, a person may not park a...

  13. An amusement park physics competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-07-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition reveals positive effects such as the acquisition of experimentation skills and improved attitudes towards physics.

  14. 77 FR 73919 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... National Park Service 36 CFR Part 7 RIN 1024-AE10 Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule... governs winter visitation and certain recreational activities in Yellowstone National Park for the...

  15. 78 FR 48902 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History... Field Museum of Natural History has corrected a Notice of Intent to Repatriate published in the Federal... Director, Field Museum of Natural History, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL......

  16. 75 FR 2580 - Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-Line in Peoria County, IL...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--Line in... County, IL On December 29, 2009, Pioneer Industrial Railway Co. (PIRY) and Central Illinois Railroad... Switch, Averyville, Peoria Heights, Keller, and Pioneer Park. \\1\\ Applicants also seek exemptions from...

  17. IL-35 and Autoimmunity: a Comprehensive Perspective.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jinjung; Leung, Patrick S C; Bowlus, Christopher; Gershwin, M Eric

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is the most recently identified member of the IL-12 family of cytokines and offers the potential to be a target for new therapies for autoimmune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases. Similar to other members of the IL-12 family including IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27, IL-35 is composed of a heterodimer of α and β chains, which in the case of IL-35 are the p35 and Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) proteins. However, unlike its proinflammatory relatives, IL-35 has immunosuppressive effects that are mediated through regulatory T and B cells. Although there are limited data available regarding the role of IL-35 in human autoimmunity, several murine models of autoimmunity suggest that IL-35 may have potent effects in regulating immunoreactivity via IL-10-dependent mechanisms. We suggest that similar effects are operational in human disease and IL-35-directed therapies hold significant promise. In particular, we emphasize that IL-35 has immunosuppressive ability that are mediated via regulatory T and B cells that are IL-10 dependent. Further, although deletion of IL-35 does not result in spontaneous breach of tolerance, recombinant IL-35 can improve autoimmune responses in several experimental models. PMID:25619872

  18. Correlation between acute myeloid leukemia and IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-23R gene polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Biao; Zhang, Jianbo; Wang, Xiaodong; Chen, Jiao; Li, Chenglong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Th17 cells may be involved in the pathological process of acute myeloid leukemia. This CD4+ cell subgroup secretes highly homologous interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-17F, and also expresses IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) on the cell surface. Our study aims to investigate the relationship of IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL23R with disease susceptibility, and clarify the relationship between gene polymorphism variation and serum IL-17 level. 62 acute myeloid leukemia patients and 125 healthy controls were included in this study. Restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP) was applied to analyze IL-17A (rs2275913; G-197A), IL17F (rs763780; A7488G; His161Arg), and IL-23R (rs11209026, G1142A; Arg381Gln) alleles. At the same time, enzyme-linked immunoassay analysis (ELISA) was used to test serum IL-17 level in patients. Acute myeloid leukemia patients presented higher rate of IL-17F G single mutant (RR = 4.75, P < 0.001) and GG mutation homozygote (RR = 23.01, P < 0.005). While IL-17A, IL-23R A single mutant and purified AA mutation homozygote showed no correlation with acute myeloid leukemia susceptibility. In addition, ELISA showed that serum IL-17 exhibited no significant difference between acute myeloid leukemia patients and healthy controls had (8.8 ± 7.19 pg/ml vs. 1.4 ± 0.2 pg/ml, P > 0.05). IL-17F G single mutant and GG mutation homozygote were correlated with acute myeloid leukemia susceptibility, while IL-17 gene polymorphism and serum IL-17 level were not. Furthermore, IL-17A and IL-23R gene polymorphism were not associated with acute myeloid leukemia susceptibility. PMID:26191290

  19. Crystal structure of human cytomegalovirus IL-10 bound to soluble human IL-10R1.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brandi C; Logsdon, Naomi J; Josephson, Kristopher; Cook, Jennifer; Barry, Peter A; Walter, Mark R

    2002-07-01

    Human IL-10 (hIL-10) modulates critical immune and inflammatory responses by way of interactions with its high- (IL-10R1) and low-affinity (IL-10R2) cell surface receptors. Human cytomegalovirus exploits the IL-10 signaling pathway by expressing a functional viral IL-10 homolog (cmvIL-10), which shares only 27% sequence identity with hIL-10 yet signals through IL-10R1 and IL-10R2. To define the molecular basis of this virus-host interaction, we determined the 2.7-A crystal structure of cmvIL-10 bound to the extracellular fragment of IL-10R1 (sIL-10R1). The structure reveals cmvIL-10 forms a disulfide-linked homodimer that binds two sIL-10R1 molecules. Although cmvIL-10 and hIL-10 share similar intertwined topologies and sIL-10R1 binding sites, their respective interdomain angles differ by approximately 40 degrees. This difference results in a striking re-organization of the IL-10R1s in the putative cell surface complex. Solution binding studies show cmvIL-10 and hIL-10 share essentially identical affinities for sIL-10R1 whereas the Epstein-Barr virus IL-10 homolog (ebvIL-10), whose structure is highly similar to hIL-10, exhibits a approximately 20-fold reduction in sIL-10R1 affinity. Our results suggest cmvIL-10 and ebvIL-10 have evolved different molecular mechanisms to engage the IL-10 receptors that ultimately enhance the respective ability of their virus to escape immune detection. PMID:12093920

  20. Converting IL-15 to a superagonist by binding to soluble IL-15R{alpha}.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Mark P; Kovar, Marek; Purton, Jared F; Cho, Jae-Ho; Boyman, Onur; Surh, Charles D; Sprent, Jonathan

    2006-06-13

    IL-15 is normally presented in vivo as a cell-associated cytokine bound to IL-15Ralpha. We show here that the biological activity of soluble IL-15 is much improved after interaction with recombinant soluble IL-15Ralpha; after injection, soluble IL-15/IL-15Ralpha complexes rapidly induce strong and selective expansion of memory-phenotype CD8(+) cells and natural killer cells. These findings imply that binding of IL-15Ralpha to IL-15 may create a conformational change that potentiates IL-15 recognition by the betagamma(c) receptor on T cells. The enhancing effect of IL-15Ralpha binding may explain why IL-15 normally functions as a cell-associated cytokine. Significantly, the results with IL-2, a soluble cytokine, are quite different; thus, IL-2 function is markedly inhibited by binding to soluble IL-2Ralpha. PMID:16757567

  1. Lagrange L4/L5 points and the origin of our Moon and Saturn's moons and rings.

    PubMed

    Gott, J Richard

    2005-12-01

    The current standard theory of the origin of the Moon is that the Earth was hit by a giant impactor the size of Mars causing ejection of debris from its mantle that coalesced to form the moon; but where did this Mars-sized impactor come from? Isotopic evidence suggests that it came from 1 AU radius in the solar nebula, and computer simulations are consistent with its approaching Earth on a zero-energy parabolic trajectory. How could such a large object form at 1 AU in a quiescent disk of planetesimals without having already collided with the Earth at an earlier epoch before having the chance to grow large? Belbruno and Gott propose that the giant impactor could have formed in a stable orbit from debris at the Earth's Lagrange point L(5) (or L(4)). It would grow quietly by accretion at L(5) (or L(4)), but eventually gravitational perturbations by other growing planetesimals would kick it out into a horseshoe orbit and finally into a chaotic creeping orbit, which Belbruno and Gott show would, with high probability, hit the Earth on a near zero-energy parabolic trajectory. We can see other examples of this phenomenon occurring in the solar system. Asteroid 2002AA29 is in a horseshoe orbit relative to the Earth that looks exactly like the horseshoe orbits that Belbruno and Gott found for objects that had been perturbed from L(4)/L(5). The regular moons of Saturn are made of ice and have the same albedo as the ring particles (ice chunks, plus some dust). We (J. R. Gott, R. Vanderbei, and E. Belbruno) propose that the regular icy moons of Saturn (out to the orbit of Titan), which are all in nearly circular orbits, formed out of a thin disk of planetesimals (ice chunks) rather like the rings of Saturn today only larger in extent. In such a situation formation of objects at L(4)/L(5) might be expected. Indeed, Saturn's moon Dione is accompanied by moons (Helene and Polydeuces) at both L(4) and L(5) Lagrange points, and Saturn's moon Tethys is also accompanied by moons (Telesto and Calypso) at both L(4) and L(5) Lagrange points. Epimetheus is in a horseshoe orbit relative to Janus that is exactly like the horseshoe orbit expected for an object that has been perturbed from a location at L(4)/L(5). We propose that the rings of Saturn visible today are all that remains of this original disk; they lie inside the Roche limit where tidal forces have simply prevented the formation of large moons by accretion. Further out, the icy particles have accumulated into icy moons. Objects in external solar systems on horseshoe orbits (like those of Epimetheus relative to Janus) could be detected by a slow sinusoidal variation with time of the calculated mass of a planet from radial velocity measurements. PMID:16510418

  2. MOLECULAR AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATIONS OF IL-17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In mammals, the IL-17 family of cytokines (IL-17A-F) has a very distinct expression pattern and a different biological function. IL-17 is mainly secreted by activated CD4+ T cells and has been implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. IL-17 has been shown to exert an important role in host...

  3. IL-18 and Cutaneous Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji hyun; Cho, Dae Ho; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-18, an IL-1 family cytokine, is a pleiotropic immune regulator. IL-18 plays a strong proinflammatory role by inducing interferon (IFN)-γ. Previous studies have implicated IL-18 in the pathogenesis of various diseases. However, it is not well understood biologic activities of IL-18 in the diverse skin diseases. Here, we have reviewed the expression and function of IL-18 in skin diseases including inflammatory diseases. This article provides an evidence-based understanding of the role of IL-18 in skin diseases and its relationship with disease activities. PMID:26690141

  4. IL-18 and Cutaneous Inflammatory Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Cho, Dae Ho; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-18, an IL-1 family cytokine, is a pleiotropic immune regulator. IL-18 plays a strong proinflammatory role by inducing interferon (IFN)-?. Previous studies have implicated IL-18 in the pathogenesis of various diseases. However, it is not well understood biologic activities of IL-18 in the diverse skin diseases. Here, we have reviewed the expression and function of IL-18 in skin diseases including inflammatory diseases. This article provides an evidence-based understanding of the role of IL-18 in skin diseases and its relationship with disease activities. PMID:26690141

  5. IL-38 binds to the IL-36 receptor and has biological effects on immune cells similar to IL-36 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Stoeckman, Angela K; Wu, Gouping; Boeckermann, Aaron N; Azam, Tania; Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B; van der Meer, Jos W M; Hao, Ruyi; Kalabokis, Vassili; Dinarello, Charles A

    2012-02-21

    The functional role of IL-1 family member 10, recently renamed IL-38, remains unknown. In the present study we aimed to elucidate the biological function of IL-38 and to identify its receptor. Heat-killed Candida albicans was used to stimulate memory T-lymphocyte cytokine production in freshly obtained human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy subjects. The addition of recombinant IL-38 (152 amino acids) inhibited the production of T-cell cytokines IL-22 (37% decrease) and IL-17 (39% decrease). The reduction in IL-22 and IL-17 caused by IL-38 was similar to that caused by the naturally occurring IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra) in the same peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultures. IL-8 production induced by IL-36? was reduced by IL-38 (42% decrease) and also was reduced by IL-36Ra (73% decrease). When human blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells were used, IL-38 as well as IL-36Ra increased LPS-induced IL-6 by twofold. We screened immobilized extracellular domains of each member of the IL-1 receptor family, including the IL-36 receptor (also known as "IL-1 receptor-related protein 2") and observed that IL-38 bound only to the IL-36 receptor, as did IL-36Ra. The dose-response suppression of IL-38 as well as that of IL-36Ra of Candida-induced IL-22 and IL-17 was not that of the classic IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra), because low concentrations were optimal for inhibiting IL-22 production, whereas higher concentrations modestly increased IL-22. These data provide evidence that IL-38 binds to the IL-36R, as does IL-36Ra, and that IL-38 and IL-36Ra have similar biological effects on immune cells by engaging the IL-36 receptor. PMID:22315422

  6. Numerical Analysis of the Dynamics of Two- and Three-Dimensional Fluidized Bed Reactors using an Euler-Lagrange Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Pepiot, P.; Desjardins, O.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass thermochemical conversion, often done in fluidized beds, recently gained a lot of attention due to its potential to efficiently produce renewable liquid fuels. Optimization of reactor design and operating conditions, however, requires a fundamental understanding of bed dynamics. In this work, a numerical framework based on an Euler-Lagrange approach is developed and used to perform and analyze large-scale simulations of two- and three-dimensional periodic fluidized beds. Collisions are handled using a soft-sphere model. An efficient parallel implementation allows one to explicitly track over 30 million particles, which is representative of the number of particles found in lab-scale reactor, therefore demonstrating the capability of Lagrangian approaches to simulate realistic systems at that scale. An on-the-fly bubble identification and tracking algorithm is used to characterize bubble dynamics for inlet velocities up to 9 times the minimum fluidization velocity. Statistics for gas volume fraction, gas and particle velocities, bed expansion, and bubble size and velocity, is compared across the two- and three-dimensional configurations, and comparison with literature data generally shows good agreement. The wide distribution of gas residence times observed in the simulations is linked to the different gas hold-up characteristics of the gas-solid system.

  7. International Space Station Centrifuge Rotor Models A Comparison of the Euler-Lagrange and the Bond Graph Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Louis H.; Ramakrishnan, Jayant; Granda, Jose J.

    2006-01-01

    The assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) require extensive testing and engineering analysis to verify that the Space Station system of systems would work together without any adverse interactions. Since the dynamic behavior of an entire Space Station cannot be tested on earth, math models of the Space Station structures and mechanical systems have to be built and integrated in computer simulations and analysis tools to analyze and predict what will happen in space. The ISS Centrifuge Rotor (CR) is one of many mechanical systems that need to be modeled and analyzed to verify the ISS integrated system performance on-orbit. This study investigates using Bond Graph modeling techniques as quick and simplified ways to generate models of the ISS Centrifuge Rotor. This paper outlines the steps used to generate simple and more complex models of the CR using Bond Graph Computer Aided Modeling Program with Graphical Input (CAMP-G). Comparisons of the Bond Graph CR models with those derived from Euler-Lagrange equations in MATLAB and those developed using multibody dynamic simulation at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of the Bond Graph modeling approach for aeronautics and space applications.

  8. Treatment of acoustic fluid-structure interaction by Localized Lagrange Multipliers and comparison to alternative interface coupling methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Felippa, Carlos A.; Sprague, Michael A.; Ross, Michael R.; Park, K. C.

    2008-11-01

    This paper is a sequel on the topic of localized Lagrange multipliers (LLM) for applications of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between finite-element models of an acoustic fluid and an elastic structure. The prequel paper formulated the spatial-discretization methods, the LLM interface treatment, the time-marching partitioned analysis procedures, and the application to 1D benchmark problems. Here, we expand on formulation aspects required for successful application to more realistic 2D and 3D problems. Additional topics include duality relations at the fluid-structure interface, partitioned vibration analysis, reduced-order modeling, handling of curved interface surfaces, and comparison of LLM with other coupling methods. Emphasis is given to non-matching fluid-structure meshes. We present benchmark examples that illustrate the benefits and drawbacks of competing interface treatments. Realistic application problems involving the seismic response of two existing dams are considered. These include 2D modal analyses of the Koyna gravity dam, transient-response analyses of that dam with and without reduced-order modeling, incorporation of nonlinear cavitation effects, and the 3D transient-response analysis of the Morrow Point arch dam.

  9. Trojan wavepackets bound on Lagrange equllibrium points of two positive ions binary system in the strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinski, Matt

    2012-06-01

    We once have shown that the combination of the Circularly Polarized Electromagnetic (CP) wave field and the central Coulomb proton field is capable to keep the hydrogen atom in the complex space-correlated coherent state of the electron in the rotating frame eliminating the principal time dependence [1]. This state corresponds to the stable and nondispersing electron wave packet moving around the circle in the laboratory frame. Here we show the existence of stable nondispersing single and two-electron wavepackets localized around Langrange equilibrium points of two positive ions in binary star configuration executing cyclotron motion around each other in strong eternal magnetic field. Unlike for the normal Trojan wavepackets they do not require external CP field to localize and correspond exactly to atom size scaled Trojan asteroids in the Sun-Jupiter system. The exact numerical simulations using Split Operator Fast Fourier Transform method are also provided for the single electron while the approximate time-dependent Hartree simulations for two electrons. [4pt] [1] I. Bialynicki-Birula, M. Kalinski, and J.H Eberly,``Lagrange Equilibrium Points in Celestial Mechanics and Nonspreading Wave Packets for Strongly Driven Rydberg Electrons,'' Phys. Rev. 73, 1777 (1994).

  10. IL-23 Dampens the Allergic Response to Cryptococcus neoformans through IL-17–Independent and –Dependent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Szymczak, Wendy A.; Sellers, Rani S.; Pirofski, Liise-anne

    2012-01-01

    The cytokines IL-23 and IL-17 have been implicated in resistance to cryptococcal disease, but it is not clear whether IL-23–mediated production of IL-17 promotes fungal containment following pulmonary challenge with Cryptococcus neoformans. We used mice lacking IL-23 (IL-23p19?/?) or IL-17RA (IL-17RA?/?), and wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice to examine the IL-23/IL-17 axis after intranasal infection with the C. neoformans strain 52D. The absence of IL-23 or IL-17RA had no effect on pulmonary or brain fungal burden at 1 or 6 weeks after infection. However, survival of IL-23p19?/? mice was reduced compared to IL-17RA?/? mice. IL-I7 production by CD4 T cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells was impaired in IL-23p19?/? lungs, but was not completely abolished. Both IL-23p19?/? and IL-17RA?/? mice exhibited impaired neutrophil recruitment, increased serum levels of IgE and IgG2b, and increased deposition of YM1/YM2 crystals in the lung, but only IL-23p19?/? mice developed persistent lung eosinophilia. Although survival of IL-17RA?/? and WT mice was similar after 17 weeks of infection, only surviving IL-17RA?/? mice exhibited cryptococcal dissemination to the blood. These data demonstrate that IL-23 dampens the allergic response to cryptococcal infection through IL-17–independent suppression of eosinophil recruitment and IL-17–dependent regulation of antibody production and crystal deposition. Furthermore, IL-23, and to a lesser extent IL-17, contribute to disease resistance. PMID:22342846

  11. Role of IL-38 and Its Related Cytokines in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xianli; Peng, Xiao; Li, Yan; Li, Mingcai

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin- (IL-) 38 is a recently discovered cytokine and is the tenth member of the IL-1 cytokine family. IL-38 shares structural features with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-36Ra. IL-36R is the specific receptor of IL-38, a partial receptor antagonist of IL-36. IL-38 inhibits the production of T-cell cytokines IL-17 and IL-22. IL-38 also inhibits the production of IL-8 induced by IL-36γ, thus inhibiting inflammatory responses. IL-38-related cytokines, including IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra, are involved in the regulation of inflammation and immune responses. The study of IL-38 and IL-38-related cytokines might provide new insights for developing anti-inflammatory treatments in the near future. PMID:25873772

  12. Role of IL-38 and its related cytokines in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xianli; Peng, Xiao; Li, Yan; Li, Mingcai

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin- (IL-) 38 is a recently discovered cytokine and is the tenth member of the IL-1 cytokine family. IL-38 shares structural features with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-36Ra. IL-36R is the specific receptor of IL-38, a partial receptor antagonist of IL-36. IL-38 inhibits the production of T-cell cytokines IL-17 and IL-22. IL-38 also inhibits the production of IL-8 induced by IL-36?, thus inhibiting inflammatory responses. IL-38-related cytokines, including IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra, are involved in the regulation of inflammation and immune responses. The study of IL-38 and IL-38-related cytokines might provide new insights for developing anti-inflammatory treatments in the near future. PMID:25873772

  13. Biology of IL-36 cytokines and their role in disease.

    PubMed

    Gresnigt, Mark S; van de Veerdonk, Frank L

    2013-12-15

    IL-36?, IL-36?, IL-36?, and IL-36Ra, collectively called IL-36 cytokines, are part of the IL-1 family. IL-36?, IL-36?, and IL-36? are IL-36 receptor (IL-36R) agonists, while IL-36Ra is a receptor antagonist that blocks the activation of IL-36R signaling. IL-36 cytokines require processing in order to become fully active, however the protease(s) responsible for this are currently not known. The IL-36 receptor pathway activates dendritic cells and plays a role in polarizing T-helper responses. The skin is the predominant site where IL-36 cytokines are expressed and several reports have established that they play a significant role in the pathogenesis of skin diseases. In this review the discovery and biological function of the cytokines IL-36?, IL-36?, IL-36? and IL-36Ra will be discussed, and their role in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of diseases. PMID:24355486

  14. The Roles of IL-2, IL-7, and IL15 Ligands in B Cells Development from Cord Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aliyari, Z; Alami, F; Mostafavi, T; Taiefi Nasrabadi, H; Soleimanirad, J; Nozad Charoudeh, H

    2015-01-01

    Background B cells play an important role in the immune system due to production of the immunoglobulin and secreting several cytokines. It has been shown that B cells produced successfully in the presence of stem cell factor (SCF) and Flt3 ligand (Flt3L). IL2, IL7, and IL15 cytokines as the ?c-common family have an essential role in lymphopoiesis. Common ? chain cytokines may support either synergistically or in an additive manner to B cell proliferative activity. Thus, the present study focused specifically on IL2, IL7, and IL15 cytokines that may play a critical role in B cell proliferation in cord blood. In this study, we evaluated the generation of B cells from CD34+/- cord blood mononuclear cells by using IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15. Material and Methods Cord blood mononuclear cells were cultured for 21 days in presence of different combination of IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15.Harvested cells were analyzed by flow cytometry at days 0, 7, 14 and, 21. Results Present study showed that B cell differentiation from CD34+ cord blood mononuclear cells was increased by using IL-2 and IL-7 at different time points; however, IL7 was more effective (P value < 0.0001). In contrast, IL-15 didn’t increase significantly B cell expansion from CD34+ cord blood mononuclear cell. Conclusion These findings showed that IL-2 and IL-7 significantly increased B cell generation from cord blood CD34+ cells; probably this cytokines may be used in ex vivo generation of B cells from cord blood mononuclear cells. PMID:26705455

  15. Applications of solar energy in industrial parks

    SciTech Connect

    Greaver, V.W.; Farrington, R.B.; Leboeuf, C.M.

    1980-05-01

    The four phases of ongoing work at SERI that examines many unresolved questions regarding the purpose, solar applicability, economics, and energy modeling of industral parks are presented. The first phase involved site visits to approximately 300 parks in 12 major metropolitan areas of 9 states. Phase 2 entails an analysis of four parks selected from those parks surveyed. Phase 3 narrows the focus to two parks to be examined for detailed technical and engineering analysis. Phase 4 incorporates all of the work of the earlier phases with economic criteria to produce an energy allocation model describing energy delivery and consumption within the park.

  16. Sensitivity of constrained linear inversions to the selection of the Lagrange multiplier. [for inferring columnar aerosol size distribution from spectral aerosol optical depth measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of the choice of the Lagrange multiplier on constrained linear inversions is explored, with reference made to applications in inferring the columnar aerosol size distributions from spectral aerosol optical depth measurements. A range of the Lagrange multiplier is examined to find all positive solutions for the solution vector, which represents modifying factors to the assumed form of the size distribution. An iterative method is devised to constrain the calculations to consideration of only positive quantities and a requirement that the regression fit to data be consistent with measurement errors. The determination of the variances and covariances is formulated and applied to existing data sets for optical depth. Variances in the solution are found to be large for particle radii when the information content of the data is small.

  17. Cratylia mollis 1, 4 lectin: a new biotechnological tool in IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 induction and generation of immunological memory.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Priscilla Stela Santana; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; da Silva, Rafael Ramos; Cavalcanti, Mariana Brayner; Galdino, Suely Lins; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Cratylia mollis lectin has already established cytokine induction in Th1 and Th2 pathways. Thereby, this study aimed to evaluate Cramoll 1, 4 in IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 induction as well as analyze immunologic memory mechanism by reinducing lymphocyte stimulation. Initially we performed a screening in cultured splenocytes where Cramoll 1, 4 stimulated IL-6 production 5x more than ConA (P < 0.05). The same behavior was observed with IL-22 where the increase was greater than 4x. Nevertheless, IL-17A induction was similar for both lectins. In PBMCs, the same splenocytes course was observed for IL-6 and IL-17A. Concerning the stimulation of IL-22 and IL-23 Cramoll 1, 4 was more efficient than ConA in cytokines stimulation mainly in IL-23 (P < 0.01). Analyzing reinduced lymphocyte stimulation, IL-17A production was higher (P < 0.001) when the first stimulus was realized with Cramoll 1, 4 at 1 μ g/mL and the second at 5 μ g/mL. IL-22 shows significant differences (P < 0.01) at the same condition. Nevertheless, IL-23 revels the best response when the first stimuli was realized with Cramoll1, 4 at 100 ng/mL and the second with 5 μ g/mL. We conclude that the Cramoll 1, 4 is able to induce IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 cytokines in vitro better than Concavalin A, besides immunologic memory generation, being a potential biotechnological tool in Th17 pathway studies. PMID:23586026

  18. Cratylia mollis 1, 4 Lectin: A New Biotechnological Tool in IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 Induction and Generation of Immunological Memory

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Priscilla Stela Santana; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; da Silva, Rafael Ramos; Cavalcanti, Mariana Brayner; Galdino, Suely Lins; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Cratylia mollis lectin has already established cytokine induction in Th1 and Th2 pathways. Thereby, this study aimed to evaluate Cramoll 1, 4 in IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 induction as well as analyze immunologic memory mechanism by reinducing lymphocyte stimulation. Initially we performed a screening in cultured splenocytes where Cramoll 1, 4 stimulated IL-6 production 5x more than ConA (P < 0.05). The same behavior was observed with IL-22 where the increase was greater than 4x. Nevertheless, IL-17A induction was similar for both lectins. In PBMCs, the same splenocytes course was observed for IL-6 and IL-17A. Concerning the stimulation of IL-22 and IL-23 Cramoll 1, 4 was more efficient than ConA in cytokines stimulation mainly in IL-23 (P < 0.01). Analyzing reinduced lymphocyte stimulation, IL-17A production was higher (P < 0.001) when the first stimulus was realized with Cramoll 1, 4 at 1??g/mL and the second at 5??g/mL. IL-22 shows significant differences (P < 0.01) at the same condition. Nevertheless, IL-23 revels the best response when the first stimuli was realized with Cramoll1, 4 at 100?ng/mL and the second with 5??g/mL. We conclude that the Cramoll 1, 4 is able to induce IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 cytokines in vitro better than Concavalin A, besides immunologic memory generation, being a potential biotechnological tool in Th17 pathway studies. PMID:23586026

  19. Bibliography of Doctor Chul Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gochberg, Lawrence A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Park, Chul

    1995-01-01

    This document contains a comprehensive bibliography of the published works, and a short biography, of Dr. Chul Park. The contents of this bibliography were compiled primarily from the NASA RECON data base. The RECON citations have been modified to appear in a uniform format with all other listed citations . These other citations were located by computer searches in the INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, and Chemical Abstracts data bases, as well as through the cooperation of Dr. Chul Park, and his associates in the Reacting Flow Environments Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. All citations are presented in an approximate reverse chronological order from the present date. This work was created to honor the occasion of Dr. Chul Park's retirement on December 14, 1994, after 27 years of distinguished government service at the NASA Ames Research Center.

  20. Amusement park injuries and deaths.

    PubMed

    Braksiek, Robert J; Roberts, David J

    2002-01-01

    Media coverage of amusement park injuries has increased over the past several years, raising concern that amusement rides may be dangerous. Amusement park fatalities and increases in reported injuries have prompted proposed legislation to regulate the industry. Since 1979, the medical literature has published reports of 4 subdural hematomas, 4 internal carotid artery dissections, 2 vertebral artery dissections, 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 1 intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and 1 carotid artery thrombosis with stroke, all related to roller coaster rides. In this article, we review reports of amusement park injuries in the medical literature and Consumer Product Safety Commission data on the overall risk of injury. We also discuss the physics and the physiologic effects of roller coasters that may influence the type and severity of injuries. Although the risk of injury is low, emergency physicians are advised to include participation on thrill rides as part of their history, particularly when evaluating patients presenting with neurologic symptoms. PMID:11782733

  1. Interleukin (IL)-1? Is a Strong Inducer of IL-36? Expression in Human Colonic Myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kenichiro; Nishida, Atsushi; Shioya, Makoto; Imaeda, Hirotsugu; Bamba, Shigeki; Inatomi, Osamu; Shimizu, Tomoharu; Kitoh, Katsuyuki; Andoh, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims Interleukin (IL)-36 cytokines are members of the IL-1 cytokine family. In this study, we investigated the expression of IL-36? in human colonic myofibroblasts to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying IL-36? induction. Materials and methods IL-36 mRNA was analyzed by real-time PCR method. Secretion of IL-36? protein was evaluated by Western blot and ELISA analyses. Molecular mechanism of IL-36? induction was evaluated by siRNA analyses and immunofluorescence experiments. Results IL-36? mRNA expression was scarcely detected in the cells without stimulation. IL-1? induced a marked increase of IL-36? mRNA expression. TNF-? markedly enhanced IL-1?-induced IL-36? mRNA expression. These responses were confirmed at the protein levels. The inhibitors for ERK1/2 (PD98059 and U0216) and a p38 MAPK (SB203580) significantly reduced the IL-1?-induced IL-36? mRNA expression. In addition, the siRNAs specific for NF-?B p65 and AP-1 (c-Jun) significantly reduced the expression of IL-1?-induced IL-36? mRNA. Conclusions Colonic myofibroblasts are cellular source of IL-36? in the intestine. IL-36? expression was induced by the combination of IL-1? and TNF-? via activation of MAPKs and transcription factors, NF-?B and AP-1. PMID:26562662

  2. Dreaming of a Better ILS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    What would technological librarians like to see in the next generation of Integrated Library Systems (ILS)? This question was asked of several well- known library technology experts, and their responses are presented in this article. Survey respondents expressed a clear desire for the following features and functionality: (1) Direct, read-only…

  3. Dreaming of a Better ILS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    What would technological librarians like to see in the next generation of Integrated Library Systems (ILS)? This question was asked of several well- known library technology experts, and their responses are presented in this article. Survey respondents expressed a clear desire for the following features and functionality: (1) Direct, read-only…

  4. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  5. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  6. Activation by IL-2, but not IL-4, up-regulates the expression of the p55 subunit of the IL-2 receptor on IL-2- and IL-4-dependent T cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, D L; Gibert, M; Baran, D; Ohara, J; Paul, W E; Theze, J

    1989-05-01

    We have investigated the effects of IL-2 and IL-4 on different parameters of T cell activation using three T cell lines. The Th cell line L14 and the cytotoxic T cell line C30.1, both grown in IL-2-containing medium, and a line derived from C30.1 cells (line 1) cultured in IL-4 for a prolonged period were studied. All three cell lines could be activated with IL-2 or IL-4. T cell stimulation by either IL-2- or IL-4-induced identical patterns of cell size enlargement and transferrin receptor expression. However, only IL-2 up-regulated cell-surface expression of the p55 subunit of the IL-2R (p55 IL-2R) as measured by flow cytometry and RIA. This difference was also reflected by the accumulation of soluble p55 IL-2R in the culture medium. No significant increase in expression of membrane or soluble forms of p55 IL-2R was detected after IL-4 stimulation. mAb specific for p55 IL-2R which block IL-2-induced T cell growth did not affect IL-4-mediated T cell proliferation indicating that p55 IL-2R is not involved in IL-4-mediated T cell growth. Analysis of IL-4R expression performed on line 1 using biotinylated IL-4 revealed that IL-4, but not IL-2, is capable of increasing IL-4R expression. Together these results suggest that during IL-2- or IL-4-induced T cell proliferation, each lymphokine specifically up-regulates its own receptor. PMID:2523424

  7. A low diffusive Lagrange-remap scheme for the simulation of violent ai-water free-surface flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard-Champmartin, Aude; De Vuyst, Florian

    2014-10-01

    In 2002, Després and Lagoutière [17] proposed a low-diffusive advection scheme for pure transport equation problems, which is particularly accurate for step-shaped solutions, and thus suited for interface tracking procedure by a color function. This has been extended by Kokh and Lagoutière [28] in the context of compressible multifluid flows using a five-equation model. In this paper, we explore a simplified variant approach for gas-liquid three-equation models. The Eulerian numerical scheme has two ingredients: a robust remapped Lagrange solver for the solution of the volume-averaged equations, and a low diffusive compressive scheme for the advection of the gas mass fraction. Numerical experiments show the performance of the computational approach on various flow reference problems: dam break, sloshing of a tank filled with water, wate-water impact and finally a case of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. One of the advantages of the present interface capturing solver is its natural implementation on parallel processors or computers. wave formation and wave breaking; wall wave impacts, local pressure peaks and pressure loadings; formation of air pockets; ejection, fragmentation of liquid droplets; Archimedes buoyancy effect with rising of bubbles and fall of droplets; effects of gas compressibility inducing a gas-to-liquid response by a pressure wave, etc. In this paper, we consider immiscible gas-liquid two-phase flow problems. The strong ratio of mass density between gas and liquid (typically 1:1000) is known to be a source of numerical stiffness and numerical instability. Therefore robust computational approaches supporting high density ratio have to be considered. Among the family of conservative Finite Volume methods (FVM), the Lagrange-remapped solvers (see e.g. [42,45,6,4,25,2]) provide both robustness and stability with achievement of mathematical properties of positiveness and entropy compatibility.Lagrange-remap numerical schemes (also referred to as Eule-Lagrange schemes) are a particular family of Eulerian FVM where, at each time step, the equations are solved according to a Lagrangian evolution with a mesh that is convected by the flow itself, then the "Lagrange solutions" are remapped on the initial mesh into a conservative way by estimating both fluxed mass and momentum. Because of the Lagrangian step of these methods, code coupling or coupling of different physics is made easier against conventional FV methods. Moreover, the Lagrangian description is very practical for multi-material flows of multi-phase flows because we are a natural control of the fluxed quantities material-by-material. Lagrange and Lagrange-remap solvers still know strong developments today with major contributions as e.g. energy-preserving compatible schemes for staggered methods [11], collocated variables and cell-centered entropy-satisfying schemes, see [18,32,12].In this paper, we rather consider a simpler staggered Lagrange-remap solver with a direction-by-direction remapping. More precisely, the 2D multidimensional Lagrange step (operator LxyΔt) completely solves the fluid equations while an operator splitting alternating direction (AD) for the projection (operators Rx and Ry respectively) is used to interpolate on the reference Cartesian Eulerian grid into a conservative manner, involving convective flux balances. Symmetrized operator splitting can be used to ensure second order accuracy. Both linear and nonlinear numerical stabilities are ensured by the use of standard pseudo-viscosity (viscous pressure) terms, detailed into Appendix B at the end of this paper. Actually, we use this simple Euler solver because of its simplicity of code implementation and because it can be vectorized/parallelized into a natural manner. Moreover, the aim of this paper is not about the hydrodynamics solver: the article mostly focuses on numerical antidiffusive methods for interface capturing, as part of a global multifluid hydrodynamics solver. At the present time, the antidiffusive approaches assume a direction-by-direction remapping which leads to a simpler derivation of the antidiffusive fluxes.The issue of an interface tracking/capturing algorithm providing expected properties like robustness, accuracy, conservation of volume and mass while not being too much computationally intensive is still the object of today's active research. Pure Lagrangian approaches like Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) methods naturally captures the moving interfaces because each macro-particle moves with the flow. Each particle is also attached to a given material with its own equation of state (EOS). For liquid-gas flows, we have liquid particles and gas particles and the interface is nothing else but the discrete interface separating liquid particles from gas particles. In the last decade, we have seen in the literature major contributions of improvement in the SPH world with improved accuracy, stability, and ability to tackle multiphase flow problems with high density ratios for violent flow applications, see for example [13,33,24]. Despite these improvements, SPH still know some issues. Moreover parallelization techniques for SPH are quite technical and require a great expertise (as dealing with strong density ratio between phases). That's why we rather choose a more classical computational approach.Notice also that there are also mesh-based Lagrangian methods [32,12]. But for flows with large deformations, cells may become degenerate, and both regularization or remapping procedures are needed.For Eulerian methods, the family of interface tracking methods try to reconstruct the free boundary according to some tracking procedure (level set methods [38] for example). Interface reconstruction methods try to reconstruct a moving interface according to some incomplete information: volume-of-fluid (VOF) methods [36,46] or MOF (Moment-of-Fluid) methods [20]. The family of interface capturing methods involves at the continuous level the transport equation of an indicator function that distinguishes the location of the different materials: ∂tz+uṡ∇z=0, z∈{0,1} (where u is the velocity and z the color function or a phase indicator), expressing that the interface property between the two phases is advected with the local fluid velocity. From the numerical point of view, finite volume cells may host different materials. The so-called "mixed cells" need an additional closure but on the other hand the mass fraction cg∈[0,1] of the gas fluid may be used as the numerical indicator function: ∂tcg+uṡ∇cg=0, cg∈[0,1]. It can be set up in conservative form in order to conserve the gas mass: ∂t(ρcg)+∇ṡ(ρcgu)=0 with ρ representing the mean cell "mixture" density, but of course it induces a "diffuse" interface, which has to be kept as less diffusive as possible. Let us emphasize that this diffuse feature is only a pure numerical artefact. This kind of methods uses more or less sophistication levels including high-order schemes, compressive flux limiters, artificial compression stages, local adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) [7], a posteriori methods in which an anti-diffusion phase is added after the projection (or the advection) of the quantities, use of pseudo-velocities to correct the truncation error of the numerical scheme (see e.g. [40,26,35]), Eulerian methods with Lagrangian tracking of the interface (VFFC-ENIP [31]), etc. These methods have been proved to be very efficient. But the price to pay is the relative important implementation and computational effort. For parallel computer architectures, the parallel implementation may be tricky or require a tedious work. To summarize what can be said is that each method in the literature shares both advantages and drawbacks. The combination of the three properties conservation-accuracy-robustness is actually highly constrained. The parallel computing aspect may also add strong constraints with heavy programming efforts. Regarding interface capturing methods with a color function, there are two points of view: either a threshold on z (say z=1/2 >) which discriminates the fluid zones as level sets do, or one considers a possibly smoothed colored function involving a smoothed transition between both fluids. In this case, some "regularization" closure has to be defined into the model. The "uncertainty" related to a z belonging to on the open interval (0,1) has to be expressed, for example by a volume-averaged mixture closure. This is discussed in the next section.In this work, we have decided to investigate the use of a recent antidiffusive advection scheme for stepwise solutions, initially proposed by Després and Lagoutière. The idea is to combine both upwinding and downwinding discretizations for the gradient operators. The upwinding process is known to provide strong stability in Lp norm under a standard CFL condition while pure downwinding is unconditionally unstable because of its over-compressive nature. Després and Lagoutière then proposed a combination of both upwinding and downwinding "at the limit of stability", providing the most compressive solver while ensuring stability with a local discrete maximum principle. This computational approach has been considered in Kokh and Lagoutière [28] and more recently in [8,9] for multiphase flow problems with a "five-equation" model that includes the transport of a color function. In fact the color variable z acts for the interface location whereas another variable y, a gas mass fraction is necessary for conservation purposes. Thus we present here an adaptation of the Després-Lagoutière advection scheme to the case of a simpler "three-equation" gas-liquid volume averaged model. In our case, the gas mass fraction cg also acts as the color variable and is antidiffused. We rather reformulate the mass conservation equations using a gas volume fraction α which is of course a function of cg for given phase densities. We use isentropic pressure law equations of state per phase, the liquid phase being seen as a (weakly) compressible fluid. To close the system, we here assume a simple pressure equilibrium in each mixed cell. Methods based on the instantaneous pressure equilibrium usually produce overshoots of some material quantity at the interfaces because the instantaneous pressure equilibrium does not correspond to the behavior of two pure material cells facing each other (see for example [27,3] for a discussion about this issue). But there are more realistic closure mechanisms like pressure relaxation mechanisms [27] that improve the behavior at the interface. Once again, this paper does not really focus on this topic. We mostly want to evaluate the both advantages, limitations and drawbacks of such an antidiffusive approach, in particular in the case of stiff gas-liquid multiphase flows.Another motivation that justifies our choice of that type of interface capturing methods based on the solution of a transport equation of an Eulerian Cartesian grid is that we believe they are very promising for manycore coprocessor parallel computing, like Intel Xeon PHI or Graphics Processing Units (GPU). While standard PDE discretization methods (mesh, array data structures, sparse matrices, memory) have been designed and optimized a few decades ago on the assumption of a sustainable CPU-global memory model, parallel many-core processing architecture is completely different such that data structures organized by grids of blocks are particularly suitable for finite difference/volume methods on Cartesian grids.At the present time, our computations are performed sequentially on a standard CPU for accuracy assessment of the numerical method and its improvement. Ongoing works are dedicated to the GPU programming of such a method. Let us finally remark that the last update of the NVIDIA CUDA Software Development Kit includes an Application Programming Interface (API) for Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR). AMR methods of course could be used with the low-diffusive interface capturing technique for a more accurate level of interface resolution.

  8. Lichens of the U. S. national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Over 26,100 records of lichens present in 144 U.S. national park units were assembled from various sources into a database and analyzed. Within these 144 park units 2,435 species and 375 genera are reported, representing 63% and 74% of the North American flora, respectively. The park units are located in 41 states and Washington, D.C. The average number of species in a park is 104, but the median is 60, indicating there are many parks with a small number of species and a few with high numbers. Isle Royale National Park has the most species, 611, and twelve parks have only one species reported. The number of records of lichens present ranged from one for 25 parks, to 1,623 for Isle Royale. Physcia aipolia is the most frequently observed species, being found in 65 parks. One fourth of the park units are classified cultural resource parks, while the remainder are considered natural resource parks. This study was based on 453 sources, including literature citations, park reports and collections in the University of Minnesota Herbarium. Copyright ?? 2005 by the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.

  9. IL-21 induces IL-22 production in CD4+ T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Ada; Mascanfroni, Ivan D.; Nadeau, Meghan; Burns, Evan J.; Tukpah, Ann-Marcia; Santiago, Andrezza; Wu, Chuan; Patel, Bonny; Kumar, Deepak; Quintana, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    IL-22 produced by innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and CD4+ T cells plays an important role in host defense and mucosal homeostasis, thus it is important to investigate the mechanisms that regulate IL-22 production. We investigated the regulation IL-22 production by CD4+ T cells. Here we show that IL-21 triggers IL-22, but not IL-17 production by CD4+ T cells. STAT3, activated by IL-21, controls the epigenetic status of the il22 promoter and its interaction with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Moreover, IL-21 and AhR signaling in T cells control IL-22 production and the development of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in ILC-deficient mice. Thus, we have identified IL-21 as an inducer of IL-22 production in CD4+ T cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24796415

  10. Interplay between IL-2 and IL-4 in human thymocyte differentiation: antagonism or agonism.

    PubMed

    Bárcena, A; Toribio, M L; Gutierrez-Ramos, J C; Kroemer, G; Martínez, C

    1991-05-01

    The effect of recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-4, as well as a combination of both lymphokines on human post-natal thymocytes at different maturation stages, was analyzed by culturing highly purified pro-T cells, pre-T cells, double-negative and double-positive thymocyte subsets in the presence of IL-2 and/or IL-4. Both IL-2 and IL-4 responsiveness are developmentally regulated in human thymocytes, since IL-2 and IL-4 responses decline with increasing thymocyte differentiation, double-positive T cells displaying far less proliferation than immature thymocytes. IL-2 and IL-4 may influence pro-T cell growth in both an antagonistic and additive fashion. At low doses, IL-4 inhibits IL-2-supported growth of pro-T cells, whereas, at higher concentrations, this inhibitory effect is masked by the ability of IL-4 to stimulate pro-T cell proliferation. In contrast to peripheral lymphocytes, IL-4 does not down-regulate the expression of the IL-2 receptor light chain on thymocytes. In pro-T cell cultures, IL-2 and IL-4 favour the differentiation of distinct cell populations, namely lymphocytes displaying preferentially a TCR alpha/beta+ and CD4+CD8- phenotype versus predominantly TCR gamma/delta+ and CD4-CD8+ cells, respectively. The effect of IL-2 dominates over that of IL-4, since the composition of cultures set up in the presence of IL-2 plus IL-4 resembles that of cells cultured with IL-2 alone. In synthesis, IL-2 and IL-4 exhibit reciprocal inter-relations in human thymocyte cultures, thus supporting the notion that these lymphokines are implicated in the complex regulation of a local cytokine network. PMID:1911531

  11. 75 FR 1405 - National Park Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Agency: National Park Service, Interior. Action: Notice of availability of the Record... expanding interpretation, education opportunities, and visitor amenities at the Memorial, a...

  12. Collective Bargaining & Recreation and Park Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culkin, David; Howard, Dennis R.

    1982-01-01

    This study explored labor relations practices in United States parks and recreation agencies. Responses from 200 public parks and recreation organizations are discussed and displayed in tabular form. (CJ)

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Parkes Weber syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that occur in a condition called capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (CM-AVM). CM-AVM and some cases ... same genetic cause. Read more about capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome . How common is Parkes Weber syndrome? Parkes ...

  14. Regulation and function of IL-17A- and IL-22-producing ?? T cells

    PubMed Central

    Ness-Schwickerath, Kristin J.

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of IL-17A and IL-22 production differs between human and murine ?? T cells. We find that human ?? T cells expressing V?2V?2 T cell receptors are peripherally polarized to produce IL-17A or IL-22, much like CD4 ?? Th17 T cells. This requires IL-6, IL-1?, and TGF-?, whereas expansion and maintenance requires IL-23, IL-1?, and TGF-?. In contrast, IL-17A and IL-22 production by murine ?? T cells is innately programmed during thymic ontogeny but requires IL-23 and IL-1? for maintenance. Murine ?? cells producing IL-17A and IL-22 play important roles in microbial, autoimmune, and inflammatory responses. However, the roles played by human IL-17A- and IL-22-producing ?? T cells are less clear but are also likely to be important. These observations highlight differences between humans and murine ?? T cells and underscore the importance of IL-17A- and IL-22-producing ?? T cells. PMID:21573786

  15. IL-18 stimulates IL-13-mediated IFN-?-sensitive host resistance in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Liu, Zhugong; Whitmire, Jeannette; Alem, Farhang; Hamed, Hossein; Pesce, John; Urban, Joseph F.; Gause, William C.

    2007-01-01

    IL-4 and IL-13 are up-regulated during in vivo responses to many nematode parasites, but increasing evidence suggests that increases in IL-13 can also occur independently of the IL-4-dominant Th2 response. Blocking B7 after Trichuris muris inoculation inhibits resistance and IL-4 elevations, instead resulting in an IFN-?-dominant response associated with susceptibility. However, blocking IFN-? under these conditions restores IL-13-dependent resistance. In this study, we examined the mechanism of IL-13 up-regulation and associated protection during this in vivo immune response. CD4+ T cells and DX5+TCR? cells were identified as the major producers of IL-13, and the DX5+TCR? cells were phenotyped as NK cells, since they expressed CD11b, IL-2R? and Ly49C but not c-kit or Fc?RI. NK cell-derived IL-13 elevations were Tcell-dependent, as CD4+ Tcell depletion blocked IL-13 production by mesenteric lymph node cells and induced susceptibility. IL-13 expression was increased independently of IL-12; however, blocking IL-18 function inhibited IL-13 production and increased susceptibility. These results indicate that CD4+ T cells and NK cells are the major sources of IL-13 during the in vivo Th1 response induced by B7 blockade and that under these conditions, IL-18 is specifically required for the in vivo up-regulation of IL-13 production and associated host protection. PMID:16568498

  16. The role of IL-4 and IL-13 in cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Hurdayal, Ramona; Brombacher, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Murine models of Leishmania major infection in the 1980s revealed two distinct, counter-regulatory populations of CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells, delineated Th1 and Th2, and their archetypal cytokines, interferon gamma (IFN-?) and interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13, which promoted resistance/susceptibility to infection, respectively. However, the introduction of global cytokine-deficient mice in the 1990s revealed pleiotropic immune-regulatory mechanisms of IL-4 and IL-13 that either controlled or exacerbated disease. This undermined the basic premise that IL-4/IL-13 played paramount roles in facilitating a non-healing Th2 response to Leishmania infection and instead suggested that both IL-4 and IL-13-dependent and IL-4/IL-13-independent factors orchestrate disease outcome. The recent characterization of cell-type specific IL-4R? deficient mice was initiated to help reconcile these observations and dissect the cell-specific effects of IL-4/IL-13 during infection. In this review, we summarize original and recent findings with regard to the role of IL-4 and IL-13 in cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Using the information discerned from various studies and our conditional IL-4R? gene-deficient mice, we particularly discuss the double-edged sword IL-4 (and in some Leishmania disease models IL-13) in driving a susceptible Th2 response, their immune cell targets that support healing or non-healing responses and their novel role in mediating a Th1 response during disease. PMID:24412597

  17. Symmetry in the Car Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a lesson on rotational symmetry which she developed for her students. The aim of the lesson was "to identify objects with rotational symmetry in the staff car park" and the success criteria were "pictures or sketches of at least six objects with different orders of rotation". After finding examples of…

  18. 'Shockley park' stirs racism row

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-07-01

    A local authority in Northern California has encountered unexpected resistance to its decision to name a park after the Nobel-prize-winning physicist William Shockley, with a coalition of churches and civic groups preparing to petition against the name at a meeting scheduled for 23 July.

  19. Effective Parks & Recreation Boards & Commissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Hilmi; And Others

    This text explains the role of boards, commissions, and councils for parks and recreational programs in generating funds and involving volunteers in local service. The text covers functional differences and structural differences between administrative bodies, policy-making bodies, and advisory bodies. Special attention is given to small group…

  20. UV - RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brewer 087 is located in Research Triangle Park NC, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instru...

  1. Rosa Parks: The Movement Organizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Kai

    This biography for younger readers describes the life of Rosa Parks, the Alabama black woman whose refusal to give up her seat on a segregated bus helped establish the civil rights movement. The book is introduced by an overview of the movement by Andrew Young and a timeline indicating major historical events from 1954 through 1968. Highlights in…

  2. Rosa Parks: The Movement Organizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Kai

    This biography for younger readers describes the life of Rosa Parks, the Alabama black woman whose refusal to give up her seat on a segregated bus helped establish the civil rights movement. The book is introduced by an overview of the movement by Andrew Young and a timeline indicating major historical events from 1954 through 1968. Highlights in…

  3. Egmont National Park, New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The lush forests of Egmont National Park, on New Zealand's North Island, contrast with the pasturelands outside the circular park boundaries. The unique shape of the park results from its first protection in 1881, which specified that a forest reserve would extend in a 9.6 km radius from the summit of Mt. Taranaki (named Mt. Egmont by Captain Cook). The park covers about 33,500 hectares and Mt. Egmont stands at 2518 m. The volcano began forming 70,000 years ago, and last erupted in 1755. A series of montane habitats occur in procession up the flanks of the volcano-from rainforest, to shrubs, to alpine, and finally snow cover. Image STS110-726-6, was taken by Space Shuttle crewmembers on 9 April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  4. Symmetry in the Car Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a lesson on rotational symmetry which she developed for her students. The aim of the lesson was "to identify objects with rotational symmetry in the staff car park" and the success criteria were "pictures or sketches of at least six objects with different orders of rotation". After finding examples of…

  5. Th2 Cytokines Augment IL-31/IL-31RA Interactions via STAT6-dependent IL-31RA Expression.

    PubMed

    Edukulla, Ramakrishna; Singh, Brijendra; Jegga, Anil G; Sontake, Vishwaraj; Dillon, Stacey R; Madala, Satish K

    2015-05-22

    Interleukin 31 receptor α (IL-31RA) is a novel Type I cytokine receptor that pairs with oncostatin M receptor to mediate IL-31 signaling. Binding of IL-31 to its receptor results in the phosphorylation and activation of STATs, MAPK, and JNK signaling pathways. IL-31 plays a pathogenic role in tissue inflammation, particularly in allergic diseases. Recent studies demonstrate IL-31RA expression and signaling in non-hematopoietic cells, but this receptor is poorly studied in immune cells. Macrophages are key immune-effector cells that play a critical role in Th2-cytokine-mediated allergic diseases. Here, we demonstrate that Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 are capable of up-regulating IL-31RA expression on both peritoneal and bone marrow-derived macrophages from mice. Our data also demonstrate that IL-4Rα-driven IL-31RA expression is STAT6 dependent in macrophages. Notably, the inflammation-associated genes Fizz1 and serum amyloid A (SAA) are significantly up-regulated in M2 macrophages stimulated with IL-31, but not in IL-4 receptor-deficient macrophages. Furthermore, the absence of Type II IL-4 receptor signaling is sufficient to attenuate the expression of IL-31RA in vivo during allergic asthma induced by soluble egg antigen, which may suggest a role for IL-31 signaling in Th2 cytokine-driven inflammation and allergic responses. Our study reveals an important counter-regulatory role between Th2 cytokine and IL-31 signaling involved in allergic diseases. PMID:25847241

  6. IL?33 and kidney disease (Review).

    PubMed

    Yang, Feifei; Zhu, Ping; Duan, Lihua; Yang, Lin; Wang, Jiajun

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)?33, is a novel member of the IL?1 superfamily, and act as a dual?function molecule as a nuclear factor and cytokine. The expression of IL?33 can be detected in several tissues and cells in humans and in mice. In addition to the conventional secretion approach for cytokines, full?length IL?33 can also be released into the extracellular space following cell damage or mechanical injury. IL?33 mediates its biological effects by interacting with the receptors, suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) and IL?1 receptor accessory protein, activating intracellular molecules in the nuclear factor??B and mitogen?activated protein kinase signaling pathways, which drive the production of type 2 cytokines, including IL?4, IL?5 and IL?13, from polarized T helper 2 cells. Increasing evidence indicates that IL?33 is important in chronic kidney disease, and may be involved in the progression of renal fibrosis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and renal graft damage. In addition, IL?33 contributes to acute kidney injury. In the present review, the biology of IL?33, and the association of IL?33 with kidney diseases are discussed. PMID:26548720

  7. Lagrange-type modeling of continuous dielectric permittivity variation in double-higher-order volume integral equation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chobanyan, E.; Ilić, M. M.; Notaroš, B. M.

    2015-05-01

    A novel double-higher-order entire-domain volume integral equation (VIE) technique for efficient analysis of electromagnetic structures with continuously inhomogeneous dielectric materials is presented. The technique takes advantage of large curved hexahedral discretization elements—enabled by double-higher-order modeling (higher-order modeling of both the geometry and the current)—in applications involving highly inhomogeneous dielectric bodies. Lagrange-type modeling of an arbitrary continuous variation of the equivalent complex permittivity of the dielectric throughout each VIE geometrical element is implemented, in place of piecewise homogeneous approximate models of the inhomogeneous structures. The technique combines the features of the previous double-higher-order piecewise homogeneous VIE method and continuously inhomogeneous finite element method (FEM). This appears to be the first implementation and demonstration of a VIE method with double-higher-order discretization elements and conformal modeling of inhomogeneous dielectric materials embedded within elements that are also higher (arbitrary) order (with arbitrary material-representation orders within each curved and large VIE element). The new technique is validated and evaluated by comparisons with a continuously inhomogeneous double-higher-order FEM technique, a piecewise homogeneous version of the double-higher-order VIE technique, and a commercial piecewise homogeneous FEM code. The examples include two real-world applications involving continuously inhomogeneous permittivity profiles: scattering from an egg-shaped melting hailstone and near-field analysis of a Luneburg lens, illuminated by a corrugated horn antenna. The results show that the new technique is more efficient and ensures considerable reductions in the number of unknowns and computational time when compared to the three alternative approaches.

  8. The Augmented Lagrange Multipliers Method for Matrix Completion from Corrupted Samplings with Application to Mixed Gaussian-Impulse Noise Removal

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fan; Yang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Chenghu

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of the restoration of images corrupted by mixed Gaussian-impulse noise. In recent years, low-rank matrix reconstruction has become a research hotspot in many scientific and engineering domains such as machine learning, image processing, computer vision and bioinformatics, which mainly involves the problem of matrix completion and robust principal component analysis, namely recovering a low-rank matrix from an incomplete but accurate sampling subset of its entries and from an observed data matrix with an unknown fraction of its entries being arbitrarily corrupted, respectively. Inspired by these ideas, we consider the problem of recovering a low-rank matrix from an incomplete sampling subset of its entries with an unknown fraction of the samplings contaminated by arbitrary errors, which is defined as the problem of matrix completion from corrupted samplings and modeled as a convex optimization problem that minimizes a combination of the nuclear norm and the -norm in this paper. Meanwhile, we put forward a novel and effective algorithm called augmented Lagrange multipliers to exactly solve the problem. For mixed Gaussian-impulse noise removal, we regard it as the problem of matrix completion from corrupted samplings, and restore the noisy image following an impulse-detecting procedure. Compared with some existing methods for mixed noise removal, the recovery quality performance of our method is dominant if images possess low-rank features such as geometrically regular textures and similar structured contents; especially when the density of impulse noise is relatively high and the variance of Gaussian noise is small, our method can outperform the traditional methods significantly not only in the simultaneous removal of Gaussian noise and impulse noise, and the restoration ability for a low-rank image matrix, but also in the preservation of textures and details in the image. PMID:25248103

  9. Feasibility of cooling the Earth with a cloud of small spacecraft near the inner Lagrange point (L1).

    PubMed

    Angel, Roger

    2006-11-14

    If it were to become apparent that dangerous changes in global climate were inevitable, despite greenhouse gas controls, active methods to cool the Earth on an emergency basis might be desirable. The concept considered here is to block 1.8% of the solar flux with a space sunshade orbited near the inner Lagrange point (L1), in-line between the Earth and sun. Following the work of J. Early [Early, JT (1989) J Br Interplanet Soc 42:567-569], transparent material would be used to deflect the sunlight, rather than to absorb it, to minimize the shift in balance out from L1 caused by radiation pressure. Three advances aimed at practical implementation are presented. First is an optical design for a very thin refractive screen with low reflectivity, leading to a total sunshade mass of approximately 20 million tons. Second is a concept aimed at reducing transportation cost to 50 dollars/kg by using electromagnetic acceleration to escape Earth's gravity, followed by ion propulsion. Third is an implementation of the sunshade as a cloud of many spacecraft, autonomously stabilized by modulating solar radiation pressure. These meter-sized "flyers" would be assembled completely before launch, avoiding any need for construction or unfolding in space. They would weigh a gram each, be launched in stacks of 800,000, and remain for a projected lifetime of 50 years within a 100,000-km-long cloud. The concept builds on existing technologies. It seems feasible that it could be developed and deployed in approximately 25 years at a cost of a few trillion dollars, <0.5% of world gross domestic product (GDP) over that time. PMID:17085589

  10. Azimuthal extent and properties of midtail plasmoids from two-point ARTEMIS observations at the Earth-Moon Lagrange points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.-S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.; Kiehas, S. A.

    2014-03-01

    Although distant-tail plasmoids are perceived to extend across most of the magnetotail (~40 RE), recent studies in the near-Earth region (X > -30 RE) have revealed that near-Earth reconnection (where plasmoids originate) is likely localized and takes place preferentially on the duskside. This discrepancy in plasmoid azimuthal extent suggests that a plasmoid may grow as it moves from near-Earth to the distant tail. Comprehensive multipoint, midtail plasmoid observations can be used to test this hypothesis. Between October 2010 and July 2011 the ARTEMIS spacecraft (P1 and P2) at the Earth-Moon Lagrange points (midtail, X ~ -45 to -65 RE) provided simultaneous two-point observations across the magnetotail for 4 days every lunar month, with a large range of spacecraft separations (0.1 to 25 RE). We find that plasmoids near lunar orbit, like other near-Earth reconnection-related phenomena, occur preferentially on the duskside of the magnetotail. Two-point ARTEMIS observations reveal that the typical plasmoid azimuthal size in our data set is about 5 to 10 RE, much smaller than expected from previous distant-tail observations. Plasmoids with an azimuthal size greater than 9 RE also exist but only at geomagnetic activity levels higher (AEpeak > 400 nT) than typically found in our data set (median AEpeak ~ 230 nT for our plasmoid data set and median AE ~ 100 nT during the entire period of ARTEMIS magnetotail observations). We conclude that plasmoids during small to moderate substorms (AEpeak < 400 nT) do not grow beyond ~10 RE until they have moved tailward of ~ -45 to -65 RE. Plasmoids during large substorms (AEpeak > 400 nT), however, either grow beyond ~10 RE before they reach lunar distance or initially extend across a large portion of the magnetotail.

  11. Feasibility of cooling the Earth with a cloud of small spacecraft near the inner Lagrange point (L1)

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Roger

    2006-01-01

    If it were to become apparent that dangerous changes in global climate were inevitable, despite greenhouse gas controls, active methods to cool the Earth on an emergency basis might be desirable. The concept considered here is to block 1.8% of the solar flux with a space sunshade orbited near the inner Lagrange point (L1), in-line between the Earth and sun. Following the work of J. Early [Early, JT (1989) J Br Interplanet Soc 42:567–569], transparent material would be used to deflect the sunlight, rather than to absorb it, to minimize the shift in balance out from L1 caused by radiation pressure. Three advances aimed at practical implementation are presented. First is an optical design for a very thin refractive screen with low reflectivity, leading to a total sunshade mass of ≈20 million tons. Second is a concept aimed at reducing transportation cost to $50/kg by using electromagnetic acceleration to escape Earth's gravity, followed by ion propulsion. Third is an implementation of the sunshade as a cloud of many spacecraft, autonomously stabilized by modulating solar radiation pressure. These meter-sized “flyers” would be assembled completely before launch, avoiding any need for construction or unfolding in space. They would weigh a gram each, be launched in stacks of 800,000, and remain for a projected lifetime of 50 years within a 100,000-km-long cloud. The concept builds on existing technologies. It seems feasible that it could be developed and deployed in ≈25 years at a cost of a few trillion dollars, <0.5% of world gross domestic product (GDP) over that time. PMID:17085589

  12. 77 FR 12761 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycle Route

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ...The National Park Service (NPS) is proposing to designate the Hope Camp Trail as a bicycle route within Saguaro National Park (Park). The National Park Service general regulation at 36 CFR 4.30(b) requires promulgation of a special regulation to designate bicycle routes outside of developed areas and special use...

  13. "The Rosa Parks Story": Guide for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onish, Liane B.

    On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a black seamstress, refused to give up her seat to a white man on a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama, and she was arrested. On that day, Rosa Parks became the mother of the modern civil rights movement. This study guide may be used as a companion to "The Rosa Parks Story" video which aired on CBS television…

  14. Parking lot security: protection from liability.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Negligent premises security cases, sometimes called "inadequate security", pose great harm to parking facility owners. Verdicts and settlements for negligent security against facilities is a concern, but a greater concern for those property owners engaged in parking lot services. In this article, the author presents some basic principles of security that all owners of parking facilities should not only understand, but embrace. PMID:16535958

  15. Alluvial Fan, Rocky Mountain National Park

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Alluvial Fan is a fan-shaped area of disturbance in Rocky Mountain National Park. It was created on July 15, 1982, when the earthen Lawn Lake Dam above the area gave way, flooding the Park and nearby town of Estes Park with more than 200 million gallons of water. Enormous boulders were displaced...

  16. 76 FR 22001 - National Park Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-9730 Filed 4-19-11; 8:45 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8656 of April 15, 2011 National Park Week, 2011 By the President of the.... ``Healthy Parks, Healthy People,'' the focus for this year's National Park Week, highlights the role...

  17. 77 FR 24575 - National Park Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8801 of April 20, 2012 National Park Week... National Park Week, all 397 National Parks will offer free admission from April 21 through April 29,...

  18. Moon Park: A research and educational facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuriki, Kyoichi; Saito, Takao; Ogawa, Yukimasa

    1992-01-01

    Moon Park has been proposed as an International Space Year (ISY) event for international cooperative efforts. Moon Park will serve as a terrestrial demonstration of a prototype lunar base and provide research and educational opportunities. The kind of data that can be obtained in the Moon Park facilities is examined taking the minimum number of lunar base residents as an example.

  19. Divergent expression patterns of IL-4 and IL-13 define unique functions in allergic immunity

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hong-Erh; Reinhardt, R. Lee; Bando, Jennifer K.; Sullivan, Brandon M.; Ho, I-Cheng; Locksley, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-13 are critical for responses against parasitic helminthes. Here we used genetically engineered reporter mice to assess the temporal and spatial production of these cytokine in vivo. In lymph nodes, IL-4 was confined to T follicular helper (TFH) cells, however these cells did not make IL-13. In contrast, tissue type 2 helper T TH2 cells produce both cytokines. Divergent IL-4 and IL-13 production also occurred among innate immune cells, where basophils produced IL-4, while innate helper type 2 (Ih2) cells produced IL-13. IL-13 production by TH2 and Ih2 cells was dependent on high GATA-3 levels, in contrast to low GATA-3 levels in TFH cells and basophils. Distinct localization and cellular expression of IL-4 and IL-13 explains their unique roles during allergic immunity. PMID:22138715

  20. Human cytomegalovirus harbors its own unique IL-10 homolog (cmvIL-10)

    PubMed Central

    Kotenko, Sergei V.; Saccani, Simona; Izotova, Lara S.; Mirochnitchenko, Olga V.; Pestka, Sidney

    2000-01-01

    We identified a viral IL-10 homolog encoded by an ORF (UL111a) within the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) genome, which we designated cmvIL-10. cmvIL-10 can bind to the human IL-10 receptor and can compete with human IL-10 for binding sites, despite the fact that these two proteins are only 27% identical. cmvIL-10 requires both subunits of the IL-10 receptor complex to induce signal transduction events and biological activities. The structure of the cmvIL-10 gene is unique by itself. The gene retained two of four introns of the IL-10 gene, but the length of the introns was reduced. We demonstrated that cmvIL-10 is expressed in CMV-infected cells. Thus, expression of cmvIL-10 extends the range of counter measures developed by CMV to circumvent detection and destruction by the host immune system. PMID:10677520

  1. Regulation of IL-1 family cytokines IL-1alpha, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and IL-18 by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in primary keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Juan; Grando, Sergei A; Li, Yan Chun

    2006-03-15

    IL-1 family cytokines are key mediators of inflammatory response. Excessive production of these cytokines by keratinocytes has been implicated in inflammatory and hyperproliferative skin diseases. Given the immunosuppressive role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) and its clinical application in treatment of psoriasis, we investigated the effect of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on the expression of IL-1alpha, intracellular IL-1 receptor antagonist (icIL-1Ra), and IL-18 in mouse primary keratinocytes. Treatment of keratinocytes with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased the expression of IL-1alpha and icIL-1Ra and decreased the expression of IL-18 in dose- and time-dependent manners. The magnitude of icIL-1Ra induction was much greater than that of IL-1alpha so that the ratio of icIL-1Ra to IL-1alpha was markedly increased, leading to repression of IL-1 activity. The regulation of these three cytokines by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was mediated by vitamin D receptor (VDR), as 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) had no effect in VDR(-/-) keratinocytes, whereas the effect was restored in cells derived from VDR(-/-) mice expressing human VDR. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) appeared to use different mechanisms to regulate the biosynthesis of IL-1alpha and icIL-1Ra: it increased IL-1alpha mRNA stability whereas it enhanced icIL-1Ra gene transcription. The basal IL-18 expression and activity were much higher in VDR(-/-) keratinocytes and skin, underscoring the importance of the repressive role of vitamin D in IL-18 production. Similar regulation of these cytokines was also seen in primary human keratinocytes. Collectively, these results suggest that vitamin D modulates cutaneous inflammatory reactions, at least in part, by increasing the IL-1Ra to IL-1alpha ratio and suppressing IL-18 synthesis in keratinocytes. PMID:16517748

  2. Targeting IL-4/IL-13 signaling to alleviate oral allergen-induced diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Eric B.; Munitz, Ariel; Orekov, Tatyana; Mingler, Melissa K.; McBride, Melissa; Finkelman, Fred D.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Intestinal anaphylaxis (manifested by acute diarrhea) is dependent on IgE and mast cells. Objective We aimed to define the respective roles of IL-4 and IL-13 and their receptors in disease pathogenesis. Methods Wild-type mice and mice deficient in IL-4, IL-13, and IL-13R?1 (part of the type 2 IL-4R) were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA)/alum and subsequently given repeated intragastric OVA exposures. IL-4R? chain was targeted with anti-IL-4R? mAb prior to or after intragastric OVA exposures. Results IL-4?/? (and IL-4/13?/?) mice produced almost no IgE and were highly resistant to OVA-induced diarrhea, whereas allergic diarrhea was only partially impaired in IL-13?/? and IL-13R?1?/? mice. IL-13R?1-deficient mice developed decreased IgE despite having normal baseline IL-4 levels. Intestinal mast cell accumulation and activation also depended mainly on IL-4 and to a lesser extent on IL-13. Prophylactic anti-IL-4R? mAb treatment, which blocks all IL-4 and IL-13 signaling, suppressed development of allergic diarrhea. However, treatment with anti-IL-4R? mAb for 7 days only partially suppressed IgE and did not prevent intestinal diarrhea. Conclusion Endogenously-produced IL-13 supplements the ability of IL-4 to induce allergic diarrhea by promoting oral allergen sensitization rather than the effector phase of intestinal anaphylaxis. PMID:18996576

  3. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park. (a) Fishing. (1) Fishing restrictions, based...

  4. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a) Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles....

  5. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a) Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles....

  6. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of the Cactus Forest Trail inside...

  7. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park. (a) Fishing. (1) The following waters are closed...

  8. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky Mountains National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) License. A...

  9. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Cascades National Park... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park. (a...: (1) The Cascade River Road between the park boundary and the Cascade Pass Trailhead parking area....

  10. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Cascades National Park... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park. (a...: (1) The Cascade River Road between the park boundary and the Cascade Pass Trailhead parking area....

  11. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Cascades National Park... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park. (a...: (1) The Cascade River Road between the park boundary and the Cascade Pass Trailhead parking area....

  12. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Cascades National Park... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park. (a...: (1) The Cascade River Road between the park boundary and the Cascade Pass Trailhead parking area....

  13. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Cascades National Park... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park. (a...: (1) The Cascade River Road between the park boundary and the Cascade Pass Trailhead parking area....

  14. 36 CFR 7.22 - Grand Teton National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grand Teton National Park. 7.22 Section 7.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.22 Grand Teton National Park. (a) Aircraft—Designated airstrip. (1) Jackson...

  15. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  16. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  17. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  18. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  19. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  20. 36 CFR 7.37 - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. 7.37 Section 7.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.37 Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. (a) Fishing. (1) Unless...

  1. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a) Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles....

  2. 36 CFR 7.22 - Grand Teton National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Teton National Park. 7.22 Section 7.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.22 Grand Teton National Park. (a)...

  3. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  4. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  5. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  6. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  7. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of such permits issued, or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  8. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of such permits issued, or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  9. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  10. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  11. 36 CFR 7.16 - Yosemite National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Yosemite National Park. 7.16 Section 7.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.16 Yosemite National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) Open season and limit of catch. The open...

  12. 36 CFR 7.16 - Yosemite National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Yosemite National Park. 7.16 Section 7.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.16 Yosemite National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) Open season and limit of catch. The open...

  13. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile......

  14. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile......

  15. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile......

  16. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile......

  17. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile......

  18. IL26 gene inactivation in Equidae.

    PubMed

    Shakhsi-Niaei, M; Drögemüller, M; Jagannathan, V; Gerber, V; Leeb, T

    2013-12-01

    Interleukin-26 (IL26) is a member of the IL10 cytokine family. The IL26 gene is located between two other well-known cytokines genes of this family encoding interferon-gamma (IFNG) and IL22 in an evolutionary conserved gene cluster. In contrast to humans and most other mammals, mice lack a functional Il26 gene. We analyzed the genome sequences of other vertebrates for the presence or absence of functional IL26 orthologs and found that the IL26 gene has also become inactivated in several equid species. We detected a one-base pair frameshift deletion in exon 2 of the IL26 gene in the domestic horse (Equus caballus), Przewalski horse (Equus przewalskii) and donkey (Equus asinus). The remnant IL26 gene in the horse is still transcribed and gives rise to at least five alternative transcripts. None of these transcripts share a conserved open reading frame with the human IL26 gene. A comparative analysis across diverse vertebrates revealed that the IL26 gene has also independently been inactivated in a few other mammals, including the African elephant and the European hedgehog. The IL26 gene thus appears to be highly variable, and the conserved open reading frame has been lost several times during mammalian evolution. PMID:23808390

  19. 49 CFR 372.233 - Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chicago, IL. 372.233 Section 372.233... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.233 Chicago, IL. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of Chicago, IL, within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate or...

  20. 49 CFR 372.233 - Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chicago, IL. 372.233 Section 372.233... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.233 Chicago, IL. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of Chicago, IL, within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate or...

  1. 49 CFR 372.233 - Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chicago, IL. 372.233 Section 372.233... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.233 Chicago, IL. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of Chicago, IL, within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate or...

  2. 49 CFR 372.233 - Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chicago, IL. 372.233 Section 372.233... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.233 Chicago, IL. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of Chicago, IL, within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate or...

  3. Association of Park Size, Distance, and Features With Physical Activity in Neighborhood Parks

    PubMed Central

    Kaczynski, Andrew T.; Potwarka, Luke R.; Saelens, Brian E.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We studied whether park size, number of features in the park, and distance to a park from participants’ homes were related to a park being used for physical activity. Methods. We collected observational data on 28 specific features from 33 parks. Adult residents in surrounding areas (n=380) completed 7-day physical activity logs that included the location of their activities. We used logistic regression to examine the relative importance of park size, features, and distance to participants’ homes in predicting whether a park was used for physical activity, with control for perceived neighborhood safety and aesthetics. Results. Parks with more features were more likely to be used for physical activity; size and distance were not significant predictors. Park facilities were more important than were park amenities. Of the park facilities, trails had the strongest relationship with park use for physical activity. Conclusions. Specific park features may have significant implications for park-based physical activity. Future research should explore these factors in diverse neighborhoods and diverse parks among both younger and older populations. PMID:18556600

  4. New Insights in the Immunobiology of IL-1 Family Members.

    PubMed

    van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Netea, Mihai G

    2013-01-01

    The interleukin-1 (IL 1) family of ligands is associated with acute and chronic inflammation, and plays an essential role in the non-specific innate response to infection. The biological properties of IL 1 family ligands are typically pro-inflammatory. The IL 1 family has 11 family members and can be categorized into subfamilies according to the length of their precursor and the length of the propiece for each precursor (Figure 1). The IL 1 subfamily consists of IL 1?, IL 1?, and IL 33, with the longest propieces of the IL 1 family. IL 18 and IL 37 belong to the IL 18 subfamily and contain smaller propieces than IL 1 and IL-33. Since IL 37 binds to the IL 18R? chain it is part of the IL 18 subfamily, however it remains to be elucidated how the propiece of IL 37 is removed. IL 36?, ?, and ? as well as IL 36 Ra belong to the IL 36 subfamily. In addition, IL 38 likely belongs to this family since it has the ability to bind to the IL 36R. The IL 36 subfamily has the shortest propiece. The one member of the IL 1 family that cannot be categorized in these subfamilies is IL 1 receptor antagonist (IL 1Ra), which has a signal peptide and is readily secreted. In the present review we will describe the biological functions of the IL-1F members and new insights in their biology. PMID:23847614

  5. Evaluation of IL10, IL19, and IL20 gene polymorphisms and chronic hepatitis B infection outcome

    PubMed Central

    Truelove, Ann L.; Oleksyk, Taras K.; Shrestha, Sadeep; Thio, Chloe L.; Goedert, James J.; Donfield, Sharyne M.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Thomas, David L.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Smith, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Hepatitis B viral infection remains a serious global health problem despite the availability of a highly effective vaccine. Approximately 5% of HBV-infected adults develop chronic hepatitis B, which may result in liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Variants of interleukin-10 (IL10) have been previously associated with chronic hepatitis B infection and progression to hepatocellular carcinoma. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, n = 42) from the IL10, IL19, and IL20 gene regions were examined for an association with HBV infection outcome, either chronic or recovered, in a nested case-control study of African Americans and European Americans. Among African Americans, three nominally statistically significant SNP associations in IL10, two in IL20, and one haplotype association were observed with different HBV infection outcomes (P = 0.005–0.04). The SNP, rs1518108, in IL20 nominally deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in African Americans, with a large excess of heterozygotes in chronic HBV-infected cases (P = 0.0006), which suggests a strong genetic effect. Among European Americans, a nominally statistically significant SNP association in IL20, as well as an IL20 haplotype were associated with HBV recovery (P = 0.01–0.04). These results suggest that IL10 and IL20 gene variants influence HBV infection outcome and encourage the pursuit of further studies of these cytokines in HBV pathogenesis. PMID:18479293

  6. Study on the association between IL-1?, IL-8 and IL-10 gene polymorphisms and risk of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Ren, Baojun; She, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the role of genetic polymorphisms in IL-1?, IL-8 and IL-10 in the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). We identified 325 patients with CAD and 342 control subjects without CAD between January 2013 and December 2014. Genotyping of IL-1? +3954 C/T, IL-1? -511 C/T, IL-8-251T/A, IL-10-1082A/G and IL-10-819C/T was performed in a 384-well plate format on the Sequenom MassARRAY platform (Sequenom, San Diego, USA). By Multivariate logistic regression analysis, the GG and AG+GG genotypes of IL-10-1082A/G were significantly associated with an increased risk of CAD. The ORs (95% CI) for GG and AG+GG genotypes were 2.12 (1.32-3.43) and 1.56 (1.14-2.14), respectively. Patients carrying the AG+GG genotype of IL-10-1082A/G was associated with an increased risk of CAD in those with hypertension, diabetes mellitus and smokers, and the ORs (95% CI) were 1.41 (0.93-2.14), 7.13 (2.28-23.56) and 2.12 (1.17-3.89), respectively. Our study found that IL-10-1082A/G polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of CAD, especially in hypertension, diabetes mellitus and smokers. PMID:26221351

  7. Study on the association between IL-1?, IL-8 and IL-10 gene polymorphisms and risk of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Baojun; She, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the role of genetic polymorphisms in IL-1?, IL-8 and IL-10 in the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). We identified 325 patients with CAD and 342 control subjects without CAD between January 2013 and December 2014. Genotyping of IL-1? +3954 C/T, IL-1? -511 C/T, IL-8-251T/A, IL-10-1082A/G and IL-10-819C/T was performed in a 384-well plate format on the Sequenom MassARRAY platform (Sequenom, San Diego, USA). By Multivariate logistic regression analysis, the GG and AG+GG genotypes of IL-10-1082A/G were significantly associated with an increased risk of CAD. The ORs (95% CI) for GG and AG+GG genotypes were 2.12 (1.32-3.43) and 1.56 (1.14-2.14), respectively. Patients carrying the AG+GG genotype of IL-10-1082A/G was associated with an increased risk of CAD in those with hypertension, diabetes mellitus and smokers, and the ORs (95% CI) were 1.41 (0.93-2.14), 7.13 (2.28-23.56) and 2.12 (1.17-3.89), respectively. Our study found that IL-10-1082A/G polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of CAD, especially in hypertension, diabetes mellitus and smokers. PMID:26221351

  8. Role of interleukin-23 (IL-23) receptor signaling for IL-17 responses in human Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Oosting, Marije; ter Hofstede, Hadewych; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Sturm, Patrick; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van der Meer, Jos W M; Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B

    2011-11-01

    Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of T helper 17 cells. It has been previously demonstrated that IL-17 is involved in experimental Lyme arthritis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria. However, the precise role of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) for the B. burgdorferi-induced IL-17 responses or human Lyme disease has not yet been elucidated. IL-23R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11209026 was genotyped using the TaqMan assay. Functional studies were performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and cytokines were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dose-dependent production of IL-23 and IL-17 by B. burgdorferi could be observed. Interestingly, when IL-23 bioactivity was inhibited by a specific antibody against IL-23p19, IL-17 production was significantly downregulated. In contrast, production of gamma interferon (IFN-?) was not affected after the blockade of IL-23 activity. Moreover, individuals bearing a single nucleotide polymorphism in the IL-23R gene (Arg381Gln) produced significantly less IL-17 after B. burgdorferi stimulation compared with that of the individuals bearing the wild type. Despite lower IL-17 production, the IL-23R gene polymorphism did not influence the development of chronic Lyme disease in a cohort of patients with Lyme disease. This study demonstrates that IL-23R signaling is needed for B. burgdorferi-induced IL-17 production in vitro and that an IL-23R gene SNP leads to impaired IL-17 production. However, the IL-23R gene polymorphism is not crucial for the pathogenesis of chronic Lyme. PMID:21896776

  9. Wild pig populations in the National Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Francis J.

    1981-05-01

    Populations of introduced European wild boar, feral pigs, and combinations of both types (all Sus scrola L.) inhabit thirteen areas in the National Park Service system. All parks have relatively stable populations, with the exception of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which reported a rapidly expanding wild boar population. Suspected and documented impacts were apparently related to pig densities and sensitivity of the ecosystem; the three largest units with dense wild pig populations reported the most damage. Overall, wild pigs are a relatively minor problem for the Park Service; however, problems are severe in at least three parks, and there is potential for invasion of wild boars into several additional parks in the Appalachian Mountains. More specific information is needed on numbers of wild pigs and their impacts in the various parks.

  10. IL-6 promotes NK cell production of IL-17 during toxoplasmosis1

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Sara T.; Silver, Jonathan S.; O'Hara, Aisling C.; Sehy, David; Stumhofer, Jason S.; Hunter, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have implicated T cell production of IL-17 in resistance to T. gondii as well as the development of immune mediated pathology during this infection. Analysis of C57BL/6 and C57BL/6 RAG-/- mice challenged with T. gondii identified NK cells as a major innate source of IL-17. The ability of soluble toxoplasma antigen to stimulate NK cells to produce IL-17 was dependent on the presence of accessory cells and the production of IL-6, IL-23 and TGF-β. In contrast, these events were inhibited by IL-2, IL-15 and IL-27. Given that IL-6 was one of the most potent enhancers of NK cell production of IL-17, further studies revealed that only a subset of NK cells expressed both chains of the IL-6R, IL-6 upregulated expression of the Th17 associated transcription factor RORγt, and IL-6-/- mice challenged with T. gondii had a major defect in NK cell production of IL-17. Together, these data indicate that many of the same cytokines that regulate Th17 cells are part of a conserved pathway that also control innate production of IL-17 and identify a major role for IL-6 in the regulation of NK cell responses. PMID:20083665

  11. Structural and Biophysical Studies of the Human IL-7/IL-7R[alpha] Complex

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, Craig A.; Dohm, Julie A.; Walsh, Scott T.R.

    2009-03-06

    IL-7 and IL-7R{alpha} bind the {gamma}{sub c} receptor, forming a complex crucial to several signaling cascades leading to the development and homeostasis of T and B cells. We report that the IL-7R{alpha} ectodomain uses glycosylation to modulate its binding constants to IL-7, unlike the other receptors in the {gamma}{sub c} family. IL-7 binds glycosylated IL-7R{alpha} 300-fold more tightly than unglycosylated IL-7R{alpha}, and the enhanced affinity is attributed primarily to an accelerated on rate. Structural comparison of IL-7 in complex to both forms of IL-7R{alpha} reveals that glycosylation does not participate directly in the binding interface. The SCID mutations of IL-7R{alpha} locate outside the binding interface with IL-7, suggesting that the expressed mutations cause protein folding defects in IL-7R{alpha}. The IL-7/IL-7R{alpha} structures provide a window into the molecular recognition events of the IL-7 signaling cascade and provide sites to target for designing new therapeutics to treat IL-7-related diseases.

  12. IL-33 induces antigen-specific IL-5+ T cells and promotes allergic-induced airway inflammation independent of IL-4.

    PubMed

    Kurowska-Stolarska, Mariola; Kewin, Pete; Murphy, Grace; Russo, Remo C; Stolarski, Bartosz; Garcia, Cristiana Couto; Komai-Koma, Mousa; Pitman, Nick; Li, Yubin; Niedbala, Wanda; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Teixeira, Mauro M; Liew, Foo Y; Xu, Damo

    2008-10-01

    Type 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) play a pivotal role in helminthic infection and allergic disorders. CD4(+) T cells which produce type 2 cytokines can be generated via IL-4-dependent and -independent pathways. Although the IL-4-dependent pathway is well documented, factors that drive IL-4-independent Th2 cell differentiation remain obscure. We report here that the new cytokine IL-33, in the presence of Ag, polarizes murine and human naive CD4(+) T cells into a population of T cells which produce mainly IL-5 but not IL-4. This polarization requires IL-1R-related molecule and MyD88 but not IL-4 or STAT6. The IL-33-induced T cell differentiation is also dependent on the phosphorylation of MAPKs and NF-kappaB but not the induction of GATA3 or T-bet. In vivo, ST2(-/-) mice developed attenuated airway inflammation and IL-5 production in a murine model of asthma. Conversely, IL-33 administration induced the IL-5-producing T cells and exacerbated allergen-induced airway inflammation in wild-type as well as IL-4(-/-) mice. Finally, adoptive transfer of IL-33-polarized IL-5(+)IL-4(-)T cells triggered airway inflammation in naive IL-4(-/-) mice. Thus, we demonstrate here that, in the presence of Ag, IL-33 induces IL-5-producing T cells and promotes airway inflammation independent of IL-4. PMID:18802081

  13. Expression and function of the gamma c subunit of the IL-2, IL-4, and IL-7 receptors. Distinct interaction of gamma c in the IL-4 receptor.

    PubMed

    He, Y W; Adkins, B; Furse, R K; Malek, T R

    1995-02-15

    IL-2R, IL-4R, and IL-7R share a common subunit referred to as gamma c and the IL-13R has been proposed to contain gamma c as a subunit. In this report we have used two novel mAbs (3E12 and 4G3) to distinct epitopes of mouse gamma c to determine its lymphoid cell distribution and to examine whether gamma c uses similar epitopes to interact with different cytokines and cytokine receptors. FACS analysis revealed that gamma c is expressed in most lymphocytes, myeloid cells, embryonic thymocytes, and lymphoid cell lines. Results from radiolabeled ligand binding studies, biochemical analysis of ligand-receptor cross-linked complexes, and cytokine bioassays indicate that the epitope defined by mAb 4G3 closely defines the IL-7 binding region of gamma c and overlaps the IL-2 binding region of gamma c. These studies also indicate that gamma c interacts with IL-4 in the context of the IL-4R in a manner that is distinct from its role in the IL-2R and IL-7R and suggest that the 3E12 epitope defines a region of gamma c that intimately interacts with the IL-4R. The B9 plasmacytoma, which proliferates in response to IL-4 and IL-13, was shown to not express gamma c. Thus, at least in some circumstances, gamma c is dispensable for signaling via the IL-4R and is not a required subunit of the IL-13R. PMID:7530740

  14. Air pollution vulnerabiity of 22 midwestern parks

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J.P.; Banerjee, N.

    1995-08-01

    Air pollution increases in United States national parks as sources grow closer. As this happens, biota will be increasingly affected. Can it be determined in advance which parks will be more impacted by these air pollutants that others? This study of 22 park units in the midwestern United States attempted to answer this question. Plant lists were compiled for the 22 parks, relative abundances of all species (common, intermediate, rare) estimated, their sensitivities from their life cycle types (annual, perennial-deciduous, perennial-evergreen) determined, and overall vulnerability as the average product of the two was calculated using a 3-2-1 scale for weighting the abundances. Scotts Bluff National Monument in western Nebraska was the most vulnerable park in the region, while Isle Royale National Park in Lake Superior was the least. This difference was due to the higher abundances of annual plant species in Scotts Bluff. Changing the values used for abundances changed the order of park vulnerabilites. Three air pollutants (ozone, sulfur dioxide, and sulfate) were found to increase from west to east in the midwest. Overlaying these patterns on the park vulnerabilities, and a customer analysis of the data, resulted in a determination of the air pollution risks to groups of parks. The parks most at risk (high vulnerability+high pollution levels) were two in Ohio (Hopewell Culture National Historical Park and Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area) and one in Indiana (Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial). Ten parks were grouped at lowest risk in an arc from Lake Superior, northern Minnesota, and Wisconsin through Nebraska and Kansas. Of three different surrogate methods tested for a relationship with overall vulnerability, only one appeared to be useful. Vulnerability could be directly calculated if a park`s vegetative structure was known without assembling the complete flora. 22 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Buddingtonite in Menlo Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pampeyan, Earl H.

    2010-01-01

    The mineral buddingtonite, named after A.F. Buddington, long-time professor of petrology at Princeton University, was first identified at the Sulfur Bank mine in Lake County, California (Erd and others, 1964). The ammonium feldspar was recognized in Menlo Park, California, in 1964 by the author, with Erd's help, shortly before publication of the original description of the new mineral. Subsequently, buddingtonite has been widely recognized in hydrothermal mineral deposits and has been used in remote-sensing applications by the mineral industry. Buddingtonite also has been identified in the Phosphoria Formation and in oil shales of the Green River Formation. This paper briefly describes the geologic setting and mineralogy of the occurrences of buddingtonite and other ammonium-bearing minerals in the vicinity of Menlo Park.

  16. Reversible polydisperse parking lot model.

    PubMed

    Wackenhut, Martin; Herrmann, Hans

    2003-10-01

    We use an improved reversible parking lot model to study the compaction of vibrated polydisperse media. The particle sizes are distributed according to a truncated power law. We introduce a self-consistent desorption mechanism with a hierarchical initialization of the system. In this way, we approach densities close to unity. The final density depends on the polydispersity of the system as well as on the initialization and will reach a maximum value for a certain exponent in the power law. PMID:14682937

  17. Energetics and Cooling in Urban Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spronken-Smith, Rachel Anne

    While there has been a long tradition for the integration of architecture and landscape to improve the urban environment, little is known about the effect of urban parks on local climate. In this study the park effect is determined through an integrated research approach incorporating field measurements of the thermal regime and energetics of urban parks, together with scale modelling of nocturnal cooling in urban parks. The research is limited to consideration of the park effect in two cities with different summer climates: Sacramento, California (hot summer Mediterranean) and Vancoucer, British Columbia (cool summer Mediterranean). In both these cities, surveys of summer-time air temperature patterns associated with urban parks confirm and extend previous findings. In temperate Vancouver, the park effect is typically 1-2^circC, rarely more than 3^circC, although it can be higher under ideal conditions. However, in a hot, dry city, the effect is considerably enhanced with parks as much as 5-7^circC cooler than their urban surrounds. A comparison of the surface energy balance of small open, grassed parks in these two cities demonstrated the importance of evapotranspiration in park energetics. In hot, dry Sacramento, evaporation in the park was advectively -assisted and exceeded that at an irrigated rural site. Strong advective edge effects on evaporation were observed in this wet park. These decayed approximately exponentially with distance into the park. The urban park in Vancouver was moist, but unirrigated. While evaporation dominated the surface energy balance, the sensible heat flux was positive through most of the day, and evaporation was not strongly influenced by advection. The evaporation trend in the park probably reflected the turbulence and soil moisture regimes. However, an irrigated lawn in Vancouver did exhibit edge-type advection. This suggests the soil moisture regime may be critical in determining whether evaporation exceeds the potential rate. The contribution of processes to nocturnal cooling in urban parks was determined through scale modelling. It showed that surface geometry and the urban-park difference in thermal admittance may be of equal importance in nocturnal cooling. Parks with high sky view factors have increased radiative cooling and if the park is very dry (and therefore has a low thermal admittance), the cooling is furthered enhanced. Evaporative cooling is critical in establishing the park as a "cool island" at sunset, but the presence of moisture slows cooling through the night. Integration of the field and model data leads to the development of guidelines for planners regarding the design of parks for maximum climatic benefit. The optimum size of the park depends to a large extent, on the geometry of the urban surrounds. To maximize radiative cooling, the width of open park areas should be at least 7.5 times the height of the trees or buildings around the park border. Larger parks increase the size of the volume of air cooled and this increases the potential for advection of cool air into the neighbourhood. It suggested that if cooling is the objective, the optimum design is a savannah -type park with loose clusters of trees interspersed by wide open, irrigated grass. The arrangement of trees must be chosen with great care to allow the advection of air both into, and out of, the park.

  18. IL-15 Agonists: The Cancer Cure Cytokine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jennifer

    2013-10-28

    The immune stimulatory cytokine interleukin-15 was recognized as one of the most promising cancer cure drug in an NIH guided review and is currently in clinical trial alone or as an adjuvant for certain types of metastatic solid tumors. IL-15 is an essential survival factor for natural killer (NK), natural killer-like T (NKT), and CD44(hi) memory CD8 T cells. The bioactivity of IL-15 in vivo is conferred mainly through a trans-presentation mechanism in which IL-15 is presented in complex with the ?-subunit of soluble IL-15 receptor (IL-15R) to NK, NKT or T cells rather than directly interacts with membrane-bound IL-15R. With these understandings, recent studies have been focused on generating IL-15 agonists which consist of IL-15 and partial or whole of soluble IL-15R to improve its in vivo bioactivity. This minireview will summarize the key features of IL-15 as a potential cancer treatment cytokine and the most recent development of IL-15 agonists and preclinical studies. Critical milestones to translate the pre-clinical development to in-patients treatment are emphasized. PMID:24587813

  19. A cytokine network involving brain-borne IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-18, IL-6, and TNFα operates during long-term potentiation and learning.

    PubMed

    del Rey, Adriana; Balschun, Detlef; Wetzel, Wolfram; Randolf, Anke; Besedovsky, Hugo O

    2013-10-01

    We have previously shown that long-term potentiation (LTP) induces hippocampal IL-1β and IL-6 over-expression, and interfering their signalling either inhibits or supports, respectively, LTP maintenance. Consistently, blockade of endogenous IL-1 or IL-6 restricts or favours hippocampal-dependent memory, effects that were confirmed in genetically manipulated mice. Since cytokines are known for their high degree of mutual crosstalk, here we studied whether a network of cytokines with known neuromodulatory actions is activated during LTP and learning. We found that, besides IL-1β and IL-6, also IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and IL-18, but not TNFα are over-expressed during LTP maintenance in freely moving rats. The increased expression of these cytokines is causally related to an increase in synaptic strength since it was abrogated when LTP was interfered by blockade of NMDA-glutamate receptors. Likewise, IL-1 and IL-6 were found to be over-expressed in defined regions of the hippocampus during learning a hippocampus-dependent task. However, during learning, changes in IL-18 were restricted to the dorsal hippocampus, and no differences in TNFα and IL1-ra expression were noticed in the hippocampus. Noticeably, IL-1ra transcripts were significantly reduced in the prefrontal cortex. The relation between cytokine expression and learning was causal because such changes were not observed in animals from a pseudo-trained group that was subject to the same manipulation but could not learn the task. Taken together with previous studies, we conclude that activation of a cytokine network in the brain is a physiologic relevant phenomenon not only for LTP maintenance but also for certain types of learning. PMID:23747799

  20. IL-15 receptor ? signaling constrains the development of IL-17–producing ?? T cells

    PubMed Central

    Colpitts, Sara L.; Puddington, Lynn; Lefrançois, Leo

    2015-01-01

    The development and homeostasis of ?? T cells is highly dependent on distinct cytokine networks. Here we examine the role of IL-15 and its unique receptor, IL-15R?, in the development of IL-17–producing ?? (??-17) T cells. Phenotypic analysis has shown that CD44high ??-17 cells express IL-15R? and the common gamma chain (CD132), yet lack the IL-2/15R? chain (CD122). Surprisingly, we found an enlarged population of ??-17 cells in the peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes of adult IL-15R? KO mice, but not of IL-15 KO mice. The generation of mixed chimeras from neonatal thymocytes indicated that cell-intrinsic IL-15R? expression was required to limit IL-17 production by ?? T cells. ??-17 cells also were increased in the peripheral lymph nodes of transgenic knock-in mice, where the IL-15R? intracellular signaling domain was replaced with the intracellular portion of the IL-2R? chain (that lacks signaling capacity). Finally, an analysis of neonatal thymi revealed that the CD44lo/int precursors of ??-17 cells, which also expressed IL-15R?, were increased in newborn mice deficient in IL-15R? signaling, but not in IL-15 itself. Thus, these findings demonstrate that signaling through IL-15R? regulates the development of ??-17 cells early in ontogeny, with long-term effects on their peripheral homeostasis in the adult. PMID:26195801

  1. IL-33 attenuates EAE by suppressing IL-17 and IFN-? production and inducing alternatively activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hui-Rong; Milovanovi?, Marija; Allan, Debbie; Niedbala, Wanda; Besnard, Anne-Galle; Fukada, Sandra Y; Alves-Filho, Jose C; Togbe, Dieudonnée; Goodyear, Carl S; Linington, Christopher; Xu, Damo; Lukic, Miodrag L; Liew, Foo Y

    2012-07-01

    Interleukin (IL)-33, a member of the IL-1 cytokine family, is an important modulator of the immune system associated with several immune-mediated disorders. High levels of IL-33 are expressed by the central nervous system (CNS) suggesting a potential role of IL-33 in autoimmune CNS diseases. We have investigated the expression and function of IL-33 in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. We report here that IL-33 and its receptor ST2 (IL-33R?) are highly expressed in spinal cord tissue, and ST2 expression is markedly increased in the spinal cords of mice with EAE. Furthermore, ST2-deficient (ST2(-/-) ) mice developed exacerbated EAE compared with wild-type (WT) mice while WT, but not ST2(-/-) EAE mice treated with IL-33 developed significantly attenuated disease. IL-33-treated mice had reduced levels of IL-17 and IFN-? but produced increased amounts of IL-5 and IL-13. Lymph node and splenic macrophages of IL-33-treated mice showed polarization toward an alternatively activated macrophage (M2) phenotype with significantly increased frequency of MR(+) PD-L2(+) cells. Importantly, adoptive transfer of these IL-33-treated macrophages attenuated EAE development. Our data therefore demonstrate that IL-33 plays a therapeutic role in autoimmune CNS disease by switching a predominantly pathogenic Th17/Th1 response to Th2 activity, and by polarization of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. PMID:22585447

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the IL-20–IL-20R1–IL-20R2 complex

    PubMed Central

    Logsdon, Naomi J.; Allen, Christopher E.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Walter, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin-20 (IL-20) is an IL-10-family cytokine that regulates innate and adaptive immunity in skin and other tissues. In addition to protecting the host from various external pathogens, dysregulated IL-20 signaling has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of human psoriasis. IL-20 signals through two cell-surface receptor heterodimers, IL-20R1–IL-20R2 and IL-22R1–IL-20R2. In this report, crystals of the IL-20–IL-20R1–IL-20R2 ternary complex have been grown from polyethylene glycol solutions. The crystals belonged to space group P41212 or P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = 111, c = 135?Å, and diffracted X-­rays to 3?Å resolution. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains one IL-­20–IL-20R1–IL-20R2 complex, corresponding to a solvent content of approximately 54%. PMID:22232181

  3. IL22/IL-22R Pathway Induces Cell Survival in Human Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Hussein; Abbaci, Amazigh; Lalloué, Fabrice; Bessette, Barbara; Costes, Léa M. M.; Domballe, Linda; Charreau, Sandrine; Guilloteau, Karline; Karayan-Tapon, Lucie; Bernard, François-Xavier; Morel, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family that binds to a heterodimeric receptor consisting of IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) and IL-10R2. IL-22R expression was initially characterized on epithelial cells, and plays an essential role in a number of inflammatory diseases. Recently, a functional receptor was detected on cancer cells such as hepatocarcinoma and lung carcinoma, but its presence was not reported in glioblastoma (GBM). Two GBM cell lines and 10 primary cell lines established from patients undergoing surgery for malignant GBM were used to investigate the expression of IL-22 and IL-22R by using quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting and confocal microscopy studies. The role of IL-22 in proliferation and survival of GBM cell lines was investigated in vitro by BrdU and ELISA cell death assays. We report herein that the two subunits of the IL-22R complex are expressed on human GBM cells. Their activation, depending on exogenous IL-22, induced antiapoptotic effect and cell proliferation. IL-22 treatment of GBM cells resulted in increased levels of phosphorylated Akt, STAT3 signaling protein and its downstream antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL and decreased level of phosphorylated ERK1/2. In addition, IL-22R subunits were expressed in all the 10 tested primary cell lines established from GBM tumors. Our results showed that IL-22R is expressed on GBM established and primary cell lines. Depending on STAT3, ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways, IL-22 induced GBM cell survival. These data are consistent with a potential role of IL-22R in tumorigenesis of GBM. Since endogenous IL-22 was not detected in all studied GBM cells, we hypothesize that IL-22R could be activated by immune microenvironmental IL-22 producing cells. PMID:25793261

  4. Increased IL-21/IL-21R expression and its proinflammatory effects in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Guan, Li-juan; Wang, Xuan; Meng, Shuai; Shi, Liang-feng; Jiang, Wen-juan; Xiao, Ling; Shi, Xiao-hong; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Jin-an

    2015-04-01

    To determine the potential role of interleukin-21 (IL-21) / IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) mainly known as Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). IL-21 and IL-21R of peripheral blood samples and/or thyroid tissues from AITD patients and healthy controls were analyzed by ELISA, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. In vitro, the mRNA and protein of inflammatory cytokines of cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) upon recombinant human IL-21 (rhIL-21) stimulation were detected. There was an increased serum concentration of IL-21 in untreated GD and HT patients, and IL-21(+)CD3(+)CD8(-)T cells were significantly increased in PBMCs of HT patients compared with healthy volunteers. The IL-21 mRNA expression in PBMCs increased dramatically in GD and HT patients, and marked augmentations of IL-21 and IL-21R mRNA in thyroid tissues of HT patients were observed. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the expression of IL-21R protein in HT thyroid cells and lymphocytes. In vitro, PBMCs from GD cultured with rhIL-21 induced increased IL-17A but decreased IL-4 production, while from HT stimulated by rhIL-21 induced augmented production of IFN-γ. In conclusion, the expression of IL-21 and IL-21R were up-regulated in AITD and may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease through augmenting aberrant immune cascade. PMID:25647271

  5. The interleukin (IL)-31/IL-31R axis contributes to tumor growth in human follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, E; Tripodo, C; Pagnan, G; Guarnotta, C; Marimpietri, D; Corrias, M V; Ribatti, D; Zupo, S; Fraternali-Orcioni, G; Ravetti, J L; Pistoia, V; Corcione, A

    2015-04-01

    Interleukin (IL)-31A binds to an heterodimer composed of IL-31 receptor A (IL-31RA) and Oncostatin M Receptor (OSMR). The IL-31/IL-31R complex is involved in the pathogenesis of various skin diseases, including cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. No information is available on the relations between the IL-31/IL-31R complex and B-cell lymphoma. Here we have addressed this issue in follicular lymphoma (FL), a prototypic germinal center(GC)-derived B-cell malignancy. IL-31 enhanced primary FL cell proliferation through IL-31R-driven signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 1/3 (STAT1/3), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Akt phosphorylation. In contrast, GC B cells did not signal to IL-31 in spite of IL-31R expression. GC B cells expressed predominantly the inhibitory short IL-31RA isoform, whereas FL cells expressed predominantly the long signaling isoform. Moreover, GC B cells lacked expression of other IL-31RA isoforms potentially involved in the signaling pathway. IL-31 protein expression was significantly higher in surface membrane than in cytosol of both FL and GC B cells. IL-31 was detected in plasma membrane microvesicles from both cell types but not released in soluble form in culture supernatants. IL-31 and IL-31RA expression was higher in lymph nodes from FL patients with grade IIIa compared with grade I/II, suggesting a paracrine and/or autocrine role of IL-31/IL-31RA complex in tumor progression through microvesicle shedding. PMID:25283844

  6. IL-23R rs11209026 polymorphism modulates IL-17A expression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hazlett, J; Stamp, L K; Merriman, T; Highton, J; Hessian, P A

    2012-04-01

    The interleukin (IL)-17/IL-23 axis is an important pro-inflammatory pathway in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-23 maintains CD4(+) T-helper 17 (Th(17)) cells, whereas IL-12 negates IL-17A production by promoting Th(1)-cell differentiation. We sought evidence for any effect of polymorphisms within the interleukin-23 receptor (IL-23R), IL-12 or IL-21 genes on serum cytokine concentrations in 81 patients with RA. Serum cytokines were measured using bead-based multiplex assays. Targeted cytokines were detected in up to 66% of samples. A subgroup of 48 patients had detectable serum IL-17A. Within this subgroup, patients, homozygous for the IL-23R rs11209026 major allele had significantly higher serum IL-17A concentrations compared with patients with the minor allele (394.51 ± 529.72 pg ml(-1) vs 176.11 ± 277.32 pg ml(-1); P = 0.017). There was no significant difference in any of the cytokine concentrations examined in patients positive for the minor allele vs homozygosity for the major allele of IL-12B rs3213337, IL-12Bpro rs17860508 and IL-21 rs6822844. Our results suggest the IL-23R Arg381Gln substitution may influence serum IL-17A concentrations. In patients with the 381Gln allele higher IL-23 concentrations may be needed to produce similar IL-17A concentrations to those in patients with the 381Arg allele. This suggests altered IL-23R function in patients with the minor allele and warrants further functional studies. PMID:22130325

  7. IL-4 acts as a homeostatic regulator of IL-2-induced TNF and IFN-gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Bello-Fernandez, C; Oblakowski, P; Meager, A; Duncombe, A S; Rill, D M; Hoffbrand, A V; Brenner, M K

    1991-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a cytokine secreted by interleukin-2 (IL-2)-activated lymphocytes. IL-2-stimulated lymphocytes also secrete two cytokines, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma), which contribute to effector function and which may themselves recruit fresh, cytokine-secreting effector cells. We have now investigated whether the IL-4 induced is able to homeostatically regulate secretion of the TNF and IFN-gamma. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells or lymphocytes from normal donors and from patients with neoplastic disease were cultured in the presence of IL-2 alone, IL-4 alone or with both cytokines. IL-2 induced high levels of TNF and IFN-gamma secretion in both groups. The addition of recombinant IL-4 to these IL-2-stimulated cultures lead to significant inhibition of IFN-gamma and TNF production. IFN-gamma secretion was reduced by 50-99% in normal donors and by between 11% and 99% in patients (P less than 0.001). TNF levels induced by IL-2 were similarly reduced by IL-4 both in normal donors (P less than 0.003) and in patients (P less than 0.01). These inhibitory effects were produced by IL-4 at doses of IL-2 attainable in vivo. Inhibition appears to represent a homeostatic regulatory mechanism which may limit recruitment of fresh activated killer (AK) cells. When endogenous IL-4 activity in IL-2-activated lymphocytes was blocked by anti-IL-4 antibody, significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma and TNF were secreted (P less than 0.05). Since both TNF and IFN-gamma may contribute to the anti-neoplastic action of IL-2, manipulating the level of IL-4 activity in vivo could augment the benefits of IL-2 immunotherapy. PMID:1901829

  8. Gingival mononuclear cells from chronic inflammatory periodontal tissues produce interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-6 but not IL-2 and IL-4.

    PubMed Central

    Fujihashi, K.; Beagley, K. W.; Kono, Y.; Aicher, W. K.; Yamamoto, M.; DiFabio, S.; Xu-Amano, J.; McGhee, J. R.; Kiyono, H.

    1993-01-01

    A unique characteristic of the localized inflammatory tissue in the periodontium (e.g., adult periodontitis [AP]) is the accumulation of IgG (IgG1 > IgG2 > IgG3 > or = IgG4) followed by IgA plasma cells (IgA1 > IgA2). However, the exact molecular mechanisms contributing to these elevated B-cell responses at the local disease site are still unknown. Thus, this study has examined the production of cytokines of importance in B-cell responses, e.g., interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6 by gingival mononuclear cells (GMC) isolated from patients in severe stages of AP. These cytokines were assessed at the protein and messenger (m)RNA levels to understand their importance for the observed increased B-cell responses present in these tissues. Among the four cytokines tested by respective cytokine-specific, polymerase chain reaction and dot-blot hybridization, high levels of IL-5- and IL-6-specific mRNA were noted in GMC freshly isolated from AP patients. On the other hand, specific message for IL-2 and IL-4 were not present. Further, the analysis of culture supernatants of GMC also revealed that cells from AP patients spontaneously produced IL-5 and IL-6 but not IL-2 and IL-4. In contrast, when peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from the same patients were examined for these cytokines, no detectable levels of mRNA or secreted cytokines were noted. These results showed that GMC from localized inflammatory tissues in severe stages of AP possess a distinct cytokine profile represented by high levels of IL-5 and IL-6 mRNA expression and protein synthesis, whereas IL-2 and IL-4 were not detected. Further, this study supports the concept that AP is a localized inflammatory disease, because GMC from the inflamed tissue actively produce IL-5 and IL-6, whereas peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the same patients do not. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8475996

  9. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Regulates the Accessibility of the IL-2-Responsive Enhancer in the IL-2 Receptor α Gene to Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Rusterholz, Corinne; Henrioud, Patricia Corthésy; Nabholz, Markus

    1999-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) responsiveness of T lymphocytes is controlled through transcription of the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) α subunit by antigen and by IL-2 itself. IL-2 induces IL-2Rα transcription via an IL-2-responsive enhancer (IL-2rE), whose activity depends on the cooperative binding of IL-2-induced STAT5 to two sites and of constitutively active Elf-1 to a third one. Here we describe the changes in IL-2rE chromatin that occur in normal T lymphocytes upon activation of IL-2Rα expression. In cells induced to transiently express IL-2Rα with concanavalin A (which mimics antigen), none of the IL-2rE sites is occupied despite the presence of Elf-1 and STAT1, which bind to the IL-2rE in vitro. The two STAT binding sites are occupied rapidly upon IL-2 stimulation, concomitantly with STAT5 activation. Occupation of the Elf-1 binding site is delayed, although Elf-1 concentration and binding activity are not modified by IL-2. Digestion of T-cell chromatin with DNase I and micrococcal nuclease shows that IL-2 induces the appearance of nuclease-hypersensitive sites flanking the IL-2rE. Thus IL-2, in addition to activating STAT5, appears to regulate IL-2Rα transcription by making IL-2Rα chromatin accessible to transcription factors. PMID:10082534

  10. Increased circulating interleukin (IL)-23 in children with malarial anemia: in vivo and in vitro relationship with co-regulatory cytokines IL-12 and IL-10.

    PubMed

    Ong'echa, John M; Remo, Allison M; Kristoff, Jan; Hittner, James B; Were, Tom; Ouma, Collins; Otieno, Richard O; Vulule, John M; Keller, Christopher C; Awandare, Gordon A; Perkins, Douglas J

    2008-02-01

    Severe malarial anemia (SMA) is a leading cause of mortality among children in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the novel cytokine, interleukin (IL)-23, promotes anemia in chronic inflammatory diseases, the role of IL-23 in SMA remains undefined. Since IL-23 and IL-12 share the IL-12p40 subunit and IL-12Rbeta1 receptor, and are down-regulated by IL-10, relationships among these cytokines were explored in Kenyan children with varying severities of malarial anemia. Children with malarial anemia had increased circulating IL-23 and IL-10 and decreased IL-12 relative to healthy controls. Enhanced anemia severity and elevated parasitemia were associated with increased IL-10 relative to IL-23 and IL-12. Further exploration of the relationships among the cytokines using an in vitro model in which peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with synthetic hemozoin (sHz, malarial pigment) revealed that IL-12p35 and IL-23p19 transcripts had a sustained induction over 72 h, while IL-12p40 and IL-10 message peaked at 24 h, and rapidly declined thereafter. Taken together, results here show that IL-23 is elevated in children with malarial anemia, and that IL-10 and IL-12 appear to have important regulatory effects on IL-23 production during childhood malaria. PMID:17945537

  11. Targeting IL-33 in autoimmunity and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Theoharides, Theoharis C; Petra, Anastasia I; Taracanova, Alexandra; Panagiotidou, Smaro; Conti, Pio

    2015-07-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) belongs to the IL-1 family of cytokines. Whereas IL-1 is processed and released by live immune cells in response to infection or other triggers, IL-33 is mostly released as a danger signal ("alarmin") from damaged cells. IL-33 may also be processed and released from activated mast cells (MCs) with subsequent autocrine and paracrine actions. IL-33 augments the stimulatory effects of IgE and substance P on MCs but can also trigger release of cytokines from MCs on its own. Blood IL-33 levels are increased in asthma, atopic dermatitis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjögren's syndrome. However, prolonged elevation of IL-33 downregulates Fc?RI and may be protective in atherosclerosis, suggesting different roles in immune-regulated diseases. Even though neutralizing IL-33, knocking-down its receptor, or using its soluble "decoy" receptor has resulted in anti-inflammatory effects, there appear to be different outcomes in different tissues. Hence, selective regulation of IL-33 synthesis, release, and signaling may be required to provide effective treatment options. PMID:25906776

  12. Modulation of T cell responses by IL-2 and IL-2 complexes.

    PubMed

    Boyman, Onur; Kolios, Antonios G A; Raeber, Miro E

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a cytokine centrally involved in the regulation of immune tolerance and activation by its effects on CD4+ T regulatory (Treg) cells and cytotoxic effector lymphocytes, respectively. Due to these properties IL-2 immunotherapy has been used, as low-dose IL-2, in the treatment of autoimmune and chronic-inflammatory disorders; conversely, at high doses, IL-2 has shown efficacy in a subset of patients with metastatic cancer. Recent advances have highlighted the possibility of using improved IL-2-based therapies, such IL-2-antibody complexes (IL-2 complexes), able to selectively and potently stimulate either Treg cells or cytotoxic effector cells. This article discusses the properties and clinical implications of IL-2 and IL-2 complexes. PMID:26457438

  13. Interleukin newcomers creating new numbers in rheumatology: IL-34 to IL-38.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Gaëlle; Thiolat, Allan; Boissier, Marie-Christophe

    2013-10-01

    The development of innovative technologies is steadily increasing the body of knowledge on molecules involved in physiological functions. Thus, several interleukins (ILs) have been identified and characterized in the past few years. Here, we detail the structural and functional characteristics of IL-34 to IL-38 with special attention to their involvement in inflammatory joint disease. IL-34 chiefly increases osteoclast activation and proliferation and therefore, it plays a direct role in bone destruction as seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) express IL-35, which therefore exerts anti-inflammatory effects by restoring Treg suppressive capabilities and by inhibiting the Th17 pathway. IL-37 has anti-inflammatory effects mediated by a negative feedback loop that decreases the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-36 belongs to the IL-1 family and has three different forms. Although this cytokine has been chiefly studied in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, it also exerts pro-inflammatory effects in RA. The specific IL-36 antagonist, IL-36Ra binds to the IL-36 receptor, thereby, preventing signal transduction. Finally, IL-38 is a recently identified cytokine whose effect may resemble that of IL-36Ra as it binds to the IL-36 receptor and inhibits its effects, particularly the Th17-response. Although the exact roles for these cytokines awaits elucidation, the current improvements in our knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate chronic inflammatory conditions, such as RA may lead to the identification of new treatment targets. PMID:23849463

  14. IL-33 drives biphasic IL-13 production for noncanonical Type 2 immunity against hookworms.

    PubMed

    Hung, Li-Yin; Lewkowich, Ian P; Dawson, Lucas A; Downey, Jordan; Yang, Yanfen; Smith, Dirk E; Herbert, De'Broski R

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic helminths are a major cause of chronic human disease, affecting more than 3 billion people worldwide. Host protection against most parasitic helminths relies upon Type 2 cytokine production, but the mechanisms that regulate interleukin (IL) 4 and 13 production from CD4(+) T helper 2 cells (T(H)2) and innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2s) remain incompletely understood. The epithelial cell-derived cytokines IL-25 and IL-33 promote Type 2 responses, but the extent of functional redundancy between these cytokines is unclear and whether Type 2 memory relies upon either IL-25 or IL-33 is unknown. Herein, we demonstrate a pivotal role for IL-33 in driving primary and anamnestic immunity against the rodent hookworm Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. IL-33-deficient mice have a selective defect in ILC2-derived IL-13 during both primary and secondary challenge infections but generate stronger canonical CD4(+) T helper 2 cells responses (IL-4, IgE, mast cells, and basophils) than WT controls. Lack of IL-13 production in IL-33-deficient mice impairs resistin-like molecule beta (RELM?) expression and eosinophil recruitment, which are two mechanisms that eliminate N. brasiliensis parasites from infected hosts. Thus, IL-33 is requisite for IL-13 but not IL-4-driven Type 2 responses during hookworm infection. PMID:23248269

  15. IL-15 Deficient Tax Mice Reveal a Role for IL-1? in Tumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Daniel A.; Harding, John C.; Ratner, Lee

    2014-01-01

    IL-15 is recognized as a promising candidate for tumor immunotherapy and has been described as both a promoter of cancer and a promoter of anti-cancer immunity. IL-15 was discovered in cells transformed by HTLV-1, the etiologic agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and the human retrovirus that carries the Tax oncogene. We have developed the TAX-LUC mouse model of ATL in which Tax expression drives both malignant transformation and luciferase expression, enabling non-invasive imaging of tumorigenesis in real time. To identify the role of IL-15 in spontaneous development of lymphoma in vivo, an IL-15?/? TAX-LUC strain was developed and examined. The absence of IL-15 resulted in aggressive tumor growth and accelerated mortality and demonstrated that IL-15 was not required for Tax-mediated lymphoma but was essential for anti-tumor immunity. Further analysis revealed a unique transcriptional profile in tumor cells that arise in the absence of IL-15 that included a significant increase in the expression of IL-1? and IL-1?-regulated cytokines. Moreover, anti-IL-1? antibodies and an IL-1 receptor antagonist (Anakinra) were used to interrogate the potential of IL-1? targeted therapies in this model. Taken together, these findings identify IL-15 and IL-1? as therapeutic targets in lymphoma. PMID:24416335

  16. IL-4 Inhibits IL-1?-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior and Central Neurotransmitter Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun-Jung; Shim, Hyun-Soo; An, Kyungeh; Starkweather, Angela; Kim, Kyung Soo; Shim, Insop

    2015-01-01

    It has been known that activation of the central innate immune system or exposure to stress can disrupt balance of anti-/proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the modulation of depressive-like behaviors, the hormonal and neurotransmitter systems in rats. We investigated whether centrally administered IL-1? is associated with activation of CNS inflammatory pathways and behavioral changes and whether treatment with IL-4 could modulate IL-1?-induced depressive-like behaviors and central neurotransmitter systems. Infusion of IL-4 significantly decreased IL-1?-induced anhedonic responses and increased social exploration and total activity. Treatment with IL-4 markedly blocked IL-1?-induced increase in PGE2 and CORT levels. Also, IL-4 reduced IL-1?-induced 5-HT levels by inhibiting tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) mRNA and activating serotonin transporter (SERT) in the hippocampus, and levels of NE were increased by activating tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that IL-4 may locally contribute to the regulation of noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission and may inhibit IL-1?-induced behavioral and immunological changes. The present results suggest that IL-4 modulates IL-1?-induced depressive behavior by inhibiting IL-1?-induced central glial activation and neurotransmitter alterations. IL-4 reduced central and systemic mediatory inflammatory activation, as well as reversing the IL-1?-induced alterations in neurotransmitter levels. The present findings contribute a biochemical pathway regulated by IL-4 that may have therapeutic utility for treatment of IL-1?-induced depressive behavior and neuroinflammation which warrants further study. PMID:26417153

  17. IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction promoted metastasis of osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingmin; Wang, Luanqiu; Ren, Tao; Xu, Lin; Wen, Zhenke

    2013-02-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common human primary malignant bone tumor in children and young adults with poor prognosis because of their high metastatic potential. Identification of key factors that could regulate the aggressive biologic behavior of OS, particularly with respect to metastasis, would be necessary if significant improvements in therapeutic outcome are to occur. In this study, we carefully evaluated the potential role of IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction in metastasis of OS. We found that serum IL-17A was higher in OS patients with metastasis and was associated with their clinical stage. The elevated expression of IL-17RA was observed in tumor tissue from OS patients with metastasis. Of note, we showed that IL-17A could promote the metastasis of U-2 OS cells which expression high IL-17RA, but not MG63 cells which expression low IL-17RA. Further, we revealed that downregulation of IL-17RA in U-2 cells could abrogated the enhanced metastasis induced by IL-17A, while upregulation of IL-17RA in MG63 cells could elevate their response to IL-17A and exerted enhanced metastasis. We observed that IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction promoted the expression of VEGF, MMP9 and CXCR4 in OS cells, which might partly explain the enhanced metastasis of OS cells. Furthermore, we showed that Stat3 activity was crucial for IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction to promote OS metastasis. Finally, we confirmed that IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction promoted the metastasis of OS in nude mice. Our findings might provide a mechanistic explanation for metastasis of OS in vivo, and suggested that targeting IL-17A signaling was a novel promising strategy to treat patients with OS. PMID:23192273

  18. Targeting IL4/IL4R for the treatment of epithelial cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Bankaitis, Katherine Venmar; Fingleton, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    While progress has been made in treating primary epithelial tumors, metastatic tumors remain largely incurable and still account for 85-90 % of all cancer-related deaths. Interleukin-4 (IL4), a Th2 cytokine, and the IL4/IL4 receptor (IL4R) interaction have well defined roles in the immune system. Yet, IL4 receptors are over-expressed by many epithelial cancers and could be a promising target for metastatic tumor therapy. The IL4/IL4R signaling axis is a strong promoter of pro-metastatic phenotypes in epithelial cancer cells including enhanced migration, invasion, survival, and proliferation. The promotion of breast cancer growth specifically is also supported in part by IL4-induced glutamine metabolism, and we have shown that IL4 is also capable of inducing glucose metabolism in breast cancer cells. Importantly, there are several types of FDA approved medications for use in asthma patients that inhibit the IL4/IL4R signaling axis. However, these approved medications inhibit both the type I IL4 receptor found on immune cells, and the type II IL4 receptor that is predominantly expressed by some non-hematopoietic cells including epithelial cancer cells. This article reviews existing therapies targeting IL4, IL4R, or IL4/IL4R signaling, and recent findings guiding the creation of novel therapies that specifically inhibit the type II IL4R, while taking into consideration effects on immune cells within the tumor microenvironment. Some of these therapies are currently in clinical trials for cancer patients, and may be exploitable for the treatment of metastatic disease. PMID:26385103

  19. IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction promoted metastasis of osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingmin; Wang, Luanqiu; Ren, Tao; Xu, Lin; Wen, Zhenke

    2013-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common human primary malignant bone tumor in children and young adults with poor prognosis because of their high metastatic potential. Identification of key factors that could regulate the aggressive biologic behavior of OS, particularly with respect to metastasis, would be necessary if significant improvements in therapeutic outcome are to occur. In this study, we carefully evaluated the potential role of IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction in metastasis of OS. We found that serum IL-17A was higher in OS patients with metastasis and was associated with their clinical stage. The elevated expression of IL-17RA was observed in tumor tissue from OS patients with metastasis. Of note, we showed that IL-17A could promote the metastasis of U-2 OS cells which expression high IL-17RA, but not MG63 cells which expression low IL-17RA. Further, we revealed that downregulation of IL-17RA in U-2 cells could abrogated the enhanced metastasis induced by IL-17A, while upregulation of IL-17RA in MG63 cells could elevate their response to IL-17A and exerted enhanced metastasis. We observed that IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction promoted the expression of VEGF, MMP9 and CXCR4 in OS cells, which might partly explain the enhanced metastasis of OS cells. Furthermore, we showed that Stat3 activity was crucial for IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction to promote OS metastasis. Finally, we confirmed that IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction promoted the metastasis of OS in nude mice. Our findings might provide a mechanistic explanation for metastasis of OS in vivo, and suggested that targeting IL-17A signaling was a novel promising strategy to treat patients with OS. PMID:23192273

  20. IL-4 Inhibits IL-1?-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior and Central Neurotransmitter Alterations.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Jung; Shim, Hyun-Soo; An, Kyungeh; Starkweather, Angela; Kim, Kyung Soo; Shim, Insop

    2015-01-01

    It has been known that activation of the central innate immune system or exposure to stress can disrupt balance of anti-/proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the modulation of depressive-like behaviors, the hormonal and neurotransmitter systems in rats. We investigated whether centrally administered IL-1? is associated with activation of CNS inflammatory pathways and behavioral changes and whether treatment with IL-4 could modulate IL-1?-induced depressive-like behaviors and central neurotransmitter systems. Infusion of IL-4 significantly decreased IL-1?-induced anhedonic responses and increased social exploration and total activity. Treatment with IL-4 markedly blocked IL-1?-induced increase in PGE2 and CORT levels. Also, IL-4 reduced IL-1?-induced 5-HT levels by inhibiting tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) mRNA and activating serotonin transporter (SERT) in the hippocampus, and levels of NE were increased by activating tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that IL-4 may locally contribute to the regulation of noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission and may inhibit IL-1?-induced behavioral and immunological changes. The present results suggest that IL-4 modulates IL-1?-induced depressive behavior by inhibiting IL-1?-induced central glial activation and neurotransmitter alterations. IL-4 reduced central and systemic mediatory inflammatory activation, as well as reversing the IL-1?-induced alterations in neurotransmitter levels. The present findings contribute a biochemical pathway regulated by IL-4 that may have therapeutic utility for treatment of IL-1?-induced depressive behavior and neuroinflammation which warrants further study. PMID:26417153

  1. Soluble interleukin-15 receptor alpha (IL-15R alpha)-sushi as a selective and potent agonist of IL-15 action through IL-15R beta/gamma. Hyperagonist IL-15 x IL-15R alpha fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Mortier, Erwan; Quéméner, Agnès; Vusio, Patricia; Lorenzen, Inken; Boublik, Yvan; Grötzinger, Joachim; Plet, Ariane; Jacques, Yannick

    2006-01-20

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is crucial for the generation of multiple lymphocyte subsets (natural killer (NK), NK-T cells, and memory CD8 T cells), and transpresentation of IL-15 by monocytes and dendritic cells has been suggested to be the dominant activating process of these lymphocytes. We have previously shown that a natural soluble form of IL-15R alpha chain corresponding to the entire extracellular domain of IL-15R alpha behaves as a high affinity IL-15 antagonist. In sharp contrast with this finding, we demonstrate in this report that a recombinant, soluble sushi domain of IL-15R alpha, which bears most of the binding affinity for IL-15, behaves as a potent IL-15 agonist by enhancing its binding and biological effects (proliferation and protection from apoptosis) through the IL-15R beta/gamma heterodimer, whereas it does not affect IL-15 binding and function of the tripartite IL-15R alpha/beta/gamma membrane receptor. Our results suggest that, if naturally produced, such soluble sushi domains might be involved in the IL-15 transpresentation mechanism. Fusion proteins (RLI and ILR), in which IL-15 and IL-15R alpha-sushi are attached by a flexible linker, are even more potent than the combination of IL-15 plus sIL-15R alpha-sushi. After binding to IL-15R beta/gamma, RLI is internalized and induces a biological response very similar to the IL-15 high affinity response. Such hyper-IL-15 fusion proteins appear to constitute potent adjuvants for the expansion of lymphocyte subsets. PMID:16284400

  2. 77 FR 60050 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... Hope Camp Trail as a bicycle route within Saguaro National Park (77 FR 12761). The proposed rule was... Robert Love, Chief Ranger, Saguaro National Park, Darla Sidles, Superintendent, Saguaro National...

  3. 2. SOUTH SIDE, FROM PARK ACROSS PARKING LOT/F STREET, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH SIDE, FROM PARK ACROSS PARKING LOT/F STREET, LOOKING NORTH. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administration Building-Dental Annex-Dispensary, Between E & F Streets, East of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. IL-8 and IL-6 primarily mediate the inflammatory response in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Mendieta, Danelia; la Cruz-Aguilera, Dora Luz De; Barrera-Villalpando, Maria Isabel; Becerril-Villanueva, Enrique; Arreola, Rodrigo; Hernández-Ferreira, Erick; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Garcés-Alvarez, María Eugenia; Aguirre-Cruz, Lucinda; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco Antonio; Pavón, Lenin

    2016-01-15

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disease that has been linked to inflammatory reactions and changes in the systemic levels of proinflammatory cytokines that modulate responses in the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We found that concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8 were elevated in FM patients. Both cytokines correlated with clinical scores, suggesting that IL-6 and IL-8 have additive or synergistic effects in perpetuating the chronic pain in FM patients. These findings indicate that IL-6 and IL-8 are two of the most constant inflammatory mediators in FM and that their levels correlate significantly with the severity of symptoms. PMID:26711564

  5. Amphibians of Olympic National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    Amphibians evolved from fishes about 360 million years ago and were the first vertebrates adapted to life on land. The word amphibian means "double life." It refers to the life history of many amphibians, which spend part of their life in water and part on land. There are three major groups of amphibians: salamanders, frogs, and toads, and caecilians. Salamanders, frogs, and toads can be found in Olympic National Park (ONP), but caecilians live only in tropical regions. Many amphibians are generalist predators, eating almost any prey they can fit into their mouths.

  6. INEEL Vadose Zone Research Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, G.; Hull, L.; Ansley, S.; Versteeg, R.; Scott, C.; Street, L.

    2003-12-01

    The Vadose Zone Research Park was developed to address mission critical issues related to operations, waste management, and environmental restoration at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites that are located over thick vadose zones. The research park provides instrumentation and facilities for scientists to address vadose zone processes that are important in assessing operational activities, remedial measures, and long-term stewardship of DOE lands. The park, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is strategically located along the Big Lost River, an intermittent river, and around two new percolation ponds. This location provides the opportunity to study variable recharge from the river, continuous recharge from the ponds, and the interactions between the two sources. Drilling began in September 2000 and was completed in June 2001. Thirty one wells and instrumented boreholes have been installed at the park to monitor perched water, measure moisture movement, collect water and gas samples, and study intra-well geophysical properties. Nine of the boreholes, ranging in depth from 150 ft to 504 ft below land surface (bls), are instrumented to monitor moisture in the vadose zone. Instruments include: tensiometers, moisture content sensors, suction lysimeters, temperature sensors, gas ports and electrodes for electrical resistance tomography. Electrodes are evenly spaced throughout the borehole with hydrologic instruments concentrated in and near the sedimentary interbeds-discontinuous layers of silts and clays that occur between some basalt flows. Eighteen monitoring wells, ranging in depth from 60 ft to 250 ft bls, are completed with 4 or 6 inch PVC casing, and generally include an electrical resistivity electrode array attached to the casing. Three bore holes are constructed for testing cross-hole ground penetrating radar as well as for testing new nuclear logging tools being designed at the INEEL. The remaining borehole contains only an electrical resistivity electrode array. Moisture potential, temperature, and water level data are collected automatically by data loggers and transmitted by radio to a computer linked to the INEEL network. Researchers can view the data via the computer network. We are initiating studies of in-situ moisture content - matric potential curves, relative migration rates of sodium and chloride, development of preferred flow paths through the vadose zone, and imaging of background moisture movement using electrical resistivity tomography. Data collection, processing and imagery will all be automated. Imaging of all data types will be draped over the geology for correlation purposes.

  7. Noradrenaline induces IL-1ra and IL-1 type II receptor expression in primary glial cells and protects against IL-1beta-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Eoin N; Ryan, Karen M; Kilroy, Dana; Connor, Thomas J

    2010-01-25

    The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) plays a key role in initiating an immune response within the central nervous system (CNS), and is thought to be a significant contributor to the neurodegenerative process. The actions of IL-1beta can be regulated by interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), which prevents IL-1beta from acting on the IL-1 type I receptor (IL-1RI). Another negative regulator of the IL-1 system is the IL-1 type II receptor (IL-1RII); a decoy receptor that serves to sequester IL-1. Consequently, pharmacological strategies that tip the balance in favour of IL-1ra and IL-1RII may be of therapeutic benefit. Evidence suggests that the neurotransmitter noradrenaline elicits anti-inflammatory actions in the CNS, and consequently may play an endogenous neuroprotective role. Here we report that noradrenaline induces production of IL-1ra and IL-1RII from primary rat mixed glial cells. In contrast, noradrenaline did not alter IL-1beta expression, or expression of IL-1RI or the IL-1 type I receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcp); both of which are required for IL-1 signalling. Our results demonstrate that the ability of noradrenaline to induce IL-1ra and IL-1RII is mediated via beta-adrenoceptor activation and downstream activation of protein kinase A and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). In parallel with its ability to increase IL-1ra and IL-1RII, noradrenaline prevented neurotoxicity in cortical primary neurons induced by conditioned medium from IL-1beta treated mixed glial cells. These data indicate that noradrenaline negatively regulates IL-1 system in glial cells and has neuroprotective properties in situations where IL-1 contributes to pathology. PMID:19818755

  8. Serum IL-1beta, sIL-2R, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha in schizophrenic patients, relation with symptomatology and responsiveness to risperidone treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Erba?ci, A B; Herken, H; Köylüoglu, O; Yilmaz, N; Tarakçioglu, M

    2001-01-01

    Activation of the inflammatory response system and varied levels of cytokines in acute schizophrenia have been suggested by recent studies. Psychopharmacologic agents can differentially effect cytokine production, which suggests that therapeutic function of neuroleptics may involve immunomodulation. The present study was carried out to examine: (i) serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1beta, soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), IL-6, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in schizophrenic patients; (ii) their relation with psychopathological assessment; and (iii) the relation of the initial cytokine levels with responsiveness to risperidone therapy. Thirty-four drug-free schizophrenic patients with acute exacerbation and 23 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited for this study. Psychopathological assessments at admission and throughout risperidone treatment for 60 days were recorded. Serum cytokine concentrations were determined with chemilumunescence assays. According to our results, serum IL-1beta, sIL-2R, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha concentrations adjusted for age, gender, body mass index and smoking were no different in patients with schizophrenia and controls and among subtypes of schizophrenia. However, the initial TNF-alpha concentrations had a significant effect on Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and Scale Assessment of Positive Symptoms scores. The initial cytokine concentrations of the patients responsive to risperidone were not significantly different from those of non-responsive patients. The present study demonstrates that plasma levels of IL-1beta, sIL-2R, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha adjusted for confounding factors are not altered in drug-free schizophrenic patients at acute exacerbation. We suggest that, if cytokine production is altered in schizophrenia, these alterations may not be detectable in systemic circulation. According to our results, the therapeutic effect of risperidone is not related to basal levels of the aforementioned cytokines. However, serum TNF-alpha may contribute to symptomatology in schizophrenia PMID:11545247

  9. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a) Aircraft.... No person shall undertake diving in the waters of Isle Royale National Park with the aid...

  10. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a) Aircraft.... No person shall undertake diving in the waters of Isle Royale National Park with the aid...

  11. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a) Aircraft.... No person shall undertake diving in the waters of Isle Royale National Park with the aid...

  12. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a) Aircraft.... No person shall undertake diving in the waters of Isle Royale National Park with the aid...

  13. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a) Fishing. Fishing in Crater Lake and park streams is permitted from May 20 through October 31. (b) Boating....

  14. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a) Fishing. Fishing in Crater Lake and park streams is permitted from May 20 through October 31. (b) Boating....

  15. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road,...

  16. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  17. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  18. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  19. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  20. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  1. 36 CFR 910.33 - Off-street parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... development (such as a below-grade parking garage) is permitted. (b) All parking spaces shall be located below... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off-street parking. 910.33... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.33 Off-street parking. (a)...

  2. 76 FR 70483 - Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... National Park Service Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service... September 6, 2012 of the Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission. DATES: The public meetings... be held at the Ford Education Center in the Gettysburg National Military Park Museum and...

  3. 76 FR 77552 - Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... National Park Service Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service... sets forth the dates of April 19, 2012 and September 6, 2012 of the Gettysburg National Military Park... National Military Park Museum and Visitor Center, 1195 Baltimore Pike, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania...

  4. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... development, transmission, or utilization of power within the limits as then constituted of any national park... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a) Aircraft.... No person shall undertake diving in the waters of Isle Royale National Park with......

  6. CD300f associates with IL-4 receptor ? and amplifies IL-4-induced immune cell responses.

    PubMed

    Moshkovits, Itay; Karo-Atar, Danielle; Itan, Michal; Reichman, Hadar; Rozenberg, Perri; Morgenstern-Ben-Baruch, Netali; Shik, Dana; Ejarque-Ortiz, Aroa; Hershko, Alon Y; Tian, Linjie; Coligan, John E; Sayós, Joan; Munitz, Ariel

    2015-07-14

    IL-4 receptor (R) ?, the common receptor chain for IL-4 and IL-13, is a critical component in IL-4- and IL-13-mediated signaling and subsequent effector functions such as those observed in type 2 inflammatory responses. Nonetheless, the existence of intrinsic pathways capable of amplifying IL-4R?-induced responses remains unknown. In this study, we identified the myeloid-associated Ig receptor CD300f as an IL-4-induced molecule in macrophages. Subsequent analyses demonstrated that CD300f was colocalized and physically associated with IL-4R?. Using Cd300f(-/-) cells and receptor cross-linking experiments, we established that CD300f amplified IL-4R?-induced responses by augmenting IL-4/IL-13-induced signaling, mediator release, and priming. Consistently, IL-4- and aeroallergen-treated Cd300f(-/-) mice displayed decreased IgE production, chemokine expression, and inflammatory cell recruitment. Impaired responses in Cd300f(-/-) mice were not due to the inability to generate a proper Th2 response, because IL-4/IL-13 levels were markedly increased in allergen-challenged Cd300f(-/-) mice, a finding that is consistent with decreased cytokine consumption. Finally, CD300f expression was increased in monocytes and eosinophils obtained from allergic rhinitis patients. Collectively, our data highlight a previously unidentified role for CD300f in IL-4R?-induced immune cell responses. These data provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms governing IL-4R?-induced responses, and may provide new therapeutic tools to target IL-4 in allergy and asthma. PMID:26124135

  7. CD300f associates with IL-4 receptor ? and amplifies IL-4–induced immune cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Moshkovits, Itay; Karo-Atar, Danielle; Itan, Michal; Reichman, Hadar; Rozenberg, Perri; Morgenstern-Ben-Baruch, Netali; Shik, Dana; Ejarque-Ortiz, Aroa; Hershko, Alon Y.; Tian, Linjie; Coligan, John E.; Sayós, Joan; Munitz, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    IL-4 receptor (R) ?, the common receptor chain for IL-4 and IL-13, is a critical component in IL-4– and IL-13–mediated signaling and subsequent effector functions such as those observed in type 2 inflammatory responses. Nonetheless, the existence of intrinsic pathways capable of amplifying IL-4R?–induced responses remains unknown. In this study, we identified the myeloid-associated Ig receptor CD300f as an IL-4–induced molecule in macrophages. Subsequent analyses demonstrated that CD300f was colocalized and physically associated with IL-4R?. Using Cd300f?/? cells and receptor cross-linking experiments, we established that CD300f amplified IL-4R?–induced responses by augmenting IL-4/IL-13–induced signaling, mediator release, and priming. Consistently, IL-4– and aeroallergen-treated Cd300f?/? mice displayed decreased IgE production, chemokine expression, and inflammatory cell recruitment. Impaired responses in Cd300f?/? mice were not due to the inability to generate a proper Th2 response, because IL-4/IL-13 levels were markedly increased in allergen-challenged Cd300f?/? mice, a finding that is consistent with decreased cytokine consumption. Finally, CD300f expression was increased in monocytes and eosinophils obtained from allergic rhinitis patients. Collectively, our data highlight a previously unidentified role for CD300f in IL-4R?–induced immune cell responses. These data provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms governing IL-4R?–induced responses, and may provide new therapeutic tools to target IL-4 in allergy and asthma. PMID:26124135

  8. Human IL-2 mutein with higher antitumor efficacy than wild type IL-2.

    PubMed

    Carmenate, Tania; Pacios, Anabel; Enamorado, Michel; Moreno, Ernesto; Garcia-Martínez, Karina; Fuente, Dasha; León, Kalet

    2013-06-15

    IL-2 has been used for the treatment of melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, but this therapy has limited efficacy and severe toxicity. Currently, it is assumed that part of the limited efficacy is due to the IL-2-driven preferential expansion of regulatory T cells, which dampen the antitumor immunity. In this study, we characterize a human IL-2 mutant with higher antitumor efficacy and lower toxicity than wild type human IL-2 (wtIL-2). The mutant differs from wtIL-2 by four mutations at the interface with the ? subunit of IL-2R. The IL-2 mutant induces in vitro proliferation of CD8(+)CD44(hi) and NK1.1 cells as efficiently as does wtIL-2, but it shows a reduced capacity to induce proliferation of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. The IL-2 mutant shows a higher antimetastatic effect than does wtIL-2 in several transplantable tumor models: the experimental metastasis model of MB16F0 melanoma and the experimental and spontaneous metastasis models for the mouse pulmonary carcinoma 3LL-D1222. Relevantly, the IL-2 mutant also exhibits lower lung and liver toxicity than does wtIL-2 when used at high doses in mice. In silico simulations, using a calibrated mathematical model, predict that the properties of IL-2 mutein are a consequence of the reduction, of at least two orders of magnitude, in its affinity for the ? subunit of IL-2R (CD25). The human IL-2 mutant described in the present work could be a good candidate for improving cancer therapy based on IL-2. PMID:23677467

  9. Role of IL-21 and IL-21 Receptor on B Cells in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pallikkuth, Suresh; Parmigiani, Anita; Pahwa, Savita

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-21 is a member of a family of cytokines which includes IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9 and IL-15 all of which utilize a common γ chain in their individual receptor complexes for delivering intracellular signals in their target cells. IL-21 is produced by CD4+ T cells, in particular T follicular helper cells, and is critically important in the regulation and maintenance of T cells and B cells in innate and adaptive immunity. Effects of IL-21 are pleiotropic, owing to the broad cellular distribution of the IL-21 receptor and it plays a critical role in T cell-dependent and independent human B cell differentiation for generating humoral immune responses. This chapter reviews current knowledge about the importance of IL-21 and IL-21 receptor interaction in human B cell responses, immune defects of B cells and IL-21 in HIV infection and the potential applicability of IL-21 in vaccines/immunotherapeutic approaches to augment relevant immune responses. PMID:23216614

  10. Regulation of the IL-10/IL-12 axis in human dendritic cells with probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gad, Monika; Ravn, Peter; Søborg, Ditte A; Lund-Jensen, Karina; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Jensen, Simon S

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we have used monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) to design a screening model for the selection of microorganisms with the ability to suppress DC-secreted IL-12p70, a critical cytokine for the induction of T-helper cell type 1 immune responses under inflammatory conditions. By the treatment of DCs with cocktails containing TLR agonists and proinflammatory cytokines, the cells increased the secretion of the Th1-promoting cytokine IL-12p70. Clinically used probiotics were tested for their IL-10- and IL-12p70-stimulating properties in immature DCs, and showed a dose-dependent change in the IL-10/IL-12p70 balance. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM(™) and the probiotic mixture VSL#3 showed a strong induction of IL-12p70, whereas Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 and Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 preferentially induced IL-10. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 induced both IL-10 and IL-12p70, whereas the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii induced low levels of cytokines. When combining these microorganisms with the Th1-promoting cocktails, E. coli Nissle 1917 and B. infantis 35624 were potent suppressors of IL-12p70 secretion in an IL-10-independent manner, indicating a suppressive effect on Th1-inducing antigen-presenting cells. The present model, using cocktail-stimulated DCs with potent IL-12p70-stimulating capacity, may be used as an efficient tool to assess the anti-inflammatory properties of microorganisms for potential clinical use. PMID:21707779

  11. Targeting of IL-4 and IL-13 receptors for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akiko; Leland, Pamela; Joshi, Bharat H; Puri, Raj K

    2015-09-01

    The Th2 cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4 and -13, are structurally and functionally related. They regulate immune responses and the immune microenvironment, not only under normal physiological conditions, but also in cancer. Both cytokines bind to their high-affinity receptors and form various configurations of receptor subtypes. We and others have reported that IL-4 and IL-13 bind to IL-4R? and IL-13R?1 chains, forming functional receptors in cancer cells. IL-13 also binds with high affinity to a private chain IL-13R?2. After forming ligand-receptor complexes, both cytokines initiate signal transduction and mediate biological effects, such as tumor proliferation, cell survival, cell adhesion and metastasis. In certain cancers, the presence of these cytokine receptors may serve as biomarkers of cancer aggressiveness. In a series of studies, we reported that overexpression of IL-4 and IL-13 receptors on cancer cells provides targets for therapeutic agents for cancer therapy. In addition, both of these cytokines and their receptors have been shown to play important roles in modulating the immune system for tumor growth. IL-4, IL-13 and their receptors seem to play a role in cancer stem cells and provide unique targets to eradicate these cells. In this review article, we summarize some of the important attributes of IL-4 and IL-13 receptors in cancer biology and discuss pre-clinical and clinical studies pertaining to recombinant immunotoxins designed to target these receptors. PMID:26088753

  12. Healing of intestinal inflammation by IL-22

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    An IL-10 family cytokine IL-22 is characterized by several unique biological properties, including 1) the target restricted to innate cells, 2) the distinct expression pattern between large and small intestines, 3) alteration of the cellular source depending on several factors, 4) the dual abilities to serve as protective versus proinflammatory mediators in inflammatory responses, and 5) the close association with some major IBD susceptibility genes. The major functions of IL-22 in the intestine are the stimulation of epithelial cells to produce a wide variety of antibacterial proteins, the reinforcement of mucus barrier through stimulation of mucin 1 production under intestinal inflammatory conditions, and the enhancement of epithelial regeneration with goblet cell restitution. Through these beneficial functions, IL-22 contributes to the improvement of some types of experimental chronic colitis, which are mediated by Th1 or Th2 responses. Most importantly, studies using both loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches have clearly demonstrated the ability of IL-22 to promote intestinal wound healing from acute intestinal injury. These findings highlight IL-22 as an attractive and promising target for future IBD therapy. Alternatively, the enormous progress in the field of IL-22 biology has also suggested more complicated mechanism with IL-22 pathway than previously predicted. This review article briefly summarizes previous and current knowledge on IL-22 particularly associated with intestinal inflammation. PMID:22359410

  13. Parks as Resources for Knowledge in Science (PARKS) National Program Evaluation Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltz, L. Kate

    This document evaluates the Parks as Resources for Knowledge in Science (PARKS) project which supports environmental education in 36 National Parks across the United States and provides curriculum-based learning opportunities that integrate National Science Education Standards for teachers and students. Contents include: (1) "Executive…

  14. Park Planning Handbook. Fundamentals of Physical Planning for Parks and Recreation Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Monty L.

    This book is written primarily as a textbook for students of recreation and park administration. It is organized in two parts. Part one gives a detailed description of the process of park planning, phase by phase, explaining the functions, roles, contributions, and responsibilities of the members of the park planning team, from predesign…

  15. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, Richard N.

    2015-08-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project uses the Parkes 64-m radio telescope to observe 22 millisecond pulsars in three bands: 40cm (band centre 732 MHz), 20cm (1369 MHz) and 10cm (3100 MHz). Coherent de-dispersion systems are used for the 40cm and 20cm bands and digital polyphase filterbanks are used for the 20cm and 10cm bands. Observations are made at intervals of two to three weeks and observations times for each pulsar in each band are typically one hour. Regular PPTA observations commenced in early 2005 but earlier timing data, primarily in the 20cm band, exist for many of the pulsars back to 1994. Pipeline processing scripts are based on PSRCHIVE routines and take into account instrumental offsets. Timing analyses include modelling of dispersion variations and red and white noise in the data. The primary scientific goal of the PPTA project is the detection of gravitational waves, either a stochastic background from supermassive black-hole binary systems in distant galaxies or from individual binary systems. The PPTA data sets have many other applications including establishment of a pulsar-based timescale, improvement of solar-system ephemerides and studies of the individual pulsars. PPTA data sets have been made available to the International Pulsar Timing Array consortium and analysis of the combined data sets is progressing. Recent developments, both instrumental and science-related, will be described.

  16. Differential effects of anti-IL-1R accessory protein antibodies on IL-1alpha or IL-1beta-induced production of PGE(2) and IL-6 from 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Do-Young; Dinarello, Charles A

    2007-07-31

    Soluble or cell-bound IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) does not bind IL-1 but rather forms a complex with IL-1 and IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) resulting in signal transduction. Synthetic peptides to various regions in the Ig-like domains of IL-1RAcP were used to produce antibodies and these antibodies were affinity-purified using the respective antigens. An anti-peptide-4 antibody which targets domain III inhibited 70% of IL-1beta-induced productions of IL-6 and PGE(2) from 3T3-L1 cells. Anti-peptide-2 or 3 also inhibited IL-1-induced IL-6 production by 30%. However, anti-peptide-1 which is directed against domain I had no effect. The antibody was more effective against IL-1beta compared to IL-1alpha. IL-1-induced IL-6 production was augmented by coincubation with PGE(2). The COX inhibitor ibuprofen blocked IL-1-induced IL-6 and PGE(2) production. These results confirm that IL-1RAcP is essential for IL-1 signaling and that increased production of IL-6 by IL-1 needs the co-induction of PGE(2). However, the effect of PGE(2) is independent of expressions of IL-1RI and IL-1RAcP. Our data suggest that domain III of IL-1RAcP may be involved in the formation or stabilization of the IL-1RI/IL-1 complex by binding to epitopes on domain III of the IL-1RI created following IL-1 binding to the IL-1RI. PMID:17669273

  17. IL-15R? chaperones IL-15 to stable dendritic cell membrane complexes that activate NK cells via trans presentation

    PubMed Central

    Mortier, Erwan; Woo, Tammy; Advincula, Rommel; Gozalo, Sara; Ma, Averil

    2008-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune effectors that mediate rapid responses to viral antigens. Interleukin (IL)-15 and its high affinity IL-15 receptor, IL-15R?, support NK cell homeostasis in resting animals via a novel trans presentation mechanism. To better understand how IL-15 and IL-15R? support NK cell activation during immune responses, we have used sensitive assays for detecting native IL-15 and IL-15R? proteins and developed an assay for detecting complexes of these proteins. We find that IL-15 and IL-15R? are preassembled in complexes within the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi of stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) before being released from cells. IL-15R? is required for IL-15 production by DCs, and IL-15 that emerges onto the cell surface of matured DCs does not bind to neighboring cells expressing IL-15R?. We also find that soluble IL-15–IL-15R? complexes are induced during inflammation, but membrane-bound IL-15–IL-15R? complexes, rather than soluble complexes, support NK cell activation in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we provide in vivo evidence that expression of IL-15R? specifically on DCs is critical for trans presenting IL-15 and activating NK cells. These studies define an unprecedented cytokine–receptor biosynthetic pathway in which IL-15R? serves as a chaperone for IL-15, after which membrane-bound IL-15R?–IL-15 complexes activate NK cells via direct cell–cell contact. PMID:18458113

  18. IL-15Ralpha chaperones IL-15 to stable dendritic cell membrane complexes that activate NK cells via trans presentation.

    PubMed

    Mortier, Erwan; Woo, Tammy; Advincula, Rommel; Gozalo, Sara; Ma, Averil

    2008-05-12

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune effectors that mediate rapid responses to viral antigens. Interleukin (IL)-15 and its high affinity IL-15 receptor, IL-15Ralpha, support NK cell homeostasis in resting animals via a novel trans presentation mechanism. To better understand how IL-15 and IL-15Ralpha support NK cell activation during immune responses, we have used sensitive assays for detecting native IL-15 and IL-15Ralpha proteins and developed an assay for detecting complexes of these proteins. We find that IL-15 and IL-15Ralpha are preassembled in complexes within the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi of stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) before being released from cells. IL-15Ralpha is required for IL-15 production by DCs, and IL-15 that emerges onto the cell surface of matured DCs does not bind to neighboring cells expressing IL-15Ralpha. We also find that soluble IL-15-IL-15Ralpha complexes are induced during inflammation, but membrane-bound IL-15-IL-15Ralpha complexes, rather than soluble complexes, support NK cell activation in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we provide in vivo evidence that expression of IL-15Ralpha specifically on DCs is critical for trans presenting IL-15 and activating NK cells. These studies define an unprecedented cytokine-receptor biosynthetic pathway in which IL-15Ralpha serves as a chaperone for IL-15, after which membrane-bound IL-15Ralpha-IL-15 complexes activate NK cells via direct cell-cell contact. PMID:18458113

  19. Characterization of Lamprey IL-17 Family Members and Their Receptors.

    PubMed

    Han, Qifeng; Das, Sabyasachi; Hirano, Masayuki; Holland, Stephen J; McCurley, Nathanael; Guo, Peng; Rosenberg, Charles S; Boehm, Thomas; Cooper, Max D

    2015-12-01

    IL-17 is an ancient cytokine implicated in a variety of immune defense reactions. We identified five members of the sea lamprey IL-17 family (IL-17D.1, IL-17D.2, IL-17E, IL-17B, and IL-17C) and six IL-17R genes (IL-17RA.1, IL-17RA.2, IL-17RA.3, IL-17RF, IL-17RE/RC, and IL-17RD), determined their relationship with mammalian orthologs, and examined their expression patterns and potential interactions to explore their roles in innate and adaptive immunity. The most highly expressed IL-17 family member is IL-17D.1 (mammalian IL-17D like), which was found to be preferentially expressed by epithelial cells of skin, intestine, and gills and by the two types of lamprey T-like cells. IL-17D.1 binding to rIL-17RA.1 and to the surface of IL-17RA.1-expressing B-like cells and monocytes of lamprey larvae was demonstrated, and treatment of lamprey blood cells with rIL-17D.1 protein enhanced transcription of genes expressed by the B-like cells. These findings suggest a potential role for IL-17 in coordinating the interactions between T-like cells and other cells of the adaptive and innate immune systems in jawless vertebrates. PMID:26491201

  20. 75 FR 3488 - Acadia National Park; Bar Harbor, ME; Acadia National Park Advisory Commission; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... National Park Service Acadia National Park; Bar Harbor, ME; Acadia National Park Advisory Commission.... 92-463, 86 Stat. 770, 5 U.S.C. App. 1, Sec. 10), that the Acadia National Park Advisory Commission... concerning this meeting may be obtained from the Superintendent, Acadia National Park,......

  1. Rural Latino Youth Park Use: Characteristics, Park Amenities, and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Saelens, Brain E.; Thompson, Beti

    2010-01-01

    Less than half of youth engage in sufficient physical activity to achieve health benefits. Key environmental factors of park and recreation spaces may influence youth physical activity. We sought to ascertain youth characteristics and behaviors that attract youth to parks with specific amenities and encourage physical activity while at the parks in a rural, predominantly Latino community. We examined the quality of amenities in the 13 parks and recreation spaces that middle school aged youth have access to in their community using the Environmental Assessment of Parks and Recreation Spaces (EAPRS) tool. Middle school students completed surveys in the school classroom (n = 1,102) regarding park use, physical activity, and intrapersonal characteristics (e.g., motivators). We used logistic regression to identify correlates of any park use, use of higher quality field and court parks, and active and sedentary park use. Younger age, participation in an after school activity, and identification of a team as a motivator were positively associated with any park use. Use of higher quality court and field parks was associated with participation in an after school activity and being Latino. The odds of being active in the parks were greater for boys and Latinos. Older age and alcohol use are correlated with being sedentary at the park, while odds of being sedentary at the park were lower for boys and youth who met physical activity guidelines. Organized team activities may encourage active use of higher quality fields and courts parks by Latino youth; thereby, increasing their level of physical activity. PMID:20924779

  2. Human tolerogenic dendritic cells produce IL-35 in the absence of other IL-12 family members.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Karen O; van der Kooij, Sandra W; Vignali, Dario A A; van Kooten, Cees

    2015-06-01

    IL-35 is a cytokine of the IL-12 family, existing as a heterodimer of IL-12p35 and Ebi3. IL-35 has anti-inflammatory properties and is produced by regulatory T cells in humans and mice, where it is required for optimal suppression of immune responses. Distinct from other IL-12 cytokines, the expression of IL-35 has not been described in antigen-presenting cells. In view of the immune-regulatory properties of IL-35, we investigated the expression, regulation, and function of IL-12p35 and Ebi3 in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs). These tolDCs do not produce IL-12p70 or the homodimer IL-12p40. We demonstrate that tolDCs completely lack transcriptional expression of IL-12p40. However, tolDCs maintain mRNA expression of IL-12p35 and Ebi3. Using intracellular flow cytometry and Western blot analysis, we show that tolDCs produce Ebi3 and IL-12p35, and both can be enhanced upon stimulation with IFN-γ, LPS, or CD40L. tolDCs supernatants have the capacity to suppress T-cell activation. Using IL12A silencing, we demonstrate that IL-12p35 is required for tolDCs to reach their full suppressive potential. Taken together, our results indicate that tolDCs produce IL-35, providing an additional novel mechanism by which tolDCs elicit their tolerogenic potential. PMID:25820702

  3. Human Langerhans cells induce distinct IL-22-producing CD4+ T cells lacking IL-17 production.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hideki; Nograles, Kristine E; Kikuchi, Toyoko; Gonzalez, Juana; Carucci, John A; Krueger, James G

    2009-12-22

    IL-22 is a cytokine that acts mainly on epithelial cells. In the skin, it mediates keratinocyte proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia and is thought to play a central role in inflammatory diseases with marked epidermal acanthosis, such as psoriasis. Although IL-22 was initially considered a Th17 cytokine, increasing evidence suggests that T helper cells can produce IL-22 even without IL-17 expression. In addition, we have shown the existence of this unique IL-22-producing T cell in normal skin and in the skin of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis patients. In the present study, we investigated the ability of cutaneous resident dendritic cells (DCs) to differentiate IL-22-producing cells. Using FACS, we isolated Langerhans cells (LCs; HLA-DR(+)CD207(+) cells) and dermal DCs (HLA-DR(hi)CD11c(+)BDCA-1(+) cells) from normal human epidermis and dermis, respectively. Both LCs and dermal DCs significantly induced IL-22-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from peripheral blood T cells and naive CD4(+) T cells in mixed leukocyte reactions. LCs were more powerful in the induction of IL-22-producing cells than dermal DCs. Moreover, in vitro-generated LC-type DCs induced IL-22-producing cells more efficiently than monocyte-derived DCs. The induced IL-22 production was more correlated with IFN-gamma than IL-17. Surprisingly, the majority of IL-22-producing cells induced by LCs and dermal DCs lacked the expression of IL-17, IFN-gamma, and IL-4. Thus, LCs and dermal DCs preferentially induced helper T cells to produce only IL-22, possibly "Th22" cells. Our data indicate that cutaneous DCs, especially LCs, may control the generation of distinct IL-22 producing Th22 cells infiltrating into the skin. PMID:19996179

  4. Human Langerhans cells induce distinct IL-22-producing CD4+ T cells lacking IL-17 production

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Hideki; Nograles, Kristine E.; Kikuchi, Toyoko; Gonzalez, Juana; Carucci, John A.; Krueger, James G.

    2009-01-01

    IL-22 is a cytokine that acts mainly on epithelial cells. In the skin, it mediates keratinocyte proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia and is thought to play a central role in inflammatory diseases with marked epidermal acanthosis, such as psoriasis. Although IL-22 was initially considered a Th17 cytokine, increasing evidence suggests that T helper cells can produce IL-22 even without IL-17 expression. In addition, we have shown the existence of this unique IL-22-producing T cell in normal skin and in the skin of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis patients. In the present study, we investigated the ability of cutaneous resident dendritic cells (DCs) to differentiate IL-22-producing cells. Using FACS, we isolated Langerhans cells (LCs; HLA-DR+CD207+ cells) and dermal DCs (HLA-DRhiCD11c+BDCA-1+ cells) from normal human epidermis and dermis, respectively. Both LCs and dermal DCs significantly induced IL-22-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from peripheral blood T cells and naive CD4+ T cells in mixed leukocyte reactions. LCs were more powerful in the induction of IL-22-producing cells than dermal DCs. Moreover, in vitro-generated LC-type DCs induced IL-22-producing cells more efficiently than monocyte-derived DCs. The induced IL-22 production was more correlated with IFN-? than IL-17. Surprisingly, the majority of IL-22-producing cells induced by LCs and dermal DCs lacked the expression of IL-17, IFN-?, and IL-4. Thus, LCs and dermal DCs preferentially induced helper T cells to produce only IL-22, possibly “Th22” cells. Our data indicate that cutaneous DCs, especially LCs, may control the generation of distinct IL-22 producing Th22 cells infiltrating into the skin. PMID:19996179

  5. IL-17A and IL-17F induce autophagy in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Orosz, László; Papanicolaou, Elena Gouitel; Seprényi, György; Megyeri, Klára

    2016-02-01

    Autophagy is an important cellular catabolic process for the lysosomal degradation of cytoplasmic organelles, proteins and microorganisms. The autophagic process is intertwined with the immune response: autophagy regulates both innate and adaptive immunity, conversely, cytokines produced during the course of the immune response modulate various functions of the autophagic cascade. The IL-17 family member cytokines play a pivotal role in immune protection against extra- and intracellular bacterial pathogens. Since the effects of IL-17A and IL-17F on autophagy have not yet been reported, we have evaluated the autophagic activity in the RAW 264.7 cell line treated with either IL-17A or IL-17F. Both IL-17A and IL-17F proved to promote microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 B-II (LC3B-II) accumulation, enhance the autophagic flux, facilitate the intracellular redistribution of LC3B, increase both the average number and the size of autophagosomes per cell, and foster the formation of acidic vesicular organelles. IL-17F was considerably more efficient than IL-17A in promoting the autophagic process. Further experiments to determine the potential effect of IL-17-induced autophagy on the antibacterial activity of RAW macrophages revealed that IL-17F significantly decreased the intracellular counts of Mycobacterium terrae, while the colony-forming unit values remained comparable in the IL-17A-treated cells and the control cultures. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that IL-17A and IL-17F are capable of inducing autophagy in macrophages, and thereby contribute to the elimination of Mycobacterium terrae. These data may bear on the pathogenesis of infections caused by Mycobacterium terrae, as IL-17 plays a pivotal role in the immune response to mycobacteria. IL-17-mediated activation of autophagy may also be implicated in various infections and other pathological conditions. PMID:26796276

  6. Image guided thermal ablation of tumors increases the plasma level of IL-6 and IL-10

    PubMed Central

    Erinjeri, Joseph P; Thomas, Contessa T; Samoila, Alaiksandra; Fleisher, Martin; Gonen, Mithat; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Thornton, Raymond H; Siegelbaum, Robert H.; Covey, Anne M.; Brody, Lynn A.; Alago, William; Maybody, Majid; Brown, Karen T.; Getrajdman, George; Solomon, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To identify changes in plasma cytokine levels following image-guided thermal ablation of human tumors and to identify the factors that independently predict changes in plasma cytokine levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS Whole blood samples were collected from 36 patients at 3 time points: pre-ablation, post-ablation (within 48 hours), and in follow-up (1–5 weeks after ablation). Plasma levels of IL-1a, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and TNFa were measured using a multiplex immunoassay. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using cytokine level as the dependent variable and sample collection, time, age, sex, primary diagnosis, metastatic status, ablation site, and ablation type as the independent variables. RESULTS There was a significant increase in the plasma level of IL-6 post-ablation when compared to pre-ablation (9.6+/?31 fold, p<0.002). IL-10 also showed a significant increase postablation (1.9 +/?2.8 fold, p<0.02). Plasma levels of IL-1a, IL-2, and TNFa were not significantly changed after ablation. Cryoablation resulted in the largest change in IL-6 level (>54 fold), while radiofrequency and microwave ablation showed 3.6 and 3.4-fold changes, respectively. Ablation of melanomas showed the largest change in IL-6 48 hours after ablation (92×), followed by ablation of kidney (26×), liver (8×), and lung (6×) cancers. Multivariate analysis revealed that ablation type (p<0.0003), and primary diagnosis (p<0.03) were independent predictors of changes to IL-6 following ablation. Age was the only independent predictor of IL-10 levels following ablation (p<0.019). CONCLUSION Image guided thermal ablation of tumors increases the plasma level of IL-6 and IL-10, without increasing the plasma level of IL-1a, IL-2, or TNFa. PMID:23582441

  7. The selective anti-IL17A monoclonal antibody secukinumab (AIN457) attenuates IL17A-induced levels of IL6 in human astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Elain, Gaelle; Jeanneau, Karine; Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Mir, Anis K; Dev, Kumlesh K

    2014-05-01

    The family of interleukin 17 receptors (IL17Rs), subtypes IL17RA-IL17RE, is targeted by the group of pro-inflammatory IL17 cytokines (IL17A-F) and moreover the newly developed anti-IL17A antibody secukinumab (AIN457) has shown promise in Phase II trials in multiple sclerosis. Here, we show that human astrocytes, isolated from a fetal cerebral cortex, express IL17RA and IL17RC and in vitro treatment with IL17A increases protein levels of IL6 in human astrocytes, which is enhanced in the presence of TNFα, as determined by homogeneous time resolved fluorescence. Studies on acutely isolated mouse astrocytes are comparable to human astrocytes although the protein levels of IL6 are lower in mouse astrocytes, which also show a lower response to IL17F and IL1β in promoting IL6 levels. In human astrocytes, IL17A and TNFα also induce mRNA expression of IL6, IL8 and the Th17 cytokines CXCL1, CXCL2, and CCL20, with little effect on Th1 cytokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. The effects of IL17A are associated with nuclear translocation of the NF-κB transcription factor, as determined by immunocytochemistry, where treatment of human astrocytes with the inhibitors of the NF-κB pathway and with secukinumab inhibits the IL17A and IL17A/TNFα-induced increase in nuclear translocation of NF-κB and levels of IL6. Taken together the data shows that IL17A signaling plays a key role in regulating the levels of cytokines, such as IL6, in human astrocytes via a mechanism that involves NF-κB signaling and that selective inhibition of IL17A signaling attenuates levels of pro-inflammatory molecules in astrocytes. PMID:24677511

  8. Eccrine Sweat Contains IL-1?, IL-1? and IL-31 and Activates Epidermal Keratinocytes as a Danger Signal

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiuju; Okazaki, Hidenori; Hanakawa, Yasushi; Murakami, Masamoto; Tohyama, Mikiko; Shirakata, Yuji; Sayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Eccrine sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and is not harmful to normal skin, but can exacerbate eczematous lesions in atopic dermatitis. Although eccrine sweat contains a number of minerals, proteins, and proteolytic enzymes, how it causes skin inflammation is not clear. We hypothesized that it stimulates keratinocytes directly, as a danger signal. Eccrine sweat was collected from the arms of healthy volunteers after exercise, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the sweat were quantified by ELISA. We detected the presence of IL-1?, IL-1?, and high levels of IL-31 in sweat samples. To investigate whether sweat activates keratinocytes, normal human keratinocytes were stimulated with concentrated sweat. Western blot analysis demonstrated the activation of NF-?B, ERK, and JNK signaling in sweat-stimulated keratinocytes. Real-time PCR using total RNA and ELISA analysis of supernatants showed the upregulation of IL-8 and IL-1? by sweat. Furthermore, pretreatment with IL-1R antagonist blocked sweat-stimulated cytokine production and signal activation, indicating that bioactive IL-1 is a major factor in the activation of keratinocytes by sweat. Moreover, IL-31 seems to be another sweat stimulator that activates keratinocytes to produce inflammatory cytokine, CCL2. Sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and does not come into contact with keratinocytes in normal skin. However, in skin with a defective cutaneous barrier, such as atopic dermatitis-affected skin, sweat cytokines can directly act on epidermal keratinocytes, resulting in their activation. In conclusion, eccrine sweat contains proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1 and IL-31, and activates epidermal keratinocytes as a danger signal. PMID:23874436

  9. The Arrest Records of Rosa Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredhoff, Stacey; Schamel, Wynell; Potter, Lee Ann

    1999-01-01

    Provides background information on the arrest of Rosa Parks and the effects this event had on the Civil Rights Movement. Offers a collection of teaching activities in which the students examine the arrest records of Rosa Parks and explains that these activities are designed to accompany a unit on racial segregation. (CMK)

  10. Method Boundness among Zoo and Park Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.; Meyers, Ronald B.

    1998-01-01

    A national survey of 131 park and zoo educators' teaching beliefs was conducted in 14 parks and zoos in the United States in 1996. The Van Tilburg/Heimlich Teaching Beliefs Scale and a self-report time on task and importance of task were used. Outcomes showed that a preponderance of respondents would self-identify their beliefs to be…

  11. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.23 Parking. (a) A person may not stand (vehicle... sign, crosswalk, or traffic control signal; (5) In a double-parked position; (6) At a curb...

  12. 45 CFR 3.24 - Parking permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parking permits. 3.24 Section 3.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.24 Parking permits. Except for visitor...

  13. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.23 Parking. (a) A person may not stand (vehicle... sign, crosswalk, or traffic control signal; (5) In a double-parked position; (6) At a curb...

  14. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.23 Parking. (a) A person may not stand (vehicle... sign, crosswalk, or traffic control signal; (5) In a double-parked position; (6) At a curb...

  15. 45 CFR 3.24 - Parking permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Parking permits. 3.24 Section 3.24 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.24 Parking permits. Except for visitor...

  16. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.23 Parking. (a) A person may not stand (vehicle... sign, crosswalk, or traffic control signal; (5) In a double-parked position; (6) At a curb...

  17. 45 CFR 3.24 - Parking permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Parking permits. 3.24 Section 3.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.24 Parking permits. Except for visitor...

  18. 45 CFR 3.24 - Parking permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Parking permits. 3.24 Section 3.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.24 Parking permits. Except for visitor...

  19. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient...

  20. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient...

  1. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient...

  2. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient...

  3. Businesses Take Root in University Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Sarah

    1986-01-01

    Industrial centers located near university campuses promote the sharing of resources and development of new firms. Issues related to this trend are discussed. A list of 35 university-affiliated research parks (either operating or under active development) is included. Indicates that another 20-30 parks are in early planning stages. (JN)

  4. PARKING MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR REDUCING AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report defines the concept of parking management and explores how parking management can be used to improve air quality, support mass transit, reduce energy consumption and improve the amenities of life in urban areas. Specific aspects of this analysis were developments of a...

  5. Private Sector Thinking Saves Park U.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breckon, Donald; Gibb, John

    2000-01-01

    Recounts the restructuring and resulting survival of Park University (Missouri) over the last decade. A process of evaluating the university's competitive strategy resulted in changes in tuition pricing; development of the Park School of Distance Learning, which serves primarily military installations; minority student marketing; and development…

  6. 78 FR 24323 - National Park Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8961 of April 19, 2013 National Park Week, 2013 By the President of the... be passed on. During National Park Week, we celebrate the wonders entrusted to us by our...

  7. Parents and Projects at Park School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable, Greg

    This report is a narrative account of the development of community involvement at Park School, Toronto, following the conflict which developed in the late 1960's and which reached its peak in 1970. In Park School, the process of community involvement has been characterized by bitterness, hostility, and distrust. After September 1970, with the…

  8. Instruction and Delight: Theme Parks and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Margaret J.

    Education continues to operate as an enclave of elite culture and is battling for interest and respect with the mass media, technology, and the popular arts. These cultures must be brought together. Using the creative ideas generated by theme parks is an effective method of importing popular culture into the schools. Theme parks provide a total…

  9. How Safe Are School and Park Playgrounds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Susan D.; Thompson, Donna; Olsen, Heather

    2005-01-01

    Playgrounds traditionally have been found in both schools and parks in America. Each year, parent-teacher associations and school administrations, as well as park and recreation departments, spend millions of dollars to provide playground structures. However, since 1981, HPER professionals and the public have become increasingly aware that these…

  10. Glacier National Park Bighorn Sheep Studies

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The USGS studies bighorn sheep movements, population structures, and habitat use in and near Glacier National Park. Here, USGS scientist Tabitha Graves sets up remote camera at a salt lick in the park as a sheep stands in background....

  11. Design of Parking Lots and Garages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConochie, William R.

    Layout, control, and sign posting in the design of parking facilities is discussed emphasizing self parking and automated control. Considerations such as site, traffic, function of the facility, city codes, and sizes are related to design considerations. Traffic control factors are related to the direction and placement of cars and the collection…

  12. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Parking. 3.23 Section 3.23 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.23 Parking. (a) A person may not stand (vehicle stopped, with or without, an...

  13. How Safe Are School and Park Playgrounds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Susan D.; Thompson, Donna; Olsen, Heather

    2005-01-01

    Playgrounds traditionally have been found in both schools and parks in America. Each year, parent-teacher associations and school administrations, as well as park and recreation departments, spend millions of dollars to provide playground structures. However, since 1981, HPER professionals and the public have become increasingly aware that these…

  14. Communication and Recycling in Park Campgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Sam H.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the Canby Washington State Park campground recycling program by determining whether campers (N=147) read and followed the provided instructions when disposing of garbage, understood the sorting and disposal instructions, and arrived at the park equipped with receptacles for recyclables and non-recyclables.…

  15. Interleukin (IL)-1A and IL-6: Applications to the predictive diagnostic testing of radiation pneumonitis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yuhchyau . E-mail: yuhchyau_chen@urmc.rochester.edu; Hyrien, Ollivier; Williams, Jacqueline; Okunieff, Paul; Smudzin, Therese; Rubin, Philip

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To explore the application of interleukin (IL)-1{alpha} and IL-6 measurements in the predictive diagnostic testing for symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP). Methods and materials: In a prospective protocol investigating RP and cytokines, IL-1{alpha} and IL-6 values were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from serial weekly blood samples of patients receiving chest radiation. We analyzed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) over selected threshold values for both cytokines in the application to diagnostic testing. Results: The average coefficient of variation was 51% of the weekly mean IL-1{alpha} level and 39% of the weekly mean IL-6 value. Interleukin 1{alpha} and IL-6 became positively correlated with time. Specificity for both cytokines was better than sensitivity. IL-6 globally outperformed IL-1{alpha} in predicting RP, with higher PPV and NPV. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate the feasibility of applying IL-1{alpha} and IL-6 measurements of blood specimens to predict RP. Interleukin-6 measurements offer stronger positive predictive value than IL-1{alpha}. This application might be further explored in a larger sample of patients.

  16. IL-31 and IL-33 circulating levels in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Guarneri, F; Minciullo, P L; Mannucci, C; Calapai, F; Saitta, S; Cannavò, S P; Gangemi, S

    2015-09-01

    Enhanced IL-31 expression in skin biopsies is present in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). IL-33 expression is induced in keratinocytes and in skin of ACD patients. This overexpression is present in both allergic and irritant conditions. The aim of this work was to test the systemic involvement of IL-31 and IL-33 in ACD. IL-31 levels were significantly higher in patients than in controls. IL-33 serum levels, on the contrary, were similar in patients and controls. This work shows a possible systemic involvement of IL-31 and the absence of a systemic involvement of IL-33 in ACD. IL-31 levels do not seem related to the allergen involved, and did not change on the strength of the allergen involved. More likely, IL-31 levels are related to the itch. IL-33, instead, is secreted from damaged or inflamed tissue and might function as an early warning system at the site of skin damage. In the future, IL-31 could be a possible therapeutic target of all pruritic skin diseases resistant to conventional therapies. PMID:26357000

  17. IL-1? and inflammasome-independent IL-1? promote neutrophil infiltration following alum vaccination.

    PubMed

    Oleszycka, Ewa; Moran, Hannah B T; Tynan, Graham A; Hearnden, Claire H; Coutts, Graham; Campbell, Matthew; Allan, Stuart M; Scott, Christopher J; Lavelle, Ed C

    2016-01-01

    Despite its long record of successful use in human vaccines, the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory effects of alum are not fully understood. Alum is a potent inducer of interleukin-1 (IL-1) secretion in vitro in dendritic cells and macrophages via Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing (NLR) family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. However, the contribution of IL-1 to alum-induced innate and adaptive immune responses is controversial and the role of IL-1? following alum injection has not been addressed. This study shows that IL-1 is dispensable for alum-induced antibody and CD8 T cell responses to ovalbumin. However, IL-1 is essential for neutrophil infiltration into the injection site, while recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and eosinophils is IL-1 independent. Both IL-1? and IL-1? are released at the site of injection and contribute to the neutrophil response. Surprisingly, these effects are NLRP3-inflammasome independent as is the infiltration of other cell populations. However, while NLRP3 and caspase 1 were dispensable, alum-induced IL-1? at the injection site was dependent on the cysteine protease cathepsin S. Overall, these data demonstrate a previously unreported role for cathepsin S in IL-1? secretion, show that inflammasome formation is dispensable for alum-induced innate immunity and reveal that IL-1? and IL-1? are both necessary for alum-induced neutrophil influx in vivo. PMID:26536497

  18. Gut-busters -- IL-17 Ain’t Afraid Of No IL-23

    PubMed Central

    Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies targeting IL-23 ameliorate clinical symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. Paradoxically, IL-17 neutralization exacerbates colitis. In this issue, Lee et al. and Maxwell et al. reveal a protective function of IL-17 through maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity, helping to explain this dichotomy (Lee et al., 2015; Maxwell et al., 2015). PMID:26488809

  19. 115. Doughton Park Recreation Area. View of roadway alignment around ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. Doughton Park Recreation Area. View of roadway alignment around alligator back and parking overlook in foreground. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  20. 1. VIEW OF PARK FROM NORTHWEST SHOWING BUS RAMP AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF PARK FROM NORTHWEST SHOWING BUS RAMP AND PUBLIC PARKING LOT IN CENTER, HARVARD YARD BUILDINGS IN REAR, HOLYOKE CENTER AT REAR RIGHT. - Flagstaff Park, Massachusetts Avenue & Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  1. FACING NORTH ALONG CANDLER PARK DRIVE (WESTERN BOUNDARY OF CANDLER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTH ALONG CANDLER PARK DRIVE (WESTERN BOUNDARY OF CANDLER PARK IS RIGHT SIDE OF ROAD IN PHOTOGRAPH) - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  2. FACING NORTH ALONG CANDLER PARK DRIVE TOWARD NORTHWEST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTH ALONG CANDLER PARK DRIVE TOWARD NORTHWEST CORNER OF PARK - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  3. IL-4 abrogates TH17 cell-mediated inflammation by selective silencing of IL-23 in antigen-presenting cells

    PubMed Central

    Guenova, Emmanuella; Skabytska, Yuliya; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Weindl, Günther; Sauer, Karin; Tham, Manuela; Kim, Kyu-Won; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Seo, Ji Hae; Ignatova, Desislava; Cozzio, Antonio; Levesque, Mitchell P.; Volz, Thomas; Köberle, Martin; Kaesler, Susanne; Thomas, Peter; Mailhammer, Reinhard; Ghoreschi, Kamran; Schäkel, Knut; Amarov, Boyko; Eichner, Martin; Schaller, Martin; Clark, Rachael A.; Röcken, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) can suppress delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions (DTHRs), including organ-specific autoimmune diseases in mice and humans. Despite the broadly documented antiinflammatory effect of IL-4, the underlying mode of action remains incompletely understood, as IL-4 also promotes IL-12 production by dendritic cells (DCs) and IFN-γ–producing TH1 cells in vivo. Studying the impact of IL-4 on the polarization of human and mouse DCs, we found that IL-4 exerts opposing effects on the production of either IL-12 or IL-23. While promoting IL-12–producing capacity of DCs, IL-4 completely abrogates IL-23. Bone marrow chimeras proved that IL-4–mediated suppression of DTHRs relies on the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6)-dependent abrogation of IL-23 in antigen-presenting cells. Moreover, IL-4 therapy attenuated DTHRs by STAT6- and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3)-dependent suppression of the IL-23/TH17 responses despite simultaneous enhancement of IL-12/TH1 responses. As IL-4 therapy also improves psoriasis in humans and suppresses IL-23/TH17 responses without blocking IL-12/TH1, selective IL-4–mediated IL-23/TH17 silencing is promising as treatment against harmful inflammation, while sparing the IL-12–dependent TH1 responses. PMID:25646481

  4. iParking: an intelligent indoor location-based smartphone parking service.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution. PMID:23202179

  5. iParking: An Intelligent Indoor Location-Based Smartphone Parking Service

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution. PMID:23202179

  6. IL-1 Blockade in Autoinflammatory Syndromes1

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Adriana A.; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2014-01-01

    Monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes present with excessive systemic inflammation including fever, rashes, arthritis, and organ-specific inflammation and are caused by defects in single genes encoding proteins that regulate innate inflammatory pathways. Pathogenic variants in two interleukin-1 (IL-1)–regulating genes, NLRP3 and IL1RN, cause two severe and early-onset autoinflammatory syndromes, CAPS (cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes) and DIRA (deficiency of IL-1 receptor antagonist). The discovery of the mutations that cause CAPS and DIRA led to clinical and basic research that uncovered the key role of IL-1 in an extended spectrum of immune dysregulatory conditions. NLRP3 encodes cryopyrin, an intracellular “molecular sensor” that forms a multimolecular platform, the NLRP3 inflammasome, which links “danger recognition” to the activation of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1?. The success and safety profile of drugs targeting IL-1 in the treatment of CAPS and DIRA have encouraged their wider use in other autoinflammatory syndromes including the classic hereditary periodic fever syndromes (familial Mediterranean fever, TNF receptor–associated periodic syndrome, and hyperimmunoglobulinemia D with periodic fever syndrome) and additional immune dysregulatory conditions that are not genetically well defined, including Still’s, Behcet’s, and Schnitzler diseases. The fact that the accumulation of metabolic substrates such as monosodium urate, ceramide, cholesterol, and glucose can trigger the NLRP3 inflammasome connects metabolic stress to IL-1?-mediated inflammation and provides a rationale for therapeutically targeting IL-1 in prevalent diseases such as gout, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease. PMID:24422572

  7. IL-23A, IL-23R, IL-17A and IL-17R polymorphisms in different psoriatic arthritis clinical manifestations in the northern Italian population.

    PubMed

    Catanoso, Maria Grazia; Boiardi, Luigi; Macchioni, Pierluigi; Garagnani, Paolo; Sazzini, Marco; De Fanti, Sara; Farnetti, Enrico; Casali, Bruno; Chiarolanza, Ilaria; Nicoli, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Salvarani, Carlo

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the genetic variability of IL-17A, IL17-RA, IL-23A and IL-23R genes on an in-depth phenotypically characterized northern Italian Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) case-control cohort, in search for associations specific to different PsA clinical sub-phenotypes. We examined 118 patients with PsA according to CASPAR criteria (mean age 57 ± 13, female 38.4 %, mean disease duration 13.9 ± 8.6 years, peripheral disease 83.8 %, axial manifestations 34.5 %, radiological erosive disease 49 %) compared with 248 controls of the same ethnic origin matched for age and sex. The presence of axial disease was defined by the clinical axial involvement and/or the presence of radiological alteration consistent with spondyloarthropathy according to New York criteria. The presence of peripheral disease (arthritis and/or enthesitis) was defined only on clinical basis. A total of 40 SNPs, mapping within the genes mentioned above, were genotyped in both groups and used to perform association analyses by subdividing the PsA sample into subgroups according to different clinical manifestations on the basis of axial and peripheral involvements. No differences between patients and controls were found in the distribution of the IL-17A, IL17-RA, IL-23A and IL-23R genes allelic variants. Comparing patients with axial disease versus those without, we found that axial manifestations were significantly associated with the presence of IL-23R rs12401432 GG homozygosity (26.8 % vs. 5.3 %, p corr = 0.019, OR 2.63 [95 % CI 1.13-6.16]). No differences in distribution of the allelic variants were found comparing patients with versus those without peripheral disease or patients with versus without radiological peripheral erosions. In PA patients of northern Italian origin, IL-17A, IL17-RA, IL-23A and IL-23R genes allelic variants are not associated with disease susceptibility. However, a strong association with the IL-23RA rs12401432 GG genotype is associated with axial involvement of the disease. PMID:22955875

  8. Localization of pro-inflammatory (IL-12, IL-15) and anti-inflammatory (IL-11, IL-13) cytokines at the foetomaternal interface during murine pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zourbas, S; Dubanchet, S; Martal, J; Chaouat, G

    2001-01-01

    The involvement of some interleukins (ILs) in early and established pregnancy has been convincingly demonstrated, but little is known about the potential role of the more recently discovered ones. However, since many of these have positive or negative regulatory effects on both NK and T cells, it is highly probable that they also have regulatory functions in both implantation and placental development. Therefore, as a first step in tackling this problem, we have investigated whether several recently described pro- (IL-12, IL-15) and anti-inflammatory (IL-11, IL-13) cytokines were expressed at the uteroplacental interface by use of immunohistochemistry at different stages of gestation in mice. Each of these molecules was found at the foetomaternal interface, with specific distributions and patterns of expression depending on both the cytokine itself and the stage of pregnancy. The significance of these data is discussed. PMID:11737071

  9. The Unique Functions of the Type-II IL-4 Receptor are revealed in IL-13R¿1-deficient mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The IL-4 receptor is a central mediator of Th2-mediated diseases and associates with either the common gamma chain (type-I IL-4R) or IL-13Ra1 (type-II IL-4R) to form two receptor complexes. Here, using IL-13Ra1-/- mice, we characterized the distinct functions of the type-II IL-4R. In contrast to IL-...

  10. Cigarette smoke affects IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-17 receptor expression in the lung tissue: Ex vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Montalbano, Angela Marina; Riccobono, Loredana; Siena, Liboria; Chiappara, Giuseppina; Di Sano, Caterina; Anzalone, Giulia; Gagliardo, Rosalia; Ricciardolo, Fabio L M; Sorbello, Valentina; Pipitone, Loredana; Vitulo, Patrizio; Profita, Mirella

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoke is a risk factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Th-17 cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of COPD. We aimed to evaluate the role of cigarette smoke on the expression of IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-17R in airways of COPD patients. Epithelial and subepithelial immunoreactivity for IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-17R was assessed in surgical specimens from COPD patients (n=15) and from healthy subjects (HC) (n=10) by immunohistochemistry. In vitro, human epithelial cell line 16HBE and A549 as well as PBMC from normal donors were stimulated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%) to evaluate the IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-17R expression by flow cytometry. Furthermore, rhIL-17A and CSE stimulation was evaluated on proliferation and apoptosis in 16HBE and in A549. In central and distal airways immunoreactivity for IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-17R significantly increased in the epithelium and IL-17A in the subepithelium from COPD than in HC. In distal airway, immunoreactivity for IL-17F increased in the subepithelium of COPD than in HC. IL-17A immunoreactivity positively correlate with IL-17R and total pack years in the epithelium from central and distal airways of COPD patients. In vitro, CSE stimulation significantly increased IL-17F and IL-17R in 16HBE (2.5%) and A549 (5%) while IL-17A and IL-17F in PBMC (10%). IL-17A and CSE stimulation, rather than CSE or rhIL-17A alone, significantly increased proliferation in 16HBE and apoptosis in A549. Cigarette smoke increases Th17 immunity in lung tissue of COPD patients, promoting the mechanism of proliferation and apoptosis in airway epithelial cells. PMID:26198032

  11. IL-33 and IL-4 impair barrier functions of human vascular endothelium via different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chalubinski, Maciej; Wojdan, Katarzyna; Luczak, Emilia; Gorzelak, Paulina; Borowiec, Maciej; Gajewski, Adrian; Rudnicka, Karolina; Chmiela, Magdalena; Broncel, Marlena

    2015-10-01

    The vascular endothelium forms a barrier that controls flow of solutes and proteins and the entry of leukocytes into tissue. Injured tissue releases IL-33, which then alarms the immune system and attracts Th2 cells, thus increasing local concentration of IL-4. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of IL-33 and IL-4 on barrier functions of the human endothelium, expression of tight and adherent junction proteins, apoptosis and adhesive molecule surface expression in human endothelium in order to describe the mechanism of this effect. IL-33 and IL-4 decreased endothelial integrity and increased permeability. When added together, both cytokines lowered the endothelial integrity twice as much as used alone. This effect was accompanied by the down-regulation of occludin and VE-cadherin mRNA expression. Additionally, IL-4, but not IL-33, induced cell apoptosis. Both IL-33 and IL-4 showed the additive potency to down-regulate VE-cadherin mRNA expression. IL-33, unlike IL-4, increased the surface expression of ICAM-1, but not PECAM-1 in endothelial cells. Our results indicate that IL-33 may reversibly destabilize the endothelial barrier, thus accelerating the supply with immunomodulators and assisting leukocytes to reach wounded tissue. However, extended and less-controlled down-regulation of endothelial barrier, which may be a consequence of IL-33-initiated, but in fact IL-4-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells, may be deleterious and may eventually lead to the aggravation of inflammatory processes and the prolongation of tissue dysfunction. PMID:26231284

  12. Saltfjellet-Svartisen Park, Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Arctic Circle cuts through the western coast of Norway and the Saltfjellet-Svartisen National Park. This area features many glacial fjords, alpine mountain formations with glacier tongues, as well as gently sloping mountain plateaus and forested lowland valleys. The largest city here is Mo I Rana, (just off the image to the east) with a population of 25,000 (26th most populous city in Norway). Once supported entirely by the town's steel mill, the area has developed into a tourist center.

    The image covers an area of 51 x 57 km, was acquired on August 23, 2006, and is located near 66.6 degrees north latitude, 13 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. New Literacies in Schome Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Julia

    In this chapter I deploy a synthesis of methods I term virtual literacy ethnography to investigate the diverse literacy practices of the Schome Park project (SPP). This project worked with teenagers on the first European "closed" (i.e. protected) island in the 3D virtual world Teen Second LifeTM (TSL) as described in the previous chapter. Firstly I introduce an ethnographic perspective on this lengthy, rich project and reflect on my own interpretive approach. Introducing my own focus of interest, the new literacy practices fostered by the environment and in particular activities I judge to be especially creative, I begin to develop the methodology of a "virtual literacy ethnography". I show how the diverse multimodal affordances of the communicative domains are imaginatively exploited by the students, supported by peers and staff in an environment characterised by "fluid leadership". I include some analysis of literacy work around a genre traditionally valued by educators, a dictionary, which I was not involved in at the time. I suggest this is an exemplar literacy practice, creative in itself and illustrative of the methodological possibilities and of course limitations linked with the technologies utilised. Traditional distinctions between "reading" and "writing" become permeable in interesting ways as new creative practices, fostered by the environment of the Schome Park programme, emerged. I offer support for Kress's (2005) claim that changes in writing and reading practices amount to a "revolution in the world of communication." In conclusion, I claim that virtual literacy ethnography, as I have proposed it here, can be fruitful in exploring the complexity and creativity of the students' literacy practices, although more developmental work is needed.

  14. Expression of IL-18, IL-18 Binding Protein, and IL-18 Receptor by Normal and Cancerous Human Ovarian Tissues: Possible Implication of IL-18 in the Pathogenesis of Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Liat; Rabinovich, Alex; Piura, Benjamin; Dyomin, Victor; Shaco Levy, Ruthy; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 has been shown to be elevated in the sera of ovarian carcinoma patients. The aim of the study was to examine the levels and cellular origin of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and IL-18 receptor in normal and cancerous ovarian tissues. Ovarian tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemical staining for IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R and mRNA of these cytokines was analyzed with semiquantitative PT-PCR. IL-18 levels were significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P = 0.0007), IL-18BP levels were significantly higher in normal ovarian tissues (P = 0.04), and the ratio of IL-18/IL-18BP was significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P = 0.036). Cancerous ovarian tissues expressed significantly higher IL-18 mRNA levels (P = 0.025), while there was no difference in the expression of IL-18BP mRNA and IL-18R mRNA between cancerous and normal ovarian tissues. IL-18 and IL-18BP were expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of both cancerous and normal ovarian tissues, while IL-18R was expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of cancerous ovarian tissues but expressed similarly in the epithelial and stromal cells of normal cancerous tissues. This study indicates a possible role of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID:24963217

  15. Expression of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and IL-18 receptor by normal and cancerous human ovarian tissues: possible implication of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Medina, Liat; Rabinovich, Alex; Piura, Benjamin; Dyomin, Victor; Levy, Ruthy Shaco; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 has been shown to be elevated in the sera of ovarian carcinoma patients. The aim of the study was to examine the levels and cellular origin of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and IL-18 receptor in normal and cancerous ovarian tissues. Ovarian tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemical staining for IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R and mRNA of these cytokines was analyzed with semiquantitative PT-PCR. IL-18 levels were significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P = 0.0007), IL-18BP levels were significantly higher in normal ovarian tissues (P = 0.04), and the ratio of IL-18/IL-18BP was significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P = 0.036). Cancerous ovarian tissues expressed significantly higher IL-18 mRNA levels (P = 0.025), while there was no difference in the expression of IL-18BP mRNA and IL-18R mRNA between cancerous and normal ovarian tissues. IL-18 and IL-18BP were expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of both cancerous and normal ovarian tissues, while IL-18R was expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of cancerous ovarian tissues but expressed similarly in the epithelial and stromal cells of normal cancerous tissues. This study indicates a possible role of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID:24963217

  16. Expression of IL-15RA or an IL-15/IL-15RA fusion on CD8+ T cells modifies adoptively transferred T cell function in cis

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, Jesse; Monie, Archana; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T.-C.

    2010-01-01

    IL-15 and IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15R?) play a significant role in multiple aspects of T cell biology. However, given the evidence that IL-15R? can present IL-15 in trans, the functional capacity of IL-15R? expressed on CD8+ T cells to modify IL-15 functions in cis is currently unclear. In the current study we explore the functional consequences of IL-15R? expression on T cells using a novel method to transfect naive CD8+ T cells. We observed that RNA nucleofection led to highly efficient, non-toxic, and rapid manipulation of protein expression levels in unstimulated CD8+ T cells. We found that transfection of unstimulated CD8+ T cells with IL-15R? RNA led to enhanced viability of CD8+ T cells in response to IL-15. Transfection with IL-15R? enhanced IL-15 mediated phosphorylation of Stat5 and also promoted IL-15-mediated proliferation in vivo of adoptively transferred naïve CD8+ T cells. We demonstrated that IL-15R? can present IL-15 via cis-presentation on CD8+ T cells. Finally, we showed that transfection with a chimeric construct linking IL-15 to IL-15R? cell autonomously enhances the viability and proliferation of primary CD8+ T cells and cytotoxic potential of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. The clinical implications of the current study are discussed. PMID:19180469

  17. Expression of IL-15RA or an IL-15/IL-15RA fusion on CD8+ T cells modifies adoptively transferred T-cell function in cis.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jesse; Monie, Archana; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2009-02-01

    IL-15 and IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15RA) play a significant role in multiple aspects of T-cell biology. However, given the evidence that IL-15RA can present IL-15 in trans, the functional capacity of IL-15RA expressed on CD8(+) T cells to modify IL-15 functions in cis is currently unclear. In the current study, we explore the functional consequences of IL-15RA, expression on T cells using a novel method to transfect naive CD8(+) T cells. We observed that RNA nucleofection led to highly efficient, non-toxic, and rapid manipulation of protein expression levels in unstimulated CD8(+) T cells. We found that transfection of unstimulated CD8(+) T cells with IL-15RA RNA led to enhanced viability of CD8(+) T cells in response to IL-15. Transfection with IL-15RA enhanced IL-15-mediated phosphorylation of STAT5 and also promoted IL-15-mediated proliferation in vivo of adoptively transferred naïve CD8(+) T cells. We demonstrated that IL-15RA can present IL-15 via cis-presentation on CD8(+) T cells. Finally, we showed that transfection with a chimeric construct linking IL-15 to IL-15RA cell autonomously enhances the viability and proliferation of primary CD8(+) T cells and cytotoxic potential of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. The clinical implications of the current study are discussed. PMID:19180469

  18. IL-17-producing NKT cells depend exclusively on IL-7 for homeostasis and survival.

    PubMed

    Webster, K E; Kim, H-O; Kyparissoudis, K; Corpuz, T M; Pinget, G V; Uldrich, A P; Brink, R; Belz, G T; Cho, J-H; Godfrey, D I; Sprent, J

    2014-09-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T cells that rapidly recognize pathogens and produce cytokines that shape the ensuing immune response. IL-17-producing NKT cells are enriched in barrier tissues, such as the lung, skin, and peripheral lymph nodes, and the factors that maintain this population in the periphery have not been elucidated. Here we show that NKT17 cells deviate from other NKT cells in their survival requirements. In contrast to conventional NKT cells that are maintained by IL-15, RORγt(+) NKT cells are IL-15 independent and instead rely completely on IL-7. IL-7 initiates a T-cell receptor-independent (TCR-independent) expansion of NKT17 cells, thus supporting their homeostasis. Without IL-7, survival is dramatically impaired, yet residual cells remain lineage committed with no downregulation of RORγt evident. Their preferential response to IL-7 does not reflect enhanced signaling through STAT proteins, but instead is modulated via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. The ability to compete for IL-7 is dependent on high-density IL-7 receptor expression, which would promote uptake of low levels of IL-7 produced in the non-lymphoid sites of lung and skin. This dependence on IL-7 is also reported for RORγt(+) innate lymphoid cells and CD4(+) Th17 cells, and suggests common survival requirements for functionally similar cells. PMID:24448098

  19. IL-21 is an immune activator that also mediates suppression via IL-10.

    PubMed

    Spolski, Rosanne; Leonard, Warren J

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a pleiotropic type I cytokine that is produced predominantly by CD4(+) T cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells. Although IL-21 production is relatively restricted to these two populations of immune cells, its targets are numerous, including multiple lympho-hematopoietic as well as non-hematopoietic lineages. The effects of IL-21 are specific not only to the target cell type, but also depend on the developmental stage of the target cell as well as the available co-stimulatory signals. Accordingly, IL-21 functions not only as a strong inducer of differentiation and proliferation but also as a pro-apoptotic factor. Although most of the effects of IL-21 are immunostimulatory, it has become clear that one of the cytokines that is potently induced by IL-21 in a number of lymphoid lineages is interleukin-10 (IL-10), one of the most immunosuppressive cytokines. The seemingly contradictory actions of IL-21 and IL-10 and the consequences of their co-expression are currently being explored in numerous infectious models, autoimmune diseases, and tumor responses. This review seeks to critically evaluate the evidence concerning the regulation of IL-10 by IL-21 in a number of lineage subsets as well as to discuss the potential positive versus deleterious roles that this co-expression may play in a range of disease models. PMID:21175418

  20. IL-15 and IL-15Ralpha in CD4+T cell immunity.

    PubMed

    Van Belle, Tom; Grooten, Johan

    2005-01-01

    The cytokine IL-15 performs numerous functions, such as promotion of growth and survival, on a plethora of cell types from both the lymphoid and non-lymphoid compartments. Therefore, mice genetically engineered to either lack or overexpress functional IL-15 display reduced immunological responses and leukemia, respectively. Surprisingly, IL-15 protein is hardly found in serum or body fluids. Due to the lack of a clear demonstration of its presence as protein,IL-15 was often referred to as a "ghost cytokine ". Recently, however, membrane-bound IL-15 was detected in both a membrane-anchored form and an IL-15Ralpha -bound form on monocytes. Interestingly, the latter complex can ben transpresented to cells expressing the intermediate-affinity IL-2/15Rbeta-gamma C receptor and thereby support the survival and proliferation of T cells. Moreover, overlapping promoter elements indicate a model of co-regulation of IL-15 and IL-15Ralpha by which IL-15 activities are controlled in a cell-contact-dependent manner. In this review, recent reports on IL-15 are combined with previous observations and discussed in terms of their functional consequences for CD4+ T cell responses. PMID:15928580

  1. Divergence of IL-1, IL-18, and cell death in NLRP3 inflammasomopathies

    PubMed Central

    Brydges, Susannah D.; Broderick, Lori; McGeough, Matthew D.; Pena, Carla A.; Mueller, James L.; Hoffman, Hal M.

    2013-01-01

    The inflammasome is a cytoplasmic multiprotein complex that promotes proinflammatory cytokine maturation in response to host- and pathogen-derived signals. Missense mutations in cryopyrin (NLRP3) result in a hyperactive inflammasome that drives overproduction of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18, leading to the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) disease spectrum. Mouse lines harboring CAPS-associated mutations in Nlrp3 have elevated levels of IL-1? and IL-18 and closely mimic human disease. To examine the role of inflammasome-driven IL-18 in murine CAPS, we bred Nlrp3 mutations onto an Il18r-null background. Deletion of Il18r resulted in partial phenotypic rescue that abolished skin and visceral disease in young mice and normalized serum cytokines to a greater extent than breeding to Il1r-null mice. Significant systemic inflammation developed in aging Nlrp3 mutant Il18r-null mice, indicating that IL-1 and IL-18 drive pathology at different stages of the disease process. Ongoing inflammation in double-cytokine knockout CAPS mice implicated a role for caspase-1–mediated pyroptosis and confirmed that CAPS is inflammasome dependent. Our results have important implications for patients with CAPS and residual disease, emphasizing the need to explore other NLRP3-mediated pathways and the potential for inflammasome-targeted therapy. PMID:24084736

  2. Stimulation of B lymphocytes by cmvIL-10 but not LAcmvIL-10

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Juliet V. Cadaoas, Jaclyn; Castillo, Patricia R.; Saini, Vandana; Slobedman, Barry

    2008-04-25

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread pathogen that establishes lifelong latent infection facilitated by numerous mechanisms for modulating the host immune system. The UL111A region of the HCMV genome encodes a homolog of human cellular IL-10 (hIL-10). The viral cytokine, cmvIL-10, exhibits many of the immunosuppressive properties of hIL-10. However, hIL-10 is also known to have stimulatory effects on B lymphocytes. We found that cmvIL-10 has the ability to enhance B cell proliferation, despite having only 27% sequence identity to hIL-10. Treatment with cmvIL-10 stimulated autocrine production of hIL-10 by B lymphocytes and led to activation of the latent transcription factor Stat3. In contrast, LAcmvIL-10, a truncated protein resulting from an alternatively spliced transcript in latently infected cells, did not stimulate B cell proliferation, Stat3 activation, or hIL-10 production. These results provide insights into the biological activity of the full-length and latency-associated viral cytokines and suggest different roles for each in HCMV infection.

  3. Allergic airway inflammation: unravelling the relationship between IL-37, IL-18R? and Tir8/SIGIRR.

    PubMed

    Lunding, Lars; Schröder, Alexandra; Wegmann, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The hallmarks of allergic bronchial asthma arise from chronic airway inflammation. Thus, elucidating the mechanisms regulating the maintenance of this chronic inflammatory response is key to understanding asthma pathogenesis. To date, it is not clear whether a predominance of proinflammatory factors or a reduced capacity of counterbalancing anti-inflammatory mediators is the pivotal factor predisposing individuals towards asthma development. The IL-1 cytokine family and its receptor systems comprise a variety of proinflammatory cytokines like IL-1? and IL-18 and anti-inflammatory molecules such as the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor 8/single Ig IL-1 receptor (IL-R)-related molecule (Tir8/SIGIRR) and the recently established cytokine IL-37. This article reviews the functions of these IL-1 cytokine family members in the regulation of allergic airway inflammation and asthma as they have been assessed clinically, in vitro and in mouse models. PMID:26561030

  4. IL-32gamma induces the maturation of dendritic cells with Th1- and Th17-polarizing ability through enhanced IL-12 and IL-6 production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mi Young; Son, Mi Hye; Kim, Soo Hyun; Cho, Daeho; Kim, Tae Sung

    2011-06-15

    IL-32, a newly described multifunctional cytokine, has been associated with a variety of inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, and Crohn's disease. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of IL-32? on bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (DC)-driven Th responses and analyzed the underlying signaling events. IL-32?-treated DCs exhibited upregulated expression of cell-surface molecules and proinflammatory cytokines associated with DC maturation and activation. In particular, IL-32? treatment significantly increased production of IL-12 and IL-6 in DCs, which are known as Th1- and Th17-polarizing cytokines, respectively. This increased production was inhibited by the addition of specific inhibitors of the activities of phospholipase C (PLC), JNK, and NF-?B. IL-32? treatment increased the phosphorylation of JNK and the degradation of both I?B? and I?B? in DCs, as well as NF-?B binding activity to the ?B site. The PLC inhibitor suppressed NF-?B DNA binding activity and JNK phosphorylation increased by IL-32? treatment, thereby indicating that IL-32? induced IL-12 and IL-6 production in DCs via a PLC/JNK/NF-?B signaling pathway. Importantly, IL-32?-stimulated DCs significantly induced both Th1 and Th17 responses when cocultured with CD4(+) T cells. The addition of a neutralizing anti-IL-12 mAb abolished the secretion of IFN-? in a dose-dependent manner; additionally, the blockage of IL-1? and IL-6, but not of IL-21 or IL-23p19, profoundly inhibited IL-32?-induced IL-17 production. These results demonstrated that IL-32? could effectively induce the maturation and activation of immature DCs, leading to enhanced Th1 and Th17 responses as the result of increased IL-12 and IL-6 production in DCs. PMID:21551364

  5. T cells redirected to IL13R?2 with IL13 mutein-CARs have antiglioma activity but also recognize IL13R?1

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Simone; Chow, Kevin KH; Yi, Zongzhen; Rodriguez-Cruz, Tania; Hegde, Meenakshi; Gerken, Claudia; Ahmed, Nabil; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Outcomes for patients with glioblastoma remain poor despite aggressive multimodal therapy. Immunotherapy with genetically modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting IL13R[.alpha]2, HER2, EGFRvIII, or EphA2 has shown promise for the treatment of glioma in preclinical models. Based on IL13R?2-targeted immunotoxins that contain IL13 molecules with one or two amino acid substitutions (IL13 muteins) to confer specificity to IL13R?2, investigators have constructed CARs with IL13 muteins as antigen binding domains. While the specificity of IL13 muteins in the context of immunotoxins is well characterized, limited information is available for CAR T cells. We constructed four 2nd generation CARs with IL13 muteins with one or two amino acid substitutions. T cells expressing all four CARs recognized IL13R?1 or IL13R?2 recombinant protein in contrast to control protein (IL4R) as judged by IFN? production. IL13R?2 protein induced significantly more IL2, indicating that IL13 mutein-CAR T cells have a higher affinity to IL13R?2 than IL13R?1. In cytotoxcity assays, CAR T cells killed IL13R?1- and/or IL13R?2-positive cells in contrast to IL13R?1- and IL13R?2-negative controls. While we observed no significant differences between IL13 mutein CAR T cells in vitro, only T cells expressing IL13 mutein CARs with an E13K amino acid substitution had antitumor activity in vivo that resulted in a survival advantage of treated animals. Our study highlights that the specificity/avidity of ligands is context-dependent and that evaluating CAR T cells in preclinical animal model is critical to assess their potential benefit. PMID:24841514

  6. IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 Are Associated with Hyperferritinemia in Rapidly Progressive Interstitial Lung Disease with Polymyositis/Dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Kaneko, Hirotaka; Katsumata, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Sayuri; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Hyperferritinemia is frequently accompanied by rapidly progressive (RP) interstitial lung disease (ILD) with polymyositis (PM)/dermatomyositis (DM). To clarify the mechanism of RP-ILD with hyperferritinemia, we investigated the associations between serum ferritin levels and various cytokines in patients with PM/DM. Methods. This retrospective study included 38 patients admitted to our hospital with PM/DM. Levels of serum ferritin and cytokines (IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, IL-18, TNF-?, IFN-?, IFN-?, and IP-10) were measured. Disease activity was evaluated using the tool proposed by the International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies Group. We analyzed the associations between disease activity and levels of serum ferritin and cytokines. Results. The levels of serum ferritin, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, and TNF-?, were significantly correlated with disease activity. In a multivariate analysis, IL-6 (t = 3.6, P = 0.0010), IL-8 (t = 4.8, P < 0.0001), and IL-10 (t = 5.7, P < 0.0001) significantly contributed to serum ferritin levels. The levels of serum ferritin, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10, were higher in the RP-ILD subset than in the non-ILD subset or the chronic ILD subset. Conclusion. IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 are significant contributors to hyperferritinemia in PM/DM. The regulation of these cytokines might offer a possible treatment strategy for RP-ILD with PM/DM. PMID:24800252

  7. Global spatially and temporally resolved measurements of ozone, absorbing aerosol plumes, and cloud reflectivity from the 10-channel EPIC spectroradiometer as part of the DSCOVR Lagrange-1 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J. R.; Marshak, A.; Seftor, C. J.; Kelly, T. J.; Cede, A.

    2011-12-01

    Taking advantage of the unique earth-observing position afforded by the Lagrange-1 orbit at 1.5 million km from the earth, the diurnal variation and global distribution of cloud cover, and aerosol plumes, and ozone will be derived. The results will be obtained from using 4 UV channels (317.5, 325, 340, and 388 nm) out of 10 total channels (UV and Visible). The temporal cadence for global mapping will be at least once per 90 minutes. Previously, the diurnal variation of cloud cover, which has been laboriously obtained from 30 years of combined multiple polar orbiting satellite data, will easily be obtained in one year using the EPIC instrument. Clouds and aerosol plumes will be resolved with EPIC's spatial resolution of 10 to 20 km from near sunrise to near sunset. Similarly, the evolution of aerosol dust and smoke plumes will be seen including the differences between morning, mid-day, and evening amounts.

  8. Identification of residues involved in binding of IL5 to betacom using betaIL3 and betacom chimeras.

    PubMed

    Czabotar, P E; Holland, J; Sanderson, C J

    1999-10-22

    In mice there are two forms of the beta chain used in the IL3 receptor system, betacom and betaIL3. betacom is used by the IL3, IL5 and GM-CSF receptors whereas betaIL3 is only used in the IL3 receptor. In this work an assay was developed to identify residues of beta1L3 that restrict IL5 activity. It was found that such residues reside within the 2nd CRM of the molecule. Furthermore, when residues in the betaIL3 B'-C' loop were replaced with betacom sequence a form of betaIL3 was produced that was able to respond to IL5. This region is also responsible for IL3 binding to betaIL3 in the absence of alpha chain. It is therefore an important structural motif of betacom and betaIL3 responsible for both ligand interaction and specificity. PMID:10571068

  9. Burning Cars in a Parking Lot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoin, Jean

    2011-08-01

    Knuth's parking scheme is a model in computer science for hashing with linear probing. One may imagine a circular parking lot with n sites; cars arrive at each site with unit rate. When a car arrives at a vacant site, it parks there; otherwise it turns clockwise and parks at the first vacant site which is found. We incorporate fires into this model by throwing Molotov cocktails on each site at a smaller rate n - ? , where 0 < ? < 1 is a fixed parameter. When a car is hit by a Molotov cocktail, it burns and the fire propagates to the entire occupied interval which turns vacant. We show that with high probability when n ? ?, the parking lot becomes saturated at a time close to 1 (i.e. as in the absence of fire) for ? > 2/3, whereas for ? < 2/3, the average occupation approaches 1 at time 1 but then quickly drops to 0 before the parking lot is ever saturated. Our study relies on asymptotics for the occupation of the parking lot without fires in certain regimes which may be of independent interest.

  10. Marital adjustment and interleukin-6 (IL-6).

    PubMed

    Whisman, Mark A; Sbarra, David A

    2012-04-01

    Building on prior research that marital functioning is associated with a variety of health outcomes, we evaluated the association between marital adjustment and a marker of inflammation in a sample of married adults between the ages of 35 and 84 years old (N = 415) from the second wave of the population-based Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS II). Specifically, we evaluated associations between positive (i.e., partner support) and negative (i.e., partner strain) dimensions of marital adjustment and interleukin-6 (IL-6) separately for men and women, and whether these associations were moderated by age. Results indicated that (a) marital adjustment was not associated with IL-6 in men, (b) age moderated the association between marital adjustment and IL-6 in women, (c) partner support and partner strain were associated with IL-6 in younger women, and (d) partner support but not partner strain was uniquely associated with IL-6 in younger women. The associations between marital adjustment and IL-6 in younger women were significant when controlling for demographic variables, health status indicators, health behaviors, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress. These findings suggest that IL-6 may be a useful biomarker for studying health-relevant biological responses within intimate relationships, and that young women, in particular, may exhibit increased inflammation when partner support is low. PMID:22229879

  11. Extracorporeal photopheresis promotes IL-1? production.

    PubMed

    Yakut, Erhan; Jakobs, Christopher; Peric, Adriana; Michel, Gabriela; Baal, Nelli; Bein, Gregor; Brüne, Bernhard; Hornung, Veit; Hackstein, Holger

    2015-03-15

    Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is a widely used clinical cell-based therapy exhibiting efficacy in heterogenous immune-mediated diseases such as cutaneous T cell lymphoma, graft-versus-host disease, and organ allograft rejection. Despite its documented efficacy in cancer immunotherapy, little is known regarding the induction of immunostimulatory mediators by ECP. In this article, we show that ECP promotes marked release of the prototypic immunostimulatory cytokine IL-1?. ECP primes IL-1? production and activates IL-1? maturation and release in the context of caspase-1 activation in monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells. Of interest, IL-1? maturation by ECP was fully intact in murine cells deficient in caspase-1, suggesting the predominance of an inflammasome-independent pathway for ECP-dependent IL-1? maturation. Clinically, patient analysis revealed significantly increased IL-1? production in stimulated leukapheresis concentrates and peripheral blood samples after ECP. Collectively, these results provide evidence for promotion of IL-1? production by ECP and offer new insight into the immunostimulatory capacity of ECP. PMID:25681340

  12. Insulin-dependent diabetes induced by pancreatic beta cell expression of IL-15 and IL-15R?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Awasthi, Parirokh; Butcher, Donna O.; Anver, Miriam R.; Golubeva, Yelena G.; Bamford, Richard; Zhang, Xiaojie; St. Claire, Mark B.; Thomas, Craig J.; Discepolo, Valentina; Jabri, Bana; Waldmann, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Increased serum levels of IL-15 are reported in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here we report elevated serum soluble IL-15R? levels in human T1D. To investigate the role of IL-15/IL-15R? in the pathogenesis of T1D, we generated double transgenic mice with pancreatic ?-cell expression of IL-15 and IL-15R?. The mice developed hyperglycemia, marked mononuclear cell infiltration, ?-cell destruction, and anti-insulin autoantibodies that mimic early human T1D. The diabetes in this model was reversed by inhibiting IL-15 signaling with anti-IL2/IL15R? (anti-CD122), which blocks IL-15 transpresentation. Furthermore, the diabetes could be reversed by administration of the Janus kinase 2/3 inhibitor tofacitinib, which blocks IL-15 signaling. In an alternative diabetes model, nonobese diabetic mice, IL15/IL-15R? expression was increased in islet cells in the prediabetic stage, and inhibition of IL-15 signaling with anti-CD122 at the prediabetic stage delayed diabetes development. In support of the view that these observations reflect the conditions in humans, we demonstrated pancreatic islet expression of both IL-15 and IL-15R? in human T1D. Taken together our data suggest that disordered IL-15 and IL-15R? may be involved in T1D pathogenesis and the IL-15/IL15R? system and its signaling pathway may be rational therapeutic targets for early T1D. PMID:23904478

  13. Insulin-dependent diabetes induced by pancreatic beta cell expression of IL-15 and IL-15R?.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Awasthi, Parirokh; Butcher, Donna O; Anver, Miriam R; Golubeva, Yelena G; Bamford, Richard; Zhang, Xiaojie; St Claire, Mark B; Thomas, Craig J; Discepolo, Valentina; Jabri, Bana; Waldmann, Thomas A

    2013-08-13

    Increased serum levels of IL-15 are reported in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here we report elevated serum soluble IL-15R? levels in human T1D. To investigate the role of IL-15/IL-15R? in the pathogenesis of T1D, we generated double transgenic mice with pancreatic ?-cell expression of IL-15 and IL-15R?. The mice developed hyperglycemia, marked mononuclear cell infiltration, ?-cell destruction, and anti-insulin autoantibodies that mimic early human T1D. The diabetes in this model was reversed by inhibiting IL-15 signaling with anti-IL2/IL15R? (anti-CD122), which blocks IL-15 transpresentation. Furthermore, the diabetes could be reversed by administration of the Janus kinase 2/3 inhibitor tofacitinib, which blocks IL-15 signaling. In an alternative diabetes model, nonobese diabetic mice, IL15/IL-15R? expression was increased in islet cells in the prediabetic stage, and inhibition of IL-15 signaling with anti-CD122 at the prediabetic stage delayed diabetes development. In support of the view that these observations reflect the conditions in humans, we demonstrated pancreatic islet expression of both IL-15 and IL-15R? in human T1D. Taken together our data suggest that disordered IL-15 and IL-15R? may be involved in T1D pathogenesis and the IL-15/IL15R? system and its signaling pathway may be rational therapeutic targets for early T1D. PMID:23904478

  14. Circulating IL-15 exists as heterodimeric complex with soluble IL-15R? in human and mouse serum

    PubMed Central

    Bear, Jenifer; Rosati, Margherita; Beach, Rachel Kelly; Alicea, Candido; Sowder, Raymond; Chertova, Elena; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Felber, Barbara K.

    2012-01-01

    IL-15 is an important cytokine for the function of the immune system, but the form(s) of IL-15 produced in the human body are not fully characterized. Coexpression of the single-chain IL-15 and the IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15R?) in the same cell allows for efficient production, surface display, and eventual cleavage and secretion of the bioactive IL-15/IL-15R? heterodimer in vivo, whereas the single-chain IL-15 is poorly secreted and unstable. This observation led to the hypothesis that IL-15 is produced and secreted only as a heterodimer with IL-15R?. We purified human IL-15/IL-15R? complexes from overproducing human cell lines and developed an ELISA specifically measuring the heterodimeric form of IL-15. Analysis of sera from melanoma patients after lymphodepletion revealed the presence of circulating IL-15/IL-15R? complexes in amounts similar to the total IL-15 quantified by a commercial IL-15 ELISA that detects both the single-chain and the heterodimeric forms of the cytokine. Therefore, in lymphodepleted cancer patients, the serum IL-15 is exclusively present in its heterodimeric form. Analysis of the form of IL-15 present in either normal or lymphodepleted mice agrees with the human data. These results have important implications for development of assays and materials for clinical applications of IL-15. PMID:22496150

  15. The Effect of IL-22 and IL-28 in Induction of Type 1 Regulatory T (Tr1) Cells.

    PubMed

    Arasteh, Javad; Ebtekar, Massoumeh; Pourpak, Zahra; Pourfatollah, Ali Akbar; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Kardar, Gholam Ali; Zare, Ahad; Saghafi, Shiva; Tabar Molla Hassan, Agheel

    2015-04-01

    Cytokines have been introduced as critical inducers in the development of Th subpopulations.Cytokines like IL-10 are involved in inducing regulatory T cells such as Type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells cells. IL-22 is a member of IL-10 family of cytokines, and IL-28A is a member of IFN-? family. In this study, cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) from normal healthy individuals were isolated by Ficoll and then naïve T cells were purified by CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T cell Isolation kit. The effect of these two cytokines on production of IL-5, TGF-?, IL-10, IL-4 and IFN-? cytokines from cord blood T cells was investigated to identify Tr1 cells as well as Th1 and Th2 polarization. Flow cytometric analysis showed that IL-28A and IL-22 were not effective in expression of IL-5 and TGF-? either alone or in synergy, but in view of IL-10, IL-4 and IFN-?, the results showed that IL-22 increased IL-10 and IL-4 but had a decreasing effect on IFN-?. The results showed that IL-28A was not effective in increasing or decreasing the level of IL-10, IL-4 and IFN-?. Therefore, according to these results, IL-22 and IL-28A were not effective in inducing Tr1 cells. PMID:25780882

  16. A natural experiment to examine the impact of park renewal on park-use and park-based physical activity in a disadvantaged neighbourhood: the REVAMP study methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Modifying the built environment by improving parks is potentially a sustainable way to increase population level physical activity. Despite considerable investment in parks and park renovations, few natural experiments on the impact of improving amenities on park use and park-based physical activity have been conducted. REVAMP is a natural experiment that aims to examine whether park improvement increases overall park usage, park-based physical activity and active travel to and from the park in the intervention compared with the control park over a two-year period; and to identify which specific aspects of the park refurbishment attracts park visitors and encourages park users to be more active. This paper describes the methods of the REVAMP study. Methods The intervention park is a large regional park (329 hectares) located in a low socio-economic status (SES) area in the north-eastern suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. The control park is a regional park (120 hectares) located in a high SES area in the eastern suburbs of Melbourne. Multiple methodologies to evaluate the impact of the park renovation are being employed including: cross-sectional surveys of local residents living near the two parks, direct observations of park users, intercept surveys with park users, and electronic monitoring of path usage and car traffic within the parks. Baseline measures were conducted in April-May 2013 (T1), and an innovative play space suitable for children of all ages and abilities was installed at the intervention park between September 2013 and February 2014. Follow-up measures will be repeated in April-May 2014 (T2) and April-May 2015 (T3). All methodologies will be completed at both the intervention and control parks at all three time-points, with the exception of the cross-sectional survey of local residents which will only be conducted at T1 and T3. Conclusion This research will inform future park developments, and will contribute to creating an evidence base of the impact of park refurbishment, and the development of natural experiment methodology. Trial Registration Current controlled trial ISRCTN50745547, registration date 11.1.2014. PMID:24924919

  17. Terrain classification maps of Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F. J.; Roller, N. E. G.

    1973-01-01

    A cooperative ERTS-1 investigation involving U. S. Geological Survey, National Park Service, and Environmental Research Institure of Michigan (ERIM) personnel has as its goal the preparation of terrain classification maps for the entire Yellowstone National Park. Excellent coverage of the park was obtained on 6 August 1972 (frame 1015-17404). Preliminary terrain classification maps have been prepared at ERIM by applying multispectral pattern recognition techniques to ERTS-MSS digital taped data. The color coded terrain maps are presented and discussed. The discussion includes qualitative and quantitative accuracy estimates and discussion of processing techniques.

  18. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in IL-10, IL-12p40, and IL-13 Genes and Susceptibility to Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Shamran, Haidar A.; Ghazi, Haidar F.; AL-Salman, Ahmed; Al-Juboory, Ahmad A.; Taub, Dennis D.; Price, Robert L.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.; Singh, Udai P.

    2015-01-01

    Glioma is one of the most aggressive and most common tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) in humans. The exact causes of glioma are not well known, but evidence suggests the involvement of genetic factors in addition to environmental risk factors. The present study aimed to determine whether polymorphisms in IL-10-1082A/G, IL-12p40 1188C/A, and IL-13+2044G/A (rs20541) are associated with the incidence of glioma in Iraqi patients. Ninety-six patients with different grades of glioma and 40 apparently healthy individuals were recruited. A blood sample and genomic DNA were collected from all subjects. The amplification refractory mutation system and sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for genotyping of IL-10-1082A/G and IL-12p40 1188C/A, respectively; whereas, the IL-13+2044G/A was detected by DNA sequencing after amplification of the genes by PCR. All SNPs were within Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and each appeared in three genotypes in patients and controls. In IL-10-1082A/G, these genotypes frequencies were AA (75%), AG (22.93%) and GG (2.07%) in patients as compared to similar frequencies (62.5%), (27.5%) and (10%) respectively, in controls. The variant IL-12p40 1188C/A genotype was AA (72.92%), AC (23.96%), and CC (3.13%%) in patients as compared to 65%, 30%, and 5%, respectively, in controls. The frequencies of IL-13+2044G/A genotypes (GG, GA, and AA) were 89.58%, 9.37%, and 1.04% among patients versus 47.5%, 32.5% and 20%, respectively, among controls. These results suggest a protective role of mutant alleles G and A in IL-10-1082A/G and IL-13+2044G/A against gliomas. Further studies with more rigorous parameter designs will be needed to confirm the current findings. PMID:26516307

  19. The quandary of local people—Park relations in Nepal's Royal Chitwan National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepal, Sanjay K.; Weber, Karl E.

    1995-11-01

    This paper analyzes five major causes of park-people conflicts that have occurred in Nepal's Royal Chitwan National Park. The causes include illegal transactions of forest products from the park, livestock grazing in the park, illegal hunting and fishing, crop damage, and threats to human and animal life caused by wild animals from the park. The conflicts indicate a reciprocal relationship between the park and local people. They reflect the attitudes of local people and representatives of the park authority whose priorities and objectives largely diverge. The results show that people settled adjacent to the park are heavily dependent on its resources. Even in places where some, albeit few alternative sources exist, local people continue to trespass the park boundary as these sources are inadequate to ensure the fulfillment of local people's resource needs. Illegal transactions of resources continue throughout the year; however, they are less intense during summer due to flooding caused by the Rapti River, which forms the park boundary towards the northern section where this study is conducted. The frequency of local people's visits to the park is mainly determined by their age, distance between homesteads and park, and volume of crop loss caused by wild animals. Crop damage is the function of size of landholding, distance, and frequency of crop raid. Local people claim that they have no intention of letting their livestock graze in the park; however, the dense vegetation of the park attracts livestock grazing on riverbanks just outside the open park boundary. Many head of livestock are killed by carnivores of the park. Human casualties are mainly caused by sloth bear ( Melursus ursinus), tiger ( Panthera tigris), wild pig ( Sug scrofa), and rhinoceros ( Rhinoceros unicornis). There had been some earlier attempts to reconcile the conflicts by offering local people different kinds of compensations; however, these were unsuccessful measures. An integrated approach is essential if efforts to resolve the park-people conflicts are to succeed. The government is in the process of launching a project that aims to resolve the inherent problems with such an approach. Suggestions are made to incorporate some key elements, such as maintaining effective communication between various parties and the potential for wildlife conservation among local people.

  20. IL–1? and IL–18: inflammatory markers or mediators of hypertension?

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, S M; Sobey, C G; Latz, E; Mansell, A; Drummond, G R

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation in the kidneys and vascular wall is a major contributor to hypertension. However, the stimuli and cellular mechanisms responsible for such inflammatory responses remain poorly defined. Inflammasomes are crucial initiators of sterile inflammation in other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and gout. These pattern recognition receptors detect host-derived danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), such as microcrystals and reactive oxygen species, and respond by inducing activation of caspase-1. Caspase-1 then processes the cytokines pro-IL-1? and pro-IL-18 into their active forms thus triggering inflammation. While IL-1? and IL-18 are known to be elevated in hypertensive patients, no studies have examined whether this occurs downstream of inflammasome activation or whether inhibition of inflammasome and/or IL-1?/IL-18 signalling prevents hypertension. In this review, we will discuss some known actions of IL-1? and IL-18 on leukocyte and vessel wall function that could potentially underlie a prohypertensive role for these cytokines. We will describe the major classes of inflammasome-activating DAMPs and present evidence that at least some of these are elevated in the setting of hypertension. Finally, we will provide information on drugs that are currently used to inhibit inflammasome/IL-1?/IL-18 signalling and how these might ultimately be used as therapeutic agents for the clinical management of hypertension. PMID:25117218

  1. Opposing roles for IL-23 and IL-12 in maintaining occult cancer in an equilibrium state

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Michele W. L.; Vesely, Matthew D.; Duret, Helene; McLaughlin, Nicole; Towne, Jennifer E.; Schreiber, Robert D.; Smyth, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer immunoediting, the process by which the immune system controls tumor growth and shapes tumor immunogenicity, consists of three stages, elimination, equilibrium and escape. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the equilibrium phase, during which the immune system maintains tumor dormancy, remain incompletely defined. Here, we investigated the length of the equilibrium phase during immune control of methycholanthrene (MCA)-induced or p53 mutant cancers and demonstrated the critical and opposing roles of IL-23 and IL-12 in maintaining cancer cells in a state of immune-mediated dormancy. Inhibition of IL-23p19 was shown to reduce the malignant potential of lesions established by MCA inoculation, while inhibition of IL-12/23p40 enhanced tumor outgrowth. Furthermore, agonistic anti-CD40 antibody treatment mimicked the effects of anti-IL-23p19 mAb treatment. Other cytokines such as IL-4, IL-17, TNF, and IFN??, which are known to play important roles either in MCA tumorigenesis or in the elimination phase of cancer immunoediting, did not play critical roles in maintaining the equilibrium phase. Taken together, our findings demonstrate opposing roles for IL-23 and IL-12 in determining the outgrowth versus dormancy of occult neoplasia and suggest a potential long-term danger in using IL-12/23p40 antibodies for treating human autoimmune inflammatory disorders. PMID:22869585

  2. Photodynamic therapy affects the expression of IL-6 and IL-10 in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollnick, Sandra O.; Musser, David A.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    1998-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which can effectively destroy malignant tissue, also induces a complex immune response which potentiates anti-tumor immunity, but also inhibits skin contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and prolongs skin graft survival. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood, but are likely to involve meditation by cytokines. We demonstrate in a BALB/c mouse model that PDT delivered to normal and tumor tissue in vivo causes marked changes in the expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10. IL-6 mRNA and protein are rapidly and strongly enhanced in the PDT treated EMT6 tumor. Previous studies have shown that intratumoral injection of IL- 6 or transduction of the IL-6 gene into tumor cells can enhance tumor immunogenicity and inhibit tumor growth in experimental murine tumor systems. Thus, PDT may enhance local anti-tumor immunity by up-regulating IL-6. PDT also results in an increase in IL-10 mRNA and protein in the skin. The same PDT regime which enhances IL-10 production in the skin has been shown to strongly inhibit the CHS response. The kinetics of IL-10 expression coincide with the known kinetics of PDT induced CHS suppression and we propose that the enhanced IL-10 expression plays a role in the observed suppression of cell mediated responses seen following PDT.

  3. Bovine anterior pituitary progenitor cell line expresses interleukin (IL)-18 and IL-18 receptor.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Y; Ogasawara, H; Taketa, Y; Aso, H; Tanaka, S; Kanaya, T; Watanabe, K; Ohwada, S; Muneta, Y; Yamaguchi, T

    2008-11-01

    In the anterior pituitary gland, inflammatory mediators regulate cell function through an immuno-endocrine pathway. Recent studies have shown that undifferentiated stem cells act as immunomodulators. These studies prompted us to establish a progenitor cell line from the bovine anterior pituitary gland and to detail its function. First, we localised interleukin (IL)-18 by immunohistochemistry to the marginal cell layer of Rathke's pouch that is assumed to embody a stem/progenitor cell compartment of the postnatal pituitary gland. A cloned anterior pituitary-derived cell line from the bovine anterior pituitary gland was established from single cell clone by the limiting dilution method and was designated as bovine anterior pituitary-derived cell line (BAPC)-1. BAPC-1 cells constantly expressed mRNAs for IL-18 and IL-18 receptor, and grew steadily and rapidly in the medium containing epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. The cell line also expressed the mRNAs for the stem/progenitor cell- related factors such as Nanog, Oct-4, Ptch1, Nestin, Notch1, Hes1, Lrp and Fzd4, and the mRNAs for embryonic pituitary-related factors, such as Lhx3, PitX1 and Pit-1. The nuclei of BAPC-1 were immunostained positively for Pit-1, Hes1 and beta-catenin antibodies. Furthermore, BAPC-1 cells expressed mRNAs for cytokine such as IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12 and IL-15. Stimulation of BAPC-1 cells with IL-18 increased expression of mRNAs for IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-1beta and IL-8. At day 6 in culture, BAPC-1 cells also express growth hormone mRNA. These results strongly suggest that BAPC-1 is a stem/progenitor cell line and modulates the immuno-endocrine function of the anterior pituitary cells through its cytokine production. PMID:18761716

  4. Inflammasome activation and IL-1?/IL-18 processing are influenced by distinct pathways in microglia

    PubMed Central

    Hanamsagar, Richa; Torres, Victor; Kielian, Tammy

    2011-01-01

    Microglia are important innate immune effectors against invading CNS pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), a common etiological agent of brain abscesses typified by widespread inflammation and necrosis. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a protein complex involved in IL-1? and IL-18 processing following exposure to both pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns. Although previous studies from our laboratory have established that IL-1? is a major cytokine product of S. aureus-activated microglia and is pivotal for eliciting protective anti-bacterial immunity during brain abscess development, the molecular machinery responsible for cytokine release remains to be determined. Therefore, the functional role of the NLRP3 inflammasome and its adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) in eliciting IL-1? and IL-18 release was examined in primary microglia. Interestingly, we found that IL-1?, but not IL-18 production, was significantly attenuated in both NLRP3 and ASC knockout (KO) microglia following exposure to live S. aureus. NLRP3 inflammasome activation was partially dependent on autocrine/paracrine ATP release and ?- and ?-hemolysins produced by live bacteria. A cathepsin B inhibitor attenuated IL-? release from NLRP3 and ASC KO microglia, demonstrating the existence of alternative inflammasome-independent mechanisms for IL-1? processing. In contrast, microglial IL-18 secretion occurred independently of cathepsin B and inflammasome action. Collectively, these results demonstrate that microglial IL-1? processing is regulated by multiple pathways and diverges from mechanisms utilized for IL-18 cleavage. Understanding the molecular events that regulate IL-1? production is important for modulating this potent proinflammatory cytokine during CNS disease. PMID:21913925

  5. rIL-10 enhances IL-10 signalling proteins in foetal alveolar type II cells exposed to hyperoxia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeon-Soo; Lee, Dong Gun

    2015-01-01

    Although the mechanisms by which hyperoxia promotes bronchopulmonary dysplasia are not fully defined, the inability to maintain optimal interleukin (IL)-10 levels in response to injury secondary to hyperoxia seems to play an important role. We previously defined that hyperoxia decreased IL-10 production and pre-treatment with recombinant IL-10 (rIL-10) protected these cells from injury. The objectives of these studies were to investigate the responses of IL-10 receptors (IL-10Rs) and IL-10 signalling proteins (IL-10SPs) in hyperoxic foetal alveolar type II cells (FATIICs) with and without rIL-10. FATIICs were isolated on embryonic day 19 and exposed to 65%-oxygen for 24 hrs. Cells in room air were used as controls. IL-10Rs protein and mRNA were analysed by ELISA and qRT-PCR, respectively. IL-10SPs were assessed by Western blot using phospho-specific antibodies. IL-10Rs protein and mRNA increased significantly in FATIICs during hyperoxia, but JAK1 and TYK2 phosphorylation showed the opposite pattern. To evaluate the impact of IL-8 (shown previously to be increased) and the role of IL-10Rs, IL-10SPs were reanalysed in IL-8-added normoxic cells and in the IL-10Rs’ siRNA-treated hyperoxic cells. The IL-10Rs’ siRNA-treated hyperoxic cells and IL-8-added normoxic cells showed the same pattern in IL10SPs with the hyproxic cells. And pre-treatment with rIL-10 prior to hyperoxia exposure increased phosphorylated IL-10SPs, compared to the rIL-10-untreated hyperoxic cells. These studies suggest that JAK1 and TYK2 were significantly suppressed during hyperoxia, where IL-8 may play a role, and rIL-10 may have an effect on reverting the suppressed JAK1 and TYK2 in FATIICs exposed to hyperoxia. PMID:26059905

  6. IL-13 receptor ?1 differentially regulates aeroallergen induced lung responses

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, Marc E; Wen, Ting; Shik, Dana; Cole, Eric T; Mingler, Melissa M; Munitz, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-4 are hallmark cytokines of Th2-associated diseases including asthma. Recent studies revealed that IL-13R?1 regulates asthma pathogenesis by mediating both IL-4 and IL-13-mediated responses. Nonetheless, the relative contribution of each cytokine in response to aeroallergen challenge and the degree of functional dichotomy between IL-4 and IL-13 in asthma remains unclear. Consistent with prior publications, we demonstrate that IL-13R?1 regulates aeroallergen-induced airway resistance and mucus production but not IgE and Th2 cytokine production. We demonstrate that aeroallergen-induced eosinophil recruitment and chemokine production were largely dependent of IL-13R?1 following Aspergillus (Asp) but not house dust mite (HDM) challenges. Notably, Asp-challenged mice displayed increased IL-13R?1-dependent accumulation of dendritic cell subsets into lung draining lymph nodes in comparison with HDM. Comparison of IL-4 and IL-13 levels in the different experimental models revealed increased IL-4:IL-13 ratios following HDM challenge, likely explaining the IL-13R?1-independent eosinophilia and chemokine production. Consistently, eosinophil adoptive-transfer experiments revealed near ablation of lung eosinophilia in response to Asp in Il13ra1?/? mice, suggesting that Asp-induced lung eosinophil recruitment is regulated by IL-13-induced chemokine production, rather than altered IL-13 signaling in eosinophils. Furthermore, the near complete protection observed in Il13ra1?/? mice in response to Asp-challenge was dependent on mucosal sensitization since Alum/Asp-sensitized mice that were re-challenged with Asp developed IL-13R?1-independent eosinophilia although other asthma parameters remained IL-13R?1-dependent. These results establish that IL-13R?1 is required for aeroallergen-induced airway resistance and that allergen-induced chemokine production and consequent eosinophilia is dictated by the balance between IL-4 and IL-13 production in situ. PMID:21957151

  7. IL-17A expression in HIV-specific CD8 T cells is regulated by IL-4/IL-13 following HIV-1 prime-boost immunization.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Jayashree; Jackson, Ronald J; Trivedi, Shubhanshi; Ranasinghe, Charani

    2015-03-01

    Although Th1 and Th2 cytokines can inhibit interleukin (IL)-17-secreting T cells, how these cells are regulated under different infectious conditions is still debated. Our previous studies have shown that vaccination of IL-4 and IL-13 gene knockout (KO) mice can induce high-avidity HIV K(d)Gag197-205-specific CD8 T cells with better protective efficacy. In this study, when IL-13, IL-4, STAT6 KO, and wild-type BALB/c mice were prime-boost immunized with an HIV poxviral modality, elevated numbers of IL-17A(+) splenic K(d)Gag197-205-specific CD8 T cells were observed in all the KO mice compared with the wt BALB/c control. Similarly, when wt BALB/c mice were immunized with IL-13R?2-adjuvanted HIV vaccines (that transiently inhibited IL-13 activity and induced high-avidity CD8 T cells with enhanced protective efficacy), elevated IL-17A(+) K(d)Gag197-205-specific CD8 T cells were detected both in the lung and the spleen. However, at the transcriptional level, elevated TGF-?, IL-6, ROR-?t, and IL-17A mRNA copy numbers were mainly detected in IL-4 KO, but not the IL-13 KO mice. These data suggested that TGF-?, IL-6, ROR-?t, but not IL-23a, played a role in IL-17A regulation in K(d)Gag197-205-specific CD8 T cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that IL-4 and IL-13 differentially regulate the expression of IL-17A in K(d)Gag197-205-specific CD8 T cells at the transcriptional and translational level, respectively, implicating IL-17A as an indirect modulator of CD8 T cell avidity and protective immunity. PMID:25493691

  8. IL-17A Expression in HIV-Specific CD8 T Cells Is Regulated by IL-4/IL-13 Following HIV-1 Prime-Boost Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Jayashree; Jackson, Ronald J.; Trivedi, Shubhanshi

    2015-01-01

    Although Th1 and Th2 cytokines can inhibit interleukin (IL)-17-secreting T cells, how these cells are regulated under different infectious conditions is still debated. Our previous studies have shown that vaccination of IL-4 and IL-13 gene knockout (KO) mice can induce high-avidity HIV KdGag197-205-specific CD8 T cells with better protective efficacy. In this study, when IL-13, IL-4, STAT6 KO, and wild-type BALB/c mice were prime-boost immunized with an HIV poxviral modality, elevated numbers of IL-17A+ splenic KdGag197-205-specific CD8 T cells were observed in all the KO mice compared with the wt BALB/c control. Similarly, when wt BALB/c mice were immunized with IL-13Rα2-adjuvanted HIV vaccines (that transiently inhibited IL-13 activity and induced high-avidity CD8 T cells with enhanced protective efficacy), elevated IL-17A+ KdGag197-205-specific CD8 T cells were detected both in the lung and the spleen. However, at the transcriptional level, elevated TGF-β, IL-6, ROR-γt, and IL-17A mRNA copy numbers were mainly detected in IL-4 KO, but not the IL-13 KO mice. These data suggested that TGF-β, IL-6, ROR-γt, but not IL-23a, played a role in IL-17A regulation in KdGag197-205-specific CD8 T cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that IL-4 and IL-13 differentially regulate the expression of IL-17A in KdGag197-205-specific CD8 T cells at the transcriptional and translational level, respectively, implicating IL-17A as an indirect modulator of CD8 T cell avidity and protective immunity. PMID:25493691

  9. IL-6 in inflammation, immunity, and disease.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshio; Narazaki, Masashi; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    2014-10-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6), promptly and transiently produced in response to infections and tissue injuries, contributes to host defense through the stimulation of acute phase responses, hematopoiesis, and immune reactions. Although its expression is strictly controlled by transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms, dysregulated continual synthesis of IL-6 plays a pathological effect on chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. For this reason, tocilizumab, a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody was developed. Various clinical trials have since shown the exceptional efficacy of tocilizumab, which resulted in its approval for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Moreover, tocilizumab is expected to be effective for other intractable immune-mediated diseases. In this context, the mechanism for the continual synthesis of IL-6 needs to be elucidated to facilitate the development of more specific therapeutic approaches and analysis of the pathogenesis of specific diseases. PMID:25190079

  10. Fires in Shenandoah National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A large smoke plume has been streaming eastward from Virginia's Shenandoah National Park near Old Rag Mountain. Based on satellite images, it appears the blaze started sometime between October 30 and 31. This true-color image of the fire was obtained on November 1, 2000 by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Thermal Infrared data, overlaid on the color image, reveals the presence of two active fires underneath the smoke plume. The northern fire (upper) is burning near the Pinnacles Picnic Area along Skyline Drive. The southern fire (lower) is on Old Rag Mountain. Old Rag is one of the most popular hikes in the Washington, DC area, and features extremely rugged terrain, with granite cliffs up to 90 feet high. This scene was produced using MODIS direct broadcast data received and processed at the Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison. The smoke plume appears blue-grey while the red and yellow pixels show the locations of the smoldering and flaming portions of the fire, respectively. Image by Liam Gumley, Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC

  11. Automated parking garage system model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A one-twenty-fifth scale model of the key components of an automated parking garage system is described. The design of the model required transferring a vehicle from an entry level, vertically (+Z, -Z), to a storage location at any one of four storage positions (+X, -X, +Y, +Y, -Y) on the storage levels. There are three primary subsystems: (1) a screw jack to provide the vertical motion of the elevator, (2) a cam-driven track-switching device to provide X to Y motion, and (3) a transfer cart to provide horizontal travel and a small amount to vertical motion for transfer to the storage location. Motive power is provided by dc permanent magnet gear motors, one each for the elevator and track switching device and two for the transfer cart drive system (one driving the cart horizontally and the other providing the vertical transfer). The control system, through the use of a microprocessor, provides complete automation through a feedback system which utilizes sensing devices.

  12. Concept of Lunar Energy Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niino, Masayuki; Kisara, Katsuto; Chen, Lidong

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents a new concept of energy supply system named Lunar Energy Park (LEP) as one of the next-generation clean energy sources. In this concept, electricity is generated by nuclear power plants built on the moon and then transmitted to receiving stations on the earth by laser beam through transporting systems situated in geostationary orbit. The lunar nuclear power plants use a high-efficiency composite energy conversion system consisting of thermionic and thermoelectric generators to change nuclear thermal energy into electricity directly. The nuclear resources are considered to be available from the moon, and nuclear fuel transport from earth to moon is not necessary. Because direct energy conversion systems are employed, the lunar nuclear plants can be operated and controlled by robots and are maintenance-free, and so will cause no pollution to humans. The key technologies for LEP include improvements of conversion efficiency of both thermionic and thermoelectric converters, and developments of laser-beam power transmission technology as well. The details, including the construction of lunar nuclear plants, energy conversion and energy transmission systems, as well as the research plan strategies for this concept are reviewed.

  13. Accelerometer Measurements in the Amusement Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reno, Charles; Speers, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of the Texas Instruments' calculator-based laboratory (CBL) and Vernier accelerometer for measuring the vector sum of the gravitational field and the acceleration of amusement park rides. (JRH)

  14. Lake Trout Sampling in Glacier National Park

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Montana Cooperative Fishery Research Unit – Sean Townsend paddles across Kintla Lake in Glacier National Park, sampling for invasive lake trout. Native bull trout are negatively affected by invasives such as lake trout and runoff from upstream glaciers....

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Parkes Weber syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... skin. They usually look like large, flat, pink stains on the skin, and because of their color are sometimes called "port-wine stains." In people with Parkes Weber syndrome, capillary malformations ...

  16. 32 CFR 263.10 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authorized by a posted traffic sign or directed by a uniformed guard, shall stand or park a motor vehicle: (1... posted signs and shall register their vehicles at the front desk of Erskine Hall, Ruth Building...

  17. Hidden Lake in Glacier National Park, Montana

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Hidden Lake in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA, a high mountain lake in an alpine setting. This lake is kept full of water mainly from precipitation runoff from the surrounding hills and, in the spring, from snowmelt....

  18. Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ariwite, Roderick

    2015-07-31

    This "Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report" seeks to provide an overall assessment and review of renewable energy development opportunities on the Fallon Indian Reservation and Colony Lands.

  19. Fire Damage in Yosemite National Park

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The sequoia forests of Yosemite National Park rely on a fire ecology-based ecosystem. Periodic forest fires clear out underbrush and shade-tolerant trees like white fir trees, allowing sequoia seedlings to reach adulthood. ...

  20. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the requirements prescribed by the United States District Court and issued either by the Bureau of... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  1. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the requirements prescribed by the United States District Court and issued either by the Bureau of... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  2. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the requirements prescribed by the United States District Court and issued either by the Bureau of... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  3. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the requirements prescribed by the United States District Court and issued either by the Bureau of... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  4. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... discardable glass containers is prohibited in the backcountry. (2) Except in comfort facilities...

  5. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... discardable glass containers is prohibited in the backcountry. (2) Except in comfort facilities...

  6. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... discardable glass containers is prohibited in the backcountry. (2) Except in comfort facilities...

  7. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... discardable glass containers is prohibited in the backcountry. (2) Except in comfort facilities...

  8. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... discardable glass containers is prohibited in the backcountry. (2) Except in comfort facilities...

  9. Handicap Parking: A Demographic Study of Legal and Illegal Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordeaux, Monica N.; And Others

    Studies on handicap parking reveal the existence of a significant problem of unauthorized use of designated handicap spaces. This study examined various demographic variables involved in the illegal use of handicap parking spaces. Subjects (N=266) were drivers of vehicles observed in handicap parking spaces in three grocery store parking lots.…

  10. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Vehicle Use. Motorized vehicles are prohibited in Salt Creek Canyon above Peekaboo campsite. (b)...

  11. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Vehicle Use. Motorized vehicles are prohibited in Salt Creek Canyon above Peekaboo campsite. (b)...

  12. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Vehicle Use. Motorized vehicles are prohibited in Salt Creek Canyon above Peekaboo campsite. (b)...

  13. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Vehicle Use. Motorized vehicles are prohibited in Salt Creek Canyon above Peekaboo campsite. (b)...

  14. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Vehicle Use. Motorized vehicles are prohibited in Salt Creek Canyon above Peekaboo campsite. (b)...

  15. 36 CFR 7.3 - Glacier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glacier National Park. 7.3... REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.3 Glacier National Park. (a) Fishing. (1) Fishing... food, drink, or lodging for sale may be operated on any privately owned lands within Glacier...

  16. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the use of park roads may not operate such vehicle on a park road without a convoy service provided at... superintendent for each vehicle or combination of vehicles convoyed over a park road. Payment of a convoy fee by... routes within the park. Snowmobile use is restricted to the established roadway. All off-road use...

  17. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the use of park roads may not operate such vehicle on a park road without a convoy service provided at... superintendent for each vehicle or combination of vehicles convoyed over a park road. Payment of a convoy fee by... routes within the park. Snowmobile use is restricted to the established roadway. All off-road use...

  18. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the use of park roads may not operate such vehicle on a park road without a convoy service provided at... superintendent for each vehicle or combination of vehicles convoyed over a park road. Payment of a convoy fee by... routes within the park. Snowmobile use is restricted to the established roadway. All off-road use...

  19. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the use of park roads may not operate such vehicle on a park road without a convoy service provided at... superintendent for each vehicle or combination of vehicles convoyed over a park road. Payment of a convoy fee by... routes within the park. Snowmobile use is restricted to the established roadway. All off-road use...

  20. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the use of park roads may not operate such vehicle on a park road without a convoy service provided at... superintendent for each vehicle or combination of vehicles convoyed over a park road. Payment of a convoy fee by... routes within the park. Snowmobile use is restricted to the established roadway. All off-road use...