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Sample records for lagrange park il

  1. International Conference on Mathematics, Computational Methods & Reactor Physics (M&C 2009) Saratoga Springs, New York, May 3-7, 2009, on CD-ROM, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL (2009)

    E-print Network

    Benzi, Michele

    2009-01-01

    equations (e.g. material energy equations), the appearance of negative fluxes can result in the computation) Saratoga Springs, New York, May 3-7, 2009, on CD-ROM, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL (2009) NEGATIVE FLUX FIXUPS IN DISCONTINOUS FINITE ELEMENT SN TRANSPORT Steven Hamilton and Michele Benzi

  2. Navigation by Isolated Landmarks IlPyung Park

    E-print Network

    Navigation by Isolated Landmarks Il­Pyung Park Department of Computer Science Columbia University method for navigation in a large unstructured environment that contains featureless objects, which uses ``isolated'' land­ marks in the navigator's view. The map­maker and navigator are implemented using an IBM

  3. Topological visual navigation in large environments IlPyung Park and John R. Kender

    E-print Network

    Topological visual navigation in large environments Il­Pyung Park and John R. Kender Department a new model for robot navigation in large unstructured environments. Our model consists of two parts, the map­maker and the navigator. Given a source and a goal, the map­maker derives a navigational path

  4. Multispectral Imaging Using Multiplexed Illumination Jong-Il Park, Moon-Hyun Lee, Michael D. Grossberg

    E-print Network

    Nayar, Shree K.

    using a cluster of light sources with different spectra to illuminate the scene and a conventional RGBMultispectral Imaging Using Multiplexed Illumination Jong-Il Park, Moon-Hyun Lee, Michael D,fly4moon}@hanyang.ac.kr,grossberg@cs.ccny.cuny.edu,nayar@cs.columbia.edu Abstract Many vision tasks

  5. The Lagrange Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a derivation of all five Lagrange points by methods accessible to sixth-form students, and provides a further opportunity to match Newtonian gravity with centripetal force. The predictive powers of good scientific theories are also discussed with regard to the philosophy of science. Methods for calculating the positions of the…

  6. Multipliers Math 1920 Lagrange Multiplier Pictures

    E-print Network

    Back, Allen

    Math 1920 Lagrange Multiplier Pictures V1 Lagrange Multipliers Math 1920 Lagrange Multiplier Pictures Dr. Back Sep. 23, 2009 #12;Math 1920 Lagrange Multiplier Pictures V1 Lagrange Multipliers Please Multiplier Pictures V1 Lagrange Multipliers Maximize f (x, y) = yex . On the constraint set x2 + xy + 4y2 = 1

  7. The Lagrange-mesh method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baye, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational method taking the form of equations on a grid thanks to the use of a Gauss-quadrature approximation. The variational basis related to this Gauss quadrature is composed of Lagrange functions which are infinitely differentiable functions vanishing at all mesh points but one. This method is quite simple to use and, more importantly, can be very accurate with small number of mesh points for a number of problems. The accuracy may however be destroyed by singularities of the potential term. This difficulty can often be overcome by a regularization of the Lagrange functions which does not affect the simplicity and accuracy of the method. The principles of the Lagrange-mesh method are described, as well as various generalizations of the Lagrange functions and their regularization. The main existing meshes are reviewed and extensive formulas are provided which make the numerical calculations simple. They are in general based on classical orthogonal polynomials. The extensions to non-classical orthogonal polynomials and periodic functions are also presented. Applications start with the calculations of energies, wave functions and some observables for bound states in simple solvable models which can rather easily be used as exercises by the reader. The Dirac equation is also considered. Various problems in the continuum can also simply and accurately be solved with the Lagrange-mesh technique including multichannel scattering or scattering by non-local potentials. The method can be applied to three-body systems in appropriate systems of coordinates. Simple atomic, molecular and nuclear systems are taken as examples. The applications to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and to Hartree-Fock calculations are also discussed as well as translations and rotations on a Lagrange mesh.

  8. 78 FR 77771 - PennantPark SBIC Il, LP; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that PennantPark SBIC II, LP, 1590 Madison... exemption under Section 312 of the Act and Section 107.730, Financings which Constitute Conflicts...

  9. CRAIG G. FRASER"' LAGRANGE'S ANALYTICAL MATHEMATICS,

    E-print Network

    Fraser, Craig

    , by researchers throughout Europe. Among this group was Auguste Comte, the founder of positive philosophy, whoCRAIG G. FRASER"' LAGRANGE'S ANALYTICAL MATHEMATICS, ITS CARTESIAN ORIGINS AND RECEPTION IN COMTE M. Le Comte J.-L. Lagrange', in: Oeuvres de Lagrange, Vol. 1 (Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1867). pp. ix

  10. JOSEPH LOUIS LAGRANGE, THORIE DES FONCTIONS ANALYTIQUES,

    E-print Network

    Fraser, Craig

    CHAPTER 19 JOSEPH LOUIS LAGRANGE, TH�ORIE DES FONCTIONS ANALYTIQUES, FIRST EDITION (1797) Craig G (§25). 1 INTRODUCTION At the end of the 18th century Joseph Louis Lagrange (1736­1813) published a book Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 258 #12;Chapter 19. Joseph Louis Lagrange, Théorie des fonctions

  11. Langmuir Monolayers of Co Nanoparticles and Their Patterning by Microcontact Printing Jong-Il Park, Woo-Ram Lee, Sung-Soo Bae, Youn Joong Kim, Kyung-Hwa Yoo,

    E-print Network

    Kim, Sehun

    (molecules, polymers, and nanoparticles) into one-, two-, and three-dimensional (1-D, 2-D, and 3-D) structures is the key to the realization of nanodevices.1-8 The most common method of constructing 2- and 3-DLangmuir Monolayers of Co Nanoparticles and Their Patterning by Microcontact Printing Jong-Il Park

  12. Park Hyatt Chicago Park Hyatt Chicago

    E-print Network

    He, Chuan

    Park Hyatt Chicago Park Hyatt Chicago 800 North Michigan Avenue Chicago, IL 60611 University to availability. Ask for the University of Chicago rate. Offer is available to all faculty, staff, students Experience the art of fine living at Park Hyatt Chicago. The embodiment of sophisticated luxury, the hotel

  13. Morse Theory for Lagrange Multipliers Princeton University

    E-print Network

    Schecter, Stephen

    Morse Theory for Lagrange Multipliers =0 grad grad f Guangbo Xu Princeton University and Steve­2050. Chapter 1. Morse Theory. (2) Lagrange multipliers with scaled multiplier (3) The limit (4) The limit 0 (5) Etc. #12;4 History of Mathematics 1950­2050. Chapter 1. Morse Theory. Section 1. Classical

  14. International Conference on Mathematics, Computational Methods & Reactor Physics (M&C 2009) Saratoga Springs, New York, May 3-7, 2009, on CD-ROM, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL (2009)

    E-print Network

    Vialle, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    operator such as EDF, the time required to compute nuclear reactor core simulations is rather critical. Introduction As operator of nuclear power plants, EDF needs many nuclear reactor core simulationsInternational Conference on Mathematics, Computational Methods & Reactor Physics (M&C 2009

  15. International Conference on Mathematics, Computational Methods & Reactor Physics (M&C 2009) Saratoga Springs, New York, May 3-7, 2009, on CD-ROM, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL (2009)

    E-print Network

    Danon, Yaron

    2009-01-01

    Optic TTL Transmission System ORTEC CO4020 Quad Channel Logic Unit ORTEC 935 Quad Channel Constant at the Gaerttner Lab via a pulsed electron beam from the linear accelerator striking the water cooled tantalum plates in the RPI neutron producing target [3]. The high energy electrons from the linear accelerator

  16. Confined helium on Lagrange meshes.

    PubMed

    Baye, D; Dohet-Eraly, J

    2015-11-25

    The Lagrange-mesh method has the simplicity of a calculation on a mesh and can have the accuracy of a variational method. It is applied to the study of a confined helium atom. Two types of confinement are considered. Soft confinements by potentials are studied in perimetric coordinates. Hard confinement in impenetrable spherical cavities is studied in a system of rescaled perimetric coordinates varying in [0,1] intervals. Energies and mean values of the distances between electrons and between an electron and the helium nucleus are calculated. A high accuracy of 11 to 15 significant figures is obtained with small computing times. Pressures acting on the confined atom are also computed. For sphere radii smaller than 1, their relative accuracies are better than 10(-10). For larger radii up to 10, they progressively decrease to 10(-3), still improving the best literature results. PMID:25732054

  17. Science Park Science Park

    E-print Network

    Koolen, Marijn

    Science Park Science Park Science Park Science Park Science Park Kruislaan Kruislaan Science Park SURFsara NLeSC Polder Anna Hoeve Telecity Matrix Innovation Center AUC AMOLF ARCNL UvA Faculty of Science Equinix Universum CWI UvA Oerknal Meet & Eat Maslow Spar ACE Venture Lab IXA ILCA NS Amsterdam Science

  18. Parking Lot Parking Lot

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    RussellLn. Hopkins Parking Structure Regents Road West Parking Lot P703 Regents Road East Parking Lot P704 Regents Road Northeast Parking Lot P705 Parking Gilman Parking Structure La Jolla Farms Road Salk Institute Road Torrey Pines Scenic Dr. HopkinsDr. Muir College Drive Matthews Lane Myers

  19. Three-dimensional, Free-Lagrange hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Trease, H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the algorithms that make up a 3-D version of the Free-Lagrange Method. The basic method involves the explicit integration of the fluid flow equations over control volumes formed by Voronoi cells. A Voronoi cell is an arbitrary, convex polyhedron that has plane polygon faces. The ''nearest'' neighbors of any given mass point are identified by noting the mass point that lies on the opposite side of a given Voronoi face. The nearest neighbors of a mass point are allowed to change in response to the (Lagrange) motion of the mass points. This implies that the mesh reorganizes itself as the mass points move with the fluid motion.

  20. Three-dimensional, free-Lagrange hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trease, H.

    This paper describes the algorithms that make up a 3-D version of the Free-Lagrange Method. The basic method involves the explicit integration of the fluid flow equations over control volumes formed by Voronoi cells. A Voronoi cell is an arbitrary, convex polyhedron that has plane polygon faces. The nearest neighbors of any given mass point are identified by noting the mass point that lies on the opposite side of a given Voronoi face. The nearest neighbors of a mass point are allowed to change in response to the (Lagrange) motion of the mass points. This implies that the mesh reorganizes itself as the mass points move with the fluid motion.

  1. Livermore Unstructured Lagrange Explicit Shock Hydrodynamics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-09-21

    LULESH v1.0 is a 3D unstructured Lagrange hydrodynamics simulation written specifically to solve a standard analytical test problem, known as the Sedov problem. In this problem, a quantum of energy is deposited into a gas and propagates through the gas over time.

  2. BIG DATA SUMMIT November 5, 2014, 8:00AM-4:30PM i-Hotel, University of Illinois Research Park, Champaign, IL

    E-print Network

    Lee, Tonghun

    BIG DATA SUMMIT November 5, 2014, 8:00AM-4:30PM i-Hotel, University of Illinois Research Park Remarks ­ UIRP Big Data Summit Laura Frerichs, RP Director and Robert Brunner, NCSA * 8:40-9:30 am 50m: Colleen Bushell - UIUC Donna Cox - UIUC John Hart - UIUC Room: Quad Panel C: Big Data Better Health Care

  3. Three-dimensional Free-Lagrange hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trease, Harold E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a description of a three-dimensional Free-Lagrange code. The Free-Lagrange Method (FLM) is characterized by a global connectivity matrix that describes the "nearest" neighbor connections between the Lagrangian mass points. The nearest neighbor connectivity is dynamic with respect to time, so it must be constructed at time equal 0.0 and maintained thereafter. The code described in this paper explicitly integrates the 3-D fluid equations in time and space. Spatial derivatives are derived from area and volume weighted averages of quantities over the set of "nearest" neighbors for each point. The global connectivity matrix is maintained (and constructed) with a Voronoi mesh construction algorithm, where each pair of nearest neighbors are separated by a perpendicular bisecting plane. The spatial integration algorithm uses the Voronoi polyhedron as the integration control volume, but as discussed the median polyhedron will be used as the integration control volume in the future.

  4. Long period coupling terms for Lagrange's equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A generalization of that portion of the work of Berger, which deals with the long period coupling effect of certain pairs of zonal harmonics. Long period terms arising from the short short period coupling of zonal harmonics are derived for Lagrange's equations. The formulation is general so that the results are valid for any pairs of zonal harmonics. Formulas are given to generate the various functions and integrals needed for the results given. Checks have been made against the work of Kozai.

  5. Lagrange's principle in extremum problems with constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakov, E. R.; Magaril-Il'yaev, G. G.; Tikhomirov, V. M.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper a general result concerning Lagrange's principle for so-called smoothly approximately convex problems is proved which encompasses necessary extremum conditions for mathematical and convex programming, the calculus of variations, Lyapunov problems, and optimal control problems with phase constraints. The problem of local controllability for a dynamical system with phase constraints is also considered. In an appendix, results are presented that relate to the development of a 'Lagrangian approach' to problems where regularity is absent and classical approaches are meaningless. Bibliography: 33 titles.

  6. LAGRANGE: LAser GRavitational-wave ANtenna at GEo-lunar Lagrange points

    E-print Network

    J. W. Conklin; S. Buchman; V. Aguero; A. Alfauwaz; A. Aljadaan; M. Almajed; H. Altwaijry; T. Al-Saud; K. Balakrishnan; R. L. Byer; K. Bower; B. Costello; G. D. Cutler; D. B. DeBra; D. M. Faied; C. Foster; A. L. Genova; J. Hanson; K. Hooper; E. Hultgren; B. Jaroux; A. Klavins; B. Lantz; J. A. Lipa; A. Palmer; B. Plante; H. S. Sanchez; S. Saraf; D. Schaechter; T. Sherrill; K. -L. Shu; E. Smith; D. Tenerelli; R. Vanbezooijen; G. Vasudevan; S. D. Williams; S. P. Worden; J. Zhou; A. Zoellner

    2011-12-05

    We describe a new space gravitational wave observatory design called LAGRANGE that maintains all important LISA science at about half the cost and with reduced technical risk. It consists of three drag-free spacecraft in the most stable geocentric formation, the Earth-Moon L3, L4, and L5 Lagrange points. Fixed antennas allow continuous contact with the Earth, solving the problem of communications bandwidth and latency. A 70 mm diameter AuPt sphere with a 35 mm gap to its enclosure serves as a single inertial reference per spacecraft, which is operated in "true" drag-free mode (no test mass forcing). This is the core of the Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor whose other advantages are: a simple caging design based on the DISCOS 1972 drag-free mission, an all optical read-out with pm fine and nm coarse sensors, and the extensive technology heritage from the Honeywell gyroscopes, and the DISCOS and Gravity Probe B drag-free sensors. An Interferometric Measurement System, designed with reflective optics and a highly stabilized frequency standard, performs the inter-test mass ranging and requires a single optical bench with one laser per spacecraft. Two 20 cm diameter telescopes per spacecraft, each with in-field pointing, incorporate novel technology developed for advanced optical systems by Lockheed Martin, who also designed the spacecraft based on a multi-flight proven bus structure. Additional technological advancements include the drag-free propulsion, thermal control, charge management systems, and materials. LAGRANGE sub-systems are designed to be scalable and modular, making them interchangeable with those of LISA or other gravitational science missions. We plan to space qualify critical technologies on small and nano satellite flights, with the first launch (UV-LED Sat) in 2013.

  7. Superconvergence of bi- k-Lagrange elements for eigenvalue problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.-C.; Chien, C.-S.; Huang, H.-T.; Jeng, B.-W.

    2009-11-01

    We study superconvergence of bi-k-Lagrange elements for parameter-dependent problems where k ? 2. We show that the superconvergence rate of the bi-k-Lagrange elements is two orders higher than that of the kth-order Lagrange elements. This is a significant improvement of the previous results [C.-S. Chien, H.T. Huang, B.-W. Jeng, Z.C. Li, Superconvergence of FEMs and numerical continuation for parameter-dependent problems with folds, Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos 18 (2008) 1321-1336], which is only one order (or a half order) higher than that of the latter. Next, we apply the bi-k-Lagrange elements to the computations of energy levels and wave functions of two-dimensional (2D) Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC), and BEC in a periodic potential. Sample numerical results are reported.

  8. MATH11007 SHEET 20: LAGRANGE MULTIPLIERS, DIFFERENTIAL FORMS

    E-print Network

    Green, Peter

    : http://www.maths.bris.ac.uk/~mayt/MATH11007/2010/notes/LagrangeMultiplierHandout.pdf http://www.maths.bris.ac.uk/~mayt/MATH11007/2010/notes/LagrangeMultiplierLecture.pdf 2. Differential forms material: http://www.maths.bris.ac.uk/~mayt/MATH11007/2010/notes/DifferentialFormsLecture.pdf 3. Donu Arapura, Introduction to Differential Forms, http://www.maths.bris.ac.uk/~mayt/MATH

  9. Permit Parking Metered Parking

    E-print Network

    Selinger, Peter

    C780 C520 C204 C720 B200 C620 E100 E620C680 C220 D400 D100 D300 D280 D620 D541-42 A100 C660 C800 D120 C760 D340 D560 D550 D701-03 D720 D320 D580 E800 C540 E600 D420 C730 Permit Parking Metered Parking C640 D640 B280 B260 C750 C710 E190 E260 C770 C D D E E A BA A050 SocialWork A100 SocialWork A160

  10. Parking Regulations PARKING POLICY STATEMENT

    E-print Network

    Aazhang, Behnaam

    1 Parking Regulations PARKING POLICY STATEMENT: 1. All employees and students of Rice University. CAMPUS PARKING REGISTRATION · A valid Rice permit must be permanently affixed to the rear window will be assessed when issuing a new card. · The purchase of contract parking in a lot or the garage does

  11. Lagrange-Lobatto interpolating polynomials in the discrete variable representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayson, M. J.

    2007-08-01

    The discrete variable representation (DVR) is a well known and widely used computational technique in many areas of physics. Recently, the Lagrange-Lobatto basis has attracted increasing attention, especially for radial Hamiltonians with a singular potential at the origin and finite element DVR constructions. However, unlike standard DVR functions, the Lagrange-Lobatto basis functions are not orthogonal. The overlap matrix is usually approximated as the identity using the same quadrature approximation as for the potential. Based on the special properties of overlap matrix of Lagrange-Lobatto polynomials, an explanation of the success of the identity approximation, including error bounds, is presented. Results for hydrogen and the more nontrivial potentials of self-consistent all-electron density functional atomic calculations are also given.

  12. TwilightTwilight phenomenaphenomena of Venusof Venus Laboratoire Lagrange

    E-print Network

    Widemann, Thomas

    TwilightTwilight phenomenaphenomena of Venusof Venus P. Tanga Laboratoire Lagrange Observatoire de ­ Paris, March 6 2012 #12;Paolo Tanga ­The aureole of Venus Sakura/Europlanet Workshop ­ Paris, March 6°.5 Phase angle 177° Mallama et al. 2006 #12;Paolo Tanga ­The aureole of Venus Sakura/Europlanet Workshop

  13. Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Method for Particulate Flows with Collisions

    E-print Network

    Joseph, Daniel D.

    1 Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Method for Particulate Flows with Collisions P. Singh* Department-1982 Phone: (973)596-3326, Fax: (973)642-4282 singhp@njit.edu T.I. Hesla and D.D. Joseph Department, MN 55455 joseph@aem.umn.edu Keywords: Particulate Flows, finite element method, direct numerical

  14. ORCHIVE: Digitizing and Analyzing Orca Vocalizations George Tzanetakis & Mathieu Lagrange

    E-print Network

    Tzanetakis, George

    digital archive of killer whale or orca vocalizations. The goal of the project is to digitize of the acoustic communications of Orca communities worldwide. Introduction The fish eating killer whales or orcasORCHIVE: Digitizing and Analyzing Orca Vocalizations George Tzanetakis & Mathieu Lagrange

  15. Sixth American Nuclear Society International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation, Control, and Human-Machine Interface Technologies NPIC&HMIT 2009, Knoxville, Tennessee, April 5-9, 2009, on CD-ROM, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL

    E-print Network

    Danon, Yaron

    Pu and other fissile materials in spent nuclear fuel. Noninvasive methods are being investigated plan and the need to reprocess spent nuclear fuel, there is an increased need for the security, including neutron interrogation. RPI has modeled a spent fuel assembly assay method in its lead slowing

  16. Genetic characterization of interleukins (IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18) with relevant biological roles in lagomorphs

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; de Matos, Ana Lemos; Costa, Paulo P

    2015-01-01

    ILs, as essential innate immune modulators, are involved in an array of biological processes. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18 have been implicated in inflammatory processes and in the immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and myxoma virus infections. In this study we characterized these ILs in six Lagomorpha species (European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, two cottontail rabbit species, European brown hare and American pika). Overall, these ILs are conserved between lagomorphs, including in their exon/intron structure. Most differences were observed between leporids and American pika. Indeed, when comparing both, some relevant differences were observed in American pika, such as the location of the stop codon in IL-1? and IL-2, the existence of a different transcript in IL8 and the number of cysteine residues in IL-1?. Changes at N-glycosylation motifs were also detected in IL-1, IL-10, IL-12B and IL-15. IL-1? is the protein that presents the highest evolutionary distances, which is in contrast to IL-12A where the distances between lagomorphs are the lowest. For all these ILs, sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than between human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. PMID:26395994

  17. 78 FR 55219 - Safety Zone; Flying Machine Competition, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Flying Machine Competition, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard...Burnham Park during a flying machine competition event in Chicago, IL on September 21...0170.1. An annual flying machine competition event has been scheduled by a...

  18. Accurate solution of the Dirac equation on Lagrange meshes.

    PubMed

    Baye, Daniel; Filippin, Livio; Godefroid, Michel

    2014-04-01

    The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational method taking the form of equations on a grid because of the use of a Gauss quadrature approximation. With a basis of Lagrange functions involving associated Laguerre polynomials related to the Gauss quadrature, the method is applied to the Dirac equation. The potential may possess a 1/r singularity. For hydrogenic atoms, numerically exact energies and wave functions are obtained with small numbers n+1 of mesh points, where n is the principal quantum number. Numerically exact mean values of powers -2 to 3 of the radial coordinate r can also be obtained with n+2 mesh points. For the Yukawa potential, a 15-digit agreement with benchmark energies of the literature is obtained with 50 or fewer mesh points. PMID:24827362

  19. The unexplained accuracy of the Lagrange-mesh method.

    PubMed

    Baye, D; Hesse, M; Vincke, M

    2002-02-01

    The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational calculation which resembles a mesh calculation because of the use of a Gauss quadrature. In order to analyze its accuracy, four different Lagrange-mesh calculations based on the zeros of Laguerre polynomials are compared with exact variational calculations based on the corresponding Laguerre basis. The comparison is performed for three solvable radial potentials: the Morse, harmonic-oscillator, and Coulomb potentials. The results show that the accuracies of the energies obtained for different partial waves with the different mesh approximations are very close to the variational accuracy, even in the presence of the centrifugal singularity. The same property holds for the approximate wave functions. This striking accuracy remains unexplained. PMID:11863688

  20. 77 FR 38882 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement, for the Chicago, IL to St...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... 1500 et seq.), and FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28545; May 26, 1999... Forest, IL 60452 Odell Public Library District, 301 East Richard Street, Odell, IL 60460 Orland Park... Taylor Street, Towanda, IL 61776 Venice Public Library, 325 Broadway Avenue, Venice, IL 62090...

  1. Park It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

  2. AV-differential geometry: Euler-Lagrange equations

    E-print Network

    Katarzyna Grabowska; Janusz Grabowski; Pawe?Urba?ski

    2006-04-06

    A general, consistent and complete framework for geometrical formulation of mechanical systems is proposed, based on certain structures on affine bundles (affgebroids) that generalize Lie algebras and Lie algebroids. This scheme covers and unifies various geometrical approaches to mechanics in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian pictures, including time-dependent lagrangians and hamiltonians. In our approach, lagrangians and hamiltonians are, in general, sections of certain $\\R$-principal bundles, and the solutions of analogs of Euler-Lagrange equations are curves in certain affine bundles. The correct geometrical and frame-independent description of Newtonian Mechanics is of this type.

  3. Euler-Lagrange formulas for pseudo-Kähler manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, JeongHyeong

    2016-01-01

    Let c be a characteristic form of degree k which is defined on a Kähler manifold of real dimension m > 2 k. Taking the inner product with the Kähler form ?k gives a scalar invariant which can be considered as a generalized Lovelock functional. The associated Euler-Lagrange equations are a generalized Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity theory; this theory restricts to the canonical formalism if c =c2 is the second Chern form. We extend previous work studying these equations from the Kähler to the pseudo-Kähler setting.

  4. Parking Permit Applications 2015

    E-print Network

    Ulidowski, Irek

    , designated car share spaces (2+ or CS) if they are available in any car park. Disabled Permits ­ Blue BadgeParking Permit Applications 2015 www.le.ac.uk/carparking #12;Parking Permits Car parking of a parking permit does not guarantee a parking space. This Application form is not to be used for car park

  5. Stability, boundedness, and lagrange stability of fractional differential equations with initial time difference.

    PubMed

    Çiçek, Muhammed; Yakar, Co?kun; O?ur, Bülent

    2014-01-01

    Differential inequalities, comparison results, and sufficient conditions on initial time difference stability, boundedness, and Lagrange stability for fractional differential systems have been evaluated. PMID:24693255

  6. The third-order Lagrange equation for mechanical systems of variable mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shan-Jun; Ge, Wei-Guo; Huang, Pei-Tian

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, based on the third-order D'Alembert-Lagrange principle for mechanical systems of variable mass, the third-order Lagrange equations of mechanical systems of variable mass are obtained. From the equations the motion of mechanical systems of variable mass can be studied. In addition, the equations may enrich the theory of third-order differential equation.

  7. HISTORIA MATHEMATICA 14 (1987), 38-53 Joseph Louis Lagrange's Algebraic Vision of the Calculus

    E-print Network

    Fraser, Craig

    1987-01-01

    and the calculus of variations. A central theme of the paper concerns Lagrange's treatment of exceptional valuesHISTORIA MATHEMATICA 14 (1987), 38-53 Joseph Louis Lagrange's Algebraic Vision of the Calculus CRAIG G. FRASER Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology, University

  8. Park Smart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Parking Garage Automation System (PGAS) is based on a technology developed by a NASA-sponsored project called Robot sensorSkin(TM). Merritt Systems, Inc., of Orlando, Florida, teamed up with NASA to improve robots working with critical flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The system, containing smart sensor modules and flexible printed circuit board skin, help robots to steer clear of obstacles using a proximity sensing system. Advancements in the sensor designs are being applied to various commercial applications, including the PGAS. The system includes a smartSensor(TM) network installed around and within public parking garages to autonomously guide motorists to open facilities, and once within, to free parking spaces. The sensors use non-invasive reflective-ultrasonic technology for high accuracy, high reliability, and low maintenance. The system is remotely programmable: it can be tuned to site-specific requirements, has variable range capability, and allows remote configuration, monitoring, and diagnostics. The sensors are immune to interference from metallic construction materials, such as rebar and steel beams. Inside the garage, smart routing signs mounted overhead or on poles in front of each row of parking spots guide the motorist precisely to free spaces.

  9. Parking Procedures GUIDELINES

    E-print Network

    Grant, Gregory

    are violating the parking rules for a parking facility. PROCESS: Community Members wishing to park a vehicle on the School of Medicine campus must purchase parking at the Facilities Integrated Service Center (FISC outside the vehicle. Parking in the Clayton and Metro Parking Garages is controlled by WUSM Identification

  10. Identifying FMRI model violations with Lagrange multiplier tests.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Ben; Long, Christopher J; Rae, Caroline; Solo, Victor

    2012-07-01

    The standard modeling framework in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is predicated on assumptions of linearity, time invariance and stationarity. These assumptions are rarely checked because doing so requires specialized software, although failure to do so can lead to bias and mistaken inference. Identifying model violations is an essential but largely neglected step in standard fMRI data analysis. Using Lagrange multiplier testing methods we have developed simple and efficient procedures for detecting model violations such as nonlinearity, nonstationarity and validity of the common double gamma specification for hemodynamic response. These procedures are computationally cheap and can easily be added to a conventional analysis. The test statistic is calculated at each voxel and displayed as a spatial anomaly map which shows regions where a model is violated. The methodology is illustrated with a large number of real data examples. PMID:22542665

  11. Interferometric Characterization of the Earth's Atmosphere from Lagrange Point 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Part of the NASA plans for future Earth-Science missions calls for observations using novel vantage points that can produce science products otherwise unobtainable. Observations of the Earth from the Lagrange-2 point, L-2, (1.5 million kilometers behind the Earth on the Earth-Sun line) affords a unique vantage point for atmospheric science. Special observation of the Earth's atmosphere using solar occultation techniques in the near infrared (1 to 4 microns) provides one of the most accurate method of passively sensing altitude profiles of the major species (CO2, O3, O2, CH4, H2O, N2O). In addition to observation of the Earth's atmosphere, it will be possible to observe a portion of the solar disk at moderate spatial resolution without interference from the Earth.

  12. Responses of Multipotent Retinal Stem Cells to IL-1?, IL-18, or IL-17

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shida; Shen, Defen; Popp, Nicholas A.; Ogilvy, Alexander J.; Tuo, Jingsheng; Abu-Asab, Mones; Xie, Ting; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate how multipotent retinal stem cells (RSCs) isolated from mice respond to the proinflammatory signaling molecules, IL-1?, IL-18, and IL-17A. Materials and Methods. RSCs were cultured in a specific culture medium and were treated with these cytokines. Cell viability was detected by MTT assay; ultrastructure was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy; expression of IL-17rc and proapoptotic proteins was detected by immunocytochemistry and expression of Il-6 and Il-17a was detected by quantitative RT-PCR. As a comparison, primary mouse retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were also treated with IL-1?, IL-18, or IL-17A and analyzed for the expression of Il-6 and Il-17rc. Results. Treatment with IL-1?, IL-18, or IL-17A decreased RSC viability in a dose-dependent fashion and led to damage in cellular ultrastructure including pyroptotic and/or necroptotic cells. IL-1? and IL-18 could induce proapoptotic protein expression. All treatments induced significantly higher expression of Il-6 and Il-17rc in both cells. However, neither IL-1? nor IL-18 could induce Il-17a expression in RSCs. Conclusions. IL-1?, IL-18, and IL-17A induce retinal cell death via pyroptosis/necroptosis and apoptosis. They also provoke proinflammatory responses in RSCs. Though IL-1? and IL-18 could not induce Il-17a expression in RSCs, they both increase Il-17rc expression, which may mediate the effect of Il-17a. PMID:26504591

  13. LAGRANGE: LAser GRavitational-wave ANtenna in GEodetic Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchman, S.; Conklin, J. W.; Balakrishnan, K.; Aguero, V.; Alfauwaz, A.; Aljadaan, A.; Almajed, M.; Altwaijry, H.; Saud, T. A.; Byer, R. L.; Bower, K.; Costello, B.; Cutler, G. D.; DeBra, D. B.; Faied, D. M.; Foster, C.; Genova, A. L.; Hanson, J.; Hooper, K.; Hultgren, E.; Klavins, A.; Lantz, B.; Lipa, J. A.; Palmer, A.; Plante, B.; Sanchez, H. S.; Saraf, S.; Schaechter, D.; Shu, K.; Smith, E.; Tenerelli, D.; Vanbezooijen, R.; Vasudevan, G.; Williams, S. D.; Worden, S. P.; Zhou, J.; Zoellner, A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new space gravitational wave observatory design called LAG-RANGE that maintains all important LISA science at about half the cost and with reduced technical risk. It consists of three drag-free spacecraft in a geocentric formation. Fixed antennas allow continuous contact with the Earth, solving the problem of communications bandwidth and latency. A 70 mm diameter sphere with a 35 mm gap to its enclosure serves as the single inertial reference per spacecraft, operating in “true” drag-free mode (no test mass forcing). Other advantages are: a simple caging design based on the DISCOS 1972 drag-free mission, an all optical read-out with pm fine and nm coarse sensors, and the extensive technology heritage from the Honeywell gyroscopes, and the DISCOS and Gravity Probe B drag-free sensors. An Interferometric Measurement System, designed with reflective optics and a highly stabilized frequency standard, performs the ranging between test masses and requires a single optical bench with one laser per spacecraft. Two 20 cm diameter telescopes per spacecraft, each with infield pointing, incorporate novel technology developed for advanced optical systems by Lockheed Martin, who also designed the spacecraft based on a multi-flight proven bus structure. Additional technological advancements include updated drag-free propulsion, thermal control, charge management systems, and materials. LAGRANGE subsystems are designed to be scalable and modular, making them interchangeable with those of LISA or other gravitational science missions. We plan to space qualify critical technologies on small and nano satellite flights, with the first launch (UV-LED Sat) in 2013.

  14. The free-Lagrange method on the connection machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerutti, John H.; Trease, Harold E.

    The three dimensional time-dependent free-Lagrange hydrodynamics code (X3D) has been implemented on the massively parallel Connection Machine CM2. This data parallel computer represents the state of the art in a single instruction multiple data (SIMD) processor with peak performance rates of 10 Gflops for well structured problems. While the performance on the CM2 of the free-Lagrange method (FLM) did not attain this remarkable peak rate, we did achieve Cray Y-MP performance levels. The implementation of the FLM with its unstructured grid and global connectivity matrix presents problems on all computer architectures, especially on the distributed memory CM2. The hydrodynamics portion of the code, which is written in a "long vector" style on the Y-MP and optimized for that machine, presented few problems when implemented on the CM2. However, to achieve the higher degree of parallelization required on the 64K processor CM2 over the 8 processor Y-MP, we had to take a different approach from the multitasked version on the Y-MP. We describe new data structures and algorithms that solve the problems of equation-of-state table lookup, parallelization of accumulation loops, and solution of large unstructured sparse linear systems. We also present timing results and comparisons with the Y-MP for various parts of the FLM and discuss CM2 techniques that are different from traditional techniques on multiple instruction multiple data (MIMD) machines. Almost all of the code is written in CM2 Fortran, a language that is under development; we have seen and expect improvements in performance as the compiler matures.

  15. IL-4 EXACERBATES ANAPHYLAXIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were established to determine if IL-4, a cytokine critical for inducing allergic responses, contributes to the effector phase of allergy. Pretreatment of mice with IL-4 or the related cytokine, IL-13, rapidly and dramatically increased the severity of anaphylaxis induced by cross-linking Fc...

  16. 75 FR 45659 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... remains of 251 individuals of Native American ancestry. Officials of the Field Museum of Natural History... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY... made by the Field Museum of Natural History professional......

  17. What Did We Think Could Be Learned About Earth From Lagrange Point Observations?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiscombe, Warren

    2011-01-01

    The scientific excitement surrounding the NASA Lagrange point mission Triana, now called DSCOVR, tended to be forgotten in the brouhaha over other aspects of the mission. Yet a small band of scientists in 1998 got very excited about the possibilities offered by the Lagrange-point perspective on our planet. As one of the original co-investigators on the Triana mission, I witnessed that scientific excitement firsthand. I will bring to life the early period, circa 1998 to 2000, and share the reasons that we thought the Lagrange-point perspective on Earth would be scientifically revolutionary.

  18. Lagrange stability of memristive neural networks with discrete and distributed delays.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ailong; Zeng, Zhigang

    2014-04-01

    Memristive neuromorphic system is a good candidate for creating artificial brain. In this paper, a general class of memristive neural networks with discrete and distributed delays is introduced and studied. Some Lagrange stability criteria dependent on the network parameters are derived via nonsmooth analysis and control theory. In particular, several succinct criteria are provided to ascertain the Lagrange stability of memristive neural networks with and without delays. The proposed Lagrange stability criteria are the improvement and extension of the existing results in the literature. Three numerical examples are given to show the superiority of theoretical results. PMID:24807947

  19. Lagrange-Poincaré reduction for optimal control of underactuated mechanical systems

    E-print Network

    Leonardo Colombo

    2015-01-20

    We deal with regular Lagrangian constrained systems which are invariant under the action of a symmetry group. Fixing a connection on the higher-order principal bundle where the Lagrangian and the (independent) constraints are defined, the higher-order Lagrange-Poincar\\'e equations of classical mechanical systems with higher-order constraints are obtained from classical Lagrangian reduction. Higher-order Lagrange-Poincar\\'e operator is introduced to characterize higher-order Lagrange-Poincar\\'e equations. Interesting applications are derived as, for instance, the optimal control of an underactuated Elroy's Beanie and a snakeboard seens as an optimization problem with higher-order constraints.

  20. Interferometric Characterization of the Earth's Atmosphere from Lagrange Point 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Jay R.; Komar, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Part of the NASA plans for future Earth Science missions calls for observations using novel vantage points that can produce science products otherwise unobtainable. Observations of the Earth from the Lagrange-2 point, L-2, (1.5 million km behind the Earth on the Earth-Sun line) affords a unique vantage point for atmospheric science. Spectral observation of the Earth's atmosphere using solar occultation techniques in the near infrared (1 to 4 microns) provides one of the most accurate methods of passively sensing attitude profiles of the major species (CO2, O3, O2, CH4, H2O N2O). While traditional polar orbiting occultation measurements can obtain about 14 measurements per day (2 per orbit), solar occultation observations from the Lagrange-2 point will yield hourly profile measurements at all latitudes. The expected spatial resolution is 2 km in altitude, 0.5 degrees in latitude, and 2 degrees in longitude. The result from 24 hours of observations will be a three-dimensional map of atmospheric composition. To accomplish this task from L-2 requires the development of a large moderate spectral resolution instrument whose entrance aperture is about 10 meters. Use of a standard telescope design with a 10-meter circular mirror or a 10-meter strip mirror would be prohibitively expensive and excessively massive. Instead, we are proposing the development of a 10-meter linear interferometer coupled to a Fourier transform imaging spectrometer. The result will be a highly efficient design with sufficient sensitivity, while having both spatial and spectral resolution to produce the desired results. Preliminary calculations show that seven species (CO2, O3, O2, CH4, H2O N2O) have clearly separated spectral features in the I to 4 microns range with sufficient absorption to produce profile information from near the Earth's surface to the middle stratosphere. For CO2 the estimated sensitivity to change is 0.33% or 1 part in 330. This should be sufficient to detect changes that are significant for the carbon cycle studies. Initial instrument design studies are underway to determine the optimum optical design for the interferometer-spectrometer as well as the necessary highly stable mechanical designs. Separate design studies are being conducted for the spacecraft. shuttle launch facility, low-light solar power design, thermal control, and unique navigation requirements to reach and maintain the tight halo orbit about L-2.

  1. ACE Parking Workplace Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetwater Union High School District, Chula Vista, CA.

    This manual is designed for use in a four-session workshop to help new parking garage employees enhance their skills in the following areas: understanding the functions of parking employees, computing parking rates and filling out parking lot reconciliation forms, preparing miscellaneous parking lot forms and developing effective communication and…

  2. PARKING & TRANSPORTATION SERVICES Faculty & Staff ParkingFaculty & Staff Parking

    E-print Network

    Pillow, Jonathan

    & Parking Offenses Green on the Go Parking 101 02 02 03 04 05 06 06 07 07 EMAIL PTS MAIN OFFICE 1815 TRINITY: parking@www.utexas.edu Garages: garages@www.utexas.edu Biking: bicycle@www.utexas.edu Permit Waitlist

  3. 76 FR 80393 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Field Museum of Natural History has completed... Field Museum of Natural History. Repatriation of the human remains and......

  4. Parallel processing a three-dimensional free-lagrange code

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, D.A.; Trease, H.E. )

    1989-01-01

    A three-dimensional, time-dependent free-Lagrange hydrodynamics code has been multitasked and autotasked on a CRAY X-MP/416. The multitasking was done by using the Los Alamos Multitasking Control Library, which is a superset of the CRAY multitasking library. Autotasking is done by using constructs which are only comment cards if the source code is not run through a preprocessor. The three-dimensional algorithm has presented a number of problems that simpler algorithms, such as those for one-dimensional hydrodynamics, did not exhibit. Problems in converting the serial code, originally written for a CRAY-1, to a multitasking code are discussed. Autotasking of a rewritten version of the code is discussed. Timing results for subroutines and hot spots in the serial code are presented and suggestions for additional tools and debugging aids are given. Theoretical speedup results obtained from Amdahl's law and actual speedup results obtained on a dedicated machine are presented. Suggestions for designing large parallel codes are given.

  5. Teleparallel Lagrange Geometry and a Unified Field Theory

    E-print Network

    M. I. Wanas; Nabil L. Youssef; A. M. Sid-Ahmed

    2010-02-13

    In this paper, we construct a field theory unifying gravity and electromagnetism in the context of Extended Absolute Parallelism (EAP-) geometry. This geometry combines, within its structure, the geometric richness of the tangent bundle and the mathematical simplicity of Absolute Parallelism (AP-) geometry. The constructed field theory is a generalization of the Generalized Field Theory (GFT) formulated by Mikhail and Wanas. The theory obtained is purely geometric. The horizontal (resp. vertical) field equations are derived by applying the Euler-Lagrange equations to an appropriate horizontal (resp. vertical) scalar Lagrangian. The symmetric part of the resulting horizontal (resp. vertical) field equations gives rise to a generalized form of Einstein's field equations in which the horizontal (resp. vertical) energy-momentum tensor is purely geometric. The skew-symmetric part of the resulting horizontal (resp. vertical) field equations gives rise to a generalized form of Maxwell equations in which the electromagnetic field is purely geometric. Some interesting special cases, which reveal the role of the nonlinear connection in the obtained field equations, are examined. Finally, the condition under which our constructed field equations reduce to the GFT is explicitly established.

  6. Centrifuge Rotor Models: A Comparison of the Euler-Lagrange and the Bond Graph Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granda, Jose J.; Ramakrishnan, Jayant; Nguyen, Louis H.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on centrifuge rotor models with a comparison using Euler-Lagrange and bond graph methods is shown. The topics include: 1) Objectives; 2) MOdeling Approach Comparisons; 3) Model Structures; and 4) Application.

  7. Conformal Traceless Decomposition of Lagrange Multiplier Modified Horava-Lifshitz Gravity

    E-print Network

    J. Kluson

    2015-02-06

    We introduce conformal traceless decomposition in Lagrange Multiplier modified RFDiff invariant Horava-Lifshitz gravity. We perform Hamiltonian analysis of given action and determine the action for the physical degrees of freedom.

  8. 77 FR 39508 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL... Museum of Natural History in Chicago, IL (Field Museum). The human remains and associated funerary... Helen Robbins, Repatriation Director, Field Museum of Natural History, 1400 South Lake Shore......

  9. National Environmental Research Parks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The National Environmental Research Parks are outdoor laboratories that provide opportunities for environmental studies on protected lands that act as buffers around Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The research parks are used to evaluate the environmental consequences of energy use and development as well as the strategies to mitigate these effects. They are also used to demonstrate possible environmental and land-use options. The seven parks are: Fermilab National Environmental Research Park; Hanford National Environmental Research Park; Idaho National Environmental Research Park; Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park; Nevada National Environmental Research Park; Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park; and Savannah River National Environmental Research Park. This document gives an overview of the events that led to the creation of the research parks. Its main purpose is to summarize key points about each park, including ecological research, geological characteristics, facilities, and available databases.

  10. On the local structure of the Euler-Lagrange mapping of the calculus of variations

    E-print Network

    Demeter Krupka

    2002-03-18

    The purpose of this paper is to announce some new results on the structure of the higher order Euler-Lagrange mapping of the multiple-integral variational calculus on fibered manifolds,namely a description of its kernel and its image,and an explicit characterization of the conditions under which a system of partial differential equations (of arbitrary order)is a system of the Euler--Lagrange equations.

  11. Skeletal Pathology in Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii in Kibale National Park, Uganda

    E-print Network

    Pontzer, Herman

    Skeletal Pathology in Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii in Kibale National Park, Uganda Melinda L History, Chicago, IL KEY WORDS skeletal pathology; body size; chimpanzees; poaching; primate health size, morbidity, and mortality are rare for wild chimpanzees. Here, we present skeletal pathology

  12. Transportation & Parking Committee

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    -Hours Transportation Study Student Issues Service Parking Parking for Employees and Students with Disabilities Meeting to more clearly show the discounted night rates. #12;Service Parking Provides a mechanism for high-turnover occupied by personal vehicles: In lieu of employee parking permit Gym use Shuffling to different space

  13. ParkingEducation Week Parking DisabledParking

    E-print Network

    Hart, Gus

    between the perimeter parking lots and the main cam- pus at regular intervals . large detailed maps PARKING Direct shuttle service from the West Stadium Lot to the WSC and to the Marriott Center Route WsC--MlbM--Conf--900 east--WsC Pink Route West stadium lot--WsC--MC--West stadium lot Brown Route

  14. The IL-23-IL-17 axis in inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lubberts, Erik

    2015-10-01

    The IL-23-IL-17 axis in inflammatory arthritis. Erik Lubberts. Nat. Rev. Rheumatol. 11, 415-429 (2015); published online 28 April 2015; doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2015.53. In Figure 2a of this Review, full protection against CIA was incorrectly stated as an effect of IL-17 deficiency instead of IL-17RA deficiency. PMID:26369609

  15. Yellowstone Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Thirteen years after devastating forest fires burned over 1.6 million acres in Yellowstone National Park, the scars are still evident. In this simulated natural color ASTER image, burned areas appear gray, in contrast to the dark green of unburned forests. The image covers an area of 60 x 63 km. This image was acquired on July 2, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the technologies needed to explore the universe and search for life beyond our home planet.

    Size: 60 x 63 km (37.2 x 39.1 miles) Location: 44.7 deg. North lat., 110.7 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: July 2, 2001

  16. Position-dependent mass Lagrangians: nonlocal transformations, Euler-Lagrange invariance and exact solvability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Omar

    2015-06-01

    A general nonlocal point transformation for position-dependent mass (PDM) Lagrangians and their mapping into a ‘constant unit-mass’ Lagrangians in the generalized coordinates is introduced. The conditions on the invariance of the related Euler-Lagrange equations are reported. The harmonic oscillator linearization of the PDM Euler-Lagrange equations is discussed through some illustrative examples including harmonic oscillators, shifted harmonic oscillators, a quadratic nonlinear oscillator, and a Morse-type oscillator. The Mathews-Lakshmanan nonlinear oscillators are reproduced and some ‘shifted’ Mathews-Lakshmanan nonlinear oscillators are reported. The mapping of an isotonic nonlinear oscillator into a PDM deformed isotonic oscillator is also discussed.

  17. Position-dependent mass Lagrangians: nonlocal transformations, Euler-Lagrange invariance and exact solvability

    E-print Network

    Omar Mustafa

    2015-05-08

    A general non-local point transformation for position-dependent mass Lagrangians and their mapping into a "constant unit-mass" Lagrangians in the generalized coordinates is introduced. The conditions on the invariance of the related Euler-Lagrange equations are reported. The harmonic oscillator linearization of the PDM Euler-Lagrange equations is discussed through some illustrative examples including harmonic oscillators, shifted harmonic oscillators, a quadratic nonlinear oscillator, and a Morse-type oscillator. The Mathews-Lakshmanan nonlinear oscillators are reproduced and some "shifted" Mathews-Lakshmanan nonlinear oscillators are reported. The mapping of an isotonic nonlinear oscillator into a PDM deformed isotonic oscillator is also discussed.

  18. Lagrange multipliers in elastic-plastic torsion problem for nonlinear monotone operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuffrè, S.; Maugeri, A.; Puglisi, D.

    2015-08-01

    The existence of Lagrange multipliers as a Radon measure is ensured for an elastic-plastic torsion problem associated to a nonlinear strictly monotone operator. A regularization of this result, namely the existence of Lp Lagrange multipliers, is obtained under strong monotonicity assumption on the operator. Moreover, the relationships between elastic-plastic torsion problem and the obstacle problem are investigated. Finally, an example of the so-called "Von Mises functions" is provided, namely of solutions of the elastic-plastic torsion problem, associated to nonlinear monotone operators, which are not obtained by means of the obstacle problem in the case f =constant.

  19. A Lagrange-Galerkin hp-Finite Element Method for a 3D Nonhydrostatic Ocean Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galán del Sastre, Pedro; Bermejo, Rodolfo

    2015-10-01

    We introduce in this paper a Lagrange-Galerkin hp-finite element method to calculate the numerical solution of a nonhydrostatic ocean model. The Lagrange-Galerkin method yields a Stokes-like problem the solution of which is computed by a second-order rotational splitting scheme that separates the calculation of the velocity and pressure, the latter is decomposed into hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic components. We have tested the method in flows where the nonhydrostatic effects are important. The results are very encouraging.

  20. CAR PARKING POLICY DOCUMENTATION Special Needs Parking Permits Eligibility Guidelines

    E-print Network

    Lucy, David

    CAR PARKING POLICY DOCUMENTATION Special Needs Parking Permits ­ Eligibility Guidelines 2015 for continued use. University SN permits are valid in all car parking spaces on campus in any parking zone, including all disabled parking spaces. Staff and Students should apply direct to the Car Parking Office

  1. INNOVATION PARK INNOVATION BLVD

    E-print Network

    Maroncelli, Mark

    INNOVATION PARK C-14 C-15 C-15 INNOVATION BLVD E PARK AVE 230 OUT TPS TCH 328 329 330 103 LBT DBG TE IWH BIGHOLLOW RD FRH FRH FRH A-09 C-16 C-16 C-16 to Innovation Park CURTIN RD E PARK AVE PORTERRD Engineering D6 Agricultural Science & Industries D7 Almquist Lab A11 Althouse Lab E6 Applied Research Lab G4

  2. Resolution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with the imaginary-time method on a Lagrange mesh

    SciTech Connect

    Baye, D.; Sparenberg, J.-M.

    2010-11-15

    The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational calculation which has the simplicity of a mesh calculation. Combined with the imaginary-time method, it is applied to the iterative resolution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Two variants of a fourth-order factorization of the exponential of the Hamiltonian and two types of mesh (Lagrange-Hermite and Lagrange-sinc) are employed and compared. The accuracy is checked with the help of these comparisons and of the virial theorem. The Lagrange-Hermite mesh provides very accurate results with short computing times for values of the dimensionless parameter of the nonlinear term up to 10{sup 4}. For higher values up to 10{sup 7}, the Lagrange-sinc mesh is more efficient. Examples are given for anisotropic and nonseparable trapping potentials.

  3. Resolution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with the imaginary-time method on a Lagrange mesh.

    PubMed

    Baye, D; Sparenberg, J-M

    2010-11-01

    The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational calculation which has the simplicity of a mesh calculation. Combined with the imaginary-time method, it is applied to the iterative resolution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Two variants of a fourth-order factorization of the exponential of the Hamiltonian and two types of mesh (Lagrange-Hermite and Lagrange-sinc) are employed and compared. The accuracy is checked with the help of these comparisons and of the virial theorem. The Lagrange-Hermite mesh provides very accurate results with short computing times for values of the dimensionless parameter of the nonlinear term up to 10?. For higher values up to 10?, the Lagrange-sinc mesh is more efficient. Examples are given for anisotropic and nonseparable trapping potentials. PMID:21230613

  4. Parks In Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Sally-Jo

    1998-01-01

    More than 50 National Park Service (NPS) sites interpret Native cultures or early Native contact with Europeans. In about 30 of those, American Indians, Alaska Natives, or Native Hawaiians, in partnership with the NPS, present their own heritage and issues. Describes Native-run aspects of Sitka National Historical Park, Glacier National Park, and…

  5. PASSIVITY BASED NONLINEAR CONTROL OF HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS BASED ON AN EULER-LAGRANGE FORMULATION

    E-print Network

    Li, Perry Y.

    PASSIVITY BASED NONLINEAR CONTROL OF HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS BASED ON AN EULER-LAGRANGE FORMULATION Email: wangx833@umn.edu ABSTRACT A passivity framework for hydraulic actuators is developed for this energy function. A passiv- ity property for the actuator is exhibited in which the hydraulic supply rate

  6. Modified Lagrange invariants and their role in determining transverse and axial imaging

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Joseph

    ," Appl. Opt. 10(12), 2763­2767 (1971). 3. J. Rosen and G. Brooker, "Digital spatially incoherent FresnelModified Lagrange invariants and their role in determining transverse and axial imaging resolutions of self-interference incoherent holographic systems Joseph Rosen1,* and Roy Kelner1,2 1 Department

  7. Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua W.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2014-10-01

    It is commonly believed as a fundamental principle that energy-momentum conservation of a physical system is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., charged particles interacting through self-consistent electromagnetic or electrostatic fields, such a connection has only been cautiously suggested. It has not been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that the dynamics of particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. We show how to overcome this difficulty and establish the connection by generalizing the Euler-Lagrange equation, the central component of a field theory, to a so-called weak form. The weak Euler-Lagrange equation induces a new type of flux, called the weak Euler-Lagrange current, which enters conservation laws. Using field theory together with the weak Euler-Lagrange equation developed here, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived from the underlying space-time symmetry.

  8. Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems

    E-print Network

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly believed as a fundamental principle that energy-momentum conservation of a physical system is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., charged particles interacting through self-consistent electromagnetic or electrostatic fields, such a connection has only been cautiously suggested. It has not been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that the dynamics of particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. We show how to overcome this difficulty and establish the connection by generalizing the Euler-Lagrange equation, the central component of a field theory, to a so-called weak form. The weak Euler-Lagrange equation induces a new type of flux, called the weak Euler-Lagrange current, which enters conservation laws. Using field theory together with the weak Euler-Lagrange equation developed here, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived from the underly...

  9. Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems

    E-print Network

    Hong Qin; J. W. Burby; Ronald C. Davidson

    2015-04-17

    It is commonly believed as a fundamental principle that energy-momentum conservation of a physical system is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., charged particles interacting through self-consistent electromagnetic or electrostatic fields, such a connection has only been cautiously suggested. It has not been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that the dynamics of particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. We show how to overcome this difficulty and establish the connection by generalizing the Euler-Lagrange equation, the central component of a field theory, to a so-called weak form. The weak Euler-Lagrange equation induces a new type of flux, called the weak Euler-Lagrange current, which enters conservation laws. Using field theory together with the weak Euler-Lagrange equation developed here, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived from the underlying space-time symmetry.

  10. 38 RUE VICTOR LAGRANGE 69362 LYON CEDEX 07 -04 72 98 26 60

    E-print Network

    Lherminier, Pascale

    38 RUE VICTOR LAGRANGE 69362 LYON CEDEX 07 - 04 72 98 26 60 SEPT 08 Mensuel OJD : 3237 Surface'Université Joseph Fourier et à l'INPG), l'Université de Lille. 2. Programme international d'observation de l

  11. 1. Mill village dwelling at 817 Forest St. in LaGrange. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Mill village dwelling at 817 Forest St. in LaGrange. Note the hipped roof and wrap-around porch with heavy cornice and Doric columns. The quality of decorative detail here suggests that this house would have been for a mill manager. - 817 Forest Street (House), 817 Forest Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  12. J. L. Lagrange's ChangingApproach to the Foundations of the Calculus of Variations

    E-print Network

    Fraser, Craig

    J. L. Lagrange's ChangingApproach to the Foundations of the Calculus of Variations CRAIG FRASER [1806, 315] (Commenting on the history of the calculus of variations in the 18th century). This passage. This tendency is especially evident in his contributions to the calculus of variations, and it comes, therefore

  13. Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua W; Davidson, Ronald C

    2014-10-01

    It is commonly believed as a fundamental principle that energy-momentum conservation of a physical system is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., charged particles interacting through self-consistent electromagnetic or electrostatic fields, such a connection has only been cautiously suggested. It has not been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that the dynamics of particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. We show how to overcome this difficulty and establish the connection by generalizing the Euler-Lagrange equation, the central component of a field theory, to a so-called weak form. The weak Euler-Lagrange equation induces a new type of flux, called the weak Euler-Lagrange current, which enters conservation laws. Using field theory together with the weak Euler-Lagrange equation developed here, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived from the underlying space-time symmetry. PMID:25375609

  14. Detection of Differential Item Functioning Using Lagrange Multiplier Tests. Research Report 96-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.

    In this paper it is shown that differential item functioning can be evaluated using the Lagrange multiplier test or C. R. Rao's efficient score test. The test is presented in the framework of a number of item response theory (IRT) models such as the Rasch model, the one-parameter logistic model, the two-parameter logistic model, the generalized…

  15. Second-order Galerkin-Lagrange Method for the Navier-Stokes Equations

    E-print Network

    Saramito, Pierre

    -order characteristic mixed finite element approximation for Navier- Stokes equation. Optimal error estimates are proved is to present optimal error estimates for a second-order Lagrange- Galerkin mixed finite element approximation), respectively. In the cylindrical domain (0, T), we consider the Navier-Stokes equations: NS u t u u u p f u 0

  16. Regulation of Antitumor Immune Responses by the IL-12 Family Cytokines, IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Mingli; Mizoguchi, Izuru; Morishima, Noriko; Chiba, Yukino; Mizuguchi, Junichiro; Yoshimoto, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    The interleukin (IL)-12 family, which is composed of heterodimeric cytokines including IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27, is produced by antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells and plays critical roles in the regulation of helper T (Th) cell differentiation. IL-12 induces IFN-? production by NK and T cells and differentiation to Th1 cells. IL-23 induces IL-17 production by memory T cells and expands and maintains inflammatory Th17 cells. IL-27 induces the early Th1 differentiation and generation of IL-10-producing regulatory T cells. In addition, these cytokines induce distinct immune responses to tumors. IL-12 activates signal transducers and activator of transcription (STAT)4 and enhances antitumor cellular immunity through interferon (IFN)-? production. IL-27 activates STAT1, as does IFN-? and STAT3 as well, and enhances antitumor immunity by augmenting cellular and humoral immunities. In contrast, although exogenously overexpressed IL-23 enhances antitumor immunity via memory T cells, endogenous IL-23 promotes protumor immunity through STAT3 activation by inducing inflammatory responses including IL-17 production. PMID:20885915

  17. Helping You Buy ILS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibbarelli, Pamela R.

    2010-01-01

    This article is the fourth in a series of articles published annually by "Computers in Libraries" surveying integrated library systems and services (ILSs). The purpose of the annual survey is to enable comparison of the ILSs that are available. ILS vendors are in constant pursuit of an ever-changing, consistently vague definition of what the…

  18. Urban Parks: Constraints on Park Visitation 

    E-print Network

    Scott, David

    2006-12-19

    Research shows that women, older people, members of some ethnic groups, and people with low educational and income levels are less likely than others to participate in leisure activities or visit parks. This publication explores the constraints...

  19. CAR PARKING POLICY DOCUMENTATION Contractor Parking Policy 2015/16

    E-print Network

    Lucy, David

    CAR PARKING POLICY DOCUMENTATION Contractor Parking Policy 2015/16 Effective 1ST October 2015 #12;Contractor Parking Policy 2015/16 This policy supplements the existing Lancaster University car parking of the University are available on the Car Parking Policy page on the website - http

  20. Modified Lagrange invariants and their role in determining transverse and axial imaging resolutions of self-interference incoherent holographic systems

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Joseph; Kelner, Roy

    2014-01-01

    The Lagrange invariant is a well-known law for optical imaging systems formulated in the frame of ray optics. In this study, we reformulate this law in terms of wave optics and relate it to the resolution limits of various imaging systems. Furthermore, this modified Lagrange invariant is generalized for imaging along the z axis, resulting with the axial Lagrange invariant which can be used to analyze the axial resolution of various imaging systems. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the theory, analysis of the lateral and the axial imaging resolutions is provided for Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) systems. PMID:25402144

  1. PARKING MAP Sales Office

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    & Engineering Library Thimann Labs Thimann Lecture Hall Recital Hall Music Center Earth & Marine Sciences Hahn Ranch View Terrace Humanities & Social Sciences Communications Family Student Housing Camper Park

  2. Two Parking Science Research

    E-print Network

    Elzanowski, Marek

    Student & Community Center Market Center Building Bookstore Urban Center Building Academic & Student Recreation Field South Park Blocks WalkoftheHeroines NORTH PSU Community Garden & Orchard Extended Studies

  3. Multiple-relaxation-time Finsler-Lagrange dynamics in a compressed Langmuir monolayer

    E-print Network

    V. Balan; H. V. Grushevskaya; N. G. Krylova; M. Neagu

    2015-12-05

    In this paper an information geometric approach has been proposed to describe the two-dimensional (2d) phase transition of the first order in a monomolecular layer (monolayer) of amphiphilic molecules deposited on air/water interface. The structurization of the monolayer was simulated as an entropy evolution of a statistical set of microscopic states with a large number of relaxation times. The electrocapillary forces are considered as information constraints on the statistical manifold. The solution curves of Euler-Lagrange equations and the Jacobi field equations point out contracting pencils of geodesic trajectories on the statistical manifold, which may change into spreading ones, and converse. It was shown that the information geometrodynamics of the first-order phase transition in the Langmuir monolayer finds an appropriate realization within the Finsler-Lagrange framework.

  4. STUDENT PARKING PARKING & TRANSPORTATION SERVICES | 14/15

    E-print Network

    Pillow, Jonathan

    , Booting & Appeals 06 Driving & Parking Offenses 07 Green on the Go 08 Parking 101 PARKING AT UT Located@www.utexas.edu Biking bicycle@www.utexas.edu Citation Appeals appeals@www.utexas.edu Shuttle Buses shuttle

  5. Turbulence Dynamics based on Lagrange Mechanics and Geometrical Field Theory of Deformation

    E-print Network

    Xiao Jianhua

    2009-03-16

    The turbulence field is stacked on the laminar flow. In this research, the laminar flow is described as a macro deformation which forms an instant curvature space. On such a curvature space, the turbulence is viewed as a micro deformation. So, the fluid flow is described by the geometrical field theory of finite deformation. Based on the Lagrange mechanics and the deformation energy concept, using the Least Action Principle, the Euler-Lagrange motion equations are obtained. According to A E Green formulation, the stress concept is introduced by deformation tensor. The fluid motion is described by the multiplication of a macro deformation tensor and a micro deformation tensor. By this way, the geometrical field of fluid motion is well constructed. Then, the spatial derivative of deformation energy is expressed by the gradient of deformation tensors. By this way, the deformation energy related items in the Euler-Lagrange motion equations are expressed by the stress tensor and deformation tensor. The obtained Euler-Lagrange motion equations, then, are decomposed into average deformation equations and turbulence equations. For several special cases, the new results are compared with the conventional Navier-Stokes equation with Reynolds stress modification.The comparisons also show that the Bernoulli Equation is a natural precondition for the conventional Navier-Stokes equation.Generally, the turbulence wave is an inward-traveling wave. Unlike the normal outward-traveling wave related with the average deformation, the inward-traveling wave is the intrinsic feature of turbulence. So, the turbulence is well defined by the equations obtained in this research. For several typical cases, the simplified turbulence wave equations are given out with simple discussion.

  6. Lagrange-Function Approach to Real-Space Order-N Electronic-Structure Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Varga, Kalman; Pantelides, Sokrates T

    2006-01-01

    The Lagrange functions are a family of analytical, complete, and orthonormal basis sets that are suitable for efficient, accurate, real-space, order-N electronic-structure calculations. Convergence is controlled by a single monotonic parameter, the dimension of the basis set, and computational complexity is lower than that of conventional approaches. In this paper we review their construction and applications in linearscaling electronic-structure calculations.

  7. CAR PARKING POLICY DOCUMENTATION Car Parking Full List of Parking Charges

    E-print Network

    Lucy, David

    CAR PARKING POLICY DOCUMENTATION Car Parking Full List of Parking Charges 2015/16 Effective 1ST October 2015 #12;Car Parking Charges 2015/16 Travel Options ­ Car Parking and UniRider Bus Passes 2015.00* £122.04* £133.08* £144.00* £155.40* £117 £78 Staff Car Share Permit £67 Special Needs Permit (eligible

  8. Roswell Park Cancer Institute

    Cancer.gov

    Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI) was the first institution in the nation dedicated exclusively to cancer research. Founded in 1898 by eminent American surgeon Roswell Park, M.D., it began as the University of Buffalo Pathological Laboratory. With the opening of a hospital in 1913, the Institute strengthened its focus on moving scientific discoveries from the laboratory to the patient’s bedside.

  9. Splendor In The Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anthony Wayne

    1979-01-01

    Civilization is more and more intruding on the esthetic and recreational resources of the National Park System. Increased attention must be paid to controlling noise, pollution, and even the effects of urban lighting which detract from the enjoyment of the parks. (RE)

  10. Acadia National Park Panorama

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A panorama of Acadia National Park with Dorr and Cadillac Mountains on the right side, taken from Cadillac Mountain Road. At 1,528 feet in elevation, Cadillac Mountain is the highest point in Acadia National Park, and is composed of a unique granite, the Cadillac Mountain granite unit....

  11. Oregon's first wind park

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The bringing on-line of the 1.25 MW wind park at Whiskey Run, Oregon, is reported. The park features twenty-five 50 KW wind turbine generators and is expected to produce about three million kilowatt-hours per year for the Pacific Power and Light system.

  12. 75 FR 435 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... physical remains of 14 individuals of Native American ancestry. Officials of the Field Museum of Natural... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the Field Museum of......

  13. 75 FR 438 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... individual of Native American ancestry. Officials of the Field Museum of Natural History also have determined... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the Field Museum of......

  14. 75 FR 52022 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY... Natural History purchased these human remains from Joseph V. Tallman of Pendleton, OR (Field Museum of... County, OR, by Dr. Merton Miller for the Field Museum of Natural History (Field......

  15. Immunotherapeutic applications of IL-18.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Hiroko; Nakanishi, Kenji

    2012-12-01

    To become active and extracellularly released, IL-18 needs post-translational processing by the cytoplasmic enzyme caspase-1, which has high sequence homology with apoptotic cell death-associated enzymes in Caenorhabditis elegans. Furthermore, the receptor for IL-18 shares the signal transduction pathway with the Toll-like receptor, which highly resembles that for the host defense in Drosophila. Since nonvertebrates utilize only innate immunity, it is plausible that IL-18 is an innate immune cytokine. IL-18 is produced by both immune and nonimmune cells, and influences both immunity and nonimmune biology with dual functions beneficial for health and causative of diseases. In this review, recently identified features of IL-18 will be focused upon, followed by discussion of IL-18 as a possible therapeutic target. PMID:23240755

  16. Dead Mans Run parking for

    E-print Network

    Hermiller, Susan

    parking regulations, permit information, etc., is available at Parking and Transit Services website, http) Construction Site Bus Parking Accessible Parking East Campus Varner Hall Colonial Terrace Apartments V Larson Barkley Memorial Center Fedde Hall Love Memorial Hall Textile Design Studio Hardin Hall Burr Hall Nebraska

  17. Investigating Trojan Asteroids at the L4/L5 Sun-Earth Lagrange Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    John, K. K.; Graham, L. D.; Abell, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of Earth's Trojan asteroids will have benefits for science, exploration, and resource utilization. By sending a small spacecraft to the Sun-Earth L4 or L5 Lagrange points to investigate near-Earth objects, Earth's Trojan population can be better understood. This could lead to future missions for larger precursor spacecraft as well as human missions. The presence of objects in the Sun-Earth L4 and L5 Lagrange points has long been suspected, and in 2010 NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) detected a 300 m object. To investigate these Earth Trojan asteroid objects, it is both essential and feasible to send spacecraft to these regions. By exploring a wide field area, a small spacecraft equipped with an IR camera could hunt for Trojan asteroids and other Earth co-orbiting objects at the L4 or L5 Lagrange points in the near-term. By surveying the region, a zeroth-order approximation of the number of objects could be obtained with some rough constraints on their diameters, which may lead to the identification of potential candidates for further study. This would serve as a precursor for additional future robotic and human exploration targets. Depending on the inclination of these potential objects, they could be used as proving areas for future missions in the sense that the delta-V's to get to these targets are relatively low as compared to other rendezvous missions. They can serve as platforms for extended operations in deep space while interacting with a natural object in microgravity. Theoretically, such low inclination Earth Trojan asteroids exist. By sending a spacecraft to L4 or L5, these likely and potentially accessible targets could be identified.

  18. Recruitment Parking and Transit

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    Rossiter Emergency Management / Business Continuity Manager Dan Wears Day Patrol and Events CommanderTraining/ Recruitment Sergeant Parking and Transit Services Director Risk Management & Regulatory and Life Safety Services Manager Claims Assc. Director Risk & Insurance Assc. Director Law Enforcement

  19. Kruger National Park

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... above and to the right of image center is the Palabora Copper Mine, and the water body near upper right is Lake Massingir in ... South Africa showing Kruger Park, the Palabora Copper Mine, and Lake Massingir. project:  MISR ...

  20. Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua W; Davidson, Ronald C

    2014-10-01

    It is commonly believed that energy-momentum conservation is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., Klimontovich-Maxwell and Klimontovich- Poisson systems, such a connection hasn't been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. To establish the connection, the standard Euler-Lagrange equation needs to be generalized to a weak form. Using this technique, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived.

  1. A new approach on fractional variational problems and Euler-Lagrange equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, F.; Fazli, H.; Jodayree Akbarfam, A.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we generalize fractional variational problems in [ a, b ] . We allow for the possibility that functions in the space of solution for the optimization problem can blow up at boundary points. The appropriate fractional derivative spaces are introduced and a compact embedding theorem demonstrated. We prove the existence of minimizers for the variational problems which satisfy the Euler-Lagrange equations with Riemann-Liouville boundary conditions. Our method is based on the fractional calculus of variations. An example is given to illustrate the results.

  2. Real-time image quality assessment with mixed Lagrange time delay estimation autoregressive (MLTDEAR) model.

    PubMed

    Sim, K S; Tso, C P; Tan, Y Y; Lim, W K

    2007-06-01

    A proposal to assess the quality of scanning electron microscope images using mixed Lagrange time delay estimation technique is presented. With optimal scanning electron microscope scan rate information, online images can be quantified and improved. The online quality assessment technique is embedded onto a scanning electron microscope frame grabber card for real-time image processing. Different images are captured using scanning electron microscope and a database is built to optimally choose filter parameters. An optimum choice of filter parameters is obtained. With the optimum choice of scan rate, noise can be removed from real-time scanning electron microscope images without causing any sample contamination or increasing scanning time. PMID:17535262

  3. The Lagrange Points in a Binary Black Hole System: Applications to Electromagnetic Signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnittman, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    We study the stability and evolution of the Lagrange points L_4 and L-5 in a black hole (BH) binary system, including gravitational radiation. We find that gas and stars can be shepherded in with the BH system until the final moments before merger, providing the fuel for a bright electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal. Other astrophysical signatures include the ejection of hyper-velocity stars, gravitational collapse of globular clusters, and the periodic shift of narrow emission lines in AGN.

  4. Domain decomposition methods for nonconforming finite element spaces of Lagrange-type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowsar, Lawrence C.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, we consider the application of three popular domain decomposition methods to Lagrange-type nonconforming finite element discretizations of scalar, self-adjoint, second order elliptic equations. The additive Schwarz method of Dryja and Widlund, the vertex space method of Smith, and the balancing method of Mandel applied to nonconforming elements are shown to converge at a rate no worse than their applications to the standard conforming piecewise linear Galerkin discretization. Essentially, the theory for the nonconforming elements is inherited from the existing theory for the conforming elements with only modest modification by constructing an isomorphism between the nonconforming finite element space and a space of continuous piecewise linear functions.

  5. Telleparallel Lagrange Geometry and a Unified Field Theory: Linearization of the Field Equations

    E-print Network

    M. I. Wanas; Nabil L. Youssef; A. M. Sid-Ahmed

    2011-07-03

    The present paper is a natural continuation of our previous paper: "Teleparallel Lagrange geometry and a unified field theory, Class. Quantum Grav., 27 (2010), 045005 (29pp)" \\cite{WNA}. In this paper, we apply a linearization scheme on the field equations obtained in \\cite{WNA}. Three important results under the linearization assumption are accomplished. First, the vertical fundamental geometric objects of the EAP-space loose their dependence on the positional argument $x$. Secondly, our linearized theory in the Cartan-type case coincides with the GFT in the first order of approximation. Finally, an approximate solution of the vertical field equations is obtained.

  6. The Swallow Park Sundials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Villiers, P.

    2014-02-01

    The Hermanus Astronomy Centre recently erected a pair of back-to-back sundials in Swallow Park in the centre of Hermanus as part of the upgrading of this historical public park by the Ward committee. Since these two are intended to be the first of many different design sundials to be erected in Hermanus by the HAC, the designs were purposefully chosen to be "unusual" to illustrate the point that even unfamiliar designs and orientations give the same end result....

  7. Optimized Expression of IL-12 Cytokine Family

    Cancer.gov

    The IL-12 family of cytokines (IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27) plays a role in infection, inflammation and autoimmune diseases. IL-12 is produced by macrophages and dendritic cells in response to certain bacterial and parasitic infections and is a powerful inducer of IFN-gamma production.

  8. Accuracy of Lagrange-sinc functions as a basis set for electronic structure calculations of atoms and molecules.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sunghwan; Hong, Kwangwoo; Kim, Jaewook; Kim, Woo Youn

    2015-03-01

    We developed a self-consistent field program based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory using Lagrange-sinc functions as a basis set and examined its numerical accuracy for atoms and molecules through comparison with the results of Gaussian basis sets. The result of the Kohn-Sham inversion formula from the Lagrange-sinc basis set manifests that the pseudopotential method is essential for cost-effective calculations. The Lagrange-sinc basis set shows faster convergence of the kinetic and correlation energies of benzene as its size increases than the finite difference method does, though both share the same uniform grid. Using a scaling factor smaller than or equal to 0.226 bohr and pseudopotentials with nonlinear core correction, its accuracy for the atomization energies of the G2-1 set is comparable to all-electron complete basis set limits (mean absolute deviation ?1 kcal/mol). The same basis set also shows small mean absolute deviations in the ionization energies, electron affinities, and static polarizabilities of atoms in the G2-1 set. In particular, the Lagrange-sinc basis set shows high accuracy with rapid convergence in describing density or orbital changes by an external electric field. Moreover, the Lagrange-sinc basis set can readily improve its accuracy toward a complete basis set limit by simply decreasing the scaling factor regardless of systems. PMID:25747070

  9. Accuracy of Lagrange-sinc functions as a basis set for electronic structure calculations of atoms and molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Sunghwan; Hong, Kwangwoo; Kim, Jaewook; Kim, Woo Youn

    2015-03-07

    We developed a self-consistent field program based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory using Lagrange-sinc functions as a basis set and examined its numerical accuracy for atoms and molecules through comparison with the results of Gaussian basis sets. The result of the Kohn-Sham inversion formula from the Lagrange-sinc basis set manifests that the pseudopotential method is essential for cost-effective calculations. The Lagrange-sinc basis set shows faster convergence of the kinetic and correlation energies of benzene as its size increases than the finite difference method does, though both share the same uniform grid. Using a scaling factor smaller than or equal to 0.226 bohr and pseudopotentials with nonlinear core correction, its accuracy for the atomization energies of the G2-1 set is comparable to all-electron complete basis set limits (mean absolute deviation ?1 kcal/mol). The same basis set also shows small mean absolute deviations in the ionization energies, electron affinities, and static polarizabilities of atoms in the G2-1 set. In particular, the Lagrange-sinc basis set shows high accuracy with rapid convergence in describing density or orbital changes by an external electric field. Moreover, the Lagrange-sinc basis set can readily improve its accuracy toward a complete basis set limit by simply decreasing the scaling factor regardless of systems.

  10. Guidelines for Recreation and Park Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, Joseph J.; Storey, Edward H.

    In this publication, written for use in guiding community recreation and park systems, the following topics are discussed: why parks and recreational facilities should be developed, the need for governmental participation, and park-system development. Additionally, neighborhood parks, playlots, community parks, city-wide parks, regional parks and…

  11. Modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity with the Lagrange multiplier constraint as mimetic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Oikonomou, V. K.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we propose and extensively study mimetic f({G}) modified gravity models, with various scenarios of cosmological evolution, with or without extra matter fluids. The easiest formulation is based on the use of the Lagrange multiplier constraint. In certain versions of this theory, it is possible to realize accelerated expansion of the Universe or even unified evolution, which includes inflation with dark energy, and at the same time in the same theoretical framework, dark matter is described by the theory. This is achieved by the re-parametrization of the metric tensor, which introduces a new degree of freedom in the cosmological equations and leads to the appearance of the mimetic ‘dark matter’ component. In the context of the mimetic f({G}) theory, we also provide some quite general reconstruction schemes, which enable us to find which f({G}) gravity generates a specific cosmological evolution. In addition, we also provide the general reconstruction technique for the Lagrange multiplier f({G}) gravity. All our results are accompanied by illustrative examples, with special emphasis on bouncing cosmologies.

  12. Lagrange-type formulation for finite element analysis of non-linear beam vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, B. S.; Varadan, T. K.

    1983-01-01

    A Lagrange-type formulation for finite element analysis of non-linear vibrations of immovably supported beams is presented. Two equations of motion coupled in axial and transverse displacements are derived by using Lagrange's equations. By neglecting the in-plane inertial effects, these equations are written in terms of the transverse displacement alone. Upon defining certain properties for the non-linear oscillatory behaviour of the transverse displacement, the governing equation is reduced to an equation in space alone from which the eigenvalue-like quantity is computed. The governing equation is solved in two ways. A direct iteration technique is used in the first method to compute a numerically exact mode shape and the corresponding frequency. A Rayleigh quotient type of formulation, similar to linear vibration analysis, is used in the second approach to evaluate the frequency of vibration for a fundamental mode which is determined from a linear FEM model and is maintained constant at all amplitudes. Numerical results are compared with available results and they corroborate the observations of earlier research workers.

  13. Generalized distillability conjecture and generalizations of Cauchy-Bunyakovsky-Schwarz inequality and Lagrange identity

    E-print Network

    Dragomir Z. Djokovic

    2010-12-22

    Let rho_k, k=1,2,...,m, be the critical Werner state in a bipartite d_k by d_k quantum system, i.e., the one that separates the 1-distillable Werner states from those that are 1-indistillable. We propose a new conjecture (GDC) asserting that the tensor product of rho_k is 1-indistillable. This is much stronger than the familiar conjecture saying that a single critical Werner state is indistillable. We prove that GDC is true for arbitrary m provided that d_k is bigger than 2 for at most one index k. We reformulate GDC as an intriguing inequality for four arbitrary complex hypermatrices of type d_1 x ... x d_m. This hypermatrix inequality is just the special case n=2 of a more general conjecture (CBS conjecture) for 2n arbitrary complex hypermatrices of the same type. Surprisingly, the case n=1 turns out to be quite interesting as it provides hypermatrix generalization of the classical Lagrange identity. We also formulate the integral version of the CBS conjecture and derive the integral version of the hypermatrix Lagrange identity.

  14. Augmented Lagrange Hopfield network for solving economic dispatch problem in competitive environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Dieu Ngoc; Ongsakul, Weerakorn; Nguyen, Khai Phuc

    2012-11-01

    This paper proposes an augmented Lagrange Hopfield network (ALHN) for solving economic dispatch (ED) problem in the competitive environment. The proposed ALHN is a continuous Hopfield network with its energy function based on augmented Lagrange function for efficiently dealing with constrained optimization problems. The ALHN method can overcome the drawbacks of the conventional Hopfield network such as local optimum, long computational time, and linear constraints. The proposed method is used for solving the ED problem with two revenue models of revenue based on payment for power delivered and payment for reserve allocated. The proposed ALHN has been tested on two systems of 3 units and 10 units for the two considered revenue models. The obtained results from the proposed methods are compared to those from differential evolution (DE) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) methods. The result comparison has indicated that the proposed method is very efficient for solving the problem. Therefore, the proposed ALHN could be a favorable tool for ED problem in the competitive environment.

  15. A three-dimensional free-Lagrange code for multimaterial flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahota, M. S.; Trease, H. E.

    A time-dependent, three-dimensional, compressible, multicomponent, free-Lagrange code is currently under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The code uses fixed-mass particles (called mass points) surrounded by median Lagrangian cells. These mass points are free to change their nearest-neighbor connections as they follow the fluid motion, which ensures accuracy in the differencing of equations and allows simulation of flows with extreme distortions. All variables, including velocity, are mass-point centered and time-advancement is performed using the finite-volume technique. The code conserves mass, momentum, and energy exactly, except in some pathological situations. The Voronoi connections algorithm were utilized for Delaunay tetrahedralization of the median mesh during mesh generations and mesh reconnections. The code is highly vectorized and utilizes all eight processors on a Cray YMP. Also, the code was recently mapped to the massively parallel Connection Machine. Some of the applications for the free-Lagrange method include atomspheric and ocean-circulation models, oil-reservoir and high-velocity impact simulations. These applications are in addition to the standard model problems of high-explosive driven shock-wave problems that involve high degree of deformation, shear flow, and turbulent mixing.

  16. The Free-Lagrange method; Proceedings of the First International Conference, Hilton Head Island, SC, March 4-6, 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritts, M. J.; Crowley, W. P.; Trease, H.

    Various papers on the Free-Lagrange method are presented. Individual topics addressed include: Free-Lagrange methods for compressible hydrodynamics in two space dimensions; finite difference operators on unstructured triangular meshes; a Lagrangian method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on a periodic domain; Free-Lagrangian methods, independent time steps, and parallel processing; three-dimensional algorithms for grid restructuring in Free-Lagrangian calculations; and three-dimensional Free-Lagrangian hydrodynamics. Also discussed are: a vectorized 'near neighbors' algorithm of order N using a monotonic logical grid; data structures and vectorization in a two-dimensional Free-Lagrangian code; solution adaptivity using a triangular mesh; recent developments in FEM-CFD; a conservative Free Lagrange code; and compressible Lagrangian hydrodynamics without Lagrangian cells.

  17. Interleukin-18 and IL-18 Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Dinarello, Charles A.; Novick, Daniela; Kim, Soohyun; Kaplanski, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines. Similar to IL-1?, IL-18 is synthesized as an inactive precursor requiring processing by caspase-1 into an active cytokine but unlike IL-1?, the IL-18 precursor is constitutively present in nearly all cells in healthy humans and animals. The activity of IL-18 is balanced by the presence of a high affinity, naturally occurring IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP). In humans, increased disease severity can be associated with an imbalance of IL-18 to IL-18BP such that the levels of free IL-18 are elevated in the circulation. Increasing number of studies have expanded the role of IL-18 in mediating inflammation in animal models of disease using the IL-18BP, IL-18-deficient mice, neutralization of IL-18, or deficiency in the IL-18 receptor alpha chain. A role for IL-18 has been implicated in several autoimmune diseases, myocardial function, emphysema, metabolic syndromes, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, hemophagocytic syndromes, macrophage activation syndrome, sepsis, and acute kidney injury, although in some models of disease, IL-18 is protective. IL-18 plays a major role in the production of interferon-? from T-cells and natural killer cells. The IL-18BP has been used safely in humans and clinical trials of IL-18BP as well as neutralizing anti-IL-18 antibodies are in clinical trials. This review updates the biology of IL-18 as well as its role in human disease. PMID:24115947

  18. Distinct roles for IL-13 and IL-4 via IL-13 receptor ?1 and the type II IL-4 receptor in asthma pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Munitz, A.; Brandt, E. B.; Mingler, M.; Finkelman, F. D.; Rothenberg, M. E.

    2008-01-01

    IL-13 and IL-4 are central T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines in the immune system and potent activators of inflammatory responses and fibrosis during Th2 inflammation. Recent studies using Il13ra1?/? mice have demonstrated a critical role for IL-13 receptor (IL-13R) ?1 in allergen-induced airway responses. However, these observations require further attention especially because IL-4 can induce similar lung pathology to IL-13, independent of IL-13, and is still present in the allergic lung. Thus, we hypothesized that IL-13R?1 regulates IL-4-induced responses in the lung. To dissect the role of IL-13R?1 and the type I and II IL-4Rs in experimental asthma, we examined lung pathology induced by allergen, IL-4, and IL-13 challenge in Il13ra1?/? mice. We report that IL-13R?1 is essential for baseline IgE production, but Th2 and IgE responses to T cell-dependent antigens are IL-13R?1-independent. Furthermore, we demonstrate that increased airway resistance, mucus, TGF-?, and eotaxin(s) production, but not cellular infiltration, are critically dependent on IL-13R?1. Surprisingly, our results identify a CCR3- and IL-13R?1-independent pathway for lung eosinophilia. Global expression profiling of lungs from mice stimulated with allergen or IL-4 demonstrated that marker genes of alternatively activated macrophages are differentially regulated by the type I and type II IL-4R. Taken together, our data provide a comprehensive mechanistic analysis of the critical role by which IL-13R?1 mediates allergic lung pathology and highlight unforeseen roles for the type II IL-4R. PMID:18480254

  19. CAR PARKING POLICY DOCUMENTATION Sports Centre Car Parking Policy

    E-print Network

    Lucy, David

    CAR PARKING POLICY DOCUMENTATION Sports Centre Car Parking Policy 2015/16 Effective 1ST October 2015 #12;Effective from 1st October 2015 to 30th September 2016 Sports Centre Car Park (front and rear) Policy Enforced Mon to Fri 07:00 to 22:00, Sat 08:30 to 18:00, Sun 09:30 to 18:00 Sports Field Car Park

  20. IL-17A, IL-22, IL-6, and IL-21 Serum Levels in Plaque-Type Psoriasis in Brazilian Patients

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Priscilla Stela Santana; Cardoso, Pablo Ramon Gualberto; Lima, Emerson Vasconcelos de Andrade; Pereira, Michelly Cristiny; Duarte, Angela Luzia Branco Pinto; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by alterations in cytokines produced by both Th1 and Th17 pathways. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of pivotal cytokines and correlate them with clinical parameters. Serum samples from 53 psoriasis patients and 35 healthy volunteers, matched by the proportion of sex and age ratios, were collected for ELISA cytokine detection. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) was assessed at the time of sampling in psoriasis patients. Our findings demonstrate that IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-6 serum concentrations were significantly higher in psoriasis patients than in the control group. No statistical correlation could be found between cytokines concentrations, PASI score, and age in this study. Although our results do not show any correlation between serum levels of IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-6 and disease activity, the present study confirms that they were increased in Brazilian psoriasis patients in comparison to healthy volunteers. PMID:26351408

  1. IL-17A, IL-22, IL-6, and IL-21 Serum Levels in Plaque-Type Psoriasis in Brazilian Patients.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Priscilla Stela Santana; Cardoso, Pablo Ramon Gualberto; Lima, Emerson Vasconcelos de Andrade; Pereira, Michelly Cristiny; Duarte, Angela Luzia Branco Pinto; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by alterations in cytokines produced by both Th1 and Th17 pathways. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of pivotal cytokines and correlate them with clinical parameters. Serum samples from 53 psoriasis patients and 35 healthy volunteers, matched by the proportion of sex and age ratios, were collected for ELISA cytokine detection. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) was assessed at the time of sampling in psoriasis patients. Our findings demonstrate that IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-6 serum concentrations were significantly higher in psoriasis patients than in the control group. No statistical correlation could be found between cytokines concentrations, PASI score, and age in this study. Although our results do not show any correlation between serum levels of IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-6 and disease activity, the present study confirms that they were increased in Brazilian psoriasis patients in comparison to healthy volunteers. PMID:26351408

  2. IL-35 and Autoimmunity: a Comprehensive Perspective.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jinjung; Leung, Patrick S C; Bowlus, Christopher; Gershwin, M Eric

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is the most recently identified member of the IL-12 family of cytokines and offers the potential to be a target for new therapies for autoimmune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases. Similar to other members of the IL-12 family including IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27, IL-35 is composed of a heterodimer of ? and ? chains, which in the case of IL-35 are the p35 and Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) proteins. However, unlike its proinflammatory relatives, IL-35 has immunosuppressive effects that are mediated through regulatory T and B cells. Although there are limited data available regarding the role of IL-35 in human autoimmunity, several murine models of autoimmunity suggest that IL-35 may have potent effects in regulating immunoreactivity via IL-10-dependent mechanisms. We suggest that similar effects are operational in human disease and IL-35-directed therapies hold significant promise. In particular, we emphasize that IL-35 has immunosuppressive ability that are mediated via regulatory T and B cells that are IL-10 dependent. Further, although deletion of IL-35 does not result in spontaneous breach of tolerance, recombinant IL-35 can improve autoimmune responses in several experimental models. PMID:25619872

  3. View from Fort Tryon Park of Fort Washington Park, Hudson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from Fort Tryon Park of Fort Washington Park, Hudson River, and Palisades Interstate Park, looking northeast. Dyckman Street viaduct, marina and playing fields are faintly visible below. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York, New York County, NY

  4. CAR PARKING POLICY DOCUMENTATION Student Car Parking Policy

    E-print Network

    Lucy, David

    CAR PARKING POLICY DOCUMENTATION Student Car Parking Policy 2015/16 Effective 1ST October 2015 #12;Student Car Parking Policy for 2015/16 Lancaster University has excellent bus services to the city centre (up to 15 per hour) and very good cycle routes. Most students find they do not need a car

  5. Correlation between acute myeloid leukemia and IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-23R gene polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Biao; Zhang, Jianbo; Wang, Xiaodong; Chen, Jiao; Li, Chenglong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Th17 cells may be involved in the pathological process of acute myeloid leukemia. This CD4+ cell subgroup secretes highly homologous interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-17F, and also expresses IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) on the cell surface. Our study aims to investigate the relationship of IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL23R with disease susceptibility, and clarify the relationship between gene polymorphism variation and serum IL-17 level. 62 acute myeloid leukemia patients and 125 healthy controls were included in this study. Restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP) was applied to analyze IL-17A (rs2275913; G-197A), IL17F (rs763780; A7488G; His161Arg), and IL-23R (rs11209026, G1142A; Arg381Gln) alleles. At the same time, enzyme-linked immunoassay analysis (ELISA) was used to test serum IL-17 level in patients. Acute myeloid leukemia patients presented higher rate of IL-17F G single mutant (RR = 4.75, P < 0.001) and GG mutation homozygote (RR = 23.01, P < 0.005). While IL-17A, IL-23R A single mutant and purified AA mutation homozygote showed no correlation with acute myeloid leukemia susceptibility. In addition, ELISA showed that serum IL-17 exhibited no significant difference between acute myeloid leukemia patients and healthy controls had (8.8 ± 7.19 pg/ml vs. 1.4 ± 0.2 pg/ml, P > 0.05). IL-17F G single mutant and GG mutation homozygote were correlated with acute myeloid leukemia susceptibility, while IL-17 gene polymorphism and serum IL-17 level were not. Furthermore, IL-17A and IL-23R gene polymorphism were not associated with acute myeloid leukemia susceptibility. PMID:26191290

  6. Arboretum Battle Park Univ. Square

    E-print Network

    McLaughlin, Richard M.

    ") ") ") ") ")") ") ") ") ") ")") ") ") ") ") ") ") ") ") ") ") ") ") ") ") ") ") ") McCorkle Place Polk Place Coker Arboretum Battle Park Central Park Kenan Woods The Pit Activities Hanes Art Field House OldWest Ackland Center Genetic NC Cancer Granville Towers Excellence Koury Cancer

  7. On a Lagrange-Hamilton formalism describing position and momentum uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuch, Dieter

    1993-01-01

    According to Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, in quantum mechanics it is not possible to determine, simultaneously, exact values for the position and the momentum of a material system. Calculating the mean value of the Hamiltonian operator with the aid of exact analytic Gaussian wave packet solutions, these uncertainties cause an energy contribution additional to the classical energy of the system. For the harmonic oscillator, e.g., this nonclassical energy represents the ground state energy. It will be shown that this additional energy contribution can be considered as a Hamiltonian function, if it is written in appropriate variables. With the help of the usual Lagrange-Hamilton formalism known from classical particle mechanics, but now considering this new Hamiltonian function, it is possible to obtain the equations of motion for position and momentum uncertainties.

  8. Augmented lagrange hopfield network for economic dispatch with multiple fuel options

    SciTech Connect

    Dieu, Vo Ngoc; Ongsakul, Weerakorn; Polprasert, Jirawadee

    2011-06-20

    This paper proposes an augmented Lagrange Hopfield network (ALHN) for solving economic dispatch (ED) problem with multiple fuel options. The proposed ALHN method is a continuous Hopfield neural network with its energy function based on augmented Lagrangian function. The advantages of ALHN over the conventional Hopfield neural network are easier use, more general applications, faster convergence, better optimal solution, and larger scale of problem implementation. The method solves the problem by directly searching the most suitable fuel among the available fuels of each unit and finding the optimal solution for the problem based on minimization of the energy function of the continuous Hopfield neural network. The proposed method is tested on systems up to 100 units and the obtained results are compared to those from other methods in the literature. The results have shown that the proposed method is efficient for solving the ED problem with multiple fuel options and favorable for implementation in large scale problems.

  9. Accurate analytical approximation of the OTFTs surface potential by means of the Lagrange Reversion Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colalongo, Luigi; Ghittorelli, Matteo; Torricelli, Fabrizio; Kovács-Vajna, Zsolt Miklos

    2015-12-01

    Surface-potential-based mathematical models are among the most accurate and physically based compact models of Thin-Film Transistors (TFTs) and, in turn, of Organic Thin-Film Transistors (OTFTs), available today. However, the need for iterative computations of the surface potential limits their computational efficiency and diffusion in CAD applications. The existing closed-form approximations of the surface potential are based on regional approximations and empirical smoothing functions that could result not enough accurate to model OTFTs and, in particular, transconductances and transcapacitances. In this paper we present an accurate and computationally efficient closed-form approximation of the surface potential, based on the Lagrange Reversion Theorem, that can be exploited in advanced surface-potential-based OTFTs and TFTs device models.

  10. Taylor-Lagrange renormalization scheme: Application to light-front dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Grange, P.; Mutet, B.

    2009-11-15

    The recently proposed renormalization scheme based on the definition of field operators as operator valued distributions acting on specific test functions is shown to be very convenient in explicit calculations of physical observables within the framework of light-front dynamics. We first recall the main properties of this procedure based on identities relating the test functions to their Taylor remainder of any order expressed in terms of Lagrange's formulas, hence the name given to this scheme. We thus show how it naturally applies to the calculation of state vectors of physical systems in the covariant formulation of light-front dynamics. As an example, we consider the case of the Yukawa model in the simple two-body Fock state truncation.

  11. A fully pressure-velocity coupled immersed boundary method based on the Lagrange multiplier approach

    E-print Network

    Feldman, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    A new formulation of the immersed boundary method, which facilitates accurate simulation of incompressible isothermal and natural convection flows around immersed bodies and which may be applied for accurate linear stability analysis of the flows, is presented. The method is based on the fully pressure-velocity coupled approach, implicitly satisfying the divergence-free velocity constraint with no need for an extra projection-correction step, which is a significant advantage for the computational efficiency. The method treats pressure, boundary forces, and heat sources as Lagrange multipliers, thereby implicitly providing the kinematic constraints of no-slip and the corresponding thermal boundary conditions for immersed surfaces. Extensive verification of the developed method for both isothermal and natural convection flows is provided.

  12. A suggested trajectory for a Venus-sun, earth-sun Lagrange points mission, Vela

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, D. F.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility is suggested of investigating the existence of small, as-yet undiscovered, asteroids orbiting in the solar system near the earth-sun or Venus-sun stable Lagrange points by means of a spacecraft which traverses these regions. The type of trajectory suggested lies in the ecliptic plane and has a period of 5/6 years and a perihelion at the Venus orbital distance. The regions in which stable orbits associated with the earth and with Venus may lie are estimated to be a thin and tadpole-shaped area extending from 35 deg to 100 deg from the planet. Crossings of the regions by the trajectory are described, and the requirements for detecting the presence of 1 km sized asteroids are presented and shown to be attainable.

  13. SouthCampus Clinic Parking

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    SouthCampus To Dow ntow n Cam pus Clinic Parking Zipcar space EOC M.W. Kapoor Hall Child Care-645-3943 · 106 Spaulding Quad Allen Hall Sherman Annex Allen Lot Foster Lot Squire Loop NFTA Park & Ride Lot) 6. Roswell Park Cancer Institute 5. Buffalo General 4. Parker Lot 3. Main Circle 2. Goodyear 1. Main

  14. Assigned Parking Reuther Mall

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    and technology park N Ford Freeway (I-94) Ford Freeway (I-94) Ford Freeway (I-94) Beecher House Parsons Eliot and Management Mortuary Science 5425 Woodward KnappMerrill-Palmer Detroit Historical Museum Hutzel Hospital Scott Hall Children's Hospital of Michigan Karmanos Cancer Institute Harper University Hospital University

  15. The Clover Park Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Don

    1974-01-01

    Describes an aviation trades training program offered by the Clover Park schools in Washington which exposes students to all facets of the aviation industry from record keeping to air traffic control in addition to the specific skill of piloting the aircraft. (BR)

  16. Parks or Prisons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Gareth

    1998-01-01

    Presents a simulation activity in which students assume the role of grizzly bears in Banff National Park. Concepts such as species diversity, fitness, natural selection, habitat loss, extinction, and population dynamics are discussed. Children learn how human activities can affect the bear's reproductive success. Lists materials, instructional…

  17. Park a La Cart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susie; Roell, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Using discovery stations offers solutions for increasing attendance at park interpretive programs. Compact, portable stations can be used in playgrounds, special events, trailheads, picnic areas, campgrounds, nursing homes, and scouts and day camps. Describes a case in which stations were used 85 times and reached 4,927 visitors between July 1996…

  18. A low diffusive Lagrange-Remap scheme for the simulation of violent air-water free-surface flows.

    E-print Network

    for the solution of the volume-averaged equations, and a low diffusive compressive scheme for the advection, multiphase flow, air-water flow, free boundary, interface capturing, compressible fluid, finite volume. Among the family of conservative Finite Volume methods (FVM), the Lagrange-Remapped solvers [Van Leer

  19. Il logo del CNR the CNR logotype

    E-print Network

    Spinolo, Laura Valentina

    Il logo del CNR the CNR logotype #12;Il logo del CNR - the CNR logotype Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche National Research Council of Italy LOGORESTYLING:SILVESTROCALIGIURI-CNR #12;Il logo del CNR- nopqrstuvz ABCDEFGHILM- NOPQRSTUVZ #12;Il logo del CNR - the CNR logotype Utilizzo in orizzontale (da

  20. Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kanarska, Y

    2010-03-24

    Fluid particulate flows are common phenomena in nature and industry. Modeling of such flows at micro and macro levels as well establishing relationships between these approaches are needed to understand properties of the particulate matter. We propose a computational technique based on the direct numerical simulation of the particulate flows. The numerical method is based on the distributed Lagrange multiplier technique following the ideas of Glowinski et al. (1999). Each particle is explicitly resolved on an Eulerian grid as a separate domain, using solid volume fractions. The fluid equations are solved through the entire computational domain, however, Lagrange multiplier constrains are applied inside the particle domain such that the fluid within any volume associated with a solid particle moves as an incompressible rigid body. Mutual forces for the fluid-particle interactions are internal to the system. Particles interact with the fluid via fluid dynamic equations, resulting in implicit fluid-rigid-body coupling relations that produce realistic fluid flow around the particles (i.e., no-slip boundary conditions). The particle-particle interactions are implemented using explicit force-displacement interactions for frictional inelastic particles similar to the DEM method of Cundall et al. (1979) with some modifications using a volume of an overlapping region as an input to the contact forces. The method is flexible enough to handle arbitrary particle shapes and size distributions. A parallel implementation of the method is based on the SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure) library, which allows handling of large amounts of rigid particles and enables local grid refinement. Accuracy and convergence of the presented method has been tested against known solutions for a falling sphere as well as by examining fluid flows through stationary particle beds (periodic and cubic packing). To evaluate code performance and validate particle contact physics algorithm, we performed simulations of a representative experiment conducted at the University of California at Berkley for pebble flow through a narrow opening.

  1. IL-18 and Cutaneous Inflammatory Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Cho, Dae Ho; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-18, an IL-1 family cytokine, is a pleiotropic immune regulator. IL-18 plays a strong proinflammatory role by inducing interferon (IFN)-?. Previous studies have implicated IL-18 in the pathogenesis of various diseases. However, it is not well understood biologic activities of IL-18 in the diverse skin diseases. Here, we have reviewed the expression and function of IL-18 in skin diseases including inflammatory diseases. This article provides an evidence-based understanding of the role of IL-18 in skin diseases and its relationship with disease activities. PMID:26690141

  2. IL-18 and Cutaneous Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji hyun; Cho, Dae Ho; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-18, an IL-1 family cytokine, is a pleiotropic immune regulator. IL-18 plays a strong proinflammatory role by inducing interferon (IFN)-?. Previous studies have implicated IL-18 in the pathogenesis of various diseases. However, it is not well understood biologic activities of IL-18 in the diverse skin diseases. Here, we have reviewed the expression and function of IL-18 in skin diseases including inflammatory diseases. This article provides an evidence-based understanding of the role of IL-18 in skin diseases and its relationship with disease activities. PMID:26690141

  3. 78 FR 48902 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History... Field Museum of Natural History has corrected a Notice of Intent to Repatriate published in the Federal... Director, Field Museum of Natural History, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL......

  4. IL TRAPIANTO ORTOTOPICO DEL FEGATO

    PubMed Central

    STARZL, THOMAS E.

    2010-01-01

    E’ormai noto che esiste la possibilità rivoluzionaria di utilizzare il fegato per il trattamento della stadio terminale delle epatopatie. Nel gennaio 1980 si celebra il decimo anna di sopravvivenza con fegato trapiantato (la più lunga della letteratura) di un paziente da noi trattato. Si tratta di uno dei 12 malati sottoposti a trapianto e seguiti per più di 5 anni. La nota positiva di questa tipo di trattamento è rappresentata dall’eccellente tenore di vita che i pazienti conducono e dalla riabilitazione sociale e professionale. La nota negativa è data, invece, dal fatto che i buoni risultati non vengono raggiunti con regolarità e non possono essere previsti con esattezza. In questa breve rassegna considereremo la esperienza da noi fatta presso l’Università di Denver nel Colorado, mettendo in risalto le cause dell’elevata mortalità precoce e le prospettive future di questa mezzo terapeutico. PMID:21572898

  5. The Roles of IL-2, IL-7, and IL15 Ligands in B Cells Development from Cord Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aliyari, Z; Alami, F; Mostafavi, T; Taiefi Nasrabadi, H; Soleimanirad, J; Nozad Charoudeh, H

    2015-01-01

    Background B cells play an important role in the immune system due to production of the immunoglobulin and secreting several cytokines. It has been shown that B cells produced successfully in the presence of stem cell factor (SCF) and Flt3 ligand (Flt3L). IL2, IL7, and IL15 cytokines as the ?c-common family have an essential role in lymphopoiesis. Common ? chain cytokines may support either synergistically or in an additive manner to B cell proliferative activity. Thus, the present study focused specifically on IL2, IL7, and IL15 cytokines that may play a critical role in B cell proliferation in cord blood. In this study, we evaluated the generation of B cells from CD34+/- cord blood mononuclear cells by using IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15. Material and Methods Cord blood mononuclear cells were cultured for 21 days in presence of different combination of IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15.Harvested cells were analyzed by flow cytometry at days 0, 7, 14 and, 21. Results Present study showed that B cell differentiation from CD34+ cord blood mononuclear cells was increased by using IL-2 and IL-7 at different time points; however, IL7 was more effective (P value < 0.0001). In contrast, IL-15 didn’t increase significantly B cell expansion from CD34+ cord blood mononuclear cell. Conclusion These findings showed that IL-2 and IL-7 significantly increased B cell generation from cord blood CD34+ cells; probably this cytokines may be used in ex vivo generation of B cells from cord blood mononuclear cells. PMID:26705455

  6. Cratylia mollis 1, 4 lectin: a new biotechnological tool in IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 induction and generation of immunological memory.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Priscilla Stela Santana; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; da Silva, Rafael Ramos; Cavalcanti, Mariana Brayner; Galdino, Suely Lins; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Cratylia mollis lectin has already established cytokine induction in Th1 and Th2 pathways. Thereby, this study aimed to evaluate Cramoll 1, 4 in IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 induction as well as analyze immunologic memory mechanism by reinducing lymphocyte stimulation. Initially we performed a screening in cultured splenocytes where Cramoll 1, 4 stimulated IL-6 production 5x more than ConA (P < 0.05). The same behavior was observed with IL-22 where the increase was greater than 4x. Nevertheless, IL-17A induction was similar for both lectins. In PBMCs, the same splenocytes course was observed for IL-6 and IL-17A. Concerning the stimulation of IL-22 and IL-23 Cramoll 1, 4 was more efficient than ConA in cytokines stimulation mainly in IL-23 (P < 0.01). Analyzing reinduced lymphocyte stimulation, IL-17A production was higher (P < 0.001) when the first stimulus was realized with Cramoll 1, 4 at 1 ? g/mL and the second at 5 ? g/mL. IL-22 shows significant differences (P < 0.01) at the same condition. Nevertheless, IL-23 revels the best response when the first stimuli was realized with Cramoll1, 4 at 100 ng/mL and the second with 5 ? g/mL. We conclude that the Cramoll 1, 4 is able to induce IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 cytokines in vitro better than Concavalin A, besides immunologic memory generation, being a potential biotechnological tool in Th17 pathway studies. PMID:23586026

  7. Interleukin (IL)-1? Is a Strong Inducer of IL-36? Expression in Human Colonic Myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kenichiro; Nishida, Atsushi; Shioya, Makoto; Imaeda, Hirotsugu; Bamba, Shigeki; Inatomi, Osamu; Shimizu, Tomoharu; Kitoh, Katsuyuki; Andoh, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims Interleukin (IL)-36 cytokines are members of the IL-1 cytokine family. In this study, we investigated the expression of IL-36? in human colonic myofibroblasts to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying IL-36? induction. Materials and methods IL-36 mRNA was analyzed by real-time PCR method. Secretion of IL-36? protein was evaluated by Western blot and ELISA analyses. Molecular mechanism of IL-36? induction was evaluated by siRNA analyses and immunofluorescence experiments. Results IL-36? mRNA expression was scarcely detected in the cells without stimulation. IL-1? induced a marked increase of IL-36? mRNA expression. TNF-? markedly enhanced IL-1?-induced IL-36? mRNA expression. These responses were confirmed at the protein levels. The inhibitors for ERK1/2 (PD98059 and U0216) and a p38 MAPK (SB203580) significantly reduced the IL-1?-induced IL-36? mRNA expression. In addition, the siRNAs specific for NF-?B p65 and AP-1 (c-Jun) significantly reduced the expression of IL-1?-induced IL-36? mRNA. Conclusions Colonic myofibroblasts are cellular source of IL-36? in the intestine. IL-36? expression was induced by the combination of IL-1? and TNF-? via activation of MAPKs and transcription factors, NF-?B and AP-1. PMID:26562662

  8. Activation by IL-2, but not IL-4, up-regulates the expression of the p55 subunit of the IL-2 receptor on IL-2- and IL-4-dependent T cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, D L; Gibert, M; Baran, D; Ohara, J; Paul, W E; Theze, J

    1989-05-01

    We have investigated the effects of IL-2 and IL-4 on different parameters of T cell activation using three T cell lines. The Th cell line L14 and the cytotoxic T cell line C30.1, both grown in IL-2-containing medium, and a line derived from C30.1 cells (line 1) cultured in IL-4 for a prolonged period were studied. All three cell lines could be activated with IL-2 or IL-4. T cell stimulation by either IL-2- or IL-4-induced identical patterns of cell size enlargement and transferrin receptor expression. However, only IL-2 up-regulated cell-surface expression of the p55 subunit of the IL-2R (p55 IL-2R) as measured by flow cytometry and RIA. This difference was also reflected by the accumulation of soluble p55 IL-2R in the culture medium. No significant increase in expression of membrane or soluble forms of p55 IL-2R was detected after IL-4 stimulation. mAb specific for p55 IL-2R which block IL-2-induced T cell growth did not affect IL-4-mediated T cell proliferation indicating that p55 IL-2R is not involved in IL-4-mediated T cell growth. Analysis of IL-4R expression performed on line 1 using biotinylated IL-4 revealed that IL-4, but not IL-2, is capable of increasing IL-4R expression. Together these results suggest that during IL-2- or IL-4-induced T cell proliferation, each lymphokine specifically up-regulates its own receptor. PMID:2523424

  9. A low diffusive Lagrange-remap scheme for the simulation of violent ai-water free-surface flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard-Champmartin, Aude; De Vuyst, Florian

    2014-10-01

    In 2002, Després and Lagoutière [17] proposed a low-diffusive advection scheme for pure transport equation problems, which is particularly accurate for step-shaped solutions, and thus suited for interface tracking procedure by a color function. This has been extended by Kokh and Lagoutière [28] in the context of compressible multifluid flows using a five-equation model. In this paper, we explore a simplified variant approach for gas-liquid three-equation models. The Eulerian numerical scheme has two ingredients: a robust remapped Lagrange solver for the solution of the volume-averaged equations, and a low diffusive compressive scheme for the advection of the gas mass fraction. Numerical experiments show the performance of the computational approach on various flow reference problems: dam break, sloshing of a tank filled with water, wate-water impact and finally a case of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. One of the advantages of the present interface capturing solver is its natural implementation on parallel processors or computers. wave formation and wave breaking; wall wave impacts, local pressure peaks and pressure loadings; formation of air pockets; ejection, fragmentation of liquid droplets; Archimedes buoyancy effect with rising of bubbles and fall of droplets; effects of gas compressibility inducing a gas-to-liquid response by a pressure wave, etc. In this paper, we consider immiscible gas-liquid two-phase flow problems. The strong ratio of mass density between gas and liquid (typically 1:1000) is known to be a source of numerical stiffness and numerical instability. Therefore robust computational approaches supporting high density ratio have to be considered. Among the family of conservative Finite Volume methods (FVM), the Lagrange-remapped solvers (see e.g. [42,45,6,4,25,2]) provide both robustness and stability with achievement of mathematical properties of positiveness and entropy compatibility.Lagrange-remap numerical schemes (also referred to as Eule-Lagrange schemes) are a particular family of Eulerian FVM where, at each time step, the equations are solved according to a Lagrangian evolution with a mesh that is convected by the flow itself, then the "Lagrange solutions" are remapped on the initial mesh into a conservative way by estimating both fluxed mass and momentum. Because of the Lagrangian step of these methods, code coupling or coupling of different physics is made easier against conventional FV methods. Moreover, the Lagrangian description is very practical for multi-material flows of multi-phase flows because we are a natural control of the fluxed quantities material-by-material. Lagrange and Lagrange-remap solvers still know strong developments today with major contributions as e.g. energy-preserving compatible schemes for staggered methods [11], collocated variables and cell-centered entropy-satisfying schemes, see [18,32,12].In this paper, we rather consider a simpler staggered Lagrange-remap solver with a direction-by-direction remapping. More precisely, the 2D multidimensional Lagrange step (operator Lxy?t) completely solves the fluid equations while an operator splitting alternating direction (AD) for the projection (operators Rx and Ry respectively) is used to interpolate on the reference Cartesian Eulerian grid into a conservative manner, involving convective flux balances. Symmetrized operator splitting can be used to ensure second order accuracy. Both linear and nonlinear numerical stabilities are ensured by the use of standard pseudo-viscosity (viscous pressure) terms, detailed into Appendix B at the end of this paper. Actually, we use this simple Euler solver because of its simplicity of code implementation and because it can be vectorized/parallelized into a natural manner. Moreover, the aim of this paper is not about the hydrodynamics solver: the article mostly focuses on numerical antidiffusive methods for interface capturing, as part of a global multifluid hydrodynamics solver. At the present time, the antidiffusive approaches assume a direction-by-direction remapping whic

  10. Quantitative analysis of IL-2 and IL-15 signal transduction in T lymphocytes

    E-print Network

    Arneja, Abhinav

    2013-01-01

    IL-2 and IL-15 are common y-chain family cytokines critically involved in regulation of T cell differentiation and homeostasis. Both cytokines signal through a heterotrimeric surface receptor complex (IL-2/15R) composed ...

  11. Anti–IL-5 (mepolizumab) therapy reduces eosinophil activation ex vivo and increases IL-5 and IL-5 receptor levels

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Miguel L.; Villanueva, Joyce M.; Buckmeier, Bridget K.; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Filipovich, Alexandra H.; Assa’ad, Amal H.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Anti–IL-5 might be a useful therapeutic agent for eosinophilic disorders, yet its immunologic consequences have not been well characterized. Objective We sought to characterize the hematologic and immunologic effects of anti-IL-5 in human subjects. Methods The effects of 3-month infusions of mepolizumab were assessed in 25 patients with a variety of eosinophilic syndromes. Samples with increased IL-5 levels after therapy were analyzed by using size exclusion filtration. Immunoreactive IL-5 fraction and plasma samples were subsequently precipitated with saturating concentrations of protein A/G. Results Twenty-three patients responded to anti–IL-5 therapy with a decrease in blood eosinophil counts and a reduced percentage of CCR3+ cells by 20- and 13-fold, respectively (P < .0001). Responsiveness was not related to the levels of baseline plasma IL-5 or the presence of FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene. Persistently decreased blood eosinophilia remained for 3 months after final infusion in76%of subjects. Therapy was associated with a large increase in blood IL-5 levels, likely because of a circulating IL-5/mepolizumab complex precipitated with protein A/G, a significant increase in eosinophil IL-5 receptor ? expression, and increased percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ cells producing intracellular IL-5 (P <.05). Additionally, anti-IL-5 therapy decreased eotaxin-stimulated eosinophil shape change ex vivo. Conclusions Anti–IL-5 therapy induces a dramatic and sustained decrease in blood eosinophilia (including CCR3+ cells), decreased eosinophil activation, and increased circulating levels of IL-5 in a variety of eosinophilic disorders. Increased levels of IL-5 receptor ? and lymphocyte IL-5 production after anti–IL-5 therapy suggest an endogenous IL-5 autoregulatory pathway. PMID:18410960

  12. Minimal Interleukin 6 (IL-6) Receptor Stalk Composition for IL-6 Receptor Shedding and IL-6 Classic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Paul; Nitz, Rebecca; Grötzinger, Joachim; Scheller, Jürgen; Garbers, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Signaling of the pleiotropic cytokine Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is coordinated by membrane-bound and soluble forms of the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) in processes called classic and trans-signaling, respectively. The soluble IL-6R is mainly generated by ADAM10- and ADAM17-mediated ectodomain shedding. Little is known about the role of the 52-amino acid-residue-long IL-6R stalk region in shedding and signal transduction. Therefore, we generated and analyzed IL-6R stalk region deletion variants for cleavability and biological activity. Deletion of 10 amino acids of the stalk region surrounding the ADAM17 cleavage site substantially blocked IL-6R proteolysis by ADAM17 but only slightly affected proteolysis by ADAM10. Interestingly, additional deletion of the remaining five juxtamembrane-located amino acids also abrogated ADAM10-mediated IL-6R shedding. Larger deletions within the stalk region, that do not necessarily include the ADAM17 cleavage site, also reduced ADAM10 and ADAM17-mediated IL-6R shedding, questioning the importance of cleavage site recognition. Furthermore, we show that a 22-amino acid-long stalk region is minimally required for IL-6 classic signaling. The gp130 cytokine binding sites are separated from the plasma membrane by ?96 ?. 22 amino acid residues, however, span maximally 83.6 ? (3.8 ?/amino acid), indicating that the three juxtamembrane fibronectin domains of gp130 are not necessarily elongated but somehow flexed to allow IL-6 classic signaling. Our findings underline a dual role of the IL-6R stalk region in IL-6 signaling. In IL-6 trans-signaling, it regulates proper proteolysis by ADAM10 and ADAM17. In IL-6 classic-signaling, it acts as a spacer to ensure IL-6·IL-6R·gp130 signal complex formation. PMID:23564454

  13. Unique Versus Redundant Functions of IL-1? and IL-1? in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Voronov, Elena; Dotan, Shahar; Krelin, Yakov; Song, Xiaoping; Elkabets, Moshe; Carmi, Yaron; Rider, Peleg; Idan Cohen; Romzova, Marianna; Kaplanov, Irena; Apte, Ron N.

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a major “alarm” upstream pro-inflammatory cytokine that also affects immunity and hematopoiesis by inducing cytokine cascades. In the tumor arena, IL-1 is produced by malignant or microenvironmental cells. As a pleiotropic cytokine, IL-1 is involved in tumorigenesis and tumor invasiveness but also in the control of anti-tumor immunity. IL-1? and IL-1? are the major agonists of IL-1, while IL-1Ra is a physiological inhibitor of pre-formed IL-1. In their secreted form, IL-1? and IL-1? bind to the same receptors and induce the same biological functions, but IL-1? and IL-1? differ in their compartmentalization within the producing cell or the microenvironment. IL-1? is only active in its processed, secreted form, and mediates inflammation, which promotes carcinogenesis, tumor invasiveness, and immunosuppression, whereas IL-1? is mainly cell-associated and in the tumor context, when expressed on the cell membrane, it stimulates anti-tumor cell immunity manifested by tumor regression. In the tumor milieu, extracellular levels of IL-1? are usually low and do not stimulate broad inflammation that promotes progression. Immunosuppression induced by IL-1? in the tumor microenvironment, mainly through MDSC induction, usually inhibits or masks anti-tumor cell immunity induced by cell-associated IL-1?. However, in different tumor systems, redundant or unique patterns of IL-1? and IL-1? expression and function have been observed. Recent breakthroughs in inflammasome biology and IL-1? processing/secretion have spurred the development of novel anti-IL-1 agents, which are being used in clinical trials in patients with diverse inflammatory diseases. Better understanding of the integrative role of IL-1? and IL-1? in distinct malignancies will facilitate the application of novel IL-1 modulation approaches at the bedside, in cancer patients with minimal residual disease (MRD), as an adjunct to conventional approaches to reduce the tumor burden. PMID:23847618

  14. Dreaming of a Better ILS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    What would technological librarians like to see in the next generation of Integrated Library Systems (ILS)? This question was asked of several well- known library technology experts, and their responses are presented in this article. Survey respondents expressed a clear desire for the following features and functionality: (1) Direct, read-only…

  15. Interleukin-1 type II receptor: a decoy target for IL-1 that is regulated by IL-4.

    PubMed

    Colotta, F; Re, F; Muzio, M; Bertini, R; Polentarutti, N; Sironi, M; Giri, J G; Dower, S K; Sims, J E; Mantovani, A

    1993-07-23

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) interacts with cells through two types of binding molecules, IL-1 type I receptor (IL-1R I) and IL-1R II. The function of IL-1R II is unknown. In studies using monoclonal antibodies, IL-1 prolonged the in vitro survival of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) through IL-1R I, and IL-4 antagonized the action of IL-1 by inducing expression and release of IL-1R II. Dexamethasone also induced expression and release of the IL-1R II in PMN. These results, together with the effect of antibodies to IL-1R on IL-1-induced production of cytokines in monocytes, indicate that IL-1 acts on myelomonocytic cells through IL-1R I and that IL-1R II inhibits IL-1 activity by acting as a decoy target for IL-1. The existence of multiple pathways of regulation emphasizes the need for tight control of IL-1 action. PMID:8332913

  16. Untangling the Complex Web of IL-4– and IL-13–Mediated Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wills-Karp, Marsha; Finkelman, Fred D.

    2015-01-01

    Unraveling the exact signaling events mediating the distinct functions of the T cell–derived cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 has been challenging because they are structurally similar and share a functional signaling receptor chain. A study now proposes a potential molecular mechanism to explain the functional differences between IL-4 and IL-13 that involves the ability of IL-4, but not IL-13, to effectively activate the insulin receptor substrate–2 (IRS-2) signaling cascade through binding to its receptor. A better understanding of the interactions of IL-4 and IL-13 with their cognate receptors may facilitate the development of therapies without unintended side effects. PMID:19109238

  17. Directing traffic: IL-17 and IL-22 coordinate pulmonary immune defense

    PubMed Central

    McAleer, Jeremy P.; Kolls, Jay K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Respiratory infections and diseases are among the leading causes of death worldwide, and effective treatments likely require manipulating the inflammatory response to pathogenic microbes or allergens. Here we review mechanisms controlling the production and functions of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-22, cytokines that direct several aspects of lung immunity. Innate lymphocytes (??T cells, natural killer cells, innate lymphoid cells) are the major source of IL-17 and IL-22 during acute infections, while CD4+ T-helper 17 (Th17) cells contribute to vaccine-induced immunity. The characterization of dendritic cell (DC) subsets has revealed their central roles in T-cell activation. CD11b+ DCs stimulated with bacteria or fungi secrete IL-1? and IL-23, potent inducers of IL-17 and IL-22. On the other hand, recognition of viruses by plasmacytoid DCs inhibits IL-1? and IL-23 release, increasing susceptibility to bacterial superinfections. IL-17 and IL-22 primarily act on the lung epithelium, inducing antimicrobial proteins and neutrophil chemoattractants. Recent studies found that stimulation of macrophages and DCs with IL-17 also contributes to anti-bacterial immunity, while IL-22 promotes epithelial proliferation and repair following injury. Chronic diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been associated with IL-17 and IL-22 responses directed against innocuous antigens. Future studies will evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of targeting the IL-17/IL-22 pathway in pulmonary inflammation. PMID:24942687

  18. Regulation and function of IL-17A- and IL-22-producing ?? T cells

    PubMed Central

    Ness-Schwickerath, Kristin J.

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of IL-17A and IL-22 production differs between human and murine ?? T cells. We find that human ?? T cells expressing V?2V?2 T cell receptors are peripherally polarized to produce IL-17A or IL-22, much like CD4 ?? Th17 T cells. This requires IL-6, IL-1?, and TGF-?, whereas expansion and maintenance requires IL-23, IL-1?, and TGF-?. In contrast, IL-17A and IL-22 production by murine ?? T cells is innately programmed during thymic ontogeny but requires IL-23 and IL-1? for maintenance. Murine ?? cells producing IL-17A and IL-22 play important roles in microbial, autoimmune, and inflammatory responses. However, the roles played by human IL-17A- and IL-22-producing ?? T cells are less clear but are also likely to be important. These observations highlight differences between humans and murine ?? T cells and underscore the importance of IL-17A- and IL-22-producing ?? T cells. PMID:21573786

  19. 77 FR 73919 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-YELL-11802; PPWONRADE2...1024-AE10 Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park AGENCY: National Park Service,...

  20. 77 FR 53826 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-YELL-10569; 2310-0070-422...1024-AE10 Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park AGENCY: National Park Service,...

  1. Human cytomegalovirus harbors its own unique IL-10 homolog (cmvIL-10)

    PubMed Central

    Kotenko, Sergei V.; Saccani, Simona; Izotova, Lara S.; Mirochnitchenko, Olga V.; Pestka, Sidney

    2000-01-01

    We identified a viral IL-10 homolog encoded by an ORF (UL111a) within the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) genome, which we designated cmvIL-10. cmvIL-10 can bind to the human IL-10 receptor and can compete with human IL-10 for binding sites, despite the fact that these two proteins are only 27% identical. cmvIL-10 requires both subunits of the IL-10 receptor complex to induce signal transduction events and biological activities. The structure of the cmvIL-10 gene is unique by itself. The gene retained two of four introns of the IL-10 gene, but the length of the introns was reduced. We demonstrated that cmvIL-10 is expressed in CMV-infected cells. Thus, expression of cmvIL-10 extends the range of counter measures developed by CMV to circumvent detection and destruction by the host immune system. PMID:10677520

  2. Terrein / car park: Inleveren bij / submit to

    E-print Network

    Procedure: Terrein / car park: Inleveren bij / submit to: Info: Vul a.u.b. uw gegevens in / please terrein, voor de duur van: Requests access to the car park(s) mentioned above for the period of voorbehoud kan van toepassing zijn. You can request access rights for the local car park(s) on one campus

  3. Implementation of the Euler-Lagrange and poisson equations to extract one connected region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, A.; Todorov, M. D.; Sirakov, N. M.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a numerical method that evolves an active contour toward the boundary of one connected image region. The numerical method implements a model which uses the solution of the Euler-Lagrange Differential Equation in order to minimize a "snake" functional. This functional is constructed as an integral of the so called internal and external energies. The internal energy is related to the moving contour. The external energy represents the image. The minimum of the functional falls on the boundaries of objects placed in the image. A half step numerical scheme implements the concepts. The contributions of the new model come from the use of the solution of the Poisson equation and development of a new penalty function to halt the contour on the object's boundary. In order to make the contour move across homogeneous regions and enlarge the capture range, we solve the Poisson equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions and generate a gradient vector field of the image. The numerical method is implemented with MatLab and uses a stop condition based on the gradient. The advantages of the model are that it has a large capture range, is accurate in detecting the boundaries of image objects, and is capable of surpassing noise. A disadvantage is that the user has to select the right values of three parameters. Several experiments with synthetic, weapon, and medical images have been conducted to validate the model. Our work continues with the goal of cutting the curve in the event multiple objects have been enveloped.

  4. Numerical simulations of two-phase Taylor-Couette turbulence using an Euler-Lagrange approach

    E-print Network

    Spandan, Vamsi; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    Two-phase turbulent Taylor-Couette (TC) flow is simulated using an Euler-Lagrange approach to study the effects of a secondary phase dispersed into a turbulent carrier phase (here bubbles dispersed into water). The dynamics of the carrier phase is computed using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) in an Eulerian framework, while the bubbles are tracked in a Lagrangian manner by modelling the effective drag, lift, added mass and buoyancy force acting on them. Two-way coupling is implemented between the dispersed phase and the carrier phase which allows for momentum exchange among both phases and to study the effect of the dispersed phase on the carrier phase dynamics. The radius ratio of the TC setup is fixed to $\\eta=0.833$, and a maximum inner cylinder Reynolds number of $Re_i=8000$ is reached. We vary the Froude number ($Fr$), which is the ratio of the centripetal to the gravitational acceleration of the dispersed phase and study its effect on the net torque required to drive the TC system. In a two-phase TC...

  5. The Lagrange reduction of the N-body problem, a survey

    E-print Network

    Alain Chenciner

    2011-11-05

    In his fondamental "Essay on the 3-body problem", Lagrange, well before Jacobi's "reduction of the node", carries out the first complete reduction of symetries. Discovering the so-called homographic motions, he shows that they necessarily take place in a fixed plane. The true nature of this reduction is revealed if one considers the n-body problem in an euclidean space of arbitrary dimension. The actual dimension of the ambiant space then appears as a constraint, namely the angular momentum bivector's degeneracy. The main part of this survey is a detailed description of the results obtained in a joint paper with Alain Albouy published in french (Inventiones 1998): for a non homothetic homographic motion to exist, it is necessary that the space of motion be even dimensional. Two cases are possible: either the configuration is "central" (that is a critical point of the potential among configurations with a given moment of inertia) and the space where the motion takes place is endowed with an hermitian structure, or it is "balanced" (that is a critical point of the potential among configurations with a given inertia spectrum) and the motion is a new type, quasi-periodic, of relative equilibrium. Hip-Hops, which are substitutes to the non-existing homographic solutions with odd dimensional space of motion, are also discussed.

  6. Inverse Analysis of North American Methane Emissions Using the CarbonTracker-Lagrange Modeling Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmergui, J. S.; Andrews, A. E.; Thoning, K. W.; Trudeau, M.; Michalak, A. M.; Yadav, V.; Miller, S. M.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Bruhwiler, L.; Masarie, K. A.; Worthy, D. E. J.; Sweeney, C.; Fischer, M. L.; Nehrkorn, T.; Mountain, M. E.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Several recent studies have attempted to quantify methane (CH4) emissions in North America, but large uncertainties remain in the magnitude, spatial and temporal distribution, and source sectors responsible. Estimates of biogenic emissions from wetlands, emissions related to animal husbandry, and the continental scale implications of recent shifts in the oil and gas industry are poorly constrained. We estimate North American CH4 emissions from biogenic and anthropogenic sources using the new CarbonTracker-Lagrange inverse modeling framework. A wide array of measurements taken between 2007 and 2012 provide top-down constraints. These include: in-situ and flask measurements made at surface sites, tall towers, and aboard aircraft; and remote sensing observations. Source region sensitivity is provided by the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model, driven by meteorological fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. CH4 emissions and background values are optimized simultaneously through Bayesian and geostatistical inversion. A restricted maximum likelihood estimation procedure is used to derive uncertainties in both emissions and the mole fraction field. The wide temporal coverage, dense network of measurements, and varied sources of data allow for an analysis of spatio-temporal trends in emissions that has not previously been accomplished with top-down constraints.

  7. An Euler-Lagrange method considering bubble radial dynamics for modeling sonochemical reactors.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Rashid; Brenner, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    Unsteady numerical computations are performed to investigate the flow field, wave propagation and the structure of bubbles in sonochemical reactors. The turbulent flow field is simulated using a two-equation Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model. The distribution of the acoustic pressure is solved based on the Helmholtz equation using a finite volume method (FVM). The radial dynamics of a single bubble are considered by applying the Keller-Miksis equation to consider the compressibility of the liquid to the first order of acoustical Mach number. To investigate the structure of bubbles, a one-way coupling Euler-Lagrange approach is used to simulate the bulk medium and the bubbles as the dispersed phase. Drag, gravity, buoyancy, added mass, volume change and first Bjerknes forces are considered and their orders of magnitude are compared. To verify the implemented numerical algorithms, results for one- and two-dimensional simplified test cases are compared with analytical solutions. The results show good agreement with experimental results for the relationship between the acoustic pressure amplitude and the volume fraction of the bubbles. The two-dimensional axi-symmetric results are in good agreement with experimentally observed structure of bubbles close to sonotrode. PMID:23751457

  8. A second row Parking Paradox

    E-print Network

    S. R. Fleurke; C. Kuelske

    2008-11-28

    We consider two variations of the discrete car parking problem where at every vertex of the integers a car arrives with rate one, now allowing for parking in two lines. a) The car parks in the first line whenever the vertex and all of its nearest neighbors are not occupied yet. It can reach the first line if it is not obstructed by cars already parked in the second line (screening). b) The car parks according to the same rules, but parking in the first line can not be obstructed by parked cars in the second line (no screening). In both models, a car that can not park in the first line will attempt to park in the second line. If it is obstructed in the second line as well, the attempt is discarded. We show that both models are solvable in terms of finite-dimensional ODEs. We compare numerically the limits of first and second line densities, with time going to infinity. While it is not surprising that model a) exhibits an increase of the density in the second line from the first line, more remarkably this is also true for model b), albeit in a less pronounced way.

  9. Automated Car Park Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  10. Targeting IL-4/IL-13 signaling to alleviate oral allergen-induced diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Eric B.; Munitz, Ariel; Orekov, Tatyana; Mingler, Melissa K.; McBride, Melissa; Finkelman, Fred D.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Intestinal anaphylaxis (manifested by acute diarrhea) is dependent on IgE and mast cells. Objective We aimed to define the respective roles of IL-4 and IL-13 and their receptors in disease pathogenesis. Methods Wild-type mice and mice deficient in IL-4, IL-13, and IL-13R?1 (part of the type 2 IL-4R) were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA)/alum and subsequently given repeated intragastric OVA exposures. IL-4R? chain was targeted with anti-IL-4R? mAb prior to or after intragastric OVA exposures. Results IL-4?/? (and IL-4/13?/?) mice produced almost no IgE and were highly resistant to OVA-induced diarrhea, whereas allergic diarrhea was only partially impaired in IL-13?/? and IL-13R?1?/? mice. IL-13R?1-deficient mice developed decreased IgE despite having normal baseline IL-4 levels. Intestinal mast cell accumulation and activation also depended mainly on IL-4 and to a lesser extent on IL-13. Prophylactic anti-IL-4R? mAb treatment, which blocks all IL-4 and IL-13 signaling, suppressed development of allergic diarrhea. However, treatment with anti-IL-4R? mAb for 7 days only partially suppressed IgE and did not prevent intestinal diarrhea. Conclusion Endogenously-produced IL-13 supplements the ability of IL-4 to induce allergic diarrhea by promoting oral allergen sensitization rather than the effector phase of intestinal anaphylaxis. PMID:18996576

  11. IL10R2 Overexpression Promotes IL22/STAT3 Signaling in Colorectal Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Khare, Vineeta; Paul, Gregor; Movadat, Oliver; Frick, Adrian; Jambrich, Manuela; Krnjic, Anita; Marian, Brigitte; Wrba, Friedrich; Gasche, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    The mucosal immune response in the setting of intestinal inflammation contributes to colorectal cancer. IL10 signaling has a central role in gut homeostasis and is impaired in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Out of two IL10 receptor subunits, IL10R1 and IL10R2, the latter is shared among the IL10 family of cytokines and activates STAT signaling. STAT3 is oncogenic in colorectal cancer; however, knowledge about IL10 signaling upstream of STAT3 in colorectal cancer is lacking. Here, expression of IL10 signaling genes was examined in matched pairs from normal and tumor tissue from colorectal cancer patients showing overexpression (mRNA, protein) of IL10R2 and STAT3 but not IL10R1. IL10R2 overexpression was related to microsatellite stability. Transient overexpression of IL10R2 in HT29 cells increased proliferation upon ligand activation (IL10 and IL22). IL22, and not IL10, phosphorylated STAT3 along with increased phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. A significantly higher expression of IL22R1 and IL10R2 was also confirmed in a separate cohort of colorectal cancer samples. IL22 expression was elevated in gut mucosa from patients with IBD and colitis-associated cancer, which also exhibited increased expression of IL22R1 but not its coreceptor IL10R2. Overall, these data indicate that overexpression of IL10R2 and STAT3 contributes to colorectal carcinogenesis in microsatellite-stable tumors through IL22/STAT3 signaling. Cancer Immunol Res; 3(11); 1227-35. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26130064

  12. A Lagrange-D'Alembert formulation of the equations of motion of a helicopter carrying an externally suspended load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, J. M.; Greif, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    The exact nonlinear equations of motion are derived for a helicopter with an extenal load suspended by fore and aft, rigid-link cables. Lagrange's form of D'Alembert's principle is used. Ten degrees of freedom are necessary to represent the motion of this system in an inertial reference frame: six for the helicopter relative to inertial space and four for the load relative to the helicopter.

  13. Fluid-structure interaction in the Lagrange-Poincare formalism: the Navier-Stokes and inviscid regimes

    E-print Network

    Henry O. Jacobs; Joris Vankerschaver

    2013-08-14

    In this paper, we derive the equations of motion for an elastic body interacting with a perfect fluid via the framework of Lagrange-Poincare reduction. We model the combined fluid-structure system as a geodesic curve on the total space of a principal bundle on which a diffeomorphism group acts. After reduction by the diffeomorphism group we obtain the fluid-structure interactions where the fluid evolves by the inviscid fluid equations. Along the way, we describe various geometric structures appearing in fluid-structure interactions: principal connections, Lie groupoids, Lie algebroids, etc. We finish by introducing viscosity in our framework as an external force and adding the no-slip boundary condition. The result is a description of an elastic body immersed in a Navier-Stokes fluid as an externally forced Lagrange-Poincare equation. Expressing fluid-structure interactions with Lagrange-Poincare theory provides an alternative to the traditional description of the Navier-Stokes equations on an evolving domain.

  14. 49 CFR 372.233 - Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chicago, IL. 372.233 Section 372.233... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.233 Chicago, IL. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of Chicago, IL, within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate or...

  15. IL26 gene inactivation in Equidae.

    PubMed

    Shakhsi-Niaei, M; Drögemüller, M; Jagannathan, V; Gerber, V; Leeb, T

    2013-12-01

    Interleukin-26 (IL26) is a member of the IL10 cytokine family. The IL26 gene is located between two other well-known cytokines genes of this family encoding interferon-gamma (IFNG) and IL22 in an evolutionary conserved gene cluster. In contrast to humans and most other mammals, mice lack a functional Il26 gene. We analyzed the genome sequences of other vertebrates for the presence or absence of functional IL26 orthologs and found that the IL26 gene has also become inactivated in several equid species. We detected a one-base pair frameshift deletion in exon 2 of the IL26 gene in the domestic horse (Equus caballus), Przewalski horse (Equus przewalskii) and donkey (Equus asinus). The remnant IL26 gene in the horse is still transcribed and gives rise to at least five alternative transcripts. None of these transcripts share a conserved open reading frame with the human IL26 gene. A comparative analysis across diverse vertebrates revealed that the IL26 gene has also independently been inactivated in a few other mammals, including the African elephant and the European hedgehog. The IL26 gene thus appears to be highly variable, and the conserved open reading frame has been lost several times during mammalian evolution. PMID:23808390

  16. PARKING FACILITY PROJECTIONS BASED ON THE 1968 STUDENT PARKING SURVEY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DALBY, J. PHILIP; KENDRA, LAWRENCE M.

    RESPONSES FROM 1,309 STUDENTS AND 121 CAMPUS EMPLOYEES AT CUYAHOGA COMMUNITY COLLEGE WERE USED TO PROJECT REQUIREMENTS FOR PARKING FACILITIES AT THE INSTITUTION BY 1971. STUDENTS INDICATED WHETHER OR NOT THEY CURRENTLY DROVE TO SCHOOL AND, IF NOT, IF THEY WOULD INTEND TO DRIVE IF PARKING FACILITIES WERE PROVIDED AT A NOMINAL FEE. FINDINGS SHOWED…

  17. IL-33 induces antigen-specific IL-5+ T cells and promotes allergic-induced airway inflammation independent of IL-4.

    PubMed

    Kurowska-Stolarska, Mariola; Kewin, Pete; Murphy, Grace; Russo, Remo C; Stolarski, Bartosz; Garcia, Cristiana Couto; Komai-Koma, Mousa; Pitman, Nick; Li, Yubin; Niedbala, Wanda; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Teixeira, Mauro M; Liew, Foo Y; Xu, Damo

    2008-10-01

    Type 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) play a pivotal role in helminthic infection and allergic disorders. CD4(+) T cells which produce type 2 cytokines can be generated via IL-4-dependent and -independent pathways. Although the IL-4-dependent pathway is well documented, factors that drive IL-4-independent Th2 cell differentiation remain obscure. We report here that the new cytokine IL-33, in the presence of Ag, polarizes murine and human naive CD4(+) T cells into a population of T cells which produce mainly IL-5 but not IL-4. This polarization requires IL-1R-related molecule and MyD88 but not IL-4 or STAT6. The IL-33-induced T cell differentiation is also dependent on the phosphorylation of MAPKs and NF-kappaB but not the induction of GATA3 or T-bet. In vivo, ST2(-/-) mice developed attenuated airway inflammation and IL-5 production in a murine model of asthma. Conversely, IL-33 administration induced the IL-5-producing T cells and exacerbated allergen-induced airway inflammation in wild-type as well as IL-4(-/-) mice. Finally, adoptive transfer of IL-33-polarized IL-5(+)IL-4(-)T cells triggered airway inflammation in naive IL-4(-/-) mice. Thus, we demonstrate here that, in the presence of Ag, IL-33 induces IL-5-producing T cells and promotes airway inflammation independent of IL-4. PMID:18802081

  18. IL-21 and IL-4 Collaborate To Shape T-Dependent Antibody Responses.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Helen M; Vogelzang, Alexis; Warren, Joanna; Loetsch, Claudia; Natividad, Karlo D; Chan, Tyani D; Brink, Robert; Batten, Marcel; King, Cecile

    2015-12-01

    The selection of affinity-matured Ab-producing B cells is supported by interactions with T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. In addition to cell surface-expressed molecules, cytokines produced by Tfh cells, such as IL-21 and IL-4, provide B cell helper signals. In this study, we analyze how the fitness of Th cells can influence Ab responses. To do this, we used a model in which IL-21R-sufficient (wild-type [WT]) and -deficient (Il21r(-/-)) Ag-specific Tfh cells were used to help immunodeficient Il21r(-/-) B cells following T-dependent immunization. Il21r(-/-) B cells that had received help from WT Tfh cells, but not from Il21r(-/-) Tfh cells, generated affinity-matured Ab upon recall immunization. This effect was dependent on IL-4 produced in the primary response and associated with an increased fraction of memory B cells. Il21r(-/-) Tfh cells were distinguished from WT Tfh cells by a decreased frequency, reduced conjugate formation with B cells, increased expression of programmed cell death 1, and reduced production of IL-4. IL-21 also influenced responsiveness to IL-4 because expression of both membrane IL-4R and the IL-4-neutralizing soluble (s)IL-4R were reduced in Il21r(-/-) mice. Furthermore, the concentration of sIL-4R was found to correlate inversely with the amount of IgE in sera, such that the highest IgE levels were observed in Il21r(-/-) mice with the least sIL-4R. Taken together, these findings underscore the important collaboration between IL-4 and IL-21 in shaping T-dependent Ab responses. PMID:26491200

  19. Role of interleukin-23 (IL-23) receptor signaling for IL-17 responses in human Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Oosting, Marije; ter Hofstede, Hadewych; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Sturm, Patrick; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van der Meer, Jos W M; Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B

    2011-11-01

    Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of T helper 17 cells. It has been previously demonstrated that IL-17 is involved in experimental Lyme arthritis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria. However, the precise role of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) for the B. burgdorferi-induced IL-17 responses or human Lyme disease has not yet been elucidated. IL-23R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11209026 was genotyped using the TaqMan assay. Functional studies were performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and cytokines were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dose-dependent production of IL-23 and IL-17 by B. burgdorferi could be observed. Interestingly, when IL-23 bioactivity was inhibited by a specific antibody against IL-23p19, IL-17 production was significantly downregulated. In contrast, production of gamma interferon (IFN-?) was not affected after the blockade of IL-23 activity. Moreover, individuals bearing a single nucleotide polymorphism in the IL-23R gene (Arg381Gln) produced significantly less IL-17 after B. burgdorferi stimulation compared with that of the individuals bearing the wild type. Despite lower IL-17 production, the IL-23R gene polymorphism did not influence the development of chronic Lyme disease in a cohort of patients with Lyme disease. This study demonstrates that IL-23R signaling is needed for B. burgdorferi-induced IL-17 production in vitro and that an IL-23R gene SNP leads to impaired IL-17 production. However, the IL-23R gene polymorphism is not crucial for the pathogenesis of chronic Lyme. PMID:21896776

  20. IL-18 and IL-12 synergy induces matrix degrading enzymes in the lung.

    PubMed

    Cero, Fadila Telarevic; Hillestad, Vigdis; Løberg, Else Marit; Christensen, Geir; Larsen, Karl-Otto; Skjønsberg, Ole Henning

    2012-10-01

    Interleukin (IL)-18 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine suggested to be involved in the development of pulmonary emphysema and inflammation. Studies involving immunology and cancer have revealed that IL-18 can have synergistic effects with IL-12. We have studied the presence of IL-18 and IL-12 receptors (IL-18R/IL-12R) in the lungs and whether IL-18 and IL-12, alone or in combination, have the ability to initiate the induction of mediators related to the development of emphysema and inflammation. The expression of the IL-18R was abundant in lungs compared to other organs (heart, liver, and spleen), and the IL-12R was also expressed in lung tissue. Mice treated with i.p. injection of recombinant murine IL-18 or IL-12 expressed significantly higher pulmonary mRNA levels of the matrix degrading enzymes metalloproteinase (MMP) 12 and cathepsin S, in addition to interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, and CXC chemokine ligand 9 (CXCL9) (all P < .05) than controls (received PBS). Treatment with IL-18 and IL-12 in combination showed an even more pronounced induction of these mediators, as well as a significant increase in MMP-9, IL-6, IL-1?, and transforming growth factor-? (P < .05). Furthermore, cellular apoptosis in lung tissue was induced. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed T-cell infiltration in pulmonary vessels following co-stimulation. In summary, IL-18 and IL-12 exert a synergistic effect on the lungs by inducing MMPs, cathepsins S, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may promote pulmonary emphysema and inflammation. The synergy between IL-18 and IL-12 involves infiltration of T-cells in the lungs, possibly induced by the T-cell chemoattractant CXCL9. PMID:22908875

  1. Study on the association between IL-1?, IL-8 and IL-10 gene polymorphisms and risk of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Ren, Baojun; She, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the role of genetic polymorphisms in IL-1?, IL-8 and IL-10 in the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). We identified 325 patients with CAD and 342 control subjects without CAD between January 2013 and December 2014. Genotyping of IL-1? +3954 C/T, IL-1? -511 C/T, IL-8-251T/A, IL-10-1082A/G and IL-10-819C/T was performed in a 384-well plate format on the Sequenom MassARRAY platform (Sequenom, San Diego, USA). By Multivariate logistic regression analysis, the GG and AG+GG genotypes of IL-10-1082A/G were significantly associated with an increased risk of CAD. The ORs (95% CI) for GG and AG+GG genotypes were 2.12 (1.32-3.43) and 1.56 (1.14-2.14), respectively. Patients carrying the AG+GG genotype of IL-10-1082A/G was associated with an increased risk of CAD in those with hypertension, diabetes mellitus and smokers, and the ORs (95% CI) were 1.41 (0.93-2.14), 7.13 (2.28-23.56) and 2.12 (1.17-3.89), respectively. Our study found that IL-10-1082A/G polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of CAD, especially in hypertension, diabetes mellitus and smokers. PMID:26221351

  2. Structural and Biophysical Studies of the Human IL-7/IL-7R[alpha] Complex

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, Craig A.; Dohm, Julie A.; Walsh, Scott T.R.

    2009-03-06

    IL-7 and IL-7R{alpha} bind the {gamma}{sub c} receptor, forming a complex crucial to several signaling cascades leading to the development and homeostasis of T and B cells. We report that the IL-7R{alpha} ectodomain uses glycosylation to modulate its binding constants to IL-7, unlike the other receptors in the {gamma}{sub c} family. IL-7 binds glycosylated IL-7R{alpha} 300-fold more tightly than unglycosylated IL-7R{alpha}, and the enhanced affinity is attributed primarily to an accelerated on rate. Structural comparison of IL-7 in complex to both forms of IL-7R{alpha} reveals that glycosylation does not participate directly in the binding interface. The SCID mutations of IL-7R{alpha} locate outside the binding interface with IL-7, suggesting that the expressed mutations cause protein folding defects in IL-7R{alpha}. The IL-7/IL-7R{alpha} structures provide a window into the molecular recognition events of the IL-7 signaling cascade and provide sites to target for designing new therapeutics to treat IL-7-related diseases.

  3. Designing for ecology : the ecological park

    E-print Network

    Power, Andres M

    2006-01-01

    This thesis aims to define a) what an ecological park is, and b) whether it is a new model in park design. Reference to the literature on landscape ecology is used to analyze the natural ecological merit of these parks, ...

  4. Jamaica Bay's Disappearing Marshes National Park Service

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    courtesy of National Park Service, Gateway National Recreation Area PROCEEDINGS PROCEEDINGS #12;NationalJamaica Bay's Disappearing Marshes National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Jamaica Bay Institute Gateway National Recreational Area EXPERIENCEYOURAMERICA National Park Service U

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Parkes Weber syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Parkes Weber syndrome On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... Glossary definitions Reviewed August 2011 What is Parkes Weber syndrome? Parkes Weber syndrome is a disorder of ...

  6. Differential effects of IFN-? on IL-12, IL-23, and IL-10 expression in TLR-stimulated dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Yen, Jui-Hung; Kong, Weimin; Hooper, Kirsten M; Emig, Frances; Rahbari, Kate M; Kuo, Ping-Chang; Scofield, Barbara A; Ganea, Doina

    2015-11-01

    MS is an autoimmune disease characterized by immune cell infiltration in the CNS, leading to cumulative disability. IFN-?, used clinically in RR-MS reduces lesion formation and rates of relapse. Although the molecular mechanisms are not entirely elucidated, myeloid cells appear to be a major target for the therapeutic effects of IFN-?. DCs have a critical role in experimental models of MS through their effect on encephalitogenic Th1/Th17 cell differentiation and expansion. Here we focused on the effects of IFN-? on DC expression of cytokines involved in the control of Th1/Th17 differentiation and expansion. Administration of IFN-? to mice immunized with MOG35-55 inhibited IL-12 and IL-23 expression in splenic DC and reduced in vivo differentiation of Th1/Th17 cells. IFN-? affected cytokine expression in TLR-stimulated DC in a similar manner in vitro, inhibiting IL-12 and IL-23 and stimulating IL-10 at both mRNA and protein levels, by signaling through IFNAR. We investigated the role of the signaling molecules STAT1/STAT2, IRF-1 and IRF-7, and of the PI3K?GSK3 pathway. IFN-? inhibition of the IL-12 subunits p40 and p35 was mediated through STAT1/STAT2, whereas inhibition of IL-23 was STAT1 dependent, and the stimulatory effect on IL-10 expression was mediated through STAT2. IFN-? induces IRF-7 and, to a lesser degree, IRF-1. However, neither IRF mediated the effects of IFN-? on IL-12, IL-23, or IL-10. We found that the PI3K pathway mediated IL-12 inhibition but did not interfere with the inhibition of IL-23 or stimulation of IL-10. PMID:26059829

  7. IL-6 in diabetes and cardiovascular complications

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Dan; Liu, Jian; Lau, Chi Wai; Huang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine that participates in normal functions of the immune system, haematopoiesis, metabolism, as well as in the pathogenesis of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Both pro- and anti-inflammatory roles of IL-6 have been described, which are distinguished by different cascades of signalling transduction, namely classic and trans-signalling. The present review summarizes the basic principles of IL-6 signalling and discusses its roles in diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications, with emphasis on the different outcomes mediated by the two modes of IL-6 signalling and the value of developing therapeutic strategies to specifically target the deleterious trans-signalling of IL-6. PMID:24697653

  8. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Candore, Giuseppina; Cigna, Diego; Colucci, Antonio Tobia; Modica, Maria Assunta

    1993-01-01

    A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC) activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R) is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting findings are discussed in the light of the data showing that sIL-2R production correlates with IL-2 production. PMID:18475497

  9. Dead Mans Run parking for

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    . International Quilt Studies Museum 5. Hardin Hall Visitors 6. Ruth Staples Child Development Lab 1 1 4 7 Parking Staples Child Development Lab. Utility Plant Biological Systems Engineering Labs Service Building University Park Apartments Fedde Hall Love Memorial Hall Textile Design Studio Hardin Hall Burr Hall Nebraska

  10. California Community Colleges Parking Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Chuck

    In 1990, a representative sample of 25 California community colleges was contacted by telephone to determine their parking policies and practices. The colleges were sampled on the basis of location and size. Study findings included the following: (1) 17 of the colleges reported that they had insufficient numbers of on-campus parking spaces; (2)…

  11. National Zoological Park SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Charles W.

    National Zoological Park SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION National Zoological Park Conservation & Research-Ouadi Achim Game Reserve in Chad The Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute (SCBI) and Sahara Conservation, and survival of reintroduced scimitar- horned oryx at the Ouadi Rimé-Ouadi Achim Game Reserve using satellite

  12. Siena College Parking and Traffic

    E-print Network

    Registration 2. Permits 3. Parking Lot Designations 4. Additional Parking Lot Restrictions 5. Violations 6. Improper D. Registeri both part E. Permits a permit be considere from cam F. Permits i another. 2. PERMIT in they w t out this com gistration for will be issue student lot a white lines. ISTRATIO on campus mit

  13. An Amusement Park Physics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-01-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition…

  14. Traffic and Parking Financial Statements

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    access fee remains a mandatory fixed fee paid by all students each semester to support parking assets - the difference between assets and liabilities - is one way to measure the financial health, or financial position of the Division. Over time, increases or decreases in Traffic & Parking's net assets

  15. IL-15 Agonists: The Cancer Cure Cytokine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jennifer

    2013-10-28

    The immune stimulatory cytokine interleukin-15 was recognized as one of the most promising cancer cure drug in an NIH guided review and is currently in clinical trial alone or as an adjuvant for certain types of metastatic solid tumors. IL-15 is an essential survival factor for natural killer (NK), natural killer-like T (NKT), and CD44(hi) memory CD8 T cells. The bioactivity of IL-15 in vivo is conferred mainly through a trans-presentation mechanism in which IL-15 is presented in complex with the ?-subunit of soluble IL-15 receptor (IL-15R) to NK, NKT or T cells rather than directly interacts with membrane-bound IL-15R. With these understandings, recent studies have been focused on generating IL-15 agonists which consist of IL-15 and partial or whole of soluble IL-15R to improve its in vivo bioactivity. This minireview will summarize the key features of IL-15 as a potential cancer treatment cytokine and the most recent development of IL-15 agonists and preclinical studies. Critical milestones to translate the pre-clinical development to in-patients treatment are emphasized. PMID:24587813

  16. Mojave National Preserve Joshua Tree National Park

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Death Valley Mojave National Preserve Joshua Tree National Park National Park National Training California City Baker Brawley El Centro Borrego Springs Victorville Palm Desert Apple Valley Hesperia Indio

  17. On the error propagation of semi-Lagrange and Fourier methods for advection problems?

    PubMed Central

    Einkemmer, Lukas; Ostermann, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the error propagation of numerical schemes for the advection equation in the case where high precision is desired. The numerical methods considered are based on the fast Fourier transform, polynomial interpolation (semi-Lagrangian methods using a Lagrange or spline interpolation), and a discontinuous Galerkin semi-Lagrangian approach (which is conservative and has to store more than a single value per cell). We demonstrate, by carrying out numerical experiments, that the worst case error estimates given in the literature provide a good explanation for the error propagation of the interpolation-based semi-Lagrangian methods. For the discontinuous Galerkin semi-Lagrangian method, however, we find that the characteristic property of semi-Lagrangian error estimates (namely the fact that the error increases proportionally to the number of time steps) is not observed. We provide an explanation for this behavior and conduct numerical simulations that corroborate the different qualitative features of the error in the two respective types of semi-Lagrangian methods. The method based on the fast Fourier transform is exact but, due to round-off errors, susceptible to a linear increase of the error in the number of time steps. We show how to modify the Cooley–Tukey algorithm in order to obtain an error growth that is proportional to the square root of the number of time steps. Finally, we show, for a simple model, that our conclusions hold true if the advection solver is used as part of a splitting scheme. PMID:25844018

  18. IL-33 attenuates EAE by suppressing IL-17 and IFN-? production and inducing alternatively activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hui-Rong; Milovanovi?, Marija; Allan, Debbie; Niedbala, Wanda; Besnard, Anne-Galle; Fukada, Sandra Y; Alves-Filho, Jose C; Togbe, Dieudonnée; Goodyear, Carl S; Linington, Christopher; Xu, Damo; Lukic, Miodrag L; Liew, Foo Y

    2012-07-01

    Interleukin (IL)-33, a member of the IL-1 cytokine family, is an important modulator of the immune system associated with several immune-mediated disorders. High levels of IL-33 are expressed by the central nervous system (CNS) suggesting a potential role of IL-33 in autoimmune CNS diseases. We have investigated the expression and function of IL-33 in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. We report here that IL-33 and its receptor ST2 (IL-33R?) are highly expressed in spinal cord tissue, and ST2 expression is markedly increased in the spinal cords of mice with EAE. Furthermore, ST2-deficient (ST2(-/-) ) mice developed exacerbated EAE compared with wild-type (WT) mice while WT, but not ST2(-/-) EAE mice treated with IL-33 developed significantly attenuated disease. IL-33-treated mice had reduced levels of IL-17 and IFN-? but produced increased amounts of IL-5 and IL-13. Lymph node and splenic macrophages of IL-33-treated mice showed polarization toward an alternatively activated macrophage (M2) phenotype with significantly increased frequency of MR(+) PD-L2(+) cells. Importantly, adoptive transfer of these IL-33-treated macrophages attenuated EAE development. Our data therefore demonstrate that IL-33 plays a therapeutic role in autoimmune CNS disease by switching a predominantly pathogenic Th17/Th1 response to Th2 activity, and by polarization of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. PMID:22585447

  19. IL-15 receptor ? signaling constrains the development of IL-17-producing ?? T cells.

    PubMed

    Colpitts, Sara L; Puddington, Lynn; Lefrançois, Leo

    2015-08-01

    The development and homeostasis of ?? T cells is highly dependent on distinct cytokine networks. Here we examine the role of IL-15 and its unique receptor, IL-15R?, in the development of IL-17-producing ?? (??-17) T cells. Phenotypic analysis has shown that CD44(high) ??-17 cells express IL-15R? and the common gamma chain (CD132), yet lack the IL-2/15R? chain (CD122). Surprisingly, we found an enlarged population of ??-17 cells in the peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes of adult IL-15R? KO mice, but not of IL-15 KO mice. The generation of mixed chimeras from neonatal thymocytes indicated that cell-intrinsic IL-15R? expression was required to limit IL-17 production by ?? T cells. ??-17 cells also were increased in the peripheral lymph nodes of transgenic knock-in mice, where the IL-15R? intracellular signaling domain was replaced with the intracellular portion of the IL-2R? chain (that lacks signaling capacity). Finally, an analysis of neonatal thymi revealed that the CD44(lo/int) precursors of ??-17 cells, which also expressed IL-15R?, were increased in newborn mice deficient in IL-15R? signaling, but not in IL-15 itself. Thus, these findings demonstrate that signaling through IL-15R? regulates the development of ??-17 cells early in ontogeny, with long-term effects on their peripheral homeostasis in the adult. PMID:26195801

  20. IL22/IL-22R Pathway Induces Cell Survival in Human Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Hussein; Abbaci, Amazigh; Lalloué, Fabrice; Bessette, Barbara; Costes, Léa M. M.; Domballe, Linda; Charreau, Sandrine; Guilloteau, Karline; Karayan-Tapon, Lucie; Bernard, François-Xavier; Morel, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family that binds to a heterodimeric receptor consisting of IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) and IL-10R2. IL-22R expression was initially characterized on epithelial cells, and plays an essential role in a number of inflammatory diseases. Recently, a functional receptor was detected on cancer cells such as hepatocarcinoma and lung carcinoma, but its presence was not reported in glioblastoma (GBM). Two GBM cell lines and 10 primary cell lines established from patients undergoing surgery for malignant GBM were used to investigate the expression of IL-22 and IL-22R by using quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting and confocal microscopy studies. The role of IL-22 in proliferation and survival of GBM cell lines was investigated in vitro by BrdU and ELISA cell death assays. We report herein that the two subunits of the IL-22R complex are expressed on human GBM cells. Their activation, depending on exogenous IL-22, induced antiapoptotic effect and cell proliferation. IL-22 treatment of GBM cells resulted in increased levels of phosphorylated Akt, STAT3 signaling protein and its downstream antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL and decreased level of phosphorylated ERK1/2. In addition, IL-22R subunits were expressed in all the 10 tested primary cell lines established from GBM tumors. Our results showed that IL-22R is expressed on GBM established and primary cell lines. Depending on STAT3, ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways, IL-22 induced GBM cell survival. These data are consistent with a potential role of IL-22R in tumorigenesis of GBM. Since endogenous IL-22 was not detected in all studied GBM cells, we hypothesize that IL-22R could be activated by immune microenvironmental IL-22 producing cells. PMID:25793261

  1. Renew the parks: Renewable energy in the National Park Service

    SciTech Connect

    DeNio, D.

    1997-12-31

    The National Park Service (NPS) is the steward of some of the world`s finest natural and cultural resources. When the Park Service celebrated its 75th birthday in 1991, it charted a course for how to accomplish its mission into the next century. Incorporating sustainability and sustainable design into all NPS operations and development is one means of meeting the challenges that face the National Park Service. The main components of sustainable design include energy conservation and the use of renewable energy sources, including solar, wind, geothermal, micro-hydro, biomass, and tidal. The focus of this paper is photovoltaic (PV)--the conversion of sunlight to direct current electricity.

  2. Aftermath of Griffith Park Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2007, wind-driven flames raced through Griffith Park in Los Angeles, forcing hasty evacuations and threatening numerous famous landmarks and tourist spots, such as the Los Angeles Zoo and the Hollywood Sign. Ultimately, no one was injured in the fire, which may have been started by a cigarette. About 800 acres burned in the urban park, which is itself a Hollywood landmark, having been the location for several movies, including Rebel Without A Cause. This image of the park was captured by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on June 6, 2007, about a month after the fire. ASTER detects both visible and infrared wavelengths of light, and both kinds have been used to make this image. Vegetation appears in various shades of red, while the burned areas appear charcoal. Roads and dense urban areas appear purplish-gray or white. Water is dark blue. Large burned areas are evident in the northwest and southeast parts of the park, with scattered smaller patches along the southern margin. Some botanical gardens and parts of a bird sanctuary, as well as some park structures like restrooms, were destroyed. The park's unburned, natural vegetation appears brick red, while the irrigated golf courses adjacent to the park are bright red. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  3. Interleukin newcomers creating new numbers in rheumatology: IL-34 to IL-38.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Gaëlle; Thiolat, Allan; Boissier, Marie-Christophe

    2013-10-01

    The development of innovative technologies is steadily increasing the body of knowledge on molecules involved in physiological functions. Thus, several interleukins (ILs) have been identified and characterized in the past few years. Here, we detail the structural and functional characteristics of IL-34 to IL-38 with special attention to their involvement in inflammatory joint disease. IL-34 chiefly increases osteoclast activation and proliferation and therefore, it plays a direct role in bone destruction as seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) express IL-35, which therefore exerts anti-inflammatory effects by restoring Treg suppressive capabilities and by inhibiting the Th17 pathway. IL-37 has anti-inflammatory effects mediated by a negative feedback loop that decreases the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-36 belongs to the IL-1 family and has three different forms. Although this cytokine has been chiefly studied in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, it also exerts pro-inflammatory effects in RA. The specific IL-36 antagonist, IL-36Ra binds to the IL-36 receptor, thereby, preventing signal transduction. Finally, IL-38 is a recently identified cytokine whose effect may resemble that of IL-36Ra as it binds to the IL-36 receptor and inhibits its effects, particularly the Th17-response. Although the exact roles for these cytokines awaits elucidation, the current improvements in our knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate chronic inflammatory conditions, such as RA may lead to the identification of new treatment targets. PMID:23849463

  4. IL-33 Exacerbates Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Akcay, Ali; Nguyen, Quocan; He, Zhibin; Turkmen, Kultigin; Won Lee, Dong; Hernando, Ana Andres; Altmann, Christopher; Toker, Aysun; Pacic, Arijana; Ljubanovic, Danica Galesic; Jani, Alkesh; Faubel, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI). IL-33 is a proinflammatory cytokine, but its role in AKI is unknown. Here we observed increased protein expression of full-length IL-33 in the kidney following induction of AKI with cisplatin. To determine whether IL-33 promotes injury, we administered soluble ST2 (sST2), a fusion protein that neutralizes IL-33 activity by acting as a decoy receptor. Compared with cisplatin-induced AKI in untreated mice, mice treated with sST2 had fewer CD4 T cells infiltrate the kidney, lower serum creatinine, and reduced acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and apoptosis. In contrast, administration of recombinant IL-33 (rIL-33) exacerbated cisplatin-induced AKI, measured by an increase in CD4 T cell infiltration, serum creatinine, ATN, and apoptosis; this did not occur in CD4-deficient mice, suggesting that CD4 T cells mediate the injurious effect of IL-33. Wildtype mice that received cisplatin and rIL-33 also had higher levels of the proinflammatory chemokine CXCL1, which CD T cells produce, in the kidney compared with CD4-deficient mice. Mice deficient in the CXCL1 receptor also had lower serum creatinine, ATN, and apoptosis than wildtype mice following cisplatin-induced AKI. Taken together, IL-33 promotes AKI through CD4 T cell-mediated production of CXCL1. These data suggest that inhibiting IL-33 or CXCL1 may have therapeutic potential in AKI. PMID:21949094

  5. IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction promoted metastasis of osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingmin; Wang, Luanqiu; Ren, Tao; Xu, Lin; Wen, Zhenke

    2013-02-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common human primary malignant bone tumor in children and young adults with poor prognosis because of their high metastatic potential. Identification of key factors that could regulate the aggressive biologic behavior of OS, particularly with respect to metastasis, would be necessary if significant improvements in therapeutic outcome are to occur. In this study, we carefully evaluated the potential role of IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction in metastasis of OS. We found that serum IL-17A was higher in OS patients with metastasis and was associated with their clinical stage. The elevated expression of IL-17RA was observed in tumor tissue from OS patients with metastasis. Of note, we showed that IL-17A could promote the metastasis of U-2 OS cells which expression high IL-17RA, but not MG63 cells which expression low IL-17RA. Further, we revealed that downregulation of IL-17RA in U-2 cells could abrogated the enhanced metastasis induced by IL-17A, while upregulation of IL-17RA in MG63 cells could elevate their response to IL-17A and exerted enhanced metastasis. We observed that IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction promoted the expression of VEGF, MMP9 and CXCR4 in OS cells, which might partly explain the enhanced metastasis of OS cells. Furthermore, we showed that Stat3 activity was crucial for IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction to promote OS metastasis. Finally, we confirmed that IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction promoted the metastasis of OS in nude mice. Our findings might provide a mechanistic explanation for metastasis of OS in vivo, and suggested that targeting IL-17A signaling was a novel promising strategy to treat patients with OS. PMID:23192273

  6. IL-10 regulates Il12b expression via histone deacetylation: Implications for intestinal macrophage homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Taku; Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Sheikh, Shehzad Z.; Russo, Steven M.; Mishima, Yoshiyuki; Collins, Colm; deZoeten, Edwin F.; Karp, Christopher L.; Ting, Jenny P. Y.; Sartor, R. Balfour; Plevy, Scott E.

    2012-01-01

    To prevent excessive inflammatory responses to commensal microbes, intestinal macrophages unlike their systemic counterparts do not produce inflammatory cytokines in response to enteric bacteria. Consequently, loss of macrophage tolerance to the enteric microbiota plays a central role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel diseases. Therefore, we examined whether the hyporesponsive phenotype of intestinal macrophages is programmed by prior exposure to the microbiota. IL-10, but not in vivo exposure to the microbiota, programs intestinal macrophage tolerance, as wild-type (WT) colonic macrophages from germ free and specific-pathogen free (SPF) derived mice produce IL-10 but not IL-12 p40 when activated with enteric bacteria. Basal and activated IL-10 expression is mediated through a MyD88 dependent pathway. Conversely, colonic macrophages from germ free and SPF derived colitis-prone Il10?/? mice demonstrated robust production of IL-12 p40. Next, mechanisms through which IL-10 inhibits Il12b expression were investigated. While Il12b mRNA was transiently induced in LPS-activated WT bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs), expression persisted in Il10?/? BMDMs. There were no differences in nucleosome remodeling, mRNA stability, NF-?B activation or MAPK signaling to explain prolonged transcription of Il12b in Il10?/? BMDMs. However, acetylated histone H4 (AcH4) transiently associated with the Il12b promoter in WT BMDMs, whereas association of these factors was prolonged in Il10?/? BMDMs. Experiments utilizing histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors and HDAC3 shRNA indicate that HDAC3 is involved in histone deacetylation of the Il12b promoter by IL-10. These results suggest that histone deacetylation on the Il12b promoter by HDAC3 mediates homeostatic effects of IL-10 in macrophages. PMID:22786766

  7. IL-4 Inhibits IL-1?-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior and Central Neurotransmitter Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun-Jung; Shim, Hyun-Soo; An, Kyungeh; Starkweather, Angela; Kim, Kyung Soo; Shim, Insop

    2015-01-01

    It has been known that activation of the central innate immune system or exposure to stress can disrupt balance of anti-/proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the modulation of depressive-like behaviors, the hormonal and neurotransmitter systems in rats. We investigated whether centrally administered IL-1? is associated with activation of CNS inflammatory pathways and behavioral changes and whether treatment with IL-4 could modulate IL-1?-induced depressive-like behaviors and central neurotransmitter systems. Infusion of IL-4 significantly decreased IL-1?-induced anhedonic responses and increased social exploration and total activity. Treatment with IL-4 markedly blocked IL-1?-induced increase in PGE2 and CORT levels. Also, IL-4 reduced IL-1?-induced 5-HT levels by inhibiting tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) mRNA and activating serotonin transporter (SERT) in the hippocampus, and levels of NE were increased by activating tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that IL-4 may locally contribute to the regulation of noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission and may inhibit IL-1?-induced behavioral and immunological changes. The present results suggest that IL-4 modulates IL-1?-induced depressive behavior by inhibiting IL-1?-induced central glial activation and neurotransmitter alterations. IL-4 reduced central and systemic mediatory inflammatory activation, as well as reversing the IL-1?-induced alterations in neurotransmitter levels. The present findings contribute a biochemical pathway regulated by IL-4 that may have therapeutic utility for treatment of IL-1?-induced depressive behavior and neuroinflammation which warrants further study. PMID:26417153

  8. Targeting IL4/IL4R for the treatment of epithelial cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Bankaitis, Katherine Venmar; Fingleton, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    While progress has been made in treating primary epithelial tumors, metastatic tumors remain largely incurable and still account for 85-90 % of all cancer-related deaths. Interleukin-4 (IL4), a Th2 cytokine, and the IL4/IL4 receptor (IL4R) interaction have well defined roles in the immune system. Yet, IL4 receptors are over-expressed by many epithelial cancers and could be a promising target for metastatic tumor therapy. The IL4/IL4R signaling axis is a strong promoter of pro-metastatic phenotypes in epithelial cancer cells including enhanced migration, invasion, survival, and proliferation. The promotion of breast cancer growth specifically is also supported in part by IL4-induced glutamine metabolism, and we have shown that IL4 is also capable of inducing glucose metabolism in breast cancer cells. Importantly, there are several types of FDA approved medications for use in asthma patients that inhibit the IL4/IL4R signaling axis. However, these approved medications inhibit both the type I IL4 receptor found on immune cells, and the type II IL4 receptor that is predominantly expressed by some non-hematopoietic cells including epithelial cancer cells. This article reviews existing therapies targeting IL4, IL4R, or IL4/IL4R signaling, and recent findings guiding the creation of novel therapies that specifically inhibit the type II IL4R, while taking into consideration effects on immune cells within the tumor microenvironment. Some of these therapies are currently in clinical trials for cancer patients, and may be exploitable for the treatment of metastatic disease. PMID:26385103

  9. Edinburgh Research Explorer Concerted Activity of IgG1 Antibodies and IL-4/IL-25-Dependent

    E-print Network

    Maizels, Rick

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Concerted Activity of IgG1 Antibodies and IL-4/IL-25-Dependent Effector, RM 2015, 'Concerted Activity of IgG1 Antibodies and IL-4/IL-25-Dependent Effector Cells Trap Helminth of IgG1 Antibodies and IL- 4/IL-25-Dependent Effector Cells Trap Helminth Larvae in the Tissues

  10. Park and chill : redesign parking garage in Hong Kong

    E-print Network

    Ting, Sze Ngai

    2011-01-01

    What are the aesthetics of urban infrastructure? Urban infrastructure has remained isolated to human activities. We all share memory and experience with urban infrastructure, e.g. we drive on the same roads and park our ...

  11. IL-8 and IL-6 primarily mediate the inflammatory response in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Mendieta, Danelia; la Cruz-Aguilera, Dora Luz De; Barrera-Villalpando, Maria Isabel; Becerril-Villanueva, Enrique; Arreola, Rodrigo; Hernández-Ferreira, Erick; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Garcés-Alvarez, María Eugenia; Aguirre-Cruz, Lucinda; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco Antonio; Pavón, Lenin

    2016-01-15

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disease that has been linked to inflammatory reactions and changes in the systemic levels of proinflammatory cytokines that modulate responses in the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We found that concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8 were elevated in FM patients. Both cytokines correlated with clinical scores, suggesting that IL-6 and IL-8 have additive or synergistic effects in perpetuating the chronic pain in FM patients. These findings indicate that IL-6 and IL-8 are two of the most constant inflammatory mediators in FM and that their levels correlate significantly with the severity of symptoms. PMID:26711564

  12. Secular Evolution of Extrasolar Planetary Systems: An Extension of the Laplace-Lagrange Secular Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansottera, Marco; Libert, A.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): In this work, we study the secular dynamics of exoplanetary systems consisting of two coplanar planets. In particular, we investigate the effects of the proximity to a mean motion resonance on the secular behavior of the planets. In order to obtain a good description of the secular dynamics, a straightforward method is to include in the unperturbed Hamiltonian the average of the perturbation over the fast angles; this is the so-called approximation at order one in the masses. However, if the system is near a mean motion resonance, the frequencies of the quasi-periodic flow given by this Hamiltonian are quite different from the true ones. Therefore we look for an approximation of the secular Hamiltonian up to order two in the masses, removing the main perturbation depending on the fast angles via a Kolmogorov-like normalization step. The approximation of lowest order in the eccentricities of the secular Hamiltonian is essentially the one considered in the Lagrange-Laplace theory. Following a quite standard procedure, we construct a high order Birkhoff normal form for the Hamiltonian using the Lie series method. Considering the Hamiltonian in non-resonant Birkhoff normal form, the equations of motion take a very simple form, being function of the actions only. So, using the secular frequencies that are easily computed, the long term motion of the planets can be easily integrated analytically. By comparing the semi-analytical results based on the secular approximation, with the dynamics of the complete system, we can better understand whether resonant contributions dominate the evolution of the planets or not. This leads to a simple criterion to discriminate between three categories of systems: : (i) secular systems (HD 11964, HD 74156, HD 134987, HD 163607, HD 12661 and HD 147018); (ii) systems near a mean-motion resonance (HD 11506, HD 177830, HD 9446, HD 169830 and $\\upsilon$ Andromedae); (iii) systems really close to or in a mean-motion resonance (HD 108874, HD 128311 and HD 183263). Finally, a similar analysis is performed for systems that are in a mean-motion resonance.

  13. Man Sik Park Symmetry and Separability In

    E-print Network

    Man Sik Park Symmetry and Separability In Spatial-Temporal Processes Man Sik Park, Montserrat Fuentes Symmetry and Separability In Spatial-Temporal Processes 1 #12;Man Sik Park Motivation · In general-pollution data. Symmetry and Separability In Spatial-Temporal Processes 2 #12;Man Sik Park Research Objectives 1

  14. Exponential solutions of euler-lagrange equations for field of linear frames in nonlinear model of born-infeld type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewski, Piotr

    2008-10-01

    We investigate a model of the field of linear frames on the product manifold M = ? × G, where G is a semisimple Lie group. The model is invariant under the natural action of the group GL(n, ?) ( n = dim M). It results in a modified Born-Infeld-type nonlinearity of field equations. We find two families of solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equations. The solutions are bases for the Lie algebra of left-invariant vector fields on ? × G "deformed" by a GL(n, ?)-valued mapping of the exponential form.

  15. Characterisation and expression analysis of the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) cytokines: IL-1?, IL-6, IL-11, IL-12? and IFN?.

    PubMed

    Øvergård, Aina-Cathrine; Nepstad, Ina; Nerland, Audun Helge; Patel, Sonal

    2012-03-01

    Genes encoding the five Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) cytokines; interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-11b, IL-12?c, and interferon (IFN) ?, were cloned and characterised at a molecular level. The genomic organisation of the halibut cytokine genes was similar to that seen in mammals and/or other fish species. Several mRNA instability motifs were found within the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of all cytokine cDNA sequences. The putative cytokine protein sequences showed a low sequence identity with the corresponding homologues in mammals, avian and other fish species. Nevertheless, important structural features were presumably conserved such as the presence, or absence in the case of IL-1?, of a signal peptide, secondary structure and family signature motifs. The relative expression pattern of the cytokine genes was analyzed in several halibut organs, revealing a constitutive expression in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs. Interestingly, the gills showed a relatively high expression of IL-1?, IL-12?c and IFN?. The real time RT-PCR data also showed that the mRNA level of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-12?c and IFN? was high in the thymus, while IL-11b was relatively highly expressed in the posterior kidney and posterior gut. Moreover, the halibut brain showed a relatively high level of IL-6 transcripts. Anterior kidney leucocytes in vitro stimulated with imiquimod showed a significant increase in mRNA level of the five halibut cytokine genes. The sequence and characterisation data presented here will be useful for further investigation of both innate and adaptive immune responses in halibut, and be helpful in the design of vaccines for the control of various infectious diseases. PMID:21643951

  16. Human IL-2 mutein with higher antitumor efficacy than wild type IL-2.

    PubMed

    Carmenate, Tania; Pacios, Anabel; Enamorado, Michel; Moreno, Ernesto; Garcia-Martínez, Karina; Fuente, Dasha; León, Kalet

    2013-06-15

    IL-2 has been used for the treatment of melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, but this therapy has limited efficacy and severe toxicity. Currently, it is assumed that part of the limited efficacy is due to the IL-2-driven preferential expansion of regulatory T cells, which dampen the antitumor immunity. In this study, we characterize a human IL-2 mutant with higher antitumor efficacy and lower toxicity than wild type human IL-2 (wtIL-2). The mutant differs from wtIL-2 by four mutations at the interface with the ? subunit of IL-2R. The IL-2 mutant induces in vitro proliferation of CD8(+)CD44(hi) and NK1.1 cells as efficiently as does wtIL-2, but it shows a reduced capacity to induce proliferation of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. The IL-2 mutant shows a higher antimetastatic effect than does wtIL-2 in several transplantable tumor models: the experimental metastasis model of MB16F0 melanoma and the experimental and spontaneous metastasis models for the mouse pulmonary carcinoma 3LL-D1222. Relevantly, the IL-2 mutant also exhibits lower lung and liver toxicity than does wtIL-2 when used at high doses in mice. In silico simulations, using a calibrated mathematical model, predict that the properties of IL-2 mutein are a consequence of the reduction, of at least two orders of magnitude, in its affinity for the ? subunit of IL-2R (CD25). The human IL-2 mutant described in the present work could be a good candidate for improving cancer therapy based on IL-2. PMID:23677467

  17. Oxidative mechanisms of IL-4-induced IL-6 expression in vascular endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Woo; Lee, Won Hee; Kim, Paul H.

    2009-01-01

    The present study is designed to investigate the effects of interleukin-4 (IL-4) on expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), as well as to examine the role of distinct sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this process. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that IL-4 significantly up-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of IL-6 in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) and C57BL/6 mice. Dihydroethidium (DHE) and dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence staining demonstrated that IL-4 significantly increased ROS generation in HAEC. A significant and dose-dependent inhibition of IL-4-induced IL-6 expression was observed in HAEC pre-treated with antioxidants, such as pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), indicating that IL-4-induced IL-6 expression is mediated via an ROS-dependent mechanism. Additionally, pharmacological inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX) significantly attenuated IL-4-induced ROS generation and IL-6 expression in HAEC. Furthermore, the disruption of NOX gene dramatically and significantly reduced IL-4-induced IL-6 expression in NOX knockout mice (B6.129S6-Cybbtm1Din/J). In contrast, overexpression of IL-6 in IL-4-activated HAEC was not affected by inhibiting other ROS generating pathways, such as xanthine oxidase, arachidonic acid metabolism, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. These results demonstrate that IL-4 up-regulates IL-6 expression in vascular endothelium through NOX-mediated ROS generation. PMID:19822443

  18. 77 FR 73919 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... National Park Service 36 CFR Part 7 RIN 1024-AE10 Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule... governs winter visitation and certain recreational activities in Yellowstone National Park for the...

  19. Criteria for Car Parking Allocation System Criteria for Car Parking Allocation System

    E-print Network

    Judd, Martin

    Criteria for Car Parking Allocation System Criteria for Car Parking Allocation System 2015-16 Criteria for Car Parking All #12;The issue and control of car parking permits is vested in Estates Services. The annual charges are incorporated in the application form. The car parking charges will be deducted from

  20. UNIVERSITY OF WINDSOR PARKING OFFICE

    E-print Network

    are available, please include their name and telephone number. Thank you for your assistance. Note: Parking numbers. Registered owners of vehicles are traced through the Ontario Ministry of Transportation

  1. Vandal-Proof Your Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shattuck, J. Bruce

    1988-01-01

    Responses of 380 park maintenance and facility managers to a questionnaire provided information on how they try to prevent vandalism affecting signs, picnic and related services, and sanitary facilities. (CB)

  2. Renovation proposal for Fenway Park

    E-print Network

    Aldana Urrutia, Luis Pedro

    2009-01-01

    As the oldest stadium in baseball history, the existing structure of Fenway Park presents problems such as limiting seating capacity and obstructed views, caused by the columns supporting the second level. Opened in 1912, ...

  3. Morris Park Ave Rhinelander Ave

    E-print Network

    Bukauskas, Feliksas

    Albert Einstein College of Medicine ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE JACK AND PEARL RESNICK CAMPUS Building 19. Einstein Boiler Plant JACOBI MEDICAL CENTER 20. Nurses' Residence MEDICAL PARK EINSTEIN PROGRAM LOCATIONS Glass Building Ob/Gyn Private Practice

  4. Characterization of Lamprey IL-17 Family Members and Their Receptors.

    PubMed

    Han, Qifeng; Das, Sabyasachi; Hirano, Masayuki; Holland, Stephen J; McCurley, Nathanael; Guo, Peng; Rosenberg, Charles S; Boehm, Thomas; Cooper, Max D

    2015-12-01

    IL-17 is an ancient cytokine implicated in a variety of immune defense reactions. We identified five members of the sea lamprey IL-17 family (IL-17D.1, IL-17D.2, IL-17E, IL-17B, and IL-17C) and six IL-17R genes (IL-17RA.1, IL-17RA.2, IL-17RA.3, IL-17RF, IL-17RE/RC, and IL-17RD), determined their relationship with mammalian orthologs, and examined their expression patterns and potential interactions to explore their roles in innate and adaptive immunity. The most highly expressed IL-17 family member is IL-17D.1 (mammalian IL-17D like), which was found to be preferentially expressed by epithelial cells of skin, intestine, and gills and by the two types of lamprey T-like cells. IL-17D.1 binding to rIL-17RA.1 and to the surface of IL-17RA.1-expressing B-like cells and monocytes of lamprey larvae was demonstrated, and treatment of lamprey blood cells with rIL-17D.1 protein enhanced transcription of genes expressed by the B-like cells. These findings suggest a potential role for IL-17 in coordinating the interactions between T-like cells and other cells of the adaptive and innate immune systems in jawless vertebrates. PMID:26491201

  5. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, C.W.; Giraud, K.M.

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  6. L'hotel straordinario, o il milleunesimo viaggio di Ion il Tranquillo

    E-print Network

    Caliari, Marco

    ;2 Arrivai a casa piuttosto tardi -- l'incontro al club "Nebulosa di An- dromeda" si era trascinato ben oltre nebulosa ACD-1.587. Il giorno dopo ritirai dal carrozziere il mio vecchio razzo fotonico e ci installai l

  7. IL-8 dictates glycosaminoglycan binding and stability of IL-18 in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Emer P; Williamson, Michael; Byrne, Barry; Bergin, David A; Smith, Stephen G J; Greally, Peter; O'Kennedy, Richard; O'Neill, Shane J; McElvaney, Noel G

    2010-02-01

    Dysregulation of airway inflammation contributes to lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). Inflammation is mediated by inflammatory cytokines, including IL-8, which illustrates an increase in biological half-life and proinflammatory activity when bound to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The aim of this project was to compare IL-8 and IL-18 for their relative stability, activity, and interaction with GAGs, including chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and heparan sulfate, present in high quantities in the lungs of patients with CF. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected from patients with CF (n = 28), non-CF controls (n = 14), and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 12). Increased levels of IL-8 and reduced concentrations of IL-18 were detected in bronchial samples obtained from CF individuals. The low level of IL-18 was not a defect in IL-18 production, as the pro- and mature forms of the molecule were expressed and produced by CF epithelial cells and monocytes. There was, however, a marked competition between IL-8 and IL-18 for binding to GAGs. A pronounced loss of IL-18 binding capacity occurred in the presence of IL-8, which displaced IL-18 from these anionic-matrices, rendering the cytokine susceptible to proteolytic degradation by neutrophil elastase. As a biological consequence of IL-18 degradation, reduced levels of IL-2 were secreted by Jurkat T lymphocytes. In conclusion, a novel mechanism has been identified highlighting the potential of IL-8 to determine the fate of other inflammatory molecules, such as IL-18, within the inflammatory milieu of the CF lung. PMID:20026745

  8. Image guided thermal ablation of tumors increases the plasma level of IL-6 and IL-10

    PubMed Central

    Erinjeri, Joseph P; Thomas, Contessa T; Samoila, Alaiksandra; Fleisher, Martin; Gonen, Mithat; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Thornton, Raymond H; Siegelbaum, Robert H.; Covey, Anne M.; Brody, Lynn A.; Alago, William; Maybody, Majid; Brown, Karen T.; Getrajdman, George; Solomon, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To identify changes in plasma cytokine levels following image-guided thermal ablation of human tumors and to identify the factors that independently predict changes in plasma cytokine levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS Whole blood samples were collected from 36 patients at 3 time points: pre-ablation, post-ablation (within 48 hours), and in follow-up (1–5 weeks after ablation). Plasma levels of IL-1a, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and TNFa were measured using a multiplex immunoassay. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using cytokine level as the dependent variable and sample collection, time, age, sex, primary diagnosis, metastatic status, ablation site, and ablation type as the independent variables. RESULTS There was a significant increase in the plasma level of IL-6 post-ablation when compared to pre-ablation (9.6+/?31 fold, p<0.002). IL-10 also showed a significant increase postablation (1.9 +/?2.8 fold, p<0.02). Plasma levels of IL-1a, IL-2, and TNFa were not significantly changed after ablation. Cryoablation resulted in the largest change in IL-6 level (>54 fold), while radiofrequency and microwave ablation showed 3.6 and 3.4-fold changes, respectively. Ablation of melanomas showed the largest change in IL-6 48 hours after ablation (92×), followed by ablation of kidney (26×), liver (8×), and lung (6×) cancers. Multivariate analysis revealed that ablation type (p<0.0003), and primary diagnosis (p<0.03) were independent predictors of changes to IL-6 following ablation. Age was the only independent predictor of IL-10 levels following ablation (p<0.019). CONCLUSION Image guided thermal ablation of tumors increases the plasma level of IL-6 and IL-10, without increasing the plasma level of IL-1a, IL-2, or TNFa. PMID:23582441

  9. IL-4 abrogates TH17 cell-mediated inflammation by selective silencing of IL-23 in antigen-presenting cells

    PubMed Central

    Guenova, Emmanuella; Skabytska, Yuliya; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Weindl, Günther; Sauer, Karin; Tham, Manuela; Kim, Kyu-Won; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Seo, Ji Hae; Ignatova, Desislava; Cozzio, Antonio; Levesque, Mitchell P.; Volz, Thomas; Köberle, Martin; Kaesler, Susanne; Thomas, Peter; Mailhammer, Reinhard; Ghoreschi, Kamran; Schäkel, Knut; Amarov, Boyko; Eichner, Martin; Schaller, Martin; Clark, Rachael A.; Röcken, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) can suppress delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions (DTHRs), including organ-specific autoimmune diseases in mice and humans. Despite the broadly documented antiinflammatory effect of IL-4, the underlying mode of action remains incompletely understood, as IL-4 also promotes IL-12 production by dendritic cells (DCs) and IFN-?–producing TH1 cells in vivo. Studying the impact of IL-4 on the polarization of human and mouse DCs, we found that IL-4 exerts opposing effects on the production of either IL-12 or IL-23. While promoting IL-12–producing capacity of DCs, IL-4 completely abrogates IL-23. Bone marrow chimeras proved that IL-4–mediated suppression of DTHRs relies on the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6)-dependent abrogation of IL-23 in antigen-presenting cells. Moreover, IL-4 therapy attenuated DTHRs by STAT6- and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3)-dependent suppression of the IL-23/TH17 responses despite simultaneous enhancement of IL-12/TH1 responses. As IL-4 therapy also improves psoriasis in humans and suppresses IL-23/TH17 responses without blocking IL-12/TH1, selective IL-4–mediated IL-23/TH17 silencing is promising as treatment against harmful inflammation, while sparing the IL-12–dependent TH1 responses. PMID:25646481

  10. Role of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-? in pathogenesis of central nervous system neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematous

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ji-Bo; Li, Hua; Wang, Li-Li; Liang, Hong-Da; Zhao, Lei; Dong, Jing

    2015-01-01

    We discussed the role of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-? in the pathogenesis of central nervous system neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematous (CNS-NPSLE). Serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected from CNS-NPSLE patients, non-CNS SLE patients, patients with intracranial infection and normal subjects. Levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-? in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were detected by ELISA, and the results were compared across the groups. All subjects received cerebral MRI. The risk threshold for each cytokine in CNS-NPSLE group was set as 2.5%. The positive rates of cytokines for different lesions in cerebral MRI findings in CNS-NPSLE group were compared. The correlations between cytokine levels and cerebral MRI findings were analyzed. All groups did not show significant differences in age and gender (F=1.34, P>0.05; x 2=2.05, P>0.05); The IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-? levels of serum and cerebrospinal fluid in CNS-NPSLE group were obviously higher than those of the normal control (serum Z14=6.22, 6.04, 6.22, 5.70; cerebrospinal fluid Z14=6.38, 7.10, 6.97, 6.34, P<0.0083); IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-8 levels of cerebrospinal fluid of CNS-NPSLE group were higher than those of the non-CNS SLE group (Z12=2.73, Z12=3.18, Z12=3.86; P<0.0083); IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-? levels of cerebrospinal fluid of CNS-NPSLE group were higher than those of the serum (Z=3.19, 6.30, 5.44, 3.19, P<0.05); IL-6>20.0679 pg/ml and IL-8>87.1811 pg/ml in the cerebrospinal fluid predicted a higher risk of CNS-NPSLE (x 2=11.98, P<0.05; x 2=4.65, P<0.05); The positive rates of IL-1? and IL-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid of CNS-NPSLE patients with demyelinating diseases were considerably higher than those of CNS-NPSLE patients with normal MRI findings (x 2=10.89, P<0.005; x 2=18.47, P<0.005). The positive rates of IL-6 and IFN-? in the cerebrospinal fluid of CNS-NPSLE patients presenting with multiple ischemic foci were significantly higher than those with normal MRI findings (x 2=5.56, P<0.005; x 2=14.59, P<0.005). Some cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of CNS-NPSLE and correlated with cerebral MRI findings in CNS-NPSLE. PMID:26629199

  11. Address Lot Description 981 MADISON DR A PARKING LOT

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Elizabeth A.

    ST C2 PARKING LOT 761 DUKE DRIVE C3 PARKING LOT 441 MARTIN LUTHER KING JR WAY C4 PARKING LOT 650 DUKE DR CISAT HP/SERVICE REP. 275 MARTIN LUTHER KING JR WAY CANTRELL AVENUE PARKING DECK 851 UNIVERSITY M PARKING LOT 1000 NEWMAN DR N PARKING LOT 714 S MASON ST N2 PARKING LOT 231 MARTIN LUTHER KING JR

  12. Urban Parks: The Value of Small Urban Parks, Plazas and Other Outdoor Spaces 

    E-print Network

    Shafer, Carl Scott; Jacob, John

    2006-11-27

    People need parks. Great urban parks are places where communities come together, people interact, and social capital develops. Learn the characteristics of great urban parks and how they are created....

  13. Exact and efficient calculation of Lagrange multipliers in constrained biological polymers: Proteins and nucleic acids as example cases

    E-print Network

    García-Risueño, Pablo; Alonso, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    In order to accelerate molecular dynamics simulations, it is very common to impose holonomic constraints on their hardest degrees of freedom. In this way, the time step used to integrate the equations of motion can be increased, thus allowing, in principle, to reach longer total simulation times. The imposition of such constraints results in an aditional set of Nc equations (the equations of constraint) and unknowns (their associated Lagrange multipliers), that must be solved in one way or another at each time step of the dynamics. In this work it is shown that, due to the essentially linear structure of typical biological polymers, such as nucleic acids or proteins, the algebraic equations that need to be solved involve a matrix which is banded if the constraints are indexed in a clever way. This allows to obtain the Lagrange multipliers through a non-iterative procedure, which can be considered exact up to machine precision, and which takes O(Nc) operations, instead of the usual O(Nc3) for generic molecular...

  14. The Unique Functions of the Type-II IL-4 Receptor are revealed in IL-13R¿1-deficient mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The IL-4 receptor is a central mediator of Th2-mediated diseases and associates with either the common gamma chain (type-I IL-4R) or IL-13Ra1 (type-II IL-4R) to form two receptor complexes. Here, using IL-13Ra1-/- mice, we characterized the distinct functions of the type-II IL-4R. In contrast to IL-...

  15. Cigarette smoke affects IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-17 receptor expression in the lung tissue: Ex vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Montalbano, Angela Marina; Riccobono, Loredana; Siena, Liboria; Chiappara, Giuseppina; Di Sano, Caterina; Anzalone, Giulia; Gagliardo, Rosalia; Ricciardolo, Fabio L M; Sorbello, Valentina; Pipitone, Loredana; Vitulo, Patrizio; Profita, Mirella

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoke is a risk factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Th-17 cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of COPD. We aimed to evaluate the role of cigarette smoke on the expression of IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-17R in airways of COPD patients. Epithelial and subepithelial immunoreactivity for IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-17R was assessed in surgical specimens from COPD patients (n=15) and from healthy subjects (HC) (n=10) by immunohistochemistry. In vitro, human epithelial cell line 16HBE and A549 as well as PBMC from normal donors were stimulated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%) to evaluate the IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-17R expression by flow cytometry. Furthermore, rhIL-17A and CSE stimulation was evaluated on proliferation and apoptosis in 16HBE and in A549. In central and distal airways immunoreactivity for IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-17R significantly increased in the epithelium and IL-17A in the subepithelium from COPD than in HC. In distal airway, immunoreactivity for IL-17F increased in the subepithelium of COPD than in HC. IL-17A immunoreactivity positively correlate with IL-17R and total pack years in the epithelium from central and distal airways of COPD patients. In vitro, CSE stimulation significantly increased IL-17F and IL-17R in 16HBE (2.5%) and A549 (5%) while IL-17A and IL-17F in PBMC (10%). IL-17A and CSE stimulation, rather than CSE or rhIL-17A alone, significantly increased proliferation in 16HBE and apoptosis in A549. Cigarette smoke increases Th17 immunity in lung tissue of COPD patients, promoting the mechanism of proliferation and apoptosis in airway epithelial cells. PMID:26198032

  16. IL-1 Blockade in Autoinflammatory Syndromes1

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Adriana A.; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2014-01-01

    Monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes present with excessive systemic inflammation including fever, rashes, arthritis, and organ-specific inflammation and are caused by defects in single genes encoding proteins that regulate innate inflammatory pathways. Pathogenic variants in two interleukin-1 (IL-1)–regulating genes, NLRP3 and IL1RN, cause two severe and early-onset autoinflammatory syndromes, CAPS (cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes) and DIRA (deficiency of IL-1 receptor antagonist). The discovery of the mutations that cause CAPS and DIRA led to clinical and basic research that uncovered the key role of IL-1 in an extended spectrum of immune dysregulatory conditions. NLRP3 encodes cryopyrin, an intracellular “molecular sensor” that forms a multimolecular platform, the NLRP3 inflammasome, which links “danger recognition” to the activation of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1?. The success and safety profile of drugs targeting IL-1 in the treatment of CAPS and DIRA have encouraged their wider use in other autoinflammatory syndromes including the classic hereditary periodic fever syndromes (familial Mediterranean fever, TNF receptor–associated periodic syndrome, and hyperimmunoglobulinemia D with periodic fever syndrome) and additional immune dysregulatory conditions that are not genetically well defined, including Still’s, Behcet’s, and Schnitzler diseases. The fact that the accumulation of metabolic substrates such as monosodium urate, ceramide, cholesterol, and glucose can trigger the NLRP3 inflammasome connects metabolic stress to IL-1?-mediated inflammation and provides a rationale for therapeutically targeting IL-1 in prevalent diseases such as gout, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease. PMID:24422572

  17. IL-33 and IL-4 impair barrier functions of human vascular endothelium via different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chalubinski, Maciej; Wojdan, Katarzyna; Luczak, Emilia; Gorzelak, Paulina; Borowiec, Maciej; Gajewski, Adrian; Rudnicka, Karolina; Chmiela, Magdalena; Broncel, Marlena

    2015-10-01

    The vascular endothelium forms a barrier that controls flow of solutes and proteins and the entry of leukocytes into tissue. Injured tissue releases IL-33, which then alarms the immune system and attracts Th2 cells, thus increasing local concentration of IL-4. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of IL-33 and IL-4 on barrier functions of the human endothelium, expression of tight and adherent junction proteins, apoptosis and adhesive molecule surface expression in human endothelium in order to describe the mechanism of this effect. IL-33 and IL-4 decreased endothelial integrity and increased permeability. When added together, both cytokines lowered the endothelial integrity twice as much as used alone. This effect was accompanied by the down-regulation of occludin and VE-cadherin mRNA expression. Additionally, IL-4, but not IL-33, induced cell apoptosis. Both IL-33 and IL-4 showed the additive potency to down-regulate VE-cadherin mRNA expression. IL-33, unlike IL-4, increased the surface expression of ICAM-1, but not PECAM-1 in endothelial cells. Our results indicate that IL-33 may reversibly destabilize the endothelial barrier, thus accelerating the supply with immunomodulators and assisting leukocytes to reach wounded tissue. However, extended and less-controlled down-regulation of endothelial barrier, which may be a consequence of IL-33-initiated, but in fact IL-4-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells, may be deleterious and may eventually lead to the aggravation of inflammatory processes and the prolongation of tissue dysfunction. PMID:26231284

  18. Detection of serum TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-6 and IL-8 in patients with hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing-Yan; Wang, Xue-Lian; Liu, Pei

    1999-01-01

    AIM To assess the possible roles of cytokines (TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-6 and IL-8) in liver damage of hepatitis B. METHODS The serum TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-6 and IL-8 were detected by ELISA in 66 patients with hepatitis B and 20 healthy blood donors. RESULTS TNF-? and IL-6 in all types of clinical hepatitis B were significantly higher than those in healthy blood donors (P < 0.05 ); meanwhile the levels of TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-6 and IL-8 in the patients with fulminant hepatitis B were much higher than those in the patients with acute hepatitis B(P < 0.05); the level of TNF-? was positively correlated with the levels of IFN-?, Il-6 and IL-8 in all types of hepatitis B (rIFN = 0.24, rIL-6 = 0.35, rIL-8 = 0.44) and the TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-6 and IL-8 were positively correlated with serum bilirubin (P < 0.05). Dynamic changes of these cytokines were observed in the course of acute and fulminant hepatitis. The level of IFN-? peaked in the initial period of acute hepatitis and early stage of hepatic coma in fulminant hepatitis; TNF?, IL-6 and IL-8 increased with exacer-bation, and reached a peak when the liver da-mage was most serious, then decreased when patient conditions were improved. CONCLUSION The increased cytokines were re-lated to the inflamm ation of liver cells and multi-ple factors may play certain roles in liver dam-age. PMID:11819382

  19. T cells redirected to IL13R?2 with IL13 mutein-CARs have antiglioma activity but also recognize IL13R?1

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Simone; Chow, Kevin KH; Yi, Zongzhen; Rodriguez-Cruz, Tania; Hegde, Meenakshi; Gerken, Claudia; Ahmed, Nabil; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Outcomes for patients with glioblastoma remain poor despite aggressive multimodal therapy. Immunotherapy with genetically modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting IL13R[.alpha]2, HER2, EGFRvIII, or EphA2 has shown promise for the treatment of glioma in preclinical models. Based on IL13R?2-targeted immunotoxins that contain IL13 molecules with one or two amino acid substitutions (IL13 muteins) to confer specificity to IL13R?2, investigators have constructed CARs with IL13 muteins as antigen binding domains. While the specificity of IL13 muteins in the context of immunotoxins is well characterized, limited information is available for CAR T cells. We constructed four 2nd generation CARs with IL13 muteins with one or two amino acid substitutions. T cells expressing all four CARs recognized IL13R?1 or IL13R?2 recombinant protein in contrast to control protein (IL4R) as judged by IFN? production. IL13R?2 protein induced significantly more IL2, indicating that IL13 mutein-CAR T cells have a higher affinity to IL13R?2 than IL13R?1. In cytotoxcity assays, CAR T cells killed IL13R?1- and/or IL13R?2-positive cells in contrast to IL13R?1- and IL13R?2-negative controls. While we observed no significant differences between IL13 mutein CAR T cells in vitro, only T cells expressing IL13 mutein CARs with an E13K amino acid substitution had antitumor activity in vivo that resulted in a survival advantage of treated animals. Our study highlights that the specificity/avidity of ligands is context-dependent and that evaluating CAR T cells in preclinical animal model is critical to assess their potential benefit. PMID:24841514

  20. IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 Are Associated with Hyperferritinemia in Rapidly Progressive Interstitial Lung Disease with Polymyositis/Dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Kaneko, Hirotaka; Katsumata, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Sayuri; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Hyperferritinemia is frequently accompanied by rapidly progressive (RP) interstitial lung disease (ILD) with polymyositis (PM)/dermatomyositis (DM). To clarify the mechanism of RP-ILD with hyperferritinemia, we investigated the associations between serum ferritin levels and various cytokines in patients with PM/DM. Methods. This retrospective study included 38 patients admitted to our hospital with PM/DM. Levels of serum ferritin and cytokines (IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, IL-18, TNF-?, IFN-?, IFN-?, and IP-10) were measured. Disease activity was evaluated using the tool proposed by the International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies Group. We analyzed the associations between disease activity and levels of serum ferritin and cytokines. Results. The levels of serum ferritin, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, and TNF-?, were significantly correlated with disease activity. In a multivariate analysis, IL-6 (t = 3.6, P = 0.0010), IL-8 (t = 4.8, P < 0.0001), and IL-10 (t = 5.7, P < 0.0001) significantly contributed to serum ferritin levels. The levels of serum ferritin, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10, were higher in the RP-ILD subset than in the non-ILD subset or the chronic ILD subset. Conclusion. IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 are significant contributors to hyperferritinemia in PM/DM. The regulation of these cytokines might offer a possible treatment strategy for RP-ILD with PM/DM. PMID:24800252

  1. Stimulation of B lymphocytes by cmvIL-10 but not LAcmvIL-10

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Juliet V. Cadaoas, Jaclyn; Castillo, Patricia R.; Saini, Vandana; Slobedman, Barry

    2008-04-25

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread pathogen that establishes lifelong latent infection facilitated by numerous mechanisms for modulating the host immune system. The UL111A region of the HCMV genome encodes a homolog of human cellular IL-10 (hIL-10). The viral cytokine, cmvIL-10, exhibits many of the immunosuppressive properties of hIL-10. However, hIL-10 is also known to have stimulatory effects on B lymphocytes. We found that cmvIL-10 has the ability to enhance B cell proliferation, despite having only 27% sequence identity to hIL-10. Treatment with cmvIL-10 stimulated autocrine production of hIL-10 by B lymphocytes and led to activation of the latent transcription factor Stat3. In contrast, LAcmvIL-10, a truncated protein resulting from an alternatively spliced transcript in latently infected cells, did not stimulate B cell proliferation, Stat3 activation, or hIL-10 production. These results provide insights into the biological activity of the full-length and latency-associated viral cytokines and suggest different roles for each in HCMV infection.

  2. Identification of residues involved in binding of IL5 to betacom using betaIL3 and betacom chimeras.

    PubMed

    Czabotar, P E; Holland, J; Sanderson, C J

    1999-10-22

    In mice there are two forms of the beta chain used in the IL3 receptor system, betacom and betaIL3. betacom is used by the IL3, IL5 and GM-CSF receptors whereas betaIL3 is only used in the IL3 receptor. In this work an assay was developed to identify residues of beta1L3 that restrict IL5 activity. It was found that such residues reside within the 2nd CRM of the molecule. Furthermore, when residues in the betaIL3 B'-C' loop were replaced with betacom sequence a form of betaIL3 was produced that was able to respond to IL5. This region is also responsible for IL3 binding to betaIL3 in the absence of alpha chain. It is therefore an important structural motif of betacom and betaIL3 responsible for both ligand interaction and specificity. PMID:10571068

  3. Bibliography of Doctor Chul Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gochberg, Lawrence A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Park, Chul

    1995-01-01

    This document contains a comprehensive bibliography of the published works, and a short biography, of Dr. Chul Park. The contents of this bibliography were compiled primarily from the NASA RECON data base. The RECON citations have been modified to appear in a uniform format with all other listed citations . These other citations were located by computer searches in the INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, and Chemical Abstracts data bases, as well as through the cooperation of Dr. Chul Park, and his associates in the Reacting Flow Environments Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. All citations are presented in an approximate reverse chronological order from the present date. This work was created to honor the occasion of Dr. Chul Park's retirement on December 14, 1994, after 27 years of distinguished government service at the NASA Ames Research Center.

  4. Bibliography of Doctor Chul Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochberg, Lawrence A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Park, Chul

    1995-05-01

    This document contains a comprehensive bibliography of the published works, and a short biography, of Dr. Chul Park. The contents of this bibliography were compiled primarily from the NASA RECON data base. The RECON citations have been modified to appear in a uniform format with all other listed citations . These other citations were located by computer searches in the INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, and Chemical Abstracts data bases, as well as through the cooperation of Dr. Chul Park, and his associates in the Reacting Flow Environments Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. All citations are presented in an approximate reverse chronological order from the present date. This work was created to honor the occasion of Dr. Chul Park's retirement on December 14, 1994, after 27 years of distinguished government service at the NASA Ames Research Center.

  5. IL-25 or IL-17E Protects against High-Fat Diet-Induced Hepatic Steatosis in Mice Dependent upon IL-13 Activation of STAT6.

    PubMed

    Wang, An-Jiang; Yang, Zhonghan; Grinchuk, Viktoriya; Smith, Allen; Qin, Bolin; Lu, Nonghua; Wang, Duan; Wang, Hongbing; Ramalingam, Thirumalai R; Wynn, Thomas A; Urban, Joseph F; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Zhao, Aiping

    2015-11-15

    IL-25 or IL-17E is a member of IL-17 cytokine family and has immune-modulating activities. The role of IL-25 in maintaining lipid metabolic homeostasis remains unknown. We investigated the effects of exogenous IL-25 or deficiency of IL-25 on hepatic lipid accumulation. IL-25 expression was examined in paraffin-embedded tissue sections of liver from patients or in the livers from mice. Mouse model of steatosis was induced by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD). Extent of steatosis as well as expression of cytokines, key enzymes for lipid metabolic pathways, markers for Kupffer cells/macrophages, and lipid droplet (LD) proteins, were analyzed. Our results show that hepatic steatosis in mice was accompanied by increased LD proteins, but decreased IL-25 in the liver. Decreased hepatic IL-25 was also observed in patients with fatty liver. Administration of IL-25 to HFD-fed wild-type mice led to a significant improvement in hepatic steatosis. This effect was associated with increased expression of IL-13, development of alternatively activated Kupffer cells/macrophages, and decreased expression of LD proteins in the liver. In contrast, administration of IL-25 to HFD-fed mice deficient in STAT6 or IL-13 had no effects. In addition, stimulation of primary hepatocytes with IL-13, but not IL-25, resulted in downregulation of LD proteins. Finally, mice deficient in IL-25 had exacerbated hepatic lipid accumulation when fed the HFD. These data demonstrate that dysregulated IL-25 expression contributes to lipid accumulation, whereas exogenous IL-25 protects against hepatic steatosis through IL-13 activation of STAT6. IL-25 and IL-13 are potential therapeutic agents for hepatic steatosis and associated pathologies. PMID:26423151

  6. Lichens of the U. S. national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Over 26,100 records of lichens present in 144 U.S. national park units were assembled from various sources into a database and analyzed. Within these 144 park units 2,435 species and 375 genera are reported, representing 63% and 74% of the North American flora, respectively. The park units are located in 41 states and Washington, D.C. The average number of species in a park is 104, but the median is 60, indicating there are many parks with a small number of species and a few with high numbers. Isle Royale National Park has the most species, 611, and twelve parks have only one species reported. The number of records of lichens present ranged from one for 25 parks, to 1,623 for Isle Royale. Physcia aipolia is the most frequently observed species, being found in 65 parks. One fourth of the park units are classified cultural resource parks, while the remainder are considered natural resource parks. This study was based on 453 sources, including literature citations, park reports and collections in the University of Minnesota Herbarium. Copyright ?? 2005 by the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.

  7. Extracorporeal photopheresis promotes IL-1? production.

    PubMed

    Yakut, Erhan; Jakobs, Christopher; Peric, Adriana; Michel, Gabriela; Baal, Nelli; Bein, Gregor; Brüne, Bernhard; Hornung, Veit; Hackstein, Holger

    2015-03-15

    Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is a widely used clinical cell-based therapy exhibiting efficacy in heterogenous immune-mediated diseases such as cutaneous T cell lymphoma, graft-versus-host disease, and organ allograft rejection. Despite its documented efficacy in cancer immunotherapy, little is known regarding the induction of immunostimulatory mediators by ECP. In this article, we show that ECP promotes marked release of the prototypic immunostimulatory cytokine IL-1?. ECP primes IL-1? production and activates IL-1? maturation and release in the context of caspase-1 activation in monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells. Of interest, IL-1? maturation by ECP was fully intact in murine cells deficient in caspase-1, suggesting the predominance of an inflammasome-independent pathway for ECP-dependent IL-1? maturation. Clinically, patient analysis revealed significantly increased IL-1? production in stimulated leukapheresis concentrates and peripheral blood samples after ECP. Collectively, these results provide evidence for promotion of IL-1? production by ECP and offer new insight into the immunostimulatory capacity of ECP. PMID:25681340

  8. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  9. rIL-10 enhances IL-10 signalling proteins in foetal alveolar type II cells exposed to hyperoxia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeon-Soo; Lee, Dong Gun

    2015-01-01

    Although the mechanisms by which hyperoxia promotes bronchopulmonary dysplasia are not fully defined, the inability to maintain optimal interleukin (IL)-10 levels in response to injury secondary to hyperoxia seems to play an important role. We previously defined that hyperoxia decreased IL-10 production and pre-treatment with recombinant IL-10 (rIL-10) protected these cells from injury. The objectives of these studies were to investigate the responses of IL-10 receptors (IL-10Rs) and IL-10 signalling proteins (IL-10SPs) in hyperoxic foetal alveolar type II cells (FATIICs) with and without rIL-10. FATIICs were isolated on embryonic day 19 and exposed to 65%-oxygen for 24 hrs. Cells in room air were used as controls. IL-10Rs protein and mRNA were analysed by ELISA and qRT-PCR, respectively. IL-10SPs were assessed by Western blot using phospho-specific antibodies. IL-10Rs protein and mRNA increased significantly in FATIICs during hyperoxia, but JAK1 and TYK2 phosphorylation showed the opposite pattern. To evaluate the impact of IL-8 (shown previously to be increased) and the role of IL-10Rs, IL-10SPs were reanalysed in IL-8-added normoxic cells and in the IL-10Rs’ siRNA-treated hyperoxic cells. The IL-10Rs’ siRNA-treated hyperoxic cells and IL-8-added normoxic cells showed the same pattern in IL10SPs with the hyproxic cells. And pre-treatment with rIL-10 prior to hyperoxia exposure increased phosphorylated IL-10SPs, compared to the rIL-10-untreated hyperoxic cells. These studies suggest that JAK1 and TYK2 were significantly suppressed during hyperoxia, where IL-8 may play a role, and rIL-10 may have an effect on reverting the suppressed JAK1 and TYK2 in FATIICs exposed to hyperoxia. PMID:26059905

  10. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in IL-10, IL-12p40, and IL-13 Genes and Susceptibility to Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Shamran, Haidar A.; Ghazi, Haidar F.; AL-Salman, Ahmed; Al-Juboory, Ahmad A.; Taub, Dennis D.; Price, Robert L.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.; Singh, Udai P.

    2015-01-01

    Glioma is one of the most aggressive and most common tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) in humans. The exact causes of glioma are not well known, but evidence suggests the involvement of genetic factors in addition to environmental risk factors. The present study aimed to determine whether polymorphisms in IL-10-1082A/G, IL-12p40 1188C/A, and IL-13+2044G/A (rs20541) are associated with the incidence of glioma in Iraqi patients. Ninety-six patients with different grades of glioma and 40 apparently healthy individuals were recruited. A blood sample and genomic DNA were collected from all subjects. The amplification refractory mutation system and sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for genotyping of IL-10-1082A/G and IL-12p40 1188C/A, respectively; whereas, the IL-13+2044G/A was detected by DNA sequencing after amplification of the genes by PCR. All SNPs were within Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and each appeared in three genotypes in patients and controls. In IL-10-1082A/G, these genotypes frequencies were AA (75%), AG (22.93%) and GG (2.07%) in patients as compared to similar frequencies (62.5%), (27.5%) and (10%) respectively, in controls. The variant IL-12p40 1188C/A genotype was AA (72.92%), AC (23.96%), and CC (3.13%%) in patients as compared to 65%, 30%, and 5%, respectively, in controls. The frequencies of IL-13+2044G/A genotypes (GG, GA, and AA) were 89.58%, 9.37%, and 1.04% among patients versus 47.5%, 32.5% and 20%, respectively, among controls. These results suggest a protective role of mutant alleles G and A in IL-10-1082A/G and IL-13+2044G/A against gliomas. Further studies with more rigorous parameter designs will be needed to confirm the current findings. PMID:26516307

  11. 36 CFR 1280.12 - Is parking available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... There is no parking available for researchers or visitors to the National Archives...facilities have onsite parking available for researchers. Parking at these facilities and...Presidential Libraries have onsite parking for researchers and museum visitors. Some of the...

  12. 36 CFR 1280.12 - Is parking available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... There is no parking available for researchers or visitors to the National Archives...facilities have onsite parking available for researchers. Parking at these facilities and...Presidential Libraries have onsite parking for researchers and museum visitors. Some of the...

  13. IL-4/IL-13 independent goblet cell hyperplasia in experimental helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Marillier, Reece G; Michels, Chesney; Smith, Elizabeth M; Fick, Lizette CE; Leeto, Mosiuoa; Dewals, Benjamin; Horsnell, William GC; Brombacher, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Background Intestinal mucus production by hyperplasic goblet cells is a striking pathological feature of many parasitic helminth infections and is related to intestinal protection and worm expulsion. Induction of goblet cell hyperplasia is associated with TH2 immune responses, which in helminth infections are controlled primarily by IL-13, and also IL-4. In the study presented here we examine the goblet cell hyperplasic response to three experimental parasitic helminth infections; namely Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia obvelata and Schistosoma mansoni. Results As expected N. brasiliensis infection induced a strong goblet cell hyperplasia dependent on IL-4/IL-13/IL-4R? expression. In contrast, and despite previously published transiently elevated IL-4/IL-13 levels, S. obvelata infections did not increase goblet cell hyperplasia in the colon. Furthermore, induction of goblet cell hyperplasia in response to S. mansoni eggs traversing the intestine was equivalent between BALB/c, IL-4/IL-13-/- and IL-4R?-/- mice. Conclusion Together these data demonstrate that intestinal goblet cell hyperplasia can be independent of TH2 immune responses associated with parasitic helminth infections. PMID:18373844

  14. B cells produce less IL-10, IL-6 and TNF-? in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Vuslat; Oflazer, Piraye; Aysal, Fikret; Parman, Ye?im G; Direskeneli, Haner; Deymeer, Feza; Saruhan-Direskeneli, Güher

    2015-06-01

    B cells from myasthenia gravis (MG) patients with autoantibodies (Aab) against acetylcholine receptor (AChR), muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) or with no detectable Aab were investigated as cytokine producing cells in this study. B cells were evaluated for memory phenotypes and expressions of IL-10, IL-6 and IL-12A. Induced productions of IL-10, IL-6, IL-12p40, TNF-? and LT from isolated B cells in vitro were measured by immunoassays. MG patients receiving immunosuppressive treatment had higher proportions of memory B cells compared with healthy controls and untreated patients. With CD40 stimulation MG patients produced significantly lower levels of IL-10, IL-6. With CD40 and B cell receptor stimulation of B cells, TNF-? production also decreased in addition to these cytokines. The lower levels of these cytokine productions were not related to treatment. Our results confirm a disturbance of B cell subpopulations in MG subgroups on immunosuppressive treatment. B cell derived IL-10, IL-6 and TNF-? are down-regulated in MG, irrespective of different antibody productions. Ineffective cytokine production by B cells may be a susceptibility factor in dysregulation of autoimmune Aab production. PMID:25518708

  15. Photodynamic therapy affects the expression of IL-6 and IL-10 in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollnick, Sandra O.; Musser, David A.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    1998-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which can effectively destroy malignant tissue, also induces a complex immune response which potentiates anti-tumor immunity, but also inhibits skin contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and prolongs skin graft survival. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood, but are likely to involve meditation by cytokines. We demonstrate in a BALB/c mouse model that PDT delivered to normal and tumor tissue in vivo causes marked changes in the expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10. IL-6 mRNA and protein are rapidly and strongly enhanced in the PDT treated EMT6 tumor. Previous studies have shown that intratumoral injection of IL- 6 or transduction of the IL-6 gene into tumor cells can enhance tumor immunogenicity and inhibit tumor growth in experimental murine tumor systems. Thus, PDT may enhance local anti-tumor immunity by up-regulating IL-6. PDT also results in an increase in IL-10 mRNA and protein in the skin. The same PDT regime which enhances IL-10 production in the skin has been shown to strongly inhibit the CHS response. The kinetics of IL-10 expression coincide with the known kinetics of PDT induced CHS suppression and we propose that the enhanced IL-10 expression plays a role in the observed suppression of cell mediated responses seen following PDT.

  16. IL-18 induces airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary inflammation via CD4+ T cell and IL-13.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Masanori; Kawayama, Tomotaka; Imaoka, Haruki; Sakazaki, Yuki; Oda, Hanako; Takenaka, Shin-ichi; Kaku, Yoichiro; Azuma, Koichi; Tajiri, Morihiro; Edakuni, Nobutaka; Okamoto, Masaki; Kato, Seiya; Hoshino, Tomoaki

    2013-01-01

    IL-18 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammatory diseases including pulmonary infection, pulmonary fibrosis, lung injury and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it is unknown whether IL-18 plays any role in the pathogenesis of asthma. We hypothesized that overexpression of mature IL-18 protein in the lungs may exacerbate disease activities of asthma. We established lung-specific IL-18 transgenic mice on a Balb/c genetic background. Female mice sensitized- and challenged- with antigen (ovalbumin) were used as a mouse asthma model. Pulmonary inflammation and emphysema were not observed in the lungs of naïve transgenic mice. However, airway hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammatory cells accompanied with CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, and macrophages were significantly increased in ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged transgenic mice, as compared to wild type Balb/c mice. We also demonstrate that IL-18 induces IFN-?, IL-13, and eotaxin in the lungs of ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged transgenic mice along with an increase in IL-13 producing CD4(+) T cells. Treatment with anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody or deletion of the IL-13 gene improves ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and reduces airway inflammatory cells in transgenic mice. Overexpressing the IL-18 protein in the lungs induces type 1 and type 2 cytokines and airway inflammation, and results in increasing airway hyperresponsiveness via CD4(+) T cells and IL-13 in asthma. PMID:23382928

  17. IL–1? and IL–18: inflammatory markers or mediators of hypertension?

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, S M; Sobey, C G; Latz, E; Mansell, A; Drummond, G R

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation in the kidneys and vascular wall is a major contributor to hypertension. However, the stimuli and cellular mechanisms responsible for such inflammatory responses remain poorly defined. Inflammasomes are crucial initiators of sterile inflammation in other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and gout. These pattern recognition receptors detect host-derived danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), such as microcrystals and reactive oxygen species, and respond by inducing activation of caspase-1. Caspase-1 then processes the cytokines pro-IL-1? and pro-IL-18 into their active forms thus triggering inflammation. While IL-1? and IL-18 are known to be elevated in hypertensive patients, no studies have examined whether this occurs downstream of inflammasome activation or whether inhibition of inflammasome and/or IL-1?/IL-18 signalling prevents hypertension. In this review, we will discuss some known actions of IL-1? and IL-18 on leukocyte and vessel wall function that could potentially underlie a prohypertensive role for these cytokines. We will describe the major classes of inflammasome-activating DAMPs and present evidence that at least some of these are elevated in the setting of hypertension. Finally, we will provide information on drugs that are currently used to inhibit inflammasome/IL-1?/IL-18 signalling and how these might ultimately be used as therapeutic agents for the clinical management of hypertension. PMID:25117218

  18. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of existing on- and off-street parking space should be stressed on a nonreserved (first-come, first... by category of eligible parkers. Designation of parking spaces by name, grade, rank, or title...

  19. Parking & Transportation Department RESIDENT -PERSONAL INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Parking & Transportation Department RESIDENT - PERSONAL INFORMATION Date know if you are interested in: Public Transportation Car Pool Van Pool _____________________________________________________________________________________ Please be sure to contact the Parking & Transportation Department with any changes to your information, i

  20. Glacier National Park Bighorn Sheep Studies

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The USGS studies bighorn sheep movements, population structures, and habitat use in and near Glacier National Park. Here, USGS scientist Tabitha Graves sets up remote camera at a salt lick in the park as a sheep stands in background....

  1. UH Parking Access & Mid-Pacific Institute

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yuqing

    Henke Hall Parking Structure Andrews Outdoor Theatre Law School Moore Hall VISITO R PARKING Founders Information Technology Center Krauss Hall Holmes Hall Marine Sciences Building Johnson Hall-A Law Library

  2. Inflammasome activation and IL-1?/IL-18 processing are influenced by distinct pathways in microglia

    PubMed Central

    Hanamsagar, Richa; Torres, Victor; Kielian, Tammy

    2011-01-01

    Microglia are important innate immune effectors against invading CNS pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), a common etiological agent of brain abscesses typified by widespread inflammation and necrosis. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a protein complex involved in IL-1? and IL-18 processing following exposure to both pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns. Although previous studies from our laboratory have established that IL-1? is a major cytokine product of S. aureus-activated microglia and is pivotal for eliciting protective anti-bacterial immunity during brain abscess development, the molecular machinery responsible for cytokine release remains to be determined. Therefore, the functional role of the NLRP3 inflammasome and its adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) in eliciting IL-1? and IL-18 release was examined in primary microglia. Interestingly, we found that IL-1?, but not IL-18 production, was significantly attenuated in both NLRP3 and ASC knockout (KO) microglia following exposure to live S. aureus. NLRP3 inflammasome activation was partially dependent on autocrine/paracrine ATP release and ?- and ?-hemolysins produced by live bacteria. A cathepsin B inhibitor attenuated IL-? release from NLRP3 and ASC KO microglia, demonstrating the existence of alternative inflammasome-independent mechanisms for IL-1? processing. In contrast, microglial IL-18 secretion occurred independently of cathepsin B and inflammasome action. Collectively, these results demonstrate that microglial IL-1? processing is regulated by multiple pathways and diverges from mechanisms utilized for IL-18 cleavage. Understanding the molecular events that regulate IL-1? production is important for modulating this potent proinflammatory cytokine during CNS disease. PMID:21913925

  3. Bovine anterior pituitary progenitor cell line expresses interleukin (IL)-18 and IL-18 receptor.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Y; Ogasawara, H; Taketa, Y; Aso, H; Tanaka, S; Kanaya, T; Watanabe, K; Ohwada, S; Muneta, Y; Yamaguchi, T

    2008-11-01

    In the anterior pituitary gland, inflammatory mediators regulate cell function through an immuno-endocrine pathway. Recent studies have shown that undifferentiated stem cells act as immunomodulators. These studies prompted us to establish a progenitor cell line from the bovine anterior pituitary gland and to detail its function. First, we localised interleukin (IL)-18 by immunohistochemistry to the marginal cell layer of Rathke's pouch that is assumed to embody a stem/progenitor cell compartment of the postnatal pituitary gland. A cloned anterior pituitary-derived cell line from the bovine anterior pituitary gland was established from single cell clone by the limiting dilution method and was designated as bovine anterior pituitary-derived cell line (BAPC)-1. BAPC-1 cells constantly expressed mRNAs for IL-18 and IL-18 receptor, and grew steadily and rapidly in the medium containing epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. The cell line also expressed the mRNAs for the stem/progenitor cell- related factors such as Nanog, Oct-4, Ptch1, Nestin, Notch1, Hes1, Lrp and Fzd4, and the mRNAs for embryonic pituitary-related factors, such as Lhx3, PitX1 and Pit-1. The nuclei of BAPC-1 were immunostained positively for Pit-1, Hes1 and beta-catenin antibodies. Furthermore, BAPC-1 cells expressed mRNAs for cytokine such as IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12 and IL-15. Stimulation of BAPC-1 cells with IL-18 increased expression of mRNAs for IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-1beta and IL-8. At day 6 in culture, BAPC-1 cells also express growth hormone mRNA. These results strongly suggest that BAPC-1 is a stem/progenitor cell line and modulates the immuno-endocrine function of the anterior pituitary cells through its cytokine production. PMID:18761716

  4. Disordered system with n orbitals per site: Lagrange formulation without replica trick, and scaling law for the density of states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Klaus

    1982-12-01

    A Lagrange formulation of the gauge invariant n orbital model of disordered electronic systems is given for the one-particle Green's function. The replica trick is avoided by starting from a formulation on a Grassmann algebra. A vector model of a real, two component vector is derived. Fluctuations around the saddle point solution of the model are studied. A non-linear transformation allows the consideration of all the important fluctuations. In contrast to the 1/ n-expansion of Oppermann and Wegner it is possible to take the n=? band edges into account. In a vicinity of these band edges a scaling law for the density of states is found: ? (E) = n^{ - \\user2{? }} bar ? (n^{2\\user2{? }} (|E| - E_0 )) with an exponent ?=2/(6- d) for d<2 and large values of n.

  5. Science Enabled by the Ares V: A Large Monolithic Telescope Placed at the Second Sun-Earth Lagrange Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2007-01-01

    The payload mass and volume capabilities of the planned Ares V launch vehicle provide the science community with unprecedented opportunities to place large science payloads into low earth orbit and beyond. One example, the outcome of a recent study conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, is a large, monolithic telescope with a primary mirror diameter of 6.2 meters placed into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point, or L2, approximately 1.5 million kin beyond Earth's orbit. Operating in the visible and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, such a large telescope would allow astronomers to detect bio-signatures and characterize the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets, provide high resolution imaging three or more times better than the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope, and observe the ultraviolet light from warm baryonic matter.

  6. Exponential solutions of euler-lagrange equations for fields of complex linear frames on real space-time manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewski, Piotr

    2010-08-01

    We investigate a model of the field of complex linear frames on the product manifold M = ? × G, where G is a real semisimple Lie group. The model is invariant under the natural action of the group GL( n, ?) ( n = dim M). It results in a modified Born-Infeld-type nonlinearity of field equations. We find a family of solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equations. These solutions are bases for the Lie algebra of left-invariant vector fields on ? × G "deformed" by a GL( n, ?)-valued mapping of the exponential form. Each solution induces a pseudo-Riemannian metric on M = ? × G. The normal-hyperbolic signature (in the physical case where n = 4) of this metric is not something aprioric and absolute, introduced "by hand" into our model but it is an intrinsic feature of solutions we found.

  7. Analysis of complex elastic structures by a Rayleigh-Ritz component modes method using Lagrange multipliers. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, L. R.

    1974-01-01

    The free vibrations of elastic structures of arbitrary complexity were analyzed in terms of their component modes. The method was based upon the use of the normal unconstrained modes of the components in a Rayleigh-Ritz analysis. The continuity conditions were enforced by means of Lagrange Multipliers. Examples of the structures considered are: (1) beams with nonuniform properties; (2) airplane structures with high or low aspect ratio lifting surface components; (3) the oblique wing airplane; and (4) plate structures. The method was also applied to the analysis of modal damping of linear elastic structures. Convergence of the method versus the number of modes per component and/or the number of components is discussed and compared to more conventional approaches, ad-hoc methods, and experimental results.

  8. Welcome to Diamond Light Source Parking Visitors can park outside Diamond

    E-print Network

    Crowther, Paul

    Welcome to Diamond Light Source Parking ­ Visitors can park outside Diamond House, or if that is full, in the Visitor car park. Users should park around the ring. On Arrival ­ Diamond does not have 8500). Then take a seat 2 and wait for your Diamond contact to collect you. Users ­ Fast track users

  9. Modeling Support for National Park Planning: Initial Results from Glacier National Park

    E-print Network

    Ford, Andrew

    1 Modeling Support for National Park Planning: Initial Results from Glacier National Park Andrew. The main case study simulates operational issues at Glacier National Park. The model simulates vehicles is used to show the simulated impacts from the park's shuttle system. The Glacier study demonstrates

  10. University of Aberdeen Car Parking Policy -v2 0.docx University of Aberdeen Car Parking Policy

    E-print Network

    Neri, Peter

    University of Aberdeen Car Parking Policy - v2 0.docx University of Aberdeen Car Parking Policy 1.0 Why have a car parking policy? The University of Aberdeen is aware of the importance of corporate. The University has developed to such an extent that its current car park capacity is not sufficient to provide

  11. Computational methods of Gaussian Particle Swarm Optimization (GPSO) and Lagrange Multiplier on economic dispatch issues (case study on electrical system of Java-Bali IV area)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komsiyah, S.

    2014-03-01

    The objective in this paper is about economic dispatch problem of electric power generation where scheduling the committed generating units outputs so as to meet the required load demand at minimum operating cost, while satisfying all units and system equality and inequality constraint. In the operating of electric power system, an economic planning problem is one of variables that its must be considered since economically planning will give more efficiency in operational cost. In this paper the economic dispatch problem which has non linear cost function solved by using swarm intelligent method is Gaussian Particle Swarm Optimization (GPSO) and Lagrange Multiplier. GPSO is a population-based stochastic algorithms which their moving inspired by swarm intelligent and probabilities theories. To analize its accuracy, the economic dispatch solution by GPSO method will be compared with Lagrange multiplier method. From the running test result the GPSO method give economically planning calculation which it better than Lagrange multiplier method and the GPSO method faster to getting error convergence. Therefore the GPSO method have better performance to getting global best solution than the Lagrange method.

  12. Human breast tumor cells express IL-10 and IL-12p40 transcripts and proteins, but do not produce IL-12p70.

    PubMed

    Heckel, Mark C; Wolfson, Alexey; Slachta, Christopher A; Schwarting, Roland; Salgame, Padmini; Katsetos, Christos D; Platsoucas, Chris D

    2011-01-01

    IL-10 transcripts were expressed in 14/15 primary breast adenocarcinomas and in 5/8 established breast tumor lines. Immunohistochemistry and immunoprecipitation from lysates and supernatants revealed that established breast tumor lines produced IL-10 protein. Immunohistochemistry revealed that IL-10 is localized to tumor cells of primary breast adenocarcinomas and to occasional infiltrating MNC. Established breast tumor cell lines expressed IL-12p40 transcripts (6/8) and protein (4/7) and IL-12p35 transcripts (6/7). Using two sandwich ELISAs, specific, respectively, for IL-12p40 and IL-12p70 proteins, we demonstrated that established breast tumor cell lines produce IL-12p40 monomer/homodimer, but not IL-12p70. Positive staining for IL-12p70 in primary breast adenocarcinomas was found only in MNC infiltrating the tumor while tumor cells were negative. IL-12p40 homodimer/monomer inhibit as antagonists IL-12 or IL-23, although they may also act as agonists and positive regulators. Also, primary breast adenocarcinomas (15/15) and established breast tumor cell lines (6/8) expressed TGF-?1 transcripts. IL-10, IL-12p40 and TGF-?1 may inhibit substantially the anti-tumor immune response. PMID:21055733

  13. 77 FR 75254 - List of Units of the National Park System Exempt From the Provisions of the National Parks Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ...annually. Exempt parks are as follows: Big Bend National Park, TX Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park, CO Capulin Volcano National Monument, NM Carlsbad Caverns National Park, NM Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, AZ Coronado National...

  14. Moon Park: A research and educational facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuriki, Kyoichi; Saito, Takao; Ogawa, Yukimasa

    1992-01-01

    Moon Park has been proposed as an International Space Year (ISY) event for international cooperative efforts. Moon Park will serve as a terrestrial demonstration of a prototype lunar base and provide research and educational opportunities. The kind of data that can be obtained in the Moon Park facilities is examined taking the minimum number of lunar base residents as an example.

  15. "The Rosa Parks Story": Guide for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onish, Liane B.

    On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a black seamstress, refused to give up her seat to a white man on a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama, and she was arrested. On that day, Rosa Parks became the mother of the modern civil rights movement. This study guide may be used as a companion to "The Rosa Parks Story" video which aired on CBS television…

  16. Alluvial Fan, Rocky Mountain National Park

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Alluvial Fan is a fan-shaped area of disturbance in Rocky Mountain National Park. It was created on July 15, 1982, when the earthen Lawn Lake Dam above the area gave way, flooding the Park and nearby town of Estes Park with more than 200 million gallons of water. Enormous boulders were displaced...

  17. 78 FR 24323 - National Park Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ...Proclamation 8961 of April 19, 2013 National Park Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...to be passed on. During National Park Week, we celebrate the wonders entrusted to...summon us to experience it firsthand. This week, the National Park Service will make...

  18. SECTION ELEVEN Site Design Guidelines Parking

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    lots shall incorporate an appropriate number of handicapped parking spaces per the requirements of the Americans With Disabili es Act. · Parking spaces for disabled people shall be located on the shortest of campus the lot serves. 11.3 HANDICAPPED ACCESSIBILTY Handicapped Parking Guidelines #12;SECTION ELEVEN

  19. 77 FR 24575 - National Park Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8801 of April 20, 2012 National Park Week... National Park Week, all 397 National Parks will offer free admission from April 21 through April 29,...

  20. Center of New Hampshire Parking Garage CANALSTREET

    E-print Network

    Center of New Hampshire Parking Garage CANALSTREET GRANITE STREET WMUR LOT GARAGE StreetView:ParkingGarageEntrance DirectionstotheGarageParkingValidation Directions from the South · Take Route 293 North to Exit 5 (Granite Street) · Take a RIGHT onto Granite Street and stay in right lanes · Continue on Granite through the intersection

  1. Metrics Report McMaster Parking Services

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Michael

    for University campuses. With the parking gate system our department can track logistics with ease While openings which required intervention by parking staff at the intercom system or in the field. Manual gate system and software, and the effectiveness of parking staff in resolving issues promptly. 20 4 1 Health

  2. IL-6 in inflammation, immunity, and disease.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshio; Narazaki, Masashi; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    2014-10-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6), promptly and transiently produced in response to infections and tissue injuries, contributes to host defense through the stimulation of acute phase responses, hematopoiesis, and immune reactions. Although its expression is strictly controlled by transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms, dysregulated continual synthesis of IL-6 plays a pathological effect on chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. For this reason, tocilizumab, a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody was developed. Various clinical trials have since shown the exceptional efficacy of tocilizumab, which resulted in its approval for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Moreover, tocilizumab is expected to be effective for other intractable immune-mediated diseases. In this context, the mechanism for the continual synthesis of IL-6 needs to be elucidated to facilitate the development of more specific therapeutic approaches and analysis of the pathogenesis of specific diseases. PMID:25190079

  3. Rosa Parks: The Movement Organizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Kai

    This biography for younger readers describes the life of Rosa Parks, the Alabama black woman whose refusal to give up her seat on a segregated bus helped establish the civil rights movement. The book is introduced by an overview of the movement by Andrew Young and a timeline indicating major historical events from 1954 through 1968. Highlights in…

  4. Symmetry in the Car Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a lesson on rotational symmetry which she developed for her students. The aim of the lesson was "to identify objects with rotational symmetry in the staff car park" and the success criteria were "pictures or sketches of at least six objects with different orders of rotation". After finding examples of…

  5. UV - RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brewer 087 is located in Research Triangle Park NC, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instru...

  6. Egmont National Park, New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The lush forests of Egmont National Park, on New Zealand's North Island, contrast with the pasturelands outside the circular park boundaries. The unique shape of the park results from its first protection in 1881, which specified that a forest reserve would extend in a 9.6 km radius from the summit of Mt. Taranaki (named Mt. Egmont by Captain Cook). The park covers about 33,500 hectares and Mt. Egmont stands at 2518 m. The volcano began forming 70,000 years ago, and last erupted in 1755. A series of montane habitats occur in procession up the flanks of the volcano-from rainforest, to shrubs, to alpine, and finally snow cover. Image STS110-726-6, was taken by Space Shuttle crewmembers on 9 April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  7. National Zoological Park Branch Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Kay A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the functions of the National Zoological Park Branch of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, which is dedicated to supporting the special information needs of the zoo. Topics covered include the library's history, collection, programs, services, future plans, and relations with other zoo libraries. (two references) (Author/CLB)

  8. Searching for a parking space 

    E-print Network

    Laurier, Eric

    2005-01-01

    If you drive a car, it’s a classic problem on the busy city streets, the search for a parking space. Merely driving in the inner city is a challenging and frustrating affair because it is full of one way streets, dead ...

  9. Changwon Park Postdoc Research Associates

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    -correlation functionals which enable accurate description of van der waals interaction between molecules and various., Son, W.J., Kim, D.H., Horii, H., Ihm, J., Han, S., Journal of Physics Condensed Matter 22, 205504, C., Park, K., Suh, D.-S., Kim, K., Kang, Y.-S., Kim, C., Lee, T.-Y., Khang, Y., Yoon, Y.-G., Ihm, J

  10. Ionizing radiation enhances IL-6 and IL-8 production by human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bertho, J.-M.; Vandamme, M.; Gaugler, M.-H.

    1997-01-01

    Irradiation exposure is known to induce an inflammatory reaction. Endothelial cells play a crucial role both in the inflammatory process and in radiation damage. Therefore, supernatants and cell lysates of 60Co-irradiated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) have been assessed for the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines. After gamma irradiation, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1? and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? remained undetectable in both cell supernatants and cell lysates. However, a dose-dependent increase in the production of IL-6 and IL-8 has been demonstrated up to 6 days after exposure. These data indicate that the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 may be involved in the inflammatory response of vascular endothelium induced by exposure to ionizing radiation. PMID:18472819

  11. Inhibition of IL-2 induced IL-10 production as a principle of phase-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bodas, Manish; Jain, Nitya; Awasthi, Amit; Martin, Sunil; Penke Loka, Raghu Kumar; Dandekar, Dineshkumar; Mitra, Debashis; Saha, Bhaskar

    2006-10-01

    Leishmania donovani, a protozoan parasite, inflicts a fatal disease, visceral leishmaniasis. The suppression of antileishmanial T cell responses that characterizes the disease was proposed to be due to deficiency of a T cell growth factor, IL-2. We demonstrate that during the first week after L. donovani infection, IL-2 induces IL-10 that suppresses the host-protective functions of T cells 14 days after infection. The observed suppression is concurrent with increased CD4+ glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor+ T cells and Foxp3 expression in BALB/c mice, implicating IL-2-dependent regulatory T cell control of antileishmanial immune responses. Indeed, IL-2 and IL-10 neutralization at different time points after the infection demonstrates their distinct roles at the priming and effector phases, respectively, and establishes kinetic modulation of ongoing immune responses as a principle of a rational, phase-specific immunotherapy. PMID:16982902

  12. 36 CFR 7.74 - Virgin Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Virgin Islands National Park. 7.74 Section 7.74 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.74 Virgin Islands National Park. (a) (b) Marine operations. No dredging, excavating...

  13. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... College Park. (a) The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park,...

  14. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) General Provisions. All waters within...

  15. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  16. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  17. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  18. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  19. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  20. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  1. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  2. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  3. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  4. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of such permits issued, or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  5. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  6. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  7. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of such permits issued, or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  8. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  9. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  10. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  11. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  12. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  13. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycling. (1) The...

  14. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a) Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles....

  15. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) General Provisions. All waters within...

  16. 36 CFR 7.37 - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. 7.37 Section 7.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.37 Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. (a) Fishing. (1) Unless...

  17. 36 CFR 7.37 - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. 7.37 Section 7.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.37 Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. (a) Fishing. (1) Unless...

  18. 36 CFR 7.74 - Virgin Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Virgin Islands National Park. 7.74 Section 7.74 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.74 Virgin Islands National Park. (a) (b) Marine operations. No dredging, excavating...

  19. 36 CFR 7.74 - Virgin Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Virgin Islands National Park. 7.74 Section 7.74 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.74 Virgin Islands National Park. (a) (b) Marine operations. No dredging, excavating...

  20. IL-33 Facilitates Oncogene Induced Cholangiocarcinoma in Mice by an IL-6 Sensitive Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Daisaku; Rizvi, Sumera; Razumilava, Nataliya; Bronk, Steven F.; Davila, Jaime I.; Champion, Mia D.; Borad, Mitesh J.; Bezerra, Jorge A.; Chen, Xin; Gores, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a lethal hepatobiliary neoplasm originating from the biliary apparatus. In humans, CCA risk factors include hepatobiliary inflammation and fibrosis. The recently identified IL-1 family member, IL-33, has been shown to be a biliary mitogen which also promotes liver inflammation and fibrosis. Our aim was to generate a mouse model of CCA mimicking the human disease. Ectopic oncogene expression in the biliary tract was accomplished by the Sleeping Beauty transposon transfection system with transduction of constitutively active AKT (myr-AKT) and Yes-associated protein (YAP). Intrabiliary instillation of the transposon-transposase complex was coupled with lobar bile duct ligation in CL57BL/6 mice, followed by administration of IL-33 for three consecutive days. Tumors developed in 72% of the male mice receiving both oncogenes plus IL-33 by 10 weeks, but in only 20% of the male mice transduced with the oncogenes alone. Tumors expressed SOX9 and pancytokeratin (PanCK) [features of cholangiocarcinoma] but were negative for HepPar1 [a marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)]. RNA profiling revealed substantive overlap with human CCA specimens. Not only did IL-33 induce IL-6 expression by human cholangiocytes, but IL-33 likely facilitated tumor development in vivo by an IL-6 sensitive process, as tumor development was significantly attenuated in Il-6 -/- male animals. Furthermore, tumor formation occurred at a similar rate when IL-6 was substituted for IL-33 in this model. In conclusion, the transposase-mediated transduction of constitutively active AKT and YAP in the biliary epithelium coupled with lobar obstruction and IL-33 administration results in the development of CCA with morphological and biochemical features of the human disease. This model highlights the role of inflammatory cytokines in CCA oncogenesis. PMID:25580681

  1. IL-10: Expanding the Immune Oncology Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ivan H.; Wu, Victoria; McCauley, Scott; Grimm, Elizabeth A.; Mumm, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in immunoncology have dramatically changed the treatment options available to cancer patients. However, the fundamental challenges with this therapeutic modality are not new and still persist with the current wave of immunoncology compounds. These challenges are centered on the activation and expansion, induction of intratumoral infiltration and persistence of highly activated, cytotoxic, tumor antigen specific CD8+ T cells. We have investigated the anti-tumor mechanism of action of pegylated recombinant interleukin-10, (PEG-rIL-10) both pre-clinically with murine (PEG-rMuIL-10) and now clinically (AM0010) with human pegylated interleukin-10. The preponderance of data suggest that IL-10’s engagement of its receptor on CD8+ T cells enhances their activation status leading to antigen specific expansion. Quantitation of CD8+ T cell tumor infiltration reveals that treatment of both humans and mice with pegylated rIL-10 results in 3–4 fold increases of intratumoral, cytotoxic, CD8+ T cells. In addition, mice cured of their tumors with PEG-rMuIL-10 exhibit long term immunological protection from tumor re-challenge and long term treatment of cancer patients with AM0010 results in the persistence of highly activated CD8+ T cells. Cumulatively, these data suggest the IL-10 represents an emerging therapeutic that specifically addresses the fundamental challenges of the current wave of immunoncology assets. PMID:26661378

  2. IL-33 attenuates the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Mark; Allan, Debbie; Xu, Heping; Pei, Cheng; Chen, Mei; Niedbala, Wanda; Fukada, Sandra Y; Besnard, Anne-Galle; Alves-Filho, Jose C; Tong, Xiaoguang; Forrester, John V; Liew, Foo Yew; Jiang, Hui-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is associated with several important immune-mediated disorders. However, its role in uveitis, an important eye inflammatory disease, is unknown. Here, we investigated the function of IL-33 in the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). IL-33 and IL-33 receptor (ST2) were expressed in murine retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in culture, and IL-33 increased the expression of Il33 and Mcp1 mRNA in RPE cells. In situ, IL-33 was highly expressed in the inner nuclear cells of the retina of naïve mice, and its expression was elevated in EAU mice. ST2-deficient mice developed exacerbated EAU compared with WT mice, and administration of IL-33 to WT mice significantly reduced EAU severity. The attenuated EAU in IL-33-treated mice was accompanied by decreased frequency of IFN-?+ and IL-17+ CD4+ T cells and reduced IFN-? and IL-17 production but with increased frequency of IL-5+ and IL-4+ CD4 T cells and IL-5 production in the draining lymph node and spleen. Macrophages from the IL-33-treated mice show a significantly higher polarization toward an alternatively activated macrophage phenotype. Our results therefore demonstrate that the endogenous IL-33/ST2 pathway plays an important role in EAU, and suggest that IL-33 represents a potential option for treatment of uveitis. PMID:25116404

  3. IL-33 attenuates the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Mark; Allan, Debbie; Xu, Heping; Pei, Cheng; Chen, Mei; Niedbala, Wanda; Fukada, Sandra Y; Besnard, Anne-Galle; Alves-Filho, Jose C; Tong, Xiaoguang; Forrester, John V; Liew, Foo Yew; Jiang, Hui-Rong

    2014-11-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is associated with several important immune-mediated disorders. However, its role in uveitis, an important eye inflammatory disease, is unknown. Here, we investigated the function of IL-33 in the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). IL-33 and IL-33 receptor (ST2) were expressed in murine retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in culture, and IL-33 increased the expression of Il33 and Mcp1 mRNA in RPE cells. In situ, IL-33 was highly expressed in the inner nuclear cells of the retina of naïve mice, and its expression was elevated in EAU mice. ST2-deficient mice developed exacerbated EAU compared with WT mice, and administration of IL-33 to WT mice significantly reduced EAU severity. The attenuated EAU in IL-33-treated mice was accompanied by decreased frequency of IFN-?+ and IL-17(+) CD4+ T cells and reduced IFN-? and IL-17 production but with increased frequency of IL-5(+) and IL-4(+) CD4 T cells and IL-5 production in the draining lymph node and spleen. Macrophages from the IL-33-treated mice show a significantly higher polarization toward an alternatively activated macrophage phenotype. Our results therefore demonstrate that the endogenous IL-33/ST2 pathway plays an important role in EAU, and suggest that IL-33 represents a potential option for treatment of uveitis. PMID:25116404

  4. IL-15/IL-15 receptor biology: a guided tour through an expanding universe.

    PubMed

    Budagian, Vadim; Bulanova, Elena; Paus, Ralf; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2006-08-01

    The cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15) has a key role in promoting survival, proliferation and activation of natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells. Despite its functional similarities to IL-2, IL-15 affects a wider range of target cell populations and utilizes different mechanisms of signaling. Here, we review recent advances in the IL-15-mediated signaling, and in the functional properties on cells besides T lymphocytes and NK cells. These are discussed in the context of their potential clinical and therapeutic relevance. PMID:16815076

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum stress impairs IL-4/IL-13 signaling through C/EBP?-mediated transcriptional suppression

    PubMed Central

    Arensdorf, Angela M.; Thomas Rutkowski, D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress culminates in extensive gene regulation, with transcriptional upregulation of genes that improve the protein folding capacity of the organelle. However, a substantial number of genes are downregulated by ER stress, and the mechanisms that lead to this downregulation and its consequences on cellular function are poorly understood. We found that ER stress led to coordinated transcriptional suppression of diverse cellular processes, including those involved in cytokine signaling. Using expression of the IL-4/IL-13 receptor subunit Il4ra as a sentinel, we sought to understand the mechanism behind this suppression and its impact on inflammatory signaling. We found that reinitiation of global protein synthesis by GADD34-mediated dephosphorylation of eIF2? resulted in preferential expression of the inhibitory LIP isoform of the transcription factor C/EBP?. This regulation was in turn required for the suppression of Il4ra and related inflammatory genes. Suppression of Il4ra was lost in Cebpb?/? cells but could be induced by LIP overexpression. As a consequence of Il4ra suppression, ER stress impaired IL-4/IL-13 signaling. Strikingly, Cebpb?/? cells lacking Il4ra downregulation were protected from this signaling impairment. This work identifies a novel role for C/EBP? in regulating transcriptional suppression and inflammatory signaling during ER stress. PMID:23813955

  6. Aspirin induces IL-4 production: augmented IL-4 production in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Su-Kang; Soo Kim, Byung; Gi Uhm, Tae; Soo Chang, Hun; Sook Park, Jong; Woo Park, Sung; Park, Choon-Sik; Chung, Il Yup

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin hypersensitivity is a hallmark of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), a clinical syndrome characterized by the severe inflammation of the respiratory tract after ingestion of cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitors. We investigated the capacity of aspirin to induce interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in inflammatory cells relevant to AERD pathogenesis and examined the associated biochemical and molecular pathways. We also compared IL-4 production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with AERD vs aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) upon exposure to aspirin. Aspirin induced IL-4 expression and activated the IL-4 promoter in a report assay. The capacity of aspirin to induce IL-4 expression correlated with its activity to activate mitogen-activated protein kinases, to form DNA–protein complexes on P elements in the IL-4 promoter and to synthesize nuclear factor of activated T cells, critical transcription factors for IL-4 transcription. Of clinical importance, aspirin upregulated IL-4 production twice as much in PBMCs from patients with AERD compared with PBMCs from patients with ATA. Our results suggest that IL-4 is an inflammatory component mediating intolerance reactions to aspirin, and thus is crucial for AERD pathogenesis.

  7. Arginase I Suppresses IL-12/IL-23p40–Driven Intestinal Inflammation during Acute Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, De’Broski R.; Orekov, Tatyana; Roloson, Amanda; Ilies, Monica; Perkins, Charles; O’Brien, William; Cederbaum, Stephen; Christianson, David W.; Zimmermann, Nives; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Finkelman, Fred D.

    2010-01-01

    Alternatively activated macrophages prevent lethal intestinal pathology caused by worm ova in mice infected with the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni through mechanisms that are currently unclear. This study demonstrates that arginase I (Arg I), a major product of IL-4– and IL-13–induced alternatively activated macrophages, prevents cachexia, neutrophilia, and endotoxemia during acute schistosomiasis. Specifically, Arg I-positive macrophages promote TGF-? production and Foxp3 expression, suppress Ag-specific T cell proliferation, and limit Th17 differentiation. S. mansoni-infected Arg I-deficient bone marrow chimeras develop a marked accumulation of worm ova within the ileum but impaired fecal egg excretion compared with infected wild-type bone marrow chimeras. Worm ova accumulation in the intestines of Arg I-deficient bone marrow chimeras was associated with intestinal hemorrhage and production of molecules associated with classical macrophage activation (increased production of IL-6, NO, and IL-12/IL-23p40), but whereas inhibition of NO synthase-2 has marginal effects, IL-12/IL-23p40 neutralization abrogates both cachexia and intestinal inflammation and reduces the number of ova within the gut. Thus, macrophage-derived Arg I protects hosts against excessive tissue injury caused by worm eggs during acute schistosomiasis by suppressing IL-12/IL-23p40 production and maintaining the Treg/Th17 balance within the intestinal mucosa. PMID:20483789

  8. IL-10 and IL-12B gene polymorphisms in a multiethnic Malaysian population.

    PubMed

    Sam, S S; Teoh, B T; AbuBakar, S

    2015-01-01

    Inheritance of polymorphisms in the interleukin (IL)-10 promoter and IL-12B genes, which influence cytokine production and activities, may define the balance in T helper response in infection and autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of the IL-10 promoter and IL-12B gene polymorphisms in a multiethnic Malaysian population. Overall, our findings suggest that the IL-12B and IL-10 -592 genotypes were distributed homogenously across all major ethnic groups, including Malays, Chinese, and Indians, except for polymorphisms at IL-10 -1082. At this gene locus, the ethnic Chinese showed a significantly lower allele frequency of -1082G (2.1%) compared to the Malay (12.2%) and Indian (15.3%) populations. Results for the IL-12B and IL-10 gene polymorphisms were consistent with those reported for the Asian population, but markedly different from those of the African and Caucasian populations. Our findings suggest that there are specific genetic variations between different ethnic groups, which should be examined in all gene population-based association studies. PMID:25966091

  9. Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer Patients: Rise in Interleukin 6 (IL-6) but not IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, Tumor Necrosis Factor-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira Lopes, Carlos; Callera, Fernando

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on serum levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}), macrophage inflammatory protein-1-alpha (MIP-1-{alpha}) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty eight patients with prostate cancer received three-dimensional conformal blocking radiation therapy with a linear accelerator. IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF levels were measured by the related immunoassay kit 1 day before the beginning of RT and during RT at days 15 and 30. Results: The mean IL-2 values were elevated before and during the RT in contrast with those of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF, which were within the normal range under the same conditions. Regarding markers IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF, comparisons among the three groups (before treatment and 15 and 30 days during RT) did not show significant differences. Although values were within the normal range, there was a significant rise in IL-6 levels at day 15 of RT (p = 0.0049) and a decline at day 30 to levels that were similar to those observed before RT. Conclusions: IL-6 appeared to peak after 15 days of RT before returning to pre-RT levels. In contrast, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF levels were not sensitive to irradiation. The increased levels of IL-6 following RT without the concurrent elevation of other cytokines involved in the acute phase reaction did not suggest a classical inflammatory response to radiation exposure. Further studies should be designed to elucidate the role of IL-6 levels in patients with prostate cancer treated with RT.

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex

    SciTech Connect

    Logsdon, Naomi J.; Allen, Christopher E.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Walter, Mark R.

    2012-02-08

    Interleukin-20 (IL-20) is an IL-10-family cytokine that regulates innate and adaptive immunity in skin and other tissues. In addition to protecting the host from various external pathogens, dysregulated IL-20 signaling has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of human psoriasis. IL-20 signals through two cell-surface receptor heterodimers, IL-20R1-IL-20R2 and IL-22R1-IL-20R2. In this report, crystals of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 ternary complex have been grown from polyethylene glycol solutions. The crystals belonged to space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 111, c = 135 {angstrom}, and diffracted X-rays to 3 {angstrom} resolution. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains one IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex, corresponding to a solvent content of approximately 54%.

  11. Inherited IL-12p40 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Prando, Carolina; Samarina, Arina; Bustamante, Jacinta; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Cobat, Aurelie; Picard, Capucine; AlSum, Zobaida; Al-Jumaah, Suliman; Al-Hajjar, Sami; Frayha, Husn; Al-Mousa, Hamoud; Ben-Mustapha, Imen; Adimi, Parisa; Feinberg, Jacqueline; de Suremain, Maylis; Jannière, Lucile; Filipe-Santos, Orchidée; Mansouri, Nahal; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Nallusamy, Revathy; Kumararatne, Dinakantha S.; Bloorsaz, Mohamad Reza; Ben-Ali, Meriem; Elloumi-Zghal, Houda; Chemli, Jalel; Bouguila, Jihene; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Alaki, Emadia; AlFawaz, Tariq S.; Al Idrissi, Eman; ElGhazali, Gehad; Pollard, Andrew J.; Murugasu, Belinda; Wah Lee, Bee; Halwani, Rabih; Al-Zahrani, Mohammed; Al Shehri, Mohammed A.; Al-Zahrani, Mofareh; Bin-Hussain, Ibrahim; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Parvaneh, Nima; Abel, Laurent; Mansouri, Davood; Barbouche, Ridha; Al-Muhsen, Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Autosomal recessive interleukin (IL)-12 p40 (IL-12p40) deficiency is a rare genetic etiology of Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). We report the genetic, immunologic, and clinical features of 49 patients from 30 kindreds originating from 5 countries (India, Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia). There are only 9 different mutant alleles of the IL12B gene: 2 small insertions, 3 small deletions, 2 splice site mutations, and 1 large deletion, each causing a frameshift and leading to a premature stop codon, and 1 nonsense mutation. Four of these 9 variants are recurrent, affecting 25 of the 30 reported kindreds, due to founder effects in specific countries. All patients are homozygous and display complete IL-12p40 deficiency. As a result, the patients lack detectable IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 and have low levels of interferon gamma (IFN-?). The clinical features are characterized by childhood onset of bacille Calmette-Guérin (attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain) (BCG) and Salmonella infections, with recurrences of salmonellosis (36.4%) more common than recurrences of mycobacterial disease (25%). BCG vaccination led to BCG disease in 40 of the 41 patients vaccinated (97.5%). Multiple mycobacterial infections were rare, observed in only 3 patients, whereas the association of salmonellosis and mycobacteriosis was observed in 9 patients. A few other infections were diagnosed, including chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (n = 3), nocardiosis (n = 2), and klebsiellosis (n = 1). IL-12p40 deficiency has a high but incomplete clinical penetrance, with 33.3% of genetically affected relatives of index cases showing no symptoms. However, the prognosis is poor, with mortality rates of up to 28.6%. Overall, the clinical phenotype of IL-12p40 deficiency closely resembles that of interleukin 12 receptor ?1 (IL-12R?1) deficiency. In conclusion, IL-12p40 deficiency is more common than initially thought and should be considered worldwide in patients with MSMD and other intramacrophagic infectious diseases, salmonellosis in particular. PMID:23429356

  12. IL12R?1?TM Is a Secreted Product of il12rb1 That Promotes Control of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Aurelie A.; Fountain, Jeffrey J.; Miller, Halli E.; Cooper, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    IL12RB1 is a human gene that is important for resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. IL12RB1 is expressed by multiple leukocyte lineages, and encodes a type I transmembrane protein (IL12R?1) that associates with IL12p40 and promotes the development of host-protective TH1cells. Recently, we observed that il12rb1—the mouse homolog of IL12RB1—is alternatively spliced by leukocytes to produce a second isoform (IL12R?1?TM) that has biological properties distinct from IL12R?1. Although the expression of IL12R?1?TM is elicited by M. tuberculosis in vivo, and its overexpression enhances IL12p40 responsiveness in vitro, the contribution of IL12R?1?TM to controlling M. tuberculosis infection has not been tested. Here, we demonstrate that IL12R?1?TM represents a secreted product of il12rb1 that, when absent from mice, compromises their ability to control M. tuberculosis infection in extrapulmonary organs. Furthermore, elevated M. tuberculosis burdens in IL12R?1?TM-deficient animals are associated with decreased lymph node cellularity and a decline in TH1 development. Collectively, these data support a model wherein IL12R?1?TM is a secreted product of il12rb1 that promotes resistance to M. tuberculosis infection by potentiating TH cells response to IL-12. PMID:25404030

  13. IL12R?1?TM is a secreted product of il12rb1 that promotes control of extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Aurelie A; Fountain, Jeffrey J; Miller, Halli E; Cooper, Andrea M; Robinson, Richard T

    2015-02-01

    IL12RB1 is a human gene that is important for resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. IL12RB1 is expressed by multiple leukocyte lineages, and encodes a type I transmembrane protein (IL12R?1) that associates with IL12p40 and promotes the development of host-protective T(H)1 cells. Recently, we observed that il12rb1—the mouse homolog of IL12RB1—is alternatively spliced by leukocytes to produce a second isoform (IL12R?1?TM) that has biological properties distinct from IL12R?1. Although the expression of IL12R?1?TM is elicited by M. tuberculosis in vivo, and its overexpression enhances IL12p40 responsiveness in vitro, the contribution of IL12R?1?TM to controlling M. tuberculosis infection has not been tested. Here, we demonstrate that IL12R?1?TM represents a secreted product of il12rb1 that, when absent from mice, compromises their ability to control M. tuberculosis infection in extrapulmonary organs. Furthermore, elevated M. tuberculosis burdens in IL12R?1?TM-deficient animals are associated with decreased lymph node cellularity and a decline in TH1 development. Collectively, these data support a model wherein IL12R?1?TM is a secreted product of il12rb1 that promotes resistance to M. tuberculosis infection by potentiating T(H) cells response to IL-12. PMID:25404030

  14. Construction of an Expression System for Bioactive IL-18 and Generation of Recombinant Canine Distemper Virus Expressing IL-18

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Yuxiu; SATO, Hiroki; HAMANA, Masahiro; MOONAN, Navita Anisia; YONEDA, Misako; XIA, Xianzhu; KAI, Chieko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interleukin 18 (IL-18) plays an important role in the T-helper-cell type 1 immune response against intracellular parasites, bacteria and viral infections. It has been widely used as an adjuvant for vaccines and as an anticancer agent. However, IL-18 protein lacks a typical signal sequence and requires cleavage into its mature active form by caspase 1. In this study, we constructed mammalian expression vectors carrying cDNA encoding mature canine IL-18 (cIL-18) or mouse IL-18 (mIL-18) fused to the human IL-2 (hIL-2) signal sequence. The expressed proIL-18 proteins were processed to their mature forms in the cells. The supernatants of cells transfected with these plasmids induced high interferon-? production in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells or mouse splenocytes, respectively, indicating the secretion of bioactive IL-18. Using reverse genetics, we also generated a recombinant canine distemper virus that expresses cIL-18 or mIL-18 fused to the hIL-2 signal sequence. As expected, both recombinant viruses produced mature IL-18 in the infected cells, which secreted bioactive IL-18. These results indicate that the signal sequence from hIL-2 is suitable for the secretion of mature IL-18. These recombinant viruses can also potentially be used as immunoadjuvants and agents for anticancer therapies in vivo. PMID:24898077

  15. Construction of an expression system for bioactive IL-18 and generation of recombinant canine distemper virus expressing IL-18.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxiu; Sato, Hiroki; Hamana, Masahiro; Moonan, Navita Anisia; Yoneda, Misako; Xia, Xianzhu; Kai, Chieko

    2014-09-01

    Interleukin 18 (IL-18) plays an important role in the T-helper-cell type 1 immune response against intracellular parasites, bacteria and viral infections. It has been widely used as an adjuvant for vaccines and as an anticancer agent. However, IL-18 protein lacks a typical signal sequence and requires cleavage into its mature active form by caspase 1. In this study, we constructed mammalian expression vectors carrying cDNA encoding mature canine IL-18 (cIL-18) or mouse IL-18 (mIL-18) fused to the human IL-2 (hIL-2) signal sequence. The expressed proIL-18 proteins were processed to their mature forms in the cells. The supernatants of cells transfected with these plasmids induced high interferon-? production in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells or mouse splenocytes, respectively, indicating the secretion of bioactive IL-18. Using reverse genetics, we also generated a recombinant canine distemper virus that expresses cIL-18 or mIL-18 fused to the hIL-2 signal sequence. As expected, both recombinant viruses produced mature IL-18 in the infected cells, which secreted bioactive IL-18. These results indicate that the signal sequence from hIL-2 is suitable for the secretion of mature IL-18. These recombinant viruses can also potentially be used as immunoadjuvants and agents for anticancer therapies in vivo. PMID:24898077

  16. Parks as a tool for HIV management.

    PubMed

    Shacham, Enbal; Hipp, J Aaron; Scheuermann, Mary; Önen, Nur; Overton, E Turner

    2015-01-01

    Access to parks improves overall health outcomes in the general population. Given that HIV infection has become a chronic disease to manage, among populations engaged in medical care, parks may be promoted as physical activity opportunities in order to manage chronic comorbid conditions. We conducted a cross-sectional examination of the relationships between sociodemographic and biomedical characteristics to park proximity among 635 individuals receiving outpatient HIV care. The data collected included HIV-related biomarkers, depression, and diagnoses of other chronic diseases. The total acres of parks an individual is exposed within one-quarter mile from their home were assessed. The cohort included 635 individuals (67% men, 73% black, and 21% white, mean age 42 years). Unemployment was negatively associated with park availability. Park proximity was not associated with depression or HIV biomarkers. As yet, little effort has been committed to promoting park usage as a low-cost, sustainable method to addressing comorbidities among individuals with HIV. PMID:23995296

  17. The Geologic Story of Canyonlands National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lohman, Stanley William

    1974-01-01

    On September 12, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed an act of Congress establishing Canyonlands as our thirty second national park, the first addition to the park system since 1956. The birth of Canyonlands National Park was not without labor pains. In the 1930's virtually all the vast canyon country between Moab, Utah, and Grand Canyon, Ariz., was studied for a projected Escalante National Park. But Escalante failed to get off the ground, even when a second attempt was made in the 1950's. Not until another proposal had been made and legislative compromises had been worked out did the park materialize, this time under a new name - Canyonlands. Among the many dignitaries who witnessed the signature on September 12 was one of the men most responsible for the park's creation, park superintendent Bates E. Wilson, who did the pioneer spade work in the field.

  18. Endogenous IL-1 in Cognitive Function and Anxiety: A Study in IL-1RI?/? Mice

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Carol L.; Obiang, Pauline; Bannerman, David; Cunningham, Colm

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine, produced predominantly by peripheral immune cells but also by glia and some neuronal populations within the brain. Its signalling is mediated via the binding of IL-1? or IL-1? to the interleukin-1 type one receptor (IL-1RI). IL-1 plays a key role in inflammation-induced sickness behaviour, resulting in depressed locomotor activity, decreased exploration, reduced food and water intake and acute cognitive deficits. Conversely, IL-1 has also been suggested to facilitate hippocampal-dependent learning and memory: IL-1RI?/? mice have been reported to show deficits on tasks of visuospatial learning and memory. We sought to investigate whether there is a generalised hippocampal deficit in IL-1RI?/? animals. Therefore, in the current study we compared wildtype (WT) mice to IL-1RI?/? mice using a variety of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks, as well as tests of anxiety and locomotor activity. We found no difference in performance of the IL-1RI?/? mice compared to WT mice in a T-maze working memory task. In addition, the IL-1RI?/? mice showed normal learning in various spatial reference memory tasks including the Y-maze and Morris mater maze, although there was a subtle deficit in choice behaviour in a spatial discrimination, beacon watermaze task. IL-1RI?/? mice also showed normal memory for visuospatial context in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm. In the open field, IL-1RI?/? mice showed a significant increase in distance travelled and rearing behaviour compared to the WT mice and in the elevated plus-maze spent more time in the open arms than did the WT animals. The data suggest that, contrary to prior studies, IL-1RI?/? mice are not robustly impaired on hippocampal-dependent memory and learning but do display open field hyperactivity and decreased anxiety compared to WT mice. The results argue for a careful evaluation of the roles of endogenous IL-1 in hippocampal and limbic system function. PMID:24205219

  19. ROLE OF STAT6 AND MAST CELLS IN IL4-AND IL-13-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN MURINE INTESTINAL EPITHELIAL CELL FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematode infections generally invoke a type 2 cytokine response, characterized by the production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13. Among these cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13 exhibit a functional overlap that can be explained by sharing of a common receptor or receptor component (IL-4Ra. B...

  20. Middleware Laboratory Il passaggio del tempo nei sistemi distribuiti

    E-print Network

    Tucci, Sara

    1 Middleware Laboratory Il passaggio del tempo nei sistemi distribuiti Middleware Laboratory Il tempo 1 Il tempo nei sistemi distribuiti WARNING: In un sistema distribuito e' impossibile avere un un ordine totale di eventi se si considera il tempo al quale sono stati generati Per molti problemi

  1. Down-regulation of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-? and IL-1? by glucosamine in HaCaT cells, but not in the presence of TNF-?

    PubMed Central

    PARK, KUN; LEE, JI-HYE; CHO, HO-CHAN; CHO, SUN-YOUNG; CHO, JAE-WE

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that glucosamine exerts an inhibitory effect on inflammatory cytokine expression in cells. Glucosamine has been recommended as a promising anti-inflammatory modulator, which has been applied in clinical trials for attenuation of the inflammatory process. However, it is unknown whether glucosamine reduces the expression of TNF-?-induced inflammatory cytokines in HaCaT cells. The anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin in HaCaT cells have been extensively investigated in several studies. Thus, in this study we investigated the expression of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-? and IL-1? in glucosamine-treated HaCaT cells, and the effects of glucosamine were compared to those of curcumin-treated HaCaT cells. Our data showed that the expression of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-? and IL-1? was decreased by glucosamine treatment in the HaCaT cells. In contrast, the expression of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-? and IL-1? was not attenuated by glucosamine treatment in the TNF-?-treated HaCaT cells. Notably, curcumin induced an increased expression of IL-8 and IL-1? in the HaCaT cells, but not that of IL-6 and TNF-?. On the other hand, curcumin attenuated the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in the TNF-?-treated HaCaT cells. Our data indicated that glucosamine induced the down-regulation of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-? and IL-1? expression in the HaCaT cells. However, the stimulation of TNF-? abolished the inhibitory effects of glucosamine on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the HaCaT cells. Thus, even though glucosamine induces the down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines in HaCaT cells, the anti-inflammatory role of glucosamine in TNF-?-mediated inflammatory skin diseases should be investigated. PMID:22966296

  2. Deficient IL-12p70 secretion by dendritic cells based on IL12B promoter genotype.

    PubMed

    Müller-Berghaus, J; Kern, K; Paschen, A; Nguyen, X D; Klüter, H; Morahan, G; Schadendorf, D

    2004-08-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12), a heterodimeric cytokine, is important in the generation of a Th1-biased immune response. Several polymorphisms have been described in IL12B, the gene encoding the p40 subunit of IL-12. A bi-allelic polymorphism within the IL12B promoter region has been reported to show association with diseases as diverse as severe childhood asthma and fatal cerebral malaria. In order to define the molecular basis for these disease associations, we investigated the secretion of IL-12 by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Homozygotes for the IL12B promoter polymorphism showed a 10-fold difference in median p70 secretion in response to CD40 ligation. Remarkably, this difference resulted from the inability of most allele 1 homozygotes to secrete heterodimeric IL-12. In contrast, most of the donors homozygous for allele 2 had detectable secretion. These findings are important for the understanding of the highly complex regulation of IL-12 secretion, and its consequent impact on disease susceptibility, in humans. PMID:15175646

  3. The differential expression of IL-4 and IL-13 and its impact on type-2 immunity.

    PubMed

    Bao, Katherine; Reinhardt, R Lee

    2015-09-01

    Allergic disease represents a significant global health burden, and disease incidence continues to rise in urban areas of the world. As such, a better understanding of the basic immune mechanisms underlying disease pathology are key to developing therapeutic interventions to both prevent disease onset as well as to ameliorate disease morbidity in those individuals already suffering from a disorder linked to type-2 inflammation. Two factors central to type-2 immunity are interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, which have been linked to virtually all major hallmarks associated with type-2 inflammation. Therefore, IL-4 and IL-13 and their regulatory pathways represent ideal targets to suppress disease. Despite sharing many common regulatory pathways and receptors, these cytokines perform very distinct functions during a type-2 immune response. This review summarizes the literature surrounding the function and expression of IL-4 and IL-13 in CD4+ T cells and innate immune cells. It highlights recent findings in vivo regarding the differential expression and non-canonical regulation of IL-4 and IL-13 in various immune cells, which likely play important and underappreciated roles in type-2 immunity. PMID:26073683

  4. Th17 master transcription factors ROR? and ROR? regulate the expression of IL-17C, IL-17D and IL-17F in Cynoglossus semilaevis.

    PubMed

    Chi, Heng; Bøgwald, Jarl; Dalmo, Roy Ambli; Zhang, Wenjie; Hu, Yong-Hua

    2016-02-01

    The RAR-related orphan receptors (RORs) are members of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. In this study, we examined the regulatory properties of ROR? (CsROR?) and ROR? (CsROR?) in tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). CsROR? and CsROR? expression was detected in major lymphoid organs and altered to significant extents after bacterial and viral infection. CsROR? enhanced the activities of CsIL-17C, CsIL-17D, and CsIL-17F promoters, which contain CsROR? and CsROR? binding sites. CsROR? also upregulated the promoter activities of CsIL-17D and CsIL-17F but not CsIL-17C. CsROR? and CsROR? proteins were detected in the nucleus, and overexpression of CsROR? in tongue sole significantly increased the expression of CsIL-17C, CsIL-17D, and CsIL-17F, whereas overexpression of CsROR? significantly increased the expression of CsIL-17C and CsIL-17F but no CsIL-17D. These results indicate that ROR? and ROR? in teleost regulate the expression of IL-17 members in different manners. PMID:26547017

  5. Stag Hill Campus Manor Park,

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    Alliance) [AQA].......G4 Arthur C Clarke Building [BA].........................................I4 Austin Compton Send Clandon StCatherines BarrierBarrier Barrier Car Park 1 E D F C G J H B A W Pay and Display Research Buildings Arts Buildings A B C D E F G H I J K L M 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 #12;Pay

  6. Inducible expression of type 2 IL-1 receptors by cultured human keratinocytes. Implications for IL-1-mediated processes in epidermis.

    PubMed

    Groves, R W; Giri, J; Sims, J; Dower, S K; Kupper, T S

    1995-04-15

    Two species of cell surface receptor for IL-1 (IL-1R) have been characterized. Only one of these, the type 1 IL-1R, transduces a signal after ligand binding. Whereas mRNA for the nonsignal transducing type 2 IL-1R seems to have a broad tissue distribution, functional type 2 IL-1R has been carefully studied only in leukocytes and related cell lines. Because normal human keratinocytes, which are IL-1 alpha-producing epithelial cells, inducibly express large numbers of IL-1R, we have studied their putative type 1 and type 2 IL-1R at the level of RNA, protein, and biologic function. At the level of function, gene expression of the IL-1-inducible cytokine granulocyte-macrophage-CSF by keratinocytes was mediated entirely by low numbers of type 1 IL-1R, although type 2 IL-1R were more numerous on both resting and activated keratinocytes. Type I IL-1R mRNA was detected only at very low levels, whereas a marked induction of type 2 IL-1R mRNA was readily observed in activated keratinocytes. A sensitive and specific ELISA demonstrated shed type 2 IL-1R in the conditioned medium of IFN-gamma or PMA-activated keratinocytes. Keratinocyte type 2 IL-1R bound IL-1 alpha with higher affinity (Kd approximately 3 x 10(-9) M) than type 2 IL-1R on leukocytes; however, the intracellular epithelial form of the IL-1R antagonist was bound 100-fold less avidly. These findings demonstrate that a normal nontransformed epithelial cell may express large numbers of the nonsignal transducing type 2 IL-1R that binds IL-1 with high affinity and can be shed into the pericellular environment. This receptor may function as an IL-1 antagonist in autocrine, juxtacrine, and paracrine cutaneous pathways. PMID:7706745

  7. Dynamic Redox Regulation of IL-4 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Gaurav; Gran, Margaret A; Bagchi, Pritha; Kemp, Melissa L

    2015-11-01

    Quantifying the magnitude and dynamics of protein oxidation during cell signaling is technically challenging. Computational modeling provides tractable, quantitative methods to test hypotheses of redox mechanisms that may be simultaneously operative during signal transduction. The interleukin-4 (IL-4) pathway, which has previously been reported to induce reactive oxygen species and oxidation of PTP1B, may be controlled by several other putative mechanisms of redox regulation; widespread proteomic thiol oxidation observed via 2D redox differential gel electrophoresis upon IL-4 treatment suggests more than one redox-sensitive protein implicated in this pathway. Through computational modeling and a model selection strategy that relied on characteristic STAT6 phosphorylation dynamics of IL-4 signaling, we identified reversible protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) oxidation as the primary redox regulatory mechanism in the pathway. A systems-level model of IL-4 signaling was developed that integrates synchronous pan-PTP oxidation with ROS-independent mechanisms. The model quantitatively predicts the dynamics of IL-4 signaling over a broad range of new redox conditions, offers novel hypotheses about regulation of JAK/STAT signaling, and provides a framework for interrogating putative mechanisms involving receptor-initiated oxidation. PMID:26562652

  8. Dynamic Redox Regulation of IL-4 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Gaurav; Gran, Margaret A.; Bagchi, Pritha; Kemp, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the magnitude and dynamics of protein oxidation during cell signaling is technically challenging. Computational modeling provides tractable, quantitative methods to test hypotheses of redox mechanisms that may be simultaneously operative during signal transduction. The interleukin-4 (IL-4) pathway, which has previously been reported to induce reactive oxygen species and oxidation of PTP1B, may be controlled by several other putative mechanisms of redox regulation; widespread proteomic thiol oxidation observed via 2D redox differential gel electrophoresis upon IL-4 treatment suggests more than one redox-sensitive protein implicated in this pathway. Through computational modeling and a model selection strategy that relied on characteristic STAT6 phosphorylation dynamics of IL-4 signaling, we identified reversible protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) oxidation as the primary redox regulatory mechanism in the pathway. A systems-level model of IL-4 signaling was developed that integrates synchronous pan-PTP oxidation with ROS-independent mechanisms. The model quantitatively predicts the dynamics of IL-4 signaling over a broad range of new redox conditions, offers novel hypotheses about regulation of JAK/STAT signaling, and provides a framework for interrogating putative mechanisms involving receptor-initiated oxidation. PMID:26562652

  9. Lagrange L4/L5 points and the origin of our Moon and Saturn's moons and rings.

    PubMed

    Gott, J Richard

    2005-12-01

    The current standard theory of the origin of the Moon is that the Earth was hit by a giant impactor the size of Mars causing ejection of debris from its mantle that coalesced to form the moon; but where did this Mars-sized impactor come from? Isotopic evidence suggests that it came from 1 AU radius in the solar nebula, and computer simulations are consistent with its approaching Earth on a zero-energy parabolic trajectory. How could such a large object form at 1 AU in a quiescent disk of planetesimals without having already collided with the Earth at an earlier epoch before having the chance to grow large? Belbruno and Gott propose that the giant impactor could have formed in a stable orbit from debris at the Earth's Lagrange point L(5) (or L(4)). It would grow quietly by accretion at L(5) (or L(4)), but eventually gravitational perturbations by other growing planetesimals would kick it out into a horseshoe orbit and finally into a chaotic creeping orbit, which Belbruno and Gott show would, with high probability, hit the Earth on a near zero-energy parabolic trajectory. We can see other examples of this phenomenon occurring in the solar system. Asteroid 2002AA29 is in a horseshoe orbit relative to the Earth that looks exactly like the horseshoe orbits that Belbruno and Gott found for objects that had been perturbed from L(4)/L(5). The regular moons of Saturn are made of ice and have the same albedo as the ring particles (ice chunks, plus some dust). We (J. R. Gott, R. Vanderbei, and E. Belbruno) propose that the regular icy moons of Saturn (out to the orbit of Titan), which are all in nearly circular orbits, formed out of a thin disk of planetesimals (ice chunks) rather like the rings of Saturn today only larger in extent. In such a situation formation of objects at L(4)/L(5) might be expected. Indeed, Saturn's moon Dione is accompanied by moons (Helene and Polydeuces) at both L(4) and L(5) Lagrange points, and Saturn's moon Tethys is also accompanied by moons (Telesto and Calypso) at both L(4) and L(5) Lagrange points. Epimetheus is in a horseshoe orbit relative to Janus that is exactly like the horseshoe orbit expected for an object that has been perturbed from a location at L(4)/L(5). We propose that the rings of Saturn visible today are all that remains of this original disk; they lie inside the Roche limit where tidal forces have simply prevented the formation of large moons by accretion. Further out, the icy particles have accumulated into icy moons. Objects in external solar systems on horseshoe orbits (like those of Epimetheus relative to Janus) could be detected by a slow sinusoidal variation with time of the calculated mass of a planet from radial velocity measurements. PMID:16510418

  10. From IL-2 to IL-37: the expanding spectrum of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Banchereau, Jacques; Pascual, Virginia; O'Garra, Anne

    2012-10-01

    Feedback regulatory circuits provided by regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) and suppressive cytokines are an intrinsic part of the immune system, along with effector functions. Here we discuss some of the regulatory cytokines that have evolved to permit tolerance to components of self as well as the eradication of pathogens with minimal collateral damage to the host. Interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-10 and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) are well characterized, whereas IL-27, IL-35 and IL-37 represent newcomers to the spectrum of anti-inflammatory cytokines. We also emphasize how information accumulated through in vitro as well as in vivo studies of genetically engineered mice can help in the understanding and treatment of human diseases. PMID:22990890

  11. Identification of contact and respiratory sensitizers according to IL-4 receptor ? expression and IL-2 production.

    PubMed

    Goutet, Michèle; Pépin, Elsa; Langonné, Isabelle; Huguet, Nelly; Ban, Masarin

    2012-04-15

    Identification of allergenic chemicals is an important occupational safety issue. While several methods exist to identify contact sensitizers, there is currently no validated model to predict the potential of chemicals to act as respiratory sensitizers. Previously, we reported that cytometry analysis of the local immune responses induced in mice dermally exposed to the respiratory sensitizer trimellitic anhydride (TMA 10%) and contact sensitizer dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB 1%) could identify divergent expression of several immune parameters. The present study confirms, first, that IgE-positive B cells, MHC class II molecules, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-4R? can differentiate the allergic reactions caused by high doses of strong respiratory (TMA, phthalic anhydride and toluene diisocyanate) and contact sensitizers (DNCB, dinitrofluorobenzene and oxazolone). The second part of the study was designed to test the robustness of these markers when classing the weakly immunogenic chemicals most often encountered. Six respiratory allergens, including TMA (2.5%), five contact allergens, including DNCB (0.25%), and two irritants were compared at doses of equivalent immunogenicity. The results indicated that IL-4R? and IL-2 can be reliably used to discriminate sensitizers. Respiratory sensitizers induced markedly higher IL-4R? levels than contact allergens, while irritants had no effect on this parameter. Inversely, contact allergens tended to induce higher percentages of IL-2?CD8? cells than respiratory allergens. In contrast, the markers MHC-II, IgE and IL-4 were not able to classify chemicals with low immunogenic potential. In conclusion, IL-4R? and IL-2 have the potential to be used in classifying a variety of chemical allergens. PMID:22381623

  12. IL-17 and IL-17R: an auspicious therapeutic target for psoriatic disease.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A; Raychaudhuri, S K; Raychaudhuri, S P

    2014-10-01

    The continuous discovery of new T cell subpopulations in human autoimmune diseases is making the immunopathological network more complex. Th17 cells are one such newly identified subset of T cells, characterized by the production of signature cytokine IL-17. In last few years, several studies have strongly established the regulatory role of Th17 cells and its signature cytokine IL-17 in autoimmune diseases including psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis. Psoriasis and PsA are immune mediated hyperproliferative diseases, affecting skin and joint respectively. Before the discovery of Th17 cells, psoriasis and psoriatic diseases were thought to be chiefly Th1 mediated diseases; later on IL-17 knockout animal studies as well as human experimental data indicate the crucial role of Th17 cells and its signature cytokine IL-17 in the pathogenesis of these diseases. In vitro human studies have shown the abundance of Th17 cells in the psoriatic plaques. Subsequently our research group has extended this observation in psoriatic arthritis and found the abundance of CD4+IL-17+ T cells in the synovial fluid and majority of these T cells are of memory phenotype (CD4RO+CD45RA-CD11a+). In addition, we showed the significant presence of functional IL-17 receptor in synovial fibroblast of psoriatic arthritis patients. Considering the strong association of IL-17 and psoriatic disease, IL-17 targeted therapy have shown promises in preclinical and clinical trials. In this review article, we have discussed the pathogenic role of IL-17 in psoriatic disease and summarized the therapeutic efficacy and safety profile of different anti IL-17 therapy as an anti-psoriatic agent. PMID:25398489

  13. Targeting the IL-4/IL-13 signaling pathway sensitizes Hodgkin lymphoma cells to chemotherapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Natoli, Antonino; Lüpertz, Regine; Merz, Christian; Müller, Wolfgang W; Köhler, Rebecca; Krammer, Peter H; Li-Weber, Min

    2013-10-15

    Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg lymphoma (HL) is a clonal B-cell-related malignancy. Although many patients with HL can be cured by the current regimen of high-dose multi-agent chemotherapy, the treatment causes high risks of later pathologies including secondary malignancies. This fact highlights the demand to develop rational treatment for HL. Survival and growth of HL cells are largely dependent on their microenvironment. In this study, using the HL cell lines L1236 and KM-H2 as model systems, we investigated the role of IL-4/IL-13 signaling in regulation of drug sensitivity and resistance in HL. We show that specific blocking of IL-4 and IL-13-mediated STAT6 activation by either an IL-4-binding fusion protein APG598 or an IL-4R antagonist APG201 (R121D/Y124D) renders HL cells more prone to apoptotic killing by chemotherapeutic drugs such as Mitomycin C, 5-Fluorouracil, Etopside, Doxorubicin and Paclitaxel. This effect is due to inhibition of STAT6-mediated elevation of expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bcl-xL. Employing ChIP analysis in combination with APG201 or STAT6-specific siRNA we identified a defined STAT6-binding site in the Bcl-xL promoter region from -1967 to -1957 of the transcription start site. Our data demonstrate that the IL-4/IL-13-STAT6-Bcl-xL axis may be an important target for HL treatment. This study also suggests that combination of classical chemotherapeutic drugs with the IL-4/IL-13 antagonists may enhance efficacy and reduce risks of toxicity from high dose of drugs in HL treatment. PMID:23553437

  14. IL-1 and T Helper Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Santarlasci, Veronica; Cosmi, Lorenzo; Maggi, Laura; Liotta, Francesco; Annunziato, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    CD4 T cells play a critical role in mediating adaptive immunity to a variety of pathogens as well as in tumor immunity. If not adequately regulated, CD4 T cells can be also involved in autoimmunity, asthma, and allergic responses. During TCR activation in a particular cytokine milieu, naïve CD4 T cells may differentiate into one of several lineages of T helper (Th) cells, including Th1, Th2, and Th17, as defined by their pattern of cytokine production and function. IL-1, the prototypic proinflammatory cytokine, has been shown to influence growth and differentiation of immunocompetent lymphocytes. The differential expression of IL-1RI on human CD4 T cell subsets confers distinct capacities to acquire specific effector functions. In this review, we summarize the role of IL-1 on CD4 T cells, in terms of differentiation, activation, and maintenance or survival. PMID:23874332

  15. The Potential for Pocket Parks to Increase Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah A.; Marsh, Terry; Williamson, Stephanie; Han, Bing; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Golinelli, Daniella; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the use of new pocket parks in low-income neighborhoods. Setting Los Angeles Subjects Parks users and residents living within ½ mile of 3 pocket parks and 15 neighborhood parks Intervention The creation of pocket parks Design Quasi-experimental post-only comparison Measures We used the System of Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) to measure park use and park-based physical activity and surveyed park users and residents about their park use. Analysis We surveyed 392 and 432 household members within one-half mile of the 3 pocket parks before and after park construction, respectively, as well as 71 pocket park users and compared them to 992 neighborhood park users and 342 residents living within ½ mile of other neighborhood parks. We compared pocket park use to playground area use in the larger neighborhood parks. We used descriptive statistics and Generalized Estimating Equations for the analysis. Results Overall, pocket park use compared favorably in promoting moderate-to-vigorous physical activity with that of existing playground space in nearby parks and they were cost-effective at $0.73/MET hour gained. Pocket park visitors walked an average of 0.25 miles to get there. Conclusions Pocket parks, when perceived as attractive and safe destinations, may increase physical activity by encouraging families with children to walk there. Additional strategies and programs may be needed to encourage more residents to use the parks. PMID:24380461

  16. Pre-activation with IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18 induces CD25 and a functional high affinity IL-2 receptor on human cytokine-induced memory-like NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Jeffrey W.; Chase, Julie M.; Romee, Rizwan; Schneider, Stephanie E.; Sullivan, Ryan P.; Cooper, Megan A.; Fehniger, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    NK cells are effector lymphocytes that are under clinical investigation for the adoptive immunotherapy of hematologic malignancies, especially acute myeloid leukemia. Recent work in mice has identified innate memory-like properties of NK cells. Human NK cells also exhibit memory-like properties, and cytokine-induced memory-like (CIML) NK cells are generated via brief pre-activation with IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18, which later exhibit enhanced functionality upon restimulation. However, investigation of the optimal cytokine receptors and signals for maintenance of enhanced function and homeostasis following pre-activation remains unclear. Here, we show that IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18 pre-activation induces a rapid and prolonged expression of CD25, resulting in a functional high affinity IL-2 receptor (IL-2R???) that confers responsiveness to picomolar concentrations of IL-2. The expression of CD25 correlated with STAT5 phosphorylation in response to picomolar concentrations of IL-2, indicating the presence of a signal-competent IL-2R???. Furthermore, picomolar concentrations of IL-2 acted synergistically with IL-12 to co-stimulate IFN-? production by pre-activated NK cells, an effect that was CD25-dependent. Picomolar concentrations of IL-2 also enhanced NK cell proliferation and cytotoxicity via the IL-2R???. Further, following adoptive transfer into immunodeficient NOD-SCID-?c?/? mice, human cytokine pre-activated NK cells expand preferentially in response to exogenous IL-2. Collectively, these data demonstrate that human CIML NK cells respond to IL-2 via IL-2R??? with enhanced survival and functionality, and provide additional rationale for immunotherapeutic strategies that include brief cytokine pre-activation prior to adoptive NK cell transfer, followed by low dose IL-2 therapy. PMID:24434782

  17. IL-37 mediates the antitumor activity in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yazhuo; Wang, Yili; Liang, Liang; Gao, Yang; Chen, Juan; Sun, Yi; Cheng, Yongyi; Xu, Yonggang

    2015-11-01

    Interleukin (IL)-37 is a natural suppressor of innate inflammatory and immune responses. IL-37 plays an important role in renal function and antitumor activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of IL-37 in renal cell carcinoma (Rcc). Serum IL-37 levels in 120 Rcc patients and 50 healthy controls were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The Rcc cell lines A498 and Caki-1 were cultured with 0-100 ng/mL of recombinant human IL-37 protein (rhIL-37). Cancer cells were transfected with or without pcDNA3.1-IL-6 to alter IL-6 expression. Cell migration, proliferation, and apoptosis were tested by wound-healing assay, MTT, and flow cytometry, respectively. Levels of IL-6, pSTAT3 Y705, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, and HIF-1? were detected by qRT-PCR, ELISA, or western blot. Additionally, therapeutic effect of rhIL-37 was also confirmed in SCID mice. The expression of IL-37 was decreased in Rcc patients and was negatively correlated with tumor progression. In vitro, IL-37 markedly inhibited the migration and proliferation, and promoted apoptosis in Rcc cells. Furthermore, the expressions of IL-6, pSTAT3 Y705, HIF-1?, Bcl-2, and cyclin D1 were decreased by IL-37. However, these effects were reversed by the transfection of pcDNA3.1-IL-6. In vivo, tumor growth and gene expressions of IL-6 and HIF-1? were suppressed by IL-37. In conclusion, IL-37 might serve as a novel tumor suppressor in Rcc and exert its antitumor activity through inhibiting IL-6/STAT3 signaling. PMID:26464282

  18. Altered expression of IL-10 family cytokines in monocytes from CRMO patients result in enhanced IL-1? expression and release.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, S R; Kubasch, A S; Ioannidis, C; Rösen-Wolff, A; Girschick, H J; Morbach, H; Hedrich, C M

    2015-12-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is characterized by reduced activation of protein kinases ERK1 and 2 in monocytes resulting in impaired IL-10 expression. IL10 and its homologs IL19 and IL20 are organized in the IL10 cluster on chromosome 1q32. IL-10 and IL-19 are immune-regulatory cytokines, while IL-20 acts in a pro-inflammatory manner. The NLRP3 inflammasome, a multi-protein complex forming in response to innate stimuli, mediates IL-1? cleavage and release. Here, we investigated IL-10-related cytokine expression in CRMO monocytes, underlying molecular events, and effects on inflammatory responses. We observed reduced anti-inflammatory IL-10 and IL-19 expression, and enhanced IL-20 expression in CRMO monocytes. Reduced IL-10 and IL-19 expression was associated with impaired Sp-1 recruitment to regulatory regions, contributing to NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which may induce inflammatory bone-loss. Our findings underscore the importance of balanced receptor-, cell-, and tissue-specific cytokine expression for immune homeostasis, providing additional arguments for cytokine blocking strategies in CRMO. PMID:26404542

  19. Acid-dependent Interleukin-1 (IL-1) Cleavage Limits Available Pro-IL-1? for Caspase-1 Cleavage.

    PubMed

    Edye, Michelle E; Brough, David; Allan, Stuart M

    2015-10-16

    Noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease (stroke and heart attack), cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and diabetes are a leading cause of death and disability worldwide and are worsened by inflammation. IL-1 is a driver of inflammation and implicated in many noncommunicable diseases. Acidosis is also a key feature of the inflammatory microenvironment; therefore it is vital to explore IL-1 signaling under acidic conditions. A HEK-IL-1 reporter assay and brain endothelial cell line were used to explore activity of mature IL-1? and IL-1? at pH 7.4 and pH 6.2, an acidic pH that can be reached under inflammatory or ischemic conditions, alongside cathepsin D-cleaved 20-kDa IL-1? produced under acidic conditions. We report that mature IL-1 signaling at IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) is maintained at pH 6.2, but the activity of the decoy receptor, IL-1R2, is reduced. Additionally, cathepsin D-cleaved 20-kDa IL-1? was minimally active at IL-1R1 and was not further cleaved to highly active 17-kDa IL-1?. Therefore formation of the 20-kDa form of IL-1? may prevent the generation of mature bioactive IL-1? and thus may limit inflammation. PMID:26324708

  20. Acid-dependent Interleukin-1 (IL-1) Cleavage Limits Available Pro-IL-1? for Caspase-1 Cleavage*

    PubMed Central

    Edye, Michelle E.; Brough, David; Allan, Stuart M.

    2015-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease (stroke and heart attack), cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and diabetes are a leading cause of death and disability worldwide and are worsened by inflammation. IL-1 is a driver of inflammation and implicated in many noncommunicable diseases. Acidosis is also a key feature of the inflammatory microenvironment; therefore it is vital to explore IL-1 signaling under acidic conditions. A HEK-IL-1 reporter assay and brain endothelial cell line were used to explore activity of mature IL-1? and IL-1? at pH 7.4 and pH 6.2, an acidic pH that can be reached under inflammatory or ischemic conditions, alongside cathepsin D-cleaved 20-kDa IL-1? produced under acidic conditions. We report that mature IL-1 signaling at IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) is maintained at pH 6.2, but the activity of the decoy receptor, IL-1R2, is reduced. Additionally, cathepsin D-cleaved 20-kDa IL-1? was minimally active at IL-1R1 and was not further cleaved to highly active 17-kDa IL-1?. Therefore formation of the 20-kDa form of IL-1? may prevent the generation of mature bioactive IL-1? and thus may limit inflammation. PMID:26324708

  1. The DuBois-Reymond Fundamental Lemma of the Fractional Calculus of Variations and an Euler-Lagrange Equation Involving only Derivatives of Caputo

    E-print Network

    Matheus J. Lazo; Delfim F. M. Torres

    2012-10-02

    Derivatives and integrals of non-integer order were introduced more than three centuries ago, but only recently gained more attention due to their application on nonlocal phenomena. In this context, the Caputo derivatives are the most popular approach to fractional calculus among physicists, since differential equations involving Caputo derivatives require regular boundary conditions. Motivated by several applications in physics and other sciences, the fractional calculus of variations is currently in fast development. However, all current formulations for the fractional variational calculus fail to give an Euler-Lagrange equation with only Caputo derivatives. In this work, we propose a new approach to the fractional calculus of variations by generalizing the DuBois-Reymond lemma and showing how Euler-Lagrange equations involving only Caputo derivatives can be obtained.

  2. Fasting Induces IL-1 Resistance and Free-Fatty Acid-Mediated Up-Regulation of IL-1R2 and IL-1RA

    PubMed Central

    Joesting, Jennifer J.; Moon, Morgan L.; Gainey, Stephen J.; Tisza, Brittany L.; Blevins, Neil A.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Weight-loss is a near societal obsession and many diet programs use significant calorie restriction including fasting/short term starvation to generate rapid effects. Fasting is also a well-recognized cause of immunosuppression especially within the innate immune system. In this study, we sought to determine if the IL-1 arm of the neuroimmune system was down-regulated by a 24?h fast and how fasting might generate this effect. Design: Mice were allowed ad libitum access to food or had food withheld for 24?h. Expression of the endogenous IL-1 antagonists, IL-1 receptor type 2 (IL-1R2), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) was determined as were sickness behaviors before and after IL-1? administration. Results: Fasting markedly increased gene expression of IL-1R2 (83-fold in adipose tissue, 9.5-fold in liver) and IL-1RA (68-fold in liver). Fasted mice were protected from IL-1?-induced weight-loss, hypoglycemia, loss of locomotor, and social anxiety. These protections were coupled to a large positive interaction of fasting and IL-1? on IL-1R2 gene expression in adipose tissue and liver (2.6- and 1.6-fold, respectively). Fasting not only increased IL-1RA and IL-1R2 protein 2.5- and 3.2-fold, respectively, in liver but also increased IL-1R2 1.8-fold in adipose tissue. Fasting, in turn, triggered a 2.4-fold increase in plasma free-fatty acids (FFAs) and a 2.1-fold increase in plasma corticosterone. Inhibition, of glucocorticoid action with mifepristone did not impact fasting-dependent IL-1R2 or IL-1RA gene expression. Administration of the FFA, palmitate, to mice increased liver IL-1R2 and IL-1RA gene expression by 14- and 11-fold, respectively. Conclusion: These findings indicate that fasting augments expression of endogenous IL-1 antagonists inducing IL-1 resistance. Fasting-induced increases in plasma FFAs appears to be a signal that drives immunosuppression during fasting/short term starvation. PMID:25071776

  3. Numerical Analysis of the Dynamics of Two- and Three-Dimensional Fluidized Bed Reactors using an Euler-Lagrange Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Pepiot, P.; Desjardins, O.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass thermochemical conversion, often done in fluidized beds, recently gained a lot of attention due to its potential to efficiently produce renewable liquid fuels. Optimization of reactor design and operating conditions, however, requires a fundamental understanding of bed dynamics. In this work, a numerical framework based on an Euler-Lagrange approach is developed and used to perform and analyze large-scale simulations of two- and three-dimensional periodic fluidized beds. Collisions are handled using a soft-sphere model. An efficient parallel implementation allows one to explicitly track over 30 million particles, which is representative of the number of particles found in lab-scale reactor, therefore demonstrating the capability of Lagrangian approaches to simulate realistic systems at that scale. An on-the-fly bubble identification and tracking algorithm is used to characterize bubble dynamics for inlet velocities up to 9 times the minimum fluidization velocity. Statistics for gas volume fraction, gas and particle velocities, bed expansion, and bubble size and velocity, is compared across the two- and three-dimensional configurations, and comparison with literature data generally shows good agreement. The wide distribution of gas residence times observed in the simulations is linked to the different gas hold-up characteristics of the gas-solid system.

  4. International Space Station Centrifuge Rotor Models A Comparison of the Euler-Lagrange and the Bond Graph Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Louis H.; Ramakrishnan, Jayant; Granda, Jose J.

    2006-01-01

    The assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) require extensive testing and engineering analysis to verify that the Space Station system of systems would work together without any adverse interactions. Since the dynamic behavior of an entire Space Station cannot be tested on earth, math models of the Space Station structures and mechanical systems have to be built and integrated in computer simulations and analysis tools to analyze and predict what will happen in space. The ISS Centrifuge Rotor (CR) is one of many mechanical systems that need to be modeled and analyzed to verify the ISS integrated system performance on-orbit. This study investigates using Bond Graph modeling techniques as quick and simplified ways to generate models of the ISS Centrifuge Rotor. This paper outlines the steps used to generate simple and more complex models of the CR using Bond Graph Computer Aided Modeling Program with Graphical Input (CAMP-G). Comparisons of the Bond Graph CR models with those derived from Euler-Lagrange equations in MATLAB and those developed using multibody dynamic simulation at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of the Bond Graph modeling approach for aeronautics and space applications.

  5. Treatment of acoustic fluid-structure interaction by Localized Lagrange Multipliers and comparison to alternative interface coupling methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Felippa, Carlos A.; Sprague, Michael A.; Ross, Michael R.; Park, K. C.

    2008-11-01

    This paper is a sequel on the topic of localized Lagrange multipliers (LLM) for applications of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between finite-element models of an acoustic fluid and an elastic structure. The prequel paper formulated the spatial-discretization methods, the LLM interface treatment, the time-marching partitioned analysis procedures, and the application to 1D benchmark problems. Here, we expand on formulation aspects required for successful application to more realistic 2D and 3D problems. Additional topics include duality relations at the fluid-structure interface, partitioned vibration analysis, reduced-order modeling, handling of curved interface surfaces, and comparison of LLM with other coupling methods. Emphasis is given to non-matching fluid-structure meshes. We present benchmark examples that illustrate the benefits and drawbacks of competing interface treatments. Realistic application problems involving the seismic response of two existing dams are considered. These include 2D modal analyses of the Koyna gravity dam, transient-response analyses of that dam with and without reduced-order modeling, incorporation of nonlinear cavitation effects, and the 3D transient-response analysis of the Morrow Point arch dam.

  6. 2. SOUTH SIDE, FROM PARK ACROSS PARKING LOT/F STREET, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH SIDE, FROM PARK ACROSS PARKING LOT/F STREET, LOOKING NORTH. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administration Building-Dental Annex-Dispensary, Between E & F Streets, East of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  7. 77 FR 12761 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycle Route

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ...Tucson, AZ 85730-5601. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bob Love, Chief Ranger, Saguaro National Park, 520-591-1013...Information The primary authors of this regulation are Robert Love, Chief Ranger, Saguaro National Park, Darla Sidles,...

  8. 77 FR 60050 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...13211. A statement of Energy Effects is not required. Drafting Information The primary authors of this regulation are Robert Love, Chief Ranger, Saguaro National Park, Darla Sidles, Superintendent, Saguaro National Park, John Calhoun and A.J....

  9. 76 FR 39048 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... National Park Service (NPS) is proposing this rule to establish a management framework that allows the... Hand Deliver to: Management Assistant's Office, Headquarters Building, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone... CONTACT: Wade Vagias, Management Assistant's Office, Headquarters Building, Yellowstone National Park,...

  10. Elevated IL-33 expression is associated with pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis, and exogenous IL-33 promotes eosinophilic esophagitis development in mice.

    PubMed

    Judd, L M; Heine, R G; Menheniott, T R; Buzzelli, J; O'Brien-Simpson, N; Pavlic, D; O'Connor, L; Al Gazali, K; Hamilton, O; Scurr, M; Collison, A M; Mattes, J; Allen, K J; Giraud, A S

    2016-01-01

    We tested whether the T helper (Th) type 2 (Th2) cell agonist and allergenic ligand IL-33 was associated with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) development in a pediatric cohort and whether IL-33 protein could induce disease symptoms in mice. Biopsies from EoE patients or controls were used to measure IL-33 mRNA and protein expression. Increased expression of IL-33 mRNA was found in the esophageal mucosa in EoE. IL-33 protein was detected in cells negative for CD45, mast cells, and epithelial cell markers near blood vessels. Circulating levels of IL-33 were not increased. The time course for IL-33 gene expression was quantified in an established Aspergillus fumigatus allergen mouse model of EoE. Because IL-33 induction was transient in this model and chronicity of IL-33 expression has been demonstrated in humans, naive mice were treated with recombinant IL-33 for 1 wk and esophageal pathology was evaluated. IL-33 application produced changes consistent with phenotypically early EoE, including transmural eosinophilia, mucosal hyperproliferation, and upregulation of eosinophilic genes and chemokines. Th2 cytokines, including IL-13, along with innate lymphoid cell group 2, Th1/17, and M2 macrophage marker genes, were increased after IL-33 application. IL-33-induced eosinophilia was ablated in IL-13 null mice. In addition, IL-33 induced a profound inhibition of the regulatory T cell gene signature. We conclude that IL-33 gene expression is associated with pediatric EoE development and that application of recombinant protein in mice phenocopies the early clinical phase of the human disease in an IL-13-dependent manner. IL-33 inhibition of esophageal regulatory T cell function may induce loss of antigenic tolerance, thereby providing a mechanistic rationale for EoE development. PMID:26514775

  11. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road,...

  12. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road,...

  13. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road,...

  14. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road,...

  15. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  16. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  17. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  18. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  19. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  20. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  1. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  2. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  3. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  4. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  5. Car Parking Policy 2015/2016 Principal Document

    E-print Network

    Lucy, David

    Car Parking Policy 2015/2016 Principal Document 1 CAR PARKING POLICY DOCUMENTATION Car Parking Policy ­ Principal Document 2015/16 Effective 1ST October 2015 #12;Car Parking Policy 2015/2016 Principal Document 2 CAR PARKING POLICY ­ PRINCIPAL DOCUMENT OCTOBER 1st 2015 to SEPTEMBER 30th 2016 1. Permit

  6. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a) Commercial... motor vehicles to Grand Canyon National Park contained in § 5.4 of this chapter shall be subject to...

  7. Qualitatively Different T Cell Phenotypic Responses to IL-2 versus IL-15 Are Unified by Identical Dependences on Receptor Signal Strength and Duration

    E-print Network

    Arneja, Abhinav

    IL-2 and IL-15 are common ?-chain family cytokines involved in regulation of T cell differentiation and homeostasis. Despite signaling through the same receptors, IL-2 and IL-15 have non-redundant roles in T cell biology, ...

  8. Curcumin blocks interleukin (IL)-2 signaling in T-lymphocytes by inhibiting IL-2 synthesis, CD25 expression, and IL-2 receptor signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Forward, Nicholas A.; Conrad, David M.; Power Coombs, Melanie R.; Doucette, Carolyn D.; Furlong, Suzanne J.; Lin, Tong-Jun; Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia ; Hoskin, David W.

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} Curcumin inhibits CD4{sup +} T-lymphocyte proliferation. {yields} Curcumin inhibits interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis and CD25 expression by CD4{sup +} T-lymphocytes. {yields} Curcumin interferes with IL-2 receptor signaling by inhibiting JAK3 and STAT5 phosphorylation. {yields} IL-2-dependent regulatory T-lymphocyte function and Foxp3 expression is downregulated by curcumin. -- Abstract: Curcumin (diferulomethane) is the principal curcuminoid in the spice tumeric and a potent inhibitor of activation-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation; however, the molecular basis of this immunosuppressive effect has not been well studied. Here we show that micromolar concentrations of curcumin inhibited DNA synthesis by mouse CD4{sup +} T-lymphocytes, as well as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and CD25 ({alpha} chain of the high affinity IL-2 receptor) expression in response to antibody-mediated cross-linking of CD3 and CD28. Curcumin acted downstream of protein kinase C activation and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release to inhibit I{kappa}B phosphorylation, which is required for nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NF{kappa}B. In addition, IL-2-dependent DNA synthesis by mouse CTLL-2 cells, but not constitutive CD25 expression, was impaired in the presence of curcumin, which demonstrated an inhibitory effect on IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling. IL-2-induced phosphorylation of STAT5A and JAK3, but not JAK1, was diminished in the presence of curcumin, indicating inhibition of critical proximal events in IL-2R signaling. In line with the inhibitory action of curcumin on IL-2R signaling, pretreatment of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T-cells with curcumin downregulated suppressor function, as well as forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) expression. We conclude that curcumin inhibits IL-2 signaling by reducing available IL-2 and high affinity IL-2R, as well as interfering with IL-2R signaling.

  9. Regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 production by reciprocal cell-to-cell interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts through IL-1? in ameloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchigami, Takao; Kibe, Toshiro; Koyama, Hirofumi; Kishida, Shosei; Iijima, Mikio; Nishizawa, Yoshiaki; Hijioka, Hiroshi; Fujii, Tomomi; Ueda, Masahiro; Nakamura, Norifumi; Kiyono, Tohru; Kishida, Michiko

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • We studied the interaction between tumor cells and fibroblasts in ameloblastoma. • AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted significantly high IL-1? levels. • IL-1? derived from AM-3 cells promoted IL-6 and IL-8 secretion of fibroblasts. • IL-6 and IL-8 activated the cellular motility and proliferation of AM-3 cells. - Abstract: Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic benign tumor that occurs in the jawbone, which invades bone and reoccurs locally. This tumor is treated by wide surgical excision and causes various problems, including changes in facial countenance and mastication disorders. Ameloblastomas have abundant tumor stroma, including fibroblasts and immune cells. Although cell-to-cell interactions are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, intercellular communications in ameloblastoma have not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts via soluble factors in ameloblastoma. We used a human ameloblastoma cell line (AM-3 ameloblastoma cells), human fibroblasts (HFF-2 fibroblasts), and primary-cultured fibroblasts from human ameloblastoma tissues, and analyzed the effect of ameloblastoma-associated cell-to-cell communications on gene expression, cytokine secretion, cellular motility and proliferation. AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1? than HFF-2 fibroblasts. Treatment with conditioned medium from AM-3 ameloblastoma cells upregulated gene expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 of HFF-2 fibroblasts and primary-cultured fibroblast cells from ameloblastoma tissues. The AM3-stimulated production of IL-6 and IL-8 in fibroblasts was neutralized by pretreatment of AM-3 cells with anti-IL-1? antibody and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Reciprocally, cellular motility of AM-3 ameloblastoma cells was stimulated by HFF-2 fibroblasts in IL-6 and IL-8 dependent manner. In conclusion, ameloblastoma cells and stromal fibroblasts behave interactively via these cytokines to create a microenvironment that leads to the extension of ameloblastomas.

  10. Identification of contact and respiratory sensitizers according to IL-4 receptor ? expression and IL-2 production

    SciTech Connect

    Goutet, Michèle Pépin, Elsa; Langonné, Isabelle; Huguet, Nelly; Ban, Masarin

    2012-04-15

    Identification of allergenic chemicals is an important occupational safety issue. While several methods exist to identify contact sensitizers, there is currently no validated model to predict the potential of chemicals to act as respiratory sensitizers. Previously, we reported that cytometry analysis of the local immune responses induced in mice dermally exposed to the respiratory sensitizer trimellitic anhydride (TMA 10%) and contact sensitizer dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB 1%) could identify divergent expression of several immune parameters. The present study confirms, first, that IgE-positive B cells, MHC class II molecules, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-4R? can differentiate the allergic reactions caused by high doses of strong respiratory (TMA, phthalic anhydride and toluene diisocyanate) and contact sensitizers (DNCB, dinitrofluorobenzene and oxazolone). The second part of the study was designed to test the robustness of these markers when classing the weakly immunogenic chemicals most often encountered. Six respiratory allergens, including TMA (2.5%), five contact allergens, including DNCB (0.25%), and two irritants were compared at doses of equivalent immunogenicity. The results indicated that IL-4R? and IL-2 can be reliably used to discriminate sensitizers. Respiratory sensitizers induced markedly higher IL-4R? levels than contact allergens, while irritants had no effect on this parameter. Inversely, contact allergens tended to induce higher percentages of IL-2{sup +}CD8{sup +} cells than respiratory allergens. In contrast, the markers MHC-II, IgE and IL-4 were not able to classify chemicals with low immunogenic potential. In conclusion, IL-4R? and IL-2 have the potential to be used in classifying a variety of chemical allergens. -- Highlights: ? Identification of chemical allergens is an important occupational safety issue. ? There is currently no model to predict the potential of chemicals to induce asthma. ? We analyze immune responses induced in mice by a variety of chemical sensitizers. ? IL-2 and IL-4R alpha show potential to discriminate between both types of allergens. ? This method could be applied to highly and weakly immunogenic chemicals.

  11. The ILS--The Pentagon Library's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullane, Ruth

    1984-01-01

    Describes implementation of five subsystems of Integrated Library System's (ILS) version 2.1 (minicomputer-based automated library system) at the Pentagon Library: online catalog (search strategies, user acceptance); bibliographic subsystems (cataloging, retrospective conversion); circulation; serials check-in; administrative subsystem (report…

  12. LE RISORSE DELL'UNIVERSIT IL FINANZIAMENTO

    E-print Network

    Mascardi, Viviana

    essere state quasi 16.700 milioni di euro (Tav. 1.1.1). Valutate in termini reali 2005, nell'OCSE Totale Pubblica Privata Anno Valori correnti Valori correnti Valori correnti Valori intermini reali2005 Valori intermini reali2005 Valori intermini reali2005 Grafico 1.1.1 - Spesa privata per il sistema

  13. ParkSense: A Smartphone Based Sensing System For On-Street Parking

    E-print Network

    Mascolo, Cecilia

    if a driver has vacated a parking spot. ParkSense leverages the ubiquitous Wi-Fi beacons in urban areas for sensing unparking events. It utilizes a robust Wi-Fi signature matching approach to detect driver's return to the parked vehicle. Moreover, it uses a novel approach based on the rate of change of Wi-Fi beacons to sense

  14. Pupils and Parks: Environmental Education in National Parks of Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Susan K.; Padua, Suzana M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes two conservation education programs that target local primary schools and use national parks in Malaysian Borneo (Kinabalu Park) and central Brazil (Morro do Diabo Park). Both were designed using a comprehensive systems evaluation model and both resulted in cognitive and affective gains for students. (LB)

  15. Parks as Resources for Knowledge in Science (PARKS) National Program Evaluation Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltz, L. Kate

    This document evaluates the Parks as Resources for Knowledge in Science (PARKS) project which supports environmental education in 36 National Parks across the United States and provides curriculum-based learning opportunities that integrate National Science Education Standards for teachers and students. Contents include: (1) "Executive…

  16. Park Planning Handbook. Fundamentals of Physical Planning for Parks and Recreation Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Monty L.

    This book is written primarily as a textbook for students of recreation and park administration. It is organized in two parts. Part one gives a detailed description of the process of park planning, phase by phase, explaining the functions, roles, contributions, and responsibilities of the members of the park planning team, from predesign…

  17. Optimisation of Car Park Designs ESGI91 Optimisation of Car Park Designs

    E-print Network

    Tarrès, Pierre

    Optimisation of Car Park Designs ESGI91 Optimisation of Car Park Designs Problem presented by Ian Wise & Roland Trim ARUP (Bristol, UK) Executive Summary i #12;Optimisation of Car Park Designs ESGI91 The problem presented by ARUP to the Study Group was to investigate methods for maximising the number of car

  18. 78 FR 22470 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System; Yellowstone National Park; Winter Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ...The National Park Service is proposing this rule to establish a management framework that allows the public to experience the unique winter resources and values at Yellowstone National Park. This rule includes provisions that allow greater flexibility for commercial tour operators, provide mechanisms to make the park cleaner and quieter than what has been authorized during the previous four......

  19. IL-7 and IL-15 differentially regulate CD8+ T-cell subsets during contraction of the immune response

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Mark P.; Lind, Nicholas A.; Purton, Jared F.; Filippou, Pauline; Best, J. Adam; McGhee, Patrick A.; Surh, Charles D.

    2008-01-01

    Although it is known that interleukin-7 (IL-7) and IL-15 influence the survival and turnover of CD8+ T cells, less is known about how these cytokines affect different subsets during the course of the immune response. We find that IL-7 and IL-15 differentially regulate CD8+ T-cell subsets defined by KLRG1 and CD127 expression during the contraction phase of the immune response. The provision of IL-15, or the related cytokine IL-2, during contraction led to the preferential accumulation of KLRG1hiCD127lo CD8+ T cells, whereas provision of IL-7 instead favored the accumulation of KLRG1loCD127hi cells. While IL-7 and IL-15 both induced proliferation of KLRG1lo cells, KLRG1hi cells exhibited an extraordinarily high level of resistance to cytokine-driven proliferation in vivo despite their dramatic accumulation upon IL-15 administration. These results suggest that IL-15 and IL-2 greatly improve the survival of KLRG1hi CD8+ T cells, which are usually destined to perish during contraction, without inducing proliferation. As the availability of IL-15 and IL-2 is enhanced during periods of extended inflammation, our results suggest a mechanism in which a population of cytokine-dependent KLRG1hi CD8+ T cells is temporarily retained for improved immunity. Consideration of these findings may aid in the development of immunotherapeutic strategies against infectious disease and cancer. PMID:18689546

  20. 77 FR 75254 - List of Units of the National Park System Exempt From the Provisions of the National Parks Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Monument, AZ Pecos National Historical Park, NM Petrified Forest National Park, AZ Petroglyph National... National Park System Exempt From the Provisions of the National Parks Air Tour Management Act AGENCIES... national park system where an operator has requested authority to provide commercial air tours. The...

  1. IL-2/IL-2 antibody immune complex regulates HSV-induced inflammation through induction of IL-2 receptor alpha, beta, and gamma in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ju Young; Choi, Bunsoon; Shim, Ju A; Lee, Eun-So; Kim, Do Young; Bang, Dongsik; Sohn, Seonghyang

    2015-12-01

    The differences of serum IL-2 levels were not consistent between Behçet's Disease (BD) patients and healthy controls, however, the correlation of interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) and BD has not been investigated. IL-2R is composed of three subunits; alpha, beta, and gamma. The expression frequencies of IL-2R subunits were analyzed in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells, spleens, and lymph node (LN) cells. The expression of IL-2R subunits was different between BD mice and controls. IL-2R beta expressing cell frequencies were also different between BD patients and healthy controls. The IL-2/anti-mIL-2 antibody complex administration regulated the IL-2R subunits in mice. The change of expression in IL-2R was accompanied by the increase of CD8+CD44+?memory T cells, CD3-NK1.1+CD11b+CD27+?natural killer cells, and improvement of symptoms. In this study, we elucidated the role of IL-2R subunits on BD, a finding that can be connected to therapeutic strategy for patients based on the results from the treatment of BD mice. PMID:26213097

  2. The molecular basis of IL-21–mediated proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Rong; Spolski, Rosanne; Casas, Esther; Zhu, Wei; Levy, David E.

    2007-01-01

    Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a type I cytokine that modulates functions of T, B, natural killer (NK), and myeloid cells. The IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) is closely related to the IL-2 receptor ? chain and is capable of transducing signals through its dimerization with the common cytokine receptor ? chain (?c), the protein whose expression is defective in humans with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. To clarify the molecular basis of IL-21 actions, we investigated the role of tyrosine residues in the IL-21R cytoplasmic domain. Simultaneous mutation of all 6 tyrosines greatly diminished IL-21–mediated proliferation, whereas retention of tyrosine 510 (Y510) allowed full proliferation. Y510 efficiently mediated IL-21–induced phosphorylation of Stat1 and Stat3, but not of Stat5, and CD8+ T cells from Stat1/Stat3 double knock-out mice exhibited decreased proliferation in response to IL-21 + IL-15. In addition, IL-21 weakly induced phosphorylation of Shc and Akt, and consistent with this, specific inhibitors of the MAPK and PI3K pathways inhibited IL-21–mediated proliferation. Collectively, these data indicate the involvement of the Jak-STAT, MAPK, and PI3K pathways in IL-21 signaling. PMID:17234735

  3. Paradoxical Roles of IL-4 in Tumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiguang; Chen, Lin; Qin, Zhihai

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-4 is a crucial cytokine in tumor immunology. In the initial murine experiments, IL-4 exhibited potent anti-tumor ability. Tumors genetically modified to produce IL-4 were rejected, while parental tumors grew progressively. Mice rejected IL-4-producing tumors got long-lasting anti-tumor immunity. The comparative study showed that IL-4 induced the most effective immune response among several cytokines in both prophylactic and therapeutic models. All of these indicate IL-4 has strong potential as a tumor therapy agent. However, contrary evidence indeed exists, and is becoming more and more abundant which shows IL-4 is a tumor-promoting molecule. IL-4 amounts are usually elevated in human cancer patients. IL-4 knockout mice are more resistant to tumor challenge than IL-4 competent mice. Furthermore, tumor cells of various histological origins often express increased levels of IL-4 receptor in comparison to their normal counterparts. By carefully examining presently available data, we found the effects of IL-4 in tumor immunity are closely related to its sources, expressing time and dose, as well as the molecular and cellular environments. In this mini-review, we concentrate on illustrating the paradoxical roles and underlying mechanisms of IL-4 in tumor immunity and try to understand how one molecule has opposite effects. PMID:20003817

  4. IL-27 Suppresses Antimicrobial Activity in Human Leprosy.

    PubMed

    Teles, Rosane M B; Kelly-Scumpia, Kindra M; Sarno, Euzenir N; Rea, Thomas H; Ochoa, Maria T; Cheng, Genhong; Modlin, Robert L

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms by which intracellular pathogens trigger immunosuppressive pathways are critical for understanding the pathogenesis of microbial infection. One pathway that inhibits host defense responses involves the induction of type I interferons and subsequently IL-10, yet the mechanism by which type I IFN induces IL-10 remains unclear. Our studies of gene expression profiles derived from leprosy skin lesions suggested a link between IL-27 and the IFN-? induced IL-10 pathway. Here, we demonstrate that the IL-27p28 subunit is upregulated following treatment of monocytes with IFN-? and Mycobacterium leprae, the intracellular bacterium that causes leprosy. The ability of IFN-? and M. leprae to induce IL-10 was diminished by IL-27 knockdown. Additionally, treatment of monocytes with recombinant IL-27 was sufficient to induce the production of IL-10. Functionally, IL-27 inhibited the ability of IFN-? to trigger antimicrobial activity against M. leprae in infected monocytes. At the site of disease, IL-27 was more strongly expressed in skin lesions of patients with progressive lepromatous leprosy, correlating and colocalizing with IFN-? and IL-10 in macrophages. Together, these data provide evidence that in the human cutaneous immune responses to microbial infection, IL-27 contributes to the suppression of host antimicrobial responses. PMID:26030183

  5. IL-6 Transsignaling in Patients with Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Kasperska-Zajac, Alicja; Grzanka, Alicja; Damasiewicz-Bodzek, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Background IL-6 trans-signaling is critically involved in the initiation and promotion of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, we investigated the clinical relevance of soluble members of IL-6 trans-signaling system in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). Methods IL-6, interleukin 6 soluble receptor (IL-6 sR) and soluble gp130 (sgp130) were measured by ELISA method in plasma from CSU patients and the healthy subjects. The data were related to activation of the acute phase response as indicated by serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration and compared between patients stratified by the disease activity. Results Concentrations of IL-6, IL-6 sR, sgp130 in plasma and CRP in serum were significantly elevated in CSU patients compared with the healthy controls. CRP correlated significantly with IL-6 and sgp130, similarly IL-6 correlated significantly with sgp130. By contrast, CRP and IL-6 did not correlate significantly with IL-6 sR. However, significant correlation was noted between IL-6 sR and sgp130. Conclusions Concentrations of IL-6 and its soluble receptors were significantly elevated in patients with CSU, suggesting upregulation of the IL-6 trans-signaling in the disease. In addition, our results support the concept that the system may be involved in pathogenesis of the systemic inflammatory activation in CSU patients. PMID:26699882

  6. Multilevel regulation of IL-6R by IL-6-sIL-6R fusion protein according to the primitiveness of peripheral blood-derived CD133+ cells.

    PubMed

    Campard, David; Vasse, Marc; Rose-John, Stefan; Poyer, Florent; Lamacz, Marek; Vannier, Jean-Pierre

    2006-05-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its soluble receptor (sIL-6R) are major factors for maintenance and expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Sensitivity of HSCs to IL-6 has been previously studied, in part by measuring the expression of IL-6R on the membrane (mIL-6R). Several studies have described the regulation of cell surface expression of IL-6R by several cytokines, but the role of glycoprotein 130 activation has not yet been investigated. In this study, CD133(+) cells were purified from adult peripheral blood and were precultured in the absence or presence of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for selection of quiescent HSCs. Cells were cultured with continuous or pulsed stimulations of an IL-6-sIL-6R fusion protein (hyperinterleukin-6 [HIL-6]) to 1) detect mIL-6R by flow cytometry, 2) assess mIL-6R and sIL-6R RNAs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, 3) measure sIL-6R in supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 4) analyze cell-cycle status, and 5) perform long-term culture-initiating cell assays. The level of mIL-6R(-) cells was preserved by 5-FU incubation. HIL-6 increased steady-state mIL-6R RNA and expression rate on HSCs, independently of treatment with 5-FU. Enhanced production of sIL-6R was observed with short pulses of HIL-6 on CD133(+) 5-FU-pretreated cells. This overproduction of sIL-6R was abrogated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha protease inhibitor-1, an inhibitor of a disintegrin and metalloprotease proteases, suggesting the shedding of mIL-6R. This phenomenon was mediated through the phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase pathway and was involved in the maintenance of primitive HSCs. In conclusion, expression and production of IL-6R are tightly regulated and stage specific. We assume that sIL-6R produced by shedding should be involved in autocrine and paracrine loops in the HSC microenvironment. PMID:16357344

  7. Glyphosate–rich air samples induce IL–33, TSLP and generate IL–13 dependent airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sudhir; Khodoun, Marat; Kettleson, Eric M.; McKnight, Christopher; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Adhikari, Atin

    2014-01-01

    Several low weight molecules have often been implicated in the induction of occupational asthma. Glyphosate, a small molecule herbicide, is widely used in the world. There is a controversy regarding a role of glyphosate in developing asthma and rhinitis among farmers, the mechanism of which is unexplored. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of glyphosate induced pulmonary pathology by utilizing murine models and real environmental samples. C57BL/6, TLR4?/?, and IL-13?/? mice inhaled extracts of glyphosate-rich air samples collected on farms during spraying of herbicides or inhaled different doses of glyphosate and ovalbumin. The cellular response, humoral response, and lung function of exposed mice were evaluated. Exposure to glyphosate-rich air samples as well as glyphosate alone to the lungs increased: eosinophil and neutrophil counts, mast cell degranulation, and production of IL-33, TSLP, IL-13, and IL-5. In contrast, in vivo systemic IL-4 production was not increased. Co-administration of ovalbumin with glyphosate did not substantially change the inflammatory immune response. However, IL-13-deficiency resulted in diminished inflammatory response but did not have a significant effect on airway resistance upon methacholine challenge after 7 or 21 days of glyphosate exposure. Glyphosate-rich farm air samples as well as glyphosate alone were found to induce pulmonary IL-13-dependent inflammation and promote Th2 type cytokines, but not IL-4 for glyphosate alone. This study, for the first time, provides evidence for the mechanism of glyphosate-induced occupational lung disease. PMID:25172162

  8. 36 CFR 7.37 - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.37 Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. (a...ii) Will not be detrimental to other park wildlife or the reproductive potential of the species to be taken; and (iii)...

  9. 36 CFR 7.37 - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.37 Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. (a...ii) Will not be detrimental to other park wildlife or the reproductive potential of the species to be taken; and (iii)...

  10. 36 CFR 7.37 - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.37 Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. (a...ii) Will not be detrimental to other park wildlife or the reproductive potential of the species to be taken; and (iii)...

  11. 36 CFR 7.37 - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.37 Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. (a...ii) Will not be detrimental to other park wildlife or the reproductive potential of the species to be taken; and (iii)...

  12. 36 CFR 7.37 - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.37 Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. (a...ii) Will not be detrimental to other park wildlife or the reproductive potential of the species to be taken; and (iii)...

  13. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Carlsbad Caverns National Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad...

  14. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North...

  15. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion...

  16. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro...

  17. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The...

  18. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44...

  19. 36 CFR 7.23 - Badlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Badlands National Park. 7.23 Section 7.23 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.23 Badlands...

  20. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore...

  1. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia...

  2. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle...

  3. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 ...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot...

  4. Universit degli Studi di Bari Decreto n. 1727 IL RETTORE

    E-print Network

    Ceci, Michelangelo

    della Commissione esaminatrice del programma di ricerca 07.38, settore: VET/01 VET/10 presso il assegno di ricerca al Programma di Ricerca n. 07.38 - settore: VET/01 VET/10 presso il Dipartimento dell

  5. 78 FR 51064 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ...Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...temporary safety zones on waterways near Chicago, IL. These safety zones are intended to restrict vessels from portions of Chicago waterways due to the filming of...

  6. ! During the American park movement in the romantic era, park proponents sought to use urban parks to reform corrupted city dwellers into the good society. Public health,

    E-print Network

    Young, Terence

    Abstract ! During the American park movement in the romantic era, park proponents sought to use and related data is commonly used to assess wether regions provide ample green space to their constituents Park Movement. It was the romantic era and the early proponents of public parks saw them as potential

  7. PARKING MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR REDUCING AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report defines the concept of parking management and explores how parking management can be used to improve air quality, support mass transit, reduce energy consumption and improve the amenities of life in urban areas. Specific aspects of this analysis were developments of a...

  8. Instruction and Delight: Theme Parks and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Margaret J.

    Education continues to operate as an enclave of elite culture and is battling for interest and respect with the mass media, technology, and the popular arts. These cultures must be brought together. Using the creative ideas generated by theme parks is an effective method of importing popular culture into the schools. Theme parks provide a total…

  9. The Arrest Records of Rosa Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredhoff, Stacey; Schamel, Wynell; Potter, Lee Ann

    1999-01-01

    Provides background information on the arrest of Rosa Parks and the effects this event had on the Civil Rights Movement. Offers a collection of teaching activities in which the students examine the arrest records of Rosa Parks and explains that these activities are designed to accompany a unit on racial segregation. (CMK)

  10. PARKING FOR EVENTS RATES AND DIRECTIONS

    E-print Network

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    - ally not available for events. If you decide to park on the street in Hoboken, pay very close attention-hour visitor limit will result in your car being booted or towed. The city of Hoboken has municipal parking" instructions below. FROM ROUTES 3 & 495 EAST Follow signs to Hoboken (the sign will read "Last Exit Before

  11. PennAccess: Penn Park Entrance Information

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    PennAccess: Penn Park Entrance Information: 3000 Walnut Street . Philadelphia . PA . 19104 #12 the north side of Franklin Field. 2. At 3000 Walnut Street; a bridge provides a ramped, pedestrian and wheelchair accessible entry into Penn Park from the Walnut Street Bridge. 3. At 3100 Lower Walnut Street

  12. PARKING COMMISSION MINUTES May 5, 2014

    E-print Network

    costs, then let group work on what parking might look like at KU in fall 2015. There are 5 students up 10% over last year! There is a possibility that the combined ridership with KU and City routes might crack 3 million rides this year. Old Business Park & Ride Non KU-related people have been buying

  13. UCSB Transportation & Parking Services Vehicle Requisition Guidelines

    E-print Network

    UCSB Transportation & Parking Services Vehicle Requisition Guidelines 2/18/2011 1. Purchase of the following vehicle categories may only be made and approved by the Director of Transportation & Parking by departments other than TPS and require only requisition approval by the Transportation Services Manager

  14. Private Sector Thinking Saves Park U.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breckon, Donald; Gibb, John

    2000-01-01

    Recounts the restructuring and resulting survival of Park University (Missouri) over the last decade. A process of evaluating the university's competitive strategy resulted in changes in tuition pricing; development of the Park School of Distance Learning, which serves primarily military installations; minority student marketing; and development…

  15. THE TROUT FISHERY IN SHENANDOAH NATIONAL PARK

    E-print Network

    the Piedmont Plateau to the east results were conflicting, due to reasons which and the Shenandoah Valley395 THE TROUT FISHERY IN SHENANDOAH NATIONAL PARK SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT-FISHERIES Na 395 UNITED, Daniel H. Janzen, Director THE TROUT FISHERY IN SHENANDOAH NATIONAL PARK By Robert E. Lennon Special

  16. How Safe Are School and Park Playgrounds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Susan D.; Thompson, Donna; Olsen, Heather

    2005-01-01

    Playgrounds traditionally have been found in both schools and parks in America. Each year, parent-teacher associations and school administrations, as well as park and recreation departments, spend millions of dollars to provide playground structures. However, since 1981, HPER professionals and the public have become increasingly aware that these…

  17. Handicap Parking Tulsa Transit Bus Stop

    E-print Network

    Fagg, Andrew H.

    Administration Urban Design Studio Innovation Commons Parking Garage (Patient-only parking on 1st floor & 1st Auditorium Classrooms 135 ­ 145 (1st floor) Classrooms 220 ­ 231 (2nd floor) Student Study Rooms (1st & 2nd Building 9 Urban Design Studio (College of Architecture) Learning Center Founders Hall Perkins Family

  18. Transportation and Parking Committee Meeting Minutes

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    Transportation and Parking Committee Meeting Minutes May 14, 2008 AFC Room 201 This meeting was held in conjunction with the Safety and Security Committee. Attendees of the Transportation: · reviewing cross over issues between the Safety and Security Committee and the Transportation and Parking

  19. 78 FR 24323 - National Park Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8961 of April 19, 2013 National Park Week, 2013 By the President of the... be passed on. During National Park Week, we celebrate the wonders entrusted to us by our...

  20. Public Parking Lots > Agriculture Building Parkade

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    HA HC HB HD AE F S E G V Q K R P Public Parking Lots > Agriculture Building Parkade > Pay Parking Engineering Poultry Science Kirk Hall Agriculture Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada SCIENCE PLACE VETERINARY Science Field Laboratory Agriculture Greenhouse I N N O V A T I O N B O U L E V A R D The Galleria 15

  1. Public Parking Lots > Agriculture Building Parkade

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    AE F S E G V Q K R P N S P P Public Parking Lots > Agriculture Building Parkade > Pay Parking Lots ER CRT Thorvaldson Spinks Engineering Poultry Science Kirk Hall Agriculture Agriculture and Agri OFANIMALSPL. Crop Science Field Laboratory Agriculture Greenhouse I N N O V A T I O N B O U L E V A R D

  2. UC Berkeley 1 Bancroft Center Parking

    E-print Network

    Silver, Whendee

    PP UC Berkeley 2 2 3 3 4 4 1 1 Bancroft Center Parking Inkstone Parking Garage Anna Head West Lot Telegraph/Channing Garage 101 Sproul Hall Berkeley, CA 94720 2450 Durant Ave Berkeley, CA 94704 2308 Bowditch Berkeley, CA 94704 2512 Channing Way Berkeley, CA 94704 2558 Bancroft Way Berkeley, CA 94704

  3. Differential Requirements for IL-17A and IL-22 in Cecal versus Colonic Inflammation Induced by Helicobacter hepaticus.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Peter J; Ballantyne, Sarah J; Macdonald, Sandy J; Moore, John W J; Jenkins, David; Wright, Jill F; Fouser, Lynette A; Kullberg, Marika C

    2015-12-01

    Type 17 helper T-cell cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, a chronic condition affecting the gastrointestinal tract, but information regarding their contribution to pathology in different regions of the gut is lacking. By using a murine model of bacteria-induced typhlocolitis, we investigated the role of IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 in cecal versus colonic inflammation. Cecal, but not colonic, pathology in C57BL/6 mice inoculated with Helicobacter hepaticus plus anti-IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) monoclonal antibody was exacerbated by co-administration of anti-IL-17A monoclonal antibody, suggesting a disease-protective role for IL-17A in the cecum. In contrast, anti-IL-17F had no effect on H. hepaticus-induced intestinal pathology. Neutralization of IL-22 prevented the development of colonic, but not cecal, inflammation in H. hepaticus-infected anti-IL-10R-treated mice, demonstrating a pathogenic role for IL-22 in the colon. Analysis of transcript levels revealed differential expression of IL-22R, IL-22 binding protein, and IL-23R between cecum and colon, a finding that may help explain why these tissues respond differently after anti-IL-22 treatment. Analysis of microarray data from healthy human intestine further revealed significant differences in cytokine receptor transcript levels (including IL-22RA1 and IL-23R) in distinct parts of the human gut. Together, our findings demonstrate that individual type 17 helper T-cell cytokines can have proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory effects in different regions of the intestine, an observation that may have implications for interventions against human inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26458765

  4. iParking: An Intelligent Indoor Location-Based Smartphone Parking Service

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution. PMID:23202179

  5. iParking: an intelligent indoor location-based smartphone parking service.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution. PMID:23202179

  6. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) upregulates functional high affinity IL-2 receptors on normal and leukemic B lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Interleukin 10 (IL-10) has recently been shown to induce normal human B lymphocytes to proliferate and differentiate into immunoglobulin (Ig)- secreting cells. Herein, we show that IL-10 also promotes DNA synthesis and IgM production by anti-CD40 activated B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Most strikingly, IL-2 and IL-10 were found to synergize to induce the proliferation and differentiation of B-CLL cells. This synergy between IL-2 and IL-10 was also observed with normal B cells which proliferated strongly and secreted large amounts of IgM, IgG, and IgA. The observed synergy is likely to be due to the IL-10-induced increase of high affinity IL-2 receptors on both normal and leukemic B cells. This increase of high affinity receptor is associated to an increase of Tac/CD25 expression that can be detected by flow cytometric analysis. Taken together, these results indicate that IL-10 permits anti-CD40 activated B cells to respond to IL-2 through an induction of high affinity IL-2 receptors. This effect of IL- 10 may partly explain how T cells, which activate B cells in a CD40- dependent fashion, induce B cell proliferation and differentiation mostly through IL-2. PMID:8228801

  7. Azimuthal extent and properties of midtail plasmoids from two-point ARTEMIS observations at the Earth-Moon Lagrange points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.-S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.; Kiehas, S. A.

    2014-03-01

    Although distant-tail plasmoids are perceived to extend across most of the magnetotail (~40 RE), recent studies in the near-Earth region (X > -30 RE) have revealed that near-Earth reconnection (where plasmoids originate) is likely localized and takes place preferentially on the duskside. This discrepancy in plasmoid azimuthal extent suggests that a plasmoid may grow as it moves from near-Earth to the distant tail. Comprehensive multipoint, midtail plasmoid observations can be used to test this hypothesis. Between October 2010 and July 2011 the ARTEMIS spacecraft (P1 and P2) at the Earth-Moon Lagrange points (midtail, X ~ -45 to -65 RE) provided simultaneous two-point observations across the magnetotail for 4 days every lunar month, with a large range of spacecraft separations (0.1 to 25 RE). We find that plasmoids near lunar orbit, like other near-Earth reconnection-related phenomena, occur preferentially on the duskside of the magnetotail. Two-point ARTEMIS observations reveal that the typical plasmoid azimuthal size in our data set is about 5 to 10 RE, much smaller than expected from previous distant-tail observations. Plasmoids with an azimuthal size greater than 9 RE also exist but only at geomagnetic activity levels higher (AEpeak > 400 nT) than typically found in our data set (median AEpeak ~ 230 nT for our plasmoid data set and median AE ~ 100 nT during the entire period of ARTEMIS magnetotail observations). We conclude that plasmoids during small to moderate substorms (AEpeak < 400 nT) do not grow beyond ~10 RE until they have moved tailward of ~ -45 to -65 RE. Plasmoids during large substorms (AEpeak > 400 nT), however, either grow beyond ~10 RE before they reach lunar distance or initially extend across a large portion of the magnetotail.

  8. The augmented lagrange multipliers method for matrix completion from corrupted samplings with application to mixed Gaussian-impulse noise removal.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fan; Yang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Chenghu

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of the restoration of images corrupted by mixed Gaussian-impulse noise. In recent years, low-rank matrix reconstruction has become a research hotspot in many scientific and engineering domains such as machine learning, image processing, computer vision and bioinformatics, which mainly involves the problem of matrix completion and robust principal component analysis, namely recovering a low-rank matrix from an incomplete but accurate sampling subset of its entries and from an observed data matrix with an unknown fraction of its entries being arbitrarily corrupted, respectively. Inspired by these ideas, we consider the problem of recovering a low-rank matrix from an incomplete sampling subset of its entries with an unknown fraction of the samplings contaminated by arbitrary errors, which is defined as the problem of matrix completion from corrupted samplings and modeled as a convex optimization problem that minimizes a combination of the nuclear norm and the l(1)-norm in this paper. Meanwhile, we put forward a novel and effective algorithm called augmented Lagrange multipliers to exactly solve the problem. For mixed Gaussian-impulse noise removal, we regard it as the problem of matrix completion from corrupted samplings, and restore the noisy image following an impulse-detecting procedure. Compared with some existing methods for mixed noise removal, the recovery quality performance of our method is dominant if images possess low-rank features such as geometrically regular textures and similar structured contents; especially when the density of impulse noise is relatively high and the variance of Gaussian noise is small, our method can outperform the traditional methods significantly not only in the simultaneous removal of Gaussian noise and impulse noise, and the restoration ability for a low-rank image matrix, but also in the preservation of textures and details in the image. PMID:25248103

  9. Feasibility of cooling the Earth with a cloud of small spacecraft near the inner Lagrange point (L1)

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Roger

    2006-01-01

    If it were to become apparent that dangerous changes in global climate were inevitable, despite greenhouse gas controls, active methods to cool the Earth on an emergency basis might be desirable. The concept considered here is to block 1.8% of the solar flux with a space sunshade orbited near the inner Lagrange point (L1), in-line between the Earth and sun. Following the work of J. Early [Early, JT (1989) J Br Interplanet Soc 42:567–569], transparent material would be used to deflect the sunlight, rather than to absorb it, to minimize the shift in balance out from L1 caused by radiation pressure. Three advances aimed at practical implementation are presented. First is an optical design for a very thin refractive screen with low reflectivity, leading to a total sunshade mass of ?20 million tons. Second is a concept aimed at reducing transportation cost to $50/kg by using electromagnetic acceleration to escape Earth's gravity, followed by ion propulsion. Third is an implementation of the sunshade as a cloud of many spacecraft, autonomously stabilized by modulating solar radiation pressure. These meter-sized “flyers” would be assembled completely before launch, avoiding any need for construction or unfolding in space. They would weigh a gram each, be launched in stacks of 800,000, and remain for a projected lifetime of 50 years within a 100,000-km-long cloud. The concept builds on existing technologies. It seems feasible that it could be developed and deployed in ?25 years at a cost of a few trillion dollars, <0.5% of world gross domestic product (GDP) over that time. PMID:17085589

  10. Lagrange-type modeling of continuous dielectric permittivity variation in double-higher-order volume integral equation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chobanyan, E.; Ili?, M. M.; Notaroš, B. M.

    2015-05-01

    A novel double-higher-order entire-domain volume integral equation (VIE) technique for efficient analysis of electromagnetic structures with continuously inhomogeneous dielectric materials is presented. The technique takes advantage of large curved hexahedral discretization elements—enabled by double-higher-order modeling (higher-order modeling of both the geometry and the current)—in applications involving highly inhomogeneous dielectric bodies. Lagrange-type modeling of an arbitrary continuous variation of the equivalent complex permittivity of the dielectric throughout each VIE geometrical element is implemented, in place of piecewise homogeneous approximate models of the inhomogeneous structures. The technique combines the features of the previous double-higher-order piecewise homogeneous VIE method and continuously inhomogeneous finite element method (FEM). This appears to be the first implementation and demonstration of a VIE method with double-higher-order discretization elements and conformal modeling of inhomogeneous dielectric materials embedded within elements that are also higher (arbitrary) order (with arbitrary material-representation orders within each curved and large VIE element). The new technique is validated and evaluated by comparisons with a continuously inhomogeneous double-higher-order FEM technique, a piecewise homogeneous version of the double-higher-order VIE technique, and a commercial piecewise homogeneous FEM code. The examples include two real-world applications involving continuously inhomogeneous permittivity profiles: scattering from an egg-shaped melting hailstone and near-field analysis of a Luneburg lens, illuminated by a corrugated horn antenna. The results show that the new technique is more efficient and ensures considerable reductions in the number of unknowns and computational time when compared to the three alternative approaches.

  11. Identification of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Associated with Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer; The Roles of IL-5, IL-20, and IL-28A

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seon-Kyu; Jeong, Pildu; Cho, Young-Hwa; Yun, Seok Joong; Kim, Sangtae; Kim, Gi-Young; Choi, Yung Hyun; Cha, Eun-Jong; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    We used gene expression profiling to identify inflammatory cytokines that correlate with bladder cancer development. Gene expression profiles of the tissue samples were investigated using cDNA microarrays that contained 103 non-muscle invasive bladder cancers (NMIBC), 62 muscle invasive bladder cancers (MIBC), 58 samples of histologically normal-looking surrounding tissues, and 10 normal, healthy subjects who served as the control cohort for comparison. We grouped the data-sets according to biological characterizations and focused on immune response genes with at least 2-fold differential expression in MIBC vs. controls. The experimental data-set identified 36 immune-related genes that were significantly altered in MIBC samples. In addition, 10 genes were up-regulated and 26 genes were down-regulated in MIBC samples compared with the normal tissues. Among the 10 up-regulated molecules examined, the capacity for both wound-healing migration and invasion was enhanced in response to IL-5, IL-20, and IL-28A in bladder cancer cell lines (253J and EJ cells), compared with untreated cells. The expression levels of IL-5, IL-20, and IL-28A were increased in patients with MIBC. All 3 cytokines and their receptors were produced in bladder cancer cell lines, as determined by real-time PCR, immunoblot analysis and confocal immunofluorescence. Up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was found after IL-5, IL-20, and IL-28A stimulation in both cell types. Moreover, an EMSA assay showed that treatment with IL-5, IL-20, and IL-28A induced activation of the transcription factors NF-?B and AP-1 that regulate the MMP-9 promoter. Finally, activation of MAPK and Jak-Stat signaling was observed after the addition of IL-5, IL-20, and IL-28A to bladder cancer cells. This study suggests the presence of specific inflammatory cytokine (IL-5, IL-20, and IL-28A)-mediated association in bladder cancer development. All 3 cytokines may be important new molecular targets for the modulation of migration and invasion in bladder cancer. PMID:22962576

  12. Interleukin-23 Receptor Gene Polymorphism May Enhance Expression of the IL-23 Receptor, IL-17, TNF-? and IL-6 in Behcet’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhengxuan; Hennein, Lauren; Tao, Yulin; Tao, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies identified an association between Behcet’s disease (BD) and the IL-23R gene polymorphism (rs17375018) in different populations. This study examined whether this IL-23R gene polymorphism is associated with enhanced inflammatory responses. Methods We recruited 27 BD patients and 32 controls with three genotypes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were seeded with or without anti-CD3 and CD28. Cells were incubated for 24 hours, and then supernatants were collected and stored at ?20?C until analyzed. Levels of interferon (IFN)-?, tissue necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-6 were detected by ELISA. IL-23R expression was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results The expression of IL-23R was significantly higher in both BD patients and healthy controls with the GG genotype compared to the AG and AA genotype with anti-CD3 and CD28 stimulation (all P-value < 0.05). Among the PBMCs cultured with anti-CD3 and CD28 stimulation, there was an elevated secretion of TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-17 in BD patients and healthy controls with the GG genotype. However, there was no significant change in secretion of IFN- ? in BD patients and healthy controls among the genotype of this IL-23R gene polymorphism. Conclusions The results suggest that the GG genotype of the rs17375018 variant in the IL-23R gene enhances pro-inflammatory cytokine responses. PMID:26222305

  13. Association of IL-1, IL-18, and IL-33 gene polymorphisms with late-onset Alzheimer?s disease in a Hunan Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Tian, M; Deng, Y Y; Hou, D R; Li, W; Feng, X L; Yu, Z L

    2015-01-30

    Interleukin (IL)-1 plays an important role in Alzheimer?s disease (AD), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-1 gene have been shown to be associated with AD susceptibility. IL-18 and IL-33 are proinflammatory cytokines of the IL-1 family, and increasing evidence has accumulated to support their crucial role in AD pathogenesis. To examine whether SNPs in IL-1? (rs1800587), IL-1? (rs1143627), IL-18 (rs187238), and IL-33 (rs11792633) are associated with late-onset Alzheimer?s disease (LOAD) in a Hunan Han Chinese population, we carried out a case-control study involving 201 LOAD patients and 257 healthy controls. No significant differences were found in genotype frequencies of rs1800587 between LOAD patients and controls (P=0.079), but the T allele of rs1800587 was associated with a significantly increased risk of LOAD (P=0.032, odds ratio (OR)=1.592). Significant differences in genotype (P=0.004) and allele (P=0.001) frequencies of rs11792633 were found between LOAD patients and controls, but not for rs1143627 (P=0.535, 0.262, respectively) or rs187238 (P=0.257, 0.139, respectively). The T allele of rs11792633 was found to be a protective factor for LOAD (OR=0.648). These findings suggest that the IL-1? SNP rs1800587 and IL-33 SNP rs11792633, but not the IL-1? SNP rs1143627 or the IL-18 SNP rs187238, contribute to LOAD susceptibility in the Hunan Han Chinese population. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory. PMID:25446437

  14. The IL-13/IL-4R? axis is involved in tuberculosis-associated pathology

    PubMed Central

    Heitmann, Lisa; Abad Dar, Mahin; Schreiber, Tanja; Erdmann, Hanna; Behrends, Jochen; Mckenzie, Andrew NJ; Brombacher, Frank; Ehlers, Stefan; Hölscher, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Human tuberculosis (TB) is a leading global health threat and still constitutes a major medical challenge. However, mechanisms governing tissue pathology during post-primary TB remain elusive, partly because genetically or immunologically tractable animal models are lacking. In human TB, the demonstration of a large relative increase in interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 expression, which correlates with lung damage, indicates that a subversive T helper (TH)2 component in the response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may undermine protective immunity and contribute to reactivation and tissue pathology. Up to now, there has been no clear evidence regarding whether IL-4/IL-13-IL-4 receptor-? (R?)-mediated mechanisms may in fact cause reactivation and pathology. Unfortunately, the virtual absence of centrally necrotizing granulomas in experimental murine TB is associated with a poor induction of a TH2 immune response. We therefore hypothesize that, in mice, an increased production of IL-13 may lead to a pathology similar to human post-primary TB. In our study, aerosol Mtb infection of IL-13-over-expressing mice in fact resulted in pulmonary centrally necrotizing granulomas with multinucleated giant cells, a hypoxic rim and a perinecrotic collagen capsule, with an adjacent zone of lipid-rich, acid-fast bacilli-containing foamy macrophages, thus strongly resembling the pathology in human post-primary TB. Granuloma necrosis (GN) in Mtb-infected IL-13-over-expressing mice was associated with the induction of arginase-1-expressing macrophages. Indirect blockade of the endogenous arginase inhibitor l-hydroxyarginine in Mtb-infected wild-type mice resulted in a strong arginase expression and precipitated a similar pathology of GN. Together, we here introduce an experimental TB model that displays many features of centrally necrotizing granulomas in human post-primary TB and demonstrate that IL-13/IL-4R?-dependent mechanisms leading to arginase-1 expression are involved in TB-associated tissue pathology. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:24979482

  15. L'Europa sociale Il tuo primo lavoro EURES

    E-print Network

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    L'Europa sociale Il tuo primo lavoro EURES 2014- 2015 Guida del candidato e del datore di lavoro eures.europa.eu ec.europa.eu/social/yourfirsteuresjob #12;#12;Il tuo primo lavoro EURES Agevolare la mobilità e il lavoro e l'assunzione di giovani in Europa Guida 2014-2015 Commissione Europea Direzione

  16. IETF, Chicago, IL Performance Evaluation of L3

    E-print Network

    69th IETF, Chicago, IL Performance Evaluation of L3 Transport Protocols for IEEE 802.21 Richard://www.antd.nist.gov/seamlessandsecure.shtml #12;69th IETF, Chicago, IL Motivation · The main goals for this study are to evaluate different;69th IETF, Chicago, IL Outline · MIH protocol · Overview · Transaction ID · Acknowledgement · MIH

  17. Cutting Edge: IL-36 Receptor Promotes Resolution of Intestinal Damage.

    PubMed

    Medina-Contreras, Oscar; Harusato, Akihito; Nishio, Hikaru; Flannigan, Kyle L; Ngo, Vu; Leoni, Giovanna; Neumann, Philipp-Alexander; Geem, Duke; Lili, Loukia N; Ramadas, Ravisankar A; Chassaing, Benoit; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Kohlmeier, Jacob E; Parkos, Charles A; Towne, Jennifer E; Nusrat, Asma; Denning, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    IL-1 family members are central mediators of host defense. In this article, we show that the novel IL-1 family member IL-36? was expressed during experimental colitis and human inflammatory bowel disease. Germ-free mice failed to induce IL-36? in response to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced damage, suggesting that gut microbiota are involved in its induction. Surprisingly, IL-36R-deficient (Il1rl2(-/-)) mice exhibited defective recovery following DSS-induced damage and impaired closure of colonic mucosal biopsy wounds, which coincided with impaired neutrophil accumulation in the wound bed. Failure of Il1rl2(-/-) mice to recover from DSS-induced damage was associated with a profound reduction in IL-22 expression, particularly by colonic neutrophils. Defective recovery of Il1rl2(-/-) mice could be rescued by an aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist, which was sufficient to restore IL-22 expression and promote full recovery from DSS-induced damage. These findings implicate the IL-36/IL-36R axis in the resolution of intestinal mucosal wounds. PMID:26590314

  18. Cutting Edge: IL-25 Targets Dendritic Cells To Attract IL-9-Producing T Cells in Acute Allergic Lung Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Claudio, Estefania; Tassi, Ilaria; Wang, Hongshan; Tang, Wanhu; Ha, Hye-Lin; Siebenlist, Ulrich

    2015-10-15

    Asthma is a common inflammatory disease of airways that is often associated with type 2 responses triggered by allergens, such as house dust mites (HDMs). IL-25 is a key mucosal cytokine that may be produced by stressed epithelial cells; it rapidly activates type 2 innate lymphoid cells to produce IL-13 and IL-5. When administered directly into lungs, IL-25 induces acute inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying IL-25-initiated inflammation and the roles of this cytokine in the context of HDM-induced allergic inflammation are not fully understood. We show in this article that lung-resident conventional dendritic cells were direct targets of IL-25. IL-25-stimulated dendritic cells rapidly induced mediators, such as the chemokine CCL17, which, in turn, attracted IL-9-producing T cells. Importantly, these mechanisms also operated during HDM-induced allergic lung inflammation. PMID:26371249

  19. Significance of serum Il-9 levels in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Defendenti, Caterina; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Saibeni, Simone; Bollani, Simona; Bruno, Savino; Almasio, Piero Luigi; Declich, Paolo; Atzeni, Fabiola

    2015-12-01

    IL-9, which may be an inflammatory or regulatory cytokine, can be experimentally produced in a Th17 or modified Th2 context in the presence of T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. The primary aim of this study was to measure serum IL-9 levels in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and evaluate their relationships with the patients' clinical characteristics. The secondary aim was to determine the levels of interferon-? (IFN (interferon)-?), Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13), and IL-6 in order to clarify the context of detectable peripheral cytokines in which IL-9 is produced.Venous blood samples of 43 IBD patients (20 with Crohn's disease [CD] and 23 with ulcerative colitis [UC]) were analysed by means of quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using purified anti-human IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-?, IL-9 and IL-6 antibodies, and the laboratory findings were statistically correlated with their clinical expression.None of the patients showed the peripheral presence of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Forty (93%) were positive for IFN-?, thus confirming the presence of Th1 in both UC and CD, and IFN-? levels correlated with disease activity (P = 0.045). Eighteen patients (41%) were positive for IL-9, which was associated with a severe prognosis (P <0.001), and 72.2% of the IL-9-positive patients were also IL-6 positive. There was a significant correlation between disease severity and IL-9 in the CD patients (P <0.001), but not in the UC patients (P = 0.1).Our findings confirm the presence of common Th1 cytokines in UC and CD. However the IL-9 positivity indicates the presence of an alternative population of T cells that respond to antigen stimulation and condition the prognosis of IBD. The fact that the same serum IL-9 levels were differentially associated with clinical measures of CD and UC activity suggest that the same cytokine can be produced in different contexts. PMID:26377844

  20. Activation of Eosinophils Interacting with Dermal Fibroblasts by Pruritogenic Cytokine IL-31 and Alarmin IL-33: Implications in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Huai-Na; Chow, Joyce Yin-Sau; Choi, Angela On Kei; Lam, Christopher Wai-Kei

    2012-01-01

    Background IL-31 is a pruritogenic cytokine, and IL-33 is an alarmin for damaging inflammation. They together relate to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Eosinophil infiltration into the inner dermal compartment is a predominant pathological feature of AD. We herein investigated the in vitro inflammatory effects of IL-31 and IL-33 on the activation of human eosinophils and dermal fibroblasts. Methodology/Principal Findings Receptors, adhesion molecules and signaling molecules were assessed by Western blot or flow cytometry. Chemokines and cytokine were quantitated by multiplex assay. Functional IL-31 receptor component IL-31RA, OSMR-? and IL-33 receptor component ST2 were constitutively expressed on the surface of eosinophils. Co-culture of eosinophils and fibroblasts significantly induced pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and AD-related chemokines CXCL1, CXCL10, CCL2 and CCL5. Such inductions were further enhanced with IL-31 and IL-33 stimulation. IL-31 and IL-33 could significantly provoke the release of CXCL8 from eosinophils and fibroblasts, respectively, which was further enhanced upon co-culture. In co-culture, eosinophils and fibroblasts were the main source for the release of CCL5, and IL-6, CXCL1, CXCL8, CXCL10 and CCL2, respectively. Direct interaction between eosinophils and fibroblasts was required for CXCL1, CXCL10, CXCL8 and CCL5 release. Cell surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on eosinophils and fibroblasts was up-regulated in co-culture upon IL-31 and IL-33 stimulation. The interaction between eosinophils and fibroblasts under IL-31 and IL-33 stimulation differentially activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor-?B and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–Akt pathways. Using specific signaling molecule inhibitors, the differential induction of IL-31 and IL-33-mediated release of cytokines and chemokines such as IL-6 and CXCL8 from co-culture should be related to their distinct activation profile of intracellular signaling pathways. Conclusions/Significance The above findings suggest a crucial immunopathological role of IL-31 and IL-33 in AD through the activation of eosinophils-fibroblasts interaction via differential intracellular signaling mechanisms. PMID:22272250

  1. Ozone-induced IL-17A and neutrophilic airway inflammation is orchestrated by the caspase-1-IL-1 cascade.

    PubMed

    Che, Luanqing; Jin, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Lai, Tianwen; Zhou, Hongbin; Xia, Lixia; Tian, Baoping; Zhao, Yun; Liu, Juan; Wu, Yinfang; Wu, Yanping; Du, Jie; Li, Wen; Ying, Songmin; Chen, Zhihua; Shen, Huahao

    2016-01-01

    Ozone is a common environmental air pollutant leading to respiratory illness. The mechanisms regulating ozone-induced airway inflammation remain poorly understood. We hypothesize that ozone-triggered inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-1 production regulate neutrophilic airway inflammation through IL-17A. Pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation was induced by extended (72?h) low-dose (0.7?ppm) exposure to ozone. IL-1 receptor 1 (Il1r1)(-/-), Il17a(-/-) mice and the caspase-1 inhibitor acetyl-YVAD-chloromethylketone (Ac-YVAD-cmk) were used for in vivo studies. Cellular inflammation and protein levels in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF), cytokines, and IL-17A-producing ??T-cells, as well as mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) release, and inflammasome activation in lung macrophages were analyzed. Ozone-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation, accompanied an increased production of IL-1?, IL-18, IL-17A, Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), Interferon-? inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and BALF protein in the lung. Ozone-induced IL-17A production was predominantly in ??T-cells, and Il17a-knockout mice exhibited reduced airway inflammation. Lung macrophages from ozone-exposed mice exhibited higher levels of mitochondrial ROS, enhanced cytosolic mtDNA, increased caspase-1 activation, and higher production of IL-1?. Il1r1-knockout mice or treatment with Ac-YVAD-cmk decreased the IL-17A production and subsequent airway inflammation. Taken together, we demonstrate that ozone-induced IL-17A and neutrophilic airway inflammation is orchestrated by the caspase-1-IL-1 cascade. PMID:26739627

  2. Synapse-specific IL-1 receptor subunit reconfiguration augments vulnerability to IL-1? in the aged hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Prieto, G Aleph; Snigdha, Shikha; Baglietto-Vargas, David; Smith, Erica D; Berchtold, Nicole C; Tong, Liqi; Ajami, Dariush; LaFerla, Frank M; Rebek, Julius; Cotman, Carl W

    2015-09-01

    In the aged brain, synaptic plasticity and memory show increased vulnerability to impairment by the inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1? (IL-1?). In this study, we evaluated the possibility that synapses may directly undergo maladaptive changes with age that augment sensitivity to IL-1? impairment. In hippocampal neuronal cultures, IL-1? increased the expression of the IL-1 receptor type 1 and the accessory coreceptor AcP (proinflammatory), but not of the AcPb (prosurvival) subunit, a reconfiguration that potentiates the responsiveness of neurons to IL-1?. To evaluate whether synapses develop a similar heightened sensitivity to IL-1? with age, we used an assay to track long-term potentiation (LTP) in synaptosomes. We found that IL-1? impairs LTP directly at the synapse and that sensitivity to IL-1? is augmented in aged hippocampal synapses. The increased synaptic sensitivity to IL-1? was due to IL-1 receptor subunit reconfiguration, characterized by a shift in the AcP/AcPb ratio, paralleling our culture data. We suggest that the age-related increase in brain IL-1? levels drives a shift in IL-1 receptor configuration, thus heightening the sensitivity to IL-1?. Accordingly, selective blocking of AcP-dependent signaling with Toll-IL-1 receptor domain peptidomimetics prevented IL-1?-mediated LTP suppression and blocked the memory impairment induced in aged mice by peripheral immune challenge (bacterial lipopolysaccharide). Overall, this study demonstrates that increased AcP signaling, specifically at the synapse, underlies the augmented vulnerability to cognitive impairment by IL-1? that occurs with age. PMID:26305968

  3. Synapse-specific IL-1 receptor subunit reconfiguration augments vulnerability to IL-1? in the aged hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, G. Aleph; Snigdha, Shikha; Baglietto-Vargas, David; Smith, Erica D.; Berchtold, Nicole C.; Tong, Liqi; Ajami, Dariush; LaFerla, Frank M.; Rebek, Julius; Cotman, Carl W.

    2015-01-01

    In the aged brain, synaptic plasticity and memory show increased vulnerability to impairment by the inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1? (IL-1?). In this study, we evaluated the possibility that synapses may directly undergo maladaptive changes with age that augment sensitivity to IL-1? impairment. In hippocampal neuronal cultures, IL-1? increased the expression of the IL-1 receptor type 1 and the accessory coreceptor AcP (proinflammatory), but not of the AcPb (prosurvival) subunit, a reconfiguration that potentiates the responsiveness of neurons to IL-1?. To evaluate whether synapses develop a similar heightened sensitivity to IL-1? with age, we used an assay to track long-term potentiation (LTP) in synaptosomes. We found that IL-1? impairs LTP directly at the synapse and that sensitivity to IL-1? is augmented in aged hippocampal synapses. The increased synaptic sensitivity to IL-1? was due to IL-1 receptor subunit reconfiguration, characterized by a shift in the AcP/AcPb ratio, paralleling our culture data. We suggest that the age-related increase in brain IL-1? levels drives a shift in IL-1 receptor configuration, thus heightening the sensitivity to IL-1?. Accordingly, selective blocking of AcP-dependent signaling with Toll–IL-1 receptor domain peptidomimetics prevented IL-1?–mediated LTP suppression and blocked the memory impairment induced in aged mice by peripheral immune challenge (bacterial lipopolysaccharide). Overall, this study demonstrates that increased AcP signaling, specifically at the synapse, underlies the augmented vulnerability to cognitive impairment by IL-1? that occurs with age. PMID:26305968

  4. IL-4 abrogates T(H)17 cell-mediated inflammation by selective silencing of IL-23 in antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Guenova, Emmanuella; Skabytska, Yuliya; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Weindl, Günther; Sauer, Karin; Tham, Manuela; Kim, Kyu-Won; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Seo, Ji Hae; Ignatova, Desislava; Cozzio, Antonio; Levesque, Mitchell P; Volz, Thomas; Köberle, Martin; Kaesler, Susanne; Thomas, Peter; Mailhammer, Reinhard; Ghoreschi, Kamran; Schäkel, Knut; Amarov, Boyko; Eichner, Martin; Schaller, Martin; Clark, Rachael A; Röcken, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo

    2015-02-17

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) can suppress delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions (DTHRs), including organ-specific autoimmune diseases in mice and humans. Despite the broadly documented antiinflammatory effect of IL-4, the underlying mode of action remains incompletely understood, as IL-4 also promotes IL-12 production by dendritic cells (DCs) and IFN-?-producing T(H)1 cells in vivo. Studying the impact of IL-4 on the polarization of human and mouse DCs, we found that IL-4 exerts opposing effects on the production of either IL-12 or IL-23. While promoting IL-12-producing capacity of DCs, IL-4 completely abrogates IL-23. Bone marrow chimeras proved that IL-4-mediated suppression of DTHRs relies on the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6)-dependent abrogation of IL-23 in antigen-presenting cells. Moreover, IL-4 therapy attenuated DTHRs by STAT6- and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3)-dependent suppression of the IL-23/T(H)17 responses despite simultaneous enhancement of IL-12/TH1 responses. As IL-4 therapy also improves psoriasis in humans and suppresses IL-23/T(H)17 responses without blocking IL-12/T(H)1, selective IL-4-mediated IL-23/T(H)17 silencing is promising as treatment against harmful inflammation, while sparing the IL-12-dependent T(H)1 responses. PMID:25646481

  5. Saltfjellet-Svartisen Park, Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Arctic Circle cuts through the western coast of Norway and the Saltfjellet-Svartisen National Park. This area features many glacial fjords, alpine mountain formations with glacier tongues, as well as gently sloping mountain plateaus and forested lowland valleys. The largest city here is Mo I Rana, (just off the image to the east) with a population of 25,000 (26th most populous city in Norway). Once supported entirely by the town's steel mill, the area has developed into a tourist center.

    The image covers an area of 51 x 57 km, was acquired on August 23, 2006, and is located near 66.6 degrees north latitude, 13 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. New Literacies in Schome Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Julia

    In this chapter I deploy a synthesis of methods I term virtual literacy ethnography to investigate the diverse literacy practices of the Schome Park project (SPP). This project worked with teenagers on the first European "closed" (i.e. protected) island in the 3D virtual world Teen Second LifeTM (TSL) as described in the previous chapter. Firstly I introduce an ethnographic perspective on this lengthy, rich project and reflect on my own interpretive approach. Introducing my own focus of interest, the new literacy practices fostered by the environment and in particular activities I judge to be especially creative, I begin to develop the methodology of a "virtual literacy ethnography". I show how the diverse multimodal affordances of the communicative domains are imaginatively exploited by the students, supported by peers and staff in an environment characterised by "fluid leadership". I include some analysis of literacy work around a genre traditionally valued by educators, a dictionary, which I was not involved in at the time. I suggest this is an exemplar literacy practice, creative in itself and illustrative of the methodological possibilities and of course limitations linked with the technologies utilised. Traditional distinctions between "reading" and "writing" become permeable in interesting ways as new creative practices, fostered by the environment of the Schome Park programme, emerged. I offer support for Kress's (2005) claim that changes in writing and reading practices amount to a "revolution in the world of communication." In conclusion, I claim that virtual literacy ethnography, as I have proposed it here, can be fruitful in exploring the complexity and creativity of the students' literacy practices, although more developmental work is needed.

  7. IL-4R signaling is required to induce IL-10 for the establishment of Th2 dominance

    E-print Network

    only be achieved by neutralization of Th1 cytokines. Moreover, in the absence of IL-4R signaling- producing Th1 subset, primarily through the actions of the cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 (14­16). Although of the gastrointestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis to down-regulate Th1 cell development and drive Th2 cell

  8. Molecular characterization and immunological roles of avian IL-22 and its soluble receptor IL-22 binding protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a member of the interleukin (IL)-10 family, IL-22 is an important mediator in modulating tissue responses during inflammation. Through activation of STAT3-signaling cascades, IL-22 induces proliferative and anti-apoptotic pathways, as well as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), that help prevent tissu...

  9. IL-17 in the Rheumatologist's Line of Sight

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decades, the identification of several new cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-23, and of new T helper cell subsets, including Th17 cells, has changed the vision of immunological processes. The IL-17/Th17 pathway plays a critical role during the development of inflammation and autoimmunity, and targeting this pathway has become an attractive strategy for a number of diseases. This review aims to describe the effects of IL-17 in the joint and its roles in the development of autoimmune and inflammatory arthritis. Furthermore, biotherapies targeting directly or indirectly IL-17 in inflammatory rheumatisms will be developed. PMID:23984335

  10. Complement activation promotes colitis-associated carcinogenesis through activating intestinal IL-1?/IL-17A axis.

    PubMed

    Ning, C; Li, Y-Y; Wang, Y; Han, G-C; Wang, R-X; Xiao, H; Li, X-Y; Hou, C-M; Ma, Y-F; Sheng, D-S; Shen, B-F; Feng, J-N; Guo, R-F; Li, Y; Chen, G-J

    2015-11-01

    Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) is the most serious complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Excessive complement activation has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. However, its role in the development of CAC is largely unknown. Here, using a CAC model induced by combined administration of azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), we demonstrated that complement activation was required for CAC pathogenesis. Deficiency in key components of complement (e.g., C3, C5, or C5a receptor) rendered tumor repression in mice subjected to AOM/DSS. Mechanistic investigation revealed that complement ablation dramatically reduced proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1? levels in the colonic tissues that was mainly produced by infiltrating neutrophils. IL-1? promoted colon carcinogenesis by eliciting IL-17 response in intestinal myeloid cells. Furthermore, complement-activation product C5a represented a potent inducer for IL-1? in neutrophil, accounting for downregulation of IL-1? levels in the employed complement-deficient mice. Overall, our study proposes a protumorigenic role of complement in inflammation-related colorectal cancer and that the therapeutic strategies targeting complement may be beneficial for the treatment of CAC in clinic. PMID:25736459

  11. Interleukin-23-Independent IL-17 Production Regulates Intestinal Epithelial Permeability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jacob S; Tato, Cristina M; Joyce-Shaikh, Barbara; Gulan, Fatih; Cayatte, Corinne; Chen, Yi; Blumenschein, Wendy M; Judo, Michael; Ayanoglu, Gulesi; McClanahan, Terrill K; Li, Xiaoxia; Cua, Daniel J

    2015-10-20

    Whether interleukin-17A (IL-17A) has pathogenic and/or protective roles in the gut mucosa is controversial and few studies have analyzed specific cell populations for protective functions within the inflamed colonic tissue. Here we have provided evidence for IL-17A-dependent regulation of the tight junction protein occludin during epithelial injury that limits excessive permeability and maintains barrier integrity. Analysis of epithelial cells showed that in the absence of signaling via the IL-17 receptor adaptor protein Act-1, the protective effect of IL-17A was abrogated and inflammation was enhanced. We have demonstrated that after acute intestinal injury, IL-23R(+) ?? T cells in the colonic lamina propria were the primary producers of early, gut-protective IL-17A, and this production of IL-17A was IL-23 independent, leaving protective IL-17 intact in the absence of IL-23. These results suggest that IL-17-producing ?? T cells are important for the maintenance and protection of epithelial barriers in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:26431948

  12. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) Polymorphisms Are Associated with IL-10 Production and Clinical Malaria in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Manaca, Maria Nelia; McNamara-Smith, Michelle; Mayor, Alfredo; Nhabomba, Augusto; Berthoud, Tamara Katherine; Khoo, Siew-Kim; Wiertsema, Selma; Aguilar, Ruth; Barbosa, Arnoldo; Quintó, Llorenç; Candelaria, Pierre; Schultz, En Nee; Hayden, Catherine M.; Goldblatt, Jack; Guinovart, Caterina; Alonso, Pedro L.; LeSouëf, Peter N.

    2012-01-01

    The role of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in malaria remains poorly characterized. The aims of this study were to investigate (i) whether genetic variants of the IL-10 gene influence IL-10 production and (ii) whether IL-10 production as well as the genotypes and haplotypes of the IL-10 gene in young children and their mothers are associated with the incidence of clinical malaria in young children. We genotyped three IL-10 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 240 children and their mothers from a longitudinal prospective cohort and assessed the IL-10 production by maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs). Clinical episodes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the children were documented until the second year of life. The polymorphism IL-10 A-1082G (GCC haplotype of three SNPs in IL-10) in children was associated with IL-10 production levels by CBMC cultured with P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes (P = 0.043), with the G allele linked to low IL-10 production capacity. The G allele in children was also significantly associated with a decreased risk for clinical malaria infection in their second year of life (P = 0.016). Furthermore, IL-10 levels measured in maternal PBMCs cultured with infected erythrocytes were associated with increased risk of malaria infection in young children (P < 0.001). In conclusion, IL-10 polymorphisms and IL-10 production capacity were associated with clinical malaria infections in young children. High IL-10 production capacity inherited from parents may diminish immunological protection against P. falciparum infection, thereby being a risk for increased malaria morbidity. PMID:22566507

  13. Associations between Genetic Polymorphisms in IL-33, IL1R1 and Risk for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Latiano, Anna; Palmieri, Orazio; Pastorelli, Luca; Vecchi, Maurizio; Pizarro, Theresa T.; Bossa, Fabrizio; Merla, Giuseppe; Augello, Bartolomeo; Latiano, Tiziana; Corritore, Giuseppe; Settesoldi, Alessia; Valvano, Maria Rosa; D’Incà, Renata; Stronati, Laura; Annese, Vito; Andriulli, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that the IL-33/IL1RL1 axis plays a critical role in several autoimmune and inflammatory disorders; however, its mechanistic role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been clearly defined. We investigated the contribution of IL-33 and IL1RL1 polymorphisms to IBD risk, and possible correlations with phenotype in an Italian cohort of adult and pediatric patients. Methods We evaluated the association of six SNPs in IL-33 and IL1RL1 genes, in 805 Crohn’s disease (CD), 816 ulcerative colitis (UC), and 752 controls, using Taqman. IL-33 and IL1RL1 mRNA expression was also analyzed. Results Significant allele and genotype associations with IL-33 rs3939286 were found in CD (P?=?0.004; P?=?0.035) and UC patients (P?=?0.002; P?=?0.038). After stratifying the cohort for age at diagnosis, the differences remained significant only in the IBD adult-onset. Significant associations were also obtained in CD patients with two IL1RL1 polymorphisms (rs13015714 and rs2058660, P<0.015). By combining homo- and heterozygous carriers of the rs13015714 risk allele, differences were still significant for both CD adult- and pediatric-onset. Upon genotype-phenotype evaluation, an increased frequency of extensive colitis in adult UC (P?=?0.019) and in steroid-responsive pediatric patients (P?=?0.024) carrying the IL-33 rs3939286 risk genotype, was observed. mRNA expression of IL-33 and IL1RL1 in inflamed IBD biopsy samples was significantly increased. Conclusions Common IL-33 and IL1RL1 polymorphisms contribute to the risk of IBD in an Italian cohort of adult and pediatric patients, with some influence on sub-phenotypes. PMID:23634226

  14. Human IL-21+IFN-?+CD4+ T cells in nasal polyps are regulated by IL-12

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Li; Jia, Lei; Zhang, Yannan; Yu, Sifei; Wu, Xingmei; Yang, Binyan; Li, Huabin; Wu, Changyou

    2015-01-01

    In the previous study, we found that the levels of IL-21 in nasal polyps (NPs) were significantly increased and associated with polyp size and recurrence. However, it is unclear that the cell source of IL-21 and the regulation of IL-21 in NP tissues. In the present study, we isolated the lymphocytes from NP tissues, uncinate tissues and peripheral blood of patients with NPs. The cells were analyzed for cell surface markers, cytokines and transcriptional factors by flow cytometry. The results indicated that CD4+ T cells were the major IL-21-exprssing cells in NP tissues and the majority of IL-21 producing CD4+ T cells co-expressed IFN-? or IL-17A. IL-21+IFN-?+CD4+ T cells in NP tissues exhibited the features of both Tfh and Th1 cells which co-expressed significantly higher amount of CXCR5, ICOS, PD-1, Bcl-6 and T-bet than did IL-21+IFN-??CD4+ T cells (p?IL-12 enhanced the production of IL-21 and IFN-?, especially the frequency of IL-21+IFN??+CD4+ T cells (p?IL-12 inhibited the production of IL-21 and IFN-? (p?IL-12 positively enhanced the generation of IL-21+IFN-?+CD4+ T cells having the features of both Tfh and Th1 cells in NP tissues. PMID:26239551

  15. IL-27 and TGF? mediated expansion of Th1 and adaptive regulatory T cells expressing IL-10 correlates with bacterial burden and disease severity in pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nathella P; Moideen, Kadar; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V; Nair, Dina; Sridhar, Rathinam; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T cell expression of IL-10 is an important mechanism controlling immunity to tuberculosis (TB). To identify the CD4+ T cell subsets producing IL-10 in human TB, we enumerated the frequencies of IL-10 expressing CD4+ T cell subsets following TB—antigen stimulation of cells from individuals with pulmonary (PTB) and latent TB (LTB). We first demonstrate that TB antigens induce an expansion of IL-10 expressing Th1 (IL-10+, IFN?+, T-bet+), Th2 (IL-10+, IL-4+, GATA-3+), Th9 (IL-10+, IL-9+, IL-4?), Th17 (IL-10+, IL-17+, IFN??), and natural and adaptive regulatory T cells [nTregs; IL-10+, CD4+, CD25+, Foxp3+ and aTregs; IL-10 single+, CD4+, CD25?, Foxp3?] in PTB and LTB individuals, with frequencies being significantly higher in the former. However, only Th1 cells and adaptive Tregs expressing IL-10 exhibit a positive relationship with bacterial burdens and extent of disease in PTB. Finally, we show that IL-27 and TGF? play an important role in the regulation of IL-10+ Th cell subsets. Thus, active PTB is characterized by an IL-27 and TGF? mediated expansion of IL-10 expressing CD4+ T cell subsets, with IL-10+ Th1 and IL-10+ aTreg cells playing a potentially pivotal role in the pathogenesis of active disease. PMID:26417443

  16. Livermore Big Trees Park: 1998 Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mac Queen, D; Gallegos, G; Surano, K

    2002-04-18

    This report is an in-depth study of results from environmental sampling conducted in 1998 by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Big Trees Park in the city of Livermore. The purpose of the sampling was to determine the extent and origin of plutonium found in soil at concentrations above fallout-background levels in the park. This report describes the sampling that was conducted, the chemical and radio-chemical analyses of the samples, the quality control assessments and statistical analyses of the analytical results, and LLNL's interpretations of the results. It includes a number of data analyses not presented in LLNL's previous reports on Big Trees Park.

  17. Terrain classification maps of Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F. J.; Roller, N. E. G.

    1973-01-01

    A cooperative ERTS-1 investigation involving U. S. Geological Survey, National Park Service, and Environmental Research Institure of Michigan (ERIM) personnel has as its goal the preparation of terrain classification maps for the entire Yellowstone National Park. Excellent coverage of the park was obtained on 6 August 1972 (frame 1015-17404). Preliminary terrain classification maps have been prepared at ERIM by applying multispectral pattern recognition techniques to ERTS-MSS digital taped data. The color coded terrain maps are presented and discussed. The discussion includes qualitative and quantitative accuracy estimates and discussion of processing techniques.

  18. The quandary of local people—Park relations in Nepal's Royal Chitwan National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepal, Sanjay K.; Weber, Karl E.

    1995-11-01

    This paper analyzes five major causes of park-people conflicts that have occurred in Nepal's Royal Chitwan National Park. The causes include illegal transactions of forest products from the park, livestock grazing in the park, illegal hunting and fishing, crop damage, and threats to human and animal life caused by wild animals from the park. The conflicts indicate a reciprocal relationship between the park and local people. They reflect the attitudes of local people and representatives of the park authority whose priorities and objectives largely diverge. The results show that people settled adjacent to the park are heavily dependent on its resources. Even in places where some, albeit few alternative sources exist, local people continue to trespass the park boundary as these sources are inadequate to ensure the fulfillment of local people's resource needs. Illegal transactions of resources continue throughout the year; however, they are less intense during summer due to flooding caused by the Rapti River, which forms the park boundary towards the northern section where this study is conducted. The frequency of local people's visits to the park is mainly determined by their age, distance between homesteads and park, and volume of crop loss caused by wild animals. Crop damage is the function of size of landholding, distance, and frequency of crop raid. Local people claim that they have no intention of letting their livestock graze in the park; however, the dense vegetation of the park attracts livestock grazing on riverbanks just outside the open park boundary. Many head of livestock are killed by carnivores of the park. Human casualties are mainly caused by sloth bear ( Melursus ursinus), tiger ( Panthera tigris), wild pig ( Sug scrofa), and rhinoceros ( Rhinoceros unicornis). There had been some earlier attempts to reconcile the conflicts by offering local people different kinds of compensations; however, these were unsuccessful measures. An integrated approach is essential if efforts to resolve the park-people conflicts are to succeed. The government is in the process of launching a project that aims to resolve the inherent problems with such an approach. Suggestions are made to incorporate some key elements, such as maintaining effective communication between various parties and the potential for wildlife conservation among local people.

  19. Role of IL-18 in acute lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Jordan, J A; Guo, R F; Yun, E C; Sarma, V; Warner, R L; Crouch, L D; Senaldi, G; Ulich, T R; Ward, P A

    2001-12-15

    We have examined the role of IL-18 after acute lung inflammation in rats caused by intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes. Constitutive IL-18 mRNA and protein expression (precursor form, 26 kDa) were found in normal rat lung, whereas in inflamed lungs, IL-18 mRNA was up-regulated; in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluids, the 26-kDa protein form of IL-18 was increased at 2-4 h in inflamed lungs and remained elevated at 24 h, and the "mature" protein form of IL-18 (18 kDa) appeared in BAL fluids 1-8 h after onset of inflammation. ELISA studies confirmed induction of IL-18 in inflamed lungs (in lung homogenates and in BAL fluids). Prominent immunostaining for IL-18 was found in alveolar macrophages from inflamed lungs. When rat lung macrophages, fibroblasts, type II cells, and endothelial cells were cultured in vitro with LPS, only the first two produced IL-18. Intratracheal administration of rat recombinant IL-18 in the lung model caused significant increases in lung vascular permeability and in BAL content of neutrophils and in BAL content of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant, whereas intratracheal instillation of anti-IL-18 greatly reduced these changes and prevented increases in BAL content of IFN-gamma. Intratracheal administration of the natural antagonist of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, resulted in suppressed lung vascular permeability and decreased BAL content of neutrophils, cytokines, and chemokines. These findings suggest that endogenous IL-18 functions as a proinflammatory cytokine in this model of acute lung inflammation, serving as an autocrine activator to bring about expression of other inflammatory mediators. PMID:11739527

  20. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...