Science.gov

Sample records for lagrange park il

  1. The Lagrange Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a derivation of all five Lagrange points by methods accessible to sixth-form students, and provides a further opportunity to match Newtonian gravity with centripetal force. The predictive powers of good scientific theories are also discussed with regard to the philosophy of science. Methods for calculating the positions of the…

  2. Lagrange structure and quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazinski, Peter O.; Lyakhovich, Simon L.; Sharapov, Alexey A.

    2005-07-01

    A path-integral quantization method is proposed for dynamical systems whose classical equations of motion do not necessarily follow from the action principle. The key new notion behind this quantization scheme is the Lagrange structure which is more general than the lagrangian formalism in the same sense as Poisson geometry is more general than the symplectic one. The Lagrange structure is shown to admit a natural BRST description which is used to construct an AKSZ-type topological sigma-model. The dynamics of this sigma-model in d+1 dimensions, being localized on the boundary, are proved to be equivalent to the original theory in d dimensions. As the topological sigma-model has a well defined action, it is path-integral quantized in the usual way that results in quantization of the original (not necessarily lagrangian) theory. When the original equations of motion come from the action principle, the standard BV path-integral is explicitly deduced from the proposed quantization scheme. The general quantization scheme is exemplified by several models including the ones whose classical dynamics are not variational.

  3. The Lagrange-mesh method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baye, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational method taking the form of equations on a grid thanks to the use of a Gauss-quadrature approximation. The variational basis related to this Gauss quadrature is composed of Lagrange functions which are infinitely differentiable functions vanishing at all mesh points but one. This method is quite simple to use and, more importantly, can be very accurate with small number of mesh points for a number of problems. The accuracy may however be destroyed by singularities of the potential term. This difficulty can often be overcome by a regularization of the Lagrange functions which does not affect the simplicity and accuracy of the method. The principles of the Lagrange-mesh method are described, as well as various generalizations of the Lagrange functions and their regularization. The main existing meshes are reviewed and extensive formulas are provided which make the numerical calculations simple. They are in general based on classical orthogonal polynomials. The extensions to non-classical orthogonal polynomials and periodic functions are also presented. Applications start with the calculations of energies, wave functions and some observables for bound states in simple solvable models which can rather easily be used as exercises by the reader. The Dirac equation is also considered. Various problems in the continuum can also simply and accurately be solved with the Lagrange-mesh technique including multichannel scattering or scattering by non-local potentials. The method can be applied to three-body systems in appropriate systems of coordinates. Simple atomic, molecular and nuclear systems are taken as examples. The applications to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and to Hartree-Fock calculations are also discussed as well as translations and rotations on a Lagrange mesh.

  4. A Note on Lagrange's Theorem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wells

    1983-01-01

    An approach to teaching the proof of Lagrange's theorem reverses the traditional path of instruction. The route described first teaches that the order of an element always divides the order of the group, then moves to proving that the order of a subgroup divides the order of the group. (MP)

  5. 78 FR 77771 - PennantPark SBIC Il, LP; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that PennantPark SBIC II, LP, 1590 Madison... exemption under Section 312 of the Act and Section 107.730, Financings which Constitute Conflicts...

  6. Analysis of Lagrange's original derivation of the Euler-Lagrange Differential Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laughlin, Ryan; Close, Hunter

    2012-03-01

    The Euler-Lagrange differential equation provides the Lagrangian equations of motion, and thus allows the exact trajectory of an object in a potential to be found. We analyze the original derivation of the Euler-Lagrange differential equation via a translation of the third edition of Lagrange's Mecanique Analytique (1811). We compare and contrast this derivation with the derivation commonly done in a junior-level classical mechanics course. Lagrange uses several founding concepts to produce a generalized equation of motion for all dynamics. These concepts are, in the order addressed by Lagrange, the Principle of Virtual Velocities, the Conservation des Forces Vives, and the Principle of Least Action. Lagrange then employs what he calls the Method of Variations to the general equation of motion for dynamics to ultimately resolve something similar to the Euler-Lagrange Differential equation we use today. We also compare modern notation with Lagrange's notation.

  7. Confined helium on Lagrange meshes.

    PubMed

    Baye, D; Dohet-Eraly, J

    2015-12-21

    The Lagrange-mesh method has the simplicity of a calculation on a mesh and can have the accuracy of a variational method. It is applied to the study of a confined helium atom. Two types of confinement are considered. Soft confinements by potentials are studied in perimetric coordinates. Hard confinement in impenetrable spherical cavities is studied in a system of rescaled perimetric coordinates varying in [0,1] intervals. Energies and mean values of the distances between electrons and between an electron and the helium nucleus are calculated. A high accuracy of 11 to 15 significant figures is obtained with small computing times. Pressures acting on the confined atom are also computed. For sphere radii smaller than 1, their relative accuracies are better than 10(-10). For larger radii up to 10, they progressively decrease to 10(-3), still improving the best literature results. PMID:25732054

  8. Cosmological models with Lagrange multiplier field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Changjun; Gong, Yan; Wang, Xin; Chen, Xuelei

    2011-08-01

    We first consider the Einstein-aether theory with a gravitational coupling and a Lagrange multiplier field, and then consider the non-minimally coupled quintessence field theory with Lagrange multiplier field. We study the influence of the Lagrange multiplier field on these models. We show that the energy density evolution of the Einstein-aether field and the quintessence field are significantly modified. The energy density of the Einstein-aether is nearly a constant during the entire history of the Universe. The energy density of the quintessence field can also be kept nearly constant in the matter dominated Universe, or even exhibit a phantom-like behavior for some models. This suggests a possible dynamical origin of the cosmological constant or dark energy. Further more, for the canonical quintessence in the absence of gravitational coupling, we find that the quintessence scalar field can play the role of cold dark matter with the introduction of a Lagrange multiplier field. We conclude that the Lagrange multiplier field could play a very interesting and important role in the construction of cosmological models.

  9. TWOBODY - IMPROVED IMPLEMENTATION OF LAGRANGE MULTIPLIER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, G. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Lagrange multiplier method has been used for many years by engineers to develop equations of motion in multibody problems. Use of the Lagrange multiplier has an advantage over some other formulations in that it preserves the original simple form of the equations of motion for each body. However, in typical time-varying dynamics simulations that use the Lagrange multiplier, computational instability can occur because integration error causes the two (or more) attached bodies to drift apart and violate the constraints. The computational instability usually happens suddenly, and the computed values "blow up" within a few time steps. TWOBODY utilizes a new programming technique which eliminates computational instability in multibody simulations that use the Lagrange multiplier. This new technique uses the constraint equations, instead of integration, to determine the coordinates that are not independent. TWOBODY employs a simple model, consisting of a solid rocket booster and a parachute connected by a frictionless swivel, to illustrate the new technique. TWOBODY is written in FORTRAN 77 for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. It requires 100K of RAM for execution. A sample executable is included with the distribution media. The standard distribution medium for this program is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The program was developed on a 486/D33 workstation with lpi FORTRAN in 1992.

  10. Livermore Unstructured Lagrange Explicit Shock Hydrodynamics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-09-21

    LULESH v1.0 is a 3D unstructured Lagrange hydrodynamics simulation written specifically to solve a standard analytical test problem, known as the Sedov problem. In this problem, a quantum of energy is deposited into a gas and propagates through the gas over time.

  11. An Extension of Lagrange's Identity to Matrices. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenkler, Gotz

    2004-01-01

    In this note the well-known Lagrange identity is extended to matrices. The resulting generalized Lagrange identity is used to give characterizations of symmetry, commutativity of projectors and normality.

  12. Lagrange Interpolation Learning Particle Swarm Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, comprehensive learning particle swarm optimization (CLPSO) has attracted the attention of many scholars for using in solving multimodal problems, as it is excellent in preserving the particles’ diversity and thus preventing premature convergence. However, CLPSO exhibits low solution accuracy. Aiming to address this issue, we proposed a novel algorithm called LILPSO. First, this algorithm introduced a Lagrange interpolation method to perform a local search for the global best point (gbest). Second, to gain a better exemplar, one gbest, another two particle’s historical best points (pbest) are chosen to perform Lagrange interpolation, then to gain a new exemplar, which replaces the CLPSO’s comparison method. The numerical experiments conducted on various functions demonstrate the superiority of this algorithm, and the two methods are proven to be efficient for accelerating the convergence without leading the particle to premature convergence. PMID:27123982

  13. Lagrange Interpolation Learning Particle Swarm Optimization.

    PubMed

    Kai, Zhang; Jinchun, Song; Ke, Ni; Song, Li

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, comprehensive learning particle swarm optimization (CLPSO) has attracted the attention of many scholars for using in solving multimodal problems, as it is excellent in preserving the particles' diversity and thus preventing premature convergence. However, CLPSO exhibits low solution accuracy. Aiming to address this issue, we proposed a novel algorithm called LILPSO. First, this algorithm introduced a Lagrange interpolation method to perform a local search for the global best point (gbest). Second, to gain a better exemplar, one gbest, another two particle's historical best points (pbest) are chosen to perform Lagrange interpolation, then to gain a new exemplar, which replaces the CLPSO's comparison method. The numerical experiments conducted on various functions demonstrate the superiority of this algorithm, and the two methods are proven to be efficient for accelerating the convergence without leading the particle to premature convergence. PMID:27123982

  14. Lagrange-mesh calculations and Fourier transform

    SciTech Connect

    Lacroix, Gwendolyn; Semay, Claude

    2011-09-15

    The Lagrange-mesh method is a very accurate procedure for computing eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a two-body quantum equation written in the configuration space. Using a Gauss quadrature rule, the method only requires the evaluation of the potential at some mesh points. The eigenfunctions are expanded in terms of regularized Lagrange functions, which vanish at all mesh points except one. Using the peculiarities of the method, it is shown that the Fourier transform of the eigenfunctions, computed in the configuration space, can easily be obtained with good accuracy in the physical domain of the momentum space. Also, observables in this space can easily be computed with good accuracy only using matrix elements and eigenfunctions computed in the configuration space.

  15. Lagrange duality theory for convex control problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, W. W.; Mitter, S. K.

    1976-01-01

    The Lagrange dual to a control problem is studied. The principal result based on the Hahn-Banach theorem proves that the dual problem has an optimal solution if there exists an interior point for the constraint set. A complementary slackness condition holds, if the primal problem has an optimal solution. A necessary and sufficient condition for the optimality of solutions to the primal and the dual problem is also presented.

  16. Long period coupling terms for Lagrange's equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A generalization of that portion of the work of Berger, which deals with the long period coupling effect of certain pairs of zonal harmonics. Long period terms arising from the short short period coupling of zonal harmonics are derived for Lagrange's equations. The formulation is general so that the results are valid for any pairs of zonal harmonics. Formulas are given to generate the various functions and integrals needed for the results given. Checks have been made against the work of Kozai.

  17. Vibrational stabilization of the Lagrange top

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenblat, G. M.

    1984-06-01

    The problem of the stabilization of the Lagrange top with the aid of periodic rotations of its rotor is considered. The rotation occurs in such a manner that the rotation angle of the rotor about its own axis is, on the average, equal to zero. Sufficient conditions for the stabilization of the top are derived, and controls implementing the stabilization are examined. The proposed stabilization method is compared with that for an inverted pendulum.

  18. Bilinear modeling via augmented Lagrange multipliers (BALM).

    PubMed

    Del Bue, Alessio; Xavier, João; Agapito, Lourdes; Paladini, Marco

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a unified approach to solve different bilinear factorization problems in computer vision in the presence of missing data in the measurements. The problem is formulated as a constrained optimization where one of the factors must lie on a specific manifold. To achieve this, we introduce an equivalent reformulation of the bilinear factorization problem that decouples the core bilinear aspect from the manifold specificity. We then tackle the resulting constrained optimization problem via Augmented Lagrange Multipliers. The strength and the novelty of our approach is that this framework can seamlessly handle different computer vision problems. The algorithm is such that only a projector onto the manifold constraint is needed. We present experiments and results for some popular factorization problems in computer vision such as rigid, non-rigid, and articulated Structure from Motion, photometric stereo, and 2D-3D non-rigid registration. PMID:22156102

  19. Gauss-Bonnet dark energy by Lagrange multipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Makarenko, Andrey N.; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2013-04-01

    A string-inspired effective theory of gravity, containing Gauss-Bonnet invariant interacting with a scalar field, is considered in view of obtaining cosmological dark energy solutions. A Lagrange multiplier is inserted into the action in order to achieve the cosmological reconstruction by selecting suitable forms of couplings and potentials. Several cosmological exact solutions (including dark energy of quintessence, phantom, or Little Rip type) are derived in the presence and in the absence of the Lagrange multiplier showing the difference in the two dynamical approaches. In the models that we consider, the Lagrange multiplier behaves as a sort of dust fluid that realizes the transitions between matter-dominated and dark energy epochs. The relation between Lagrange multipliers and Noether symmetries is discussed.

  20. 75 FR 71525 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Chicago, IL; Fort Wayne-Marion, IN; Indianapolis, IN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... (75 FR 39460) to redefine Benton County, IN, from the Chicago, IL, wage area to the Indianapolis, IN... Lagrange Marshall Miami Noble St. Joseph Steuben Wabash White Whitley Ohio: Allen Defiance Fulton...

  1. Lagrange-Lobatto interpolating polynomials in the discrete variable representation.

    PubMed

    Rayson, M J

    2007-08-01

    The discrete variable representation (DVR) is a well known and widely used computational technique in many areas of physics. Recently, the Lagrange-Lobatto basis has attracted increasing attention, especially for radial Hamiltonians with a singular potential at the origin and finite element DVR constructions. However, unlike standard DVR functions, the Lagrange-Lobatto basis functions are not orthogonal. The overlap matrix is usually approximated as the identity using the same quadrature approximation as for the potential. Based on the special properties of overlap matrix of Lagrange-Lobatto polynomials, an explanation of the success of the identity approximation, including error bounds, is presented. Results for hydrogen and the more nontrivial potentials of self-consistent all-electron density functional atomic calculations are also given. PMID:17930171

  2. Structural optimization with constraints from dynamics in Lagrange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfeiffer, F.; Kneppe, G.; Ross, C.

    1990-01-01

    Structural optimization problems are mostly solved under constraints from statics, such as stresses, strains, or displacements under static loads. But in the design process, dynamic quantities like eigenfrequencies or accelerations under dynamic loads become more and more important. Therefore, it is obvious that constraints from dynamics must be considered in structural optimization packages. This paper addresses the dynamics branch in MBB-LAGRANGE. It will concentrate on two topics, namely on the different formulations for eigenfrequency constraints and on frequency response constraints. For the latter the necessity of a system reduction is emphasized. The methods implemented in LAGRANGE are presented and examples are given.

  3. "Lagrange functions" for order(N) electronic structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Kalman; Zhang, Zhenyu; Pantelides, S. T.

    2004-03-01

    "Plane waves" have several highly desirable properties for electronic structure calculations, but effectively scale as N3, where N is the number of atoms, because they impose a uniform grid on which one must perform fast Fourier transforms (FFTs). To achieve near-order-N methods, it is imperative to adopt "real-space methods and non-uniform grids. The objective is usually pursued either by discretization or by adopting local basis sets, either numerical or analytical, with optimized short range. Here we report on a novel basis set, which we label "Lagrange functions" that are defined to satisfy the Lagrange interpolation condition and on a grid that corresponds to a Gaussian quadrature for integrations with optimized numerical accuracy. Lagrange functions combine the best attributes of plane waves and real-space methods. Just like plane waves, convergence is controlled by a single parameter in a systematic way, are orthonormal and defined analytically everywhere, but have the added flexibility of a weight function that controls the distribution of grid points and can be used to optimize the calculation for each system. They do not require FFTs and integrals are trivial and accurate since each Lagrange function is nonzero on a single grid point. The power of the method will be illustrated with several examples.

  4. Visualizing and Understanding the Components of Lagrange and Newton Interpolation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yajun; Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2016-01-01

    This article takes a close look at Lagrange and Newton interpolation by graphically examining the component functions of each of these formulas. Although interpolation methods are often considered simply to be computational procedures, we demonstrate how the components of the polynomial terms in these formulas provide insight into where these…

  5. Power system design optimization using Lagrange multiplier techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Y.; Lee, F. C.

    1981-01-01

    An optimization technique using the Lagrange Multiplier Method is proposed to facilitate design of switching power converter systems. The essence of the optimization is to identify the optimal battery voltage level and switching frequency along with the detailed converter design so that the total system weight including the battery and the packaged converter is minimized, and concurrently all specified power circuit performances are satisfied.

  6. Weyl-Cartan-Weitzenböck gravity through Lagrange multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghani, Zahra; Harko, Tiberiu; Sepangi, Hamid Reza; Shahidi, Shahab

    2013-08-01

    We consider an extension of the Weyl-Cartan-Weitzenböck (WCW) and teleparallel gravity in which the Weitzenböck condition of the exact cancellation of curvature and torsion in a Weyl-Cartan geometry is inserted into the gravitational action via a Lagrange multiplier. In the standard metric formulation of the WCW model, the flatness of the space-time is removed by imposing the Weitzenböck condition in the Weyl-Cartan geometry, where the dynamical variables are the space-time metric, the Weyl vector and the torsion tensor, respectively. However, once the Weitzenböck condition is imposed on the Weyl-Cartan space-time, the metric is not dynamical, and the gravitational dynamics and evolution are completely determined by the torsion tensor. We show how to resolve this difficulty and generalize the WCW model by imposing the Weitzenböck condition on the action of the gravitational field through a Lagrange multiplier. The gravitational field equations are obtained which explicitly depend on the Lagrange multiplier. As a particular model we consider the case of the Riemann-Cartan space-times with zero nonmetricity which mimics the teleparallel theory. The Newtonian limit of the model is investigated and a generalized Poisson equation is obtained, with the weak field gravitational potential explicitly depending on the Lagrange multiplier and on the Weyl vector. The cosmological implications of the theory are also studied, and three classes of exact cosmological models are considered.

  7. Accurate solution of the Dirac equation on Lagrange meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baye, Daniel; Filippin, Livio; Godefroid, Michel

    2014-04-01

    The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational method taking the form of equations on a grid because of the use of a Gauss quadrature approximation. With a basis of Lagrange functions involving associated Laguerre polynomials related to the Gauss quadrature, the method is applied to the Dirac equation. The potential may possess a 1/r singularity. For hydrogenic atoms, numerically exact energies and wave functions are obtained with small numbers n +1 of mesh points, where n is the principal quantum number. Numerically exact mean values of powers -2 to 3 of the radial coordinate r can also be obtained with n +2 mesh points. For the Yukawa potential, a 15-digit agreement with benchmark energies of the literature is obtained with 50 or fewer mesh points.

  8. The unexplained accuracy of the Lagrange-mesh method.

    PubMed

    Baye, D; Hesse, M; Vincke, M

    2002-02-01

    The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational calculation which resembles a mesh calculation because of the use of a Gauss quadrature. In order to analyze its accuracy, four different Lagrange-mesh calculations based on the zeros of Laguerre polynomials are compared with exact variational calculations based on the corresponding Laguerre basis. The comparison is performed for three solvable radial potentials: the Morse, harmonic-oscillator, and Coulomb potentials. The results show that the accuracies of the energies obtained for different partial waves with the different mesh approximations are very close to the variational accuracy, even in the presence of the centrifugal singularity. The same property holds for the approximate wave functions. This striking accuracy remains unexplained. PMID:11863688

  9. Accurate solution of the Dirac equation on Lagrange meshes.

    PubMed

    Baye, Daniel; Filippin, Livio; Godefroid, Michel

    2014-04-01

    The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational method taking the form of equations on a grid because of the use of a Gauss quadrature approximation. With a basis of Lagrange functions involving associated Laguerre polynomials related to the Gauss quadrature, the method is applied to the Dirac equation. The potential may possess a 1/r singularity. For hydrogenic atoms, numerically exact energies and wave functions are obtained with small numbers n+1 of mesh points, where n is the principal quantum number. Numerically exact mean values of powers -2 to 3 of the radial coordinate r can also be obtained with n+2 mesh points. For the Yukawa potential, a 15-digit agreement with benchmark energies of the literature is obtained with 50 or fewer mesh points. PMID:24827362

  10. On the Equivalence of Euler-Lagrange and Noether Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faliagas, A. C.

    2016-03-01

    We prove that, under the condition of nontriviality, the Euler-Lagrange and Noether equations are equivalent for a general class of scalar variational problems. Examples are position independent Lagrangians, Lagrangians of p-Laplacian type, and Lagrangians leading to nonlinear Poisson equations. As applications we prove certain propositions concerning the nonlinear Poisson equation and its generalisations, and the equivalence of admissible and inner variations for the systems under consideration.

  11. Convergence of a Substructuring Method with LaGrange Multipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Jan; Tezaur, Radek

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the convergence of a substructuring iterative method with Lagrange multipliers, proposed recently by Farhat and Roux. The method decomposes finite element discretization of an elliptic boundary value problem into Neumann problems on the subdomains and a coarse problem for the subdomain nullspace components. For linear conforming elements and preconditioning by the Dirichlet problems on the subdomains, we prove the asymptotic bound on the condition number C(1 + log(H/h))(sup gamma), gamma = 2 or 3, where h is the characteristic element size and H is the subdomain size.

  12. Park It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

  13. Park It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who

  14. Quasicoordinate equations for flexible spacecraft. [Lagrange-Euler formulation for simulation programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likins, P. W.

    1975-01-01

    Equations of motion equivalent to Lagrange's equations for generalized coordinates can be formulated in quasi-coordinate form. An analysis of the resulting equations is conducted and some alternative methods are considered. It is found that Lagrange's quasi-coordinate equations produce precisely the same equations of motion for any material system as would energy from the combination of Lagrange's generalized coordinate equations and Euler's rotational equation in vector form.

  15. Fractional cyclic integrals and Routh equations of fractional Lagrange system with combined Caputo derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin-Li; Fu, Jing-Li

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we develop a fractional cyclic integral and a Routh equation for fractional Lagrange system defined in terms of fractional Caputo derivatives. The fractional Hamilton principle and the fractional Lagrange equations of the system are obtained under a combined Caputo derivative. Furthermore, the fractional cyclic integrals based on the Lagrange equations are studied and the associated Routh equations of the system are presented. Finally, two examples are given to show the applications of the results.

  16. Minimum fuel trajectories for a low-thrust power-limited mission to the moon and to Lagrange points L4 and L5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breakwell, John V.; Golan, Oded M.

    1990-01-01

    Minimum fuel trajectories from a low earth parking orbit to Lagrange points L4 or L5 and to the moon are obtained for a low-thrust limited-power spacecraft, with thrust acceleration levels of the order of 0.001 G. The procedure to find a trajectory to the libration point starts from an analytical description of a slightly elliptical spiral, given by Breakwell and Rauch. The earth moon trajectory is found by matching an earth spiral to a moon spiral on the sphere of influence. Earth oblateness effect is considered.

  17. Stability of the triangular Lagrange points beyond Gascheau's value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicardy, B.

    2010-06-01

    We examine the stability of the triangular Lagrange points L 4 and L 5 for secondary masses larger than the Gascheau’s value {μ_G= (1-sqrt{23/27}/2)= 0.0385208ldots} (also known as the Routh value) in the restricted, planar circular three-body problem. Above that limit the triangular Lagrange points are linearly unstable. Here we show that between μ G and {μ ≈ 0.039}, the L 4 and L 5 points are globally stable in the sense that a particle released at those points at zero velocity (in the corotating frame) remains in the vicinity of those points for an indefinite time. We also show that there exists a family of stable periodic orbits surrounding L 4 or L 5 for {μ ge μ_G}. We show that μ G is actually the first value of a series {μ_0 (=μ_G), μ_1,ldots, μ_i,ldots} corresponding to successive period doublings of the orbits, which exhibit {1, 2, ldots, 2^i,ldots} cycles around L 4 or L 5. Those orbits follow a Feigenbaum cascade leading to disappearance into chaos at a value {μ_infty = 0.0463004ldots} which generalizes Gascheau’s work.

  18. Lagrange constraint neural network for audio varying BSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold H.; Hsu, Charles C.

    2002-03-01

    Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) is a statistical-mechanical ab-initio model without assuming the artificial neural network (ANN) model at all but derived it from the first principle of Hamilton and Lagrange Methodology: H(S,A)= f(S)- (lambda) C(s,A(x,t)) that incorporates measurement constraint C(S,A(x,t))= (lambda) ([A]S-X)+((lambda) 0-1)((Sigma) isi -1) using the vector Lagrange multiplier-(lambda) and a- priori Shannon Entropy f(S) = -(Sigma) i si log si as the Contrast function of unknown number of independent sources si. Szu et al. have first solved in 1997 the general Blind Source Separation (BSS) problem for spatial-temporal varying mixing matrix for the real world remote sensing where a large pixel footprint implies the mixing matrix [A(x,t)] necessarily fill with diurnal and seasonal variations. Because the ground truth is difficult to be ascertained in the remote sensing, we have thus illustrated in this paper, each step of the LCNN algorithm for the simulated spatial-temporal varying BSS in speech, music audio mixing. We review and compare LCNN with other popular a-posteriori Maximum Entropy methodologies defined by ANN weight matrix-[W] sigmoid-(sigma) post processing H(Y=(sigma) ([W]X)) by Bell-Sejnowski, Amari and Oja (BSAO) called Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Both are mirror symmetric of the MaxEnt methodologies and work for a constant unknown mixing matrix [A], but the major difference is whether the ensemble average is taken at neighborhood pixel data X's in BASO or at the a priori sources S variables in LCNN that dictates which method works for spatial-temporal varying [A(x,t)] that would not allow the neighborhood pixel average. We expected the success of sharper de-mixing by the LCNN method in terms of a controlled ground truth experiment in the simulation of variant mixture of two music of similar Kurtosis (15 seconds composed of Saint-Saens Swan and Rachmaninov cello concerto).

  19. Identifying fMRI Model Violations with Lagrange Multiplier Tests

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Ben; Long, Christopher J; Rae, Caroline; Solo, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The standard modeling framework in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is predicated on assumptions of linearity, time invariance and stationarity. These assumptions are rarely checked because doing so requires specialised software, although failure to do so can lead to bias and mistaken inference. Identifying model violations is an essential but largely neglected step in standard fMRI data analysis. Using Lagrange Multiplier testing methods we have developed simple and efficient procedures for detecting model violations such as non-linearity, non-stationarity and validity of the common Double Gamma specification for hemodynamic response. These procedures are computationally cheap and can easily be added to a conventional analysis. The test statistic is calculated at each voxel and displayed as a spatial anomaly map which shows regions where a model is violated. The methodology is illustrated with a large number of real data examples. PMID:22542665

  20. A Lagrange multiplier based divide and conquer finite element algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhat, C.

    1991-01-01

    A novel domain decomposition method based on a hybrid variational principle is presented. Prior to any computation, a given finite element mesh is torn into a set of totally disconnected submeshes. First, an incomplete solution is computed in each subdomain. Next, the compatibility of the displacement field at the interface nodes is enforced via discrete, polynomial and/or piecewise polynomial Lagrange multipliers. In the static case, each floating subdomain induces a local singularity that is resolved very efficiently. The interface problem associated with this domain decomposition method is, in general, indefinite and of variable size. A dedicated conjugate projected gradient algorithm is developed for solving the latter problem when it is not feasible to explicitly assemble the interface operator. When implemented on local memory multiprocessors, the proposed methodology requires less interprocessor communication than the classical method of substructuring. It is also suitable for parallel/vector computers with shared memory and compares favorably with factorization based parallel direct methods.

  1. Interferometric Characterization of the Earth's Atmosphere from Lagrange Point 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Part of the NASA plans for future Earth-Science missions calls for observations using novel vantage points that can produce science products otherwise unobtainable. Observations of the Earth from the Lagrange-2 point, L-2, (1.5 million kilometers behind the Earth on the Earth-Sun line) affords a unique vantage point for atmospheric science. Special observation of the Earth's atmosphere using solar occultation techniques in the near infrared (1 to 4 microns) provides one of the most accurate method of passively sensing altitude profiles of the major species (CO2, O3, O2, CH4, H2O, N2O). In addition to observation of the Earth's atmosphere, it will be possible to observe a portion of the solar disk at moderate spatial resolution without interference from the Earth.

  2. LAGRANGE: LAser GRavitational-wave ANtenna in GEodetic Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchman, S.; Conklin, J. W.; Balakrishnan, K.; Aguero, V.; Alfauwaz, A.; Aljadaan, A.; Almajed, M.; Altwaijry, H.; Saud, T. A.; Byer, R. L.; Bower, K.; Costello, B.; Cutler, G. D.; DeBra, D. B.; Faied, D. M.; Foster, C.; Genova, A. L.; Hanson, J.; Hooper, K.; Hultgren, E.; Klavins, A.; Lantz, B.; Lipa, J. A.; Palmer, A.; Plante, B.; Sanchez, H. S.; Saraf, S.; Schaechter, D.; Shu, K.; Smith, E.; Tenerelli, D.; Vanbezooijen, R.; Vasudevan, G.; Williams, S. D.; Worden, S. P.; Zhou, J.; Zoellner, A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new space gravitational wave observatory design called LAG-RANGE that maintains all important LISA science at about half the cost and with reduced technical risk. It consists of three drag-free spacecraft in a geocentric formation. Fixed antennas allow continuous contact with the Earth, solving the problem of communications bandwidth and latency. A 70 mm diameter sphere with a 35 mm gap to its enclosure serves as the single inertial reference per spacecraft, operating in “true” drag-free mode (no test mass forcing). Other advantages are: a simple caging design based on the DISCOS 1972 drag-free mission, an all optical read-out with pm fine and nm coarse sensors, and the extensive technology heritage from the Honeywell gyroscopes, and the DISCOS and Gravity Probe B drag-free sensors. An Interferometric Measurement System, designed with reflective optics and a highly stabilized frequency standard, performs the ranging between test masses and requires a single optical bench with one laser per spacecraft. Two 20 cm diameter telescopes per spacecraft, each with infield pointing, incorporate novel technology developed for advanced optical systems by Lockheed Martin, who also designed the spacecraft based on a multi-flight proven bus structure. Additional technological advancements include updated drag-free propulsion, thermal control, charge management systems, and materials. LAGRANGE subsystems are designed to be scalable and modular, making them interchangeable with those of LISA or other gravitational science missions. We plan to space qualify critical technologies on small and nano satellite flights, with the first launch (UV-LED Sat) in 2013.

  3. Interferometric Characterization of the Earth's Atmosphere from Lagrange Point 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Jay R.; Komar, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Part of the NASA plans for future Earth Science missions calls for observations using novel vantage points that can produce science products otherwise unobtainable. Observations of the Earth from the Lagrange-2 point, L-2, (1.5 million km behind the Earth on the Earth-Sun line) affords a unique vantage point for atmospheric science. Spectral observation of the Earth's atmosphere using solar occultation techniques in the near infrared (1 to 4 microns) provides one of the most accurate methods of passively sensing attitude profiles of the major species (CO2, O3, O2, CH4, H2O N2O). While traditional polar orbiting occultation measurements can obtain about 14 measurements per day (2 per orbit), solar occultation observations from the Lagrange-2 point will yield hourly profile measurements at all latitudes. The expected spatial resolution is 2 km in altitude, 0.5 degrees in latitude, and 2 degrees in longitude. The result from 24 hours of observations will be a three-dimensional map of atmospheric composition. To accomplish this task from L-2 requires the development of a large moderate spectral resolution instrument whose entrance aperture is about 10 meters. Use of a standard telescope design with a 10-meter circular mirror or a 10-meter strip mirror would be prohibitively expensive and excessively massive. Instead, we are proposing the development of a 10-meter linear interferometer coupled to a Fourier transform imaging spectrometer. The result will be a highly efficient design with sufficient sensitivity, while having both spatial and spectral resolution to produce the desired results. Preliminary calculations show that seven species (CO2, O3, O2, CH4, H2O N2O) have clearly separated spectral features in the I to 4 microns range with sufficient absorption to produce profile information from near the Earth's surface to the middle stratosphere. For CO2 the estimated sensitivity to change is 0.33% or 1 part in 330. This should be sufficient to detect changes that are significant for the carbon cycle studies. Initial instrument design studies are underway to determine the optimum optical design for the interferometer-spectrometer as well as the necessary highly stable mechanical designs. Separate design studies are being conducted for the spacecraft. shuttle launch facility, low-light solar power design, thermal control, and unique navigation requirements to reach and maintain the tight halo orbit about L-2.

  4. Park Smart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Parking Garage Automation System (PGAS) is based on a technology developed by a NASA-sponsored project called Robot sensorSkin(TM). Merritt Systems, Inc., of Orlando, Florida, teamed up with NASA to improve robots working with critical flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The system, containing smart sensor modules and flexible printed circuit board skin, help robots to steer clear of obstacles using a proximity sensing system. Advancements in the sensor designs are being applied to various commercial applications, including the PGAS. The system includes a smartSensor(TM) network installed around and within public parking garages to autonomously guide motorists to open facilities, and once within, to free parking spaces. The sensors use non-invasive reflective-ultrasonic technology for high accuracy, high reliability, and low maintenance. The system is remotely programmable: it can be tuned to site-specific requirements, has variable range capability, and allows remote configuration, monitoring, and diagnostics. The sensors are immune to interference from metallic construction materials, such as rebar and steel beams. Inside the garage, smart routing signs mounted overhead or on poles in front of each row of parking spots guide the motorist precisely to free spaces.

  5. Improved Faddeev-Jackiw quantization of the electromagnetic field and Lagrange multiplier fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin-Long; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2008-10-01

    We use the improved Faddeev-Jackiw quantization method to quantize the electromagnetic field and its Lagrange multiplier fields. The method's comparison with the usual Faddeev-Jackiw method and the Dirac method is given. We show that this method is equivalent to the Dirac method and also retains all the merits of the usual Faddeev-Jackiw method. Moreover, it is simpler than the usual one if one needs to obtain new secondary constraints. Therefore, the improved Faddeev-Jackiw method is essential. Meanwhile, we find the new meaning of the Lagrange multipliers and explain the Faddeev-Jackiw generalized brackets concerning the Lagrange multipliers. Supported by Beijing Natural Science Foundation (1072005)

  6. What Did We Think Could Be Learned About Earth From Lagrange Point Observations?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiscombe, Warren

    2011-01-01

    The scientific excitement surrounding the NASA Lagrange point mission Triana, now called DSCOVR, tended to be forgotten in the brouhaha over other aspects of the mission. Yet a small band of scientists in 1998 got very excited about the possibilities offered by the Lagrange-point perspective on our planet. As one of the original co-investigators on the Triana mission, I witnessed that scientific excitement firsthand. I will bring to life the early period, circa 1998 to 2000, and share the reasons that we thought the Lagrange-point perspective on Earth would be scientifically revolutionary.

  7. What Did We Think Could Be Learned About Earth From Lagrange Point Observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiscombe, W. J.

    2011-12-01

    The scientific excitement surrounding the NASA Lagrange point mission Triana, now called DSCOVR, tended to be forgotten in the brouhaha over other aspects of the mission. Yet a small band of scientists in 1998 got very excited about the possibilities offered by the Lagrange-point perspective on our planet. As one of the original co-investigators on the Triana mission, I witnessed that scientific excitement firsthand. I will bring to life the early period, circa 1998 to 2000, and share the reasons that we thought the Lagrange-point perspective on Earth would be scientifically revolutionary.

  8. 15. City parking lot, and rear of the commercial buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. City parking lot, and rear of the commercial buildings on the east side of State Street. - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL

  9. Parallel processing a three-dimensional free-lagrange code

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, D.A.; Trease, H.E. )

    1989-01-01

    A three-dimensional, time-dependent free-Lagrange hydrodynamics code has been multitasked and autotasked on a CRAY X-MP/416. The multitasking was done by using the Los Alamos Multitasking Control Library, which is a superset of the CRAY multitasking library. Autotasking is done by using constructs which are only comment cards if the source code is not run through a preprocessor. The three-dimensional algorithm has presented a number of problems that simpler algorithms, such as those for one-dimensional hydrodynamics, did not exhibit. Problems in converting the serial code, originally written for a CRAY-1, to a multitasking code are discussed. Autotasking of a rewritten version of the code is discussed. Timing results for subroutines and hot spots in the serial code are presented and suggestions for additional tools and debugging aids are given. Theoretical speedup results obtained from Amdahl's law and actual speedup results obtained on a dedicated machine are presented. Suggestions for designing large parallel codes are given.

  10. Centrifuge Rotor Models: A Comparison of the Euler-Lagrange and the Bond Graph Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granda, Jose J.; Ramakrishnan, Jayant; Nguyen, Louis H.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on centrifuge rotor models with a comparison using Euler-Lagrange and bond graph methods is shown. The topics include: 1) Objectives; 2) MOdeling Approach Comparisons; 3) Model Structures; and 4) Application.

  11. Integración automatizada de las ecuaciones de Lagrange en el movimiento orbital.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, A.; San Juan, J. F.

    The new techniques of algebraic manipulation, especially the Poisson Series Processor, permit the analytical integration of the more and more complex problems of celestial mechanics. The authors are developing a new Poisson Series Processor, PSPC, and they use it to solve the Lagrange equation of the orbital motion. They integrate the Lagrange equation by using the stroboscopic method, and apply it to the main problem of the artificial satellite theory.

  12. 1. AERIAL OVERVIEW OF LINCOLN PARK, LOOKING NNW ALONG NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL OVERVIEW OF LINCOLN PARK, LOOKING NNW ALONG NORTH LAKE SHORE DRIVE. PASSERELLE IS ROUGHLY HALFWAY UP, OPPOSITE NORTH AVENUE BATHING BEACH AT MIDDLE RIGHT OF FRAME. - Passerelle in Lincoln Park, Spanning North Lake Shore Drive (U.S. Route 41) on axis of East Menomonee Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  13. On the Microwave Signal at the Second Lagrange Point.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robitaille, Pierre-Marie; Borissova, Larissa; Rabounski, Dmitri

    2007-11-01

    It has been proposed that the 2.7 K Penzias-Wilson monopole is of oceanic origin. Under this scenario, the signal should be powerful near the Earth and rapidly fall in power away from our planet. As a result, the Penzias and Wilson signal is not expected to have any significant intensity at the second Lagrange point. In July 2008, the ESA will launch the PLANCK mission to this location. The low Frequency Instrument (LFI) on PLANCK is operating as a group of pseudo-correlation receivers. Since the 2.7 K signal will not be found at L2, an analytical analysis of the PLANCK LFI reveals that the knee frequency of the radiometers will rise to ˜50 mHz, well above the 3-7 mHz levels expected by the PLANCK team and substantially above the satellite spin frequency of ˜17 mHz. This will result in the production of significant stripes in the raw maps generated, potentially impacting the harvest from PLANCK. Calculations reveal that little difference exists in the intensity of the 2.7 K field, either at the position of a U2 plane (25 km), or in the COBE orbit (900 km). However, the density of the energy of the field drops to ˜10-7 of these near Earth values at the L2 point, rendering detection improbable. Since the LFI on PLANCK can operate either in absolute or difference mode and since the HFI operate as bolometers, PLANCK should unequivocally ascertain the origin of the 2.7K monopole.

  14. Genetic characterization of interleukins (IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18) with relevant biological roles in lagomorphs

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; de Matos, Ana Lemos; Costa, Paulo P

    2015-01-01

    ILs, as essential innate immune modulators, are involved in an array of biological processes. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18 have been implicated in inflammatory processes and in the immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and myxoma virus infections. In this study we characterized these ILs in six Lagomorpha species (European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, two cottontail rabbit species, European brown hare and American pika). Overall, these ILs are conserved between lagomorphs, including in their exon/intron structure. Most differences were observed between leporids and American pika. Indeed, when comparing both, some relevant differences were observed in American pika, such as the location of the stop codon in IL-1? and IL-2, the existence of a different transcript in IL8 and the number of cysteine residues in IL-1?. Changes at N-glycosylation motifs were also detected in IL-1, IL-10, IL-12B and IL-15. IL-1? is the protein that presents the highest evolutionary distances, which is in contrast to IL-12A where the distances between lagomorphs are the lowest. For all these ILs, sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than between human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. PMID:26395994

  15. ACE Parking Workplace Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetwater Union High School District, Chula Vista, CA.

    This manual is designed for use in a four-session workshop to help new parking garage employees enhance their skills in the following areas: understanding the functions of parking employees, computing parking rates and filling out parking lot reconciliation forms, preparing miscellaneous parking lot forms and developing effective communication and…

  16. National Environmental Research Parks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The National Environmental Research Parks are outdoor laboratories that provide opportunities for environmental studies on protected lands that act as buffers around Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The research parks are used to evaluate the environmental consequences of energy use and development as well as the strategies to mitigate these effects. They are also used to demonstrate possible environmental and land-use options. The seven parks are: Fermilab National Environmental Research Park; Hanford National Environmental Research Park; Idaho National Environmental Research Park; Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park; Nevada National Environmental Research Park; Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park; and Savannah River National Environmental Research Park. This document gives an overview of the events that led to the creation of the research parks. Its main purpose is to summarize key points about each park, including ecological research, geological characteristics, facilities, and available databases.

  17. Modified Faddeev Jackiw quantization of massive non-Abelian Yang Mills fields and Lagrange multiplier fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong-Chang; Yang, Jin-Long

    2008-10-01

    Massive Yang-Mills fields and Lagrange multiplier fields are quantized by the modified Faddeev-Jackiw quantization method, and the method's comparisons with Dirac method and the usual Faddeev-Jackiw method are also given. We show that this method not only is equivalent to Dirac method, but also remains all the virtues of the usual Faddeev-Jackiw method. Moreover, the modified Faddeev-Jackiw quantization method is simpler than the usual one when obtaining new secondary constraints. Therefore, the modified Faddeev-Jackiw method is more economical and effective than Dirac method and the usual Faddeev-Jackiw method. Meanwhile, we find the new meanings of the Lagrange multipliers, and discover that the Lagrange multipliers and the zeroth components of gauge field are just a pair of canonical field variables except a constant factor in this system.

  18. Technique to eliminate computational instability in multibody simulations employing the Lagrange multiplier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, G.

    1992-01-01

    A programming technique to eliminate computational instability in multibody simulations that use the Lagrange multiplier is presented. The computational instability occurs when the attached bodies drift apart and violate the constraints. The programming technique uses the constraint equation, instead of integration, to determine the coordinates that are not independent. Although the equations of motion are unchanged, a complete derivation of the incorporation of the Lagrange multiplier into the equation of motion for two bodies is presented. A listing of a digital computer program which uses the programming technique to eliminate computational instability is also presented. The computer program simulates a solid rocket booster and parachute connected by a frictionless swivel.

  19. A Lagrange-Galerkin hp-Finite Element Method for a 3D Nonhydrostatic Ocean Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galán del Sastre, Pedro; Bermejo, Rodolfo

    2016-03-01

    We introduce in this paper a Lagrange-Galerkin hp-finite element method to calculate the numerical solution of a nonhydrostatic ocean model. The Lagrange-Galerkin method yields a Stokes-like problem the solution of which is computed by a second-order rotational splitting scheme that separates the calculation of the velocity and pressure, the latter is decomposed into hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic components. We have tested the method in flows where the nonhydrostatic effects are important. The results are very encouraging.

  20. Position-dependent mass Lagrangians: nonlocal transformations, Euler-Lagrange invariance and exact solvability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Omar

    2015-06-01

    A general nonlocal point transformation for position-dependent mass (PDM) Lagrangians and their mapping into a ‘constant unit-mass’ Lagrangians in the generalized coordinates is introduced. The conditions on the invariance of the related Euler-Lagrange equations are reported. The harmonic oscillator linearization of the PDM Euler-Lagrange equations is discussed through some illustrative examples including harmonic oscillators, shifted harmonic oscillators, a quadratic nonlinear oscillator, and a Morse-type oscillator. The Mathews-Lakshmanan nonlinear oscillators are reproduced and some ‘shifted’ Mathews-Lakshmanan nonlinear oscillators are reported. The mapping of an isotonic nonlinear oscillator into a PDM deformed isotonic oscillator is also discussed.

  1. A Lagrange-Galerkin hp-Finite Element Method for a 3D Nonhydrostatic Ocean Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galn del Sastre, Pedro; Bermejo, Rodolfo

    2015-10-01

    We introduce in this paper a Lagrange-Galerkin hp-finite element method to calculate the numerical solution of a nonhydrostatic ocean model. The Lagrange-Galerkin method yields a Stokes-like problem the solution of which is computed by a second-order rotational splitting scheme that separates the calculation of the velocity and pressure, the latter is decomposed into hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic components. We have tested the method in flows where the nonhydrostatic effects are important. The results are very encouraging.

  2. National Park Service Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This booklet offers information on the employment needs of and career opportunities in the National Park Service. General information on the Service and employment is followed by specific information on these career opportunities: park ranger, park aide and technician, park police, administrative careers, and maintenance, trade, and craft…

  3. Resolution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with the imaginary-time method on a Lagrange mesh.

    PubMed

    Baye, D; Sparenberg, J-M

    2010-11-01

    The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational calculation which has the simplicity of a mesh calculation. Combined with the imaginary-time method, it is applied to the iterative resolution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Two variants of a fourth-order factorization of the exponential of the Hamiltonian and two types of mesh (Lagrange-Hermite and Lagrange-sinc) are employed and compared. The accuracy is checked with the help of these comparisons and of the virial theorem. The Lagrange-Hermite mesh provides very accurate results with short computing times for values of the dimensionless parameter of the nonlinear term up to 10⁴. For higher values up to 10⁷, the Lagrange-sinc mesh is more efficient. Examples are given for anisotropic and nonseparable trapping potentials. PMID:21230613

  4. Resolution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with the imaginary-time method on a Lagrange mesh

    SciTech Connect

    Baye, D.; Sparenberg, J.-M.

    2010-11-15

    The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational calculation which has the simplicity of a mesh calculation. Combined with the imaginary-time method, it is applied to the iterative resolution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Two variants of a fourth-order factorization of the exponential of the Hamiltonian and two types of mesh (Lagrange-Hermite and Lagrange-sinc) are employed and compared. The accuracy is checked with the help of these comparisons and of the virial theorem. The Lagrange-Hermite mesh provides very accurate results with short computing times for values of the dimensionless parameter of the nonlinear term up to 10{sup 4}. For higher values up to 10{sup 7}, the Lagrange-sinc mesh is more efficient. Examples are given for anisotropic and nonseparable trapping potentials.

  5. Necessary conditions for weighted mean convergence of Lagrange interpolation for exponential weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damelin, S. B.; Jung, H. S.; Kwon, K. H.

    2001-07-01

    Given a continuous real-valued function f which vanishes outside a fixed finite interval, we establish necessary conditions for weighted mean convergence of Lagrange interpolation for a general class of even weights w which are of exponential decay on the real line or at the endpoints of (-1,1).

  6. Pointwise convergence of derivatives of Lagrange interpolation polynomials for exponential weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damelin, S. B.; Jung, H. S.

    2005-01-01

    For a general class of exponential weights on the line and on (-1,1), we study pointwise convergence of the derivatives of Lagrange interpolation. Our weights include even weights of smooth polynomial decay near +/-[infinity] (Freud weights), even weights of faster than smooth polynomial decay near +/-[infinity] (Erdos weights) and even weights which vanish strongly near +/-1, for example Pollaczek type weights.

  7. 1. Mill village dwelling at 817 Forest St. in LaGrange. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Mill village dwelling at 817 Forest St. in LaGrange. Note the hipped roof and wrap-around porch with heavy cornice and Doric columns. The quality of decorative detail here suggests that this house would have been for a mill manager. - 817 Forest Street (House), 817 Forest Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  8. Mill worker house located at 9 Sirrine St. in LaGrange ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Mill worker house located at 9 Sirrine St. in LaGrange built in gable and wing form with a gabled roof on both sections of the L-shaped plan - 9 Sirrine Street (House), 9 Sirrine Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  9. Model Modification in Covariance Structure Modeling: A Comparison among Likelihood Ratio, Lagrange Multiplier, and Wald Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chih-Ping; Bentler, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    The empirical performance under null/alternative hypotheses of the likelihood ratio difference test (LRDT); Lagrange Multiplier test (evaluating the impact of model modification with a specific model); and Wald test (using a general model) were compared. The new tests for covariance structure analysis performed as well as did the LRDT. (RLC)

  10. Application of "AIC" to Wald and Lagrange Multiplier Tests in Covariance Structure Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chih-Ping; Bentler, P. M.

    1996-01-01

    Some efficient procedures are proposed for using the Akaike Information Criterion (H. Akaike, 1987), an alternative to the conventional chi-square goodness of fit test, in covariance structure analysis based on backward search through the Wald test to impose constraints and forward search through the Lagrange test to release constraints. (SLD)

  11. Detection of Differential Item Functioning Using Lagrange Multiplier Tests. Research Report 96-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.

    In this paper it is shown that differential item functioning can be evaluated using the Lagrange multiplier test or C. R. Rao's efficient score test. The test is presented in the framework of a number of item response theory (IRT) models such as the Rasch model, the one-parameter logistic model, the two-parameter logistic model, the generalized…

  12. Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua W; Davidson, Ronald C

    2014-10-01

    It is commonly believed as a fundamental principle that energy-momentum conservation of a physical system is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., charged particles interacting through self-consistent electromagnetic or electrostatic fields, such a connection has only been cautiously suggested. It has not been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that the dynamics of particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. We show how to overcome this difficulty and establish the connection by generalizing the Euler-Lagrange equation, the central component of a field theory, to a so-called weak form. The weak Euler-Lagrange equation induces a new type of flux, called the weak Euler-Lagrange current, which enters conservation laws. Using field theory together with the weak Euler-Lagrange equation developed here, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived from the underlying space-time symmetry. PMID:25375609

  13. Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua W.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2014-10-01

    It is commonly believed as a fundamental principle that energy-momentum conservation of a physical system is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., charged particles interacting through self-consistent electromagnetic or electrostatic fields, such a connection has only been cautiously suggested. It has not been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that the dynamics of particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. We show how to overcome this difficulty and establish the connection by generalizing the Euler-Lagrange equation, the central component of a field theory, to a so-called weak form. The weak Euler-Lagrange equation induces a new type of flux, called the weak Euler-Lagrange current, which enters conservation laws. Using field theory together with the weak Euler-Lagrange equation developed here, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived from the underlying space-time symmetry.

  14. Yellowstone Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Thirteen years after devastating forest fires burned over 1.6 million acres in Yellowstone National Park, the scars are still evident. In this simulated natural color ASTER image, burned areas appear gray, in contrast to the dark green of unburned forests. The image covers an area of 60 x 63 km. This image was acquired on July 2, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the technologies needed to explore the universe and search for life beyond our home planet.

    Size: 60 x 63 km (37.2 x 39.1 miles) Location: 44.7 deg. North lat., 110.7 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: July 2, 2001

  15. NATIONAL PARK BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Park Service has produced a data base of boundaries for its National Parks. A copy of this data was downloaded from the National Parks Service ftp site by Region 10. These digital boundaries represent the best guess and data that could be collected in a short time....

  16. Parks In Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Sally-Jo

    1998-01-01

    More than 50 National Park Service (NPS) sites interpret Native cultures or early Native contact with Europeans. In about 30 of those, American Indians, Alaska Natives, or Native Hawaiians, in partnership with the NPS, present their own heritage and issues. Describes Native-run aspects of Sitka National Historical Park, Glacier National Park, and

  17. Parks In Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Sally-Jo

    1998-01-01

    More than 50 National Park Service (NPS) sites interpret Native cultures or early Native contact with Europeans. In about 30 of those, American Indians, Alaska Natives, or Native Hawaiians, in partnership with the NPS, present their own heritage and issues. Describes Native-run aspects of Sitka National Historical Park, Glacier National Park, and…

  18. PARKING PROGRAMS FOR UNIVERSITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KINNE, W.S., JR.

    PARKING FACILITIES WERE SURVEYED AT 83 REPRESENTATIVE UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES, AND THE METHODS USED IN ADMINISTERING, CONTROLLING AND FINANCING WERE EVALUTED. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS WERE MADE CONCERNING (1) THE LOCATION AND DESIGN OF PARKING LOTS AND GARAGES, (2) THE PRACTICE OF CURB PARKING ON CAMPUS, AND (3) THE FINANCING OF PARKING…

  19. Orienting Park Visitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormrod, Richard K.

    1984-01-01

    To utilize park facilities to their fullest, visitors must be well-oriented to the park's physical layout. The results of a study undertaken at Rocky Mountain National Park indicate that information should be readily accessible and easy to use. (DF)

  20. Modified Lagrange invariants and their role in determining transverse and axial imaging resolutions of self-interference incoherent holographic systems

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Joseph; Kelner, Roy

    2014-01-01

    The Lagrange invariant is a well-known law for optical imaging systems formulated in the frame of ray optics. In this study, we reformulate this law in terms of wave optics and relate it to the resolution limits of various imaging systems. Furthermore, this modified Lagrange invariant is generalized for imaging along the z axis, resulting with the axial Lagrange invariant which can be used to analyze the axial resolution of various imaging systems. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the theory, analysis of the lateral and the axial imaging resolutions is provided for Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) systems. PMID:25402144

  1. IL-4 EXACERBATES ANAPHYLAXIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were established to determine if IL-4, a cytokine critical for inducing allergic responses, contributes to the effector phase of allergy. Pretreatment of mice with IL-4 or the related cytokine, IL-13, rapidly and dramatically increased the severity of anaphylaxis induced by cross-linking Fc...

  2. A Polyconvex Integrand; Euler-Lagrange Equations and Uniqueness of Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awi, Romo; Gangbo, Wilfrid

    2014-10-01

    In this manuscript we are interested in stored energy functionals W defined on the set of d d matrices, which not only fail to be convex but satisfy We initiate a study which we hope will lead to a theory for the existence and uniqueness of minimizers of functionals of the form , as well as their Euler-Lagrange equations. The techniques developed here can be applied to a class of functionals larger than those considered in this manuscript, although we keep our focus on polyconvex stored energy functionals of the form - such that - which appear in the study of Ogden material. We present a collection of perturbed and relaxed problems for which we prove uniqueness results. Then, we characterize these minimizers by their Euler-Lagrange equations.

  3. Application of the Euler-Lagrange method in determination of the coordinate acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfarti, A.

    2016-05-01

    In a recent comment published in this journal (2015 Eur. J. Phys. 36 038001), Khrapko derived the relationship between coordinate acceleration and coordinate speed for the case of radial motion in Schwarzschild coordinates. We will show an alternative derivation based on the Euler-Lagrange formalism. The Euler-Lagrange formalism has the advantage that it circumvents the tedious calculations of the Christoffel symbols and it is more intuitive. Another aspect of our comment is that one should not give much physical meaning to coordinate dependent entities, GR is a coordinate free field, so, a relationship between two coordinate dependent entities, like the acceleration being dependent on speed, should not be given much importance. By contrast, the proper acceleration and proper speed, are meaningful entities and their relationship is relevant. The comment is intended for graduate students and for the instructors who teach GR.

  4. 76 FR 80393 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Field Museum of Natural History has completed... Field Museum of Natural History. Repatriation of the human remains and associated funerary objects...

  5. Lagrange-Function Approach to Real-Space Order-N Electronic-Structure Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Varga, Kalman; Pantelides, Sokrates T

    2006-01-01

    The Lagrange functions are a family of analytical, complete, and orthonormal basis sets that are suitable for efficient, accurate, real-space, order-N electronic-structure calculations. Convergence is controlled by a single monotonic parameter, the dimension of the basis set, and computational complexity is lower than that of conventional approaches. In this paper we review their construction and applications in linearscaling electronic-structure calculations.

  6. FLAG: A multi-dimensional adaptive free-Lagrange code for fully unstructured grids

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.E.; Miller, D.S.; Palmer, T.

    1995-07-01

    The authors describe FLAG, a 3D adaptive free-Lagrange method for unstructured grids. The grid elements were 3D polygons, which move with the flow, and are refined or reconnected as necessary to achieve uniform accuracy. The authors stressed that they were able to construct a 3D hydro version of this code in 3 months, using an object-oriented FORTRAN approach.

  7. IL-36 receptor antagonist with special emphasis on IL-38.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Y; Sabatino, G; Maccauro, G; Varvara, G; Murmura, G; Saggini, A; Rosati, M; Conti, F; Cianchetti, E; Caraffa, A; Antinolfi, P; Pandolfi, F; Potalivo, G; Galzio, R; Conti, P; Theoharides, T C

    2013-01-01

    IL-36 is another family member of IL-1 and induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines and activates MAPK and NFkB pathways. IL-36 is a common mediator of innate and adaptive immune response and is inhibited by IL-36 receptor antagonist (RA). IL-36RA acts on IL-36 receptor ligand which exerts proinflammatory effect in vivo and in vitro. IL-38 binds to IL-36 receptor as does IL-36RA and has similar biological effects on immune cells. IL-38 is also a member of IL-1 cytokine and shares some characteristics of IL-1RA, binding the same IL-1 receptor type I. IL-38 plays a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, exerting protective effect in some autoimmune diseases. Both IL-38 and IL-36RA have an anti-inflammatory biological effect, however in some cases have contrary effects. PMID:23527706

  8. Lunar landing and Sample Return mission Using Lagrange points as exploration staging posts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Qiao; Pingyuan, Cui; Enjie, Luan

    With the success of "Chang'r -1" program for lunar exploration and the development of "Ying- Huo" program for Mars exploration, it will provide the great opportunity for Chinese development of the deep space exploration. Next step of Chinese lunar exploration program will be landed on lunar surface. Here, we investigate ballistic trajectories to and from the Lagrange points L1 and L2, and their Lyapunov orbits, directly to the surfaces of the Earth and Moon. Such trajectories are of importance for landing, sample return missions and future crewed missions that use the Lagrange points as exploration staging posts. We focus on mapping transfers using these trajectories that access the entire surface of the primaries. The lowest velocity-increment transfer for whole-surface coverage is found on based of the circular restricted three-body problem and Earth-Moon systems. Finally, applications of such trajectories are to be found in landing and sample return missions, and future crewed missions which use the Lagrange points as exploration staging posts.

  9. 75 FR 438 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL. The human.... A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by Field Museum of Natural History...

  10. 75 FR 435 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL. The human... remains was made by Field Museum of Natural History professional staff in consultation...

  11. 75 FR 52022 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY... History, Chicago, IL. The human remains and associated funerary objects were removed from near or in... History professional staff in consultation with representatives of the Confederated Tribes of the...

  12. 75 FR 45659 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY... History, Chicago, IL. The human remains and associated funerary objects were removed from various... made by the Field Museum of Natural History professional staff in consultation with representatives...

  13. IL-36 in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Towne, J E; Sims, J E

    2012-08-01

    Psoriasis is a common but severe skin disease with significant health consequences, both physical and psychological. Evidence has emerged during the past several years pointing to a key role for IL-36 in psoriasis. Overexpression of IL-36 in mouse skin leads to a disease quite similar to human plaque psoriasis, and inhibition of IL-36 in human psoriatic skin ameliorates the inflammation. Loss of the natural antagonist of IL-36, IL-36Ra, results in a different, more severe skin disease known as pustular psoriasis. These effects are likely a consequence of the actions of IL-36 both on cells of the immune system as well as on components of skin including fibroblasts and keratinocytes. PMID:22398321

  14. Parks, Recreation and Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ching-Hua; Payne, Laura; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Reviews what current research says about the holistic health benefits of park and recreation services, focusing on: health benefits according to park users; physical activities in parks; stress reduction benefits of park use; social support, self-determination, and stress reduction; observing nature in parks and associated benefits; and the…

  15. Parks, Recreation and Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ching-Hua; Payne, Laura; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Reviews what current research says about the holistic health benefits of park and recreation services, focusing on: health benefits according to park users; physical activities in parks; stress reduction benefits of park use; social support, self-determination, and stress reduction; observing nature in parks and associated benefits; and the

  16. 1. PARKING LOT BEFORE SOUTH ENTRANCE STATION, FACING N. PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PARKING LOT BEFORE SOUTH ENTRANCE STATION, FACING N. PARK ENTRANCE SIGN IS IN TREES IN CENTER. - South Entrance Road, Between South park boundary & Village Loop Road, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  17. Investigating Trojan Asteroids at the L4/L5 Sun-Earth Lagrange Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    John, K. K.; Graham, L. D.; Abell, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of Earth's Trojan asteroids will have benefits for science, exploration, and resource utilization. By sending a small spacecraft to the Sun-Earth L4 or L5 Lagrange points to investigate near-Earth objects, Earth's Trojan population can be better understood. This could lead to future missions for larger precursor spacecraft as well as human missions. The presence of objects in the Sun-Earth L4 and L5 Lagrange points has long been suspected, and in 2010 NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) detected a 300 m object. To investigate these Earth Trojan asteroid objects, it is both essential and feasible to send spacecraft to these regions. By exploring a wide field area, a small spacecraft equipped with an IR camera could hunt for Trojan asteroids and other Earth co-orbiting objects at the L4 or L5 Lagrange points in the near-term. By surveying the region, a zeroth-order approximation of the number of objects could be obtained with some rough constraints on their diameters, which may lead to the identification of potential candidates for further study. This would serve as a precursor for additional future robotic and human exploration targets. Depending on the inclination of these potential objects, they could be used as proving areas for future missions in the sense that the delta-V's to get to these targets are relatively low as compared to other rendezvous missions. They can serve as platforms for extended operations in deep space while interacting with a natural object in microgravity. Theoretically, such low inclination Earth Trojan asteroids exist. By sending a spacecraft to L4 or L5, these likely and potentially accessible targets could be identified.

  18. Responses of Multipotent Retinal Stem Cells to IL-1β, IL-18, or IL-17

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shida; Shen, Defen; Popp, Nicholas A.; Ogilvy, Alexander J.; Tuo, Jingsheng; Abu-Asab, Mones; Xie, Ting; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate how multipotent retinal stem cells (RSCs) isolated from mice respond to the proinflammatory signaling molecules, IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-17A. Materials and Methods. RSCs were cultured in a specific culture medium and were treated with these cytokines. Cell viability was detected by MTT assay; ultrastructure was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy; expression of IL-17rc and proapoptotic proteins was detected by immunocytochemistry and expression of Il-6 and Il-17a was detected by quantitative RT-PCR. As a comparison, primary mouse retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were also treated with IL-1β, IL-18, or IL-17A and analyzed for the expression of Il-6 and Il-17rc. Results. Treatment with IL-1β, IL-18, or IL-17A decreased RSC viability in a dose-dependent fashion and led to damage in cellular ultrastructure including pyroptotic and/or necroptotic cells. IL-1β and IL-18 could induce proapoptotic protein expression. All treatments induced significantly higher expression of Il-6 and Il-17rc in both cells. However, neither IL-1β nor IL-18 could induce Il-17a expression in RSCs. Conclusions. IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-17A induce retinal cell death via pyroptosis/necroptosis and apoptosis. They also provoke proinflammatory responses in RSCs. Though IL-1β and IL-18 could not induce Il-17a expression in RSCs, they both increase Il-17rc expression, which may mediate the effect of Il-17a. PMID:26504591

  19. Domain decomposition methods for nonconforming finite element spaces of Lagrange-type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowsar, Lawrence C.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, we consider the application of three popular domain decomposition methods to Lagrange-type nonconforming finite element discretizations of scalar, self-adjoint, second order elliptic equations. The additive Schwarz method of Dryja and Widlund, the vertex space method of Smith, and the balancing method of Mandel applied to nonconforming elements are shown to converge at a rate no worse than their applications to the standard conforming piecewise linear Galerkin discretization. Essentially, the theory for the nonconforming elements is inherited from the existing theory for the conforming elements with only modest modification by constructing an isomorphism between the nonconforming finite element space and a space of continuous piecewise linear functions.

  20. Real-time image quality assessment with mixed Lagrange time delay estimation autoregressive (MLTDEAR) model.

    PubMed

    Sim, K S; Tso, C P; Tan, Y Y; Lim, W K

    2007-06-01

    A proposal to assess the quality of scanning electron microscope images using mixed Lagrange time delay estimation technique is presented. With optimal scanning electron microscope scan rate information, online images can be quantified and improved. The online quality assessment technique is embedded onto a scanning electron microscope frame grabber card for real-time image processing. Different images are captured using scanning electron microscope and a database is built to optimally choose filter parameters. An optimum choice of filter parameters is obtained. With the optimum choice of scan rate, noise can be removed from real-time scanning electron microscope images without causing any sample contamination or increasing scanning time. PMID:17535262

  1. Taylor-Lagrange renormalization scheme, Pauli-Villars subtraction, and light-front dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Grange, P.; Mutet, B.; Werner, E.

    2010-07-15

    We show how the recently proposed Taylor-Lagrange renormalization scheme can lead to extensions of singular distributions which are reminiscent of the Pauli-Villars subtraction. However, at variance with the Pauli-Villars regularization scheme, no infinite mass limit is performed in this scheme. As an illustration of this mechanism, we consider the calculation of the self-energy in second order perturbation theory in the Yukawa model, within the covariant formulation of light-front dynamics. We show, in particular, how rotational invariance is preserved in this scheme.

  2. Non-gaussianity with Lagrange multiplier field in the curvaton scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Chao-Jun; Li, Xin-Zhou E-mail: kychz@shnu.edu.cn

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we will use δN-formalism to calculate the primordial curvature perturbation for the curvaton model with a Lagrange multiplier field. We calculate the non-linearity parameters f{sub NL} and g{sub NL} in the sudden-decay approximation in this kind of model, and we find that one could get a large non-Gaussinity even if the curvaton dominates the total energy density before it decays, and this property will make the curvaton model much richer. We also calculate the probability density function of the primordial curvature perturbation in the sudden-decay approximation, as well as some moments of it.

  3. The role of Lagrange multiplier in Gauss-Bonnet dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarenko, Andrey N.

    2016-04-01

    We review accelerating cosmology in Gauss-Bonnet gravity with Lagrange multiplier constraint studied in [S. Capozziello, A. N. Makarenko and S. D. Odintsov, Phys. Rev. D 87 (2013) 084037, arXiv: 1302.0093 [gr-qc], S. Capozziello, M. Francaviglia and A. N. Makarenko, Astrophys. Space Sci. 349 (2014) 603-609, arXiv: 1304.5440 [gr-qc]. Several examples of dark energy universes are presented. We can get new dark energy solutions (with additional scalar) as well as certain limits to earlier found accelerating solutions.

  4. Reducing the entropy production in a collocated Lagrange-Remap scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braeunig, Jean-Philippe

    2016-06-01

    The Eulerian scheme described in this article aims to perform efficient and accurate compressible multimaterial fluid flows simulations. We use a second order Collocated Lagrange-Remap scheme based on the EUCCLHYD Lagrangian scheme (Maire et al., 2007, [26]) which is conservative and uses acoustic Riemann solvers. The entropy production is studied and a correction is proposed to improve accuracy in isentropic flows by adding correction fluxes. The scheme is thus kept conservative in mass, momentum and total energy. A VOF PLIC interface reconstruction is added to the scheme. Results are presented that assess the dissipation reduction.

  5. The Lagrange Points in a Binary Black Hole System: Applications to Electromagnetic Signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnittman, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    We study the stability and evolution of the Lagrange points L_4 and L-5 in a black hole (BH) binary system, including gravitational radiation. We find that gas and stars can be shepherded in with the BH system until the final moments before merger, providing the fuel for a bright electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal. Other astrophysical signatures include the ejection of hyper-velocity stars, gravitational collapse of globular clusters, and the periodic shift of narrow emission lines in AGN.

  6. Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua W; Davidson, Ronald C

    2014-10-01

    It is commonly believed that energy-momentum conservation is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., Klimontovich-Maxwell and Klimontovich- Poisson systems, such a connection hasn't been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. To establish the connection, the standard Euler-Lagrange equation needs to be generalized to a weak form. Using this technique, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived.

  7. Interleukin-36 (IL-36) ligands require processing for full agonist (IL-36?, IL-36?, and IL-36?) or antagonist (IL-36Ra) activity.

    PubMed

    Towne, Jennifer E; Renshaw, Blair R; Douangpanya, Jason; Lipsky, Brian P; Shen, Min; Gabel, Christopher A; Sims, John E

    2011-12-01

    IL-36?, IL-36?, and IL-36? (formerly IL-1F6, IL-1F8, and IL-1F9) are IL-1 family members that signal through the IL-1 receptor family members IL-1Rrp2 (IL-1RL2) and IL-1RAcP. IL-36Ra (formerly IL-1F5) has been reported to antagonize IL-36?. However, our previous attempts to demonstrate IL-36Ra antagonism were unsuccessful. Here, we demonstrate that IL-36Ra antagonist activity is dependent upon removal of its N-terminal methionine. IL-36Ra starting at Val-2 is fully active and capable of inhibiting not only IL-36? but also IL-36? and IL-36?. Val-2 of IL-36Ra lies 9 amino acids N-terminal to an A-X-Asp motif conserved in all IL-1 family members. In further experiments, we show that truncation of IL-36?, IL-36?, and IL-36? to this same point increased their specific activity by ?10(3)-10(4)-fold (from EC(50) 1 ?g/ml to EC(50) 1 ng/ml). Inhibition of truncated IL-36? activity required ?10(2)-10(3)-fold excess IL-36Ra, similar to the ratio required for IL-1Ra to inhibit IL-1?. Chimeric receptor experiments demonstrated that the extracellular (but not cytoplasmic) domain of IL-1Rrp2 or IL-1R1 is required for inhibition by their respective natural antagonists. IL-36Ra bound to IL-1Rrp2, and pretreatment of IL-1Rrp2-expressing cells with IL-36Ra prevented IL-36?-mediated co-immunoprecipitation of IL-1Rrp2 with IL-1RAcP. Taken together, these results suggest that the mechanism of IL-36Ra antagonism is analogous to that of IL-1Ra, such that IL-36Ra binds to IL-1Rrp2 and prevents IL-1RAcP recruitment and the formation of a functional signaling complex. In addition, truncation of IL-36?, IL-36?, and IL-36? dramatically enhances their activity, suggesting that post-translational processing is required for full activity. PMID:21965679

  8. Splendor In The Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anthony Wayne

    1979-01-01

    Civilization is more and more intruding on the esthetic and recreational resources of the National Park System. Increased attention must be paid to controlling noise, pollution, and even the effects of urban lighting which detract from the enjoyment of the parks. (RE)

  9. Acadia National Park Panorama

    A panorama of Acadia National Park with Dorr and Cadillac Mountains on the right side, taken from Cadillac Mountain Road. At 1,528 feet in elevation, Cadillac Mountain is the highest point in Acadia National Park, and is composed of a unique granite, the Cadillac Mountain granite unit....

  10. THE SCHOOL PARK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FISCHER, JOHN H.

    TO ASSIST IN DESEGREGATION, VARIOUS MODELS FOR THE SCHOOL PARK ARE PROPOSED--(1) ASSEMBLING ALL STUDENTS AND SCHOOLS OF A SMALL OR MEDIUM-SIZED COMMUNITY ON A SINGLE CAMPUS, (2) SERVING ONE SECTION OF A LARGE CITY, (3) CENTERING ALL SCHOOL FACILITIES FOR A SINGLE LEVEL OF EDUCATION ON A SINGLE SITE, AND (4) ESTABLISHING RINGS OF SCHOOL PARKS ABOUT…

  11. Accuracy of Lagrange-sinc functions as a basis set for electronic structure calculations of atoms and molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Sunghwan; Hong, Kwangwoo; Kim, Jaewook; Kim, Woo Youn

    2015-03-07

    We developed a self-consistent field program based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory using Lagrange-sinc functions as a basis set and examined its numerical accuracy for atoms and molecules through comparison with the results of Gaussian basis sets. The result of the Kohn-Sham inversion formula from the Lagrange-sinc basis set manifests that the pseudopotential method is essential for cost-effective calculations. The Lagrange-sinc basis set shows faster convergence of the kinetic and correlation energies of benzene as its size increases than the finite difference method does, though both share the same uniform grid. Using a scaling factor smaller than or equal to 0.226 bohr and pseudopotentials with nonlinear core correction, its accuracy for the atomization energies of the G2-1 set is comparable to all-electron complete basis set limits (mean absolute deviation ≤1 kcal/mol). The same basis set also shows small mean absolute deviations in the ionization energies, electron affinities, and static polarizabilities of atoms in the G2-1 set. In particular, the Lagrange-sinc basis set shows high accuracy with rapid convergence in describing density or orbital changes by an external electric field. Moreover, the Lagrange-sinc basis set can readily improve its accuracy toward a complete basis set limit by simply decreasing the scaling factor regardless of systems.

  12. mTOR Mediates IL-23 Induction of Neutrophil IL-17 and IL-22 Production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feidi; Cao, Anthony; Yao, Suxia; Evans-Marin, Heather L; Liu, Han; Wu, Wei; Carlsen, Eric D; Dann, Sara M; Soong, Lynn; Sun, Jiaren; Zhao, Qihong; Cong, Yingzi

    2016-05-15

    It has been shown recently that neutrophils are able to produce IL-22 and IL-17, which differentially regulate the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. However, it is still largely unknown how the neutrophil production of IL-22 and IL-17 is regulated, and their role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we found that IL-23 promoted neutrophil production of IL-17 and IL-22. IL-23 stimulated the neutrophil expression of IL-23R as well as rorc and ahr. Retinoid acid receptor-related orphan receptor γ t and aryl-hydrocarbon receptor differentially regulated IL-23 induction of neutrophil IL-17 and IL-22. In addition, IL-23 induced the activation of mTOR in neutrophils. Blockade of the mTOR pathway inhibited IL-23-induced expression of rorc and ahr, as well as IL-17 and IL-22 production. By using a microbiota Ag-specific T cell-mediated colitis model, we demonstrated that depletion of neutrophils, as well as blockade of IL-22, resulted in a significant increase in the severity of colitis, thereby indicating a protective role of neutrophils and IL-22 in chronic colitis. Collectively, our data revealed that neutrophils negatively regulate microbiota Ag-specific T cell induction of colitis, and IL-23 induces neutrophil production of IL-22 and IL-17 through induction of rorc and ahr, which is mediated by the mTOR pathway. PMID:27067005

  13. Augmented Lagrange Hopfield network for solving economic dispatch problem in competitive environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Dieu Ngoc; Ongsakul, Weerakorn; Nguyen, Khai Phuc

    2012-11-01

    This paper proposes an augmented Lagrange Hopfield network (ALHN) for solving economic dispatch (ED) problem in the competitive environment. The proposed ALHN is a continuous Hopfield network with its energy function based on augmented Lagrange function for efficiently dealing with constrained optimization problems. The ALHN method can overcome the drawbacks of the conventional Hopfield network such as local optimum, long computational time, and linear constraints. The proposed method is used for solving the ED problem with two revenue models of revenue based on payment for power delivered and payment for reserve allocated. The proposed ALHN has been tested on two systems of 3 units and 10 units for the two considered revenue models. The obtained results from the proposed methods are compared to those from differential evolution (DE) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) methods. The result comparison has indicated that the proposed method is very efficient for solving the problem. Therefore, the proposed ALHN could be a favorable tool for ED problem in the competitive environment.

  14. Cytokines (interleukin-9, IL-17, IL-22, IL-25 and IL-33) and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Rahim; Sherkat, Roya; Hakemi, Mazdak Ganjalikhani; Eskandari, Nahid; Yazdani, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a reversible airway obstruction that is characterized by constriction of airway smooth muscle, hyper secretion of mucus, edema and airway hyper responsiveness (AHR), mucus secretion and thickening of the basement membrane underlying the airway epithelium. During the process of airway inflammation, complex interactions of innate and adaptive immune cells as well as structural cells and their cytokines have many important roles. It was believed that airway inflammation is orchestrated by allergen specific T helper (Th) 2 cells, which recruit and accumulate in the lungs and produce a range of different effector cytokines. However, more recent studies have revealed the potential collaboration of other helper T cells and their cytokines in this process. Th17 cell may have a role in severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Interleukin (IL)-9-producing subset called Th9 cell, Th22 cells which primarily secrete IL-22, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α and Th25 cells via producing IL-25 are believed to be important for initiating allergic reactions and developing airway inflammation. Cytokines are important in asthma and play a critical role in orchestrating the allergic inflammatory response, although the precise role of each cytokine remains to be determined. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the possible roles of newly identified helper T cells derived cytokines (IL-9, 17, 22, 25 and IL-33) in asthma. The potential therapeutic applications emerging from the roles of these cytokines will be discussed as well. PMID:24949298

  15. Kruger National Park

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... above and to the right of image center is the Palabora Copper Mine, and the water body near upper right is Lake Massingir in ... South Africa showing Kruger Park, the Palabora Copper Mine, and Lake Massingir. project:  MISR ...

  16. High School Parking Lots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Thomas G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the reorganization of the site of Ben Davis High School in Wayne Township, Indiana as an example of improvements to school parking lot design and vehicle/pedestrian traffic flow and security. Includes design drawings. (EV)

  17. The Swallow Park Sundials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Villiers, P.

    2014-02-01

    The Hermanus Astronomy Centre recently erected a pair of back-to-back sundials in Swallow Park in the centre of Hermanus as part of the upgrading of this historical public park by the Ward committee. Since these two are intended to be the first of many different design sundials to be erected in Hermanus by the HAC, the designs were purposefully chosen to be "unusual" to illustrate the point that even unfamiliar designs and orientations give the same end result....

  18. Coupling and simulation of acoustic fluid-structure interaction systems using localized Lagrange multipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Mike R.

    This thesis presents a new coupling method for treating the interaction of an acoustic fluid with a flexible structure, with emphasis on handling spatially non-matching meshes. It is based on the Localized Lagrange Multiplier (LLM) method. A frame is introduced as a "mediator" or "information relay" device between the fluid and the structure at the interaction surface. The frame is discretized in terms of kinematic variables. A Lagrange multiplier field is introduced between the frame and the structure, and another one between the frame and the fluid. The function of the multiplier pair is weak enforcement of kinematic continuity. This configuration completely decouples the structure and fluid models, because each model communicates to the frame through node collocated multipliers and not directly to each other. In order to assure proper communication, energy formulations of the fluid and structure models are in terms of displacements and associated time derivatives. A novel transformation of the fluid displacement model into a fluid displacement potential model enforces the irrotational condition of the acoustic fluid. This transformation reduces the number of degrees of freedom in two and three-dimensions and is suitable for both vibration and transient analyses. The LLM method facilitates the construction of separate discretizations using different mesh generation programs, as well as use of customized time integration methods. To advance the solution in time, the LLM coupling method is combined with a partitioned solution procedure. The time-stepping computations are organized in a way that eliminates the traditional prediction step characteristic of staggered solution procedures. This is accomplished by solving for the interface variables: Lagrange multipliers and frame states, and then feeding this solution back to the coupled components. This sequence forestalls the well-known stability degradation caused by prediction, yet it retains the desirable localization features of a partitioned analysis procedure. One consequence of this method is that if two A-stable integration schemes, such as the trapezoidal rule, are chosen for the fluid and structure, then the coupled system retains unconditional stability. Other time integration schemes, such as central difference, for one or both components can be readily accommodated.

  19. A Lagrange multiplier mixed finite element formulation for three-dimensional contact of biphasic tissues.

    PubMed

    Yang, Taiseung; Spilker, Robert L

    2007-06-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) contact finite element formulation has been developed for biological soft tissue-to-tissue contact analysis. The linear biphasic theory of Mow, Holmes, and Lai (1984, J. Biomech., 17(5), pp. 377-394) based on continuum mixture theory, is adopted to describe the hydrated soft tissue as a continuum of solid and fluid phases. Four contact continuity conditions derived for biphasic mixtures by Hou et al. (1989, ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 111(1), pp. 78-87) are introduced on the assumed contact surface, and a weighted residual method has been used to derive a mixed velocity-pressure finite element contact formulation. The Lagrange multiplier method is used to enforce two of the four contact continuity conditions, while the other two conditions are introduced directly into the weighted residual statement. Alternate formulations are possible, which differ in the choice of continuity conditions that are enforced with Lagrange multipliers. Primary attention is focused on a formulation that enforces the normal solid traction and relative fluid flow continuity conditions on the contact surface using Lagrange multipliers. An alternate approach, in which the multipliers enforce normal solid traction and pressure continuity conditions, is also discussed. The contact nonlinearity is treated with an iterative algorithm, where the assumed area is either extended or reduced based on the validity of the solution relative to contact conditions. The resulting first-order system of equations is solved in time using the generalized finite difference scheme. The formulation is validated by a series of increasingly complex canonical problems, including the confined and unconfined compression, the Hertz contact problem, and two biphasic indentation tests. As a clinical demonstration of the capability of the contact analysis, the gleno-humeral joint contact of human shoulders is analyzed using an idealized 3D geometry. In the joint, both glenoid and humeral head cartilage experience maximum tensile and compressive stresses are at the cartilage-bone interface, away from the center of the contact area. PMID:17536914

  20. Commentary: IL-4 and IL-13 receptors and signaling.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Sarah M; Heller, Nicola M

    2015-09-01

    Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 were discovered approximately 30years ago and were immediately linked to allergy and atopic diseases. Since then, new roles for IL-4 and IL-13 and their receptors in normal gestation, fetal development and neurological function and in the pathogenesis of cancer and fibrosis have been appreciated. Studying IL-4/-13 and their receptors has revealed important clues about cytokine biology and led to the development of numerous experimental therapeutics. Here we aim to highlight new discoveries and consolidate concepts in the field of IL-4 and IL-13 structure, receptor regulation, signaling and experimental therapeutics. PMID:26187331

  1. Impact of Park Renovations on Park Use and Park-based Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah A; Han, Bing; Isacoff, Jennifer; Shulaker, Bianca; Williamson, Stephanie; Marsh, Terry; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Weir, Megan; Bhatia, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the concerns about low rates of physical activity among low-income minority youth, many community based organizations are investing in the creation or renovation of public parks, in order to encourage youth to become more physically active. To what degree park renovations accomplish this goal is not known. Methods We used the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC), to measure park users and their physical activity levels before and after two parks were renovated. We compared findings to 4 parks-- 2 that were unrenovated parks and 2 that were undergoing renovation. We also surveyed parks users and local residents about their use of the parks. Results Compared to parks that had not yet been renovated, the improved parks saw more than a doubling in the number of visitors and a substantial increase in energy expended in the parks. Increased park use was pronounced in adults and children, but was not seen in teens and seniors. Park renovations were associated with a significantly increased perception of park safety. Conclusions Park improvements can have a significant impact on increasing park use and local physical activity. PMID:24956608

  2. Exact nonrelativistic polarizabilities of the hydrogen atom with the Lagrange-mesh method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baye, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Exact analytical expressions of the dipole polarizabilities of the nonrelativistic hydrogen atom in spherical coordinates are derived with the help of the Lagrange-mesh numerical method. This method can provide exact energies and wave functions for well-chosen conditions of calculation. Exact dipole polarizabilities are obtained after an unambiguous rounding up to at least principal quantum numbers around n=30. The scalar polarizability of any nl level is given by n4[4n2+14+7l(l+1)]/4 and its tensor polarizability is given by -n4[3n2-9+11l(l+1)]l/4(2l+3), which allows the calculation of the polarizability of any hydrogen state nlm.

  3. Accurate analytical approximation of the OTFTs surface potential by means of the Lagrange Reversion Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colalongo, Luigi; Ghittorelli, Matteo; Torricelli, Fabrizio; Kovács-Vajna, Zsolt Miklos

    2015-12-01

    Surface-potential-based mathematical models are among the most accurate and physically based compact models of Thin-Film Transistors (TFTs) and, in turn, of Organic Thin-Film Transistors (OTFTs), available today. However, the need for iterative computations of the surface potential limits their computational efficiency and diffusion in CAD applications. The existing closed-form approximations of the surface potential are based on regional approximations and empirical smoothing functions that could result not enough accurate to model OTFTs and, in particular, transconductances and transcapacitances. In this paper we present an accurate and computationally efficient closed-form approximation of the surface potential, based on the Lagrange Reversion Theorem, that can be exploited in advanced surface-potential-based OTFTs and TFTs device models.

  4. Taylor-Lagrange renormalization scheme: Application to light-front dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Grange, P.; Mutet, B.

    2009-11-15

    The recently proposed renormalization scheme based on the definition of field operators as operator valued distributions acting on specific test functions is shown to be very convenient in explicit calculations of physical observables within the framework of light-front dynamics. We first recall the main properties of this procedure based on identities relating the test functions to their Taylor remainder of any order expressed in terms of Lagrange's formulas, hence the name given to this scheme. We thus show how it naturally applies to the calculation of state vectors of physical systems in the covariant formulation of light-front dynamics. As an example, we consider the case of the Yukawa model in the simple two-body Fock state truncation.

  5. Augmented lagrange hopfield network for economic dispatch with multiple fuel options

    SciTech Connect

    Dieu, Vo Ngoc; Ongsakul, Weerakorn; Polprasert, Jirawadee

    2011-06-20

    This paper proposes an augmented Lagrange Hopfield network (ALHN) for solving economic dispatch (ED) problem with multiple fuel options. The proposed ALHN method is a continuous Hopfield neural network with its energy function based on augmented Lagrangian function. The advantages of ALHN over the conventional Hopfield neural network are easier use, more general applications, faster convergence, better optimal solution, and larger scale of problem implementation. The method solves the problem by directly searching the most suitable fuel among the available fuels of each unit and finding the optimal solution for the problem based on minimization of the energy function of the continuous Hopfield neural network. The proposed method is tested on systems up to 100 units and the obtained results are compared to those from other methods in the literature. The results have shown that the proposed method is efficient for solving the ED problem with multiple fuel options and favorable for implementation in large scale problems.

  6. Augmented Lagrange Based on Modified Covariance Matching Criterion Method for DOA Estimation in Compressed Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Si, Weijian; Qu, Xinggen; Liu, Lutao

    2014-01-01

    A novel direction of arrival (DOA) estimation method in compressed sensing (CS) is presented, in which DOA estimation is considered as the joint sparse recovery from multiple measurement vectors (MMV). The proposed method is obtained by minimizing the modified-based covariance matching criterion, which is acquired by adding penalties according to the regularization method. This minimization problem is shown to be a semidefinite program (SDP) and transformed into a constrained quadratic programming problem for reducing computational complexity which can be solved by the augmented Lagrange method. The proposed method can significantly improve the performance especially in the scenarios with low signal to noise ratio (SNR), small number of snapshots, and closely spaced correlated sources. In addition, the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) of the proposed method is developed and the performance guarantee is given according to a version of the restricted isometry property (RIP). The effectiveness and satisfactory performance of the proposed method are illustrated by simulation results. PMID:24678272

  7. Error estimates of Lagrange interpolation and orthonormal expansions for Freud weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, K. H.; Lee, D. W.

    2001-08-01

    Let Sn[f] be the nth partial sum of the orthonormal polynomials expansion with respect to a Freud weight. Then we obtain sufficient conditions for the boundedness of Sn[f] and discuss the speed of the convergence of Sn[f] in weighted Lp space. We also find sufficient conditions for the boundedness of the Lagrange interpolation polynomial Ln[f], whose nodal points are the zeros of orthonormal polynomials with respect to a Freud weight. In particular, if W(x)=e-(1/2)x2 is the Hermite weight function, then we obtain sufficient conditions for the inequalities to hold:andwhere and k=0,1,2...,r.

  8. A suggested trajectory for a Venus-sun, earth-sun Lagrange points mission, Vela

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, D. F.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility is suggested of investigating the existence of small, as-yet undiscovered, asteroids orbiting in the solar system near the earth-sun or Venus-sun stable Lagrange points by means of a spacecraft which traverses these regions. The type of trajectory suggested lies in the ecliptic plane and has a period of 5/6 years and a perihelion at the Venus orbital distance. The regions in which stable orbits associated with the earth and with Venus may lie are estimated to be a thin and tadpole-shaped area extending from 35 deg to 100 deg from the planet. Crossings of the regions by the trajectory are described, and the requirements for detecting the presence of 1 km sized asteroids are presented and shown to be attainable.

  9. On a Lagrange-Hamilton formalism describing position and momentum uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuch, Dieter

    1993-01-01

    According to Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, in quantum mechanics it is not possible to determine, simultaneously, exact values for the position and the momentum of a material system. Calculating the mean value of the Hamiltonian operator with the aid of exact analytic Gaussian wave packet solutions, these uncertainties cause an energy contribution additional to the classical energy of the system. For the harmonic oscillator, e.g., this nonclassical energy represents the ground state energy. It will be shown that this additional energy contribution can be considered as a Hamiltonian function, if it is written in appropriate variables. With the help of the usual Lagrange-Hamilton formalism known from classical particle mechanics, but now considering this new Hamiltonian function, it is possible to obtain the equations of motion for position and momentum uncertainties.

  10. Experimentally exploiting the violation of the Lagrange invariant for resolution improvement.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xiaomin; Xiao, Sheng; Guo, Yiming; Lv, Xiaohua; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2015-11-30

    It is experimentally demonstrated that even though the numerical aperture in the object space is fixed, the resolution of an imaging system still can be improved by adjusting the parameters in the image space. This strategy cannot be realized until the discovery of the violation of the Lagrange invariant in a kind of self-interference holography. With the violation, parameters in the image space can escape the constraint of the object space for resolution improvement. Experiments that directly confirm this new ability are implemented and results agree well with the theoretical prediction. Additionally, better performance on frequency recording and finer details beyond the diffraction limit have been recorded with this method. PMID:26698766

  11. A study of angular momentum loss in binaries using the free Lagrange method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajasekhar, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of a binary star system depends greatly on the angular momentum losses in the system brought about by gravitational radiation and mass outflow (e.g., evaporating winds and magnetic braking) from the secondary component of the binary. Using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic fluid code based on the free Lagrange method, we study the loss of specific angular momentum from a binary system due to an evaporative wind from the companion of a millisecond pulsar. We consider binaries of different mass ratios and winds of different initial velocities and in particular attempt to model the system PSR 1957+20. We are in the process of incorporating the effect of the radiation force from the pulsar and the magnetic field of the companion on the mass outflow. The latter effect would also enable us to study magnetic braking in cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binaries.

  12. Testing of Lagrange multiplier damped least-squares control algorithm for woofer-tweeter adaptive optics

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Weiyao; Burns, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    A Lagrange multiplier-based damped least-squares control algorithm for woofer-tweeter (W-T) dual deformable-mirror (DM) adaptive optics (AO) is tested with a breadboard system. We show that the algorithm can complementarily command the two DMs to correct wavefront aberrations within a single optimization process: the woofer DM correcting the high-stroke, low-order aberrations, and the tweeter DM correcting the low-stroke, high-order aberrations. The optimal damping factor for a DM is found to be the median of the eigenvalue spectrum of the influence matrix of that DM. Wavefront control accuracy is maximized with the optimized control parameters. For the breadboard system, the residual wavefront error can be controlled to the precision of 0.03 μm in root mean square. The W-T dual-DM AO has applications in both ophthalmology and astronomy. PMID:22441462

  13. Variational tricomplex of a local gauge system, Lagrange structure and weak Poisson bracket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapov, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    We introduce the concept of a variational tricomplex, which is applicable both to variational and nonvariational gauge systems. Assigning this tricomplex with an appropriate symplectic structure and a Cauchy foliation, we establish a general correspondence between the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian pictures of one and the same (not necessarily variational) dynamics. In practical terms, this correspondence allows one to construct the generating functional of a weak Poisson structure starting from that of a Lagrange structure. As a byproduct, a covariant procedure is proposed for deriving the classical BRST charge of the BFV formalism by a given BV master action. The general approach is illustrated by the examples of Maxwell’s electrodynamics and chiral bosons in two dimensions.

  14. LAGRANGE SOLUTIONS TO THE DISCRETE-TIME GENERAL THREE-BODY PROBLEM

    SciTech Connect

    Minesaki, Yukitaka

    2013-03-15

    There is no known integrator that yields exact orbits for the general three-body problem (G3BP). It is difficult to verify whether a numerical procedure yields the correct solutions to the G3BP because doing so requires knowledge of all 11 conserved quantities, whereas only six are known. Without tracking all of the conserved quantities, it is possible to show that the discrete general three-body problem (d-G3BP) yields the correct orbits corresponding to Lagrange solutions of the G3BP. We show that the d-G3BP yields the correct solutions to the G3BP for two special cases: the equilateral triangle and collinear configurations. For the triangular solution, we use the fact that the solution to the three-body case is a superposition of the solutions to the three two-body cases, and we show that the three bodies maintain the same relative distances at all times. To obtain the collinear solution, we assume a specific permutation of the three bodies arranged along a straight rotating line, and we show that the d-G3BP maintains the same distance ratio between two bodies as in the G3BP. Proving that the d-G3BP solutions for these cases are equivalent to those of the G3BP makes it likely that the d-G3BP and G3BP solutions are equivalent in other cases. To our knowledge, this is the first work that proves the equivalence of the discrete solutions and the Lagrange orbits.

  15. Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kanarska, Y

    2010-03-24

    Fluid particulate flows are common phenomena in nature and industry. Modeling of such flows at micro and macro levels as well establishing relationships between these approaches are needed to understand properties of the particulate matter. We propose a computational technique based on the direct numerical simulation of the particulate flows. The numerical method is based on the distributed Lagrange multiplier technique following the ideas of Glowinski et al. (1999). Each particle is explicitly resolved on an Eulerian grid as a separate domain, using solid volume fractions. The fluid equations are solved through the entire computational domain, however, Lagrange multiplier constrains are applied inside the particle domain such that the fluid within any volume associated with a solid particle moves as an incompressible rigid body. Mutual forces for the fluid-particle interactions are internal to the system. Particles interact with the fluid via fluid dynamic equations, resulting in implicit fluid-rigid-body coupling relations that produce realistic fluid flow around the particles (i.e., no-slip boundary conditions). The particle-particle interactions are implemented using explicit force-displacement interactions for frictional inelastic particles similar to the DEM method of Cundall et al. (1979) with some modifications using a volume of an overlapping region as an input to the contact forces. The method is flexible enough to handle arbitrary particle shapes and size distributions. A parallel implementation of the method is based on the SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure) library, which allows handling of large amounts of rigid particles and enables local grid refinement. Accuracy and convergence of the presented method has been tested against known solutions for a falling sphere as well as by examining fluid flows through stationary particle beds (periodic and cubic packing). To evaluate code performance and validate particle contact physics algorithm, we performed simulations of a representative experiment conducted at the University of California at Berkley for pebble flow through a narrow opening.

  16. Parking management tactics. Volume 3: reference guide. [Parking

    SciTech Connect

    DiRenzo, J.F.; Cima, B.; Barber, E.

    1981-06-01

    Information contained in this guide was formulated from parking management experiences of 20 cities previously investigated and documented. The guide provides information on the planning, implementation, and operation of six types of parking management tactics: on-street parking supply tactics, off-street parking supply tactics for activity centers, fringe and corridor parking facilities, pricing tactics, enforcement and adjudication tactics, and marketing tactics. The guide assesses the essential aspects of the tactics as well as presents some useful analysis procedures for evaluating parking management actions. The Reference Guide is a stand-alone document for use by transportation planners and traffic engineers. It is the third volume of a three-volume series of reports on parking management. The first volume, entitled Overview, is designed for management. The second volume, entitled Overview and Case Studies, is designed for technical staff or managers who want detailed city-by-city information on parking management tactics.

  17. Adiponectin and IL-6

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Smitha; Kadamkode, Vinitha; Mahammed, Rafi; Doraiswami, Chandraprabha; Banerjee, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Aim The objective of the study was to identify the association if any, of inflammatory markers (adiponectin and IL-6) with fasting glucose in normoglycemic (healthy), prediabetic (impaired fasting glucose), and hyperglycemic (diabetic) people in Indian population. Methods Total 162 volunteers were distributed into 3 groups (normoglycemic, individuals with impaired fasting glucose, and hyperglycemic) as per ADA criterion. The blood chemistry parameters were analyzed and serum adiponectin and IL-6 levels were measured by ELISA. Results Significant reduction was observed in serum adiponectin level in hyperglycemic and impaired fasting glucose population compared with normoglycemic population. Significant reduction in adiponectin was also observed in impaired fasting glucose group compared with hyperglycemic group. Similarly significant increase was also observed in IL-6 level in hyperglycemic and impaired fasting glucose groups compared with normoglycemic group. Conclusions From our data it can be summarized that there is a significant change in both adiponectin (reduction) and IL-6 (increase) levels in normoglycemic (healthy), prediabetic (impaired fasting glucose), and hyperglycemic (diabetic) population in Indian population. There is a significant but gradual change during the progression of healthy toward diabetic population via pre-diabetic condition. PMID:24575367

  18. Helping You Buy ILS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibbarelli, Pamela R.

    2010-01-01

    This article is the fourth in a series of articles published annually by "Computers in Libraries" surveying integrated library systems and services (ILSs). The purpose of the annual survey is to enable comparison of the ILSs that are available. ILS vendors are in constant pursuit of an ever-changing, consistently vague definition of what the…

  19. Regulation of Antitumor Immune Responses by the IL-12 Family Cytokines, IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Mingli; Mizoguchi, Izuru; Morishima, Noriko; Chiba, Yukino; Mizuguchi, Junichiro; Yoshimoto, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    The interleukin (IL)-12 family, which is composed of heterodimeric cytokines including IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27, is produced by antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells and plays critical roles in the regulation of helper T (Th) cell differentiation. IL-12 induces IFN-? production by NK and T cells and differentiation to Th1 cells. IL-23 induces IL-17 production by memory T cells and expands and maintains inflammatory Th17 cells. IL-27 induces the early Th1 differentiation and generation of IL-10-producing regulatory T cells. In addition, these cytokines induce distinct immune responses to tumors. IL-12 activates signal transducers and activator of transcription (STAT)4 and enhances antitumor cellular immunity through interferon (IFN)-? production. IL-27 activates STAT1, as does IFN-? and STAT3 as well, and enhances antitumor immunity by augmenting cellular and humoral immunities. In contrast, although exogenously overexpressed IL-23 enhances antitumor immunity via memory T cells, endogenous IL-23 promotes protumor immunity through STAT3 activation by inducing inflammatory responses including IL-17 production. PMID:20885915

  20. View from Fort Tryon Park of Fort Washington Park, Hudson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from Fort Tryon Park of Fort Washington Park, Hudson River, and Palisades Interstate Park, looking northeast. Dyckman Street viaduct, marina and playing fields are faintly visible below. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York, New York County, NY

  1. Friends of Recreation and Parks...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caverly, Joseph

    1973-01-01

    To acquire additional funding, San Francisco's Department of Recreation and Parks has organized the Friends of Recreation and Parks'' to obtain wide backing from individuals, organizations and businesses, and to coordinate the community's interests. (JA)

  2. Parking Structures and the Space Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    2000-01-01

    Presents some solutions to overcrowded parking on college campuses. Tips on selecting sites for parking garages, making parking decks blend with adjacent communities, and turning parking garages into multi use facilities are addressed. (GR)

  3. Learning in the Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chard, Sylvia C.; Flockhart, Marilyn E.

    2002-01-01

    Describes 3 phases of a 12-week project to study a local park in Des Moines, Iowa, developed by 4 4th-and 5th-grade teachers for their students with an emphasis on reading and writing instruction. Suggests benefits for students and teachers. (PKP)

  4. Parking in the City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šeba, P.

    2007-10-01

    We show that the spacing distribution between parked cars can be obtained as a solution of certain linear distributional fixed point equation. The results are compared with the data measured on the streets of Hradec Krälový. We also discuss a relation of these results to the random matrix theory.

  5. The Clover Park Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Don

    1974-01-01

    Describes an aviation trades training program offered by the Clover Park schools in Washington which exposes students to all facets of the aviation industry from record keeping to air traffic control in addition to the specific skill of piloting the aircraft. (BR)

  6. Parks or Prisons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Gareth

    1998-01-01

    Presents a simulation activity in which students assume the role of grizzly bears in Banff National Park. Concepts such as species diversity, fitness, natural selection, habitat loss, extinction, and population dynamics are discussed. Children learn how human activities can affect the bear's reproductive success. Lists materials, instructional…

  7. Inverse Analysis of North American Methane Emissions Using the CarbonTracker-Lagrange Modeling Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmergui, J. S.; Andrews, A. E.; Thoning, K. W.; Trudeau, M.; Michalak, A. M.; Yadav, V.; Miller, S. M.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Bruhwiler, L.; Masarie, K. A.; Worthy, D. E. J.; Sweeney, C.; Fischer, M. L.; Nehrkorn, T.; Mountain, M. E.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Several recent studies have attempted to quantify methane (CH4) emissions in North America, but large uncertainties remain in the magnitude, spatial and temporal distribution, and source sectors responsible. Estimates of biogenic emissions from wetlands, emissions related to animal husbandry, and the continental scale implications of recent shifts in the oil and gas industry are poorly constrained. We estimate North American CH4 emissions from biogenic and anthropogenic sources using the new CarbonTracker-Lagrange inverse modeling framework. A wide array of measurements taken between 2007 and 2012 provide top-down constraints. These include: in-situ and flask measurements made at surface sites, tall towers, and aboard aircraft; and remote sensing observations. Source region sensitivity is provided by the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model, driven by meteorological fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. CH4 emissions and background values are optimized simultaneously through Bayesian and geostatistical inversion. A restricted maximum likelihood estimation procedure is used to derive uncertainties in both emissions and the mole fraction field. The wide temporal coverage, dense network of measurements, and varied sources of data allow for an analysis of spatio-temporal trends in emissions that has not previously been accomplished with top-down constraints.

  8. 2D Resistive Magnetohydrodynamics Calculations with an Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousculp, C. L.; Gianakon, T. A.; Lipnikov, K. N.; Nelson, E. M.

    2015-11-01

    Single fluid resistive MHD is useful for modeling Z-pinch configurations in cylindrical geometry. One such example is thin walled liners for shock physics or HEDP experiments driven by capacitor banks such as the LANL's PHELIX or Sandia-Z. MHD is also useful for modeling high-explosive-driven flux compression generators (FCGs) and their high-current switches. The resistive MHD in our arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian (ALE) code operates in one and two dimensions in both Cartesian and cylindrical geometry. It is implemented as a time-step split operator, which consists of, ideal MHD connected to the explicit hydro momentum and energy equations and a second order mimetic discretization solver for implicit solution of the magnetic diffusion equation. In a staggered grid scheme, a single-component of cell-centered magnetic flux is conserved in the Lagrangian frame exactly, while magnetic forces are accumulated at the nodes. Total energy is conserved to round off. Total flux is conserved under the ALE relaxation and remap. The diffusion solver consistently computes Ohmic heating. Both Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions are available with coupling to external circuit models. Example calculations will be shown.

  9. Euler-Lagrange Simulations of Particle Interactions with Coherent Vortices in Turbulent Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Fernando; Naqvi, Iftekhar; Squires, Kyle; Piomelli, Ugo

    2009-11-01

    The overarching interest of the current investigations is numerical modeling of particle entrainment and deposition near sandy beds as relevant to the problem of rotorcraft brownout. Numerical simulations are being performed using an Euler-Lagrange method. Solution of the incompressible gas-phase flow field is accomplished using a fractional-step numerical method; the particulate phase is advanced using Discrete Particle Simulation. The particular flow field of interest models a rotor wake and is comprised of coherent vortices embedded in a turbulent boundary layer. The particles, once suspended, interact with the coherent wake vortices characterizing the rotor flow, and with the finer scale turbulence generated near the ground. The primary objectives are two-flow. First, to gain insight into the particle-vortex dynamics that influence transport near the bed and, second, to advance understanding of the mesoscopic particle velocity field. The latter objective requires very large particle ensembles in order to recover an Eulerian description of the particle field, important to advancing other simulation strategies for two-phase flows. Predictions of the flows for a range of particle and flow parameters will be presented.

  10. An Euler-Lagrange method considering bubble radial dynamics for modeling sonochemical reactors.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Rashid; Brenner, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    Unsteady numerical computations are performed to investigate the flow field, wave propagation and the structure of bubbles in sonochemical reactors. The turbulent flow field is simulated using a two-equation Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model. The distribution of the acoustic pressure is solved based on the Helmholtz equation using a finite volume method (FVM). The radial dynamics of a single bubble are considered by applying the Keller-Miksis equation to consider the compressibility of the liquid to the first order of acoustical Mach number. To investigate the structure of bubbles, a one-way coupling Euler-Lagrange approach is used to simulate the bulk medium and the bubbles as the dispersed phase. Drag, gravity, buoyancy, added mass, volume change and first Bjerknes forces are considered and their orders of magnitude are compared. To verify the implemented numerical algorithms, results for one- and two-dimensional simplified test cases are compared with analytical solutions. The results show good agreement with experimental results for the relationship between the acoustic pressure amplitude and the volume fraction of the bubbles. The two-dimensional axi-symmetric results are in good agreement with experimentally observed structure of bubbles close to sonotrode. PMID:23751457

  11. Implementation of the Euler-Lagrange and poisson equations to extract one connected region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, A.; Todorov, M. D.; Sirakov, N. M.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a numerical method that evolves an active contour toward the boundary of one connected image region. The numerical method implements a model which uses the solution of the Euler-Lagrange Differential Equation in order to minimize a "snake" functional. This functional is constructed as an integral of the so called internal and external energies. The internal energy is related to the moving contour. The external energy represents the image. The minimum of the functional falls on the boundaries of objects placed in the image. A half step numerical scheme implements the concepts. The contributions of the new model come from the use of the solution of the Poisson equation and development of a new penalty function to halt the contour on the object's boundary. In order to make the contour move across homogeneous regions and enlarge the capture range, we solve the Poisson equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions and generate a gradient vector field of the image. The numerical method is implemented with MatLab and uses a stop condition based on the gradient. The advantages of the model are that it has a large capture range, is accurate in detecting the boundaries of image objects, and is capable of surpassing noise. A disadvantage is that the user has to select the right values of three parameters. Several experiments with synthetic, weapon, and medical images have been conducted to validate the model. Our work continues with the goal of cutting the curve in the event multiple objects have been enveloped.

  12. Optimal control of two coupled spinning particles in the EulerLagrange picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Tllez, M.; Ibort, A.; Rodrguez de la Pea, T.; Salmoni, R.

    2016-01-01

    A family of optimal control problems for a single and two coupled spinning particles in the EulerLagrange formalism is discussed. A characteristic of such problems is that the equations controlling the system are implicit and a reduction procedure to deal with them must be carried out. The reduction of the implicit control equations arising in these problems will be discussed in the slightly more general setting of implicit equations defined by invariant one-forms on Lie groups. As an example the first order differential equations describing the extremal solutions of an optimal control problem for a single spinning particle, obtained by using Pontryagins Maximum Principle (PMP), will be found and shown to be completely integrable. Then, again using PMP, solutions for the problem of two coupled spinning particles will be characterized as solutions of a system of coupled non-linear matrix differential equations. The reduction of the implicit system will show that the reduced space for them is the product of the space of states for the independent systems, implying the absence of entanglement in this instance. Finally, it will be shown that, in the case of identical systems, the degree three matrix polynomial differential equations determined by the optimal feedback law, constitute a completely integrable Hamiltonian system and some of its solutions are described explicitly.

  13. Predicting the safe load on backpacker's arm using Lagrange multipliers method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Faisal Saleh; Rambely, Azmin Sham

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a technique has been suggested to reduce a backpack load by transmitting determined loads to the children arm. The purpose of this paper is to estimate school children arm muscles while load carriage as well as to determine the safe load can be carried at wrist while walking with backpack. A mathematical model, as three DOFs model, was investigated in the sagittal plane and Lagrange multipliers method (LMM) was utilized to minimize a quadratic objective function of muscle forces. The muscle forces were minimized with three different load conditions which are termed as 0-L=0 N, 1-L=21.95 N, and 2-L=43.9 N. The investigated muscles were estimated and compared to their maximum forces throughout the load conditions. Flexor and extensor muscles were estimated and the results showed that flexor muscles were active while extensor muscles showed inactivity. The estimated muscle forces were didn't exceed their maximum forces with 0-L and 1-L conditions whereas biceps and FCR muscles exceeded their maximum forces with 2-L condition. Consequently, 1-L condition is quiet safe to be carried by hand whereas 2-L condition is not. Thus to reduce the load in the backpack the transmitted load shouldn't exceed 1-L condition.

  14. IL-33 enhanced the proliferation and constitutive production of IL-13 and IL-5 by fibrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hisako; Kawakita, Akiko; Okazaki, Shintaro; Murai, Hiroki; Yasutomi, Motoko; Ohshima, Yusei

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-33 appears to play important roles in the induction of allergic airway inflammation. However, whether IL-33 is involved in airway remodeling remains unclear. Because fibrocytes contribute to tissue remodeling in the setting of chronic inflammation, we examined the effects of IL-33 on fibrocyte functions. Fibrocytes were generated in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by culturing in the presence of platelet derived growth factors and the cells were stimulated with IL-33. IL-33 enhanced cell proliferation, α-SMA expression, and pro-MMP-9 activity by the fibrocytes without increasing endogenous transforming growth factor-β1 production. Fibrocytes constitutively expressed IL-13 and IL-5, and their production was augmented by stimulation with IL-33. Dexamethasone inhibited the functions of fibrocytes, but IL-33 made fibrocytes slightly refractory to the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone in terms of IL-13 production. Montelukast suppressed IL-13 production by nonstimulated fibrocytes but not those stimulated by IL-33. These findings suggest that IL-33 is involved in the airway remodeling process through its modulation of fibrocyte function independent of antigen stimulation. IL-33 might partially reduce the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoid and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist on fibrocyte-mediated Th2 responses. PMID:24822215

  15. Parking: an effective strategy described.

    PubMed

    Herring, Philip

    2013-11-01

    A hospital car park needs to balance the demands of patients, visitors, and staff, without, for example, compromising emergency vehicles' access to the Accident & Emergency Department. However, with car ownership on the rise, the half a million car parking spaces across all Trust sites in England may not be enough to meet future demand. Philip Herring, managing director of VINCI Park UK, which designs, finances, builds, and operates, car parks for a variety of sectors, argues that having in place an effective strategy for future parking is vital to meet the growing needs of patients, visitors, and staff, as well as budgetary and environmental commitments. PMID:24397228

  16. A Lagrange-D'Alembert formulation of the equations of motion of a helicopter carrying an externally suspended load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, J. M.; Greif, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    The exact nonlinear equations of motion are derived for a helicopter with an extenal load suspended by fore and aft, rigid-link cables. Lagrange's form of D'Alembert's principle is used. Ten degrees of freedom are necessary to represent the motion of this system in an inertial reference frame: six for the helicopter relative to inertial space and four for the load relative to the helicopter.

  17. IL-17 promotes murine lupus.

    PubMed

    Amarilyo, Gil; Lourenço, Elaine V; Shi, Fu-Dong; La Cava, Antonio

    2014-07-15

    The proinflammatory activity of IL-17-producing Th17 cells has been associated with the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. In this article, we provide direct evidence for a role of IL-17 in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The induction of SLE by pristane in IL-17-sufficient wild-type mice did not occur in IL-17-deficient mice, which were protected from development of lupus autoantibodies and glomerulonephritis. The protection from SLE in IL-17-deficient mice was associated with a reduced frequency of CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative T cells and an expansion of CD4(+) regulatory T cells, and did not depend on Stat-1 signaling. These data affirm the key role of IL-17 in the pathogenesis of SLE and strengthen the support for IL-17 blockade in the therapy of SLE. PMID:24920843

  18. 77 FR 49349 - Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL AGENCY... deviation to the Chicago Air and Water Show safety zone on Lake Michigan near Lincoln Park. This action...

  19. IL-10 regulates murine lupus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhinan; Bahtiyar, Gul; Zhang, Na; Liu, Lanzhen; Zhu, Ping; Robert, Marie E; McNiff, Jennifer; Madaio, Michael P; Craft, Joe

    2002-08-15

    MRL/MpJ-Tnfrsf6(lpr) (MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr); MRL-Fas(lpr)) mice develop a spontaneous lupus syndrome closely resembling human systemic lupus erythematosus. To define the role of IL-10 in the regulation of murine lupus, IL-10 gene-deficient (IL-10(-/-)) MRL-Fas(lpr) (MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-10(-/-)) mice were generated and their disease phenotype was compared with littermates with one or two copies of an intact IL-10 locus (MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-10(+/-) and MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-10(+/+) mice, respectively). MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-10(-/-) mice developed severe lupus, with earlier appearance of skin lesions, increased lymphadenopathy, more severe glomerulonephritis, and higher mortality than their IL-10-intact littermate controls. The increased severity of lupus in MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-10(-/-) mice was closely associated with enhanced IFN-gamma production by both CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells and increased serum concentration of IgG2a anti-dsDNA autoantibodies. The protective effect of IL-10 in this lupus model was further supported by the observation that administration of rIL-10 reduced IgG2a anti-dsDNA autoantibody production in wild-type MRL-Fas(lpr) animals. In summary, our results provide evidence that IL-10 can down-modulate murine lupus through inhibition of pathogenic Th1 cytokine responses. Modulation of the level of IL-10 may be of potential therapeutic benefit for human lupus. PMID:12165544

  20. On the error propagation of semi-Lagrange and Fourier methods for advection problems☆

    PubMed Central

    Einkemmer, Lukas; Ostermann, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the error propagation of numerical schemes for the advection equation in the case where high precision is desired. The numerical methods considered are based on the fast Fourier transform, polynomial interpolation (semi-Lagrangian methods using a Lagrange or spline interpolation), and a discontinuous Galerkin semi-Lagrangian approach (which is conservative and has to store more than a single value per cell). We demonstrate, by carrying out numerical experiments, that the worst case error estimates given in the literature provide a good explanation for the error propagation of the interpolation-based semi-Lagrangian methods. For the discontinuous Galerkin semi-Lagrangian method, however, we find that the characteristic property of semi-Lagrangian error estimates (namely the fact that the error increases proportionally to the number of time steps) is not observed. We provide an explanation for this behavior and conduct numerical simulations that corroborate the different qualitative features of the error in the two respective types of semi-Lagrangian methods. The method based on the fast Fourier transform is exact but, due to round-off errors, susceptible to a linear increase of the error in the number of time steps. We show how to modify the Cooley–Tukey algorithm in order to obtain an error growth that is proportional to the square root of the number of time steps. Finally, we show, for a simple model, that our conclusions hold true if the advection solver is used as part of a splitting scheme. PMID:25844018

  1. Reconstitution of ST2 (IL-1R4) specific for IL-33 activity; no suppression by IL-1Ra though a common chain IL-1R3 (IL-1RAcP) shared with IL-1.

    PubMed

    Jo, Seunghyun; Kim, Eunsom; Kwak, Areum; Lee, Jungmin; Hong, Jaewoo; Lee, Jongho; Youn, Sulah; Bae, Suyoung; Kim, Busun; Ryoo, Soyoon; Kang, Tae-Bong; Her, Erk; Choi, Dong-Ki; Kim, Yong-Sung; Lee, Youngmin; Jhun, Hyunjhung; Kim, Soohyun

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) receptors are composed of ST2 (also known as IL-1R4), a ligand binding chain, and IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP, also known as IL-1R3), a signal transducing chain. IL-1R3 is a common receptor for IL-1α, and IL-1β, IL-33, and three IL-36 isoforms. A549 human lung epithelial cells are highly sensitive to IL-1α and IL-1β but not respond to IL-33. The lack of responsiveness to IL-33 is due to ST2 expression. ST2 was stably transfected into A549 cells to reconstitute its activity. RT-PCR and FACS analysis confirmed ST2 expression on the cell surface of A549/ST2 cells. Upon IL-33 stimulation, A549/ST2 cells induced IL-8 and IL-6 production in a dose dependent manner while A549/mock cells remained unresponsive. There was no difference in IL-1α and IL-1β activity in A549/ST2 cells compared to A549/mock cells despite the fact that IL-33 shares IL-1R3 with IL-1α/β. IL-33 activated inflammatory signaling molecules in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Anti-ST2 antibody and soluble recombinant ST2-Fc abolished IL-33-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in A549/ST2 cells but the IL-1 receptor antagonist failed to block IL-33-induced cytokines. This result demonstrates for the first time the reconstitution of ST2 in A549 human lung epithelial cell line and verified its function in IL-33-mediated cytokine production and signal transduction. PMID:27031441

  2. IL-1 stimulates IL-6 production in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sironi, M; Breviario, F; Proserpio, P; Biondi, A; Vecchi, A; Van Damme, J; Dejana, E; Mantovani, A

    1989-01-15

    Leukocytes and vascular cells interact closely in inflammation and immunity and lymphokines are important mediators of this interaction. The present study was designed to define the possible role of IL-6 as a communication signal between vascular and immunocompetent cells. IL-6 was measured as hybridoma growth factor (HGF) on the 7TD1 cell line in the supernatants of human endothelial cells (HEC). HEC released appreciable levels of HGF activity in the absence of deliberate stimulation. In vitro exposure to recombinant IL-1 beta markedly increased (usually 10 to 15-fold) HGF production by HEC. Optimal stimulation was observed with 0.1 to 50 U/ml for 4 to 20 h of incubation. Human and murine rIL-1 alpha stimulated HGF production in HEC. Anti-IL-6 antibodies inhibited the HGF activity of the HEC supernatants, thus confirming, together with the cytokine specificity of the assay, the nature of HEC-produced cytokine. IL-1-treated HEC expressed high levels of IL-6 mRNA as detected by Northern blot analysis. Inasmuch as IL-1 elicits a complex series of changes in HEC, it was important to assess whether IL-6, produced after exposure to IL-1, modified HEC function. Natural or rIL-6 did not affect the functional status of HEC as assessed by proliferative capacity, production of procoagulant activity and prostacyclin, ability to induce adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The capacity to produce IL-6 may represent an important mechanism by which endothelial cells participate in inflammatory and immune reactions. PMID:2783442

  3. IL-15 temporally reorients IL-10 biased B-1a cells toward IL-12 expression

    PubMed Central

    Kanti Ghosh, Amlan; Sinha, Debolina; Mukherjee, Subhadeep; Biswas, Ratna; Biswas, Tapas

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-15 is known to strongly modulate T-cell function; however, its role in controlling mucosal immunity, including its ability to modulate B-1a cell activity, remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that IL-15 upregulates activation molecules and the costimulatory molecule CD80 on viable B-1a cells. Cell activation was accompanied by the depletion of sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-G, an inhibitor of cell activation that is present on B-1a cells. The IL-15 receptor CD122 was stimulated on B-1a cells by the cytokine showing its direct involvement in IL-15-mediated responses. IL-10 is responsible for the long term survival of B-1a cells in culture, which is initially promoted by IL-15. The upregulation of IL-10 was followed by the appearance of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 in the presence of IL-15 and the loss of IL-10. This resulted in the cells switching to IL-12 expression. This anti-inflammatory to pro-inflammatory shift in the B-1a cell character was independent of the cell-specific marker CD5, which remained highly expressed throughout the in vitro life of the cells. The presence of the immunosuppressive receptor programmed cell death (PD)-1 and its ligand PD-L2 were features of a predominantly IL-10 response. PD-1 and PD-L2 can mediate juxtacrine signaling. However, the abrogation of PD-1 and its ligand was observed when the cells expressed IL-12. This demonstrates an inverse relationship between the receptor and ligand and the pro-inflammatory cytokine. The induction of IgM and IgA, which can play pivotal roles in mucosal immunity, was promoted in the presence of IL-15. Collectively, the data implicate IL-15 as the master cytokine that induces B-1a cells to mount a mucosal immune response. PMID:25748019

  4. IL-15 temporally reorients IL-10 biased B-1a cells toward IL-12 expression.

    PubMed

    Kanti Ghosh, Amlan; Sinha, Debolina; Mukherjee, Subhadeep; Biswas, Ratna; Biswas, Tapas

    2016-03-01

    Interleukin (IL)-15 is known to strongly modulate T-cell function; however, its role in controlling mucosal immunity, including its ability to modulate B-1a cell activity, remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that IL-15 upregulates activation molecules and the costimulatory molecule CD80 on viable B-1a cells. Cell activation was accompanied by the depletion of sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-G, an inhibitor of cell activation that is present on B-1a cells. The IL-15 receptor CD122 was stimulated on B-1a cells by the cytokine showing its direct involvement in IL-15-mediated responses. IL-10 is responsible for the long term survival of B-1a cells in culture, which is initially promoted by IL-15. The upregulation of IL-10 was followed by the appearance of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 in the presence of IL-15 and the loss of IL-10. This resulted in the cells switching to IL-12 expression. This anti-inflammatory to pro-inflammatory shift in the B-1a cell character was independent of the cell-specific marker CD5, which remained highly expressed throughout the in vitro life of the cells. The presence of the immunosuppressive receptor programmed cell death (PD)-1 and its ligand PD-L2 were features of a predominantly IL-10 response. PD-1 and PD-L2 can mediate juxtacrine signaling. However, the abrogation of PD-1 and its ligand was observed when the cells expressed IL-12. This demonstrates an inverse relationship between the receptor and ligand and the pro-inflammatory cytokine. The induction of IgM and IgA, which can play pivotal roles in mucosal immunity, was promoted in the presence of IL-15. Collectively, the data implicate IL-15 as the master cytokine that induces B-1a cells to mount a mucosal immune response. PMID:25748019

  5. Automated Car Park Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  6. IL-21 Signaling in Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Warren J.; Wan, Chi-Keung

    2016-01-01

    IL-21 is a type I cytokine produced by T cells and natural killer T cells that has pleiotropic actions on a wide range of immune and non-immune cell types. Since its discovery in 2000, extensive studies on the biological actions of IL-21 have been performed in vitro and in vivo. Recent reports describing patients with primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations of IL21 or IL21R have further deepened our knowledge of the role of this cytokine in host defense. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that mediate IL-21’s actions has provided the rationale for targeting IL-21 and IL-21 downstream mediators for therapeutic purposes. The use of next-generation sequencing technology has provided further insights into the complexity of IL-21 signaling and has identified transcription factors and co-factors involved in mediating the actions of this cytokine. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the biology and signaling of IL-21 and how this knowledge can be potentially translated into clinical settings. PMID:26966515

  7. Efficient cytokine-induced IL-13 production by mast cells requires both IL-33 and IL-3

    PubMed Central

    Junttila, Ilkka S.; Watson, Cynthia; Kummola, Laura; Chen, Xi; Hu-Li, Jane; Guo, Liying; Yagi, Ryoji; Paul, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Background IL-13 is a critical effector cytokine for allergic inflammation. It is produced by several cell types, including mast cells, basophils, and TH2 cells. In mast cells and basophils its induction can be stimulated by cross-linkage of immunoglobulin receptors or cytokines. The IL-1 family members IL-33 and IL-18 have been linked to induction of IL-13 production by mast cells and basophils. In CD4 TH2 cells IL-33–mediated production of IL-13 requires simultaneous signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5 activation. Objective Here we have addressed whether cytokine-induced IL-13 production in mast cells and basophils follows the same logic as in TH2 cells: requirement of 2 separate signals. Methods: By generating a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic IL-13 reporter mouse, we measured IL-13 production in mast cells and basophils. Results In mast cells harvested from peritoneal cavities, 2 cytokine signals are required for IL-13 production: IL-33 and IL-3. In bone marrow mast cells IL-13 production requires IL-33, but the requirement for a STAT5 inducer is difficult to evaluate because these cells require the continuous presence of IL-3 (a STAT5 activator) for survival. Poorer STAT5 inducers in culture (IL-4 or stem cell factor) result in less IL-13 production on IL-33 challenge, but the addition of exogenous IL-3 enhances IL-13 production. This implies that bone marrow–derived mast cells, like peritoneal mast cells and TH2 cells, require stimulation both by an IL-1 family member and a STAT5 inducer to secrete IL-13. Basophils follow the same rule; splenic basophils produce IL-13 in response to IL-18 or IL-33 plus IL-3. Conclusion Optimal IL-13 production from mast cells and basophils requires 2 cytokine signals. PMID:23683462

  8. PARKING FACILITY PROJECTIONS BASED ON THE 1968 STUDENT PARKING SURVEY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DALBY, J. PHILIP; KENDRA, LAWRENCE M.

    RESPONSES FROM 1,309 STUDENTS AND 121 CAMPUS EMPLOYEES AT CUYAHOGA COMMUNITY COLLEGE WERE USED TO PROJECT REQUIREMENTS FOR PARKING FACILITIES AT THE INSTITUTION BY 1971. STUDENTS INDICATED WHETHER OR NOT THEY CURRENTLY DROVE TO SCHOOL AND, IF NOT, IF THEY WOULD INTEND TO DRIVE IF PARKING FACILITIES WERE PROVIDED AT A NOMINAL FEE. FINDINGS SHOWED…

  9. Euler-Lagrange Modeling of Vortex Interaction with a Particle-Laden Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Fernando

    Rotorcraft operation in austere environments can result in difficult operating conditions, particularly in the vicinity of sandy areas. The uplift of sediment by rotorcraft downwash, a phenomenon known as brownout, hinders pilot visual cues and may result in a potentially dangerous situation. Brownout is a complex multiphase flow problem that is not unique and depends on both the characteristics of the rotorcraft and the sediment. The lack of fundamental understanding constrains models and limits development of technologies that could mitigate the adverse effects of brownout. This provides the over-arching motivation of the current work focusing on models of particle-laden sediment beds. The particular focus of the current investigations is numerical modeling of near-surface fluid-particle interactions in turbulent boundary layers with and without coherent vortices superimposed on the background flow, that model rotorcraft downwash. The simulations are performed with two groups of particles having different densities both of which display strong vortex-particle interaction close to the source location. The simulations include cases with inter-particle collisions and gravitational settling. Particle effects on the fluid are ignored. The numerical simulations are performed using an Euler- Lagrange method in which a fractional-step approach is used for the fluid and with the particulate phase advanced using Discrete Particle Simulation. The objectives are to gain insight into the fluid-particle dynamics that influence transport near the bed by analyzing the competing effects of the vortices, inter-particle collisions, and gravity. Following the introduction of coherent vortices into the domain, the structures convect downstream, dissipate, and then recover to an equilibrium state with the boundary layer. The particle phase displays an analogous return to an equilibrium state as the vortices dissipate and the boundary layer recovers, though this recovery is slower than for the fluid and is sensitive to the particle response time. The effects of inter-particle collisions are relatively strong and apparent throughout the flow, being most effective in the boundary layer. Gravitational settling increases the particle concentration near the wall and consequently increase inter-particle collisions.

  10. Free IL-15 Is More Abundant Than IL-15 Complexed With Soluble IL-15 Receptor-α in Murine Serum: Implications for the Mechanism of IL-15 Secretion.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barbara G; Quinn, LeBris S

    2016-03-01

    IL-15 is a cytokine that is part of the innate immune system, as well as a proposed myokine released from skeletal muscle during physical exercise that mediates many of the positive physiological effects of exercise. Many of the immune functions of IL-15 are mediated by juxtacrine signaling via externalized IL-15 bound to membrane-associated IL-15 receptor-α (IL-15Rα). Serum and plasma samples also contain measurable concentrations of IL-15, believed to arise from proteolytic cleavage of membrane-associated IL-15/IL-15Rα complexes to generate soluble IL-15/IL-15Rα species. Here, we validate commercial assays that can distinguish the free form of IL-15 and IL-15/IL-15Rα complexes. These assays showed that most (86%) IL-15 in mouse serum resides in the free state, with a minor proportion (14%) residing in complex with IL-15Rα. Given the much shorter half-life of free IL-15 compared with IL-15/IL-15Rα complexes, these findings cast doubt on the currently accepted model for IL-15 secretion from cleavage of membrane-bound IL-15/IL-15Rα and suggest that IL-15 is released as a free molecule by an unknown mechanism. PMID:26812159

  11. 41 CFR 102-74.270 - Are vehicles required to display parking permits in parking facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Parking Facilities § 102-74.270 Are vehicles required to display parking permits in parking facilities? When the use of parking space is controlled as in... display parking permits in parking facilities? 102-74.270 Section 102-74.270 Public Contracts and...

  12. 41 CFR 102-74.270 - Are vehicles required to display parking permits in parking facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Parking Facilities § 102-74.270 Are vehicles required to display parking permits in parking facilities? When the use of parking space is controlled as in... display parking permits in parking facilities? 102-74.270 Section 102-74.270 Public Contracts and...

  13. 41 CFR 102-74.270 - Are vehicles required to display parking permits in parking facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Parking Facilities § 102-74.270 Are vehicles required to display parking permits in parking facilities? When the use of parking space is controlled as in... display parking permits in parking facilities? 102-74.270 Section 102-74.270 Public Contracts and...

  14. 41 CFR 102-74.270 - Are vehicles required to display parking permits in parking facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Parking Facilities § 102-74.270 Are vehicles required to display parking permits in parking facilities? When the use of parking space is controlled as in... display parking permits in parking facilities? 102-74.270 Section 102-74.270 Public Contracts and...

  15. Modal control of a satellite in an unstable periodic orbit about the Earth-Sun interior Lagrange point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, Douglas J.

    1993-12-01

    A periodic 'halo' orbit which exists about the interior Lagrange point for the Earth-sun system was decomposed using Floquet theory into modal variables, which are dynamically decoupled subspaces for the six degree of freedom system. Modal control consisted of evaluating the diverging mode and maneuvering to counteract its divergence. In the unperturbed system, this was successful. Control costs were low, and the significance is that the controller did nothing to suppress modes that were oscillatory or converging. The effect of the moon's motion allowed the scheme to operate with reasonable control costs, but the effect of eccentricity caused divergence in spite of the controller.

  16. THE LAGRANGE EQUILIBRIUM POINTS L{sub 4} AND L{sub 5} IN BLACK HOLE BINARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.

    2010-11-20

    We calculate the location and stability of the L{sub 4} and L{sub 5} Lagrange equilibrium points in the circular restricted three-body problem as the binary system evolves via gravitational radiation losses. Relative to the purely Newtonian case, we find that the L{sub 4} equilibrium point moves toward the secondary mass and becomes slightly less stable, while the L{sub 5} point moves away from the secondary and gains in stability. We discuss a number of astrophysical applications of these results, in particular as a mechanism for producing electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational-wave signals.

  17. New Challenges in Campus Parking Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mah, Allan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the challenges campus parking professionals face from the increased demands of organizations to improve parking service levels with diminishing resources. Campus parking operations are explored with an awareness of the needs, attitudes, and demands of customers in mind. (GR)

  18. 32 CFR 636.14 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.14 Parking... parking in handicapped and Commanding General reserved parking spaces at Fort Stewart/Hunter Army...

  19. California Community Colleges Parking Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Chuck

    In 1990, a representative sample of 25 California community colleges was contacted by telephone to determine their parking policies and practices. The colleges were sampled on the basis of location and size. Study findings included the following: (1) 17 of the colleges reported that they had insufficient numbers of on-campus parking spaces; (2)…

  20. An Amusement Park Physics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-01-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition

  1. Professional Preparation in Recreation & Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialeschki, M. Deborah; McAllister, Megan

    1990-01-01

    Presents data from the Society of Park and Recreation Educators' 1988 curriculum study monitoring the status of U.S. and Canadian higher education programs in park, recreation, and leisure studies. Data from 79 schools indicate declining enrollment of such students at the bachelor's level and increasing enrollment at the associate level. (SM)

  2. An Amusement Park Physics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-01-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition…

  3. Role of IL-25 in Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Afra; Zadeh, Layla Jafar; Parizad, Elaheh Gholami

    2015-01-01

    IL-25 a 2o KDa protein mostly known as IL-17E, encoded by chromosome 14, and containing 117 amino acids. Cytokine IL-17 family consists of 6 members; IL-17A to IL-17F, among which IL-25 has a unique structure and function. The receptor of IL-25 (IL-17BR) is highly expressed in the main Th2 cells. IL-25 regulates the internal safety of adaptive immune responses which leads to begin allergic diseases and plays a role in stimulation of pulmonary mucosal cells and fibroblasts. IL-25 can also have some effects on production of other cytokines. For instance, production of IL-25 in human and mice or injection of IL-25 to animals has resulted in production of high concentrations of Th2 cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Pilot studies have shown that mRNA of IL-25 has a high expression in Th2 cells. However, the mechanism through which IL-25 leads to Th2 immune response is still unknown. Reaction between IL-25 and IL-17BR leads to activation of transcription factors, such as NF-KB, STAT6, GATA3, NF-ATC1, JUNNB, MAPK, and JNK. IL-25 has been used against the kidney damage in mice. A large number of researchers in various countries, including the U.S. and Taiwan, have stated that IL-25 is a strong inflammatory cytokine protein which is involved in allergic inflammations. PMID:26023586

  4. Role of IL-25 in Immunity.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, Azar; Khosravi, Afra; Zadeh, Layla Jafar; Parizad, Elaheh Gholami

    2015-04-01

    IL-25 a 2o KDa protein mostly known as IL-17E, encoded by chromosome 14, and containing 117 amino acids. Cytokine IL-17 family consists of 6 members; IL-17A to IL-17F, among which IL-25 has a unique structure and function. The receptor of IL-25 (IL-17BR) is highly expressed in the main Th2 cells. IL-25 regulates the internal safety of adaptive immune responses which leads to begin allergic diseases and plays a role in stimulation of pulmonary mucosal cells and fibroblasts. IL-25 can also have some effects on production of other cytokines. For instance, production of IL-25 in human and mice or injection of IL-25 to animals has resulted in production of high concentrations of Th2 cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Pilot studies have shown that mRNA of IL-25 has a high expression in Th2 cells. However, the mechanism through which IL-25 leads to Th2 immune response is still unknown. Reaction between IL-25 and IL-17BR leads to activation of transcription factors, such as NF-KB, STAT6, GATA3, NF-ATC1, JUNNB, MAPK, and JNK. IL-25 has been used against the kidney damage in mice. A large number of researchers in various countries, including the U.S. and Taiwan, have stated that IL-25 is a strong inflammatory cytokine protein which is involved in allergic inflammations. PMID:26023586

  5. The IL-23/IL-17 Axis in Psoriatic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Erika; Mellins, Elizabeth D.; Gershwin, M. Eric; Nestle, Frank O.; Adamopoulos, Iannis E.

    2014-01-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease, affecting both the skin and joints. Disease progression is associated with aberrant cytokine expression, and TNF blockade is the most successful therapy to date. However, not all patients are responsive to anti-TNF treatment, highlighting the need to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern the disease. PsA associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL23R as well as TRAF3IP2 (Act1), a molecule downstream of the IL-17 receptor (IL-17R), have linked the IL-23/IL-17 axis to disease pathology. Although both cytokines are implicated in PsA, a full picture of their cellular targets and pathogenic mechanisms has not yet emerged. In this review, we focus on the IL-23/IL-17 axis-elicited responses mediated by osteoclasts, keratinocytes and neutrophils. Expanding our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that dictate pathogenicity in PsA will contribute to developing novel treatment strategies to combat disease. PMID:24424175

  6. Wheeling and Dealing in the National Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Sydney

    1973-01-01

    Motor vehicles and commercialism have generated serious problems within the national park system. A Conservation Foundation suggests new directions in management for the National Park Service. (Editors)

  7. Characterization of type II intracellular IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra3): a depot IL-1ra.

    PubMed

    Muzio, M; Polentarutti, N; Facchetti, F; Peri, G; Doni, A; Sironi, M; Transidico, P; Salmona, M; Introna, M; Mantovani, A

    1999-03-01

    Three molecular forms of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) have been identified and cloned. Secreted IL-1ra (sIL-1ra or IL-1ra1) contains a classical leader peptide giving a released mature protein. Two intracellular isoforms, icIL-1ra type I (IL-1ra2) and icIL-1ra type II (IL-1ra3), have no leader sequence, thus predicting that these proteins remain intracellular. In an effort to define its biological role, we structurally and functionally characterized IL-1ra3. Endogenous immunoreactive IL-1ra3 was detected in a variety of inflammatory cells and tissues. We used a gene transfer strategy to explore the possible intracellular functions of IL-1ra3 (and IL-1ra2) and the cell-associated agonist IL-1alpha. The intracellular IL-1ra3 isoform, as well as IL-1ra2, does not block the action of exogenous and endogenous IL-1 under these conditions. Intact IL-1ra3 was released from the cells killed by NK effectors. The intracellular isoforms may represent a reservoir of IL-1ra, released upon cell death, whose function is to limit the pro-inflammatory action of cell debris. PMID:10092080

  8. A four-way coupled Euler—Lagrange approach using a variational multiscale method for simulating cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerl, Georg; Wall, Wolfgang A.

    2015-12-01

    An Euler-Lagrange model is developed to simulate bubbly flow around an obstacle with the aim to resolve large and meso-scales of cavitation phenomena. The volume averaged Navier-Stokes equations are discretized using finite elements on an unstructured grid with a variational multiscale method. The trajectory of each bubble is tracked using Newton's second law. Furthermore, bubble interaction is modeled with a soft sphere contact model to obtain a four-way coupled approach. The new features presented in this work, besides using a variational multiscale method in an Euler-Lagrange framework, is an improved computation of the void fraction. A second order polynomial is used as filtering function and the volume integral is transformed by applying the divergence theorem twice, leading to line integrals which can be integrated analytically. Therefore, accuracy of void fraction computation is increased and discontinuities are avoided as is the case when the kernel touches a Gauss point across time steps. This integration technique is not limited to the chosen spatial discretization. The numerical test case considers flow in a channel with a cylindrical obstacle. Bubbles are released close to the inflow boundary and void fractions up to 30% occur at the stagnation point of the obstacle.

  9. Pivotal Roles of T-Helper 17-Related Cytokines, IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23, in Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Ning; Xu, Mingli; Mizoguchi, Izuru; Furusawa, Jun-ichi; Kaneko, Kotaro; Watanabe, Kazunori; Mizuguchi, Junichiro; Itoh, Masahiro; Kawakami, Yutaka; Yoshimoto, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    T-helper 17 (Th17) cells are characterized by producing interleukin-17 (IL-17, also called IL-17A), IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-22 and potentially TNF-α and IL-6 upon certain stimulation. IL-23, which promotes Th17 cell development, as well as IL-17 and IL-22 produced by the Th17 cells plays essential roles in various inflammatory diseases, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, colitis, and Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of the functional role of Th17 cells, with particular focus on the Th17 cell-related cytokines such as IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23, in mouse models and human inflammatory diseases. PMID:23956763

  10. Aftermath of Griffith Park Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2007, wind-driven flames raced through Griffith Park in Los Angeles, forcing hasty evacuations and threatening numerous famous landmarks and tourist spots, such as the Los Angeles Zoo and the Hollywood Sign. Ultimately, no one was injured in the fire, which may have been started by a cigarette. About 800 acres burned in the urban park, which is itself a Hollywood landmark, having been the location for several movies, including Rebel Without A Cause. This image of the park was captured by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on June 6, 2007, about a month after the fire. ASTER detects both visible and infrared wavelengths of light, and both kinds have been used to make this image. Vegetation appears in various shades of red, while the burned areas appear charcoal. Roads and dense urban areas appear purplish-gray or white. Water is dark blue. Large burned areas are evident in the northwest and southeast parts of the park, with scattered smaller patches along the southern margin. Some botanical gardens and parts of a bird sanctuary, as well as some park structures like restrooms, were destroyed. The park's unburned, natural vegetation appears brick red, while the irrigated golf courses adjacent to the park are bright red. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  11. Perception of urban park soundscape.

    PubMed

    Tse, Man Sze; Chau, Chi Kwan; Choy, Yat Sze; Tsui, Wai Keung; Chan, Chak Ngai; Tang, Shiu Keung

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies have been initiated to explore how to improve the soundscape quality in urban parks. However, good soundscape quality in parks cannot be provided without a thorough understanding of the complex relationships among sound, environment, and individuals. As acoustic comfort is considered to be an important outcome of soundscape quality, this study investigates the relative impacts of the factors influencing acoustic comfort evaluation by formulating a multivariate ordered logit model. This study also explores the inter-relationships among acoustic comfort evaluation, acceptability of the environment, and preference to stay in a park using a path model. A total of 595 valid responses were obtained from interview surveys administered in four parks in Hong Kong while objective sound measurements were carried out at the survey spots concurrently. The findings unveil that acoustic comfort evaluation, besides visual comfort evaluation of landscape, also plays an important role on users' acceptability of the urban park environment. Compared with all the studied acoustic related factors, acoustic comfort evaluation serves as a better proxy for park users' preference to stay in urban parks. Hearing the breeze will significantly increase the likelihood of individuals in giving high acoustic comfort evaluation. Conversely, hearing the sounds from heavy vehicles or sounds from bikes will significantly reduce the likelihood in giving a high acoustic evaluation. PMID:22501055

  12. The equations of Lagrange for a continuous deformable body with rigid body degrees of freedom, written in a momentum based formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irschik, H.; Krommer, M.; Nader, M.; Vetyukov, Y.; von Garssen, H.-G.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with Lagrange's Equations, applied to a deformable body in the presence of rigid body degrees of freedom. The Lagrange description of Continuum Mechanics is used. An exact version of the Equations is derived first. This version, which represents an identical extension of the Fundamental Law of Dynamics, does involve the idea of virtual motions. The virtual motion is described in the framework of the Ritz-Ansatz, but our derivation does not make use of D'Alemberts principle, the principle of virtual work, or variational principles. From the exact version, by involving arguments related to the Galerkin approximation technique, we derive an approximate Ritz type version of Lagrange's Equations. This approximate version coincides with the traditional one, which is based on the notion of kinetic energy. However, since our derivation stems from the Fundamental Law of Dynamics, we have at our disposal an alternative formulation, which is based on the notion of local momentum. This momentum based version, which is the main topic of the present contribution, can be used for the purpose of performing independent checks of the energy based version of Lagrange's Equations. The momentum based version also clarifies that and how certain terms in the energy based version do cancel out. The momentum based version is worked out in the framework of the Floating Frame of Reference Formulation of Multibody Dynamics. Explicit formulas for the single terms of Lagrange's Equations are derived for the translational, rotational and flexible degrees of freedom of the deformable body, respectively. Corresponding Lagrange's Equations are explained in the light of the relations of Balance of Total Momentum, Balance of Total Moment of Momentum, of the Mean Stress Theorem and the notion of Virial of Forces. An embedding into the literature is given.

  13. 75 FR 13572 - Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... National Park Service Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service... dates of the April 7, 2006 and October 5, 2006 meetings of the Gettysburg National Military Park..., Gettysburg National Military Park, 97 Taneytown Road, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 17325....

  14. 78 FR 14822 - Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Concessions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Concessions AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (National Park Service, NPS... Madonna L. Baucum, Information Collection Clearance Officer, National Park Service, 1201 I Street NW.,...

  15. Anti–IL-6 neutralizing antibody modulates blood-brain barrier function in the ovine fetus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiyong; Sadowska, Grazyna B.; Chen, Xiaodi; Park, Seon Yeong; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Bodge, Courtney A.; Cummings, Erin; Lim, Yow-Pin; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Besio, Walter G.; Gaitanis, John; Banks, William A.; Stonestreet, Barbara S.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired blood-brain barrier function represents an important component of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the perinatal period. Proinflammatory cytokines could contribute to ischemia-related blood-brain barrier dysfunction. IL-6 increases vascular endothelial cell monolayer permeability in vitro. However, contributions of IL-6 to blood-brain barrier abnormalities have not been examined in the immature brain in vivo. We generated pharmacologic quantities of ovine-specific neutralizing anti-IL-6 mAbs and systemically infused mAbs into fetal sheep at 126 days of gestation after exposure to brain ischemia. Anti–IL-6 mAbs were measured by ELISA in fetal plasma, cerebral cortex, and cerebrospinal fluid, blood-brain barrier permeability was quantified using the blood-to-brain transfer constant in brain regions, and IL-6, tight junction proteins, and plasmalemma vesicle protein (PLVAP) were detected by Western immunoblot. Anti–IL-6 mAb infusions resulted in increases in mAb (P < 0.05) in plasma, brain parenchyma, and cerebrospinal fluid and decreases in brain IL-6 protein. Twenty-four hours after ischemia, anti–IL-6 mAb infusions attenuated ischemia-related increases in blood-brain barrier permeability and modulated tight junction and PLVAP protein expression in fetal brain. We conclude that inhibiting the effects of IL-6 protein with systemic infusions of neutralizing antibodies attenuates ischemia-related increases in blood-brain barrier permeability by inhibiting IL-6 and modulates tight junction proteins after ischemia.—Zhang, J., Sadowska, G. B., Chen, X., Park, S. Y., Kim, J.-E., Bodge, C. A., Cummings, E., Lim, Y.-P., Makeyev, O., Besio, W. G., Gaitanis, J., Banks, W. A., Stonestreet, B. S. Anti–IL-6 neutralizing antibody modulates blood-brain barrier function in the ovine fetus. PMID:25609424

  16. [Basic and clinical aspects of IL-6].

    PubMed

    Nakajima, K; Hirano, T

    1991-04-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine regulating immune response, production of acute phase reactants in hepatocytes, growth of hematopoietic stem cells and other cellular functions in many cell lineages. The increased production of IL-6 is often seen in infections diseases, chronic inflammatory diseases, and certain tumors which accompany polyclonal B cell activation and increased level of CRP. Recent progress in the study of the basic aspects on IL-6 will be discussed, which includes the regulation mechanisms of IL-6 gene, the structure of IL-6 receptor complex (IL-6, 80 KDa IL-6 receptor and signal transducing gp130) and IL-6 signal transduction pathways. PMID:1707253

  17. Association study of functional polymorphisms in interleukins and interleukin receptors genes: IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL6, IL6R, IL10, IL10RA and TGFB1 in schizophrenia in Polish population.

    PubMed

    Kapelski, Pawel; Skibinska, Maria; Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Wilkosc, Monika; Frydecka, Dorota; Groszewska, Agata; Narozna, Beata; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Czerski, Piotr; Pawlak, Joanna; Rajewska-Rager, Aleksandra; Leszczynska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Slopien, Agnieszka; Zaremba, Dorota; Twarowska-Hauser, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia has been associated with a large range of autoimmune diseases, with a history of any autoimmune disease being associated with a 45% increase in risk for the illness. The inflammatory system may trigger or modulate the course of schizophrenia through complex mechanisms influencing neurodevelopment, neuroplasticity and neurotransmission. In particular, increases or imbalance in cytokine before birth or during the early stages of life may affect neurodevelopment and produce vulnerability to the disease. A total of 27 polymorphisms of IL1N gene: rs1800587, rs17561; IL1B gene: rs1143634, rs1143643, rs16944, rs4848306, rs1143623, rs1143633, rs1143627; IL1RN gene: rs419598, rs315952, rs9005, rs4251961; IL6 gene: rs1800795, rs1800797; IL6R gene: rs4537545, rs4845617, rs2228145, IL10 gene: rs1800896, rs1800871, rs1800872, rs1800890, rs6676671; IL10RA gene: rs2229113, rs3135932; TGF1B gene: rs1800469, rs1800470; each selected on the basis of molecular evidence for functionality, were investigated in this study. Analysis was performed on a group of 621 patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia and 531 healthy controls in Polish population. An association of rs4848306 in IL1B gene, rs4251961 in IL1RN gene, rs2228145 and rs4537545 in IL6R with schizophrenia have been observed. rs6676671 in IL10 was associated with early age of onset. Strong linkage disequilibrium was observed between analyzed polymorphisms in each gene, except of IL10RA. We observed that haplotypes composed of rs4537545 and rs2228145 in IL6R gene were associated with schizophrenia. Analyses with family history of schizophrenia, other psychiatric disorders and alcohol abuse/dependence did not show any positive findings. Further studies on larger groups along with correlation with circulating protein levels are needed. PMID:26481614

  18. 45 CFR 3.24 - Parking permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Parking permits. 3.24 Section 3.24 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.24 Parking permits. Except for visitor parking, a person may not park a...

  19. 32 CFR 636.14 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Parking. 636.14 Section 636.14 National Defense... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.14 Parking... parking in handicapped and Commanding General reserved parking spaces at Fort Stewart/Hunter Army...

  20. 32 CFR 636.14 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Parking. 636.14 Section 636.14 National Defense... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.14 Parking... parking in handicapped and Commanding General reserved parking spaces at Fort Stewart/Hunter Army...

  1. 32 CFR 636.14 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Parking. 636.14 Section 636.14 National Defense... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.14 Parking... parking in handicapped and Commanding General reserved parking spaces at Fort Stewart/Hunter Army...

  2. Suicide and the parking garage.

    PubMed

    Mouw, Isaiah; Troth, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Each year over one million Americans attempt suicide, and over 30,000 succeed. One of the most popular and successful, methods of suicide is jumping, the authors point out, and one of the most widely-used venues for jumping are parking garages. Especially vulnerable to such suicide attempts are the parking structures of hospitals, they report, because it has been found that most persons who jump to their death had been previously treated for a mental health condition. (One hospital in Massachusetts recently reported that a man jumped or fell from the second floor of one of its parking decks, the second such incident at one of its garages in five years.) In this article the authors discuss how parking professionals can help prevent suicide from happening and how to handle this situation if it does occur in your garage. PMID:21916292

  3. Vandal-Proof Your Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shattuck, J. Bruce

    1988-01-01

    Responses of 380 park maintenance and facility managers to a questionnaire provided information on how they try to prevent vandalism affecting signs, picnic and related services, and sanitary facilities. (CB)

  4. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, C.W.; Giraud, K.M.

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  5. IL-17A, IL-22, IL-6, and IL-21 Serum Levels in Plaque-Type Psoriasis in Brazilian Patients

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Priscilla Stela Santana; Cardoso, Pablo Ramon Gualberto; Lima, Emerson Vasconcelos de Andrade; Pereira, Michelly Cristiny; Duarte, Angela Luzia Branco Pinto; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by alterations in cytokines produced by both Th1 and Th17 pathways. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of pivotal cytokines and correlate them with clinical parameters. Serum samples from 53 psoriasis patients and 35 healthy volunteers, matched by the proportion of sex and age ratios, were collected for ELISA cytokine detection. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) was assessed at the time of sampling in psoriasis patients. Our findings demonstrate that IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-6 serum concentrations were significantly higher in psoriasis patients than in the control group. No statistical correlation could be found between cytokines concentrations, PASI score, and age in this study. Although our results do not show any correlation between serum levels of IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-6 and disease activity, the present study confirms that they were increased in Brazilian psoriasis patients in comparison to healthy volunteers. PMID:26351408

  6. IL-17A, IL-22, IL-6, and IL-21 Serum Levels in Plaque-Type Psoriasis in Brazilian Patients.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Priscilla Stela Santana; Cardoso, Pablo Ramon Gualberto; Lima, Emerson Vasconcelos de Andrade; Pereira, Michelly Cristiny; Duarte, Angela Luzia Branco Pinto; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by alterations in cytokines produced by both Th1 and Th17 pathways. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of pivotal cytokines and correlate them with clinical parameters. Serum samples from 53 psoriasis patients and 35 healthy volunteers, matched by the proportion of sex and age ratios, were collected for ELISA cytokine detection. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) was assessed at the time of sampling in psoriasis patients. Our findings demonstrate that IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-6 serum concentrations were significantly higher in psoriasis patients than in the control group. No statistical correlation could be found between cytokines concentrations, PASI score, and age in this study. Although our results do not show any correlation between serum levels of IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-6 and disease activity, the present study confirms that they were increased in Brazilian psoriasis patients in comparison to healthy volunteers. PMID:26351408

  7. An amusement park physics competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-07-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition reveals positive effects such as the acquisition of experimentation skills and improved attitudes towards physics.

  8. IL-35 and Autoimmunity: a Comprehensive Perspective.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jinjung; Leung, Patrick S C; Bowlus, Christopher; Gershwin, M Eric

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is the most recently identified member of the IL-12 family of cytokines and offers the potential to be a target for new therapies for autoimmune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases. Similar to other members of the IL-12 family including IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27, IL-35 is composed of a heterodimer of α and β chains, which in the case of IL-35 are the p35 and Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) proteins. However, unlike its proinflammatory relatives, IL-35 has immunosuppressive effects that are mediated through regulatory T and B cells. Although there are limited data available regarding the role of IL-35 in human autoimmunity, several murine models of autoimmunity suggest that IL-35 may have potent effects in regulating immunoreactivity via IL-10-dependent mechanisms. We suggest that similar effects are operational in human disease and IL-35-directed therapies hold significant promise. In particular, we emphasize that IL-35 has immunosuppressive ability that are mediated via regulatory T and B cells that are IL-10 dependent. Further, although deletion of IL-35 does not result in spontaneous breach of tolerance, recombinant IL-35 can improve autoimmune responses in several experimental models. PMID:25619872

  9. Correlation between acute myeloid leukemia and IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-23R gene polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Biao; Zhang, Jianbo; Wang, Xiaodong; Chen, Jiao; Li, Chenglong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Th17 cells may be involved in the pathological process of acute myeloid leukemia. This CD4+ cell subgroup secretes highly homologous interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-17F, and also expresses IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) on the cell surface. Our study aims to investigate the relationship of IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL23R with disease susceptibility, and clarify the relationship between gene polymorphism variation and serum IL-17 level. 62 acute myeloid leukemia patients and 125 healthy controls were included in this study. Restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP) was applied to analyze IL-17A (rs2275913; G-197A), IL17F (rs763780; A7488G; His161Arg), and IL-23R (rs11209026, G1142A; Arg381Gln) alleles. At the same time, enzyme-linked immunoassay analysis (ELISA) was used to test serum IL-17 level in patients. Acute myeloid leukemia patients presented higher rate of IL-17F G single mutant (RR = 4.75, P < 0.001) and GG mutation homozygote (RR = 23.01, P < 0.005). While IL-17A, IL-23R A single mutant and purified AA mutation homozygote showed no correlation with acute myeloid leukemia susceptibility. In addition, ELISA showed that serum IL-17 exhibited no significant difference between acute myeloid leukemia patients and healthy controls had (8.8 ± 7.19 pg/ml vs. 1.4 ± 0.2 pg/ml, P > 0.05). IL-17F G single mutant and GG mutation homozygote were correlated with acute myeloid leukemia susceptibility, while IL-17 gene polymorphism and serum IL-17 level were not. Furthermore, IL-17A and IL-23R gene polymorphism were not associated with acute myeloid leukemia susceptibility. PMID:26191290

  10. Science Enabled by the Ares V: A Large Monolithic Telescope Placed at the Second Sun-Earth Lagrange Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2007-01-01

    The payload mass and volume capabilities of the planned Ares V launch vehicle provide the science community with unprecedented opportunities to place large science payloads into low earth orbit and beyond. One example, the outcome of a recent study conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, is a large, monolithic telescope with a primary mirror diameter of 6.2 meters placed into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point, or L2, approximately 1.5 million kin beyond Earth's orbit. Operating in the visible and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, such a large telescope would allow astronomers to detect bio-signatures and characterize the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets, provide high resolution imaging three or more times better than the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope, and observe the ultraviolet light from warm baryonic matter.

  11. Analysis of complex elastic structures by a Rayleigh-Ritz component modes method using Lagrange multipliers. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, L. R.

    1974-01-01

    The free vibrations of elastic structures of arbitrary complexity were analyzed in terms of their component modes. The method was based upon the use of the normal unconstrained modes of the components in a Rayleigh-Ritz analysis. The continuity conditions were enforced by means of Lagrange Multipliers. Examples of the structures considered are: (1) beams with nonuniform properties; (2) airplane structures with high or low aspect ratio lifting surface components; (3) the oblique wing airplane; and (4) plate structures. The method was also applied to the analysis of modal damping of linear elastic structures. Convergence of the method versus the number of modes per component and/or the number of components is discussed and compared to more conventional approaches, ad-hoc methods, and experimental results.

  12. A Comparative Study of Euler-Euler and Euler-Lagrange Modelling of Wood Gasification in a Dense Fluidized Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, S.; Behrendt, F.; Oevermann, M.

    In this work we compare two different modelling strategies for the simulation of wood gasification in a dense fluidized bed. In the first method we adopt an Euler-Lagrange approach where the fluid phase is modelled as a continuum and the particulate phase is modelled on the individual particle level using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). In the second method we use an Euler-Euler or continuum approach where the multiple solid phases for wood and char particles are treated as a continuum. Both models allow the time-dependent prediction of velocity, temperature, and composition fields. Both models have been run to a statistically stationary state. We compare the numerical results of both methods against each other and with experimental data obtained at a laboratory scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor.

  13. Woofer-tweeter adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopic imaging based on Lagrange-multiplier damped least-squares algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Weiyao; Qi, Xiaofeng; Burns, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    We implemented a Lagrange-multiplier (LM)-based damped least-squares (DLS) control algorithm in a woofer-tweeter dual deformable-mirror (DM) adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). The algorithm uses data from a single Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor to simultaneously correct large-amplitude low-order aberrations by a woofer DM and small-amplitude higher-order aberrations by a tweeter DM. We measured the in vivo performance of high resolution retinal imaging with the dual DM AOSLO. We compared the simultaneous LM-based DLS dual DM controller with both single DM controller, and a successive dual DM controller. We evaluated performance using both wavefront (RMS) and image quality metrics including brightness and power spectrum. The simultaneous LM-based dual DM AO can consistently provide near diffraction-limited in vivo routine imaging of human retina. PMID:21750774

  14. Soluble IL7Rα potentiates IL-7 bioactivity and promotes autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Wangko; Highfill, Steven; Walsh, Scott T. R.; Beq, Stephanie; Morse, Elizabeth; Kockum, Ingrid; Alfredsson, Lars; Olsson, Tomas; Hillert, Jan; Mackall, Crystal L.

    2013-01-01

    Human soluble interleukin-7 receptor (sIL7R)α circulates in high molar excess compared with IL-7, but its biology remains unclear. We demonstrate that sIL7Rα has moderate affinity for IL-7 but does not bind thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Functionally, sIL7Rα competes with cell-associated IL-7 receptor to diminish excessive IL-7 consumption and, thus, enhances the bioactivity of IL-7 when the cytokine is limited, as it is presumed to be in vivo. IL-7 signaling in the presence of sIL7Rα also diminishes expression of CD95 and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1, both regulatory molecules. Murine models confirm diminished consumption of IL-7 in the presence of sIL7Rα and also demonstrate a potentiating effect of sIL7Rα on IL-7–mediated homeostatic expansion and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis exacerbation. In multiple sclerosis and several other autoimmune diseases, IL7R genotype influences susceptibility. We measured increased sIL7Rα levels, as well as increased IL-7 levels, in multiple sclerosis patients with the predisposing IL7R genotype, consistent with diminished IL-7 consumption in vivo. This work demonstrates that sIL7Rα potentiates IL-7 bioactivity and provides a basis to explain the increased risk of autoimmunity observed in individuals with genotype-induced elevations of sIL7Rα. PMID:23610432

  15. Accelerating cosmologies and the phase structure of F (R ) gravity with Lagrange multiplier constraints: A mimetic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.

    2016-01-01

    We study mimetic F (R ) gravity with a potential and Lagrange multiplier constraint. In the context of these theories, we introduce a reconstruction technique which enables us to realize arbitrary cosmologies, given the Hubble rate and an arbitrarily chosen F (R ) gravity. We exemplify our method by realizing cosmologies that are in concordance with current observations (Planck data) and also well-known bouncing cosmologies. The attribute of our method is that the F (R ) gravity can be arbitrarily chosen, so we can have the appealing features of the mimetic approach combined with the known features of some F (R ) gravities, which unify early-time with late-time acceleration. Moreover, we study the existence and the stability of de Sitter points in the context of mimetic F (R ) gravity. In the case of unstable de Sitter points, it is demonstrated that graceful exit from inflation occurs. We also study the Einstein-frame counterpart theory of the Jordan-frame mimetic F (R ) gravity, and we discuss the general properties of the theory and exemplify our analysis by studying a quite interesting (from a phenomenological point of view) model with two scalar fields. We also calculate the observational indices of the two-scalar-field model, by using the two-scalar-field formalism. Furthermore, we extensively study the dynamical system that corresponds to the mimetic F (R ) gravity, by finding the fixed points and studying their stability. Finally, we modify our reconstruction method to function in the inverse way and thus yield which F (R ) gravity can realize a specific cosmological evolution, given the mimetic potential and the Lagrange multiplier.

  16. The Lagrange Street story: the prevention of aromatics air pollution during the last nine years in a European city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, Roberto; Bugliosi, Elva H.; Schilirò, Tiziana; Gilli, Giorgio

    Benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) air pollution is a very important topic for environmental health, due to the toxicity and/or mutagenetic or carcinogenetic properties of these aromatics and the commercialisation of the unleaded gasoline containing amount of BTX. We measured BTX in the air of Turin city, the capital of Piedmont region (north-western Italy), during 10 years, from 1989 to 1998. The sampling site selected was Lagrange Street (LS), an "urban canyon" placed in the centre of the city. The behaviour of BTX in LS was conditioned by some local and national legislative measures enforced during 1990s for the reduction of automotive traffic and BTX air pollution, respectively. Taking into account the existence of similar measures undertaken also in several cities in the developed countries, largely described but never discussed, the aim of this study was to verify in LS the preventive effects of these regulatory actions by means of a longitudinal survey extended over 10 years. Results obtained in Lagrange Street highlight seasonal trends, typical of this kind of pollutants, and an important reduction (from 42.6 to 15.9 ppbv) of aromatic hydrocarbons (sum of benzene, toluene and xylenes) in atmospheric air from 1990 to 1997. In particular, the annual level of benzene in air showed a mean from 9.2 ppbv in 1990 to 2.0 ppbv in 1997, almost half of the 3.1 ppbv imposed by law since 31 December 1998. In conclusion, the present findings induce a consistent optimism about the usefulness and the effectiveness of these types of regulatory actions enforced to reduce the human exposure to BTX, which could be extended also to other trafficated sites where the aromatics air pollution has to be reduced.

  17. MOLECULAR AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATIONS OF IL-17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In mammals, the IL-17 family of cytokines (IL-17A-F) has a very distinct expression pattern and a different biological function. IL-17 is mainly secreted by activated CD4+ T cells and has been implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. IL-17 has been shown to exert an important role in host...

  18. IL-2Rα mediates temporal regulation of IL-2 signaling and enhances immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Su, Ee W; Moore, Caitlin J; Suriano, Samantha; Johnson, Christopher Bryce; Songalia, Neizel; Patterson, Alicia; Neitzke, Daniel J; Andrijauskaite, Kristina; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Mehrotra, Shikhar; Paulos, Chrystal M; Doedens, Andrew L; Goldrath, Ananda W; Li, Zihai; Cole, David J; Rubinstein, Mark P

    2015-10-28

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a lymphocyte growth factor that is an important component of many immune-based cancer therapies. The efficacy of IL-2 is thought to be limited by the expansion of T regulatory cells, which express the high-affinity IL-2 receptor subunit IL-2Rα. IL-15 is under investigation as an alternative to IL-2. Although both cytokines signal through IL-2Rβγ, IL-15 does not bind IL-2Rα and therefore induces less T regulatory cell expansion. However, we found that transferred effector CD8(+) T cells induced curative responses in lymphoreplete mice only with IL-2-based therapy. Although conventional in vitro assays showed similar effector T cell responsiveness to IL-2 and IL-15, upon removal of free cytokine, IL-2 mediated sustained signaling dependent on IL-2Rα. Mechanistically, IL-2Rα sustained signaling by promoting a cell surface IL-2 reservoir and recycling of IL-2 back to the cell surface. Our results demonstrate that IL-2Rα endows T cells with the ability to compete temporally for limited IL-2 via mechanisms beyond ligand affinity. These results suggest that strategies to enhance IL-2Rα expression on tumor-reactive lymphocytes may facilitate the development of more effective IL-2-based therapies. PMID:26511507

  19. IL-18 and Cutaneous Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji hyun; Cho, Dae Ho; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-18, an IL-1 family cytokine, is a pleiotropic immune regulator. IL-18 plays a strong proinflammatory role by inducing interferon (IFN)-γ. Previous studies have implicated IL-18 in the pathogenesis of various diseases. However, it is not well understood biologic activities of IL-18 in the diverse skin diseases. Here, we have reviewed the expression and function of IL-18 in skin diseases including inflammatory diseases. This article provides an evidence-based understanding of the role of IL-18 in skin diseases and its relationship with disease activities. PMID:26690141

  20. IL TRAPIANTO ORTOTOPICO DEL FEGATO

    PubMed Central

    STARZL, THOMAS E.

    2010-01-01

    E’ormai noto che esiste la possibilità rivoluzionaria di utilizzare il fegato per il trattamento della stadio terminale delle epatopatie. Nel gennaio 1980 si celebra il decimo anna di sopravvivenza con fegato trapiantato (la più lunga della letteratura) di un paziente da noi trattato. Si tratta di uno dei 12 malati sottoposti a trapianto e seguiti per più di 5 anni. La nota positiva di questa tipo di trattamento è rappresentata dall’eccellente tenore di vita che i pazienti conducono e dalla riabilitazione sociale e professionale. La nota negativa è data, invece, dal fatto che i buoni risultati non vengono raggiunti con regolarità e non possono essere previsti con esattezza. In questa breve rassegna considereremo la esperienza da noi fatta presso l’Università di Denver nel Colorado, mettendo in risalto le cause dell’elevata mortalità precoce e le prospettive future di questa mezzo terapeutico. PMID:21572898

  1. IL-38 binds to the IL-36 receptor and has biological effects on immune cells similar to IL-36 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Stoeckman, Angela K; Wu, Gouping; Boeckermann, Aaron N; Azam, Tania; Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B; van der Meer, Jos W M; Hao, Ruyi; Kalabokis, Vassili; Dinarello, Charles A

    2012-02-21

    The functional role of IL-1 family member 10, recently renamed IL-38, remains unknown. In the present study we aimed to elucidate the biological function of IL-38 and to identify its receptor. Heat-killed Candida albicans was used to stimulate memory T-lymphocyte cytokine production in freshly obtained human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy subjects. The addition of recombinant IL-38 (152 amino acids) inhibited the production of T-cell cytokines IL-22 (37% decrease) and IL-17 (39% decrease). The reduction in IL-22 and IL-17 caused by IL-38 was similar to that caused by the naturally occurring IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra) in the same peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultures. IL-8 production induced by IL-36? was reduced by IL-38 (42% decrease) and also was reduced by IL-36Ra (73% decrease). When human blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells were used, IL-38 as well as IL-36Ra increased LPS-induced IL-6 by twofold. We screened immobilized extracellular domains of each member of the IL-1 receptor family, including the IL-36 receptor (also known as "IL-1 receptor-related protein 2") and observed that IL-38 bound only to the IL-36 receptor, as did IL-36Ra. The dose-response suppression of IL-38 as well as that of IL-36Ra of Candida-induced IL-22 and IL-17 was not that of the classic IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra), because low concentrations were optimal for inhibiting IL-22 production, whereas higher concentrations modestly increased IL-22. These data provide evidence that IL-38 binds to the IL-36R, as does IL-36Ra, and that IL-38 and IL-36Ra have similar biological effects on immune cells by engaging the IL-36 receptor. PMID:22315422

  2. IL-23 Dampens the Allergic Response to Cryptococcus neoformans through IL-17Independent and Dependent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Szymczak, Wendy A.; Sellers, Rani S.; Pirofski, Liise-anne

    2012-01-01

    The cytokines IL-23 and IL-17 have been implicated in resistance to cryptococcal disease, but it is not clear whether IL-23mediated production of IL-17 promotes fungal containment following pulmonary challenge with Cryptococcus neoformans. We used mice lacking IL-23 (IL-23p19?/?) or IL-17RA (IL-17RA?/?), and wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice to examine the IL-23/IL-17 axis after intranasal infection with the C. neoformans strain 52D. The absence of IL-23 or IL-17RA had no effect on pulmonary or brain fungal burden at 1 or 6 weeks after infection. However, survival of IL-23p19?/? mice was reduced compared to IL-17RA?/? mice. IL-I7 production by CD4 T cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells was impaired in IL-23p19?/? lungs, but was not completely abolished. Both IL-23p19?/? and IL-17RA?/? mice exhibited impaired neutrophil recruitment, increased serum levels of IgE and IgG2b, and increased deposition of YM1/YM2 crystals in the lung, but only IL-23p19?/? mice developed persistent lung eosinophilia. Although survival of IL-17RA?/? and WT mice was similar after 17 weeks of infection, only surviving IL-17RA?/? mice exhibited cryptococcal dissemination to the blood. These data demonstrate that IL-23 dampens the allergic response to cryptococcal infection through IL-17independent suppression of eosinophil recruitment and IL-17dependent regulation of antibody production and crystal deposition. Furthermore, IL-23, and to a lesser extent IL-17, contribute to disease resistance. PMID:22342846

  3. Amusement park injuries and deaths.

    PubMed

    Braksiek, Robert J; Roberts, David J

    2002-01-01

    Media coverage of amusement park injuries has increased over the past several years, raising concern that amusement rides may be dangerous. Amusement park fatalities and increases in reported injuries have prompted proposed legislation to regulate the industry. Since 1979, the medical literature has published reports of 4 subdural hematomas, 4 internal carotid artery dissections, 2 vertebral artery dissections, 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 1 intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and 1 carotid artery thrombosis with stroke, all related to roller coaster rides. In this article, we review reports of amusement park injuries in the medical literature and Consumer Product Safety Commission data on the overall risk of injury. We also discuss the physics and the physiologic effects of roller coasters that may influence the type and severity of injuries. Although the risk of injury is low, emergency physicians are advised to include participation on thrill rides as part of their history, particularly when evaluating patients presenting with neurologic symptoms. PMID:11782733

  4. Bibliography of Doctor Chul Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochberg, Lawrence A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Park, Chul

    1995-05-01

    This document contains a comprehensive bibliography of the published works, and a short biography, of Dr. Chul Park. The contents of this bibliography were compiled primarily from the NASA RECON data base. The RECON citations have been modified to appear in a uniform format with all other listed citations . These other citations were located by computer searches in the INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, and Chemical Abstracts data bases, as well as through the cooperation of Dr. Chul Park, and his associates in the Reacting Flow Environments Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. All citations are presented in an approximate reverse chronological order from the present date. This work was created to honor the occasion of Dr. Chul Park's retirement on December 14, 1994, after 27 years of distinguished government service at the NASA Ames Research Center.

  5. Bibliography of Doctor Chul Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gochberg, Lawrence A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Park, Chul

    1995-01-01

    This document contains a comprehensive bibliography of the published works, and a short biography, of Dr. Chul Park. The contents of this bibliography were compiled primarily from the NASA RECON data base. The RECON citations have been modified to appear in a uniform format with all other listed citations . These other citations were located by computer searches in the INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, and Chemical Abstracts data bases, as well as through the cooperation of Dr. Chul Park, and his associates in the Reacting Flow Environments Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. All citations are presented in an approximate reverse chronological order from the present date. This work was created to honor the occasion of Dr. Chul Park's retirement on December 14, 1994, after 27 years of distinguished government service at the NASA Ames Research Center.

  6. Role of IL-38 and its related cytokines in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xianli; Peng, Xiao; Li, Yan; Li, Mingcai

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin- (IL-) 38 is a recently discovered cytokine and is the tenth member of the IL-1 cytokine family. IL-38 shares structural features with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-36Ra. IL-36R is the specific receptor of IL-38, a partial receptor antagonist of IL-36. IL-38 inhibits the production of T-cell cytokines IL-17 and IL-22. IL-38 also inhibits the production of IL-8 induced by IL-36?, thus inhibiting inflammatory responses. IL-38-related cytokines, including IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra, are involved in the regulation of inflammation and immune responses. The study of IL-38 and IL-38-related cytokines might provide new insights for developing anti-inflammatory treatments in the near future. PMID:25873772

  7. Biology of IL-36 cytokines and their role in disease.

    PubMed

    Gresnigt, Mark S; van de Veerdonk, Frank L

    2013-12-15

    IL-36?, IL-36?, IL-36?, and IL-36Ra, collectively called IL-36 cytokines, are part of the IL-1 family. IL-36?, IL-36?, and IL-36? are IL-36 receptor (IL-36R) agonists, while IL-36Ra is a receptor antagonist that blocks the activation of IL-36R signaling. IL-36 cytokines require processing in order to become fully active, however the protease(s) responsible for this are currently not known. The IL-36 receptor pathway activates dendritic cells and plays a role in polarizing T-helper responses. The skin is the predominant site where IL-36 cytokines are expressed and several reports have established that they play a significant role in the pathogenesis of skin diseases. In this review the discovery and biological function of the cytokines IL-36?, IL-36?, IL-36? and IL-36Ra will be discussed, and their role in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of diseases. PMID:24355486

  8. Role of IL-38 and Its Related Cytokines in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xianli; Peng, Xiao; Li, Yan; Li, Mingcai

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin- (IL-) 38 is a recently discovered cytokine and is the tenth member of the IL-1 cytokine family. IL-38 shares structural features with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-36Ra. IL-36R is the specific receptor of IL-38, a partial receptor antagonist of IL-36. IL-38 inhibits the production of T-cell cytokines IL-17 and IL-22. IL-38 also inhibits the production of IL-8 induced by IL-36γ, thus inhibiting inflammatory responses. IL-38-related cytokines, including IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra, are involved in the regulation of inflammation and immune responses. The study of IL-38 and IL-38-related cytokines might provide new insights for developing anti-inflammatory treatments in the near future. PMID:25873772

  9. Cratylia mollis 1, 4 lectin: a new biotechnological tool in IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 induction and generation of immunological memory.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Priscilla Stela Santana; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; da Silva, Rafael Ramos; Cavalcanti, Mariana Brayner; Galdino, Suely Lins; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Cratylia mollis lectin has already established cytokine induction in Th1 and Th2 pathways. Thereby, this study aimed to evaluate Cramoll 1, 4 in IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 induction as well as analyze immunologic memory mechanism by reinducing lymphocyte stimulation. Initially we performed a screening in cultured splenocytes where Cramoll 1, 4 stimulated IL-6 production 5x more than ConA (P < 0.05). The same behavior was observed with IL-22 where the increase was greater than 4x. Nevertheless, IL-17A induction was similar for both lectins. In PBMCs, the same splenocytes course was observed for IL-6 and IL-17A. Concerning the stimulation of IL-22 and IL-23 Cramoll 1, 4 was more efficient than ConA in cytokines stimulation mainly in IL-23 (P < 0.01). Analyzing reinduced lymphocyte stimulation, IL-17A production was higher (P < 0.001) when the first stimulus was realized with Cramoll 1, 4 at 1 μ g/mL and the second at 5 μ g/mL. IL-22 shows significant differences (P < 0.01) at the same condition. Nevertheless, IL-23 revels the best response when the first stimuli was realized with Cramoll1, 4 at 100 ng/mL and the second with 5 μ g/mL. We conclude that the Cramoll 1, 4 is able to induce IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 cytokines in vitro better than Concavalin A, besides immunologic memory generation, being a potential biotechnological tool in Th17 pathway studies. PMID:23586026

  10. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;

  11. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  12. Lichens of the U. S. national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Over 26,100 records of lichens present in 144 U.S. national park units were assembled from various sources into a database and analyzed. Within these 144 park units 2,435 species and 375 genera are reported, representing 63% and 74% of the North American flora, respectively. The park units are located in 41 states and Washington, D.C. The average number of species in a park is 104, but the median is 60, indicating there are many parks with a small number of species and a few with high numbers. Isle Royale National Park has the most species, 611, and twelve parks have only one species reported. The number of records of lichens present ranged from one for 25 parks, to 1,623 for Isle Royale. Physcia aipolia is the most frequently observed species, being found in 65 parks. One fourth of the park units are classified cultural resource parks, while the remainder are considered natural resource parks. This study was based on 453 sources, including literature citations, park reports and collections in the University of Minnesota Herbarium. Copyright ?? 2005 by the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.

  13. Interleukin (IL)-1? Is a Strong Inducer of IL-36? Expression in Human Colonic Myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kenichiro; Nishida, Atsushi; Shioya, Makoto; Imaeda, Hirotsugu; Bamba, Shigeki; Inatomi, Osamu; Shimizu, Tomoharu; Kitoh, Katsuyuki; Andoh, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims Interleukin (IL)-36 cytokines are members of the IL-1 cytokine family. In this study, we investigated the expression of IL-36? in human colonic myofibroblasts to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying IL-36? induction. Materials and methods IL-36 mRNA was analyzed by real-time PCR method. Secretion of IL-36? protein was evaluated by Western blot and ELISA analyses. Molecular mechanism of IL-36? induction was evaluated by siRNA analyses and immunofluorescence experiments. Results IL-36? mRNA expression was scarcely detected in the cells without stimulation. IL-1? induced a marked increase of IL-36? mRNA expression. TNF-? markedly enhanced IL-1?-induced IL-36? mRNA expression. These responses were confirmed at the protein levels. The inhibitors for ERK1/2 (PD98059 and U0216) and a p38 MAPK (SB203580) significantly reduced the IL-1?-induced IL-36? mRNA expression. In addition, the siRNAs specific for NF-?B p65 and AP-1 (c-Jun) significantly reduced the expression of IL-1?-induced IL-36? mRNA. Conclusions Colonic myofibroblasts are cellular source of IL-36? in the intestine. IL-36? expression was induced by the combination of IL-1? and TNF-? via activation of MAPKs and transcription factors, NF-?B and AP-1. PMID:26562662

  14. Dreaming of a Better ILS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    What would technological librarians like to see in the next generation of Integrated Library Systems (ILS)? This question was asked of several well- known library technology experts, and their responses are presented in this article. Survey respondents expressed a clear desire for the following features and functionality: (1) Direct, read-only…

  15. Dreaming of a Better ILS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    What would technological librarians like to see in the next generation of Integrated Library Systems (ILS)? This question was asked of several well- known library technology experts, and their responses are presented in this article. Survey respondents expressed a clear desire for the following features and functionality: (1) Direct, read-only

  16. Lagrange L4/L5 points and the origin of our Moon and Saturn's moons and rings.

    PubMed

    Gott, J Richard

    2005-12-01

    The current standard theory of the origin of the Moon is that the Earth was hit by a giant impactor the size of Mars causing ejection of debris from its mantle that coalesced to form the moon; but where did this Mars-sized impactor come from? Isotopic evidence suggests that it came from 1 AU radius in the solar nebula, and computer simulations are consistent with its approaching Earth on a zero-energy parabolic trajectory. How could such a large object form at 1 AU in a quiescent disk of planetesimals without having already collided with the Earth at an earlier epoch before having the chance to grow large? Belbruno and Gott propose that the giant impactor could have formed in a stable orbit from debris at the Earth's Lagrange point L(5) (or L(4)). It would grow quietly by accretion at L(5) (or L(4)), but eventually gravitational perturbations by other growing planetesimals would kick it out into a horseshoe orbit and finally into a chaotic creeping orbit, which Belbruno and Gott show would, with high probability, hit the Earth on a near zero-energy parabolic trajectory. We can see other examples of this phenomenon occurring in the solar system. Asteroid 2002AA29 is in a horseshoe orbit relative to the Earth that looks exactly like the horseshoe orbits that Belbruno and Gott found for objects that had been perturbed from L(4)/L(5). The regular moons of Saturn are made of ice and have the same albedo as the ring particles (ice chunks, plus some dust). We (J. R. Gott, R. Vanderbei, and E. Belbruno) propose that the regular icy moons of Saturn (out to the orbit of Titan), which are all in nearly circular orbits, formed out of a thin disk of planetesimals (ice chunks) rather like the rings of Saturn today only larger in extent. In such a situation formation of objects at L(4)/L(5) might be expected. Indeed, Saturn's moon Dione is accompanied by moons (Helene and Polydeuces) at both L(4) and L(5) Lagrange points, and Saturn's moon Tethys is also accompanied by moons (Telesto and Calypso) at both L(4) and L(5) Lagrange points. Epimetheus is in a horseshoe orbit relative to Janus that is exactly like the horseshoe orbit expected for an object that has been perturbed from a location at L(4)/L(5). We propose that the rings of Saturn visible today are all that remains of this original disk; they lie inside the Roche limit where tidal forces have simply prevented the formation of large moons by accretion. Further out, the icy particles have accumulated into icy moons. Objects in external solar systems on horseshoe orbits (like those of Epimetheus relative to Janus) could be detected by a slow sinusoidal variation with time of the calculated mass of a planet from radial velocity measurements. PMID:16510418

  17. IL-21 induces IL-22 production in CD4+ T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Ada; Mascanfroni, Ivan D.; Nadeau, Meghan; Burns, Evan J.; Tukpah, Ann-Marcia; Santiago, Andrezza; Wu, Chuan; Patel, Bonny; Kumar, Deepak; Quintana, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    IL-22 produced by innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and CD4+ T cells plays an important role in host defense and mucosal homeostasis, thus it is important to investigate the mechanisms that regulate IL-22 production. We investigated the regulation IL-22 production by CD4+ T cells. Here we show that IL-21 triggers IL-22, but not IL-17 production by CD4+ T cells. STAT3, activated by IL-21, controls the epigenetic status of the il22 promoter and its interaction with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Moreover, IL-21 and AhR signaling in T cells control IL-22 production and the development of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in ILC-deficient mice. Thus, we have identified IL-21 as an inducer of IL-22 production in CD4+ T cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24796415

  18. Collective Bargaining & Recreation and Park Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culkin, David; Howard, Dennis R.

    1982-01-01

    This study explored labor relations practices in United States parks and recreation agencies. Responses from 200 public parks and recreation organizations are discussed and displayed in tabular form. (CJ)

  19. IL-11 receptor alpha in the pathogenesis of IL-13-induced inflammation and remodeling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingsheng; Rabach, Lesley; Noble, Paul; Zheng, Tao; Lee, Chun Geun; Homer, Robert J; Elias, Jack A

    2005-02-15

    IL-13 is a major stimulator of inflammation and tissue remodeling at sites of Th2 inflammation. In Th2-dominant inflammatory disorders such as asthma, IL-11 is simultaneously induced. However, the relationship(s) between IL-11 and IL-13 in these responses has not been defined, and the role(s) of IL-11 in the genesis of the tissue effects of IL-13 has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that IL-11, signaling via the IL-11Ralpha-gp130 receptor complex, plays a key role in IL-13-induced tissue responses. To test this hypothesis we compared the expression of IL-11, IL-11Ralpha, and gp130 in lungs from wild-type mice and transgenic mice in which IL-13 was overexpressed in a lung-specific fashion. We simultaneously characterized the effects of a null mutation of IL-11Ralpha on the tissue effects of transgenic IL-13. These studies demonstrate that IL-13 is a potent stimulator of IL-11 and IL-11Ralpha. They also demonstrate that IL-13 is a potent stimulator of inflammation, fibrosis, hyaluronic acid accumulation, myofibroblast accumulation, alveolar remodeling, mucus metaplasia, and respiratory failure and death in mice with wild-type IL-11Ralpha loci and that these alterations are ameliorated in the absence of IL-11Ralpha. Lastly, they provide insight into the mechanisms of these processes by demonstrating that IL-13 stimulates CC chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases, mucin genes, and gob-5 and stimulates and activates TGF-beta1 via IL-11Ralpha-dependent pathways. When viewed in combination, these studies demonstrate that IL-11Ralpha plays a key role in the pathogenesis of IL-13-induced inflammation and remodeling. PMID:15699166

  20. 'Shockley park' stirs racism row

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-07-01

    A local authority in Northern California has encountered unexpected resistance to its decision to name a park after the Nobel-prize-winning physicist William Shockley, with a coalition of churches and civic groups preparing to petition against the name at a meeting scheduled for 23 July.

  1. Rosa Parks: The Movement Organizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Kai

    This biography for younger readers describes the life of Rosa Parks, the Alabama black woman whose refusal to give up her seat on a segregated bus helped establish the civil rights movement. The book is introduced by an overview of the movement by Andrew Young and a timeline indicating major historical events from 1954 through 1968. Highlights in…

  2. Symmetry in the Car Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a lesson on rotational symmetry which she developed for her students. The aim of the lesson was "to identify objects with rotational symmetry in the staff car park" and the success criteria were "pictures or sketches of at least six objects with different orders of rotation". After finding examples of…

  3. Schools and Parks: Developing Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Conservation and Recreation, Richmond.

    Often, local governments and school boards look for more ways to stretch limited resources in order to provide quality public facilities and services. This report outlines various ways in which schools and parks-and-recreation departments can share facilities, which allows the two parties to split the cost and double the benefits to local…

  4. National Zoological Park Branch Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Kay A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the functions of the National Zoological Park Branch of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, which is dedicated to supporting the special information needs of the zoo. Topics covered include the library's history, collection, programs, services, future plans, and relations with other zoo libraries. (two references) (Author/CLB)

  5. Egmont National Park, New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The lush forests of Egmont National Park, on New Zealand's North Island, contrast with the pasturelands outside the circular park boundaries. The unique shape of the park results from its first protection in 1881, which specified that a forest reserve would extend in a 9.6 km radius from the summit of Mt. Taranaki (named Mt. Egmont by Captain Cook). The park covers about 33,500 hectares and Mt. Egmont stands at 2518 m. The volcano began forming 70,000 years ago, and last erupted in 1755. A series of montane habitats occur in procession up the flanks of the volcano-from rainforest, to shrubs, to alpine, and finally snow cover. Image STS110-726-6, was taken by Space Shuttle crewmembers on 9 April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  6. UV - RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brewer 087 is located in Research Triangle Park NC, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instru...

  7. Effective Parks & Recreation Boards & Commissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Hilmi; And Others

    This text explains the role of boards, commissions, and councils for parks and recreational programs in generating funds and involving volunteers in local service. The text covers functional differences and structural differences between administrative bodies, policy-making bodies, and advisory bodies. Special attention is given to small group

  8. Regulation and function of IL-17A- and IL-22-producing ?? T cells

    PubMed Central

    Ness-Schwickerath, Kristin J.

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of IL-17A and IL-22 production differs between human and murine ?? T cells. We find that human ?? T cells expressing V?2V?2 T cell receptors are peripherally polarized to produce IL-17A or IL-22, much like CD4 ?? Th17 T cells. This requires IL-6, IL-1?, and TGF-?, whereas expansion and maintenance requires IL-23, IL-1?, and TGF-?. In contrast, IL-17A and IL-22 production by murine ?? T cells is innately programmed during thymic ontogeny but requires IL-23 and IL-1? for maintenance. Murine ?? cells producing IL-17A and IL-22 play important roles in microbial, autoimmune, and inflammatory responses. However, the roles played by human IL-17A- and IL-22-producing ?? T cells are less clear but are also likely to be important. These observations highlight differences between humans and murine ?? T cells and underscore the importance of IL-17A- and IL-22-producing ?? T cells. PMID:21573786

  9. The role of IL-4 and IL-13 in cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Hurdayal, Ramona; Brombacher, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Murine models of Leishmania major infection in the 1980s revealed two distinct, counter-regulatory populations of CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells, delineated Th1 and Th2, and their archetypal cytokines, interferon gamma (IFN-?) and interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13, which promoted resistance/susceptibility to infection, respectively. However, the introduction of global cytokine-deficient mice in the 1990s revealed pleiotropic immune-regulatory mechanisms of IL-4 and IL-13 that either controlled or exacerbated disease. This undermined the basic premise that IL-4/IL-13 played paramount roles in facilitating a non-healing Th2 response to Leishmania infection and instead suggested that both IL-4 and IL-13-dependent and IL-4/IL-13-independent factors orchestrate disease outcome. The recent characterization of cell-type specific IL-4R? deficient mice was initiated to help reconcile these observations and dissect the cell-specific effects of IL-4/IL-13 during infection. In this review, we summarize original and recent findings with regard to the role of IL-4 and IL-13 in cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Using the information discerned from various studies and our conditional IL-4R? gene-deficient mice, we particularly discuss the double-edged sword IL-4 (and in some Leishmania disease models IL-13) in driving a susceptible Th2 response, their immune cell targets that support healing or non-healing responses and their novel role in mediating a Th1 response during disease. PMID:24412597

  10. Moon Park: A research and educational facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuriki, Kyoichi; Saito, Takao; Ogawa, Yukimasa

    1992-01-01

    Moon Park has been proposed as an International Space Year (ISY) event for international cooperative efforts. Moon Park will serve as a terrestrial demonstration of a prototype lunar base and provide research and educational opportunities. The kind of data that can be obtained in the Moon Park facilities is examined taking the minimum number of lunar base residents as an example.

  11. Alluvial Fan, Rocky Mountain National Park

    The Alluvial Fan is a fan-shaped area of disturbance in Rocky Mountain National Park. It was created on July 15, 1982, when the earthen Lawn Lake Dam above the area gave way, flooding the Park and nearby town of Estes Park with more than 200 million gallons of water. Enormous boulders were displaced...

  12. 76 FR 22001 - National Park Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-9730 Filed 4-19-11; 8:45 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8656 of April 15, 2011 National Park Week, 2011 By the President of the.... ``Healthy Parks, Healthy People,'' the focus for this year's National Park Week, highlights the role...

  13. 75 FR 12254 - National Park Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... National Park Service AGENCY: National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. ACTION: National... National Center for Preservation Technology and Training, National Park Service, will meet on Thursday and.... Cordell, Executive Director, National Center for Preservation Technology and Training, National...

  14. Parking lot security: protection from liability.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Negligent premises security cases, sometimes called "inadequate security", pose great harm to parking facility owners. Verdicts and settlements for negligent security against facilities is a concern, but a greater concern for those property owners engaged in parking lot services. In this article, the author presents some basic principles of security that all owners of parking facilities should not only understand, but embrace. PMID:16535958

  15. 15 CFR 265.16 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; (h) In a parking space marked as not intended for his use; (i) Where directed not to do so by a... single space marked for such purposes, when parking or standing in an area with marked spaces; (l) At any... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parking. 265.16 Section...

  16. 15 CFR 265.16 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; (h) In a parking space marked as not intended for his use; (i) Where directed not to do so by a... single space marked for such purposes, when parking or standing in an area with marked spaces; (l) At any... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parking. 265.16 Section...

  17. 23 CFR 1235.6 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parking. 1235.6 Section 1235.6 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY... UNIFORM SYSTEM FOR PARKING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES § 1235.6 Parking. Special license plates... Symbol of Access shall be the only recognized means of identifying vehicles permitted to utilize...

  18. 23 CFR 1235.6 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Parking. 1235.6 Section 1235.6 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY... UNIFORM SYSTEM FOR PARKING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES § 1235.6 Parking. Special license plates... Symbol of Access shall be the only recognized means of identifying vehicles permitted to utilize...

  19. 15 CFR 265.16 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; (h) In a parking space marked as not intended for his use; (i) Where directed not to do so by a... single space marked for such purposes, when parking or standing in an area with marked spaces; (l) At any... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parking. 265.16 Section...

  20. 23 CFR 1235.6 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Parking. 1235.6 Section 1235.6 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY... UNIFORM SYSTEM FOR PARKING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES § 1235.6 Parking. Special license plates... Symbol of Access shall be the only recognized means of identifying vehicles permitted to utilize...

  1. 23 CFR 1235.6 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Parking. 1235.6 Section 1235.6 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY... UNIFORM SYSTEM FOR PARKING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES § 1235.6 Parking. Special license plates... Symbol of Access shall be the only recognized means of identifying vehicles permitted to utilize...

  2. Cost-effective facility parking strategies.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, R A

    1995-11-01

    For many healthcare facilities, increasing use of outpatient services has resulted in a greater demand for parking space. Consequently, parking structure costs have become a more important capital budget item than in previous years. Financial managers need to understand the parameters of parking costs for their facilities and their capital financing options, including off-balance sheet leaseback arrangements. PMID:10151869

  3. 23 CFR 1235.6 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Parking. 1235.6 Section 1235.6 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY... UNIFORM SYSTEM FOR PARKING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES § 1235.6 Parking. Special license plates... Symbol of Access shall be the only recognized means of identifying vehicles permitted to utilize...

  4. 15 CFR 265.16 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; (h) In a parking space marked as not intended for his use; (i) Where directed not to do so by a... single space marked for such purposes, when parking or standing in an area with marked spaces; (l) At any... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parking. 265.16 Section...

  5. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient use of existing on- and off-street parking space should be stressed on a nonreserved (first-come, first... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National...

  6. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Parking. 3.23 Section 3.23 Public Welfare... INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.23 Parking. (a) A person may not stand (vehicle... area not designated by a sign for parking, and/or standing; (2) On a sidewalk; (3) Within...

  7. 49 CFR 397.7 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Parking. 397.7 Section 397.7 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.7 Parking. (a) A motor vehicle which contains Division 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3... traveled portion of a public street or highway; (2) On private property (including premises of fueling...

  8. 49 CFR 397.7 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Parking. 397.7 Section 397.7 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.7 Parking. (a) A motor vehicle which contains Division 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3... traveled portion of a public street or highway; (2) On private property (including premises of fueling...

  9. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient use of existing on- and off-street parking space should be stressed on a nonreserved (first-come, first... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National...

  10. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Parking. 3.23 Section 3.23 Public Welfare... INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.23 Parking. (a) A person may not stand (vehicle... area not designated by a sign for parking, and/or standing; (2) On a sidewalk; (3) Within...

  11. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Parking. 3.23 Section 3.23 Public Welfare... INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.23 Parking. (a) A person may not stand (vehicle... area not designated by a sign for parking, and/or standing; (2) On a sidewalk; (3) Within...

  12. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient use of existing on- and off-street parking space should be stressed on a nonreserved (first-come, first... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National...

  13. 49 CFR 397.7 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Parking. 397.7 Section 397.7 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.7 Parking. (a) A motor vehicle which contains Division 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3... traveled portion of a public street or highway; (2) On private property (including premises of fueling...

  14. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient use of existing on- and off-street parking space should be stressed on a nonreserved (first-come, first... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National...

  15. 49 CFR 397.7 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Parking. 397.7 Section 397.7 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.7 Parking. (a) A motor vehicle which contains Division 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3... traveled portion of a public street or highway; (2) On private property (including premises of fueling...

  16. Th2 Cytokines Augment IL-31/IL-31RA Interactions via STAT6-dependent IL-31RA Expression.

    PubMed

    Edukulla, Ramakrishna; Singh, Brijendra; Jegga, Anil G; Sontake, Vishwaraj; Dillon, Stacey R; Madala, Satish K

    2015-05-22

    Interleukin 31 receptor α (IL-31RA) is a novel Type I cytokine receptor that pairs with oncostatin M receptor to mediate IL-31 signaling. Binding of IL-31 to its receptor results in the phosphorylation and activation of STATs, MAPK, and JNK signaling pathways. IL-31 plays a pathogenic role in tissue inflammation, particularly in allergic diseases. Recent studies demonstrate IL-31RA expression and signaling in non-hematopoietic cells, but this receptor is poorly studied in immune cells. Macrophages are key immune-effector cells that play a critical role in Th2-cytokine-mediated allergic diseases. Here, we demonstrate that Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 are capable of up-regulating IL-31RA expression on both peritoneal and bone marrow-derived macrophages from mice. Our data also demonstrate that IL-4Rα-driven IL-31RA expression is STAT6 dependent in macrophages. Notably, the inflammation-associated genes Fizz1 and serum amyloid A (SAA) are significantly up-regulated in M2 macrophages stimulated with IL-31, but not in IL-4 receptor-deficient macrophages. Furthermore, the absence of Type II IL-4 receptor signaling is sufficient to attenuate the expression of IL-31RA in vivo during allergic asthma induced by soluble egg antigen, which may suggest a role for IL-31 signaling in Th2 cytokine-driven inflammation and allergic responses. Our study reveals an important counter-regulatory role between Th2 cytokine and IL-31 signaling involved in allergic diseases. PMID:25847241

  17. IL-22 in tissue-protective therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mühl, Heiko; Scheiermann, Patrick; Bachmann, Malte; Härdle, Lorena; Heinrichs, Anika; Pfeilschifter, Josef

    2013-01-01

    IL-22, a member of the IL-10 cytokine family, has recently gained significant attention as a protective agent in murine models of diseases driven by epithelial injury. Like its biochemical and functional sibling IL-10, IL-22 elicits cellular activation primarily by engaging the STAT3 signalling pathway. Exclusively produced by leukocytes, but targeting mostly cells of epithelial origin, IL-22 has been proposed as a specialized cytokine messenger acting between leukocytic and non-leukocytic cell compartments. A lack of response in leukocytes to IL-22 mirrors tightly controlled IL-22 receptor expression and probably explains the apparent lack of instant adverse effects after systemic IL-22 administration to mice. Anti-apoptotic, pro-proliferative and pro-regenerative characteristics the major biological properties of this cytokine. Specifically, application of IL-22 is associated with tissue protection and/or regeneration in murine models of infection/microbe-driven inflammation at host/environment interfaces, ventilator-induced lung injury, pancreatitis and liver damage. Overall, preclinical studies would support therapeutic administration of seemingly well-tolerated recombinant IL-22 for treatment of an array of acute diseases manifested in epithelial tissues. However, the feasibility of prolonged administration of this cytokine is expected to be restricted by the tumourigenic potential of the IL-22/STAT3 axis. IL-22, moreover, apparently displays an inherent context-specific capacity to amplify distinct aspects of autoimmune inflammation. Here, the prospects, expectations and restrictions of IL-22 administration in tissue-protective therapy are discussed. PMID:23530726

  18. Interleukin-1 type II receptor: a decoy target for IL-1 that is regulated by IL-4.

    PubMed

    Colotta, F; Re, F; Muzio, M; Bertini, R; Polentarutti, N; Sironi, M; Giri, J G; Dower, S K; Sims, J E; Mantovani, A

    1993-07-23

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) interacts with cells through two types of binding molecules, IL-1 type I receptor (IL-1R I) and IL-1R II. The function of IL-1R II is unknown. In studies using monoclonal antibodies, IL-1 prolonged the in vitro survival of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) through IL-1R I, and IL-4 antagonized the action of IL-1 by inducing expression and release of IL-1R II. Dexamethasone also induced expression and release of the IL-1R II in PMN. These results, together with the effect of antibodies to IL-1R on IL-1-induced production of cytokines in monocytes, indicate that IL-1 acts on myelomonocytic cells through IL-1R I and that IL-1R II inhibits IL-1 activity by acting as a decoy target for IL-1. The existence of multiple pathways of regulation emphasizes the need for tight control of IL-1 action. PMID:8332913

  19. IL-10 induces gene expression in macrophages: partial overlap with IL-5 but not with IL-4 induced genes.

    PubMed

    Stumpo, Rita; Kauer, Manfred; Martin, Stephan; Kolb, Hubert

    2003-10-01

    The hypothesis that IL-10, in addition to down-regulating pro-inflammatory activities of macrophages, induces an alternative state of macrophage reactivity was tested. We therefore conducted a systematic search for genes induced by IL-10 using the method of suppression subtractive hybridisation. Of an initial 1,300 candidate clones obtained, several screening rounds led to the identification of 51 clones which were reproducibly at least twofold up-regulated in mouse J774 macrophages in response to treatment with IL-10. Of these, 41 genes were homologous to known genes involved in cell metabolism or immunoregulation, five contained novel sequences and another five were homologous to ESTs without known function. One major finding was that about 25% of the IL-10 genes were also found expressed in response to IFNgamma, and several of these also reappeared in IL-4 or IL-5 induced mRNA species. Hence, Th1 and Th2 type cytokines may elicit a common basal activation response in macrophages. The second major finding was that 57% of IL-10 induced genes reappeared in IL-5 induced mRNA but no more than 18% were also found in IL-4 induced mRNA of J774 cells. We conclude that the gene expression response to IL-10 in macrophages is partially different from the response to IL-5 and is substantially different from the response to IL-4, which suggests an unexpected diversity of biological phenotypes induced by different Th2 type cytokines. PMID:14561490

  20. Treatment of acoustic fluid-structure interaction by Localized Lagrange Multipliers and comparison to alternative interface coupling methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Felippa, Carlos A.; Sprague, Michael A.; Ross, Michael R.; Park, K. C.

    2008-11-01

    This paper is a sequel on the topic of localized Lagrange multipliers (LLM) for applications of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between finite-element models of an acoustic fluid and an elastic structure. The prequel paper formulated the spatial-discretization methods, the LLM interface treatment, the time-marching partitioned analysis procedures, and the application to 1D benchmark problems. Here, we expand on formulation aspects required for successful application to more realistic 2D and 3D problems. Additional topics include duality relations at the fluid-structure interface, partitioned vibration analysis, reduced-order modeling, handling of curved interface surfaces, and comparison of LLM with other coupling methods. Emphasis is given to non-matching fluid-structure meshes. We present benchmark examples that illustrate the benefits and drawbacks of competing interface treatments. Realistic application problems involving the seismic response of two existing dams are considered. These include 2D modal analyses of the Koyna gravity dam, transient-response analyses of that dam with and without reduced-order modeling, incorporation of nonlinear cavitation effects, and the 3D transient-response analysis of the Morrow Point arch dam.

  1. Trojan wavepackets bound on Lagrange equllibrium points of two positive ions binary system in the strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinski, Matt

    2012-06-01

    We once have shown that the combination of the Circularly Polarized Electromagnetic (CP) wave field and the central Coulomb proton field is capable to keep the hydrogen atom in the complex space-correlated coherent state of the electron in the rotating frame eliminating the principal time dependence [1]. This state corresponds to the stable and nondispersing electron wave packet moving around the circle in the laboratory frame. Here we show the existence of stable nondispersing single and two-electron wavepackets localized around Langrange equilibrium points of two positive ions in binary star configuration executing cyclotron motion around each other in strong eternal magnetic field. Unlike for the normal Trojan wavepackets they do not require external CP field to localize and correspond exactly to atom size scaled Trojan asteroids in the Sun-Jupiter system. The exact numerical simulations using Split Operator Fast Fourier Transform method are also provided for the single electron while the approximate time-dependent Hartree simulations for two electrons. [4pt] [1] I. Bialynicki-Birula, M. Kalinski, and J.H Eberly,``Lagrange Equilibrium Points in Celestial Mechanics and Nonspreading Wave Packets for Strongly Driven Rydberg Electrons,'' Phys. Rev. 73, 1777 (1994).

  2. Numerical Analysis of the Dynamics of Two- and Three-Dimensional Fluidized Bed Reactors using an Euler-Lagrange Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Pepiot, P.; Desjardins, O.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass thermochemical conversion, often done in fluidized beds, recently gained a lot of attention due to its potential to efficiently produce renewable liquid fuels. Optimization of reactor design and operating conditions, however, requires a fundamental understanding of bed dynamics. In this work, a numerical framework based on an Euler-Lagrange approach is developed and used to perform and analyze large-scale simulations of two- and three-dimensional periodic fluidized beds. Collisions are handled using a soft-sphere model. An efficient parallel implementation allows one to explicitly track over 30 million particles, which is representative of the number of particles found in lab-scale reactor, therefore demonstrating the capability of Lagrangian approaches to simulate realistic systems at that scale. An on-the-fly bubble identification and tracking algorithm is used to characterize bubble dynamics for inlet velocities up to 9 times the minimum fluidization velocity. Statistics for gas volume fraction, gas and particle velocities, bed expansion, and bubble size and velocity, is compared across the two- and three-dimensional configurations, and comparison with literature data generally shows good agreement. The wide distribution of gas residence times observed in the simulations is linked to the different gas hold-up characteristics of the gas-solid system.

  3. International Space Station Centrifuge Rotor Models A Comparison of the Euler-Lagrange and the Bond Graph Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Louis H.; Ramakrishnan, Jayant; Granda, Jose J.

    2006-01-01

    The assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) require extensive testing and engineering analysis to verify that the Space Station system of systems would work together without any adverse interactions. Since the dynamic behavior of an entire Space Station cannot be tested on earth, math models of the Space Station structures and mechanical systems have to be built and integrated in computer simulations and analysis tools to analyze and predict what will happen in space. The ISS Centrifuge Rotor (CR) is one of many mechanical systems that need to be modeled and analyzed to verify the ISS integrated system performance on-orbit. This study investigates using Bond Graph modeling techniques as quick and simplified ways to generate models of the ISS Centrifuge Rotor. This paper outlines the steps used to generate simple and more complex models of the CR using Bond Graph Computer Aided Modeling Program with Graphical Input (CAMP-G). Comparisons of the Bond Graph CR models with those derived from Euler-Lagrange equations in MATLAB and those developed using multibody dynamic simulation at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of the Bond Graph modeling approach for aeronautics and space applications.

  4. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  5. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  6. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  7. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  8. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  9. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  10. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  11. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  12. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  13. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  14. 36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Colonial National Historical Park. 7.1 Section 7.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.1 Colonial National Historical Park....

  15. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... College Park. (a) The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park,...

  16. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park....

  17. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a)...

  18. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park....

  19. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  20. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7.2 Section 7.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a)...

  1. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  2. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acadia National Park. 7.56 Section 7.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.56 Acadia National Park. (a) Designated Snowmobile...

  3. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  4. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carlsbad Caverns National Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park....

  5. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  6. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  7. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of such permits issued, or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  8. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of such permits issued, or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  9. 36 CFR 7.22 - Grand Teton National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Teton National Park. 7.22 Section 7.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.22 Grand Teton National Park. (a)...

  10. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  11. 36 CFR 7.22 - Grand Teton National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Teton National Park. 7.22 Section 7.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.22 Grand Teton National Park. (a)...

  12. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  13. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  14. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Park. The National Park Service reserves the right to limit the number of such permits issued, or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  15. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  16. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a) Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles....

  17. 36 CFR 7.37 - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. 7.37 Section 7.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.37 Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. (a) Fishing. (1) Unless...

  18. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park. (a... supervision of employees of the National Park Service, no person shall enter any cave or undeveloped part...

  19. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  20. 36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Park. 7.1 Section 7.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.1 Colonial National Historical Park. (a... National Historical Park and no privately owned vessel shall be beached or landed on land within said...

  1. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  2. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park....

  3. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park. (a... supervision of employees of the National Park Service, no person shall enter any cave or undeveloped part...

  4. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycling. (1) The...

  5. 36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Park. 7.1 Section 7.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.1 Colonial National Historical Park. (a... National Historical Park and no privately owned vessel shall be beached or landed on land within said...

  6. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park....

  7. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  8. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  9. 36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Park. 7.1 Section 7.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.1 Colonial National Historical Park. (a... National Historical Park and no privately owned vessel shall be beached or landed on land within said...

  10. 36 CFR 7.33 - Voyageurs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Voyageurs National Park. 7.33 Section 7.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.33 Voyageurs National Park. (a) Fishing. Unless...

  11. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  12. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  13. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  14. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  15. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  16. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  17. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  18. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  19. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  20. 36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Park. 7.1 Section 7.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.1 Colonial National Historical Park. (a... National Historical Park and no privately owned vessel shall be beached or landed on land within said...

  1. 36 CFR 7.10 - Zion National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zion National Park. 7.10 Section 7.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.10 Zion National Park. (a) Vehicle convoy requirements....

  2. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  3. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  4. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park. (a... supervision of employees of the National Park Service, no person shall enter any cave or undeveloped part...

  5. 36 CFR 7.3 - Glacier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glacier National Park. 7.3 Section 7.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.3 Glacier National Park. (a) Fishing. (1)...

  6. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  7. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  8. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park. (a... supervision of employees of the National Park Service, no person shall enter any cave or undeveloped part...

  9. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  10. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycling. (1) The...

  11. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  12. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  13. 36 CFR 7.11 - Saguaro National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Saguaro National Park. 7.11 Section 7.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.11 Saguaro National Park. (a) Bicycles. That portion of...

  14. 36 CFR 7.16 - Yosemite National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Yosemite National Park. 7.16 Section 7.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.16 Yosemite National Park. (a) Fishing—(1) Open season...

  15. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  16. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  17. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  18. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  19. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  20. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  1. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  2. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a)...

  3. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  4. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shenandoah National Park. 7.15 Section 7.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.15 Shenandoah National Park. (a)...

  5. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  6. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  7. 36 CFR 7.3 - Glacier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Glacier National Park. 7.3 Section 7.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.3 Glacier National Park. (a) Fishing. (1)...

  8. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  9. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  10. 36 CFR 7.74 - Virgin Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Virgin Islands National Park. 7.74 Section 7.74 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.74 Virgin Islands National Park. (a) (b) Marine operations. No dredging, excavating...

  11. 36 CFR 7.74 - Virgin Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Virgin Islands National Park. 7.74 Section 7.74 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.74 Virgin Islands National Park. (a) (b) Marine operations. No dredging, excavating...

  12. Involvement of IL17A, IL17F and IL23R Polymorphisms in Colorectal Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Omrane, Inés; Medimegh, Imen; Baroudi, Olfa; Ayari, Hager; Bedhiafi, Walid; Stambouli, Nejla; Ferchichi, Marwa; Kourda, Nadia; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Mezlini, Amel; Bougatef, Karim; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel

    2015-01-01

    IL23/IL17 pathway plays an important role in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In general, the genes encoding the cytokines are genetically polymorphic and polymorphisms in genes IL23R and IL17 have been proved to be associated with its susceptibility to inflammatory diseases as well as cancer including colorectal cancer. Moreover, it has been shown that these interleukins are involved in anti-tumor or pro-tumor effects of various cancers. Previously, we showed that there is a significant association between IL17A, IL17F and IL23R polymorphisms as well as the occurrence of colorectal cancer and the clinical features of the disease. The purpose of the present work is to investigate an association between IL17A, IL17F and IL23R polymorphisms in 102 Tunisian patients with colorectal cancer treatment. The association was analyzed by statistical tools. We found that patients with mutated genotypes of IL17A G197A SNP could be a risk factor for the inefficiency of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Unlike IL17F variant, patients with wild type genotypes require surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. On the one hand, we found no evidence that supports a significant association between IL23R polymorphism and the combined genotypes of these three genes and the colorectal cancer treatment. On the other hand, we showed that there is an important interaction between IL17A/IL17F polymorphisms and the stage of the disease as well as its treatment. Finally, patients with IL17F wild type genotype highlighted that there is a valid longer OS without all treatments and with radiotherapy and a neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In contrast, we observed that there are no relationships between IL17A, IL23R and the survival of these patients neither with nor without the treatment. Our results suggest that polymorphisms in IL17A and IL17F genes may be a predictive source of colorectal cancer therapy type. Therefore, IL17F may serve as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with colorectal cancer. PMID:26083022

  13. Sensitivity of constrained linear inversions to the selection of the Lagrange multiplier. [for inferring columnar aerosol size distribution from spectral aerosol optical depth measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of the choice of the Lagrange multiplier on constrained linear inversions is explored, with reference made to applications in inferring the columnar aerosol size distributions from spectral aerosol optical depth measurements. A range of the Lagrange multiplier is examined to find all positive solutions for the solution vector, which represents modifying factors to the assumed form of the size distribution. An iterative method is devised to constrain the calculations to consideration of only positive quantities and a requirement that the regression fit to data be consistent with measurement errors. The determination of the variances and covariances is formulated and applied to existing data sets for optical depth. Variances in the solution are found to be large for particle radii when the information content of the data is small.

  14. Regulation of IL-1 family cytokines IL-1alpha, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and IL-18 by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in primary keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Juan; Grando, Sergei A; Li, Yan Chun

    2006-03-15

    IL-1 family cytokines are key mediators of inflammatory response. Excessive production of these cytokines by keratinocytes has been implicated in inflammatory and hyperproliferative skin diseases. Given the immunosuppressive role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) and its clinical application in treatment of psoriasis, we investigated the effect of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on the expression of IL-1alpha, intracellular IL-1 receptor antagonist (icIL-1Ra), and IL-18 in mouse primary keratinocytes. Treatment of keratinocytes with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased the expression of IL-1alpha and icIL-1Ra and decreased the expression of IL-18 in dose- and time-dependent manners. The magnitude of icIL-1Ra induction was much greater than that of IL-1alpha so that the ratio of icIL-1Ra to IL-1alpha was markedly increased, leading to repression of IL-1 activity. The regulation of these three cytokines by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was mediated by vitamin D receptor (VDR), as 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) had no effect in VDR(-/-) keratinocytes, whereas the effect was restored in cells derived from VDR(-/-) mice expressing human VDR. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) appeared to use different mechanisms to regulate the biosynthesis of IL-1alpha and icIL-1Ra: it increased IL-1alpha mRNA stability whereas it enhanced icIL-1Ra gene transcription. The basal IL-18 expression and activity were much higher in VDR(-/-) keratinocytes and skin, underscoring the importance of the repressive role of vitamin D in IL-18 production. Similar regulation of these cytokines was also seen in primary human keratinocytes. Collectively, these results suggest that vitamin D modulates cutaneous inflammatory reactions, at least in part, by increasing the IL-1Ra to IL-1alpha ratio and suppressing IL-18 synthesis in keratinocytes. PMID:16517748

  15. Association of Park Size, Distance, and Features With Physical Activity in Neighborhood Parks

    PubMed Central

    Kaczynski, Andrew T.; Potwarka, Luke R.; Saelens, Brian E.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We studied whether park size, number of features in the park, and distance to a park from participants homes were related to a park being used for physical activity. Methods. We collected observational data on 28 specific features from 33 parks. Adult residents in surrounding areas (n=380) completed 7-day physical activity logs that included the location of their activities. We used logistic regression to examine the relative importance of park size, features, and distance to participants homes in predicting whether a park was used for physical activity, with control for perceived neighborhood safety and aesthetics. Results. Parks with more features were more likely to be used for physical activity; size and distance were not significant predictors. Park facilities were more important than were park amenities. Of the park facilities, trails had the strongest relationship with park use for physical activity. Conclusions. Specific park features may have significant implications for park-based physical activity. Future research should explore these factors in diverse neighborhoods and diverse parks among both younger and older populations. PMID:18556600

  16. 49 CFR 372.233 - Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chicago, IL. 372.233 Section 372.233... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones 372.233 Chicago, IL. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of Chicago, IL, within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate or...

  17. 49 CFR 372.233 - Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chicago, IL. 372.233 Section 372.233... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones 372.233 Chicago, IL. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of Chicago, IL, within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate or...

  18. 49 CFR 372.233 - Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chicago, IL. 372.233 Section 372.233... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones 372.233 Chicago, IL. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of Chicago, IL, within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate or...

  19. 49 CFR 372.233 - Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chicago, IL. 372.233 Section 372.233... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones 372.233 Chicago, IL. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of Chicago, IL, within which transportation by motor vehicle, in interstate or...

  20. IL26 gene inactivation in Equidae.

    PubMed

    Shakhsi-Niaei, M; Drögemüller, M; Jagannathan, V; Gerber, V; Leeb, T

    2013-12-01

    Interleukin-26 (IL26) is a member of the IL10 cytokine family. The IL26 gene is located between two other well-known cytokines genes of this family encoding interferon-gamma (IFNG) and IL22 in an evolutionary conserved gene cluster. In contrast to humans and most other mammals, mice lack a functional Il26 gene. We analyzed the genome sequences of other vertebrates for the presence or absence of functional IL26 orthologs and found that the IL26 gene has also become inactivated in several equid species. We detected a one-base pair frameshift deletion in exon 2 of the IL26 gene in the domestic horse (Equus caballus), Przewalski horse (Equus przewalskii) and donkey (Equus asinus). The remnant IL26 gene in the horse is still transcribed and gives rise to at least five alternative transcripts. None of these transcripts share a conserved open reading frame with the human IL26 gene. A comparative analysis across diverse vertebrates revealed that the IL26 gene has also independently been inactivated in a few other mammals, including the African elephant and the European hedgehog. The IL26 gene thus appears to be highly variable, and the conserved open reading frame has been lost several times during mammalian evolution. PMID:23808390

  1. Interleukin (IL)-25: Pleiotropic roles in asthma.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiujuan; Sun, Yongchang; Wang, Wei; Sun, Ying

    2016-05-01

    IL-25, also named IL-17E, is a distinct member of the IL-17 cytokine family, which can promote and augment T helper type 2 (Th2) responses locally or systemically. Growing evidence from experimental and clinical studies indicates that the expression of IL-25 and its cognate receptor, IL-17RB/RA, is markedly upregulated in asthmatic conditions. It has also been found that IL-25 induces not only typical eosinophilic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), but also airway remodelling, manifested by goblet cell hyperplasia, subepithelial collagen deposition and angiogenesis. This review will focus on the discovery, cellular origins and targets of IL-25, and try to update current animal and human studies elucidating the roles of IL-25 in asthma. We conclude that although IL-25 is a pleiotropic cytokine, it may only play its dominant role in a certain specific asthmatic endotype, named 'IL-25 high' phenotype. Thus, targeting IL-25 or its receptor might selectively benefit some subgroups with asthma. Furthermore, the major IL-25 producing as well as responsive cells in the changeable milieu of asthma should be assessed in the future. PMID:26699081

  2. Allelic polymorphism in IL-1 beta and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) genes in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bioque, G; Crusius, J B; Koutroubakis, I; Bouma, G; Kostense, P J; Meuwissen, S G; Peña, A S

    1995-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that allele 2 of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) gene is over-represented in ulcerative colitis (UC). Healthy individuals carrying allele 2 of this gene have increased production of IL-1Ra protein. Since the final outcome of the biological effects of IL-1 beta may depend on the relative proportion of these two cytokines, we have studied if a TaqI polymorphism in the IL-1 beta gene, which is relevant to IL-1 beta protein production, may be involved in the genetic susceptibility to UC and Crohn's disease (CD), in association with the established IL-1Ra gene polymorphism. Polymorphisms in the closely linked genes for IL-1 beta and IL-1Ra were typed in 100 unrelated Dutch patients with UC, 79 with CD, and 71 healthy controls. The polymorphic regions in exon 5 of the IL-1 beta gene and in intron 2 of the IL-1Ra gene, were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. The IL-1 beta allele frequencies in UC and CD patients did not differ from those in healthy controls. In order to study if the IL-1 beta gene polymorphism might participate synergistically with the IL-1Ra gene polymorphism in susceptibility to UC and CD, individuals were distributed into carriers and non-carriers of allele 2 of the genes encoding IL-1 beta and IL-1Ra, in each of the patient groups and controls. Results indicated a significant association of this pair of genes, estimated by the odds ratio (OR) after performing Fisher's exact test, in the UC group (P = 0.023, OR = 2.81), as well as in the CD group (P = 0.01, OR = 3.79). Thus, non-carriers of IL-1 beta allele 2 were more often present in the subgroup of patients carrying the IL-1Ra allele 2. By contrast, no association of these alleles was detected in the group of healthy controls (P = 1.00, OR = 0.92). These results suggest that the IL-1 beta/IL-1Ra allelic cluster may participate in defining the biological basis of predisposition to chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:7586694

  3. The Geologic Story of Canyonlands National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lohman, Stanley William

    1974-01-01

    On September 12, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed an act of Congress establishing Canyonlands as our thirty second national park, the first addition to the park system since 1956. The birth of Canyonlands National Park was not without labor pains. In the 1930's virtually all the vast canyon country between Moab, Utah, and Grand Canyon, Ariz., was studied for a projected Escalante National Park. But Escalante failed to get off the ground, even when a second attempt was made in the 1950's. Not until another proposal had been made and legislative compromises had been worked out did the park materialize, this time under a new name - Canyonlands. Among the many dignitaries who witnessed the signature on September 12 was one of the men most responsible for the park's creation, park superintendent Bates E. Wilson, who did the pioneer spade work in the field.

  4. New Insights in the Immunobiology of IL-1 Family Members.

    PubMed

    van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Netea, Mihai G

    2013-01-01

    The interleukin-1 (IL 1) family of ligands is associated with acute and chronic inflammation, and plays an essential role in the non-specific innate response to infection. The biological properties of IL 1 family ligands are typically pro-inflammatory. The IL 1 family has 11 family members and can be categorized into subfamilies according to the length of their precursor and the length of the propiece for each precursor (Figure 1). The IL 1 subfamily consists of IL 1?, IL 1?, and IL 33, with the longest propieces of the IL 1 family. IL 18 and IL 37 belong to the IL 18 subfamily and contain smaller propieces than IL 1 and IL-33. Since IL 37 binds to the IL 18R? chain it is part of the IL 18 subfamily, however it remains to be elucidated how the propiece of IL 37 is removed. IL 36?, ?, and ? as well as IL 36 Ra belong to the IL 36 subfamily. In addition, IL 38 likely belongs to this family since it has the ability to bind to the IL 36R. The IL 36 subfamily has the shortest propiece. The one member of the IL 1 family that cannot be categorized in these subfamilies is IL 1 receptor antagonist (IL 1Ra), which has a signal peptide and is readily secreted. In the present review we will describe the biological functions of the IL-1F members and new insights in their biology. PMID:23847614

  5. Evaluation of IL10, IL19, and IL20 gene polymorphisms and chronic hepatitis B infection outcome

    PubMed Central

    Truelove, Ann L.; Oleksyk, Taras K.; Shrestha, Sadeep; Thio, Chloe L.; Goedert, James J.; Donfield, Sharyne M.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Thomas, David L.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Smith, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Hepatitis B viral infection remains a serious global health problem despite the availability of a highly effective vaccine. Approximately 5% of HBV-infected adults develop chronic hepatitis B, which may result in liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Variants of interleukin-10 (IL10) have been previously associated with chronic hepatitis B infection and progression to hepatocellular carcinoma. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, n = 42) from the IL10, IL19, and IL20 gene regions were examined for an association with HBV infection outcome, either chronic or recovered, in a nested case-control study of African Americans and European Americans. Among African Americans, three nominally statistically significant SNP associations in IL10, two in IL20, and one haplotype association were observed with different HBV infection outcomes (P = 0.005–0.04). The SNP, rs1518108, in IL20 nominally deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in African Americans, with a large excess of heterozygotes in chronic HBV-infected cases (P = 0.0006), which suggests a strong genetic effect. Among European Americans, a nominally statistically significant SNP association in IL20, as well as an IL20 haplotype were associated with HBV recovery (P = 0.01–0.04). These results suggest that IL10 and IL20 gene variants influence HBV infection outcome and encourage the pursuit of further studies of these cytokines in HBV pathogenesis. PMID:18479293

  6. Study on the association between IL-1?, IL-8 and IL-10 gene polymorphisms and risk of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Baojun; She, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the role of genetic polymorphisms in IL-1?, IL-8 and IL-10 in the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). We identified 325 patients with CAD and 342 control subjects without CAD between January 2013 and December 2014. Genotyping of IL-1? +3954 C/T, IL-1? -511 C/T, IL-8-251T/A, IL-10-1082A/G and IL-10-819C/T was performed in a 384-well plate format on the Sequenom MassARRAY platform (Sequenom, San Diego, USA). By Multivariate logistic regression analysis, the GG and AG+GG genotypes of IL-10-1082A/G were significantly associated with an increased risk of CAD. The ORs (95% CI) for GG and AG+GG genotypes were 2.12 (1.32-3.43) and 1.56 (1.14-2.14), respectively. Patients carrying the AG+GG genotype of IL-10-1082A/G was associated with an increased risk of CAD in those with hypertension, diabetes mellitus and smokers, and the ORs (95% CI) were 1.41 (0.93-2.14), 7.13 (2.28-23.56) and 2.12 (1.17-3.89), respectively. Our study found that IL-10-1082A/G polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of CAD, especially in hypertension, diabetes mellitus and smokers. PMID:26221351

  7. A low diffusive Lagrange-remap scheme for the simulation of violent ai-water free-surface flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard-Champmartin, Aude; De Vuyst, Florian

    2014-10-01

    In 2002, Després and Lagoutière [17] proposed a low-diffusive advection scheme for pure transport equation problems, which is particularly accurate for step-shaped solutions, and thus suited for interface tracking procedure by a color function. This has been extended by Kokh and Lagoutière [28] in the context of compressible multifluid flows using a five-equation model. In this paper, we explore a simplified variant approach for gas-liquid three-equation models. The Eulerian numerical scheme has two ingredients: a robust remapped Lagrange solver for the solution of the volume-averaged equations, and a low diffusive compressive scheme for the advection of the gas mass fraction. Numerical experiments show the performance of the computational approach on various flow reference problems: dam break, sloshing of a tank filled with water, wate-water impact and finally a case of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. One of the advantages of the present interface capturing solver is its natural implementation on parallel processors or computers. wave formation and wave breaking; wall wave impacts, local pressure peaks and pressure loadings; formation of air pockets; ejection, fragmentation of liquid droplets; Archimedes buoyancy effect with rising of bubbles and fall of droplets; effects of gas compressibility inducing a gas-to-liquid response by a pressure wave, etc. In this paper, we consider immiscible gas-liquid two-phase flow problems. The strong ratio of mass density between gas and liquid (typically 1:1000) is known to be a source of numerical stiffness and numerical instability. Therefore robust computational approaches supporting high density ratio have to be considered. Among the family of conservative Finite Volume methods (FVM), the Lagrange-remapped solvers (see e.g. [42,45,6,4,25,2]) provide both robustness and stability with achievement of mathematical properties of positiveness and entropy compatibility.Lagrange-remap numerical schemes (also referred to as Eule-Lagrange schemes) are a particular family of Eulerian FVM where, at each time step, the equations are solved according to a Lagrangian evolution with a mesh that is convected by the flow itself, then the "Lagrange solutions" are remapped on the initial mesh into a conservative way by estimating both fluxed mass and momentum. Because of the Lagrangian step of these methods, code coupling or coupling of different physics is made easier against conventional FV methods. Moreover, the Lagrangian description is very practical for multi-material flows of multi-phase flows because we are a natural control of the fluxed quantities material-by-material. Lagrange and Lagrange-remap solvers still know strong developments today with major contributions as e.g. energy-preserving compatible schemes for staggered methods [11], collocated variables and cell-centered entropy-satisfying schemes, see [18,32,12].In this paper, we rather consider a simpler staggered Lagrange-remap solver with a direction-by-direction remapping. More precisely, the 2D multidimensional Lagrange step (operator LxyΔt) completely solves the fluid equations while an operator splitting alternating direction (AD) for the projection (operators Rx and Ry respectively) is used to interpolate on the reference Cartesian Eulerian grid into a conservative manner, involving convective flux balances. Symmetrized operator splitting can be used to ensure second order accuracy. Both linear and nonlinear numerical stabilities are ensured by the use of standard pseudo-viscosity (viscous pressure) terms, detailed into Appendix B at the end of this paper. Actually, we use this simple Euler solver because of its simplicity of code implementation and because it can be vectorized/parallelized into a natural manner. Moreover, the aim of this paper is not about the hydrodynamics solver: the article mostly focuses on numerical antidiffusive methods for interface capturing, as part of a global multifluid hydrodynamics solver. At the present time, the antidiffusive approaches assume a direction-by-direction remapping which leads to a simpler derivation of the antidiffusive fluxes.The issue of an interface tracking/capturing algorithm providing expected properties like robustness, accuracy, conservation of volume and mass while not being too much computationally intensive is still the object of today's active research. Pure Lagrangian approaches like Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) methods naturally captures the moving interfaces because each macro-particle moves with the flow. Each particle is also attached to a given material with its own equation of state (EOS). For liquid-gas flows, we have liquid particles and gas particles and the interface is nothing else but the discrete interface separating liquid particles from gas particles. In the last decade, we have seen in the literature major contributions of improvement in the SPH world with improved accuracy, stability, and ability to tackle multiphase flow problems with high density ratios for violent flow applications, see for example [13,33,24]. Despite these improvements, SPH still know some issues. Moreover parallelization techniques for SPH are quite technical and require a great expertise (as dealing with strong density ratio between phases). That's why we rather choose a more classical computational approach.Notice also that there are also mesh-based Lagrangian methods [32,12]. But for flows with large deformations, cells may become degenerate, and both regularization or remapping procedures are needed.For Eulerian methods, the family of interface tracking methods try to reconstruct the free boundary according to some tracking procedure (level set methods [38] for example). Interface reconstruction methods try to reconstruct a moving interface according to some incomplete information: volume-of-fluid (VOF) methods [36,46] or MOF (Moment-of-Fluid) methods [20]. The family of interface capturing methods involves at the continuous level the transport equation of an indicator function that distinguishes the location of the different materials: ∂tz+uṡ∇z=0, z∈{0,1} (where u is the velocity and z the color function or a phase indicator), expressing that the interface property between the two phases is advected with the local fluid velocity. From the numerical point of view, finite volume cells may host different materials. The so-called "mixed cells" need an additional closure but on the other hand the mass fraction cg∈[0,1] of the gas fluid may be used as the numerical indicator function: ∂tcg+uṡ∇cg=0, cg∈[0,1]. It can be set up in conservative form in order to conserve the gas mass: ∂t(ρcg)+∇ṡ(ρcgu)=0 with ρ representing the mean cell "mixture" density, but of course it induces a "diffuse" interface, which has to be kept as less diffusive as possible. Let us emphasize that this diffuse feature is only a pure numerical artefact. This kind of methods uses more or less sophistication levels including high-order schemes, compressive flux limiters, artificial compression stages, local adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) [7], a posteriori methods in which an anti-diffusion phase is added after the projection (or the advection) of the quantities, use of pseudo-velocities to correct the truncation error of the numerical scheme (see e.g. [40,26,35]), Eulerian methods with Lagrangian tracking of the interface (VFFC-ENIP [31]), etc. These methods have been proved to be very efficient. But the price to pay is the relative important implementation and computational effort. For parallel computer architectures, the parallel implementation may be tricky or require a tedious work. To summarize what can be said is that each method in the literature shares both advantages and drawbacks. The combination of the three properties conservation-accuracy-robustness is actually highly constrained. The parallel computing aspect may also add strong constraints with heavy programming efforts. Regarding interface capturing methods with a color function, there are two points of view: either a threshold on z (say z=1/2 >) which discriminates the fluid zones as level sets do, or one considers a possibly smoothed colored function involving a smoothed transition between both fluids. In this case, some "regularization" closure has to be defined into the model. The "uncertainty" related to a z belonging to on the open interval (0,1) has to be expressed, for example by a volume-averaged mixture closure. This is discussed in the next section.In this work, we have decided to investigate the use of a recent antidiffusive advection scheme for stepwise solutions, initially proposed by Després and Lagoutière. The idea is to combine both upwinding and downwinding discretizations for the gradient operators. The upwinding process is known to provide strong stability in Lp norm under a standard CFL condition while pure downwinding is unconditionally unstable because of its over-compressive nature. Després and Lagoutière then proposed a combination of both upwinding and downwinding "at the limit of stability", providing the most compressive solver while ensuring stability with a local discrete maximum principle. This computational approach has been considered in Kokh and Lagoutière [28] and more recently in [8,9] for multiphase flow problems with a "five-equation" model that includes the transport of a color function. In fact the color variable z acts for the interface location whereas another variable y, a gas mass fraction is necessary for conservation purposes. Thus we present here an adaptation of the Després-Lagoutière advection scheme to the case of a simpler "three-equation" gas-liquid volume averaged model. In our case, the gas mass fraction cg also acts as the color variable and is antidiffused. We rather reformulate the mass conservation equations using a gas volume fraction α which is of course a function of cg for given phase densities. We use isentropic pressure law equations of state per phase, the liquid phase being seen as a (weakly) compressible fluid. To close the system, we here assume a simple pressure equilibrium in each mixed cell. Methods based on the instantaneous pressure equilibrium usually produce overshoots of some material quantity at the interfaces because the instantaneous pressure equilibrium does not correspond to the behavior of two pure material cells facing each other (see for example [27,3] for a discussion about this issue). But there are more realistic closure mechanisms like pressure relaxation mechanisms [27] that improve the behavior at the interface. Once again, this paper does not really focus on this topic. We mostly want to evaluate the both advantages, limitations and drawbacks of such an antidiffusive approach, in particular in the case of stiff gas-liquid multiphase flows.Another motivation that justifies our choice of that type of interface capturing methods based on the solution of a transport equation of an Eulerian Cartesian grid is that we believe they are very promising for manycore coprocessor parallel computing, like Intel Xeon PHI or Graphics Processing Units (GPU). While standard PDE discretization methods (mesh, array data structures, sparse matrices, memory) have been designed and optimized a few decades ago on the assumption of a sustainable CPU-global memory model, parallel many-core processing architecture is completely different such that data structures organized by grids of blocks are particularly suitable for finite difference/volume methods on Cartesian grids.At the present time, our computations are performed sequentially on a standard CPU for accuracy assessment of the numerical method and its improvement. Ongoing works are dedicated to the GPU programming of such a method. Let us finally remark that the last update of the NVIDIA CUDA Software Development Kit includes an Application Programming Interface (API) for Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR). AMR methods of course could be used with the low-diffusive interface capturing technique for a more accurate level of interface resolution.

  8. Buddingtonite in Menlo Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pampeyan, Earl H.

    2010-01-01

    The mineral buddingtonite, named after A.F. Buddington, long-time professor of petrology at Princeton University, was first identified at the Sulfur Bank mine in Lake County, California (Erd and others, 1964). The ammonium feldspar was recognized in Menlo Park, California, in 1964 by the author, with Erd's help, shortly before publication of the original description of the new mineral. Subsequently, buddingtonite has been widely recognized in hydrothermal mineral deposits and has been used in remote-sensing applications by the mineral industry. Buddingtonite also has been identified in the Phosphoria Formation and in oil shales of the Green River Formation. This paper briefly describes the geologic setting and mineralogy of the occurrences of buddingtonite and other ammonium-bearing minerals in the vicinity of Menlo Park.

  9. Enhanced Interleukin (IL)-13 Responses in Mice Lacking IL-13 Receptor α 2

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Nancy; Whitters, Matthew J.; Jacobson, Bruce A.; Witek, JoAnn; Sypek, Joseph P.; Kasaian, Marion; Eppihimer, Michael J.; Unger, Michelle; Tanaka, Takashi; Goldman, Samuel J.; Collins, Mary; Donaldson, Debra D.; Grusby, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-13 has recently been shown to play important and unique roles in asthma, parasite immunity, and tumor recurrence. At least two distinct receptor components, IL-4 receptor (R)α and IL-13Rα1, mediate the diverse actions of IL-13. We have recently described an additional high affinity receptor for IL-13, IL-13Rα2, whose function in IL-13 signaling is unknown. To better appreciate the functional importance of IL-13Rα2, mice deficient in IL-13Rα2 were generated by gene targeting. Serum immunoglobulin E levels were increased in IL-13Rα2−/− mice despite the fact that serum IL-13 was absent and immune interferon γ production increased compared with wild-type mice. IL-13Rα2–deficient mice display increased bone marrow macrophage progenitor frequency and decreased tissue macrophage nitric oxide and IL-12 production in response to lipopolysaccharide. These results are consistent with a phenotype of enhanced IL-13 responsiveness and demonstrate a role for endogenous IL-13 and IL-13Rα2 in regulating immune responses in wild-type mice. PMID:12642602

  10. Structure of IL-22 Bound to Its High-Affinity IL-22R1 Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.C.; Logsdon, N.J.; Walter, M.R.

    2008-09-29

    IL-22 is an IL-10 family cytokine that initiates innate immune responses against bacterial pathogens and contributes to immune disease. IL-22 biological activity is initiated by binding to a cell-surface complex composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains and further regulated by interactions with a soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). IL-22R1 also pairs with the IL-20R2 chain to induce IL-20 and IL-24 signaling. To define the molecular basis of these diverse interactions, we have determined the structure of the IL-22/sIL-22R1 complex. The structure, combined with homology modeling and surface plasmon resonance studies, defines the molecular basis for the distinct affinities and specificities of IL-22 and IL-10 receptor chains that regulate cellular targeting and signal transduction to elicit effective immune responses.

  11. An activation-induced IL-15 isoform is a natural antagonist for IL-15 function

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lei; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Yinsheng; Song, Yuan; Lin, Dandan; Liu, Yonghao; Mei, Yu; Sandikin, Dedy; Sun, Weiping; Zhuang, Min; Liu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) expression induces the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, inhibits the apoptosis of activated T cells and prolongs the survival of CD8+ memory T cells. Here we identified an IL-15 isoform lacking exon-6, IL-15ΔE6, generated by alternative splicing events of activated immune cells, including macrophages and B cells. In vitro study showed that IL-15ΔE6 could antagonize IL-15-mediated T cell proliferation. The receptor binding assay revealed that IL-15ΔE6 could bind to IL-15Rα and interfere with the binding between IL-15 and IL-15Rα. Over-expression of IL-15ΔE6 in the murine EAE model ameliorated the EAE symptoms of the mice. The clinical scores were significantly lower in the mice expressing IL-15ΔE6 than the control mice and the mice expressing IL-15. The inflammation and demyelination of the EAE mice expressing IL-15ΔE6 were less severe than the control group. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that IL-15ΔE6 expression reduced the percentages of inflammatory T cells in the spleen and spinal cord, and inhibited the infiltration of macrophages to the CNS. Our results demonstrated that IL-15ΔE6 could be induced during immune activation and function as a negative feedback mechanism to dampen IL-15-mediated inflammatory events. PMID:27166125

  12. IL-6 promotes NK cell production of IL-17 during toxoplasmosis1

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Sara T.; Silver, Jonathan S.; O'Hara, Aisling C.; Sehy, David; Stumhofer, Jason S.; Hunter, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have implicated T cell production of IL-17 in resistance to T. gondii as well as the development of immune mediated pathology during this infection. Analysis of C57BL/6 and C57BL/6 RAG-/- mice challenged with T. gondii identified NK cells as a major innate source of IL-17. The ability of soluble toxoplasma antigen to stimulate NK cells to produce IL-17 was dependent on the presence of accessory cells and the production of IL-6, IL-23 and TGF-β. In contrast, these events were inhibited by IL-2, IL-15 and IL-27. Given that IL-6 was one of the most potent enhancers of NK cell production of IL-17, further studies revealed that only a subset of NK cells expressed both chains of the IL-6R, IL-6 upregulated expression of the Th17 associated transcription factor RORγt, and IL-6-/- mice challenged with T. gondii had a major defect in NK cell production of IL-17. Together, these data indicate that many of the same cytokines that regulate Th17 cells are part of a conserved pathway that also control innate production of IL-17 and identify a major role for IL-6 in the regulation of NK cell responses. PMID:20083665

  13. Expression and function of the gamma c subunit of the IL-2, IL-4, and IL-7 receptors. Distinct interaction of gamma c in the IL-4 receptor.

    PubMed

    He, Y W; Adkins, B; Furse, R K; Malek, T R

    1995-02-15

    IL-2R, IL-4R, and IL-7R share a common subunit referred to as gamma c and the IL-13R has been proposed to contain gamma c as a subunit. In this report we have used two novel mAbs (3E12 and 4G3) to distinct epitopes of mouse gamma c to determine its lymphoid cell distribution and to examine whether gamma c uses similar epitopes to interact with different cytokines and cytokine receptors. FACS analysis revealed that gamma c is expressed in most lymphocytes, myeloid cells, embryonic thymocytes, and lymphoid cell lines. Results from radiolabeled ligand binding studies, biochemical analysis of ligand-receptor cross-linked complexes, and cytokine bioassays indicate that the epitope defined by mAb 4G3 closely defines the IL-7 binding region of gamma c and overlaps the IL-2 binding region of gamma c. These studies also indicate that gamma c interacts with IL-4 in the context of the IL-4R in a manner that is distinct from its role in the IL-2R and IL-7R and suggest that the 3E12 epitope defines a region of gamma c that intimately interacts with the IL-4R. The B9 plasmacytoma, which proliferates in response to IL-4 and IL-13, was shown to not express gamma c. Thus, at least in some circumstances, gamma c is dispensable for signaling via the IL-4R and is not a required subunit of the IL-13R. PMID:7530740

  14. Heritage Park Facilities PV Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hobaica, Mark

    2013-09-26

    Project Objective: To procure a photovoltaic array (PV) system which will generate approximately 256kW of power to be used for the operations of the Aquatic Complex and the adjacent Senior Facility at the Heritage Park. This project complies with the EERE’s work and objectives by promoting the development and deployment of an energy system that will provide current and future generations with clean, efficient, affordable, and reliable energy.

  15. Energetics and Cooling in Urban Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spronken-Smith, Rachel Anne

    While there has been a long tradition for the integration of architecture and landscape to improve the urban environment, little is known about the effect of urban parks on local climate. In this study the park effect is determined through an integrated research approach incorporating field measurements of the thermal regime and energetics of urban parks, together with scale modelling of nocturnal cooling in urban parks. The research is limited to consideration of the park effect in two cities with different summer climates: Sacramento, California (hot summer Mediterranean) and Vancoucer, British Columbia (cool summer Mediterranean). In both these cities, surveys of summer-time air temperature patterns associated with urban parks confirm and extend previous findings. In temperate Vancouver, the park effect is typically 1-2^circC, rarely more than 3^circC, although it can be higher under ideal conditions. However, in a hot, dry city, the effect is considerably enhanced with parks as much as 5-7^circC cooler than their urban surrounds. A comparison of the surface energy balance of small open, grassed parks in these two cities demonstrated the importance of evapotranspiration in park energetics. In hot, dry Sacramento, evaporation in the park was advectively -assisted and exceeded that at an irrigated rural site. Strong advective edge effects on evaporation were observed in this wet park. These decayed approximately exponentially with distance into the park. The urban park in Vancouver was moist, but unirrigated. While evaporation dominated the surface energy balance, the sensible heat flux was positive through most of the day, and evaporation was not strongly influenced by advection. The evaporation trend in the park probably reflected the turbulence and soil moisture regimes. However, an irrigated lawn in Vancouver did exhibit edge-type advection. This suggests the soil moisture regime may be critical in determining whether evaporation exceeds the potential rate. The contribution of processes to nocturnal cooling in urban parks was determined through scale modelling. It showed that surface geometry and the urban-park difference in thermal admittance may be of equal importance in nocturnal cooling. Parks with high sky view factors have increased radiative cooling and if the park is very dry (and therefore has a low thermal admittance), the cooling is furthered enhanced. Evaporative cooling is critical in establishing the park as a "cool island" at sunset, but the presence of moisture slows cooling through the night. Integration of the field and model data leads to the development of guidelines for planners regarding the design of parks for maximum climatic benefit. The optimum size of the park depends to a large extent, on the geometry of the urban surrounds. To maximize radiative cooling, the width of open park areas should be at least 7.5 times the height of the trees or buildings around the park border. Larger parks increase the size of the volume of air cooled and this increases the potential for advection of cool air into the neighbourhood. It suggested that if cooling is the objective, the optimum design is a savannah -type park with loose clusters of trees interspersed by wide open, irrigated grass. The arrangement of trees must be chosen with great care to allow the advection of air both into, and out of, the park.

  16. IL-6 in diabetes and cardiovascular complications

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Dan; Liu, Jian; Lau, Chi Wai; Huang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine that participates in normal functions of the immune system, haematopoiesis, metabolism, as well as in the pathogenesis of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Both pro- and anti-inflammatory roles of IL-6 have been described, which are distinguished by different cascades of signalling transduction, namely classic and trans-signalling. The present review summarizes the basic principles of IL-6 signalling and discusses its roles in diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications, with emphasis on the different outcomes mediated by the two modes of IL-6 signalling and the value of developing therapeutic strategies to specifically target the deleterious trans-signalling of IL-6. PMID:24697653

  17. Parking, energy consumption and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Höglund, Paul G

    2004-12-01

    This paper examines the impacts of different ways of parking on environmental effects, mainly vehicle emissions and air pollution. Vehicle energy consumption and the urban air quality at street level, related to location and design of parking establishments, need to be assessed and quantified. In addition, the indoor parking environment needs attention. This paper gives a description of a methodological approach when comparing different parking establishments. The paper also briefly describes a Swedish attempt to create methods and models for assessing and quantifying such problem. The models are the macrolevel model BRAHE, for regional traffic exhaust emission, and the micromodel SimPark, a parking search model attempt combined with emission models. Until now, very limited knowledge exists regarding the various aspects of vehicle parking and environmental effects in the technical field as well as in the social and human behaviour aspects. This requires an interdisciplinary approach to this challenging area for research, development and more directly practically implemented surveys and field studies. In order to illustrate the new evaluation methodology, the paper also contains some results from a pilot study in Stockholm. Given certain assumptions, a study of vehicle emissions from parking in an underground garage compared with kerbside parking has given an emission reduction of about 40% in favour of the parking garage. This study has been done using the models mentioned above. PMID:15504491

  18. Feasibility of cooling the Earth with a cloud of small spcecraft near the inner Lagrange point (L1)

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, R.

    2006-11-14

    If it were to become apparent that dangerous changes in global climate were inevitable, despite greenhouse gas controls, active methods to cool the Earth on an emergency basis might be desirable. The concept considered here is to block 1.8% of the solar flux with a space sunshade orbited near the inner Lagrange point (L1), in-line between the Earth and sun. Following the work of J. Early [Early, JT (1989) J Br Interplanet Soc 42:567-569], transparent material would be used to deflect the sunlight, rather than to absorb it, to minimize the shift in balance out from L1 caused by radiation pressure. Three advances aimed at practical implementation are presented. First is an optical design for a very thin refractive screen with low reflectivity, leading to a total sunshade mass of {approx}20 million tons. Second is a concept aimed at reducing transportation cost to $50/kg by using electromatnetic acceleration to escape Earth's gravity, followed by ion propulsion. Third is an implementation of the sunshade as a cloud of many spacecraft, autonomously stabilized by modulating solar radiation pressure. These meter-sized 'flyers' would be assembled completely before launch, avoiding any need for construction or unfolding in space. They would weigh a gram each, be launched in stacks of 800,000, and remain for a projected lifetime of 50 years within a 100,000-km-long cloud. The concept builds on existing technologies. It seems feasible that it could be developed and deployed in {approx}25 years at a cost of a few trillion dollars, <0.5% of world gross domestic product (GDP) over that time.

  19. Lagrange-type modeling of continuous dielectric permittivity variation in double-higher-order volume integral equation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chobanyan, E.; Ilić, M. M.; Notaroš, B. M.

    2015-05-01

    A novel double-higher-order entire-domain volume integral equation (VIE) technique for efficient analysis of electromagnetic structures with continuously inhomogeneous dielectric materials is presented. The technique takes advantage of large curved hexahedral discretization elements—enabled by double-higher-order modeling (higher-order modeling of both the geometry and the current)—in applications involving highly inhomogeneous dielectric bodies. Lagrange-type modeling of an arbitrary continuous variation of the equivalent complex permittivity of the dielectric throughout each VIE geometrical element is implemented, in place of piecewise homogeneous approximate models of the inhomogeneous structures. The technique combines the features of the previous double-higher-order piecewise homogeneous VIE method and continuously inhomogeneous finite element method (FEM). This appears to be the first implementation and demonstration of a VIE method with double-higher-order discretization elements and conformal modeling of inhomogeneous dielectric materials embedded within elements that are also higher (arbitrary) order (with arbitrary material-representation orders within each curved and large VIE element). The new technique is validated and evaluated by comparisons with a continuously inhomogeneous double-higher-order FEM technique, a piecewise homogeneous version of the double-higher-order VIE technique, and a commercial piecewise homogeneous FEM code. The examples include two real-world applications involving continuously inhomogeneous permittivity profiles: scattering from an egg-shaped melting hailstone and near-field analysis of a Luneburg lens, illuminated by a corrugated horn antenna. The results show that the new technique is more efficient and ensures considerable reductions in the number of unknowns and computational time when compared to the three alternative approaches.

  20. Feasibility of cooling the Earth with a cloud of small spacecraft near the inner Lagrange point (L1)

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Roger

    2006-01-01

    If it were to become apparent that dangerous changes in global climate were inevitable, despite greenhouse gas controls, active methods to cool the Earth on an emergency basis might be desirable. The concept considered here is to block 1.8% of the solar flux with a space sunshade orbited near the inner Lagrange point (L1), in-line between the Earth and sun. Following the work of J. Early [Early, JT (1989) J Br Interplanet Soc 42:567–569], transparent material would be used to deflect the sunlight, rather than to absorb it, to minimize the shift in balance out from L1 caused by radiation pressure. Three advances aimed at practical implementation are presented. First is an optical design for a very thin refractive screen with low reflectivity, leading to a total sunshade mass of ≈20 million tons. Second is a concept aimed at reducing transportation cost to $50/kg by using electromagnetic acceleration to escape Earth's gravity, followed by ion propulsion. Third is an implementation of the sunshade as a cloud of many spacecraft, autonomously stabilized by modulating solar radiation pressure. These meter-sized “flyers” would be assembled completely before launch, avoiding any need for construction or unfolding in space. They would weigh a gram each, be launched in stacks of 800,000, and remain for a projected lifetime of 50 years within a 100,000-km-long cloud. The concept builds on existing technologies. It seems feasible that it could be developed and deployed in ≈25 years at a cost of a few trillion dollars, <0.5% of world gross domestic product (GDP) over that time. PMID:17085589

  1. A cytokine network involving brain-borne IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-18, IL-6, and TNFα operates during long-term potentiation and learning.

    PubMed

    del Rey, Adriana; Balschun, Detlef; Wetzel, Wolfram; Randolf, Anke; Besedovsky, Hugo O

    2013-10-01

    We have previously shown that long-term potentiation (LTP) induces hippocampal IL-1β and IL-6 over-expression, and interfering their signalling either inhibits or supports, respectively, LTP maintenance. Consistently, blockade of endogenous IL-1 or IL-6 restricts or favours hippocampal-dependent memory, effects that were confirmed in genetically manipulated mice. Since cytokines are known for their high degree of mutual crosstalk, here we studied whether a network of cytokines with known neuromodulatory actions is activated during LTP and learning. We found that, besides IL-1β and IL-6, also IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and IL-18, but not TNFα are over-expressed during LTP maintenance in freely moving rats. The increased expression of these cytokines is causally related to an increase in synaptic strength since it was abrogated when LTP was interfered by blockade of NMDA-glutamate receptors. Likewise, IL-1 and IL-6 were found to be over-expressed in defined regions of the hippocampus during learning a hippocampus-dependent task. However, during learning, changes in IL-18 were restricted to the dorsal hippocampus, and no differences in TNFα and IL1-ra expression were noticed in the hippocampus. Noticeably, IL-1ra transcripts were significantly reduced in the prefrontal cortex. The relation between cytokine expression and learning was causal because such changes were not observed in animals from a pseudo-trained group that was subject to the same manipulation but could not learn the task. Taken together with previous studies, we conclude that activation of a cytokine network in the brain is a physiologic relevant phenomenon not only for LTP maintenance but also for certain types of learning. PMID:23747799

  2. Transcriptional profiling reveals complex regulation of the monocyte IL-1 beta system by IL-13.

    PubMed

    Scotton, Chris J; Martinez, Fernando O; Smelt, Maaike J; Sironi, Marina; Locati, Massimo; Mantovani, Alberto; Sozzani, Silvano

    2005-01-15

    IL-4 and IL-13 are prototypic Th2 cytokines that generate an "alternatively activated" phenotype in macrophages. We used high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to investigate the transcriptional profile induced in human monocytes by IL-13. After 8-h stimulation with IL-13, 142 genes were regulated (85 increased and 57 decreased). The majority of these genes were related to the inflammatory response and innate immunity; a group of genes related to lipid metabolism was also identified, with clear implications for atherosclerosis. In addition to characteristic markers of alternatively activated macrophages, a number of novel IL-13-regulated genes were seen. These included various pattern recognition receptors, such as CD1b/c/e, TLR1, and C-type lectin superfamily member 6. Several components of the IL-1 system were regulated. IL-1RI, IL-1RII, and IL-1Ra were all up-regulated, whereas the IL-1beta-converting enzyme, caspase 1, and IRAK-M were down-regulated. LPS-inducible caspase 1 enzyme activity was also reduced in IL-13-stimulated monocytes, with a consequent decrease in pro-IL-1beta processing. These data reveal that IL-13 has a potent effect on the transcriptional profile in monocytes. The IL-13-induced modulation of genes related to IL-1 clearly highlights the tightly controlled and complex levels of regulation of the production and response to this potent proinflammatory cytokine. PMID:15634905

  3. Negative feedback on IL-23 exerted by IL-17A during pulmonary inflammation.

    PubMed

    Silverpil, Elin; Wright, Adam K A; Hansson, Marit; Jirholt, Pernilla; Henningsson, Louise; Smith, Margaretha E; Gordon, Stephen B; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Gjertsson, Inger; Glader, Pernilla; Lindén, Anders

    2013-10-01

    It is now established that IL-17 has a broad pro-inflammatory potential in mammalian host defense, in inflammatory disease and in autoimmunity, whereas little is known about its anti-inflammatory potential and inhibitory feedback mechanisms. Here, we examined whether IL-17A can inhibit the extracellular release of IL-23 protein, the upstream regulator of IL-17A producing lymphocyte subsets, that is released from macrophages during pulmonary inflammation. We characterized the effect of IL-17A on IL-23 release in several models of pulmonary inflammation, evaluated the presence of IL-17 receptor A (RA) and C (RC) on human alveolar macrophages and assessed the role of the Rho family GTPase Rac1 as a mediator of the effect of IL-17A on the release of IL-23 protein. In a model of sepsis-induced pneumonia, intravenous exposure to Staphylococcus aureus caused higher IL-23 protein concentrations in cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from IL-17A knockout (KO) mice, compared with wild type (WT) control mice. In a model of Gram-negative airway infection, pre-treatment with a neutralizing anti-IL-17A Ab and subsequent intranasal (i.n.) exposure to LPS caused higher IL-23 and IL-17A protein concentrations in BAL samples compared with mice exposed to LPS, but pre-treated with an isotype control Ab. Moreover, i.n. exposure with IL-17A protein per se decreased IL- 23 protein concentrations in BAL samples. We detected IL-17RA and IL-17RC on human alveolar macrophages, and found that in vitro stimulation of these cells with IL-17A protein, after exposure to LPS, decreased IL-23 protein in conditioned medium, but not IL-23 p19 or p40 mRNA. This study indicates that IL-17A can partially inhibit the release of IL-23 protein during pulmonary inflammation, presumably by stimulating the here demonstrated receptor units IL-17RA and IL-17RC on alveolar macrophages. Hypothetically, the demonstrated mechanism may serve as negative feedback to protect from excessive IL-17A signaling and to control antibacterial host defense once it is activated. PMID:23295184

  4. IL-4 acts as a homeostatic regulator of IL-2-induced TNF and IFN-gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Bello-Fernandez, C; Oblakowski, P; Meager, A; Duncombe, A S; Rill, D M; Hoffbrand, A V; Brenner, M K

    1991-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a cytokine secreted by interleukin-2 (IL-2)-activated lymphocytes. IL-2-stimulated lymphocytes also secrete two cytokines, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma), which contribute to effector function and which may themselves recruit fresh, cytokine-secreting effector cells. We have now investigated whether the IL-4 induced is able to homeostatically regulate secretion of the TNF and IFN-gamma. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells or lymphocytes from normal donors and from patients with neoplastic disease were cultured in the presence of IL-2 alone, IL-4 alone or with both cytokines. IL-2 induced high levels of TNF and IFN-gamma secretion in both groups. The addition of recombinant IL-4 to these IL-2-stimulated cultures lead to significant inhibition of IFN-gamma and TNF production. IFN-gamma secretion was reduced by 50-99% in normal donors and by between 11% and 99% in patients (P less than 0.001). TNF levels induced by IL-2 were similarly reduced by IL-4 both in normal donors (P less than 0.003) and in patients (P less than 0.01). These inhibitory effects were produced by IL-4 at doses of IL-2 attainable in vivo. Inhibition appears to represent a homeostatic regulatory mechanism which may limit recruitment of fresh activated killer (AK) cells. When endogenous IL-4 activity in IL-2-activated lymphocytes was blocked by anti-IL-4 antibody, significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma and TNF were secreted (P less than 0.05). Since both TNF and IFN-gamma may contribute to the anti-neoplastic action of IL-2, manipulating the level of IL-4 activity in vivo could augment the benefits of IL-2 immunotherapy. PMID:1901829

  5. IL-23R rs11209026 polymorphism modulates IL-17A expression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hazlett, J; Stamp, L K; Merriman, T; Highton, J; Hessian, P A

    2012-04-01

    The interleukin (IL)-17/IL-23 axis is an important pro-inflammatory pathway in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-23 maintains CD4(+) T-helper 17 (Th(17)) cells, whereas IL-12 negates IL-17A production by promoting Th(1)-cell differentiation. We sought evidence for any effect of polymorphisms within the interleukin-23 receptor (IL-23R), IL-12 or IL-21 genes on serum cytokine concentrations in 81 patients with RA. Serum cytokines were measured using bead-based multiplex assays. Targeted cytokines were detected in up to 66% of samples. A subgroup of 48 patients had detectable serum IL-17A. Within this subgroup, patients, homozygous for the IL-23R rs11209026 major allele had significantly higher serum IL-17A concentrations compared with patients with the minor allele (394.51 529.72 pg ml(-1) vs 176.11 277.32 pg ml(-1); P = 0.017). There was no significant difference in any of the cytokine concentrations examined in patients positive for the minor allele vs homozygosity for the major allele of IL-12B rs3213337, IL-12Bpro rs17860508 and IL-21 rs6822844. Our results suggest the IL-23R Arg381Gln substitution may influence serum IL-17A concentrations. In patients with the 381Gln allele higher IL-23 concentrations may be needed to produce similar IL-17A concentrations to those in patients with the 381Arg allele. This suggests altered IL-23R function in patients with the minor allele and warrants further functional studies. PMID:22130325

  6. Increased IL-21/IL-21R expression and its proinflammatory effects in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Guan, Li-juan; Wang, Xuan; Meng, Shuai; Shi, Liang-feng; Jiang, Wen-juan; Xiao, Ling; Shi, Xiao-hong; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Jin-an

    2015-04-01

    To determine the potential role of interleukin-21 (IL-21) / IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) mainly known as Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). IL-21 and IL-21R of peripheral blood samples and/or thyroid tissues from AITD patients and healthy controls were analyzed by ELISA, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. In vitro, the mRNA and protein of inflammatory cytokines of cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) upon recombinant human IL-21 (rhIL-21) stimulation were detected. There was an increased serum concentration of IL-21 in untreated GD and HT patients, and IL-21(+)CD3(+)CD8(-)T cells were significantly increased in PBMCs of HT patients compared with healthy volunteers. The IL-21 mRNA expression in PBMCs increased dramatically in GD and HT patients, and marked augmentations of IL-21 and IL-21R mRNA in thyroid tissues of HT patients were observed. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the expression of IL-21R protein in HT thyroid cells and lymphocytes. In vitro, PBMCs from GD cultured with rhIL-21 induced increased IL-17A but decreased IL-4 production, while from HT stimulated by rhIL-21 induced augmented production of IFN-γ. In conclusion, the expression of IL-21 and IL-21R were up-regulated in AITD and may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease through augmenting aberrant immune cascade. PMID:25647271

  7. IL22/IL-22R Pathway Induces Cell Survival in Human Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Hussein; Abbaci, Amazigh; Lalloué, Fabrice; Bessette, Barbara; Costes, Léa M. M.; Domballe, Linda; Charreau, Sandrine; Guilloteau, Karline; Karayan-Tapon, Lucie; Bernard, François-Xavier; Morel, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family that binds to a heterodimeric receptor consisting of IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) and IL-10R2. IL-22R expression was initially characterized on epithelial cells, and plays an essential role in a number of inflammatory diseases. Recently, a functional receptor was detected on cancer cells such as hepatocarcinoma and lung carcinoma, but its presence was not reported in glioblastoma (GBM). Two GBM cell lines and 10 primary cell lines established from patients undergoing surgery for malignant GBM were used to investigate the expression of IL-22 and IL-22R by using quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting and confocal microscopy studies. The role of IL-22 in proliferation and survival of GBM cell lines was investigated in vitro by BrdU and ELISA cell death assays. We report herein that the two subunits of the IL-22R complex are expressed on human GBM cells. Their activation, depending on exogenous IL-22, induced antiapoptotic effect and cell proliferation. IL-22 treatment of GBM cells resulted in increased levels of phosphorylated Akt, STAT3 signaling protein and its downstream antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL and decreased level of phosphorylated ERK1/2. In addition, IL-22R subunits were expressed in all the 10 tested primary cell lines established from GBM tumors. Our results showed that IL-22R is expressed on GBM established and primary cell lines. Depending on STAT3, ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways, IL-22 induced GBM cell survival. These data are consistent with a potential role of IL-22R in tumorigenesis of GBM. Since endogenous IL-22 was not detected in all studied GBM cells, we hypothesize that IL-22R could be activated by immune microenvironmental IL-22 producing cells. PMID:25793261

  8. IL22/IL-22R pathway induces cell survival in human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Akil, Hussein; Abbaci, Amazigh; Lalloué, Fabrice; Bessette, Barbara; Costes, Léa M M; Domballe, Linda; Charreau, Sandrine; Guilloteau, Karline; Karayan-Tapon, Lucie; Bernard, François-Xavier; Morel, Franck; Jauberteau, Marie-Odile; Lecron, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family that binds to a heterodimeric receptor consisting of IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) and IL-10R2. IL-22R expression was initially characterized on epithelial cells, and plays an essential role in a number of inflammatory diseases. Recently, a functional receptor was detected on cancer cells such as hepatocarcinoma and lung carcinoma, but its presence was not reported in glioblastoma (GBM). Two GBM cell lines and 10 primary cell lines established from patients undergoing surgery for malignant GBM were used to investigate the expression of IL-22 and IL-22R by using quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting and confocal microscopy studies. The role of IL-22 in proliferation and survival of GBM cell lines was investigated in vitro by BrdU and ELISA cell death assays. We report herein that the two subunits of the IL-22R complex are expressed on human GBM cells. Their activation, depending on exogenous IL-22, induced antiapoptotic effect and cell proliferation. IL-22 treatment of GBM cells resulted in increased levels of phosphorylated Akt, STAT3 signaling protein and its downstream antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL and decreased level of phosphorylated ERK1/2. In addition, IL-22R subunits were expressed in all the 10 tested primary cell lines established from GBM tumors. Our results showed that IL-22R is expressed on GBM established and primary cell lines. Depending on STAT3, ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways, IL-22 induced GBM cell survival. These data are consistent with a potential role of IL-22R in tumorigenesis of GBM. Since endogenous IL-22 was not detected in all studied GBM cells, we hypothesize that IL-22R could be activated by immune microenvironmental IL-22 producing cells. PMID:25793261

  9. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Regulates the Accessibility of the IL-2-Responsive Enhancer in the IL-2 Receptor α Gene to Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Rusterholz, Corinne; Henrioud, Patricia Corthésy; Nabholz, Markus

    1999-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) responsiveness of T lymphocytes is controlled through transcription of the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) α subunit by antigen and by IL-2 itself. IL-2 induces IL-2Rα transcription via an IL-2-responsive enhancer (IL-2rE), whose activity depends on the cooperative binding of IL-2-induced STAT5 to two sites and of constitutively active Elf-1 to a third one. Here we describe the changes in IL-2rE chromatin that occur in normal T lymphocytes upon activation of IL-2Rα expression. In cells induced to transiently express IL-2Rα with concanavalin A (which mimics antigen), none of the IL-2rE sites is occupied despite the presence of Elf-1 and STAT1, which bind to the IL-2rE in vitro. The two STAT binding sites are occupied rapidly upon IL-2 stimulation, concomitantly with STAT5 activation. Occupation of the Elf-1 binding site is delayed, although Elf-1 concentration and binding activity are not modified by IL-2. Digestion of T-cell chromatin with DNase I and micrococcal nuclease shows that IL-2 induces the appearance of nuclease-hypersensitive sites flanking the IL-2rE. Thus IL-2, in addition to activating STAT5, appears to regulate IL-2Rα transcription by making IL-2Rα chromatin accessible to transcription factors. PMID:10082534

  10. Increased circulating interleukin (IL)-23 in children with malarial anemia: in vivo and in vitro relationship with co-regulatory cytokines IL-12 and IL-10.

    PubMed

    Ong'echa, John M; Remo, Allison M; Kristoff, Jan; Hittner, James B; Were, Tom; Ouma, Collins; Otieno, Richard O; Vulule, John M; Keller, Christopher C; Awandare, Gordon A; Perkins, Douglas J

    2008-02-01

    Severe malarial anemia (SMA) is a leading cause of mortality among children in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the novel cytokine, interleukin (IL)-23, promotes anemia in chronic inflammatory diseases, the role of IL-23 in SMA remains undefined. Since IL-23 and IL-12 share the IL-12p40 subunit and IL-12Rbeta1 receptor, and are down-regulated by IL-10, relationships among these cytokines were explored in Kenyan children with varying severities of malarial anemia. Children with malarial anemia had increased circulating IL-23 and IL-10 and decreased IL-12 relative to healthy controls. Enhanced anemia severity and elevated parasitemia were associated with increased IL-10 relative to IL-23 and IL-12. Further exploration of the relationships among the cytokines using an in vitro model in which peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with synthetic hemozoin (sHz, malarial pigment) revealed that IL-12p35 and IL-23p19 transcripts had a sustained induction over 72 h, while IL-12p40 and IL-10 message peaked at 24 h, and rapidly declined thereafter. Taken together, results here show that IL-23 is elevated in children with malarial anemia, and that IL-10 and IL-12 appear to have important regulatory effects on IL-23 production during childhood malaria. PMID:17945537

  11. Targeting IL-33 in autoimmunity and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Theoharides, Theoharis C; Petra, Anastasia I; Taracanova, Alexandra; Panagiotidou, Smaro; Conti, Pio

    2015-07-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) belongs to the IL-1 family of cytokines. Whereas IL-1 is processed and released by live immune cells in response to infection or other triggers, IL-33 is mostly released as a danger signal ("alarmin") from damaged cells. IL-33 may also be processed and released from activated mast cells (MCs) with subsequent autocrine and paracrine actions. IL-33 augments the stimulatory effects of IgE and substance P on MCs but can also trigger release of cytokines from MCs on its own. Blood IL-33 levels are increased in asthma, atopic dermatitis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjögren's syndrome. However, prolonged elevation of IL-33 downregulates FcεRI and may be protective in atherosclerosis, suggesting different roles in immune-regulated diseases. Even though neutralizing IL-33, knocking-down its receptor, or using its soluble "decoy" receptor has resulted in anti-inflammatory effects, there appear to be different outcomes in different tissues. Hence, selective regulation of IL-33 synthesis, release, and signaling may be required to provide effective treatment options. PMID:25906776

  12. Modulation effect of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae extracts on IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ in mouse serum.

    PubMed

    Xie, Junbo; Guo, Li; Pang, Guangchang; Wu, Xin; Zhang, Mingchun

    2011-02-01

    This study aims to explore and evaluate the effects of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae extracts on the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IFN-γ, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-4 in mice, and the regulative effect of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae on the cytokine system. Using an ELISA assay, the serum levels of IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-4 were examined in mice after intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) with Semen Ziziphi Spinosae extracts. The results showed that the levels of IL-6 and IL-1β were significantly increased compared with the control groups (p<0.01), while the level of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was significantly decreased (p<0.01). Semen Ziziphi Spinosae possesses certain modulation effects on cytokines, and the immuno-regulating function and hypnosis effects of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae may be relevant to these modulation effects on cytokines. PMID:21328141

  13. IL-10 production in common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z; Huang, R; Danon, M; Mayer, L; Cunningham-Rundles, C

    1998-03-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency, (CVI) is a heterogeneous primary immunodeficiency disease in which there are T and B cell defects. Since IL-10 in conjunction with anti-CD40 promotes secretion of IgG, IgA, and IgM by CVI B cells, these studies were performed to investigate IL-10 production in CVI. Mitogen or anti-CD3 stimulated CVI peripheral blood mononuclear cells, or isolated T cells produced an insignificant amount of IL-10 over background levels. CVI monocyte IL-10 production was substantial and greater than that of normal controls. Anti-IL-10-neutralizing antibody strongly enhanced CVI T cell proliferative responses to PHA, but only to an insignificant extent, soluble antigens. IL-2 plus anti-IL-10 enhanced CVI proliferative responses to antigens significantly more over baseline than for cells of similarly tested normal controls. These data suggest that CVI T cell secretion of IL-10 is deficient, but that monocyte-derived IL-10, plus a relative lack of IL-2 production, could contribute to the defects of cell proliferation in this disorder. PMID:9557163

  14. IL-23/IL-17 axis in spondyloarthritis-bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhuri, Siba P; Raychaudhuri, Smriti K

    2016-06-01

    Cytokines play a critical role in the pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and other types of spondyloarthritis (SpA). Besides IFN-γ and TNF-α; IL-23/IL-17 cytokines play a dominant role in the inflammatory and proliferative cascades of SpA. Recently, in a series of elegant experiments using mouse models and human tissues, it has been demonstrated that IL-23-induced Th17 cytokines (IL-17 and IL-22) can contribute to following pathologic events associated with SpA: development of psoriatic plaque, pannus formation in the joint, joint erosion, and new bone formation. In this review article, we have discussed the contributing role of the IL-23/IL-17 cytokine axis in the pathogenesis of PsA and AS. IL-23/IL-17-targeted therapies are very promising for SpA, and we have provided an outline about usefulness of these new groups of biologics in SpA. PMID:27075462

  15. Interleukin newcomers creating new numbers in rheumatology: IL-34 to IL-38.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Gaëlle; Thiolat, Allan; Boissier, Marie-Christophe

    2013-10-01

    The development of innovative technologies is steadily increasing the body of knowledge on molecules involved in physiological functions. Thus, several interleukins (ILs) have been identified and characterized in the past few years. Here, we detail the structural and functional characteristics of IL-34 to IL-38 with special attention to their involvement in inflammatory joint disease. IL-34 chiefly increases osteoclast activation and proliferation and therefore, it plays a direct role in bone destruction as seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) express IL-35, which therefore exerts anti-inflammatory effects by restoring Treg suppressive capabilities and by inhibiting the Th17 pathway. IL-37 has anti-inflammatory effects mediated by a negative feedback loop that decreases the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-36 belongs to the IL-1 family and has three different forms. Although this cytokine has been chiefly studied in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, it also exerts pro-inflammatory effects in RA. The specific IL-36 antagonist, IL-36Ra binds to the IL-36 receptor, thereby, preventing signal transduction. Finally, IL-38 is a recently identified cytokine whose effect may resemble that of IL-36Ra as it binds to the IL-36 receptor and inhibits its effects, particularly the Th17-response. Although the exact roles for these cytokines awaits elucidation, the current improvements in our knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate chronic inflammatory conditions, such as RA may lead to the identification of new treatment targets. PMID:23849463

  16. Construction of unnatural heterodimeric receptors based on IL-2 and IL-6 receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kenichiro; Kawahara, Masahiro; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2013-01-01

    Cells have various receptors on their surface for responding to extracellular signals that involve intercellular communication. Although the mechanism of signal transduction by such wild-type receptors has been studied intensively, there has been minimal effort in investigating whether such receptors could signal when unnaturally coupled. In this study, we investigated whether unnatural receptor pairs comprising interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor subunits could transduce a signal through forced dimerization. We replaced the extracellular domain of IL-2R and IL-6R signaling subunits (IL-2Rβ, IL-2Rγ, and gp130) with the FK506-binding protein (FKBP) or the FKBP12-rapamycin binding (FRB) domain, the protein pair known to be heterodimerized by rapamycin. When expressed in a hematopoietic cell line, unnatural heterodimers (IL-2Rβ-gp130 and IL-2Rγ-gp130 pairs) successfully transduced a signal. While the IL-2Rγ-gp130 pair maximally mimicked gp130 signaling, the IL-2Rβ-gp130 pair gave weaker gp130 signaling and no significant induction of IL-2Rβ signaling, indicating a high potential of the IL-2Rγ chain in terms of activating the coupled partners. This is the first report demonstrating that heterodimeric combinations of IL-2R and IL-6R subunits are functional for signaling. Further extension of this approach may attain a creative design of artificial receptor pairs that have distinct signaling properties when compared with natural receptors. PMID:23926072

  17. IL-15 Deficient Tax Mice Reveal a Role for IL-1? in Tumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Daniel A.; Harding, John C.; Ratner, Lee

    2014-01-01

    IL-15 is recognized as a promising candidate for tumor immunotherapy and has been described as both a promoter of cancer and a promoter of anti-cancer immunity. IL-15 was discovered in cells transformed by HTLV-1, the etiologic agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and the human retrovirus that carries the Tax oncogene. We have developed the TAX-LUC mouse model of ATL in which Tax expression drives both malignant transformation and luciferase expression, enabling non-invasive imaging of tumorigenesis in real time. To identify the role of IL-15 in spontaneous development of lymphoma in vivo, an IL-15?/? TAX-LUC strain was developed and examined. The absence of IL-15 resulted in aggressive tumor growth and accelerated mortality and demonstrated that IL-15 was not required for Tax-mediated lymphoma but was essential for anti-tumor immunity. Further analysis revealed a unique transcriptional profile in tumor cells that arise in the absence of IL-15 that included a significant increase in the expression of IL-1? and IL-1?-regulated cytokines. Moreover, anti-IL-1? antibodies and an IL-1 receptor antagonist (Anakinra) were used to interrogate the potential of IL-1? targeted therapies in this model. Taken together, these findings identify IL-15 and IL-1? as therapeutic targets in lymphoma. PMID:24416335

  18. IL-21-mediated non-canonical pathway for IL-1β production in conventional dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Chi-Keung; Li, Peng; Spolski, Rosanne; Oh, Jangsuk; Andraski, Allison B.; Du, Ning; Yu, Zu-Xi; Dillon, Christopher P.; Green, Douglas R.; Leonard, Warren J.

    2015-01-01

    The canonical pathway for IL-1β production requires TLR-mediated NF-κB-dependent Il1b gene induction, followed by caspase-containing inflammasome-mediated processing of pro-IL-1β. Here we show that IL-21 unexpectedly induces IL-1β production in conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) via a STAT3-dependent but NF-κB-independent pathway. IL-21 does not induce Il1b expression in CD4+ T cells, with differential histone marks present in these cells versus cDCs. IL-21-induced IL-1β processing in cDCs does not require caspase-1 or caspase-8 but depends on IL-21-mediated death and activation of serine protease(s). Moreover, STAT3-dependent IL-1β expression in cDCs at least partially explains the IL-21-mediated pathologic response occurring during infection with pneumonia virus of mice. These results demonstrate lineage-restricted IL-21-induced IL-1β via a non-canonical pathway and provide evidence for its importance in vivo. PMID:26269257

  19. 2. SOUTH SIDE, FROM PARK ACROSS PARKING LOT/F STREET, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH SIDE, FROM PARK ACROSS PARKING LOT/F STREET, LOOKING NORTH. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administration Building-Dental Annex-Dispensary, Between E & F Streets, East of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. Targeting IL4/IL4R for the treatment of epithelial cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Bankaitis, Katherine Venmar; Fingleton, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    While progress has been made in treating primary epithelial tumors, metastatic tumors remain largely incurable and still account for 85-90 % of all cancer-related deaths. Interleukin-4 (IL4), a Th2 cytokine, and the IL4/IL4 receptor (IL4R) interaction have well defined roles in the immune system. Yet, IL4 receptors are over-expressed by many epithelial cancers and could be a promising target for metastatic tumor therapy. The IL4/IL4R signaling axis is a strong promoter of pro-metastatic phenotypes in epithelial cancer cells including enhanced migration, invasion, survival, and proliferation. The promotion of breast cancer growth specifically is also supported in part by IL4-induced glutamine metabolism, and we have shown that IL4 is also capable of inducing glucose metabolism in breast cancer cells. Importantly, there are several types of FDA approved medications for use in asthma patients that inhibit the IL4/IL4R signaling axis. However, these approved medications inhibit both the type I IL4 receptor found on immune cells, and the type II IL4 receptor that is predominantly expressed by some non-hematopoietic cells including epithelial cancer cells. This article reviews existing therapies targeting IL4, IL4R, or IL4/IL4R signaling, and recent findings guiding the creation of novel therapies that specifically inhibit the type II IL4R, while taking into consideration effects on immune cells within the tumor microenvironment. Some of these therapies are currently in clinical trials for cancer patients, and may be exploitable for the treatment of metastatic disease. PMID:26385103

  1. IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction promoted metastasis of osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingmin; Wang, Luanqiu; Ren, Tao; Xu, Lin; Wen, Zhenke

    2013-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common human primary malignant bone tumor in children and young adults with poor prognosis because of their high metastatic potential. Identification of key factors that could regulate the aggressive biologic behavior of OS, particularly with respect to metastasis, would be necessary if significant improvements in therapeutic outcome are to occur. In this study, we carefully evaluated the potential role of IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction in metastasis of OS. We found that serum IL-17A was higher in OS patients with metastasis and was associated with their clinical stage. The elevated expression of IL-17RA was observed in tumor tissue from OS patients with metastasis. Of note, we showed that IL-17A could promote the metastasis of U-2 OS cells which expression high IL-17RA, but not MG63 cells which expression low IL-17RA. Further, we revealed that downregulation of IL-17RA in U-2 cells could abrogated the enhanced metastasis induced by IL-17A, while upregulation of IL-17RA in MG63 cells could elevate their response to IL-17A and exerted enhanced metastasis. We observed that IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction promoted the expression of VEGF, MMP9 and CXCR4 in OS cells, which might partly explain the enhanced metastasis of OS cells. Furthermore, we showed that Stat3 activity was crucial for IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction to promote OS metastasis. Finally, we confirmed that IL-17A/IL-17RA interaction promoted the metastasis of OS in nude mice. Our findings might provide a mechanistic explanation for metastasis of OS in vivo, and suggested that targeting IL-17A signaling was a novel promising strategy to treat patients with OS. PMID:23192273

  2. IL-4 Inhibits IL-1β-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior and Central Neurotransmitter Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun-Jung; Shim, Hyun-Soo; An, Kyungeh; Starkweather, Angela; Kim, Kyung Soo; Shim, Insop

    2015-01-01

    It has been known that activation of the central innate immune system or exposure to stress can disrupt balance of anti-/proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the modulation of depressive-like behaviors, the hormonal and neurotransmitter systems in rats. We investigated whether centrally administered IL-1β is associated with activation of CNS inflammatory pathways and behavioral changes and whether treatment with IL-4 could modulate IL-1β-induced depressive-like behaviors and central neurotransmitter systems. Infusion of IL-4 significantly decreased IL-1β-induced anhedonic responses and increased social exploration and total activity. Treatment with IL-4 markedly blocked IL-1β-induced increase in PGE2 and CORT levels. Also, IL-4 reduced IL-1β-induced 5-HT levels by inhibiting tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) mRNA and activating serotonin transporter (SERT) in the hippocampus, and levels of NE were increased by activating tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that IL-4 may locally contribute to the regulation of noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission and may inhibit IL-1β-induced behavioral and immunological changes. The present results suggest that IL-4 modulates IL-1β-induced depressive behavior by inhibiting IL-1β-induced central glial activation and neurotransmitter alterations. IL-4 reduced central and systemic mediatory inflammatory activation, as well as reversing the IL-1β-induced alterations in neurotransmitter levels. The present findings contribute a biochemical pathway regulated by IL-4 that may have therapeutic utility for treatment of IL-1β-induced depressive behavior and neuroinflammation which warrants further study. PMID:26417153

  3. INEEL Vadose Zone Research Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, G.; Hull, L.; Ansley, S.; Versteeg, R.; Scott, C.; Street, L.

    2003-12-01

    The Vadose Zone Research Park was developed to address mission critical issues related to operations, waste management, and environmental restoration at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites that are located over thick vadose zones. The research park provides instrumentation and facilities for scientists to address vadose zone processes that are important in assessing operational activities, remedial measures, and long-term stewardship of DOE lands. The park, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is strategically located along the Big Lost River, an intermittent river, and around two new percolation ponds. This location provides the opportunity to study variable recharge from the river, continuous recharge from the ponds, and the interactions between the two sources. Drilling began in September 2000 and was completed in June 2001. Thirty one wells and instrumented boreholes have been installed at the park to monitor perched water, measure moisture movement, collect water and gas samples, and study intra-well geophysical properties. Nine of the boreholes, ranging in depth from 150 ft to 504 ft below land surface (bls), are instrumented to monitor moisture in the vadose zone. Instruments include: tensiometers, moisture content sensors, suction lysimeters, temperature sensors, gas ports and electrodes for electrical resistance tomography. Electrodes are evenly spaced throughout the borehole with hydrologic instruments concentrated in and near the sedimentary interbeds-discontinuous layers of silts and clays that occur between some basalt flows. Eighteen monitoring wells, ranging in depth from 60 ft to 250 ft bls, are completed with 4 or 6 inch PVC casing, and generally include an electrical resistivity electrode array attached to the casing. Three bore holes are constructed for testing cross-hole ground penetrating radar as well as for testing new nuclear logging tools being designed at the INEEL. The remaining borehole contains only an electrical resistivity electrode array. Moisture potential, temperature, and water level data are collected automatically by data loggers and transmitted by radio to a computer linked to the INEEL network. Researchers can view the data via the computer network. We are initiating studies of in-situ moisture content - matric potential curves, relative migration rates of sodium and chloride, development of preferred flow paths through the vadose zone, and imaging of background moisture movement using electrical resistivity tomography. Data collection, processing and imagery will all be automated. Imaging of all data types will be draped over the geology for correlation purposes.

  4. Amphibians of Olympic National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    Amphibians evolved from fishes about 360 million years ago and were the first vertebrates adapted to life on land. The word amphibian means "double life." It refers to the life history of many amphibians, which spend part of their life in water and part on land. There are three major groups of amphibians: salamanders, frogs, and toads, and caecilians. Salamanders, frogs, and toads can be found in Olympic National Park (ONP), but caecilians live only in tropical regions. Many amphibians are generalist predators, eating almost any prey they can fit into their mouths.

  5. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  6. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  7. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  8. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  9. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  10. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  11. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  12. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 7.14 Section 7.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.14 Great Smoky...

  13. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  14. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  15. 76 FR 77552 - Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... National Park Service Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service... sets forth the dates of April 19, 2012 and September 6, 2012 of the Gettysburg National Military Park... National Military Park Museum and Visitor Center, 1195 Baltimore Pike, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania...

  16. 76 FR 70483 - Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... National Park Service Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service... September 6, 2012 of the Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission. DATES: The public meetings... be held at the Ford Education Center in the Gettysburg National Military Park Museum and...

  17. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.78 Harpers Ferry...

  18. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  19. 75 FR 52969 - National Park System Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... National Park Service National Park System Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the National Park System Advisory Board will meet September 15-16... in the afternoon will tour park sites in the National Capital Region. On September 16, the Board...

  20. 78 FR 44596 - Minor Boundary Revision at Yosemite National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... National Park Service Minor Boundary Revision at Yosemite National Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notification of Boundary Revision. SUMMARY: The boundary of Yosemite National Park is... boundary of Yosemite National Park. DATES: The effective date of this boundary revision is July 24,...

  1. 76 FR 9360 - Kalaupapa National Historical Park Advisory Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... National Park Service Kalaupapa National Historical Park Advisory Commission Meeting AGENCY: National Park..., 2011, Meeting of the Kalaupapa National Historical Park Advisory Commission. DATES: The public meeting...). ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at McVeigh Social Hall, Kalaupapa National Historical Park,...

  2. 36 CFR 910.33 - Off-street parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Off-street parking. 910.33... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.33 Off-street parking. (a) Off-street parking as a principal use is prohibited, although off-street parking as an accessory use in...

  3. 36 CFR 910.33 - Off-street parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Off-street parking. 910.33... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.33 Off-street parking. (a) Off-street parking as a principal use is prohibited, although off-street parking as an accessory use in...

  4. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a) Commercial... motor vehicles to Grand Canyon National Park contained in § 5.4 of this chapter shall be subject to...

  5. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.78 Harpers Ferry...

  6. 36 CFR 7.23 - Badlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adjacent to the park area to which access is otherwise not available as provided in 36 CFR 5.6. (5) The... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Badlands National Park. 7.23 Section 7.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  7. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road,...

  8. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.78 Harpers Ferry...

  9. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park. (a... contain the main river channel as it passes through both units of Theodore Roosevelt National...

  10. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road,...

  11. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.78 Harpers Ferry...

  12. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  13. 36 CFR 7.23 - Badlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adjacent to the park area to which access is otherwise not available as provided in 36 CFR 5.6. (5) The... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Badlands National Park. 7.23 Section 7.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  14. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park. (a... contain the main river channel as it passes through both units of Theodore Roosevelt National...

  15. 36 CFR 7.23 - Badlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adjacent to the park area to which access is otherwise not available as provided in 36 CFR 5.6. (5) The... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Badlands National Park. 7.23 Section 7.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  16. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park. (a... contain the main river channel as it passes through both units of Theodore Roosevelt National...

  17. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  18. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park. (a... contain the main river channel as it passes through both units of Theodore Roosevelt National...

  19. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  20. 36 CFR 7.23 - Badlands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adjacent to the park area to which access is otherwise not available as provided in 36 CFR 5.6. (5) The... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Badlands National Park. 7.23 Section 7.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  1. 36 CFR 14.10 - Areas of National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Areas of National Park System. 14.10 Section 14.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Nature of Interest § 14.10 Areas of National Park System. (a) The Act of March...

  2. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road,...

  3. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.78 Harpers Ferry...

  4. 77 FR 73919 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... of Decision (ROD) (76 FR 77249), the NPS announced its decision to select and implement Alternative 8... National Park Service 36 CFR Part 7 RIN 1024-AE10 Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System... . The park has most recently operated under a temporary one-year rule (76 FR 77131). That rule...

  5. Parks as Resources for Knowledge in Science (PARKS) National Program Evaluation Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltz, L. Kate

    This document evaluates the Parks as Resources for Knowledge in Science (PARKS) project which supports environmental education in 36 National Parks across the United States and provides curriculum-based learning opportunities that integrate National Science Education Standards for teachers and students. Contents include: (1) "Executive…

  6. Parks as Resources for Knowledge in Science (PARKS) National Program Evaluation Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltz, L. Kate

    This document evaluates the Parks as Resources for Knowledge in Science (PARKS) project which supports environmental education in 36 National Parks across the United States and provides curriculum-based learning opportunities that integrate National Science Education Standards for teachers and students. Contents include: (1) "Executive

  7. Human IL-2 mutein with higher antitumor efficacy than wild type IL-2.

    PubMed

    Carmenate, Tania; Pacios, Anabel; Enamorado, Michel; Moreno, Ernesto; Garcia-Martnez, Karina; Fuente, Dasha; Len, Kalet

    2013-06-15

    IL-2 has been used for the treatment of melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, but this therapy has limited efficacy and severe toxicity. Currently, it is assumed that part of the limited efficacy is due to the IL-2-driven preferential expansion of regulatory T cells, which dampen the antitumor immunity. In this study, we characterize a human IL-2 mutant with higher antitumor efficacy and lower toxicity than wild type human IL-2 (wtIL-2). The mutant differs from wtIL-2 by four mutations at the interface with the ? subunit of IL-2R. The IL-2 mutant induces in vitro proliferation of CD8(+)CD44(hi) and NK1.1 cells as efficiently as does wtIL-2, but it shows a reduced capacity to induce proliferation of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. The IL-2 mutant shows a higher antimetastatic effect than does wtIL-2 in several transplantable tumor models: the experimental metastasis model of MB16F0 melanoma and the experimental and spontaneous metastasis models for the mouse pulmonary carcinoma 3LL-D1222. Relevantly, the IL-2 mutant also exhibits lower lung and liver toxicity than does wtIL-2 when used at high doses in mice. In silico simulations, using a calibrated mathematical model, predict that the properties of IL-2 mutein are a consequence of the reduction, of at least two orders of magnitude, in its affinity for the ? subunit of IL-2R (CD25). The human IL-2 mutant described in the present work could be a good candidate for improving cancer therapy based on IL-2. PMID:23677467

  8. Control of the Physical and Antimicrobial Skin Barrier by an IL-31-IL-1 Signaling Network.

    PubMed

    Hänel, Kai H; Pfaff, Carolina M; Cornelissen, Christian; Amann, Philipp M; Marquardt, Yvonne; Czaja, Katharina; Kim, Arianna; Lüscher, Bernhard; Baron, Jens M

    2016-04-15

    Atopic dermatitis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease with increasing prevalence, is closely associated with skin barrier defects. A cytokine related to disease severity and inhibition of keratinocyte differentiation is IL-31. To identify its molecular targets, IL-31-dependent gene expression was determined in three-dimensional organotypic skin models. IL-31-regulated genes are involved in the formation of an intact physical skin barrier. Many of these genes were poorly induced during differentiation as a consequence of IL-31 treatment, resulting in increased penetrability to allergens and irritants. Furthermore, studies employing cell-sorted skin equivalents in SCID/NOD mice demonstrated enhanced transepidermal water loss following s.c. administration of IL-31. We identified the IL-1 cytokine network as a downstream effector of IL-31 signaling. Anakinra, an IL-1R antagonist, blocked the IL-31 effects on skin differentiation. In addition to the effects on the physical barrier, IL-31 stimulated the expression of antimicrobial peptides, thereby inhibiting bacterial growth on the three-dimensional organotypic skin models. This was evident already at low doses of IL-31, insufficient to interfere with the physical barrier. Together, these findings demonstrate that IL-31 affects keratinocyte differentiation in multiple ways and that the IL-1 cytokine network is a major downstream effector of IL-31 signaling in deregulating the physical skin barrier. Moreover, by interfering with IL-31, a currently evaluated drug target, we will have to consider that low doses of IL-31 promote the antimicrobial barrier, and thus a complete inhibition of IL-31 signaling may be undesirable. PMID:26944931

  9. Oxidative mechanisms of IL-4-induced IL-6 expression in vascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Woo; Lee, Won Hee; Kim, Paul H

    2010-01-01

    The present study is designed to investigate the effects of interleukin-4 (IL-4) on expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), as well as to examine the role of distinct sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this process. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that IL-4 significantly up-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of IL-6 in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) and C57BL/6 mice. Dihydroethidium (DHE) and dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence staining demonstrated that IL-4 significantly increased ROS generation in HAEC. A significant and dose-dependent inhibition of IL-4-induced IL-6 expression was observed in HAEC pre-treated with antioxidants, such as pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), indicating that IL-4-induced IL-6 expression is mediated via an ROS-dependent mechanism. Additionally, pharmacological inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX) significantly attenuated IL-4-induced ROS generation and IL-6 expression in HAEC. Furthermore, the disruption of NOX gene dramatically and significantly reduced IL-4-induced IL-6 expression in NOX knockout mice (B6.129S6-Cybb(tm1Din)/J). In contrast, overexpression of IL-6 in IL-4-activated HAEC was not affected by inhibiting other ROS generating pathways, such as xanthine oxidase, arachidonic acid metabolism, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. These results demonstrate that IL-4 up-regulates IL-6 expression in vascular endothelium through NOX-mediated ROS generation. PMID:19822443

  10. Hydrologic effects of ground-and surface-water withdrawals in the Howe area, Lagrange County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Z.C.; Greeman, T.K.; Crompton, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    Geometry and hydraulic characteristics of a 46.5 sq mi area of the sand and gravel outwash-aquifer system between Fawn and Pigeon Rivers in Lagrange County were defined in a study of the effect of current and potential uses of water on the aquifer, streams, lakes, and wetlands. There are three aquifers: Aquifer 1, a surficial water table aquifer that ranges from 10 to 60 ft in thickness, hydraulic conductivity of 210 ft/d, and transmissivity of 5,000 to 16,000 sq ft/day. Aquifer 2 ranges from 50 to 110 ft in thickness, hydraulic conductivity of 360 ft/d, and transmissivity ranges of 5,000 to 35,000 sq ft/day. Aquifer 3 ranges from zero to 200 ft in thickness, hydraulic conductivity of 25 ft/d, and transmissivity of zero to 5,000 sq ft/d. A three-layer digital flow model was calibrated to steady-state water levels during autumn 1982. The effects of current and potential development of irrigation on the groundwater and surface water systems were estimated by transient simulations of five pumping plans. The effect of year-round pumping was estimated by steady-state simulation of a sixth plan. Plan 1 was a simulation of current irrigational development with pumpage equal to that which supplied water to crops in 1982. Maximum simulated drawdowns were 4 ft in layer 1 and 14 ft in layers 2 and 3. Simulated drawdowns were greater than those observed in 1982. Plans 2 and 3 were simulations of the current irrigational development with pumping rates that would supply water to crops in a normal and in a dry year. The effect on the hydrologic system by pumping in plans 2 and 3, therefore, is minimal. Plans 4 and 5 were simulations of maximum potential irrigational development that would supply water to a corn crop during a normal and a dry year. The maximum simulated drawdowns for plan 4 were 14, 30, and 31 ft in aquifers 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Maximum drawdowns for plan 5 were 15, 32, and 31 ft in aquifers 1, 2 and 3. (Lantz-PTT)

  11. Role of IL-21 and IL-21 Receptor on B Cells in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pallikkuth, Suresh; Parmigiani, Anita; Pahwa, Savita

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-21 is a member of a family of cytokines which includes IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9 and IL-15 all of which utilize a common γ chain in their individual receptor complexes for delivering intracellular signals in their target cells. IL-21 is produced by CD4+ T cells, in particular T follicular helper cells, and is critically important in the regulation and maintenance of T cells and B cells in innate and adaptive immunity. Effects of IL-21 are pleiotropic, owing to the broad cellular distribution of the IL-21 receptor and it plays a critical role in T cell-dependent and independent human B cell differentiation for generating humoral immune responses. This chapter reviews current knowledge about the importance of IL-21 and IL-21 receptor interaction in human B cell responses, immune defects of B cells and IL-21 in HIV infection and the potential applicability of IL-21 in vaccines/immunotherapeutic approaches to augment relevant immune responses. PMID:23216614

  12. IL-1 transcriptionally activates the neutrophil chemotactic factor/IL-8 gene in endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sica, A; Matsushima, K; Van Damme, J; Wang, J M; Polentarutti, N; Dejana, E; Colotta, F; Mantovani, A

    1990-01-01

    Leucocytes and vascular cells interact closely in inflammation and immunity and cytokines are important mediators of this interaction. The present study was designed to define the capacity of human endothelial cells (HEC) to produce a monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (provisionally termed IL-8). IL-8 is a polypeptide chemotactic for neutrophils originally identified in the culture supernatant of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes. IL-1 induced high levels of production of neutrophil chemotactic activity in culture supernatants of HEC. Optimal stimulation of activity was observed when HEC were cultured with 10-100 ng/ml IL-1 beta for 16 hr. Anti-IL-8 antibody blocked the chemotactic activity for neutrophils of IL-1-activated HEC supernatants. IL-1-treated HEC expressed high levels of IL-8 mRNA transcripts, as assessed by Northern blot analysis. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and LPS, unlike the inflammatory monokine IL-6, also induced IL-8 expression. Nuclear run-off experiments revealed that IL-1 activated transcription of the IL-8 gene. The production of IL-8 may represent a mechanism whereby endothelial cells, exposed to inflammatory signals, participate in the regulation of neutrophil extravasation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2185985

  13. Regulation of the IL-10/IL-12 axis in human dendritic cells with probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gad, Monika; Ravn, Peter; Søborg, Ditte A; Lund-Jensen, Karina; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Jensen, Simon S

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we have used monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) to design a screening model for the selection of microorganisms with the ability to suppress DC-secreted IL-12p70, a critical cytokine for the induction of T-helper cell type 1 immune responses under inflammatory conditions. By the treatment of DCs with cocktails containing TLR agonists and proinflammatory cytokines, the cells increased the secretion of the Th1-promoting cytokine IL-12p70. Clinically used probiotics were tested for their IL-10- and IL-12p70-stimulating properties in immature DCs, and showed a dose-dependent change in the IL-10/IL-12p70 balance. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM(™) and the probiotic mixture VSL#3 showed a strong induction of IL-12p70, whereas Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 and Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 preferentially induced IL-10. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 induced both IL-10 and IL-12p70, whereas the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii induced low levels of cytokines. When combining these microorganisms with the Th1-promoting cocktails, E. coli Nissle 1917 and B. infantis 35624 were potent suppressors of IL-12p70 secretion in an IL-10-independent manner, indicating a suppressive effect on Th1-inducing antigen-presenting cells. The present model, using cocktail-stimulated DCs with potent IL-12p70-stimulating capacity, may be used as an efficient tool to assess the anti-inflammatory properties of microorganisms for potential clinical use. PMID:21707779

  14. Healing of intestinal inflammation by IL-22

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    An IL-10 family cytokine IL-22 is characterized by several unique biological properties, including 1) the target restricted to innate cells, 2) the distinct expression pattern between large and small intestines, 3) alteration of the cellular source depending on several factors, 4) the dual abilities to serve as protective versus proinflammatory mediators in inflammatory responses, and 5) the close association with some major IBD susceptibility genes. The major functions of IL-22 in the intestine are the stimulation of epithelial cells to produce a wide variety of antibacterial proteins, the reinforcement of mucus barrier through stimulation of mucin 1 production under intestinal inflammatory conditions, and the enhancement of epithelial regeneration with goblet cell restitution. Through these beneficial functions, IL-22 contributes to the improvement of some types of experimental chronic colitis, which are mediated by Th1 or Th2 responses. Most importantly, studies using both loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches have clearly demonstrated the ability of IL-22 to promote intestinal wound healing from acute intestinal injury. These findings highlight IL-22 as an attractive and promising target for future IBD therapy. Alternatively, the enormous progress in the field of IL-22 biology has also suggested more complicated mechanism with IL-22 pathway than previously predicted. This review article briefly summarizes previous and current knowledge on IL-22 particularly associated with intestinal inflammation. PMID:22359410

  15. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, Richard N.

    2015-08-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project uses the Parkes 64-m radio telescope to observe 22 millisecond pulsars in three bands: 40cm (band centre 732 MHz), 20cm (1369 MHz) and 10cm (3100 MHz). Coherent de-dispersion systems are used for the 40cm and 20cm bands and digital polyphase filterbanks are used for the 20cm and 10cm bands. Observations are made at intervals of two to three weeks and observations times for each pulsar in each band are typically one hour. Regular PPTA observations commenced in early 2005 but earlier timing data, primarily in the 20cm band, exist for many of the pulsars back to 1994. Pipeline processing scripts are based on PSRCHIVE routines and take into account instrumental offsets. Timing analyses include modelling of dispersion variations and red and white noise in the data. The primary scientific goal of the PPTA project is the detection of gravitational waves, either a stochastic background from supermassive black-hole binary systems in distant galaxies or from individual binary systems. The PPTA data sets have many other applications including establishment of a pulsar-based timescale, improvement of solar-system ephemerides and studies of the individual pulsars. PPTA data sets have been made available to the International Pulsar Timing Array consortium and analysis of the combined data sets is progressing. Recent developments, both instrumental and science-related, will be described.

  16. 75 FR 3488 - Acadia National Park; Bar Harbor, ME; Acadia National Park Advisory Commission; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... National Park Service Acadia National Park; Bar Harbor, ME; Acadia National Park Advisory Commission.... 92-463, 86 Stat. 770, 5 U.S.C. App. 1, Sec. 10), that the Acadia National Park Advisory Commission... his designee, on matters relating to the management and development of the park, including but...

  17. 77 FR 75254 - List of Units of the National Park System Exempt From the Provisions of the National Parks Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... National Park System Exempt From the Provisions of the National Parks Air Tour Management Act AGENCIES... Parks. SUMMARY: The National Parks Air Tour Management Act (NPATMA) requires the Federal Aviation... visitor use and enjoyment. c. Require FAA and NPS to publish a list each year of national parks covered...

  18. Rural Latino youth park use: characteristics, park amenities, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Perry, Cynthia K; Saelens, Brain E; Thompson, Beti

    2011-06-01

    Less than half of youth engage in sufficient physical activity to achieve health benefits. Key environmental factors of park and recreation spaces may influence youth physical activity. We sought to ascertain youth characteristics and behaviors that attract youth to parks with specific amenities and encourage physical activity while at the parks in a rural, predominantly Latino community. We examined the quality of amenities in the 13 parks and recreation spaces that middle school aged youth have access to in their community using the Environmental Assessment of Parks and Recreation Spaces (EAPRS) tool. Middle school students completed surveys in the school classroom (n = 1,102) regarding park use, physical activity, and intrapersonal characteristics (e.g., motivators). We used logistic regression to identify correlates of any park use, use of higher quality field and court parks, and active and sedentary park use. Younger age, participation in an after school activity, and identification of a team as a motivator were positively associated with any park use. Use of higher quality court and field parks was associated with participation in an after school activity and being Latino. The odds of being active in the parks were greater for boys and Latinos. Older age and alcohol use are correlated with being sedentary at the park, while odds of being sedentary at the park were lower for boys and youth who met physical activity guidelines. Organized team activities may encourage active use of higher quality fields and courts parks by Latino youth; thereby, increasing their level of physical activity. PMID:20924779

  19. Rural Latino Youth Park Use: Characteristics, Park Amenities, and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Saelens, Brain E.; Thompson, Beti

    2010-01-01

    Less than half of youth engage in sufficient physical activity to achieve health benefits. Key environmental factors of park and recreation spaces may influence youth physical activity. We sought to ascertain youth characteristics and behaviors that attract youth to parks with specific amenities and encourage physical activity while at the parks in a rural, predominantly Latino community. We examined the quality of amenities in the 13 parks and recreation spaces that middle school aged youth have access to in their community using the Environmental Assessment of Parks and Recreation Spaces (EAPRS) tool. Middle school students completed surveys in the school classroom (n = 1,102) regarding park use, physical activity, and intrapersonal characteristics (e.g., motivators). We used logistic regression to identify correlates of any park use, use of higher quality field and court parks, and active and sedentary park use. Younger age, participation in an after school activity, and identification of a team as a motivator were positively associated with any park use. Use of higher quality court and field parks was associated with participation in an after school activity and being Latino. The odds of being active in the parks were greater for boys and Latinos. Older age and alcohol use are correlated with being sedentary at the park, while odds of being sedentary at the park were lower for boys and youth who met physical activity guidelines. Organized team activities may encourage active use of higher quality fields and courts parks by Latino youth; thereby, increasing their level of physical activity. PMID:20924779

  20. Characterization of Lamprey IL-17 Family Members and Their Receptors.

    PubMed

    Han, Qifeng; Das, Sabyasachi; Hirano, Masayuki; Holland, Stephen J; McCurley, Nathanael; Guo, Peng; Rosenberg, Charles S; Boehm, Thomas; Cooper, Max D

    2015-12-01

    IL-17 is an ancient cytokine implicated in a variety of immune defense reactions. We identified five members of the sea lamprey IL-17 family (IL-17D.1, IL-17D.2, IL-17E, IL-17B, and IL-17C) and six IL-17R genes (IL-17RA.1, IL-17RA.2, IL-17RA.3, IL-17RF, IL-17RE/RC, and IL-17RD), determined their relationship with mammalian orthologs, and examined their expression patterns and potential interactions to explore their roles in innate and adaptive immunity. The most highly expressed IL-17 family member is IL-17D.1 (mammalian IL-17D like), which was found to be preferentially expressed by epithelial cells of skin, intestine, and gills and by the two types of lamprey T-like cells. IL-17D.1 binding to rIL-17RA.1 and to the surface of IL-17RA.1-expressing B-like cells and monocytes of lamprey larvae was demonstrated, and treatment of lamprey blood cells with rIL-17D.1 protein enhanced transcription of genes expressed by the B-like cells. These findings suggest a potential role for IL-17 in coordinating the interactions between T-like cells and other cells of the adaptive and innate immune systems in jawless vertebrates. PMID:26491201

  1. 115. Doughton Park Recreation Area. View of roadway alignment around ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. Doughton Park Recreation Area. View of roadway alignment around alligator back and parking overlook in foreground. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  2. How Safe Are School and Park Playgrounds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Susan D.; Thompson, Donna; Olsen, Heather

    2005-01-01

    Playgrounds traditionally have been found in both schools and parks in America. Each year, parent-teacher associations and school administrations, as well as park and recreation departments, spend millions of dollars to provide playground structures. However, since 1981, HPER professionals and the public have become increasingly aware that these

  3. 78 FR 24323 - National Park Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8961 of April 19, 2013 National Park Week, 2013 By the President of the... be passed on. During National Park Week, we celebrate the wonders entrusted to us by our...

  4. Glacier National Park Bighorn Sheep Studies

    The USGS studies bighorn sheep movements, population structures, and habitat use in and near Glacier National Park. Here, USGS scientist Tabitha Graves sets up remote camera at a salt lick in the park as a sheep stands in background....

  5. 32 CFR 263.10 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Parking. 263.10 Section 263.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.10 Parking. (a) No person, unless...

  6. 32 CFR 263.10 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parking. 263.10 Section 263.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.10 Parking. (a) No person, unless...

  7. 32 CFR 263.10 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Parking. 263.10 Section 263.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.10 Parking. (a) No person, unless...

  8. 32 CFR 263.10 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Parking. 263.10 Section 263.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.10 Parking. (a) No person, unless...

  9. 32 CFR 263.10 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Parking. 263.10 Section 263.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS TRAFFIC AND VEHICLE CONTROL ON CERTAIN DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY SITES § 263.10 Parking. (a) No person, unless...

  10. How Safe Are School and Park Playgrounds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Susan D.; Thompson, Donna; Olsen, Heather

    2005-01-01

    Playgrounds traditionally have been found in both schools and parks in America. Each year, parent-teacher associations and school administrations, as well as park and recreation departments, spend millions of dollars to provide playground structures. However, since 1981, HPER professionals and the public have become increasingly aware that these…

  11. Communication and Recycling in Park Campgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Sam H.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the Canby Washington State Park campground recycling program by determining whether campers (N=147) read and followed the provided instructions when disposing of garbage, understood the sorting and disposal instructions, and arrived at the park equipped with receptacles for recyclables and non-recyclables.…

  12. Design of Parking Lots and Garages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConochie, William R.

    Layout, control, and sign posting in the design of parking facilities is discussed emphasizing self parking and automated control. Considerations such as site, traffic, function of the facility, city codes, and sizes are related to design considerations. Traffic control factors are related to the direction and placement of cars and the collection…

  13. 45 CFR 3.24 - Parking permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Parking permits. 3.24 Section 3.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.24 Parking permits. Except for visitor...

  14. 45 CFR 3.24 - Parking permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Parking permits. 3.24 Section 3.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.24 Parking permits. Except for visitor...

  15. 45 CFR 3.24 - Parking permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Parking permits. 3.24 Section 3.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.24 Parking permits. Except for visitor...

  16. 45 CFR 3.24 - Parking permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parking permits. 3.24 Section 3.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.24 Parking permits. Except for visitor...

  17. Private Sector Thinking Saves Park U.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breckon, Donald; Gibb, John

    2000-01-01

    Recounts the restructuring and resulting survival of Park University (Missouri) over the last decade. A process of evaluating the university's competitive strategy resulted in changes in tuition pricing; development of the Park School of Distance Learning, which serves primarily military installations; minority student marketing; and development…

  18. The Practicing Librarian: Public Library Parking Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Hoyt

    1978-01-01

    Suggests standards for the numbers of parking spaces needed for a public library. From the annual Library Journal public library construction questionnaires, data were available on the number of parking spaces and the square foot size of the buildings reported; information on estimated needs was collected from the librarians in charge of each…

  19. 32 CFR 636.14 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Parking. 636.14 Section 636.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.14 Parking. In addition to the requirements in...

  20. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parking. 3.23 Section 3.23 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.23 Parking. (a) A person may not stand (vehicle stopped, with or without, an...