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1

75 FR 3253 - Lamb Assembly and Test, LLC, Subsidiary of Mag Industrial Automation Systems, Machesney Park, IL...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLC, Subsidiary of Mag Industrial Automation Systems, Machesney Park, IL; Notice...based on the finding that imports of automation equipment and machine tools did not...The survey revealed no imports of automation equipment and machine tools by...

2010-01-20

2

The Lagrange Points  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents a derivation of all five Lagrange points by methods accessible to sixth-form students, and provides a further opportunity to match Newtonian gravity with centripetal force. The predictive powers of good scientific theories are also discussed with regard to the philosophy of science. Methods for calculating the positions of the…

Lovell, M.S.

2007-01-01

3

Lagrange Multipliers and Optimality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagrange multipliers used to be viewed as auxiliary variables introduced in a problem of constrained minimization in order to write first-order optimality conditions formally as a system of equations. Modern applications, with their emphasis on numerical methods and more complicated side conditions than equations, have demanded deeper understanding of the concept and how it fits into a larger theoretical picture.

R. Tyrrell Rockafellar

1993-01-01

4

Noncommutative Lagrange Mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is proposed how to impose a general type of ''noncommutativity'' within classical mechanics from first principles. Formulation is performed in completely alternative way, i.e. without any resort to fuzzy and/or star product philosophy, which are extensively applied within noncommutative quantum theories. Newton-Lagrange noncommutative equations of motion are formulated and their properties are analyzed from the pure geometrical point of view. It is argued that the dynamical quintessence of the system consists in its kinetic energy (Riemannian metric) specifying Riemann-Levi-Civita connection and thus the inertia geodesics of the free motion. Throughout the paper, ''noncommutativity'' is considered as an internal geometric structure of the configuration space, which can not be ''observed'' per se. Manifestation of the noncommutative phenomena is mediated by the interaction of the system with noncommutative background under the consideration. The simplest m! odel of the interaction (minimal coupling) is proposed and it is shown that guiding affine connection is modified by the quadratic analog of the Lorentz electromagnetic force (contortion term).

Kochan, Denis

2008-02-01

5

Linear Lagrange equations generalizing rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An N-dimensional linear Lagrange equation is given which generalizes some classical problems. Particular interest is paid to the equation generalizing a rotation. The general solution is obtained with the use of a matrix exponential method. When applied to the three-dimensional motion of a heavy particle near the surface of the earth, the results are in agreement with known results found

E. Engels

1974-01-01

6

Integrals of Lagrange functions and sum rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exact values are derived for some matrix elements of Lagrange functions, i.e. orthonormal cardinal functions, constructed from orthogonal polynomials. They are obtained with exact Gauss quadratures supplemented by corrections. In the particular case of Lagrange-Laguerre and shifted Lagrange-Jacobi functions, sum rules provide exact values for matrix elements of 1/x and 1/x2 as well as for the kinetic energy. From these expressions, new sum rules involving Laguerre and shifted Jacobi zeros and weights are derived.

Baye, Daniel

2011-09-01

7

On Linear Friction in Lagrange's Equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linear frictional force in the equation of motion of a particle is obtained if one modifies the Lagrange equation of motion by the addition of the frictional term, which may be expressed in terms of the Rayleigh dissipative function. It is shown that one can construct Lagrangians in several simple cases so that the Lagrange equation of motion contains

Harry H. Denman

1966-01-01

8

Fedosov Quantization of Fractional Lagrange Spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this work is to perform a nonholonomic deformation (Fedosov type) quantization of fractional Lagrange-Finsler geometries. The constructions are provided for a fractional almost Kähler model encoding equivalently all data for fractional Euler-Lagrange equations with Caputo fractional derivative.

Baleanu, Dumitru; Vacaru, Sergiu I.

2011-01-01

9

Asynchronous 3D Free Lagrange code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

FLIT3D is a Free Lagrange code developed for three dimensional fluid flow and radiation transport on massively parallel computers. The acronym FLIT3D stands for Free Lagrange Independent Timesteps in 3 Dimensions. The basic ideas are developed from those ...

P. G. Eltgroth

1990-01-01

10

Gauge Drift in Numerical Integrations of the Lagrange Planetary Equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efroimsky (2002) and Newman & Efroimsky (2003) recognized that the Lagrange and Delaunay planetary equations of celestial mechanics may be generalized to allow transformations analogous to the familiar gauge transformations in electrodynamics. As usually presented, the Lagrange equations, which are derived by the method of variation of parameters (invented by Euler and Lagrange for this very purpose), assume the Lagrange

M. A. Murison; M. Efroimsky

2003-01-01

11

Linear-time dynamics using Lagrange multipliers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current linear-time simulation methods for articulated figures are based exclusively on reduced-coordinate formulations. This pa- per describes a general, non-iterative linear-time simulation method based instead on Lagrange multipliers. Lagrange multiplier meth- ods are important for computer graphics applications because they bypass the difficult (and often intractable) problem of parameter- izing a system's degrees of freedom. Given a loop-free set of

David Baraff

1996-01-01

12

An Extension of Lagrange's Identity to Matrices. Classroom Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this note the well-known Lagrange identity is extended to matrices. The resulting generalized Lagrange identity is used to give characterizations of symmetry, commutativity of projectors and normality.|

Trenkler, Gotz

2004-01-01

13

Explicit gauge covariant Euler-Lagrange equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of a gauge covariant derivative to the Euler-Lagrange equation yields a shortcut to the equations of motion for a field subject to an external force. The gauge covariant derivative includes an external force as an intrinsic part of the derivative and hence simplifies Lagrangians containing tensor and gauge covariant fields. The gauge covariant derivative used in the covariant

Clinton L. Lewis

2009-01-01

14

Proof of Lagrange's Equations of Motion, &c  

Microsoft Academic Search

A FEW weeks ago you published in a letter from Mr. Heaviside a proof of Lagrange's equations of motion of a system of bodies. I must confess that I in common with others swallowed it, but I have now come to the conclusion that the proof, though doubtless admirable as an example of the power of the ``Principle of Activity,''

W. R. F

1903-01-01

15

Proof of Lagrange's Equations of Motion, &c  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN your issue of January 29, Mr. Heaviside put forward a demonstration of Lagrange's equations of motion which appears invalid. As neither his interpretation of Newton nor his argument based thereon was stated with sufficient clearness to enable a critic to locate the weak spot without running serious risk of misinterpreting him, it seemed better in the first instance to

W. Mcf. Orr

1903-01-01

16

Lagrange-mesh calculations and Fourier transform  

SciTech Connect

The Lagrange-mesh method is a very accurate procedure for computing eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a two-body quantum equation written in the configuration space. Using a Gauss quadrature rule, the method only requires the evaluation of the potential at some mesh points. The eigenfunctions are expanded in terms of regularized Lagrange functions, which vanish at all mesh points except one. Using the peculiarities of the method, it is shown that the Fourier transform of the eigenfunctions, computed in the configuration space, can easily be obtained with good accuracy in the physical domain of the momentum space. Also, observables in this space can easily be computed with good accuracy only using matrix elements and eigenfunctions computed in the configuration space.

Lacroix, Gwendolyn; Semay, Claude [Service de Physique Nucleaire et Subnucleaire, Universite de Mons-UMONS, Academie universitaire Wallonie-Bruxelles, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)

2011-09-15

17

Asynchronous 3D Free Lagrange code  

SciTech Connect

FLIT3D is a Free Lagrange code developed for three dimensional fluid flow and radiation transport on massively parallel computers. The acronym FLIT3D stands for Free Lagrange Independent Timesteps in 3 Dimensions. The basic ideas are developed from those covered in the previous conference. The code has been designed from the start for concurrent execution and uses only local operations to achieve node updates and reconnections. This somewhat unusual orientation means that many new algorithms were needed. The present version of the code evaluates mass and momentum at node positions. Nodes are connected into tetrahedra. The choice of tetrahedra (connections) is carried out independently of the partitioning of spacetime volumes. The spacetime partitioning is carried out by constructing vertices associated with the nodes in a given tetrahedron.

Eltgroth, P.G.

1990-06-01

18

Explicit gauge covariant Euler–Lagrange equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of a gauge covariant derivative to the Euler-Lagrange\\u000aequation yields a shortcut to the equations of motion for a field subject to an\\u000aexternal force. The gauge covariant derivative includes an external force as an\\u000aintrinsic part of the derivative and hence simplifies Lagrangians containing\\u000atensor and gauge covariant fields. The gauge covariant derivative used in the\\u000acovariant

Clinton L. Lewis

2009-01-01

19

Lagrange's principle in extremum problems with constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a general result concerning Lagrange's principle for so-called smoothly approximately convex problems is proved which encompasses necessary extremum conditions for mathematical and convex programming, the calculus of variations, Lyapunov problems, and optimal control problems with phase constraints. The problem of local controllability for a dynamical system with phase constraints is also considered. In an appendix, results are presented that relate to the development of a 'Lagrangian approach' to problems where regularity is absent and classical approaches are meaningless. Bibliography: 33 titles.

Avakov, E. R.; Magaril-Il'yaev, G. G.; Tikhomirov, V. M.

2013-06-01

20

Convergence of a substructuring methodwith Lagrange multipliers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  \\u000a We analyze the convergence of a substructuring iterative method\\u000a with Lagrange multipliers, proposed recently by Farhat and Roux.\\u000a The method decomposes finite element\\u000a discretization of an elliptic boundary value problem into\\u000a Neumann problems on the subdomains plus a coarse problem for the\\u000a subdomain nullspace components. For linear conforming elements and\\u000a preconditioning by the Dirichlet problems on the subdomains,\\u000a we

Jan Mandel; Radek Tezaur

1996-01-01

21

Violation of the Lagrange invariant in an optical imaging system.  

PubMed

The Lagrange invariant provides a basic description of an optical imaging system. Many important conclusions can be drawn from it. We discovered that the Lagrange invariant is violated in a self-interference holography system with particular characteristics. With a proof-of-principle system, we proved this violation both theoretically and experimentally. This finding enables future exciting possibilities in optical imaging. PMID:23722781

Lai, Xiaomin; Zeng, Shaoqun; Lv, Xiaohua; Yuan, Jing; Fu, Ling

2013-06-01

22

Parking Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication identifies the principal issues and discusses some of the problems relating to the provision and control of parking in center city areas and residential neighborhoods. Other areas addressed are parking enforcements, parking and environment...

1978-01-01

23

Bilinear modeling via augmented Lagrange multipliers (BALM).  

PubMed

This paper presents a unified approach to solve different bilinear factorization problems in computer vision in the presence of missing data in the measurements. The problem is formulated as a constrained optimization where one of the factors must lie on a specific manifold. To achieve this, we introduce an equivalent reformulation of the bilinear factorization problem that decouples the core bilinear aspect from the manifold specificity. We then tackle the resulting constrained optimization problem via Augmented Lagrange Multipliers. The strength and the novelty of our approach is that this framework can seamlessly handle different computer vision problems. The algorithm is such that only a projector onto the manifold constraint is needed. We present experiments and results for some popular factorization problems in computer vision such as rigid, non-rigid, and articulated Structure from Motion, photometric stereo, and 2D-3D non-rigid registration. PMID:22156102

Del Bue, Alessio; Xavier, João; Agapito, Lourdes; Paladini, Marco

2012-08-01

24

Superconvergence of bi-k-Lagrange elements for eigenvalue problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study superconvergence of bi-k-Lagrange elements for parameter-dependent problems where k?2. We show that the superconvergence rate of the bi-k-Lagrange elements is two orders higher than that of the kth-order Lagrange elements. This is a significant improvement of the previous results [C.-S. Chien, H.T. Huang, B.-W. Jeng, Z.C. Li, Superconvergence of FEMs and numerical continuation for parameter-dependent problems with folds, Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos 18 (2008) 1321-1336], which is only one order (or a half order) higher than that of the latter. Next, we apply the bi-k-Lagrange elements to the computations of energy levels and wave functions of two-dimensional (2D) Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC), and BEC in a periodic potential. Sample numerical results are reported.

Li, Z.-C.; Chien, C.-S.; Huang, H.-T.; Jeng, B.-W.

2009-11-01

25

On a new form of the Lagrange equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A new generalized form of the Lagrange equations for both holonomic and nonholonomic mechanical systems is given. The method is illustrated by two examples: the motion of an artificial earth satellite moving with constant speed and Appell's example.

René Van Dooren

1975-01-01

26

On a new form of the Lagrange equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new generalized form of the Lagrange equations for both holonomic and nonholonomic mechanical systems is given. The method is illustrated by two examples: the motion of an artificial earth satellite moving with constant speed and Appell's example.

R. van Dooren

1975-01-01

27

A lagrange multiplier test of uniformity against beta alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test of uniformity is derived as a Lagrange Multiplier test against the beta family. As such, it has desirable properties against beta alternatives. Monte Carlo results show that it also has good power against non-beta alternatives.

Martin Sefton

1992-01-01

28

Minimum fuel trajectories for a low-thrust power-limited mission to the moon and to Lagrange points L4 and L5  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimum fuel trajectories from a low earth parking orbit to Lagrange points L4 or L5 and to the moon are obtained for a low-thrust limited-power spacecraft, with thrust acceleration levels of the order of 0.001 G. The procedure to find a trajectory to the libration point starts from an analytical description of a slightly elliptical spiral, given by Breakwell and

John V. Breakwell; Oded M. Golan

1990-01-01

29

General transformation theory of Lagrangian mechanics and the Lagrange group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general transformation theory of Lagrangian mechanics is revisited from a group-theoretic point of view. After considering the transformation of the Lagrangian function under local coordinate transformations in configuration spacetime, the general covariance of the formalism of Lagrange is discussed. Next, the group of Lagrange (for all n-dimensional Lagrangian systems) is introduced, and some important features of this group, as well as of its action on the set of Lagrangians, are briefly examined. Only finite local transformations of coordinates are considered here, and no variational transformation of the action is required in this study. Some miscellaneous examples of the formalism are included.

Aguirre, M.; Krause, J.

1991-04-01

30

Invariant Lagrangians, mechanical connections and the Lagrange Poincaré equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We deal with Lagrangian systems that are invariant under the action of a symmetry group. The mechanical connection is a principal connection that is associated with Lagrangians which have a kinetic energy function that is defined by a Riemannian metric. In this paper, we extend this notion to arbitrary Lagrangians. We then derive the reduced Lagrange-Poincaré equations in a new fashion and we show how solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equations can be reconstructed with the help of the mechanical connection. Illustrative examples confirm the theory.

Mestdag, T.; Crampin, M.

2008-08-01

31

Lagrange's planetary equations for the motion of electrostatically charged spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spacecraft that generates an electrostatic charge on its surface in a planetary magnetic field will be subject to a perturbative Lorentz force. Active modulation of the surface charge can take advantage of this electromagnetic perturbation to modify or to do work on the spacecraft's orbit. Lagrange's planetary equations are derived using the Lorentz force as the perturbation on a

Joseph W. Gangestad; George E. Pollock; James M. Longuski

2010-01-01

32

Input transformations for Lagrange's equations of space vehicle motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the general framework for transforming the input variables of Lagrange's equations. The theory is presented from the viewpoint of preserving the virtual work. A transformation is derived that transforms the input forces and torques of a six-degree of freedom space vehicle into realizable forces and torques. Analytical analysis and simulations are performed to demonstrate the results.

Douglas R. Isenberg; Y. P. Kakad

2009-01-01

33

ZM theory II: Hamilton's and Lagrange's equations of motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that considering time measured by an observer to be a function of a cyclical field (an abstract version of a clock) is consistent with Hamilton's and Lagrange's equations of motion for a one dimensional space manifold. The derivation may provide a simple understanding of the conventions that are used in defining the relationship between independent and dependent variables

Yaneer Bar-Yam

2006-01-01

34

COMPLEXITY REDUCTION OF H.264 USING LAGRANGE OPTIMIZATION METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complexity reduction algorithm for an H.264 encoder is proposed. Computational savings are achieved by identifying, prior to motion estimation, macroblocks that are likely to be skipped and hence saving further computational processing of these macroblocks. This early prediction is made by estimating a Lagrangian rate-distortion cost function which incorporates an adaptive model for the Lagrange multiplier parameter based on

C. S. Kannangara; I. E. G. Richardson; M. Bystrom; J. Solera; Y. Zhao; A. MacLennan; R. Cooney

35

Porous Euler-Lagrange Coupling: Application to Parachute Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly developed approach for tridimensional fluid-structure interaction with a deformable thin porous media is presented under the framework of the LS-DYNA® software. The method presented couples a Arbitrary Lagrange Euler formulation for the fluid dynamics and a updated Lagrangian finite element formulation for the thin porous medium dynamics. The interaction between the fluid and porous medium are handled by

Jason Wang; Nicolas Aquelet; Benjamin Tutt; Ian Do; Hao Chen; Mhamed Souli

36

FROM FIRST ORDER PDE-SYSTEMS TO HARMONIC MAPS BETWEEN GENERALIZED LAGRANGE SPACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Section 1 deflnes the geometrical notion of a harmonic map between two generalized Lagrange spaces. Section 2 analyzes the particu- lar case of the harmonic maps between two Lagrange spaces of electrody- namics. Section 3 proves that the smooth solutions of certain important flrst order DE- or PDE-systems are harmonic maps between convenient generalized Lagrange spaces. Section 4 describes the

Mircea Neagu

2007-01-01

37

Park It!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

Sartorius, Tara Cady

2010-01-01

38

Prospect Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While many readers may be aware that trees grow in Brooklyn, few may be cognizant of the fact that, yes, a forest grows in Brooklyn. This urban forest just happens to be in the boroughÂs own lovely Prospect Park, designed by those giants of landscape architects, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. Often overlooked by some who are primarily concerned with that other large swath of green in the middle of Manhattan, Prospect Park contains a 90-acre meadow, a zoo, a celebrated performing arts festival, and a lake. Visitors to the Prospect Park Alliance website can learn all about these things, and also delve into the parkÂs history. Those planning a visit may wish to look at the ÂGeneral Info and ÂPlaces To Go sections for a selection of brief descriptions and photographs. For those seeking a historical perspective the ÂHistory & Nature area is delightful. Here visitors can learn about the parkÂs historical development and creation, and learn more about those individuals responsible for the parkÂs design and aesthetic appeal. Finally, visitors should look at the online exhibit ÂA Glimpse Of Prospect Park for a bit of visual perspective on the parkÂs history.

Prospect Park (New York, N.Y.)

39

Park It!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

Sartorius, Tara Cady

2010-01-01

40

Lagrange formalism of memory circuit elements: classical and quantum formulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general Lagrange-Euler formalism for the three memory circuit elements, namely the memristor, memcapacitor, and meminductor [1,2] is introduced for circuits with voltage or current sources. In addition, mutual meminductance, i.e., mutual inductance with a state depending on the past evolution of the system, is introduced. The Lagrange-Euler formalism for a general circuit network and the corresponding work-energy theorem are also obtained. We provide examples of this formalism applied to specific circuits both in the classical and quantum regimes showing under which conditions the quantum excitations of the memory degrees of freedom can be observed experimentally. Work was supported in part by NSF.[4pt] [1] M. Di Ventra, Y. V. Pershin, and L. O. Chua, Proc. IEEE 97, 1717 (2009).[0pt] [2] Y.V. Pershin and M. Di Ventra, Advances in Physics 60, 145-227 (2011).

Cohen, Guy; Pershin, Yuriy; di Ventra, Massimiliano

2012-02-01

41

The unexplained accuracy of the Lagrange-mesh method.  

PubMed

The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational calculation which resembles a mesh calculation because of the use of a Gauss quadrature. In order to analyze its accuracy, four different Lagrange-mesh calculations based on the zeros of Laguerre polynomials are compared with exact variational calculations based on the corresponding Laguerre basis. The comparison is performed for three solvable radial potentials: the Morse, harmonic-oscillator, and Coulomb potentials. The results show that the accuracies of the energies obtained for different partial waves with the different mesh approximations are very close to the variational accuracy, even in the presence of the centrifugal singularity. The same property holds for the approximate wave functions. This striking accuracy remains unexplained. PMID:11863688

Baye, D; Hesse, M; Vincke, M

2002-01-03

42

On the Numerical Solution of Euler-Lagrange Equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Euler-Lagrange equations that describe the motion of constrained mechanical systems are locally reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations by means of local parametrizations. The class of local pa-rametrizations considered contains as particular cases the tangent plane parametrization and the local parametrization that is induced by the method of generalized coordinate partitioning. Explicit and implicit multi-step algorithms are

Florian A. Potra; Werner C. Rheinbold

1991-01-01

43

Canonical form of Euler–Lagrange equations and gauge symmetries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of the Euler–Lagrange equations for a general Lagrangian theory (e.g. singular, with higher derivatives) is studied. For these equations we present a reduction procedure to the so-called canonical form. In the canonical form the equations are solved with respect to highest-order derivatives of nongauge coordinates, whereas gauge coordinates and their derivatives enter the right-hand sides of the equations

B. Geyer; D. M. Gitman; I. V. Tyutin

2003-01-01

44

An efficient parallel algorithm for Lagrange interpolation and its performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a parallel algorithm for computing an N=n2\\/sup n\\/ point Lagrange interpolation on n-dimensional cube-connected cycles (CCC\\/sub n\\/). The algorithm exploits several communication techniques in a novel way which can be adapted for computing similar functions. The performance of the algorithm is also evaluated by means of a speedup measure. It shows a near to optimal speedup for

H. Sarbazi-Azad; L. M. Mackenzie; M. Ould-Khaoua; G. Min

2000-01-01

45

Lagrange multiplier selection in hybrid video coder control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lagrangian coder control together with the parameter choice is presented that lead to the creation of the new hybrid video coder specifications TMN-10 for H.263 and TML for H.26L. An efE- cient approach for the determination of the encoding parameters is developed. It is shown by means of experimental results that the Lagrange multiplier for the macroblock mode decision

Thomas Wiegand; Bernd Girod

2001-01-01

46

The elusive d'Alembert-Lagrange dynamics of nonholonomic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the d'Alembert-Lagrange principle has been widely used to derive equations of state for dynamical systems under holonomic (geometric) and non-integrable linear-velocity (kinematic) constraints, its application to general kinematic constraints with a general velocity and acceleration-dependence has remained elusive, mainly because there is no clear method, whereby the set of linear conditions that restrict the virtual displacements can be easily extracted from the equations of constraint. We show how this limitation can be resolved by requiring that the states displaced by the variation are compatible with the kinematic constraints. A set of linear auxiliary conditions on the displacements is established and adjoined to the d'Alembert-Lagrange equation via Lagrange's multipliers to yield the equations of state. As a consequence, new transpositional relations satisfied by the velocity and acceleration displacements are also established. The theory is tested for a quadratic velocity constraint and for a nonholonomic penny rolling and turning upright on an inclined plane.

Flannery, M. R.

2011-09-01

47

d'Alembert-Lagrange analytical dynamics for nonholonomic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The d'Alembert-Lagrange principle (DLP) is designed primarily for dynamical systems under ideal geometric constraints. Although it can also cover linear-velocity constraints, its application to nonlinear kinematic constraints has so far remained elusive, mainly because there is no clear method whereby the set of linear conditions that restrict the virtual displacements can be easily extracted from the equations of constraint. On recognition that the commutation rule traditionally accepted for velocity displacements in Lagrangian dynamics implies displaced states that do not satisfy the kinematic constraints, we show how the property of possible displaced states can be utilized ab initio so as to provide an appropriate set of linear auxiliary conditions on the displacements, which can be adjoined via Lagrange's multipliers to the d'Alembert-Lagrange equation to yield the equations of state, and also new transpositional relations for nonholonomic systems. The equations of state so obtained for systems under general nonlinear velocity and acceleration constraints are shown to be identical with those derived (in Appendix A) from the quite different Gauss principle. The present advance therefore solves a long outstanding problem on the application of DLP to ideal nonholonomic systems and, as an aside, provides validity to axioms as the Chetaev rule, previously left theoretically unjustified. A more general transpositional form of the Boltzmann-Hamel equation is also obtained.

Flannery, M. R.

2011-03-01

48

The d’Alembert–Lagrange equation exploited on a Riemannian manifold  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a geometric exploitation of the d’Alembert–Lagrange equation (or alternatively, Lagrange form of\\u000a the d’Alembert’s principle) on a Riemannian manifold. We develop the d’Alembert–Lagrange equation in a geometric form, as\\u000a well as an explicit analytic form with respect to an arbitrary frame in a coordinate neighborhood on the configuration manifold.\\u000a We provide a procedure to determine

Xiaobo Liu; R. L. Huston; C. Q. Liu

2011-01-01

49

Conservative Properties of the Variational Free-Lagrange Method for Shallow Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variational free-Lagrange (VFL) method for shallow water is a free-Lagrange method with the additional property that it preserves the variational structure of shallow water. The VFL method was first derived in this context by \\\\cite{AUG84} who discretized Hamilton's action principle with a free-Lagrange data structure. The purpose of this article is to assess the long-time conservation properties of the

MATTHEW F. DIXON; TODD D. RINGLER

2008-01-01

50

Lagrange Fuzzy Interpolating Controlling and Simulation on SemiActive Suspension of Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lagrange fuzzy interpolating controller is designed based on the study on 1 \\/ 4 semi-active suspension mechanics model in this paper. Lagrange fuzzy interpolation algorithm is adopted for semi-active suspension system to control the shock absorber damping coefficient. AMEsim and Simulink co-simulation technology The simulation results by AMEsim and Simulink co-simulation technology indicates that the Lagrange fuzzy interpolation control

Cheng Wang; Shanzhen Xu

2009-01-01

51

Two Lagrange-like optical invariants and some applications.  

PubMed

Geometric optics can be completely derived from Fermat's principle, as classical mechanics can be obtained by the application of the Hamilton principle. In Lagrangian optics, for optical systems with rotational symmetry, is known the invariant L?, the Lagrange optical invariant. For systems built only with spherical lenses, we demonstrate there are two other optical invariants, L? and L?, analogous to L?. A proof based on Snell's law, the Weierstrass-Erdman jump condition, and the expression of the ray between two optical surfaces in the Hamiltonian formalism is reported. The presence of a conserved vector, L, allows us to write the equation of an emerging ray without any approximation. PMID:21540974

Corrente, Fabio; Onorato, Pasquale

2011-05-01

52

A Lagrange method based L-curve for image restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solution of image restoration problems usually requires the use of regularization strategies. The L-curve criterium is a popular heuristic tool for choosing good regularized solutions, when the data noise norm is not a priori known. In this work, we propose replacing the original image restoration problem with a noise-independent equality constrained one and solving it by an iterative Lagrange method. The sequence of the computed iterates defines a discrete L-shaped curve. By numerical results, we show that good regularized solutions correspond with the corner of this curve.

Landi, G.

2013-10-01

53

Observational constraints on a cosmological model with Lagrange multipliers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmological models with Lagrange multipliers are appealing because they could explain the behaviour of the dark sector in a unified way. In this work we analyse extensions to the "Dust of Dark Energy model" proposed in Lim et al. (2010) [10] by including spatial curvature and more general potentials of the scalar field. We perform dynamical system analysis and we determine the evolution of the equation of state parameter as a function of the scale factor. We present observational constraints on this model by using Union2.1 dataset and H(z) data.

Cid, Antonella; Labraña, Pedro

2012-10-01

54

5. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, REAR AND LEFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, REAR AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 2, North end of base, southeast of Barracks No. 1 & northeast of Mess Hall, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

55

3. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, LEFT SIDE, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, LEFT SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 2, North end of base, southeast of Barracks No. 1 & northeast of Mess Hall, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

56

4. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, FRONT AND RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 2, North end of base, southeast of Barracks No. 1 & northeast of Mess Hall, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

57

2. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, RIGHT SIDE, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, RIGHT SIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 2, North end of base, southeast of Barracks No. 1 & northeast of Mess Hall, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

58

1. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 2, North end of base, southeast of Barracks No. 1 & northeast of Mess Hall, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

59

Theodore Roosevelt National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website contains information on: the park history; park activities such as hiking and camping; and natural history such as the wildlife, geology and paleontology of the park. The kids' section contains coloring pages, a park trivia quiz, reference sections on the wildlife and natural history of the park, and information on Theodore Roosevelt and his involvement in the Badlands. There are also images of the wildlife and scenery of the park.

60

The third-order Lagrange equation for mechanical systems of variable mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, based on the third-order D'Alembert-Lagrange principle for mechanical systems of variable mass, the third-order Lagrange equations of mechanical systems of variable mass are obtained. From the equations the motion of mechanical systems of variable mass can be studied. In addition, the equations may enrich the theory of third-order differential equation.

Shan-Jun Ma; Wei-Guo Ge; Pei-Tian Huang

2005-01-01

61

The Control of the CE-02 satellite flying to the Lagrange Point  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Control Strategy and process of the satellite of CE-02 flying to the Lagrange Point are introduced in this article, as well as the flight control and the payload experiment circling Lagrange Point are mentioned. There are four targets which controlling CE-02 flying to Lagrange Point. Firstly, making controlling the satellite to going farther distance in space into realization; Secondly, validating the method and capability of remote surveying and controlling after the two remote space surveying stations, Kashi and Kiamusze, are set up; thirdly, putting up scientific research of electriferous particles around the earth nearly the Lagrange Point; fourthly, observing the possible erupting of X and ? radial. the flight control flying to Lagrange Point was divided into three phases: Moon escape, transferring flight and circling Lagrange Point. After 4 orbit controlling to CE-02, the satellite entered into the Lissajous orbit apartting from the earth about 1.7 million kilometres on September 1st 2011. up to now, one orbit controlling in all was carrying through after the CE-02 satellite circling Lagrange Point in order to keep the satellite circling Lagrange Point. In this period, space circumstance detector collect large numbers of space circumstance dates, and the correlative scientific research have developing step by step.

Guo, J.; Liu, J.

2012-09-01

62

Lagrange constraint neural network for audio varying BSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) is a statistical-mechanical ab-initio model without assuming the artificial neural network (ANN) model at all but derived it from the first principle of Hamilton and Lagrange Methodology: H(S,A)= f(S)- (lambda) C(s,A(x,t)) that incorporates measurement constraint C(S,A(x,t))= (lambda) ([A]S-X)+((lambda) 0-1)((Sigma) isi -1) using the vector Lagrange multiplier-(lambda) and a- priori Shannon Entropy f(S) = -(Sigma) i si log si as the Contrast function of unknown number of independent sources si. Szu et al. have first solved in 1997 the general Blind Source Separation (BSS) problem for spatial-temporal varying mixing matrix for the real world remote sensing where a large pixel footprint implies the mixing matrix [A(x,t)] necessarily fill with diurnal and seasonal variations. Because the ground truth is difficult to be ascertained in the remote sensing, we have thus illustrated in this paper, each step of the LCNN algorithm for the simulated spatial-temporal varying BSS in speech, music audio mixing. We review and compare LCNN with other popular a-posteriori Maximum Entropy methodologies defined by ANN weight matrix-[W] sigmoid-(sigma) post processing H(Y=(sigma) ([W]X)) by Bell-Sejnowski, Amari and Oja (BSAO) called Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Both are mirror symmetric of the MaxEnt methodologies and work for a constant unknown mixing matrix [A], but the major difference is whether the ensemble average is taken at neighborhood pixel data X's in BASO or at the a priori sources S variables in LCNN that dictates which method works for spatial-temporal varying [A(x,t)] that would not allow the neighborhood pixel average. We expected the success of sharper de-mixing by the LCNN method in terms of a controlled ground truth experiment in the simulation of variant mixture of two music of similar Kurtosis (15 seconds composed of Saint-Saens Swan and Rachmaninov cello concerto).

Szu, Harold H.; Hsu, Charles C.

2002-03-01

63

The complete equivalence of Kane's equations of motion and Lagrange's equations of mixed type written in quasicoordinates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete equivalence of Kane's formalism and Lagrange's equations of mixed type written in quasi-coordinates is demonstrated, showing the universality of these Lagrange equations. The latter can be used to obtain all the different forms of the equations of motion simply by choosing different coordinate descriptions of constrained mechanical systems. The Lagrange's equations of the mixed type, written in quasi-coordinates,

Michael Valasek; Vladimir Stejskal

1987-01-01

64

Design of a waveguide grating using Lagrange's integral invariant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the design of a focusing grating coupler (FGC) is treated in the geometrical optics approximation for a rather general configuration. The guided mode may have an arbitrary phase profile and the free space wave which is generated by the FGC travels through an optical system before the final focal point is generated. This optical system does not need to have symmetry of revolution. The analysis uses the data of the ray fields coming from the free space and from the guided region at the location of a general point of the grating coupler. In this way an effective matching of the two ray fields is obtained without the need for time- consuming iterative ray-tracing. By using Lagrange's integral invariant, the optical pathlength function is obtained over the grating surface. The pathlength function is used to obtain the grating vector distribution when ray-tracing the designed FGC. The pathlength function also serves to construct the diffracted wavefront.

Braat, Joseph J.; Laurijs, Michel O.

1993-04-01

65

Identifying FMRI model violations with Lagrange multiplier tests.  

PubMed

The standard modeling framework in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is predicated on assumptions of linearity, time invariance and stationarity. These assumptions are rarely checked because doing so requires specialized software, although failure to do so can lead to bias and mistaken inference. Identifying model violations is an essential but largely neglected step in standard fMRI data analysis. Using Lagrange multiplier testing methods we have developed simple and efficient procedures for detecting model violations such as nonlinearity, nonstationarity and validity of the common double gamma specification for hemodynamic response. These procedures are computationally cheap and can easily be added to a conventional analysis. The test statistic is calculated at each voxel and displayed as a spatial anomaly map which shows regions where a model is violated. The methodology is illustrated with a large number of real data examples. PMID:22542665

Cassidy, Ben; Long, Christopher J; Rae, Caroline; Solo, Victor

2012-04-19

66

National Environmental Research Parks  

SciTech Connect

The National Environmental Research Parks are outdoor laboratories that provide opportunities for environmental studies on protected lands that act as buffers around Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The research parks are used to evaluate the environmental consequences of energy use and development as well as the strategies to mitigate these effects. They are also used to demonstrate possible environmental and land-use options. The seven parks are: Fermilab National Environmental Research Park; Hanford National Environmental Research Park; Idaho National Environmental Research Park; Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park; Nevada National Environmental Research Park; Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park; and Savannah River National Environmental Research Park. This document gives an overview of the events that led to the creation of the research parks. Its main purpose is to summarize key points about each park, including ecological research, geological characteristics, facilities, and available databases.

Not Available

1994-07-01

67

Parking and Traffic Enforcement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bulletin provides a review of parking and traffic enforcement issues as they relate to protection of the public, improvement of traffic flow, and parking management in large cities. Information regarding civilian parking enforcement agents, administr...

1980-01-01

68

Grand Teton National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website provides a trip planner, information on natural and cultural history, publications, a park fact sheet for students, park maps, student bibliography, and a newspaper for kids. There is information on the geology, rock formations, mountain building, volcanism, and glaciation of the Teton Range. Educational resources for students and teachers consist of links to other National Park Service sites.

69

Criterion for Lagrange stability of a class of pendulum-like systems in Hilbert spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a class of pendulum-like systems in infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces is investigated. A frequency domain criterion guaranteeing the systems with the property of Lagrange stability is established.

Liu, Chao; Huang, Lin; Feng, Dexing

2007-07-01

70

Comparison of CECOR Algorithm to Lagrange Multiplier Method to Estimate Reactor Power Distributions  

SciTech Connect

The Lagrange Multiplier method was tested to determine its capability for replacing the current Combustion Engineering Core (CECOR) method for estimating the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station reactor power distributions.The Lagrange Multiplier method involves minimizing the sum of the squared residuals of 241 coupling equations subject to 61 constraint equations. The CECOR method solves 180 (241 - 61) coupling equations subject to the 61 constraint equations. The Lagrange method is more complex because it includes the 61 additional coupling equations.The 'consistency test' was used to test the accuracy of both methods for computing the power in uninstrumented assemblies, i.e., one-by-one, each of the detectors is considered not available, and the remaining detectors are used to compute the powers in the uninstrumented assemblies.There is potential for expanding the Lagrange method to a three-dimensional approach that could produce even better results, and that is a consideration.

Webb, Raymond J.; Brittingham, James C. [Arizona Public Service Company (United States)

2000-11-15

71

Wind Cave National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website contains environmental education units for elementary and middle school students which consist of activities centered around an environmental theme. These themes include biodiversity, habitats, natural adaptation, patterns and order in nature, environmental cycles and change, interactions and interdependence within an ecosystem, and water in the environment. There is also information on: planning a visit to the park; the wildlife, geology, cave exploration and paleontology of the park; the park history; and the role of fire in the park.

72

Euler–Lagrange equation from nonlocal-in-time kinetic energy of nonconservative system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Letter focuses on studying generalized Euler–Lagrange equation and Hamiltonian framework from nonlocal-in-time kinetic energy of nonconservative system. According to Suykens' approach, we extend his results and formulate some work related to the nonconservative system. With the Lagrangian and nonconservative force in nonlocal-in-time form, we obtain the higher order generalized Euler–Lagrange equation which leads to an extension of Newton's second

Zi-Yan Li; Jing-Li Fu; Li-Qun Chen

2009-01-01

73

New regularity conditions for strong and total Fenchel–Lagrange duality in infinite dimensional spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give new regularity conditions for convex optimization problems in separated locally convex spaces. We completely characterize the stable strong and strong Fenchel–Lagrange duality. Then we give similar statements for the case when a solution of the primal problem is assumed as known, obtaining complete characterizations for the so-called total and stable totalFenchel–Lagrange duality, respectively. For particular settings the conditions

Radu Ioan Bo?; Sorin-Mihai Grad; Gert Wanka

2008-01-01

74

Parallel processing a three-dimensional free-lagrange code  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional, time-dependent free-Lagrange hydrodynamics code has been multitasked and autotasked on a CRAY X-MP/416. The multitasking was done by using the Los Alamos Multitasking Control Library, which is a superset of the CRAY multitasking library. Autotasking is done by using constructs which are only comment cards if the source code is not run through a preprocessor. The three-dimensional algorithm has presented a number of problems that simpler algorithms, such as those for one-dimensional hydrodynamics, did not exhibit. Problems in converting the serial code, originally written for a CRAY-1, to a multitasking code are discussed. Autotasking of a rewritten version of the code is discussed. Timing results for subroutines and hot spots in the serial code are presented and suggestions for additional tools and debugging aids are given. Theoretical speedup results obtained from Amdahl's law and actual speedup results obtained on a dedicated machine are presented. Suggestions for designing large parallel codes are given.

Mandell, D.A.; Trease, H.E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1989-01-01

75

Genesis capturing the sun: Solar wind irradiation at Lagrange 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genesis, a member of NASAs Discovery Mission program, is the world’s first sample return mission since the Apollo program to bring home solar matter in ultra-pure materials. Outside the protection of Earth’s magnetosphere at the Earth-Sun Lagrange 1 point, the deployed sample collectors were directly exposed to solar wind irradiation. The natural process of solar wind ion implantation into a highly pure silicon (Si) bulk composition array collector has been measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Ellipsometry results show that bulk solar wind ions composed of approximately 95% H+, 4% He+ and <1% other elements physically altered the first 59-63 nm of crystalline silicon substrate during 852.8 days of solar exposure. STEM analysis confirms that the solar accelerated ions caused significant strain and visible structural defects to the silicon structure forming a 60-75 nm thick irradiation damage region directly below the surface SiO2 native oxide layer. Monte Carlo simulations of solar wind H, He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe ion collisions in the Si collector with fluences calculated from the Genesis and ACE spacecrafts were used to estimate the energy deposited and Si vacancies produced by nuclear stopping in a flight-like Si bulk array collector. The coupled deposited energy model with the flown Genesis Si in situ measurements provides new insight into the basic principles of solar wind diffusion and space weathering of materials outside Earth’s magnetosphere.

Calaway, Michael J.; Stansbery, Eileen K.; Keller, Lindsay P.

2009-04-01

76

78 FR 55219 - Safety Zone; Flying Machine Competition, Chicago, IL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Flying Machine Competition, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast...Michigan near Burnham Park during a flying machine competition event in Chicago, IL on September...Delegation No. 0170.1. An annual flying machine competition event has been scheduled...

2013-09-10

77

National Park Service: Tour of Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tour of Park geologic resources includes pages specific to individual National Parks, Monuments, Recreation Areas, Preserves, Seacoasts, Reserves, and Recreation Areas. These pages are indexed by park name, state, or by one of the following topics: basin and range, caves, Colorado Plateau, fossils, glaciers, hot springs, human use, mountain building, oldest rocks, plate tectonics, river systems, sand dunes, shoreline geology, or volcanoes. Organization of each of the pages typically follows a NPS template with categories for park geology, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multimedia, and "teacher features" (educational resources and links for teaching geology with National Park examples.) Common subjects that are addressed at various park sites include: minerals, rocks, fossils, cave and karst systems, coastlines, glaciers, volcanoes, faults, landforms, landslides, structures, fluvial systems, sediments, soils, stratigraphic relations, processes that form or act on geologic features and their chemical compositions, and the history of the planet and its life forms.

78

Tour of Park Geology: Cave and Karst Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Park Geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas with caves and other karst features. Where appropriate, park sites contain park geology information, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Mammoth Cave National Park, Sequoia National Park, and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways.

79

Parking: Dynamic Capacities of Car Parks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a series of full-scale investigations into the dynamic characteristics of car parks, undertaken to assist architects and planners of multi-storey and other car parks to calculate the dimensions and to plan the facilities required for ...

P. B. Ellson

1969-01-01

80

Carlsbad Caverns National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) website contains details about Carlsbad Caverns National Park in New Mexico. It highlights the natural resources of the park, such as the wilderness, wildlife and caves. The geologic history and formation of caves is covered in detail. There is a teacher's guide with activities, field trip ideas, and factsheets about the park. Topics covered include rocks, erosion, speleothems, mapping caves, fossils, plants and animals, cave bats and fire. Links are provided for more information.

81

Orienting Park Visitors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To utilize park facilities to their fullest, visitors must be well-oriented to the park's physical layout. The results of a study undertaken at Rocky Mountain National Park indicate that information should be readily accessible and easy to use. (DF)|

Ormrod, Richard K.

1984-01-01

82

Parking 2.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

A host of new smart parking technologies are helping municipalities meet their twin aims of collecting revenue for city services and preventing a small number of cars from monopolizing a limited number of parking slots. These advances are also benefiting motorists by making the tasks of finding a space and paying to park less of a hassle. Some examples include

Willie D. Jones

2006-01-01

83

The Paradox of Parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the Fort Circle Parks of Washington, DC, and also provides examples from other cities to explore the histories, problems, and possibilities of urban parks. As public space, parks are crucial to community and identity. They provide important natural habitats and healthful environments, but they can also become toxic sites. Planners have tried to organize how they

Brett Williams

2006-01-01

84

Name That Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive, learners are introduced to the basic function of Geographic Information System (GIS) maps in relation to national parks. Recognizable park boundaries are presented and learners are given the option to add layers such as lakes, rivers and visitor centers, until the learner is able to identify the park map from a list of choices.

Service, National P.

2013-05-15

85

Capitol Reef National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) website provides an in-depth look at Capitol Reef National Park in Utah. Specifically, this covers the geology and natural resources of the park. There is a general overview of the geology of this area including the Waterpocket fold, Colorado Plateau, Cathedral Valley and erosion. There is a description of various rock colors and how they form, as well as a detailed stratigraphic column illustrating the names, thicknesses, and ancient environments of rocks and formations that exist in the park. The Natural Resources section discusses some of the history and archeology of the park, as well as birds, mammals, plants, reptiles and environmental problems.

86

Orbit control strategy for Lagrange point orbits based on an analytical method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The periodic or quasi-periodic orbits around collinear Lagrange points present many properties that are advantageous for space missions. These Lagrange point orbits are exponentially unstable. On the basis of an analytical method, an orbit control strategy that is designed to eliminate the dominant unstable components of Lagrange point orbits is developed. The proposed strategy enables the derivation of the analytical expression of nonlinear control force. The control parameter of this strategy can be arbitrarily selected provided that the parameter is considerably lower than the negative eigenvalue of motion equations, and that the energy required keeps the same order of magnitude. The periodic or quasi-periodic orbit of controlled equations remains near the periodic or quasi-periodic orbit of uncontrolled equations.

Lü, Jing; Lu, QiShao; Wang, Qi

2013-04-01

87

The National Park Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the National Park Service. It features links to subpages on special topics such as Parks and Recreation, which inludes links to individual national park pages, and History and Culture, which includes archeological, anthropological, and historical material. The Nature and Science pages feature classroom materials and information on the uses of science in protecting and restoring park ecosystems and research projects which are being conducted in the park system. The Interpretation and Education pages include games, online activities, and material for younger students who are researching park topics, as well as classroom materials for teachers. There are also links to the Park Service online bookshop, news articles, and special features.

88

Theme Park Insider  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As summer enters full swing, more and more people will travel to America's numerous amusement parks and traveling carnivals. Quite a few of these people would do well to take a look at the Theme Park Insider website for reviews of various parks and the best (and worst) attractions at each particular place of amusement before they venture onto the open road. Edited by Robert Niles, the site contains reviews of new amusement park rides, an "Accident Watch" (which documents the latest accidents at each park), and reviews of theme park hotels as well. The site also has a number of discussion boards for visitors to chime in with their own take on a number of topics, such as which rides have the longest rides and general amusement park lore.

Niles, Robert.

89

Yellowstone National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website highlights the nature and features found in this park. It provides information about the geology of park (Old Faithful, Mammoth Hot Springs, Norris, Canyon, West Thumb, Bridge Bay, Tower-Roosevelt), geothermal features (hot springs, mud pots, fumaroles, geysers), wildlife (bison, wolves, mountain lions, elk, birds, bears, coyotes), fish, fire, wetland resources, and the famous sand verbena plant found only in Yellowstone. There are also many publications dealing with environmental assessments, project reports and park plans available to download. The history and archeology of the park are covered as well. Live webcams show visitors updated images of Old Faithful, Mammoth Hot Springs and a fire camera on Mt. Washburn. Online tours also take visitors to the Old Faithful area, the South section of the park, the North section of the park and to Mammoth Hot Springs.

90

Parks, Recreation and Public Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews what current research says about the holistic health benefits of park and recreation services, focusing on: health benefits according to park users; physical activities in parks; stress reduction benefits of park use; social support, self-determination, and stress reduction; observing nature in parks and associated benefits; and the…

Ho, Ching-Hua; Payne, Laura; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey

2003-01-01

91

COOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT IN NATIONAL PARKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The last decade has brought many innovations to cooperative park management approaches used by park agencies and aboriginal peoples. This paper briefly reports on cooperative management efforts in six northern Canadian national parks, Wapusk, Nahanni, Tuktuk Nogait, Kluane, Vuntut and Auyuittuq, and two US national parks, Grand Canyon and Badlands. Interviews with park staff, aboriginal representatives and consultants involved

Elizabeth Halpenny; Margaret E. Bowman; Donald Aubrey; Paul F. J. Eagles

92

A Desert Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service site describes the desert and oasis ecosystems of Joshua Tree National Park as well as the cultural history of humans occupying the area. Nature sections describe the animals, plants, cryptobiotic crusts, and the geology of the park. There are sections on environmental factors such as air quality, disturbed lands, exotic species and fire ecology. There is also information on natural history and cultural history education programs provided for different grade levels.

93

Mammoth Cave National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website contains an online park guide, cave tour information, park maps and news, photographs of the caves and trails, and an educational section. Educational resources include planning a field trip to Mammoth Cave, curricula for teachers, fact sheets for kids, an environmental educational program, a glossary of cave terms, information on becoming a Mammoth Cave Junior Ranger, and links to other cave education sites.

94

Necessary conditions for weighted mean convergence of Lagrange interpolation for exponential weights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given a continuous real-valued function f which vanishes outside a fixed finite interval, we establish necessary conditions for weighted mean convergence of Lagrange interpolation for a general class of even weights w which are of exponential decay on the real line or at the endpoints of (-1,1).

Damelin, S. B.; Jung, H. S.; Kwon, K. H.

2001-07-01

95

Pointwise convergence of derivatives of Lagrange interpolation polynomials for exponential weights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a general class of exponential weights on the line and on (-1,1), we study pointwise convergence of the derivatives of Lagrange interpolation. Our weights include even weights of smooth polynomial decay near +/-[infinity] (Freud weights), even weights of faster than smooth polynomial decay near +/-[infinity] (Erdos weights) and even weights which vanish strongly near +/-1, for example Pollaczek type weights.

Damelin, S. B.; Jung, H. S.

2005-01-01

96

Optimization of sandwich structures with respect to local instabilities with MBB-LAGRANGE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MBB-LAGRANGE is a powerful optimization code which allows the optimization of structures. To achieve the optimal design of a structure all special requirements must be fulfilled, i.e., constraints, e.g., stress, strains, or displacements have to be in a feasible range while the objective function, e.g., the structural weight reaches a minimum value. The results are strongly dependent on the optimization constraints which must be fulfilled. In this context local and global stability constraints may be essential for the design process. In the continuing development of MBB-LAGRANGE stability constraints are one of the major topics the MBB-LAGRANGE team is busy developing. One topic is the realization of local stability constraints of sandwich structures which are discussed in this paper. The theoretical background and the integration into the optimization code MBB-LAGRANGE are shown. An example of a helicopter sandwich structure demonstrates the influence of this constraint type in the design process while optimal results are found. These results satisfy all requirements: local stability, stress, and dynamic constraints.

Dobler, W.; Erl, P.; Rapp, H.

97

Detection of Differential Item Functioning Using Lagrange Multiplier Tests. Research Report 96-02.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper it is shown that differential item functioning can be evaluated using the Lagrange multiplier test or C. R. Rao's efficient score test. The test is presented in the framework of a number of item response theory (IRT) models such as the Rasch model, the one-parameter logistic model, the two-parameter logistic model, the generalized…

Glas, Cees A. W.

98

A numerical simulation of hydrodynamic forces of ground-effect problem using Lagranges equation of motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of the potential flow theory, Lagranges equation of motion is used to study the unsteady ground-effect problem. The forces and moments acting on the moving body are solved in terms of the derivatives of added masses in which the generalized Taylors formulae are applied. The singular integral equations used to solve the surface source intensities and their

Shih-An Yang; Pan-An Luh

1998-01-01

99

Lagrange equations for a system of bubbles est a liquid of low viscosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We attempt the description of the motion of a system of bubbles in a low viscosity liquid by means of Lagrange equations with the kinetic energy of an ideal liquid as the Lagrangian function. The acceleration of each bubble is assumed to be small such that the change in velocity) can be neglected. A consideration of the virtual power of

A. M. Golovin; OT OT

1967-01-01

100

Distributed attitude synchronization for multiple rigid bodies with euler-lagrange equations of motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, distributed attitude synchronization problems are considered for multiple rigid bodies with attitude dynamics represented by Euler-Lagrange equations of motion. Three distributed control laws for attitude synchronization are proposed and analyzed. The first control law introduces bounded functions to reduce the required control torque. The second control law applies a passivity approach to remove the requirement for relative

Wei Ren

2007-01-01

101

Reduction of the equations of motion of some nonholonomic Chaplygin systems to Lagrange and Hamilton equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonholonomic Chaplygin systems are considered which have n degrees of freedom and m (m is less than n) first integrals that are linear with respect to velocities. These integrals and a Lagrange function allowing for nonholonomic constraints on the system are assumed to be independent of the first m generalized coordinates. It is shown that, under certain conditions, m linear

N. K. Moshchuk

1986-01-01

102

The complete equivalence of Newton-Euler equations of motion and Lagrange's equations of mixed type  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equivalence of the Newton-Euler (N-E) formalism for the equations of motion with that of Lagrange's equations of the mixed type (LEMT) is pointed out. It is shown that the forms of both types of equations are identical or will be the linear combination of each other both in dynamical terms and in the terms expressing the influence of constraint

Michael Valasek; Vladimir Stejskal

1986-01-01

103

On fractional Euler-Lagrange and Hamilton equations and the fractional generalization of total time derivative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractional mechanics describes both conservative and non-conservative systems. The fractional variational principles gained importance in studying the fractional mechanics and several versions are proposed. In classical mechanics the equivalent Lagrangians play an important role because they admit the same Euler-Lagrange equations. By adding a total time derivative of a suitable function to a given classical Lagrangian or by multiplying with

Dumitru Baleanu; Sami I. Muslih; Eqab M. Rabei

2007-01-01

104

Can a projection method of obtaining equations of motion compete with Lagrange's equations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative technique for deriving the differential equations of motion for problems in classical mechanics is presented. This approach can be used to derive all the same equations of motion that can be derived by use of Lagrange's equations. Advantages of this method are its ease of derivation, its intuitive nature, the physical insights it gives, and the fact that

Dan Scott

1988-01-01

105

Application of "AIC" to Wald and Lagrange Multiplier Tests in Covariance Structure Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some efficient procedures are proposed for using the Akaike Information Criterion (H. Akaike, 1987), an alternative to the conventional chi-square goodness of fit test, in covariance structure analysis based on backward search through the Wald test to impose constraints and forward search through the Lagrange test to release constraints. (SLD)|

Chou, Chih-Ping; Bentler, P. M.

1996-01-01

106

A Riemann-Lagrange Geometrical Model for Multi-Time Relativity and Electromagnetism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper construct a suitable generalized metrical multi-time Lagrange geometrical model for both gravitational and electromagnetic fields, in a general setting. In this construction, the gravitational potentials are described by a distinguished vertical metrical tensor of the form $h^{\\/alpha\\/beta}e^{2\\\\sigma}\\/phi_{ij}$.

Mircea Neagu

2005-01-01

107

Tsallis statistics: averages and a physical interpretation of the Lagrange multiplier \\/beta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tsallis has proposed a generalisation of the standard entropy, which has since been applied to a variety of physical systems. In the canonical ensemble approach that is mostly used, average energy is given by an unnromalised, or normalised, \\/q-expectation value. A Lagrange multiplier \\/beta enforces the energy constraint whose physical interpretation, however, is lacking. Here, we use a microcanonical ensemble

S. Kalyana Rama

2000-01-01

108

Future Trends in Park Protection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The roles of ranger and park police in America's parks have shifted from visitor protection and resources management to visitor management and resources protection. Eight issues facing park police are discussed. (MT)|

Dwyer, William O.; Murrell, Dan S.

1986-01-01

109

IL-16 Antagonists.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In accordance with the present invention, novel IL-16 antagonists, preferably peptides derived from CD4, have been isolated and synthesized. These peptides possess IL-16 antagonistic properties including the ability to selectively bind to IL-16 and inhibi...

D. M. Center H. Kornfeld W. W. Cruikshank

2005-01-01

110

Yellowstone National Park Facts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website provides a fact sheet with a wide range of physical and cultural information. Key topics include general park facts, wildlife, flora, geology, Yellowstone Lake, cultural resources, visitation, facilities, roads, trails, and the latitude/longitude of several significant features.

Park, Yellowstone N.

111

Oregon's first wind park  

SciTech Connect

The bringing on-line of the 1.25 MW wind park at Whiskey Run, Oregon, is reported. The park features twenty-five 50 KW wind turbine generators and is expected to produce about three million kilowatt-hours per year for the Pacific Power and Light system.

Not Available

1984-01-01

112

Mammoth Cave National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The homepage of Mammoth Cave National Park provides visitors with information on tour schedules, surface activities, lodging and camping, and tips on touring caves. Teachers can access an extensive selection of curricular materials, fact sheets and activities for kids, a glossary, and links to other educational programs and sites. Other materials include maps and publications, an image gallery, and links to the park's newsletter.

113

Splendor In The Parks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Civilization is more and more intruding on the esthetic and recreational resources of the National Park System. Increased attention must be paid to controlling noise, pollution, and even the effects of urban lighting which detract from the enjoyment of the parks. (RE)|

Smith, Anthony Wayne

1979-01-01

114

Yellowstone National Park Interactive Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park Map is a handy way to quickly find locations and buildings located in the park. It is currently the most detailed map of Yellowstone national park that can be viewed online. The pull down menu has Yellowstone features such as geyser basins, campgrounds, trails, mountains, and historical points and park structures. Popular geysers, and park locations such as Norris geyser basin, Yellowstone visitor centers, park housing, lodging, and park dining can be easily found. All Yellowstone National Park named structures are indexed so you can easily find the sites that you want to locate.

Census, Nps S.

115

MBB-LAGRANGE: A general structural reliability and optimization structural system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MBB-LAGRANGE is a program system which allows the optimization of general structural systems. The geometry and properties of these structures are idealized by a finite element model with isotropic, orthotropic, anisotropic and composite materials. The design variables and a variety of constraints characterize the optimization model. The design variables are element thicknesses, cross sections, concentrated masses and fiber angles. The design can be restricted with respect to statics (e.g., stresses, displacements), dynamics (natural frequencies, dynamic response) and aeroelastics (efficiencies, flutter speed). In general the aim is to minimize the structure weight subject to the constraints. But often it is necessary to get only a feasible design. The highlights of the program system are: simultaneous optimization, a wide range of mathematical programming algorithms, a modular architecture within computer aided engineering environment. A lot of large scale problems, especially space and aircraft structures, demonstrate the power of MBB-LAGRANGE.

Zotemantel, Rainer

1991-09-01

116

Lagrange-mesh calculation of a three-body model for 6He  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regularized Lagrange-mesh technique is applied to a calculation of the ? + n + n three-body system with effective ?-neutron and neutron-neutron forces. With a mixed expansion in terms of spherical harmonics for the angular parts of the ground-state wave function, and of Lagrange functions for the radial parts, a variational calculation takes the form of a mesh calculation with the help of the Gauss-Laguerre quadrature. The resulting eigenvalue problem is simple to program and involves large but sparse matrices. With matrices of dimension 3400, the binding energy is obtained within 0.02 MeV of the extrapolated value 0.75 MeV for the considered forces. Present address: AIB-Vinçotte Nucléaire, Avenue du Roi 157, B 1060 Brussels, Belgium.

Baye, D.; Kruglanski, M.; Vincke, M.

1994-06-01

117

On reflection symmetry and its application to the Euler-Lagrange equations in fractional mechanics.  

PubMed

We study the properties of fractional differentiation with respect to the reflection symmetry in a finite interval. The representation and integration formulae are derived for symmetric and anti-symmetric fractional derivatives, both of the Riemann-Liouville and Caputo type. The action dependent on the left-sided Caputo derivatives of orders in the range (1,2) is considered and we derive the Euler-Lagrange equations for the symmetric and anti-symmetric part of the trajectory. The procedure is illustrated with an example of the action dependent linearly on fractional velocities. For the obtained Euler-Lagrange system, we discuss its localization resulting from the subsequent symmetrization of the action. PMID:23547223

Klimek, Ma?gorzata

2013-04-01

118

Lie symmetrical perturbation and adiabatic invariants of generalized Hojman type for Lagrange systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the invariance of differential equations under infinitesimal transformations of group, Lie symmetries, exact invariants, perturbation to the symmetries and adiabatic invariants in form of non-Noether for a Lagrange system are presented. Firstly, the exact invariants of generalized Hojman type led directly by Lie symmetries for a Lagrange system without perturbations are given. Then, on the basis of the concepts of Lie symmetries and higher order adiabatic invariants of a mechanical system, the perturbation of Lie symmetries for the system with the action of small disturbance is investigated, the adiabatic invariants of generalized Hojman type for the system are directly obtained, the conditions for existence of the adiabatic invariants and their forms are proved. Finally an example is presented to illustrate these results.

Luo, Shao-Kai; Chen, Xiang-Wei; Guo, Yong-Xin

2007-11-01

119

Unconditional global exponential stability in Lagrange sense of genetic regulatory networks with SUM regulatory logic  

PubMed Central

In this paper, the global exponential stability in Lagrange sense for genetic regulatory networks (GRNs) with SUM regulatory logic is firstly studied. By constructing appropriate Lyapunov-like functions, several criteria are presented for the boundedness, ultimate boundedness and global exponential attractivity of GRNs. It can be obtained that GRNs with SUM regulatory logic are unconditionally globally exponentially stable in Lagrange sense. These results can be applied to analyze monostable as well as multistable networks. Furthermore, to analyze the stability for GRNs more comprehensively, the existence of equilibrium point of GRNs is proved, and some sufficient conditions of the global exponential stability in Lyapunov sense for GRNs are derived. Finally two numerical examples are given to illustrate the application of the obtained results.

Luo, Qi; Liao, Xiaoxin

2010-01-01

120

A new method of finding the fractional Euler-Lagrange and Hamilton equations within Caputo fractional derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we have investigated the fractional Caputo derivative of a composition function. The obtained results were applied to investigate the fractional Euler-Lagrange and Hamilton equations for constrained systems. The approach was applied within an illustrative.

Baleanu, Dumitru; Trujillo, Juan I.

2010-05-01

121

The global theme park industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the dimensions and practices that have shaped the present global theme park industry. The reader is first introduced to the characteristics of the global theme park industry. Following a historical review of the evolution of theme parks, the paper reports on the scope of the global theme park industry, according

Ady Milman

2010-01-01

122

Are bilateral real exchange rates stationary? Evidence from Lagrange multiplier unit root tests for India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the stationarity of India's real exchange rate vis-à-vis 16 of its major trading partner countries for the period 1960–2000. Application of the conventional ADF unit root test, the Lagrange multiplier (LM) unit root test with one structural break, and the LM unit root test with two structural breaks provides evidence that India's exchange rate vis-à-vis 15 out

Paresh Kumar Narayan

2006-01-01

123

To derive Lagrange equations of nonholonomic systems without using the Chetaev conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper derives the equation of motion for a class of nonholonomic dynamical systems from the d’Alembert–Lagrange equation. In this paper, the relation d?=?d is assumed only for those generalized coordinates whose variations are independent. For the remaining coordinates, the transpositional relations are derived by means of mathematics method, which are different from the Chetaev condition. Several examples are

Puyun Gao

2005-01-01

124

The equations of Lagrange written for a non-material volume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Lagrange equations are extended with respect to a non-material volume which instantaneously coincides with some material volume of a continuous body. The surface of the non-material volume is allowed to move at a velocity which is different from the velocity of the material surface. The non-material volume thus represents an arbitrarily moving control volume in the terminology of

H. Irschik; H. J. Holl

2002-01-01

125

A distributed Lagrange multiplier\\/fictitious domain method for particulate flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new Lagrange-multiplier based fictitious-domain method is presented for the direct numerical simulation of viscous incompressible flow with suspended solid particles. The method uses a finite-element discretization in space and an operator-splitting technique for discretization in time. The linearly constrained quadratic minimization problems which arise from this splitting are solved using conjugate-gradient algorithms.A key feature of the method is that

R. Glowinski; T.-W. Pan; T. I. Hesla; D. D. Joseph

1999-01-01

126

Lagrange\\/Vandermonde MUI eliminating user codes for quasi-synchronous CDMA in unknown multipath  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family of codes for low-complexity quasi-synchronous code division multiple access (CDMA) systems is developed in order to eliminate multiuser interference (MUI) completely in the presence of unknown and even rapidly varying multipath. Judiciously designed precomputable symbol-periodic user codes, which we term Lagrange or Vandermonde, and the corresponding linear receivers offer a generalization of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), which

Anna Scaglione; Georgios B. Giannakis; Sergio Barbarossa

2000-01-01

127

Lagrange equilibrium points in celestial mechanics and nonspreading wave packets for strongly driven Rydberg electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We exhibit analytically and confirm numerically the existence of stable, though nonstationary, quantum states of electrons moving on circular orbits that are trapped in an effective potential well made of the Coulomb potential and the rotating electric field produced by a strong circularly polarized electromagnetic wave. These states are direct counterparts of the Trojans-two clusters of asteroids moving around the Sun in the vicinity of the stable Lagrange points in the Sun-Jupiter two-body system.

Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Kali?ski, Maciej; Eberly, J. H.

1994-09-01

128

A suggested trajectory for a Venus-sun, earth-sun Lagrange points mission, Vela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility is suggested of investigating the existence of small, as-yet undiscovered, asteroids orbiting in the solar system near the earth-sun or Venus-sun stable Lagrange points by means of a spacecraft which traverses these regions. The type of trajectory suggested lies in the ecliptic plane and has a period of 5\\/6 years and a perihelion at the Venus orbital distance.

D. F. Bender

1979-01-01

129

A stable feedback control of the buffer state using the controlled Lagrange multiplier method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a stable feedback control algorithm of the buffer state using the controlled Lagrange multiplier in combined rate-distortion characteristics for a buffer-constrained adaptive quantization. The proposed algorithm is established using feedback control theory and is described by the state equation with nonlinearity in the feedback path. The nonlinearity of the state equation comes from the average distortion-rate curve of

Jinho Choi

1994-01-01

130

Discrete Time Lagrangian Mechanics on Lie Groups,with an Application to the Lagrange Top  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop the theory of discrete time Lagrangian mechanics on Lie groups, originated in the work of Veselov and Moser, and the theory of Lagrangian reduction in the discrete time setting. The results thus obtained are applied to the investigation of an integrable time discretization of a famous integrable system of classical mechanics - the Lagrange top. We recall the derivation of the Euler-Poinsot equations of motion both in the frame moving with the body and in the rest frame (the latter ones being less widely known). We find a discrete time Lagrange function turning into the known continuous time Lagrangian in the continuous limit, and elaborate both descriptions of the resulting discrete time system, namely in the body frame and in the rest frame. This system naturally inherits Poisson properties of the continuous time system, the integrals of motion being deformed. The discrete time Lax representations are also found. Kirchhoff's kinetic analogy between elastic curves and motions of the Lagrange top is also generalised to the discrete context.

Bobenko, A. I.; Suris, Yu. B.

131

Jurassic Park Safety Audit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the first 30 minutes of the film Jurassic Park, the student will audit it for violations of safety rules and regulations, OSHA violations, and violations of HASP's. Access to the activity required free and quick registration with ATEEC.

2007-09-18

132

Geology Fieldnotes: Great Basin National Park, Nevada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Great Basin National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, visitor information, and teacher features (educational resources and links for teaching geology using National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the region's biogeography, glacial history, and the Lehman Caves. A park map and a features/relief map of the Great Basin National Park are included.

133

BACK AND FORTH ERROR COMPENSATION AND CORRECTION METHODS FOR SEMI-LAGRANGING SCHEMES WITH APPLICATION TO INTERFACE COMPUTATION USING LEVEL SET METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semi-Lagranging schemes have been explored by several authors recently for trans- port problems in particular for moving interfaces using level set method. We incorporate the back- ward error compensation method developed in (2) into the semi-Lagranging schemes with almost the same simplicity and three times the complexity of a rst order semi-Lagranging scheme but improve the order of accuracy. When

TODD F. DUPONT; YINGJIE LIUy

134

IL-4 EXACERBATES ANAPHYLAXIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies were established to determine if IL-4, a cytokine critical for inducing allergic responses, contributes to the effector phase of allergy. Pretreatment of mice with IL-4 or the related cytokine, IL-13, rapidly and dramatically increased the severity of anaphylaxis induced by cross-linking Fc...

135

Geology of National Parks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

Stoffer, Philip W.

2008-01-01

136

A second order Laplace-Lagrange theory applied to the uranian satellite system.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer algebra is used to derive analytical expressions for the elements of a secular perturbation theory of the second order in the masses. The linear part of this theory is incorporated into the standard Laplace-Lagrange solution which is then applied to the motion of the uranian satellites. This enables the effects of mean motion near-resonances in this system to be modelled. The results are in very good agreement with the filtered output of a numerical integration by Malhotra et al. (1989A&A...221..348M). The additional complexities of studying the outer solar system using a similar approach are discussed.

Christou, A. A.; Murray, C. D.

1997-11-01

137

Tour of Park Geology: Shoreline Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site provides links to shoreline geology fieldnotes for National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas. When appropriate, fieldnotes include visitor information, geology, maps, photographs, multimedia resources, geologic research, and teacher features (lessons for teaching geology with National Park examples). Some of the parks included on this site: Acadia National Park, Everglades National Park, and Padre Island National Seashore.

138

Geology Fieldnotes: Catoctin Mountain Park, Maryland  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains Catoctin Mountain Park information, a park map, and visitor information. A general cultural history of the park is given, from the first human inhabitants to its development into a park. Also mentioned are recreational attractions and Cunningham Falls State Park, located next to Catoctin. This park lies in the Appalachian Mountain chain.

139

Parking guidance and information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As urban traffic problems become even more complex, the simple, small-scale parking lot guidance systems used heretofore are no longer adequate for solving urban traffic problems caused by the lack of parking spaces as cars driven by would-be shoppers, office workers, and tourists drive around looking for an empty lot or parking spot. These problems have created a demand for

A. Sakai; K. Mizuno; T. Sugimoto; T. Okuda

1995-01-01

140

Park Buffer Zone Reforestation Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Sumatra holds extremely high biodiversity, yet its biodiversity is some of the most endangered on Earth, threatened by rapid deforestation. Despite their protected status, some national parks in Indonesia are under severe threatof deforestation due to lack of support from local governments,and communities. Batang Gadis National Park (BGNP) is one of the first national parks established through a “bottom-up”

Akiko Ishii

2007-01-01

141

Careers in Parks and Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As reported in the document, the park and recreation profession, a growing field, emphasizes involving people in meaningful leisure activities. This service profession offers varied career opportunities in the areas of public recreation, park management, conservation and outdoor recreation, and park and resource planning. Positions are also…

Oregon Univ., Eugene. Center of Leisure Studies.

142

Physical activity, park access, and park use among California adolescents.  

PubMed

In California, 2.15 million adolescents (62.9%) do not engage in at least 60 minutes of physical activity five or more days per week. Adolescents who visited a park in the past month and those who live in a park service area are more likely to meet this goal. Lower-income California adolescents are less likely to visit local parks and more likely to believe local parks are unsafe. Actions by state and local policymakers to increase park access and attractiveness, especially to underserved populations, may be an effective way to promote physical activity among California's adolescents. PMID:23599982

Babey, Susan H; Wolstein, Joelle; Krumholz, Samuel; Robertson, Breece; Diamant, Allison L

2013-03-01

143

Energy Skate Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity focuses on the conservation of energy solely between gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy. Students work with a virtual laboratory set at a skate park. They make predictions of graphs before they use the simulation to create graphs of energy vs. time under different conditions.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

144

Huntington Industrial Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huntington Industrial Park in Olneyville had kept industry nearby, but when Gorham Manufacturing Company left the area Olneyville lost importance as a freight rail hub. Further, Route 10 was constructed, physically separating the West End from the rest of the city.

Chet Smolski

1985-01-01

145

Llewellyn Park, suburban Idyll  

Microsoft Academic Search

Llewellyn Park, created by a group of progressive entrepreneurs and garden enthusiasts in 1850, was the first romantically planned suburb in the USA (figure 1). The initiator of the project, Llewellyn Haskell, saw an economic opportunity in the increasing anti-urbanism of the middle class and the development of a nascent passenger rail service. But Haskell was also a progressive businessman

Susan Henderson

1987-01-01

146

Parks, wilderness and recreation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parks and wilderness are a unique experiment in public ownership and management with no significant counterparts in our national experience. Despite occasional controversy, the propriety of large-scale federal land ownership and management was a settled issue long before the era of big national government or federal regulation began. This gave rise to a paradox with greater continuity in federal policy

Sax

1984-01-01

147

Parking, People, and Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study of how off-street parking requirements affect urban form, we begin by analyzing the relationship between population density and streets in cities. We find that denser cities devote a greater share of their land to streets, but also have less street space per person. This relationship results in part from the difficulty of constructing new streets in built-out

Michael Manville; Donald Shoup

2005-01-01

148

Parks or Prisons?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a simulation activity in which students assume the role of grizzly bears in Banff National Park. Concepts such as species diversity, fitness, natural selection, habitat loss, extinction, and population dynamics are discussed. Children learn how human activities can affect the bear's reproductive success. Lists materials, instructional…

Thomson, Gareth

1998-01-01

149

Parks or Prisons?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a simulation activity in which students assume the role of grizzly bears in Banff National Park. Concepts such as species diversity, fitness, natural selection, habitat loss, extinction, and population dynamics are discussed. Children learn how human activities can affect the bear's reproductive success. Lists materials, instructional…

Thomson, Gareth

1998-01-01

150

Yellowstone National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yellowstone National Park was established on March 1, 1872, as the first national park in the world. The overwhelming and unique beauty found in this natural wonder is truly difficult to describe.This Topic In Depth begin with the excellent National Park Service's (1) official Yellowstone Web Site, which contains the park's history, virtual field trips, park information, visitor guides, web cams, kids pages, and more. The next site offered by EarthTalk Studios is called Yellowstone Geographic. This extensive and graphically reliant site contains superb interactive activities related to the park and comes close to its goal of being "the best Yellowstone Web Site on the planet." The third site from UnMuseum.org called Weird Geology: Geysers explores the workings of Yellowstone's famous geysers with descriptions, photographs, illustrations, and a movie of an eruption. The next site from Exploratorium is a learning activity called Geyser: Cyclic Hot Water Fountain. With the help of their teacher, students build a working model of a geyser from common chemical equipment. From the University of Michigan, Meg Streepey's Geysers and the Earth's Plumbing Systems Web Site describes (for more advanced students) how geysers work, including how to analyze their thermal and hydrologic regimes. Another research site, from the University of Utah's College of Mines and Earth Sciences, is the GPS Surveys of the Yellowstone Hotspot and the Wasatch Fault, Utah. Objectives of the study are "to measure and understand the spatial and temporal variations of the crustal deformation produced by the interaction between lithospheric plate motion and the asthenospheric hotspot." The last two sites are from the USGS, the first of which is the Yellowstone River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment Program site. It contains a project description, available data, and other relevant information. The last site, Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, is a facility that is designed for observing volcanic and earthquake activity in the park. This site also contains a project description, volcanic data, maps, descriptions of volcanic rock, a frequently asked questions link, and more.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

151

A three-dimensional free-Lagrange code for multimaterial flow simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A time-dependent, three-dimensional, compressible, multicomponent, free-Lagrange code is currently under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The code uses fixed-mass particles (called mass points) surrounded by median Lagrangian cells. These mass points are free to change their nearest-neighbor connections as they follow the fluid motion, which ensures accuracy in the differencing of equations and allows simulation of flows with extreme distortions. All variables, including velocity, are mass-point centered and time-advancement is performed using the finite-volume technique. The code conserves mass, momentum, and energy exactly, except in some pathological situations. The Voronoi connections algorithm were utilized for Delaunay tetrahedralization of the median mesh during mesh generations and mesh reconnections. The code is highly vectorized and utilizes all eight processors on a Cray YMP. Also, the code was recently mapped to the massively parallel Connection Machine. Some of the applications for the free-Lagrange method include atomspheric and ocean-circulation models, oil-reservoir and high-velocity impact simulations. These applications are in addition to the standard model problems of high-explosive driven shock-wave problems that involve high degree of deformation, shear flow, and turbulent mixing.

Sahota, M. S.; Trease, H. E.

152

A Communication Hub in Lagrange L1 fo r Opening the Area to Small Satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lagrange points L1 and L2 of the Sun-Earth systems, both located at 1.5 million kilometres from the Earth, are the best locations for scientific missions dedicated to solar studies (L1 preferably) or astronomy and astrophysics (L2 preferably). The geometry with respect to the Sun and the Earth is very stable, as well as the space environment. The propulsion budget that is needed to reach these points, starting from an Earth orbit, is less than what is required for a geostationary orbit. The major drawback of these locations is that they are far from the Earth, which poses severe constraints on the communication system with the ground stations, mainly for receiving the scientific telemetry. Up to now, each spacecraft located at L1 or L2 (SOHO, ACE, MAP and soon HERSCHEL, PLANCK, JWST...) is quite an heavy spacecraft (thousands of kilograms) and the receiving stations on the ground are large deep space dishes. To suppress this communication bottleneck and allow these Lagrange points to be used by small satellites, it is proposed in this paper to provide wide band telemetry between small user spacecraft and ground stations through a relay satellite, which is then described. Finally, we emphasize that the adaptation of well qualified microsatellite platforms, such as the MYRIADE ones developed by CNES, can be quite simple for using them around L1, even if they have been designed for Low Earth Orbit missions.

Prado, J.-Y.; Hinglais, E.

2008-08-01

153

Augmented Lagrange Hopfield network for solving economic dispatch problem in competitive environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an augmented Lagrange Hopfield network (ALHN) for solving economic dispatch (ED) problem in the competitive environment. The proposed ALHN is a continuous Hopfield network with its energy function based on augmented Lagrange function for efficiently dealing with constrained optimization problems. The ALHN method can overcome the drawbacks of the conventional Hopfield network such as local optimum, long computational time, and linear constraints. The proposed method is used for solving the ED problem with two revenue models of revenue based on payment for power delivered and payment for reserve allocated. The proposed ALHN has been tested on two systems of 3 units and 10 units for the two considered revenue models. The obtained results from the proposed methods are compared to those from differential evolution (DE) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) methods. The result comparison has indicated that the proposed method is very efficient for solving the problem. Therefore, the proposed ALHN could be a favorable tool for ED problem in the competitive environment.

Vo, Dieu Ngoc; Ongsakul, Weerakorn; Nguyen, Khai Phuc

2012-11-01

154

Tour of Park Geology: Fossils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service Geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas that contain fossils. Where appropriate, for each park, links are provided to park geology, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as the Grand Canyon, Dinosaur National Monument, Yellowstone, and Death Valley, along with less well-known areas such as the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument in Oregon.

155

A Lagrange multiplier approach for excited state properties through intermediate Hamiltonian formulation of Fock space multireference coupled-cluster theory.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a formulation based on Lagrange multiplier approach for efficient evaluation of excited state energy derivatives in Fock space coupled cluster theory within the intermediate Hamiltonian framework. The formulation is applied to derive the explicit generic expressions up to second order energy derivatives for [1, 1] sector of Fock space with singles and doubles approximation. Its advantage, efficiency, and interconnection in comparison to the Lagrange multiplier approach in traditional formulation of Fock space, which is built on the concept of Bloch equation based effective Hamiltonian, has been discussed. Computational strategy for their implementation has also been discussed in some detail. PMID:23968073

Gupta, Jitendra; Vaval, Nayana; Pal, Sourav

2013-08-21

156

Il problema del litio.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contents: 1. Introduzione. 2. La nucleosintesi del Big Bang. 3. Il litio nelle stelle di popolazione II. 4. I modelli stellari standard. 5. Il litio negli ammassi aperti. 6. Meccanismi di distruzione "non standard". 7. I modelli non-standard applicati alla popolazione II. 8. L'evoluzione Galattica del litio. 9. Quali stelle producono litio? 10. Il litio come elemento chiave per dare un nome agli oggetti stellari più minuscoli. 11. Conclusioni.

D'Antona, F.

1995-03-01

157

Parallel Heterogeneous Mesh Refinement for Multidimensional Convection-Diffusion Equations Using AN Euler-Lagrange Method.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop an efficient finite differenced numerical solution for the two-space dimension Burgers' equation, and the viscous gas dynamics equations. Our numerical solution efficiently includes the real viscous terms that model the behavior of shock, internal and boundary layers. First the equations are advanced on a coarse mesh subject to a hyperbolic stability condition. Regions of significant parabolic activity are identified using a new parabolic threshold criterion which requires no special boundary treatment. The coarse mesh is dynamically decomposed and the mesh is refined in these regions. A new biased clustering algorithm is introduced which allows tailoring the geometry of the refined meshes to the underlying machine architecture or enhancing the convergence speed of iterative methods across overlapping meshes. The decomposition is heterogeneous in the sense that the problem formulation of the equations as well as the solution methods may vary from mesh to mesh. In particular, a mixed Euler-Lagrange explicit-implicit method is developed that explicitly advances the coarse mesh relative to an Eulerian reference frame, and implicitly advances the refined meshes relative to moving Lagrangian reference frames. On the refined meshes that surround regions of significant parabolic activity, the method is second order accurate in space. A second order interpolation step from the moving refined Lagrange mesh to a corresponding Lagrange mesh, whose image in the Eulerian reference frame coincides with the original mesh refinement, preserves this spatial accuracy in the Eulerian reference frame. Schwartz iterations are used between overlapping refined meshes to communicate the interdependence of the implicit solution method that has been artificially separated into independent overlapping refined meshes to allow parallel processing. The domain decomposition allows to distribute computational work across a set of processors. The code executes in parallel on the shared memory Cray-2. An application code performance metric based on parallel throughout is introduced to evaluate performance. A new data structure, a mixed directed-undirected graph, is used which couples data flow asynchronous needs will procedural language scheduling needs in a parallel environment, and is used to manage both the domain decomposition communications and parallel scheduling. Multidimensional memory is simulated to illustrate its conceptual correctness for this application. The results illustrate the efficiency and appropriateness of this new numerical solution.

Perkins, Arlene Louise

158

MOUNTAIN BIKES AND METROPOLITAN PARK DISTRICTS: ISSUES AND TRENDS IDENTIFIED BY STATE PARKS AND STATE PARK DISTRICTS IN OHIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored selected issues and trends related to mountain biking within Ohio State Parks and Park Districts. A convenience sample of 21 State Parks and 26 Park Districts completed a 24-item survey assessing mountain bike: (a) access, (b) activity levels, (c) planning, and (d) management. Results indicated that 86 percent of State Parks participating in the study allowed on-road

Eric L. Longsdorf

159

A numerical method for solving the transient multidimensional population balance equation using an Euler–Lagrange formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical method was developed to solve the population balance equation for transient multidimensional problems including particle–particle interactions. The population balance equation was written in a mixed Euler–Lagrange formulation which was solved using the discretization method that represents the number density function by impulse functions, an operator splitting method and a remeshing procedure for the internal variable that conserves the

F. B. Campos; P. L. C. Lage

2003-01-01

160

Convergence of the Lagrange-Galerkin method for the Equations Modelling the Motion of a Fluid-Rigid System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider a Lagrange-Galerkin scheme to approximate a two dimensional ?uid-rigid body problem. The equations of the system are the Navier- Stokes equations in the ?uid part, coupled with ordinary difierential equations for the dynamics of the rigid body. In this problem, the equations of the ?uid are written in a domain whose variation is one of

Jorge San Mart

161

First integral of the Euler-Lagrange equation and boundary conditions for stochastic processes: Bistable potential driven by colored noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting from the variational problem of finding the maximum probability path, which is obtained by applying a condition of a mobile end point of the extremal path, we set a first integral of the Euler-Lagrange (EL) equation; this constant of motion, together with appropriate boundary conditions, leads to an initial value problem. We consider the one-dimensional stochastic process of a

Emilio Cortés

1996-01-01

162

A study of a rotating rod carrying a collar using Lagrange's equation of motion and variational calculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we use Lagrange's equation of motion to study a rotating rod carrying a collar. The focus is on how the shape of the rod affects the velocity of the collar. The calculus of variations is used to find the shape that gives the least time of travel along the rod.

Roland Ribberfors; Andreas Rietz

2000-01-01

163

On the first integral of the Euler-Lagrange equation, boundary conditions and escape rates for stochastic processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the path integral formalism for stochastic processes, we study formal properties of the extremal path, the Euler-Lagrange (E-L) equation and a first integral of it. A special interest is focused in the connection between this first integral and the boundary conditions. We are interested in the maximum probability for the variable to attain a given value, or escape rate

Emilio Cortés

1996-01-01

164

76 FR 77131 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park AGENCY: National Park...and certain recreational activities in Yellowstone National Park for the 2011-2012 winter...require snowmobiles and snowcoaches in Yellowstone to be accompanied by a commercial...

2011-12-12

165

Error estimates of Lagrange interpolation and orthonormal expansions for Freud weights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let Sn[f] be the nth partial sum of the orthonormal polynomials expansion with respect to a Freud weight. Then we obtain sufficient conditions for the boundedness of Sn[f] and discuss the speed of the convergence of Sn[f] in weighted Lp space. We also find sufficient conditions for the boundedness of the Lagrange interpolation polynomial Ln[f], whose nodal points are the zeros of orthonormal polynomials with respect to a Freud weight. In particular, if W(x)=e-(1/2)x2 is the Hermite weight function, then we obtain sufficient conditions for the inequalities to hold:andwhere and k=0,1,2...,r.

Kwon, K. H.; Lee, D. W.

2001-08-01

166

Post-Newtonian effects on Lagrange's equilateral triangular solution for the three-body problem  

SciTech Connect

Continuing work initiated in earlier publications [Yamada, Asada, Phys. Rev. D 82, 104019 (2010); ibid.83, 024040 (2011)], we investigate the post-Newtonian effects on Lagrange's equilateral triangular solution for the three-body problem. For three finite masses, it is found that the equilateral triangular configuration satisfies the post-Newtonian equation of motion in general relativity, if and only if all three masses are equal. When a test mass is included, the equilateral configuration is possible for two cases: (1) one mass is finite and the other two are zero, or (2) two of the masses are finite and equal, and the third one is zero, namely, a symmetric binary with a test mass. The angular velocity of the post-Newtonian equilateral triangular configuration is always smaller than the Newtonian one, provided that the masses and the side length are the same.

Ichita, Takumi; Yamada, Kei; Asada, Hideki [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan)

2011-04-15

167

Augmented Lagrange methods for quasi-incompressible materials--applications to soft biological tissue.  

PubMed

Arterial walls in the healthy physiological regime are characterized by quasi-incompressible, anisotropic, hyperelastic material behavior. Polyconvex material functions representing such materials typically incorporate a penalty function to account for the incompressibility. Unfortunately, the penalty will affect the conditioning of the stiffness matrices. For high penalty parameters, the performance of iterative solvers will degrade, and when direct solvers are used, the quality of the solutions will deteriorate. In this paper, an augmented Lagrange approach is used to cope with the quasi-incompressibility condition. Here, the penalty parameter can be chosen much smaller, and as a consequence, the arising linear systems of equations have better properties. An improved convergence is then observed for the finite element tearing and interconnecting-dual primal domain decomposition method, which is used as an iterative solver. Numerical results for an arterial geometry obtained from ultrasound imaging are presented. PMID:23345136

Brinkhues, S; Klawonn, A; Rheinbach, O; Schröder, J

2012-08-02

168

A Lagrange multiplier-based formulation to model sliding and rolling friction problems in ANSYS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Friction is a very complex phenomenon that occurs between bodies in contact. Friction and its effects have been studied by researchers for hundreds of years. Most mechanical systems look to reduce friction because it hampers system performance. However, friction is desired in certain important applications such as turbine blades, built-up structures and transportation systems. Dry friction is used in such cases as a damping or isolation technique. The inexpensive, environmentally robust nature of friction make it a popular choice as a passive damping technique. However, due to its inherently complex nature, friction modeling presents considerable challenges to designers. This dissertation presents a Lagrange multiplier-based approach called the Microslip Superelement (MSE) approach to model partial slip at the interface. The formulation has been implemented in the ANSYS framework and studies sliding and rolling contact problems. A particular application to turbine blade clamping is presented and comparisons are made with experimental benchmark data.

Phadke, Rahul A.

169

Non-traditional stochastic models for ocean waves. Lagrange models and nested SPDE models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present two flexible stochastic models for 2D and 3D ocean waves with potential to reproduce severe and non-homogeneous sea conditions. The first family consists of generalized Lagrange models for the movements of individual water particles. These models can generate crest-trough and front-back statistically asymmetric waves, with the same degree of asymmetry as measured ocean waves. They are still in the Gaussian family and it is possible to calculate different slope distributions exactly from a wave energy spectrum. The second model is a random field model that is generated by a system of nested stochastic partial differential equations. This model can be adapted to spatially non-homogeneous sea conditions and it can approximate standard wave spectra. One advantage with this model is that Hilbert space approximations can be used to obtain computationally efficient representations with Markov-type properties that facilitate the use of sparse matrix techniques in simulation and estimation.

Lindgren, G.; Bolin, D.; Lindgren, F.

2010-07-01

170

Design of multichannel DWDM fiber Bragg grating filters by Lagrange multiplier constrained optimization.  

PubMed

We present the synthesis of multi-channel fiber Bragg grating (MCFBG) filters for dense wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) application by using a simple optimization approach based on a Lagrange multiplier optimization (LMO) method. We demonstrate for the first time that the LMO method can be used to constrain various parameters of the designed MCFBG filters for practical application demands and fabrication requirements. The designed filters have a number of merits, i.e., flat-top and low dispersion spectral response as well as single stage. Above all, the maximum amplitude of the index modulation profiles of the designed MCFBGs can be substantially reduced under the applied constrained condition. The simulation results demonstrate that the LMO algorithm can provide a potential alternative for complex fiber grating filter design problems. PMID:19529515

Lee, Cheng-Ling; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Kao, Yee-Mou

2006-11-13

171

Testing of Lagrange multiplier damped least-squares control algorithm for woofer-tweeter adaptive optics  

PubMed Central

A Lagrange multiplier-based damped least-squares control algorithm for woofer-tweeter (W-T) dual deformable-mirror (DM) adaptive optics (AO) is tested with a breadboard system. We show that the algorithm can complementarily command the two DMs to correct wavefront aberrations within a single optimization process: the woofer DM correcting the high-stroke, low-order aberrations, and the tweeter DM correcting the low-stroke, high-order aberrations. The optimal damping factor for a DM is found to be the median of the eigenvalue spectrum of the influence matrix of that DM. Wavefront control accuracy is maximized with the optimized control parameters. For the breadboard system, the residual wavefront error can be controlled to the precision of 0.03 ?m in root mean square. The W-T dual-DM AO has applications in both ophthalmology and astronomy.

Zou, Weiyao; Burns, Stephen A.

2012-01-01

172

Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique  

SciTech Connect

Fluid particulate flows are common phenomena in nature and industry. Modeling of such flows at micro and macro levels as well establishing relationships between these approaches are needed to understand properties of the particulate matter. We propose a computational technique based on the direct numerical simulation of the particulate flows. The numerical method is based on the distributed Lagrange multiplier technique following the ideas of Glowinski et al. (1999). Each particle is explicitly resolved on an Eulerian grid as a separate domain, using solid volume fractions. The fluid equations are solved through the entire computational domain, however, Lagrange multiplier constrains are applied inside the particle domain such that the fluid within any volume associated with a solid particle moves as an incompressible rigid body. Mutual forces for the fluid-particle interactions are internal to the system. Particles interact with the fluid via fluid dynamic equations, resulting in implicit fluid-rigid-body coupling relations that produce realistic fluid flow around the particles (i.e., no-slip boundary conditions). The particle-particle interactions are implemented using explicit force-displacement interactions for frictional inelastic particles similar to the DEM method of Cundall et al. (1979) with some modifications using a volume of an overlapping region as an input to the contact forces. The method is flexible enough to handle arbitrary particle shapes and size distributions. A parallel implementation of the method is based on the SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure) library, which allows handling of large amounts of rigid particles and enables local grid refinement. Accuracy and convergence of the presented method has been tested against known solutions for a falling sphere as well as by examining fluid flows through stationary particle beds (periodic and cubic packing). To evaluate code performance and validate particle contact physics algorithm, we performed simulations of a representative experiment conducted at the University of California at Berkley for pebble flow through a narrow opening.

Kanarska, Y

2010-03-24

173

Tour of Park Geology: Human Use Sites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site provides links to geolgy field notes about National Parks, National Monuments, and National Recreation Areas having to do with geology and human use (such as mining). Information includes geology, photographs, multimedia tools, park maps, visitor information, geologic research, and additional links. Parks covered include Klondike Gold Rush National Historic Park, Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument, and more.

174

Geology of Badlands National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is an introduction to the 75 million years of accumulation and intermittent periods of erosion that has resulted in the Badlands National Park. The history of the Oglicene beds of the Park, one of the world's richest vertebrate fossil sites, is also described. A downloadable PDF that describes the erosion that is responsible for the geology of the Park in more detail is linked to the site.

National Park Service (NPS)

175

T PARK: AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE FOR SECURITY IN PUBLIC PARKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present joint research activities in com- puter vision and sensor networks for a distributed surveil- lance of urban parks. Distributed visual surveillance of ur- ban environments is one of the most interesting scenario in Ambient Intelligence; in addition, the automated monitor- ing of public parks, often crowded by children and adults, is still a very difficult

Luca Benini; Elisabetta Farella

176

Light Houses of the National Park Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The group of lighthouses investigated are those in and around National Park areas, although not necessarily owned or maintained by the National Park Service. Those lighthouses included in the study which are outside park boundaries, are within close viewi...

N. P. Small

1980-01-01

177

Prince William Forest Park: An Administrative History,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study is presented of the mosaic encompassing the original residents of the area, park administrators, military forces and Washington officials. An overview of the park's history detailing critical periods in the parks development is provided.

S. C. Strickland

1986-01-01

178

Integrated Library System (ILS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Integrated Library System (ILS) is a minicomputer-based library automation system designed to support a full range of technical processing and retrieval activities using a single master bibliographic file, (MBF). Current subsystems include: Bibliograp...

C. M. Goldstein R. Borochoff

1981-01-01

179

Geology Fieldnotes: Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Petrified Forest National Park was established to preserve large deposits of petrified wood and to prevent removal of the wood by the public. Site featues include park geology information, maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and resources for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the park's geologic history, structural geology, petrified wood, and dinosaur fossils. The maps section includes a map of the park itself and the surrounding area.

180

Geology Fieldnotes: Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Guadalupe Mountains National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the geologic history of Guadalupe Mountains' ancient marine fossil reef and the structural geology of the Mountains' Western Escarpment (including the Frijole Ranch area, the Pine Springs area, and the Capitan Limestone structures). The park maps section includes a map of the Capitan Reef today.

181

Can Twitter save Bletchley Park?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bletchley Park is the historic site of secret British codebreaking activities during World War II and birthplace of the modern computer. The work carried out there is said to have shortened WWII by two years, saving possibly 22 million lives. The Park is now a museum, with a 26 acre site, many exhibitions and working rebuilds of machines such as

Sue Black; Jonathan P. Bowen; Kelsey Griffin

2010-01-01

182

An Amusement Park Physics Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition…

Moll, Rachel F.

2010-01-01

183

Amusement park injuries and deaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media coverage of amusement park injuries has increased over the past several years, raising concern that amusement rides may be dangerous. Amusement park fatalities and increases in reported injuries have prompted proposed legislation to regulate the industry. Since 1979, the medical literature has published reports of 4 subdural hematomas, 4 internal carotid artery dissections, 2 vertebral artery dissections, 2 subarachnoid

Robert J. Braksiek; David J. Roberts

2002-01-01

184

Microbiology in Yellowstone National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes how Yellowstone National Park is a focal point for cutting-edge microbiology research and how it provides a valuable setting for outreach education. Topics include questions for park officials, extremophiles, microbe diversity and evolution, educational outreach, and suggested reading.

David, Ward; University, Montana S.

185

Shelter Potential in Parking Garages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study was to present pertinent factual data on five selected cities which will permit the Office of Civil Defense to evaluate parking garages as potential shelter systems. In each city an investigation was made of the parking capacity...

C. T. McGavin

1970-01-01

186

Nevada Division of State Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Carson City, the Nevada Division of State Parks helps to preserve and promote notable parts of the Nevada natural and cultural environment. One of the goals of their website is to provide visitors with "an introduction to the other side of Nevada, the side that is wild scenic and full of western history." First-time visitors may wish to click on the "State parks map" area to learn more about the location of the state parks, and the interactive map also includes direct links to each site. Scholars and students of park management will want to click on over to the "Park General and Resource Management Plans" area. Here they can learn about the completed general management plans for parks such as the Mormon Station and the Valley of Fire, and learn about plans that are currently under review. Visitors looking for helpful information about upcoming events can look over the "Other Park News!" area on the right hand side of the homepage. Finally, there's also detailed information about park fees, several photo galleries, and news releases.

187

Wheeling and Dealing in the National Parks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Motor vehicles and commercialism have generated serious problems within the national park system. A Conservation Foundation suggests new directions in management for the National Park Service. (Editors)|

Howe, Sydney

1973-01-01

188

National Park Service Photo Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past century, a host of photographers have documented the grounds and buildings of the National Parks for the National Park Service, and in doing so have created a collection that contains over two million images. Some of these eminent photographers include such personages as Jack Boucher, Arno B. Cammerer, and Abbie Rowe. The National Park Service has recently placed 2000 of these images online, and added a fine search feature so that users can look for images by year, photographer, theme, parksite, or keyword. Some of these images included early photographs of the Virgin Islands National Park, rangers on location in Yosemite National Park, and Canyon de Chelly National Monument. The site is rounded out with links to other digital image archives, such as those housed on the American Memory website at the Library of Congress.

189

IL-12- and IL-23-induced T helper cell subsets  

PubMed Central

Traditionally, CD4+ T cells have been separated into two different subsets named T helper (Th)1 and Th2. A new IL-23–driven subset of Th cells called ThIL-17 has now been described. The data suggest that IL-23 plays an important role in the differentiation of autoreactive pathogenic T cells. Whether these IL-23–induced ThIL-17 cells are a unique subset or are related to other Th subsets is discussed.

Bettelli, Estelle; Kuchroo, Vijay K.

2005-01-01

190

IL-12/IL-12R system in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

IL-12/IL-12 receptor (IL-12R) system orchestrates the Th1 pathway of the immune system by maintaining one of the major bridges between innate and adaptive immune responses. Here, we studied both sides of this system in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and in controls. MS patients displayed elevated IL-12Rbeta1 and IL-12Rbeta2 expression on PHA-activated T cells compared to healthy subjects. Higher percentages of IL-12Rbeta1 and IL-12Rbeta2 positive T cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compared to blood were observed both in MS and other neurological diseases (OND). In contrast, numbers of IL-12 secreting blood mononuclear cells (MNC) were similar in MS and controls. The functional importance of high IL-12Rbeta2 in MS was underlined by the finding that IL-12 stimulated IFN-gamma production and proliferation of PHA-activated T cells correlated with levels of IL-12Rbeta2 expression. Our data indicates a dysregulation of the IL-12/IL-12R system in MS. It is suggested that even in the absence of increased IL-12 levels, the net effect of IL-12 might be augmented in MS by elevated expression of its receptor. PMID:11240038

Ozenci, V; Pashenkov, M; Kouwenhoven, M; Rinaldi, L; Söderström, M; Link, H

2001-03-01

191

Gravitational wave forms for a three-body system in Lagrange's orbit: Parameter determinations and a binary source test  

SciTech Connect

Continuing work initiated in an earlier publication [Y. Torigoe, K. Hattori, and H. Asada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 251101 (2009)], gravitational wave forms for a three-body system in Lagrange's orbit are considered especially in an analytic method. First, we derive an expression of the three-body wave forms at the mass quadrupole, octupole, and current quadrupole orders. By using the expressions, we solve a gravitational-wave inverse problem of determining the source parameters to this particular configuration (three masses, a distance of the source to an observer, and the orbital inclination angle to the line of sight) through observations of the gravitational wave forms alone. For this purpose, the chirp mass to a three-body system in the particular configuration is expressed in terms of only the mass ratios by deleting initial angle positions. We discuss also whether and how a binary source can be distinguished from a three-body system in Lagrange's orbit or others.

Asada, Hideki [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan)

2009-09-15

192

Amusement Park Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's one thing to learn about physics in a lab, but it can be quite another thing to make a pilgrimage to an amusement park to take in the laws of physics. Users will have to supply their own corn dogs and popcorn, but this rather nice educational resource from Annenberg Media will be quite useful for budding physicists and their teachers. The resource allows users to design their own roller coaster, and along the way they will learn a thing or two about the laws of gravity, pendulums, and kinetic energy. Along with explanatory essays, this resource contains interactive graphics and a glossary of terms. Sit back and enjoy the virtual roller coaster ride, as this site provides a rather novel way of introducing students to physics.

193

Lincoln Park Neighborhood Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today, the Lincoln Park neighborhood on Chicago's North Side is a relatively affluent area, complete with Victorian mansions and rather tony elevator apartment buildings. By the late 1940s, the area was experiencing the same type of urban disinvestment as other inner-city neighborhoods throughout the United States. In the early 1960s, the city of Chicago, working with funds from the federal government, began an ambitious urban renewal program designed to reduce the density of the built environment in the community and to remove "blighted" properties. This excellent collection from the DePaul University Libraries Digital Collections contains over 400 documents related to this ambitious project, including maps, zoning documents, policy statements, neighborhood organization planning documents, and photographs. First-time visitors may wish to start with the first document here, "A Brief Explanation of the Urban Community Conservation Act." Moving on, visitors can view the rest of the documents by title, thumbnail, subject, and brief description.

194

Parks, wilderness and recreation  

SciTech Connect

Parks and wilderness are a unique experiment in public ownership and management with no significant counterparts in our national experience. Despite occasional controversy, the propriety of large-scale federal land ownership and management was a settled issue long before the era of big national government or federal regulation began. This gave rise to a paradox with greater continuity in federal policy and public perception of land policy on one hand and the dislocating of old, established federal land management bureaucracies on the other. The author shows in the history of the wilderness movement that the American system is capable of producing real change; that reform is possible even if the methods are unexpected. Sharing the power among the administration, courts, and legislature opens the process to a range of interest groups with different opportunities for access. As values change, the system makes transitions manageable.

Sax, J.L.

1984-01-01

195

Convergence of the Lagrange--Galerkin Method for the Equations Modelling the Motion of a Fluid-Rigid System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider a Lagrange-Galerkin scheme to approximate a two- dimensional fluid-rigid body problem. The equations of the system are the Navier-Stokes equations in the fluid part, coupled with ordinary differential equations for the dynamics of the rigid body. In this problem, the equations of the fluid are written in a domain whose variation is one of the

Jorge San Marti?n; Jean-Franc?ois Scheid; T AK ´; EO TAKAHASHI

2005-01-01

196

On fractional Euler–Lagrange and Hamilton equations and the fractional generalization of total time derivative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractional mechanics describe both conservative and nonconservative systems. The fractional variational principles gained\\u000a importance in studying the fractional mechanics and several versions are proposed. In classical mechanics, the equivalent\\u000a Lagrangians play an important role because they admit the same Euler–Lagrange equations. By adding a total time derivative\\u000a of a suitable function to a given classical Lagrangian or by multiplying with

Dumitru Baleanu; Sami I. Muslih; Eqab M. Rabei

2008-01-01

197

Lagrange-Galerkin Methods on Spherical Geodesic Grids: The Shallow Water Equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weak Lagrange-Galerkin finite element method for the 2D shallow water equations on the sphere is presented. This method offers stable and accurate solutions because the equations are integrated along the characteristics. The equations are written in 3D Cartesian conservation form and the domains are discretized using linear triangular elements. The use of linear triangular elements permits the construction of accurate (by virtue of the second-order spatial and temporal accuracies of the scheme) and efficient (by virtue of the less stringent CFL condition of Lagrangian methods) schemes on unstructured domains. Using linear triangles in 3D Cartesian space allows for the explicit construction of area coordinate basis functions thereby simplifying the calculation of the finite element integrals. The triangular grids are constructed by a generalization of the icosahedral grids that have been typically used in recent papers. An efficient searching strategy for the departure points is also presented for these generalized icosahedral grids which involves very few floating point operations. In addition a high-order scheme for computing the characteristic curves in 3D Cartesian space is presented: a general family of Runge-Kutta schemes. Results for six test cases are reported in order to confirm the accuracy of the scheme.

Giraldo, Francis X.

2000-05-01

198

An Euler-Lagrange method considering bubble radial dynamics for modeling sonochemical reactors.  

PubMed

Unsteady numerical computations are performed to investigate the flow field, wave propagation and the structure of bubbles in sonochemical reactors. The turbulent flow field is simulated using a two-equation Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model. The distribution of the acoustic pressure is solved based on the Helmholtz equation using a finite volume method (FVM). The radial dynamics of a single bubble are considered by applying the Keller-Miksis equation to consider the compressibility of the liquid to the first order of acoustical Mach number. To investigate the structure of bubbles, a one-way coupling Euler-Lagrange approach is used to simulate the bulk medium and the bubbles as the dispersed phase. Drag, gravity, buoyancy, added mass, volume change and first Bjerknes forces are considered and their orders of magnitude are compared. To verify the implemented numerical algorithms, results for one- and two-dimensional simplified test cases are compared with analytical solutions. The results show good agreement with experimental results for the relationship between the acoustic pressure amplitude and the volume fraction of the bubbles. The two-dimensional axi-symmetric results are in good agreement with experimentally observed structure of bubbles close to sonotrode. PMID:23751457

Jamshidi, Rashid; Brenner, Gunther

2013-05-25

199

Regional Parking Study. Part I: Existing Parking Supply.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The transportation committee of the East-West Gateway coordinating council selected 15 business districts located within the St. Louis metropolitan area which have or will have a significant traffic and parking problem and should be included in a regional...

D. B. Miller

1969-01-01

200

1.OA At the Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: There were 7 children at the park. Then 4 more showed up. How many children were at the park all together? There were 7 children at the park. Some more...

201

Optimal parking orbits for manned Mars missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes a Mars parking orbit optimization effort. This parking orbit study includes the selection of optimal elliptic Mars parking orbits that meet mission constraints and that include pertinent apsidal misalignment losses. Mars missions examined are for the opportunity years of 2014, 2016, and 2018. For these mission opportunities, it is shown that the optimal parking orbits depend on

Michael L. Cupples; Jill A. Nordwall

1993-01-01

202

Management of Sport Fishing in National Parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Park Service, entrusted with the perpetuation of natural aquatic conditions in areas it administers, manages recreational fishing so as to create minimum disturbances to these resources. In national parks and monuments angling cannot be managed independently of other park uses and features of significance. The objectives of the conservation of park fishery resources differ in some respects from

Orthello L. Wallis

1960-01-01

203

Automated parking slot allocation using RFID technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the challenging problems for many vehicle owners in big metropolitan cities is where to park their vehicles. If the parking slot availability is known in advance one can save precious time and fuel wastage. In this paper we would like to propose an RFID based parking slot allocation system wherein an intended user is informed about the parking

K. Ganesan; K. Vignesh

2007-01-01

204

The international politics of national parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

National parks are the keystone institutions of environmental conservation. Because national parks make certain lands part of the state itself, international agencies and nongovernmental organizations that promote national parks propose, in effect, to alter the state, as well as the local economy and state relations with social groups. Has international political pressure caused states to create national parks? I consider

Karen M. O'Neill

1996-01-01

205

Geology Fieldnotes: Olympic National Park, Washington  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) website highlights the geology of Olympic National Park in Washington state. It discusses the mountains and rocks of the park, Ice Age features (Puget Sound), coastal features, and forests of the area. There are links to park maps, visitor information, and additional resources.

206

Effect of sinomenine on IL8, IL6, IL2 produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effect of Sinomenine on IL-8, IL-6, IL-2 and mIL-2R produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells was investigated by\\u000a using cell culture, radioimmunoassay and flow cytometry. It was showed that production of IL-8 and mIL-2R was inhibited, but\\u000a the levels of IL-6 were enhanced by Sinomenine. Our results also demonstrated that Sinomenine did not have any effect on the\\u000a production

Tu Shenghao; Hu Yonghong; Lu Fu’er

1999-01-01

207

The quandary of local people---Park relations in Nepal's Royal Chitwan National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes five major causes of park-people conflicts that have occurred in Nepal's Royal Chitwan National Park. The causes include illegal transactions of forest products from the park, livestock grazing in the park, illegal hunting and fishing, crop damage, and threats to human and animal life caused by wild animals from the park. The conflicts indicate a reciprocal relationship

Karl E. Weber

1995-01-01

208

77 FR 12761 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycle Route  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycle Route AGENCY: National Park Service...to designate the Hope Camp Trail as a bicycle route within Saguaro National Park (Park...promulgation of a special regulation to designate bicycle routes outside of developed areas...

2012-03-02

209

Views of the National Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There is no true substitute for visiting one of America's great national parks, but this website, designed "to present the natural, cultural, and historical resources of our national parks," is a nice surrogate for an in-person jaunt. On the homepage, visitors can select a park or theme from several dozen headings, including National Mall, Whiskeytown, Glaciers, and Devils Tower. Within each area, visitors can examine a series of high-quality images, along with four or five sections that address different aspects of each topic or specific park. Perhaps the most useful elements of the site are the very fine resources for teachers. Clicking on the Teachers' Lounge area will bring up a number of high-quality educational articles, lesson plans, and educational standards guidelines. All told, there are 14 different lesson plans here, which are complemented by links to external resources and additional readings. [KMG

210

Suicide and the parking garage.  

PubMed

Each year over one million Americans attempt suicide, and over 30,000 succeed. One of the most popular and successful, methods of suicide is jumping, the authors point out, and one of the most widely-used venues for jumping are parking garages. Especially vulnerable to such suicide attempts are the parking structures of hospitals, they report, because it has been found that most persons who jump to their death had been previously treated for a mental health condition. (One hospital in Massachusetts recently reported that a man jumped or fell from the second floor of one of its parking decks, the second such incident at one of its garages in five years.) In this article the authors discuss how parking professionals can help prevent suicide from happening and how to handle this situation if it does occur in your garage. PMID:21916292

Mouw, Isaiah; Troth, Andy

2011-01-01

211

Wolves of Algonquin Provincial Park.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wolves thrived in central Ontario and the Algonquin Highlands long before the establishment of Algonquin Provincial Park in 1893. Following the extensive logging of the late 1800s and early 1900s, wolves continued to persist despite considerable effort by...

2000-01-01

212

Anti-IL-1? Therapies.  

PubMed

IL-1? is one of the major cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory-associated diseases. Recent studies demonstrate that IL-1? is activated through inflammasomes, which are formed upon recognition of danger signals by the immune system. IL-1? is, therefore, becoming a focus for the development of new anti-inflammatory drug products. Current issued patents mainly covered the methods and the use of four types of IL-1? blockade compounds, namely anti-IL-1? antibody, IL-1 receptor antagonists such as sIL-1Ra and icIL-1Ra and IL1 trap. Two agents, Rilonacept and canakinumab were approved by the US FDA and others are in trial, in which beneficial results have been reported. One can expect that upcoming patents in the field of inflammasome research will facilitate the development of new therapeutic interventions. PMID:21504408

Zhang, Hong

2011-04-18

213

Anti-IL-1? Therapies.  

PubMed

IL-1? is one of the major cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory-associated diseases. Recent studies demonstrate that IL-1? is activated through inflammasomes, which are formed upon recognition of danger signals by the immune system. IL-1? is, therefore, becoming a focus for the development of new anti-inflammatory drug products. Current issued patents mainly covered the methods and the use of four types of IL-1? blockade compounds, namely anti-IL-1? antibody, IL-1 receptor antagonists such as sIL-1Ra and icIL-1Ra and IL1 trap. Two agents, Rilonacept and canakinumab were approved by the US FDA and others are in trial, in which beneficial results have been reported. One can expect that upcoming patents in the field of inflammasome research will facilitate the development of new therapeutic interventions. PMID:21682690

Zhang, Hong

2011-04-18

214

Anti-IL-1? therapies.  

PubMed

IL-1? is one of the major cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory-associated diseases. Recent studies demonstrate that IL-1? is activated through inflammasomes, which are formed upon recognition of danger signals by the immune system. IL-1? is, therefore, becoming a focus for the development of new anti-inflammatory drug products. Current issued patents mainly covered the methods and the use of four types of IL-1? blockade compounds, namely anti-IL-1? antibody, IL-1 receptor antagonists such as sIL-1Ra and icIL-1Ra and IL1 trap. Two agents, Rilonacept and canakinumab were approved by the US FDA and others are in trial, in which beneficial results have been reported. One can expect that upcoming patents in the field of inflammasome research will facilitate the development of new therapeutic interventions. PMID:21762108

Zhang, Hong

2011-08-01

215

Tour of Park Geology: Colorado Plateau  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides links to geology fieldnotes about National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas that are part of the Colorado Plateau. Each park site provides links to visitor information, photographs, park maps, multimedia resources, and teacher features (tools for teaching geology with National Park examples). Some of the areas linked to this site include: Dinosaur National Monument, Mesa Verde National Park, and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area.

216

Helping You Buy ILS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article is the fourth in a series of articles published annually by "Computers in Libraries" surveying integrated library systems and services (ILSs). The purpose of the annual survey is to enable comparison of the ILSs that are available. ILS vendors are in constant pursuit of an ever-changing, consistently vague definition of what the…

Cibbarelli, Pamela R.

2010-01-01

217

Cleaning National Parks: Using Environmentally Preferable Janitorial Products at Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the process that the National Park Services and two consultants used at Yellowstone National Park to introduce environmentally preferable cleaning products. Grand Teton National Park implemented a similar program started in April 199...

S. Wakefiled A. Ferre

2000-01-01

218

Functional Reconstitution and Regulation of IL18 Activity by the IL18Rb Chain1  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-18 and IL-12 are major IFN-g-inducing cytokines but the unique synergism of IL-18 and IL-12 remains unclear. In the human NK cell line NKO, IL-18Ra, and IL-18Rb are expressed constitutively but IL-18 did not induce IFN-g unless IL-12 was present. COS-1 fibroblasts, which produce the chemokine IL-8 when stimulated by IL-1b or TNF-a, do not respond to IL-18, despite abundant

Soo Hyun Kim; Leonid L. Reznikov; Rogier J. L. Stuyt; Craig H. Selzman; Giamilia Fantuzzi; Tomoaki Hoshino; Howard A. Young; Charles A. Dinarello

2001-01-01

219

Geology Fieldnotes: Badlands National Park, South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Badlands National Park, located in southwestern South Dakota, consists of 244,000 acres of sharply eroded buttes, pinnacles and spires blended with the largest, protected mixed grass prairie in the United States. Features include information on park geology, maps, photographs, visitor information, links to related publications, and lesson plans for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the Park's geologic history during the Eocene and Oligocene epochs and the rich fossil deposits found there. Maps of the park and the surrounding area are included.

220

New IL12-family members: IL23 and IL27, cytokines with divergent functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the factors that influence T helper 1 (TH1)- and TH2-cell responses has been one of the main focuses of immunology for almost 20 years. Whereas the central role of interleukin-12 (IL-12) in the generation of TH1 cells has long been appreciated, subsequent studies indicated that IL-23 and IL-27, two cytokines that are closely related to IL-12, also regulate TH1-cell

Christopher A. Hunter

2005-01-01

221

GM-CSF, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 gene expression and cytokine production in human duodenal fibroblasts stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, IL-1 alpha and TNF-alpha.  

PubMed Central

The role of mucosal fibroblasts in intestinal inflammatory reactions is not known. In this study, we demonstrate that fibroblasts grown from histologically normal human duodenal biopsy tissues expressed mRNA genes for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or IL-1 alpha. The increased mRNA expression of GM-CSF, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to IL-1 alpha and LPS stimulation was time- and dose-dependent. In contrast, IL-10 was weakly expressed when fibroblasts were stimulated with LPS, IL-1 alpha or tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), but the expression was enhanced in the presence of cycloheximide combined with optimal concentrations of LPS, IL-1 alpha or TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha was a more potent stimulator than LPS for GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 expression, but not for IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta. Increased GM-CSF, IL-6 and IL-8 gene expression was associated with the production of cytokine proteins in culture supernatant, but IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta remained undetectable. Dexamethasone suppressed both gene expression and protein production of GM-CSF, IL-6 and IL-8 when fibroblasts were exposed to IL-1 alpha. TNF-alpha stimulated the release of GM-CSF, IL-6 and IL-8 and, combined with IL-1 alpha, cytokine production was enhanced synergistically. Finally, both LPS and IL-1 alpha up-regulated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 gene expression. These findings implicate duodenal fibroblasts in the initiation and/or regulation of intestinal inflammation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5

Pang, G; Couch, L; Batey, R; Clancy, R; Cripps, A

1994-01-01

222

Lichens of the U. S. national parks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over 26,100 records of lichens present in 144 U.S. national park units were assembled from various sources into a database and analyzed. Within these 144 park units 2,435 species and 375 genera are reported, representing 63% and 74% of the North American flora, respectively. The park units are located in 41 states and Washington, D.C. The average number of species in a park is 104, but the median is 60, indicating there are many parks with a small number of species and a few with high numbers. Isle Royale National Park has the most species, 611, and twelve parks have only one species reported. The number of records of lichens present ranged from one for 25 parks, to 1,623 for Isle Royale. Physcia aipolia is the most frequently observed species, being found in 65 parks. One fourth of the park units are classified cultural resource parks, while the remainder are considered natural resource parks. This study was based on 453 sources, including literature citations, park reports and collections in the University of Minnesota Herbarium. Copyright ?? 2005 by the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.

Bennett, J. P.; Wetmore, C. M.

2005-01-01

223

Bibliography of Doctor Chul Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document contains a comprehensive bibliography of the published works, and a short biography, of Dr. Chul Park. The contents of this bibliography were compiled primarily from the NASA RECON data base. The RECON citations have been modified to appear in a uniform format with all other listed citations . These other citations were located by computer searches in the INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, and Chemical Abstracts data bases, as well as through the cooperation of Dr. Chul Park, and his associates in the Reacting Flow Environments Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. All citations are presented in an approximate reverse chronological order from the present date. This work was created to honor the occasion of Dr. Chul Park's retirement on December 14, 1994, after 27 years of distinguished government service at the NASA Ames Research Center.

Gochberg, Lawrence A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Park, Chul

1995-05-01

224

Secular Evolution of Extrasolar Planetary Systems: An Extension of the Laplace-Lagrange Secular Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): In this work, we study the secular dynamics of exoplanetary systems consisting of two coplanar planets. In particular, we investigate the effects of the proximity to a mean motion resonance on the secular behavior of the planets. In order to obtain a good description of the secular dynamics, a straightforward method is to include in the unperturbed Hamiltonian the average of the perturbation over the fast angles; this is the so-called approximation at order one in the masses. However, if the system is near a mean motion resonance, the frequencies of the quasi-periodic flow given by this Hamiltonian are quite different from the true ones. Therefore we look for an approximation of the secular Hamiltonian up to order two in the masses, removing the main perturbation depending on the fast angles via a Kolmogorov-like normalization step. The approximation of lowest order in the eccentricities of the secular Hamiltonian is essentially the one considered in the Lagrange-Laplace theory. Following a quite standard procedure, we construct a high order Birkhoff normal form for the Hamiltonian using the Lie series method. Considering the Hamiltonian in non-resonant Birkhoff normal form, the equations of motion take a very simple form, being function of the actions only. So, using the secular frequencies that are easily computed, the long term motion of the planets can be easily integrated analytically. By comparing the semi-analytical results based on the secular approximation, with the dynamics of the complete system, we can better understand whether resonant contributions dominate the evolution of the planets or not. This leads to a simple criterion to discriminate between three categories of systems: : (i) secular systems (HD 11964, HD 74156, HD 134987, HD 163607, HD 12661 and HD 147018); (ii) systems near a mean-motion resonance (HD 11506, HD 177830, HD 9446, HD 169830 and $\\upsilon$ Andromedae); (iii) systems really close to or in a mean-motion resonance (HD 108874, HD 128311 and HD 183263). Finally, a similar analysis is performed for systems that are in a mean-motion resonance.

Sansottera, Marco; Libert, A.

2013-05-01

225

Visitor perceptions of the benefits of local park - Treesearch  

Treesearch

Description: Recent research regarding the perceived benefits of local parks has ... park directors who must promote the value of and gain support for aging park ... or appealing place to visit, they indicated that the park has a great atmosphere, ...

226

36 CFR 7.23 - Badlands National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Badlands National Park. 7.23 Section 7.23 Parks...INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.23 Badlands National Park. (a) Commercial vehicles....

2009-07-01

227

36 CFR 7.23 - Badlands National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Badlands National Park. 7.23 Section 7.23 Parks...INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.23 Badlands National Park. (a) Commercial vehicles....

2010-07-01

228

36 CFR 7.23 - Badlands National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Badlands National Park. 7.23 Section 7.23 Parks...INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.23 Badlands National Park. (a) Commercial vehicles....

2013-07-01

229

Sitka National Historical Park Annual Performance Report, FY 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sitka National Historical Park's strategic plan, mission goals, long-term goals and annual performance goals directly reflect the National Park Service's strategic plan and goals. There is a link between National Park Service goals, individual park goals ...

2004-01-01

230

IL-2, IL-10, IL-15 and TNF are key regulators of murine T-cell lymphoma growth.  

PubMed

We studied the role of IL-2, IL-15, IL-10, TNF and IL-2 receptor complexes (IL-2R) produced constitutively by a T-cell lymphoma line (LBC) on their own proliferation. The constitutive expression of surface alpha, beta and gamma chains IL-2R was detected in tumor cells by flow cytometry. Using reverse-transcription PCR, mRNA for IL-2, IL-15, IL-10 and TNF were found to be present in LBC. In addition, tumor cells were found to constitutively express intracellular IL-2, IL-15, IL-10 and TNF. Despite the production of these cytokines by tumor cells, specific neutralising antibodies did not inhibit LBC proliferation; surprisingly, anti-IL-15 increased LBC cell growth. We also demonstrated that recombinant IL-2 or IL-15 enhanced LBC cell proliferation. Our data suggest that endogenous IL-2 and IL-15 may trigger the proliferation of lymphoma LBC cells, and so their growth could be regulated, at least partly, by IL-2/IL-15/IL-2R system. In addition, IL-10 and TNF, immunosuppressor and pro-metastatic cytokines, respectively, may promote the in vivo growth of the tumor. The fact that leukaemia-lymphoma cells produce simultaneously both IL-2 and IL-15 should be taken into consideration in the design of immunotherapy protocols directed to IL-2R. PMID:12964046

Gravisaco, María José; Mongini, Claudia; Alvarez, Elida; Ruybal, Paula; Escalada, Ana; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Hajos, Silvia; Waldner, Claudia

2003-10-01

231

PARK2 Mediates Interleukin 6 and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 Production by Human Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Leprosy is a persistent infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that still affects over 200,000 new patients annually. The host genetic background is an important risk factor for leprosy susceptibility and the PARK2 gene is a replicated leprosy susceptibility candidate gene. The protein product of PARK2, Parkin, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is involved in the development of various forms of Parkinsonism. The human macrophage is both a natural host cell of M. leprae as well as a primary mediator of natural immune defenses, in part by secreting important pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Here, we report that down-regulation of Parkin in THP-1 macrophages, human monocyte-derived macrophages and human Schwann cells resulted in a consistent and specific decrease in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2) production in response to mycobacteria or LPS. Interestingly, production of IL-6 at 6 hours by THP-1 cells stimulated with live M. leprae and M. bovis BCG was dependent on pretreatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD). Parkin knockdown in VD-treated cells blocked IL-6 induction by mycobacteria. However, I?B-? phosphorylation and levels of I?B-?, a nuclear protein required for IL-6 expression, were not affected by Parkin silencing. Phosphorylation of MAPK ERK1/2 and p38 was unaffected by Parkin silencing while JNK activation was promoted but did not explain the altered cytokine production. In a final set of experiments we found that genetic risk factors of leprosy located in the PARK2 promoter region were significantly correlated with M. leprae sonicate triggered CCL2 and IL6 transcript levels in whole blood assays. These results associated genetically controlled changes in the production of MCP-1/CCL2 and IL-6 with known leprosy susceptibility factors.

de Leseleuc, Louis; Girard, Manon; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Ba, Nguyen Ngoc; Van Thuc, Nguyen; Truman, Richard; Spencer, John S.; Adams, Linda; Thai, Vu Hong; Alcais, Alexandre; Schurr, Erwin

2013-01-01

232

The Parkes methanol multibeam survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new 7-beam methanol multibeam receiver was successfully commissioned at Parkes in January, and has begun surveying the Milky Way for newly forming stars, that are pinpointed by strong methanol maser emission at 6.7 GHz. The Parkes survey of the Milky Way for methanol masers is two orders of magnitude faster than previous systematic surveys using 30-m class dishes. The first 26 days of observations have yielded 377 methanol sources, of which 150 are new discoveries. Preliminary results will be presented.

Cohen, R. J.; Caswell, J. L.; Brooks, K.; Burton, M. G.; Chrysostomou, A.; Cox, J.; Diamond, P. J.; Ellingsen, S.; Fuller, G. A.; Gray, M. D.; Green, J. A.; Hoare, M. G.; Masheder, M. R. W.; McClure-Griffiths, N.; Pestalozzi, M.; Phillips, C.; Thompson, M.; Voronkov, M.; Walsh, A.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Wong-McSweeney, D.; Yates, J. A.

233

Biscayne National Park Ethnographic Overview and Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within the Ethnography Program of the National Park Service, an Ethnographic Overview and Assessment is described as: The most comprehensive background study, this document reviews existing information on park resources traditionally valued by stakeholder...

2006-01-01

234

Everglades National Park Annual Fisheries Report, 1999.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

National Park Service (NPS) management policies state that recreational fishing is permitted in parks when it is authorized by federal law or is not specifically prohibited, and is in accordance with applicable federal/state laws and regulations. However,...

T. W. Schmidt G. A. Delgado J. Kalafarski

2000-01-01

235

Hearts' N' Parks: Community Mobilization Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hearts N' Parks is a national, community-based program supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA). It is designed to help local agencies promote heart healthy lifestyle change...

2001-01-01

236

76 FR 22001 - National Park Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...American children have access to safe and clean parks and open spaces close to their homes. We will better support the farmers...enhance local parks, revitalize rivers, preserve valuable open spaces, and develop trail and greenway networks that...

2011-04-20

237

Mammoth Cave National Park Business Plan, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mammoth Cave became a national park in 1941, and is one of the oldest tourist attractions in the United States. The park was designated to protect and preserve the extensive limestone caverns and associated karst topography, scenic riverways, original for...

2003-01-01

238

Vandalism Control Management for Parks and Recreation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vandalism nationally costs park and recreation departments over $500 million a year. This handbook, therefore, is designed to help park and recreation administrators systematically address vandalism as a management issue with solutions that have been prov...

M. L. Christiansen

1983-01-01

239

An Archeological Overview of Redwood National Park.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the result of three field seasons of library research and field reconnaissance in and near Redwood National Park, California. Written primarily as a planning aid for Park interpretation, the report is oriented to identifying and evaluating t...

M. J. Moratto

1973-01-01

240

City of New York Parks & Recreation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New York City's Department of Parks & Recreation oversees 29,000 acres of land, and more than 1,700 parks, playgrounds, and recreation facilities located throughout the five boroughs. Their website provides a great starting point for a virtual visit undaunted by weather. Take a virtual tour along the Bronx River, watch video clips from "It's My Park" (also aired every weekday at 11:00 a.m. on NYC life (channel 25)), and browse the photo gallery, which includes selections from the Parks Photo Archive, dating back to 1856, and the Parks' Flickr Group, with visitor-contributed photos. There are also seasonal features: for February, Black History Month, there's an events listing, an inventory of permanent sculptures honoring African-Americans in the Parks, African American Namesake Parks, and a photo gallery entitled The African American Experience. And of course, there's a Groundhog Day page, presenting the history of weather prediction by the rodent in the NYC Parks.

241

National Park Service Paleontolological Research. Volumne 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During this last year of the century, the list of National Park Service areas identified with paleontological resources has grown to 134. Along with redwoods, grizzlies, geysers, and ancient ruins, the national parks preserve a remarkable record of life e...

V. L. Santucci L. McClelland

1999-01-01

242

Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

Ruehrwein, Dick

243

Yellowstone National Park, 1999: The State of the Park.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We who are privileged to work at Yellowstone have developed this report on The State of the Park as a way to share our knowledge about its current status. The report is intended to be our candid appraisal of the state of Yellowstone's natural and cultural...

M. A. Franke P. Schullery S. C. Murphy

1999-01-01

244

Adams National Historical Park. State of the Parks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Adams National Historical Park is the only place in the country where the stories of two presidents can be told from birth to death. Today, we can still sense the presence of these men, their forebears, spouses, and descendants through visits to the Adams...

2001-01-01

245

Colitis and intestinal inflammation in IL10?/? mice results from IL-13R?2-mediated attenuation of IL-13 activity  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims The immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 is required to maintain immune homeostaisis in the gastrointestinal tract. IL-10-null mice spontaneously develop colitis or are more susceptible to induction of colitis by infections, drugs, and autoimmune reactions. IL-13 regulates inflammatory conditions; its activity might be compromised by the IL-13 decoy receptor (IL-13R?2). Methods We examined the roles of IL-13 and IL-13R?2 in intestinal inflammation in mice. To study the function of IL-13R?2, il10?/? mice were crossed with il13r?2?/? to generate il10?/? il13r?2?/? double knockout mice (dKO). Colitis was induced with the gastrointestinal toxin piroxicam or Trichuris muris infection Results Induction of colitis by interferon (IFN)-? or IL-17 in IL-10-null mice requires IL-13R?2. Following exposure of il10?/? mice to piroxicam or infection with Trichuris muris, production of IL-13R?2 increased, resulting in decreased IL-13 bioactivity and increased intestinal inflammation in response to IFN-? or IL-17A. In contrast to il10?/? mice, dKO mice were resistant to piroxicam-induced colitis; they also developed less severe colitis during chronic infection with T. muris infecion. In both models, resistance to IFN-? and IL-17-mediated intestinal inflammation was associated with increased IL-13 activity. Colitis susceptibility was restored when the dKO mice were injected with monoclonal antibodies against IL-13, confirming its protective role. Conclusion Colitis and intestinal inflammation in IL10?/? mice results from IL-13R?2-mediated attenuation of IL-13 activity. In the absence of IL-13R?2, IL-13 suppresses pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 responses. Reagents that block the IL-13 decoy receptor IL-13R?2 might be developed for inflammatory bowel disease associated with increased levels of IFN-? and IL-17.

Wilson, Mark S.; Ramalingam, Thirumalai R.; Rivollier, Aymeric; Shenderov, Kevin; Mentink-Kane, Margaret M.; Madala, Satish K.; Cheever, Allen W.; Artis, David; Kelsall, Brian L.; Wynn, Thomas A.

2010-01-01

246

Smart Parking Management Field Test: A Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District Parking Demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In almost every major city in the U.S. and internationally, parking problems are ubiquitous. It is well known that the limited availability of parking contributes to roadway congestion, air pollution, and driver frustration and that the cost of expanding traditional parking capacity is frequently prohibitive. However, less research has addressed the effect of insufficient parking at transit stations on transit

Susan Shaheen

2005-01-01

247

Antietam National Battlefield, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, and Harper's Ferry National Historical Park Geologic Resource Evaluation Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The story of the three parks featured in this report, Antietam National Battlefield, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park, and Harpers Ferry National Historical Park is one of the interaction between man and geology. Each park preserves this s...

2007-01-01

248

Interleukin17 family and IL17 receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine secreted by activated T-cells. Recently discovered related molecules are forming a family of cytokines, the IL-17 family. The prototype member of the family has been designated IL-17A. Due to recent advances in the human genome sequencing and proteomics five additional members have been identified and cloned: IL-17B, IL-17C, IL-17D, IL-17E and IL-17F. The cognate

T. A. Moseley; D. R. Haudenschild; L. Rose; A. H. Reddi

2003-01-01

249

Geology Fieldnotes: Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can access park geology information, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and resources for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the Grand Canyon's geologic history, structural geology, and features a question-and-answer section about the canyon. The history of the canyon as a park and environmental issues surrounding it are also discussed. A geologic cross section of the canyon showing the various rock layers is included.

250

Geology Fieldnotes: Capitol Reef National Park, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Capitol Reef National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, visitor information, and a teacher feature (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). Geologic data includes descriptions of the Waterpocket Fold, a monocline formed in the Laramide Orogeny and made of sedimentary rock. Also covered is erosion, and details about the Cathedral Valley outcrop of gypsum. This formation is Permian to Cretaceous in age (270-80 million years old).

251

Geology Fieldnotes: Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service resource includes information about geology, park maps, visitor information, photographs, and links to other sites about this park. Geologic information spans the entire history of the park, beginning 2.5 billion years ago (Precambrian) to the present. Details about the different rock types and their formation, mountain building through plate tectonics and the Laramide Orogeny, formation of valleys and canyons, volcanism in the area, and erosion by glaciers are all covered.

252

Yellowstone National Park Online Slide File  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website contains thousands of photographs of the Park. Images are organized by category including fire, thermal features, mammals, park structures, petrified trees, water, weather, scenics, and more. The photographs may be freely downloaded and more are being added through time.

Park, Yellowstone N.

253

Autonomous vehicle parking using artificial intelligent approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper devotes to the design and implementation of a hybrid artificial intelligent control scheme for a car-like vehicle through the performance optimization of the task of car parking. The genetic algorithm is used to determine the feasible parking locations. The Petri-net is used to replace the traditional system flow chart and most importantly, to plan alternative parking routes especially

Chen-Kui Lee; Chun-Liang Lin; Bing-Min Shiu

2009-01-01

254

Geology Fieldnotes: Glacier National Park, Montana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Glaciers have played an important role in shaping this park, which is part of the Rocky Mountain chain and shares a border with Canada's Waterton Lakes National Park. Information on this site includes park geology, visitor information, photographs, and links to other resources.

255

Public preferences for park and recreation sponsorships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corporate sponsorships assist park agencies in their effort to provide quality recreation opportunities. Awareness of public support for sponsorship as well as public preferences for specific sponsorship activities will help agencies devise more effective sponsorship programs. In this study, the public's support for sponsorship of a metropolitan park agency was examined. A questionnaire was mailed to park magazine subscribers and

Andrew J. Mowen; Sousan Frankeberger

1999-01-01

256

"The Rosa Parks Story": Guide for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a black seamstress, refused to give up her seat to a white man on a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama, and she was arrested. On that day, Rosa Parks became the mother of the modern civil rights movement. This study guide may be used as a companion to "The Rosa Parks Story" video which aired on CBS television…

Onish, Liane B.

257

"The Rosa Parks Story": Guide for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a black seamstress, refused to give up her seat to a white man on a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama, and she was arrested. On that day, Rosa Parks became the mother of the modern civil rights movement. This study guide may be used as a companion to "The Rosa Parks Story" video which aired on CBS television…

Onish, Liane B.

258

Geology Fieldnotes: Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site provides information about Hot Springs National Park in Arkansas, including geology, photographs, park maps, and visitor information. The cold and hot (143 degrees Farenheit) springs are a big attraction here, having existed for some 4,000 years. This site describes the springs here as well as the hydrothermal process that heats the water of the springs.

259

78 FR 24323 - National Park Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8961 of April 19, 2013 National Park Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...to be passed on. During National Park Week, we celebrate the wonders entrusted to...summon us to experience it firsthand. This week, the National Park Service will make...

2013-04-24

260

Interleukin-18 and IL-18 Binding Protein  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines. Similar to IL-1?, IL-18 is synthesized as an inactive precursor requiring processing by caspase-1 into an active cytokine but unlike IL-1?, the IL-18 precursor is constitutively present in nearly all cells in healthy humans and animals. The activity of IL-18 is balanced by the presence of a high affinity, naturally occurring IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP). In humans, increased disease severity can be associated with an imbalance of IL-18 to IL-18BP such that the levels of free IL-18 are elevated in the circulation. Increasing number of studies have expanded the role of IL-18 in mediating inflammation in animal models of disease using the IL-18BP, IL-18-deficient mice, neutralization of IL-18, or deficiency in the IL-18 receptor alpha chain. A role for IL-18 has been implicated in several autoimmune diseases, myocardial function, emphysema, metabolic syndromes, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, hemophagocytic syndromes, macrophage activation syndrome, sepsis, and acute kidney injury, although in some models of disease, IL-18 is protective. IL-18 plays a major role in the production of interferon-? from T-cells and natural killer cells. The IL-18BP has been used safely in humans and clinical trials of IL-18BP as well as neutralizing anti-IL-18 antibodies are in clinical trials. This review updates the biology of IL-18 as well as its role in human disease.

Dinarello, Charles A.; Novick, Daniela; Kim, Soohyun; Kaplanski, Gilles

2013-01-01

261

Analysis of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-1RA [correction of IL-RA] polymorphisms in dysthymia.  

PubMed

Investigators of independent studies reported alterations in cytokine serum levels in patients with different mood disorders. Several polymorphisms associated with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease have been reported at the interleukin-1 (IL-1) panel. Here we report the results of three specific polymorphisms at the IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-1RA genes, which were analyzed in 128 Brazilian subjects: 59 dysthymic patients and 69 normal controls. We found a statistically significant difference (p = 0.002) in the frequency of haplotypes with alleles 2+ (IL-1RA), T+ (IL-1alpha), and C+ (IL-1beta) in patients as compared to controls. We also observed that haplotype IL-1RA1.2/IL-1alpha CT/IL-1beta CC, present in 6 dysthymic patients (10%) was absent in the normal control group (p = 0.012). These results suggest that these polymorphisms might confer a greater susceptibility to develop dysthymia in Brazilian patients. However, to validate these data it will be of great interest to repeat this study in larger samples and other ethnic groups. PMID:14997019

Fertuzinhos, Sofia M M; Oliveira, João R M; Nishimura, Agnes L; Pontual, Deyse; Carvalho, Daniel R; Sougey, Everton B; Otto, Paulo A; Zatz, Mayana

2004-01-01

262

IL22 and IL17: Common and different properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies over the last few years have shown that a subpopulation of T helper cells called Th17 cells play a major role\\u000a in both the defense against certain microbes and the development and maintenance of chronic inflammatory diseases. IL-22,\\u000a IL-17A, and IL-17F may be the most important effector mediators of this novel cell population. This chapter illuminates the\\u000a common

Robert Sabat; Katrin Witte; Kerstin Wolk

263

The quandary of local people—Park relations in Nepal's Royal Chitwan National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes five major causes of park-people conflicts that have occurred in Nepal's Royal Chitwan National Park.\\u000a The causes include illegal transactions of forest products from the park, livestock grazing in the park, illegal hunting and\\u000a fishing, crop damage, and threats to human and animal life caused by wild animals from the park. The conflicts indicate a\\u000a reciprocal relationship

Karl E. Weber

1995-01-01

264

26 CFR 5. - parking lot.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...parking lot. 5. Example 5. Rights to control use of property treated as private business...following factorsâ (i) The degree of control over the property that is exercised by...nongovernmental person of possession and control of space that is separated from...

2009-04-01

265

Symmetry in the Car Park  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author presents a lesson on rotational symmetry which she developed for her students. The aim of the lesson was "to identify objects with rotational symmetry in the staff car park" and the success criteria were "pictures or sketches of at least six objects with different orders of rotation". After finding examples of…

Hancock, Karen

2007-01-01

266

Designing Interactive Theme Park Rides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pirates of the Caribbean-Battle for the Buccaneer Gold is an interactive theme park ride based on the classic Pirates of the Caribbean attraction at Disneyland. With themes and inspiration taken from the ride, this virtual interactive experience treats four guests to an overwhelming immersive adventure on the high seas. One guest steers at a real helm while the other three

Jesse Schell; Joe Shochet

2001-01-01

267

National Zoological Park Branch Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the functions of the National Zoological Park Branch of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, which is dedicated to supporting the special information needs of the zoo. Topics covered include the library's history, collection, programs, services, future plans, and relations with other zoo libraries. (two references) (Author/CLB)

Kenyon, Kay A.

1988-01-01

268

National Zoological Park Branch Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Zoological Park Branch of the Smithsonian Institute Libraries is dedicated to supporting the specialized information needs of the Zoo in its commitment to science, education, recreation, and conservation. The library's history, collection, programs, services, and relations with other zoo libraries are described.

Kay A. Kenyon

1988-01-01

269

Effective Parks & Recreation Boards & Commissions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This text explains the role of boards, commissions, and councils for parks and recreational programs in generating funds and involving volunteers in local service. The text covers functional differences and structural differences between administrative bodies, policy-making bodies, and advisory bodies. Special attention is given to small group…

Ibrahim, Hilmi; And Others

270

On a new approach of deriving the Weyl-Lanczos equations giving rise to a physical interpretation of the Lagrange multiplier q  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we incorporate Lanczos' six differential gauge conditions and eight algebraic conditions to the tensor form of the Weyl-Lanczos equation and subsequently apply the null tetrad formalism to obtain the Weyl-Lanczos equation in spin coefficient form. This technique is then applied to the Ricci tensor. As a consequence, Lanczos' Lagrange multiplier ensuremath Q_{? ?} is found to be related to the Ricci tensor -and explicit forms are obtained involving spin coefficients and the eight complex Lanczos coefficients- while the Lagrange multiplier q can be interpreted as the Ricci scalar. Furthermore, a relationship is established between ensuremath H_{? ? ? } , ensuremath Q_{? ?} and q when the Bianchi identities are invoked.

O'Donnell, Peter

2011-09-01

271

Alternative Transportation and Travel Information Technologies: Monitoring Parking Lot Conditions Over Three Summer Seasons at Acadia National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive Summary: Parking lots are an important transportation re- source of Acadia National Park, as they provide visitors convenient access to some of the most desirable destinations within the park. However, during the summer, parking at some of the most popular destinations is in short supply. Drivers often park vehicles outside designated parking spaces within the lots and along the

John J. Daigle; Carol A. Zimmerman

272

76 FR 61266 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Grand Teton National Park, Bicycle Routes...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Park System, Grand Teton National Park, Bicycle Routes, Fishing and Vessels AGENCY...Teton National Park (Park) as routes for bicycle use. National Park Service (NPS) regulations...issuance of a special regulation to designate bicycle routes that are located off park...

2011-10-04

273

Regulatory effects of C5a on IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-23  

PubMed Central

The complement anaphylatoxin, C5a, through binding to its receptors (C5aR or C5L2), has important biological properties for recruitment and activation of phagocytes. C5a has been identified as a powerful modulator of Toll-like receptor-induced cytokine and chemokine production by macrophages. Both the complement system and the interleukin (IL)-17 cytokine family protect against extracellular pathogens by enhancing innate immune functions. On the basis of its concentration, C5a can either positively or negatively modulate the production by macrophages of IL-17 family members as well as IL-23 via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling cascade. C5a can also affect the production and maintenance of IL-17-producing T cells. Using C5a, C5aR, or C5L2 deficiency or blockade, IL-17/IL-23 production and/or IL-17-dependent disease progression has been shown to be substantially modified. The contributions of C5a interaction with its receptors in the production of IL-17/IL-23 and promotion of IL-17-dependent immune responses are reviewed.

Grailer, Jamison J.; Bosmann, Markus; Ward, Peter A.

2013-01-01

274

The Geologic Story of Canyonlands National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On September 12, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed an act of Congress establishing Canyonlands as our thirty second national park, the first addition to the park system since 1956. The birth of Canyonlands National Park was not without labor pains. In the 1930's virtually all the vast canyon country between Moab, Utah, and Grand Canyon, Ariz., was studied for a projected Escalante National Park. But Escalante failed to get off the ground, even when a second attempt was made in the 1950's. Not until another proposal had been made and legislative compromises had been worked out did the park materialize, this time under a new name - Canyonlands. Among the many dignitaries who witnessed the signature on September 12 was one of the men most responsible for the park's creation, park superintendent Bates E. Wilson, who did the pioneer spade work in the field.

Lohman, Stanley William

1974-01-01

275

Seattle Parks & Recreation Sherwood History Files  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Seattle Parks & Recreation Sherwood History Files are the work of one Donald N. Sherwood, who worked as an engineer for the department for 22 years. In the course of his work, he began compiling sketch maps of the parks, and annotating them with historical tidbits and other pieces of information. Also, he began writing individual histories for each facility when the information didn't quite fit on the maps. This site afford interested parties access to these remarkable and truly unusual documents. All told, there are over 80 separate files here, documenting unique pieces of the Seattle parks landscape, including Alki Beach Park, Golden Gardens Park, and the celebrated Gas Works Park on Lake Union. For anyone with an interest in parks and recreation management or the Emerald City, this site will be a most welcome find.

2012-02-14

276

Air pollution vulnerabiity of 22 midwestern parks  

SciTech Connect

Air pollution increases in United States national parks as sources grow closer. As this happens, biota will be increasingly affected. Can it be determined in advance which parks will be more impacted by these air pollutants that others? This study of 22 park units in the midwestern United States attempted to answer this question. Plant lists were compiled for the 22 parks, relative abundances of all species (common, intermediate, rare) estimated, their sensitivities from their life cycle types (annual, perennial-deciduous, perennial-evergreen) determined, and overall vulnerability as the average product of the two was calculated using a 3-2-1 scale for weighting the abundances. Scotts Bluff National Monument in western Nebraska was the most vulnerable park in the region, while Isle Royale National Park in Lake Superior was the least. This difference was due to the higher abundances of annual plant species in Scotts Bluff. Changing the values used for abundances changed the order of park vulnerabilites. Three air pollutants (ozone, sulfur dioxide, and sulfate) were found to increase from west to east in the midwest. Overlaying these patterns on the park vulnerabilities, and a customer analysis of the data, resulted in a determination of the air pollution risks to groups of parks. The parks most at risk (high vulnerability+high pollution levels) were two in Ohio (Hopewell Culture National Historical Park and Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area) and one in Indiana (Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial). Ten parks were grouped at lowest risk in an arc from Lake Superior, northern Minnesota, and Wisconsin through Nebraska and Kansas. Of three different surrogate methods tested for a relationship with overall vulnerability, only one appeared to be useful. Vulnerability could be directly calculated if a park`s vegetative structure was known without assembling the complete flora. 22 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

Bennett, J.P.; Banerjee, N. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1995-08-01

277

IL33 Induces IL9 Production in Human CD4+ T Cells and Basophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-33, an IL-1 family member and ligand for the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2, has been associated with induction of Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Here, we report that IL-33 can initiate IL-9 protein secretion in vitro in human CD4+ T cells and basophils isolated from peripheral blood. TGF-? has been described as a critical factor for IL-9

Lars Blom; Britta C. Poulsen; Bettina M. Jensen; Anker Hansen; Lars K. Poulsen

2011-01-01

278

IL15R? Recycles and Presents IL15 In trans to Neighboring Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report intriguing aspects of the contribution of IL-15R? to IL-15 functions. Consistent with high-affinity interactions between IL-15 and IL-15R?, these two molecules form stable complexes on the cell surface of activated monocytes. The formation of IL-15\\/IL-15R? complexes on cell surfaces induces a trans-endosomal recycling of IL-15 leading to the persistence of surface-bound IL-15 due to the constantreappearance of IL-15

Sigrid Dubois; Jennifer Mariner; Thomas A Waldmann; Yutaka Tagaya

2002-01-01

279

IL-1? suppresses innate IL-25 and IL-33 production and maintains helminth chronicity.  

PubMed

Approximately 2 billion people currently suffer from intestinal helminth infections, which are typically chronic in nature and result in growth retardation, vitamin A deficiency, anemia and poor cognitive function. Such chronicity results from co-evolution between helminths and their mammalian hosts; however, the molecular mechanisms by which these organisms avert immune rejection are not clear. We have found that the natural murine helminth, Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hp) elicits the secretion of IL-1? in vivo and in vitro and that this cytokine is critical for shaping a mucosal environment suited to helminth chronicity. Indeed in mice deficient for IL-1? (IL-1?(-/-)), or treated with the soluble IL-1?R antagonist, Anakinra, helminth infection results in enhanced type 2 immunity and accelerated parasite expulsion. IL-1? acts to decrease production of IL-25 and IL-33 at early time points following infection and parasite rejection was determined to require IL-25. Taken together, these data indicate that Hp promotes the release of host-derived IL-1? that suppresses the release of innate cytokines, resulting in suboptimal type 2 immunity and allowing pathogen chronicity. PMID:23935505

Zaiss, Mario M; Maslowski, Kendle M; Mosconi, Ilaria; Guenat, Nadine; Marsland, Benjamin J; Harris, Nicola L

2013-08-01

280

The Bronx Park Postcard Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the years since its origins in the late 1880s, the Bronx Park has been expanded several times. In 1891, the city of New York allotted 250 acres of the park to the New York Botanical Garden, and in 1897 assigned 250 more to the Bronx Zoo. This particular digital collection brings together postcards of the grounds held by the Wildlife Conservation Society Library and the Garden's LuEsther T. Mertz Library. The collection here includes over 450 postcards, which visitors can browse by subject headings, including Zoo animals, Paths and walkways, and Bronx River. The Zoo animals area is well worth a look, as it features a range of animals, including a Noah's Ark exhibit, camels, and Indian elephants. It's an amazing archive of documents related to one of the most famous zoos in the United States, and historians and others will find it quite marvelous.

281

Lagrange-distributed approximating-functional approach to wave-packet propagation: Application to the time-independent wave-packet reactant-product decoupling method  

SciTech Connect

A connection is made between a recently introduced Lagrange-distributed approximating-functional and the Paley-Wiener sampling theorem. The Lagrange-distributed approximating-functional sampling is found to provide much superior results to that of Paley-Wiener sampling. The relations between discrete variable representation and Lagrange-distributed approximating functionals are discussed. The latter is used to provide an even spaced, interpolative grid representation of the Hamiltonian, in which the kinetic energy matrix has a banded, Toeplitz structure. In this paper we demonstrate that the Lagrange-distributed approximating-functional representation is an accurate and reliable representation for use in fast-Fourier-transform wave-packet propagation methods and apply it to the time-independent wave-packet reactant-product decoupling method, calculating state-to-state reaction probabilities for the two-dimensional (collinear) and three-dimensional (J=0) H+H{sub 2} reactions. The results are in very close agreement with those of previous calculations. We also discuss the connection between the distributed approximating-functional method and the existing mathematical formalism of moving least-squares theory. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Wei, G.W.; Althorpe, S.C.; Zhang, D.S.; Kouri, D.J. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas77204-5641 (United States); Hoffman, D.K. [Department of Chemistry and Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa50011 (United States)

1998-05-01

282

New Literacies in Schome Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter I deploy a synthesis of methods I term virtual literacy ethnography to investigate the diverse literacy practices\\u000a of the Schome Park project (SPP). This project worked with teenagers on the first European “closed” (i.e. protected) island\\u000a in the 3D virtual world Teen Second LifeTM (TSL) as described in the previous chapter. Firstly I introduce an ethnographic perspective

Julia Gillen

2010-01-01

283

Coordinating OBS Parks in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within Europe there are more than 380 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) distributed across 10 instrument parks in 6 countries. At least 120 of these OBS are wideband or broadband, over 260 can be deployed for at least 6 months at a time and 140 for at least one year. New parks are planned in two other European countries, which should add over 70 OBSs to this "fleet". However, these parks are under the control of individual countries or universities and hence to date this has made it difficult to organize large-scale experiments, especially for seismologists without marine experience. There has recently been an initiative to coordinate the use of these distributed instruments and their data products, to encourage large-scale experiments, possibly with onshore and offshore components, by seismologists who have not necessarily used OBSs before. The ongoing or planned developments include: Helping scientists with marine-specific formalities such as ship requests; clearer explanations of the noise floors of OBS instrumentation; improved clarity of instrument pricing and availability; standardized data output formats and data validation; and archiving in established seismological data centers. These efforts should allow improved experiment design in scientifically interesting regions with an offshore component and an easier, clearer way to organize large-scale, multi-country experiments. We will present details of this initiative to help organize large-scale experiments, the particularities of OBS sensors and marine deployments, the available instrumentation and new developments.

Crawford, W.; Brisbourne, A.; D'Anna, G.; Flüh, E. R.; Galve, A.; Graindorge, D.; Harmon, N.; Henstock, T.; Klingelhöfer, F.; Mangano, G.; Matias, L.; Peirce, C.; Sallares, V.; Schmidt-Aursch, M.; Tilmann, F.; Voss, P.

2012-04-01

284

Woofer-tweeter adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopic imaging based on Lagrange-multiplier damped least-squares algorithm  

PubMed Central

We implemented a Lagrange-multiplier (LM)-based damped least-squares (DLS) control algorithm in a woofer-tweeter dual deformable-mirror (DM) adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). The algorithm uses data from a single Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor to simultaneously correct large-amplitude low-order aberrations by a woofer DM and small-amplitude higher-order aberrations by a tweeter DM. We measured the in vivo performance of high resolution retinal imaging with the dual DM AOSLO. We compared the simultaneous LM-based DLS dual DM controller with both single DM controller, and a successive dual DM controller. We evaluated performance using both wavefront (RMS) and image quality metrics including brightness and power spectrum. The simultaneous LM-based dual DM AO can consistently provide near diffraction-limited in vivo routine imaging of human retina.

Zou, Weiyao; Qi, Xiaofeng; Burns, Stephen A.

2011-01-01

285

Complex scaling in Lagrange-mesh calculations for Stark shifts and widths of the screened Coulomb potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, much attention has been drawn to atomic processes influenced by the screened Coulomb/Yukawa potential. In this work, the influence of the static electric field on screened Coulomb potential is investigated using the complex-coordinate rotation method in Lagrange-mesh calculations. The Stark shifts and half-widths of the ground and excited states of the screened Coulomb potentials are reported for a wide range of field strengths in different screening conditions. Comparisons are made with the available data. While the screening effects lead to the continuum lowering and level splitting phenomena, the Stark effects also cause the shifting and splitting of the energy levels. The competition between the screening effect and the external electric field is demonstrated and discussed. The broadening of the half-width due to the screening and Stark effects is observed.

Lin, C. Y.; Ho, Y. K.

2011-09-01

286

Evaluation of a transient, simultaneous, arbitrary Lagrange-Euler based multi-physics method for simulating the mitral heart valve.  

PubMed

A transient multi-physics model of the mitral heart valve has been developed, which allows simultaneous calculation of fluid flow and structural deformation. A recently developed contact method has been applied to enable simulation of systole (the stage when blood pressure is elevated within the heart to pump blood to the body). The geometry was simplified to represent the mitral valve within the heart walls in two dimensions. Only the mitral valve undergoes deformation. A moving arbitrary Lagrange-Euler mesh is used to allow true fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The FSI model requires blood flow to induce valve closure by inducing strains in the region of 10-20%. Model predictions were found to be consistent with existing literature and will undergo further development. PMID:22640492

Espino, Daniel M; Shepherd, Duncan E T; Hukins, David W L

2012-05-29

287

A Comparative Study of Euler-Euler and Euler-Lagrange Modelling of Wood Gasification in a Dense Fluidized Bed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we compare two different modelling strategies for the simulation of wood gasification in a dense fluidized bed. In the first method we adopt an Euler-Lagrange approach where the fluid phase is modelled as a continuum and the particulate phase is modelled on the individual particle level using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). In the second method we use an Euler-Euler or continuum approach where the multiple solid phases for wood and char particles are treated as a continuum. Both models allow the time-dependent prediction of velocity, temperature, and composition fields. Both models have been run to a statistically stationary state. We compare the numerical results of both methods against each other and with experimental data obtained at a laboratory scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor.

Gerber, S.; Behrendt, F.; Oevermann, M.

288

A distributed Lagrange multiplier/fictitious domain method for flows around moving rigid bodies: Application to particulate flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses the application of a Lagrange multiplier-based fictitious domain method to the numerical simulation of incompressible viscous flow modeled by the Navier-Stokes equations around moving rigid bodies; the rigid body motions are due to hydrodynamical forces and gravity. The solution method combines finite element approximations, time discretization by operator splitting and conjugate gradient algorithms for the solution of the linearly constrained quadratic minimization problems coming from the splitting method. The study concludes with the presentation of numerical results concerning four test problems, namely the simulation of an incompressible viscous flow around a NACA0012 airfoil with a fixed center but free to rotate, then the sedimentation of 200 and 1008 cylinders in a two-dimensional channel, and finally the sedimentation of two spherical balls in a rectangular cylinder. Copyright

Glowinski, Roland; Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Hesla, Todd I.; Joseph, Daniel D.; Périaux, Jacques

1999-08-01

289

Woofer-tweeter adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopic imaging based on Lagrange-multiplier damped least-squares algorithm.  

PubMed

We implemented a Lagrange-multiplier (LM)-based damped least-squares (DLS) control algorithm in a woofer-tweeter dual deformable-mirror (DM) adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). The algorithm uses data from a single Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor to simultaneously correct large-amplitude low-order aberrations by a woofer DM and small-amplitude higher-order aberrations by a tweeter DM. We measured the in vivo performance of high resolution retinal imaging with the dual DM AOSLO. We compared the simultaneous LM-based DLS dual DM controller with both single DM controller, and a successive dual DM controller. We evaluated performance using both wavefront (RMS) and image quality metrics including brightness and power spectrum. The simultaneous LM-based dual DM AO can consistently provide near diffraction-limited in vivo routine imaging of human retina. PMID:21750774

Zou, Weiyao; Qi, Xiaofeng; Burns, Stephen A

2011-06-17

290

Pivotal Roles of T-Helper 17-Related Cytokines, IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23, in Inflammatory Diseases  

PubMed Central

T-helper 17 (Th17) cells are characterized by producing interleukin-17 (IL-17, also called IL-17A), IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-22 and potentially TNF-? and IL-6 upon certain stimulation. IL-23, which promotes Th17 cell development, as well as IL-17 and IL-22 produced by the Th17 cells plays essential roles in various inflammatory diseases, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, colitis, and Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of the functional role of Th17 cells, with particular focus on the Th17 cell-related cytokines such as IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23, in mouse models and human inflammatory diseases.

Qu, Ning; Xu, Mingli; Mizoguchi, Izuru; Furusawa, Jun-ichi; Kaneko, Kotaro; Watanabe, Kazunori; Mizuguchi, Junichiro; Itoh, Masahiro; Kawakami, Yutaka; Yoshimoto, Takayuki

2013-01-01

291

U.S. National Park Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Department of the Interior has recently opened its National Park Service (NPS) Web site, offering listings of all U.S. national parks, monuments, historical sites, memorials, and other designations by name, state, or region -- although state and regional access is limited to clickable maps only at this time. Each NPS site provides varying quantities of information. "Preserving America's Heritage" contains exhaustive information about natural resources and history in the parks, as well as educational resources related to the NPS. "Caring for the American Legacy" has useful information about the NPS, including the nomenclature of the National Park System Units located under "What is the National Park System?". There is also a "Hot Topics" section of NPS issues. Although the "Search the National Parks by Theme" section is in an immature state at present, watch for it to improve, making access to specific information even easier. http://www.nps.gov/

292

Politics of external threats: visibility, mining, and the national parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The national Park Service is one of four federal agencies charged with administering America's public lands. The national parks, administered by the Park Service, are considered one of the most successful and admired examples of natural resource protection in the world. Today, however, the Park Service is faced with a new administrative and policy problem: impacts on park resources and

Freemuth

1986-01-01

293

Geology Fieldnotes: Death Valley National Park, California/Nevada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Death Valley National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology using National Park examples). The Park Geology section contains an exaggerated cross-section showing the vertical rise within Death Valley. A link is provided to Death Valley's expanded geology page.

294

Market Feasibility Study of the Northeast, Park Plaza and Park Estates Shopping Centers, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents research findings related to three shoppings centers in northeast Oklahoma City. The three shopping centers targeted were Northeast Shopping Center, Park Plaza and Park Estates. An analysis of these centers has been divided into sever...

1978-01-01

295

77 FR 53826 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...168, Yellowstone National Park, WY 82190. Hand Deliver to: Management Assistant's Office, Headquarters Building, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. All submissions received must include the agency name and RIN. For...

2012-09-04

296

77 FR 60050 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...designates the Hope Camp Trail as a route for bicycle use and allows for management of bicycle use within Saguaro National Park. Further...Park Service general regulation pertaining to bicycles requiring promulgation of a special...

2012-10-02

297

Recent advances in IL-22 biology.  

PubMed

Several cell types, in particular epithelial cells, express the receptor for the cytokine IL-22 and upon its recognition produce molecules that are active both locally and systemically. Many different types of lymphocyte secrete IL-22. T(h)17 cells produce IL-22 although the optimal conditions for secretion of IL-17 or IL-22 by T(h)17 cells differ, as do the transcription factors involved. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor is required for IL-22 production by T(h)17, T(h)22 and ?? T cells. T(h)22 cells produce IL-22 in response to IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), particularly in the skin, whereas ?? T cells produce IL-22 in response to IL-23, particularly in the lung. NK cells produce IL-22 in response to IL-12 and IL-18 or IL-23. Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor?t-positive innate lymphoid cells, including lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) and LTi-like cells express IL-22 with IL-23 again enhancing expression. IL-22 is known to be expressed in many chronic inflammatory conditions, including psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis, and its up-regulation often correlates with disease activity. IL-22 is known to be protective in the gastrointestinal tract in inflammatory bowel disease but may mediate either harmful or helpful inflammatory responses in different models of intestinal infection. Finally, IL-22 may also play an important role in tissue repair. PMID:21393631

Zenewicz, Lauren A; Flavell, Richard A

2011-03-01

298

Geology Fieldnotes: Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site provides information about Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado, including geology, visitor information, illustrations, and additional links for more details. This park was home to the Anasazi people who were cliff dwellers in this area. Today you can see artifacts, native dwellings made of sandstone bricks, and learn about the Anasazi way of life, dating back to around 550 AD.

299

Geology Fieldnotes: Arches National Park, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This park is located on the Colorado Plateau near Moab, Utah, and contains many arches and sculpted sedimentary rocks. The visible rock formations in the park are the Entrada and Navajo sandstones. Covered topics include the formation of arches in stages, different types of arches, as well as sizes and names (Delicate Arch being the most famous). The site also provides visitor information, photos, maps, additional links, and a teacher feature (tools for teaching geology with National Park examples).

Foos, Annabelle

300

ParkNet: drive-by sensing of road-side parking statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban street-parking availability statistics are challenging to obtain in real-time but would greatly benefit society by reducing traffic congestion. In this paper we present the design, implementation and evaluation of ParkNet, a mobile system comprising vehicles that collect parking space occupancy information while driving by. Each ParkNet vehicle is equipped with a GPS receiver and a passenger-side-facing ultrasonic range-finder to

Suhas Mathur; Tong Jin; Nikhil Kasturirangan; Janani Chandrashekharan; Wenzhi Xue; Marco Gruteser; Wade Trappe

2010-01-01

301

Neighborhood poverty, park use, and park-based physical activity in a Southern California city.  

PubMed

A rich literature indicates that individuals of lower socio-economic status engage in less leisure time physical activity than individuals of higher socio-economic status. However, the source of the difference is believed to be, in part, due to differential access to resources that support physical activity. However, it has not been shown as to whether equal access to parks can mitigate differences in leisure time physical activity. Using systematic direct observation, we quantified physical activity in neighborhood parks in a large Southern California city located in areas with high, medium, and a low percentage of households in poverty. We documented how neighborhood parks are managed and programmed and also interviewed both a sample of park users and a random sample of households within a mile radius of the parks. We found that parks are used less in high-poverty areas compared to medium- and low-poverty area parks, even after accounting for differences in size, staffing, and programming. The strongest correlates of park use were the number of part time staff, the number of supervised and organized programs, and knowing the park staff. Perceptions of safety were not relevant to park use among those interviewed in the park, however it had a small relationship with reported frequency of park use among local residents. Among park users, time spent watching electronic media was negatively correlated with the frequency of visiting the park. Future research should test whether increasing park staffing and programming will lead to increased park use in high-poverty neighborhoods. PMID:23010338

Cohen, Deborah A; Han, Bing; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Williamson, Stephanie; Marsh, Terry; Rudick, Jodi; McKenzie, Thomas L

2012-09-12

302

Off?Street Parking Policy without Parking Requirements: A Need for Market Fostering and Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses and extends upon the recent upsurge of interest in market?oriented reform of parking policy, which has been reinvigorated by the work of Donald Shoup. His market?oriented approach to parking policy is shown to be the more ambitious of two distinct challenges to the conventional supply?focused approach. The other is ‘parking management’. However, off?street parking markets and their

Paul A. Barter

2010-01-01

303

Tour of Park Geology: Sand Dunes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Park Geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas with sand dunes. Where appropriate for each park, links are provided to maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as Death Valley and Mojave National Preserve, along with less well-known areas such as the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore in Michigan and the Wright Brothers National Memorial in North Carolina.

304

75 FR 20885 - National Park Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8498--National Park Week, 2010 Proclamation 8499--National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010 Proclamation 8500--National Volunteer Week, 2010 Proclamation 8501--National Day of Service and...

2010-04-21

305

Park visitors' perceptions of governance: a comparison between Ontario and British Columbia provincial parks management models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to compare visitor perspectives of the governance of two of Canada's largest park systems: the parastatal model of Ontario Provincial Parks and the public and for-profit combination model of British Columbia Provincial Parks. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors developed an electronic survey based on the ten UNDP criteria of governance: strategic vision, accountability,

Windekind C. Buteau-Duitschaever; Bonnie McCutcheon; Paul F. J. Eagles; M. E. Havitz; Troy D. Glover

2010-01-01

306

Park Planning Handbook. Fundamentals of Physical Planning for Parks and Recreation Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is written primarily as a textbook for students of recreation and park administration. It is organized in two parts. Part one gives a detailed description of the process of park planning, phase by phase, explaining the functions, roles, contributions, and responsibilities of the members of the park planning team, from predesign…

Christiansen, Monty L.

307

Park Location Affects Forest Protection: Land Characteristics Cause Differences in Park Impacts across Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

To support conservation planning, we ask whether a park's impact on deforestation rates varies with observable land characteristics that planners could use to prioritize sites. Using matching methods to address bias from non-random location, we find deforestation impacts vary greatly due to park lands' characteristics. Avoided deforestation is greater if parks are closer to the capital city, in sites closer

Alexander Pfaff; Juan Robalino; G. Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa; Kwaw S. Andam; Paul J. Ferraro

2009-01-01

308

The parks PDA: a handheld device for theme park guests in squeak  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Parks PDA is a lightweight, handheld device for theme park guests that functions as a combination guidebook, map, and digital camera. Together with a small team of artists and designers, we created a prototype Parks PDA and content for a three hour guest experience, including a camera interface, a hyper-linked guide book, three games, an animal spotters guide, a

Yoshiki Ohshima; John Maloney; Andy Ogden

2003-01-01

309

Park Planning Handbook. Fundamentals of Physical Planning for Parks and Recreation Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is written primarily as a textbook for students of recreation and park administration. It is organized in two parts. Part one gives a detailed description of the process of park planning, phase by phase, explaining the functions, roles, contributions, and responsibilities of the members of the park planning team, from predesign…

Christiansen, Monty L.

310

Pupils and Parks: Environmental Education in National Parks of Developing Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes two conservation education programs that target local primary schools and use national parks in Malaysian Borneo (Kinabalu Park) and central Brazil (Morro do Diabo Park). Both were designed using a comprehensive systems evaluation model and both resulted in cognitive and affective gains for students. (LB)|

Jacobson, Susan K.; Padua, Suzana M.

1992-01-01

311

IL-23 and IL-17A, but Not IL-12 and IL-22, Are Required for Optimal Skin Host Defense against Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

IL-23 and Th17 cells play important roles in host defense against systemic infections with extracellular bacteria and fungi, although their roles in immunity against localized skin infections are less well defined. Here, the contributions of IL-23 and Th17 cytokines in host defense against cutaneous Candida albicans infection were evaluated. Mice deficient in IL-23 or IL-17A demonstrated delayed healing and decreased IL-17A production after skin infection with C. albicans compared with wild-type mice or mice deficient in IL-12 or IL-22. Histologic examination revealed epidermal hyperplasia overlying infected dermis four days postinoculation in wild-type mice. In IL-23–deficient mice, fungal burden was greater in skin, neither IL-17A nor IL-22 mRNAs were expressed postinfection, and these mice demonstrated only minimal epidermal hyperplasia. Exogenous recombinant IL-17A injected at the site of skin infection promoted more rapid healing of candidiasis in both wild-type mice and mice deficient in IL-23 and IL-12. Taken together, these results demonstrate that IL-23 and IL-17A, but not IL-12 and IL-22, are required for optimal host defense against cutaneous candidiasis. In addition, recombinant IL-17A may serve as a potential therapy to enhance healing in individuals with chronic cutaneous candidiasis.

Kagami, Shinji; Rizzo, Heather L.; Kurtz, Stephen E.; Miller, Lloyd S.; Blauvelt, Andrew

2010-01-01

312

IL-1 Effects in Brain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research explored the effect of cytokines and neurosteroids on the GABAergic and I glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems in the CNS. lnterleukin-1 (IL-1) augmented GABAA receptor function in behavioral, neurochemical and electrophysiological paradig...

L. G. Miller J. M. Fahey

1997-01-01

313

Everglades National Park: Educational Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational resource from the Everglades National Park provides a variety of activities for grades K-6. Covering a wide variety of life science subjects, lesson plans include habitat, food chains, biodiversity, and more. A geography lesson is included, but is most applicable for those living in Florida. There are lots of additional teacher resources for honing up on Everglades-related topics, as well as reading lists for students and teachers. These lesson plans provide some good information that can be incorporated into science or geography classrooms, regardless of where the students live.

2007-11-28

314

Everglades National Park: Curriculum Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational resource from the Everglades National Park provides a variety of activities for grades K-6. Covering a wide variety of life science subjects, lesson plans include habitat, food chains, biodiversity, and more. A geography lesson is included, but is most applicable for those living in Florida. There are lots of additional teacher resources for honing up on Everglades-related topics, as well as reading lists for students and teachers. These lesson plans provide some good information that can be incorporated into science or geography classrooms, regardless of where the students live.

2002-01-01

315

Interleukin-4 (IL-4) Pathway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a cytokine produced by TH2 type helper T cells and by mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils. This cytokine can elicit many responses, some of which are associated with allergy and asthma. Studies with long-term cell lines and primary cells have revealed differences in the signaling between these two experimental systems. Understanding these differences is important because therapeutic strategies targeting IL-4 and its signaling pathways are currently being tested to treat allergy and asthma.

Ann Kelly-Welch (University of Maryland and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center;Program in Oncology at Marlene and Department of Microbiology and Immunology REV); Erica M. Hanson (University of Maryland Baltimore County;Department of Biology REV); Achsah D. Keegan (University of Maryland and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center;Program in Oncology at Marlene and Department of Microbiology and Immunology REV)

2005-07-19

316

Tumorigenicity of IL-1?- and IL-1?-Deficient Fibrosarcoma Cells1  

PubMed Central

Analyzing the growth of fibrosarcoma lines derived from IL-1?-, IL-1?- , or IL-1??-knockout (-/-) mice in the immunocompetent host revealed that tumor-derived IL-1? and IL-1? exert strong and opposing effects on immune response induction, which prohibited the evaluation of a potential impact on tumorigenicity. Therefore, in vivo growth of IL-1-deficient tumor lines was evaluated in nu/nu mice and was compared with in vitro growth characteristics. All IL-1-deficient fibrosarcoma lines grow in immunocompromised mice. However, IL-1?-/-?-competent (comp) lines grow more aggressively, efficiently induce angiogenesis, and recruit inflammatory cells. Despite stronger tumorigenicity of IL-1?comp lines, IL-1? strengthens anchorage-independent growth, but both IL-1? and IL-1? support drug resistance. Corresponding to the aggressive growth, IL-1?comp cells display increased matrix adhesion, motility, and cable formation on matrigel, likely supported by elevated ?v/?3 and matrix metalloroteinase expression. Recruitment of myeloid cells requires IL-1? but is regulated by IL-1?, because inflammatory chemokine and cytokine expression is stronger in IL-1?-/-?comp than in IL-1wt lines. This regulatory effect of tumor-derived IL-1? is restricted to the tumor environment and does not affect systemic inflammatory response induction by tumor-derived IL-1?. Both sarcoma cell-derived IL-1? and IL-1? promote tumor growth. However, IL-1? exerts regulatory activity on the tumor cell-matrix cross-talk, and only IL-1? initiates systemic inflammation.

Nazarenko, Irina; Marhaba, Rachid; Reich, Eli; Voronov, Elena; Vitacolonna, Mario; Hildebrand, Dagmar; Elter, Elena; Rajasagi, Mohini; Apte, Ron N; Zoller, Margot

2008-01-01

317

Distinct roles for IL-13 and IL-4 via IL-13 receptor alpha1 and the type II IL-4 receptor in asthma pathogenesis.  

PubMed

IL-13 and IL-4 are central T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines in the immune system and potent activators of inflammatory responses and fibrosis during Th2 inflammation. Recent studies using Il13ra1(-/-) mice have demonstrated a critical role for IL-13 receptor (IL-13R) alpha1 in allergen-induced airway responses. However, these observations require further attention especially because IL-4 can induce similar lung pathology to IL-13, independent of IL-13, and is still present in the allergic lung. Thus, we hypothesized that IL-13Ralpha1 regulates IL-4-induced responses in the lung. To dissect the role of IL-13Ralpha1 and the type I and II IL-4Rs in experimental asthma, we examined lung pathology induced by allergen, IL-4, and IL-13 challenge in Il13ra1(-/-) mice. We report that IL-13Ralpha1 is essential for baseline IgE production, but Th2 and IgE responses to T cell-dependent antigens are IL-13Ralpha1-independent. Furthermore, we demonstrate that increased airway resistance, mucus, TGF-beta, and eotaxin(s) production, but not cellular infiltration, are critically dependent on IL-13Ralpha1. Surprisingly, our results identify a CCR3- and IL-13Ralpha1-independent pathway for lung eosinophilia. Global expression profiling of lungs from mice stimulated with allergen or IL-4 demonstrated that marker genes of alternatively activated macrophages are differentially regulated by the type I and type II IL-4R. Taken together, our data provide a comprehensive mechanistic analysis of the critical role by which IL-13Ralpha1 mediates allergic lung pathology and highlight unforeseen roles for the type II IL-4R. PMID:18480254

Munitz, A; Brandt, E B; Mingler, M; Finkelman, F D; Rothenberg, M E

2008-05-14

318

30 CFR 57.14217 - Securing parked railcars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Securing parked railcars. 57.14217 Section 57.14217 Mineral Resources...Operational Procedures § 57.14217 Securing parked railcars. Parked railcars shall be blocked securely unless held...

2009-07-01

319

30 CFR 57.14217 - Securing parked railcars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Securing parked railcars. 57.14217 Section 57.14217 Mineral Resources...Operational Procedures § 57.14217 Securing parked railcars. Parked railcars shall be blocked securely unless held...

2010-07-01

320

30 CFR 56.14217 - Securing parked railcars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Securing parked railcars. 56.14217 Section 56.14217 Mineral Resources...Operational Procedures § 56.14217 Securing parked railcars. Parked railcars shall be blocked securely unless held...

2013-07-01

321

30 CFR 56.14217 - Securing parked railcars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Securing parked railcars. 56.14217 Section 56.14217 Mineral Resources...Operational Procedures § 56.14217 Securing parked railcars. Parked railcars shall be blocked securely unless held...

2010-07-01

322

30 CFR 57.14217 - Securing parked railcars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Securing parked railcars. 57.14217 Section 57.14217 Mineral Resources...Operational Procedures § 57.14217 Securing parked railcars. Parked railcars shall be blocked securely unless held...

2013-07-01

323

30 CFR 56.14217 - Securing parked railcars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Securing parked railcars. 56.14217 Section 56.14217 Mineral Resources...Operational Procedures § 56.14217 Securing parked railcars. Parked railcars shall be blocked securely unless held...

2009-07-01

324

Colonial National Historical Park Natural Resource Condition Assessment, Virginia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Colonial National Historical Park was originally authorized as a national monument in 1930, and later established as a national historical park in 1936. The Park protects the historical units of Jamestown and Yorktown. In 1957, the Colonial Parkway was co...

C. N. Bentsen S. Costanzo T. Lookingbill T. J. B. Carruthers W. C. Dennison

2012-01-01

325

Aircraft Management Studies: National Park Service Visitors Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The final report presents the findings from a nationally representative survey of the impacts of aircraft overflights on visitors to National Park Service areas. Public Law 100-91, the National Parks Overflights Act, directed the National Park Service to ...

C. D. McDonald R. M. Baumgartner R. Iachan

1995-01-01

326

4. Footbridge across Big Creek at Brookside Park (July 1905). ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Footbridge across Big Creek at Brookside Park (July 1905). This drawing is for the 1905 footbridge, now demolished. Drawing courtesy of the Parks Department, City of Cleveland. - Brookside Park Bridge, Spanning Big Creek & Cleveland Metroparks, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

327

76 FR 9360 - Kalaupapa National Historical Park Advisory Commission Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hall, Kalaupapa National Historical Park, Kalaupapa, Hawaii...Superintendent, Kalaupapa National Historical Park, P.O. Box 2222...they must submit them in writing. Before including your address...Superintendent, Kalaupapa National Historical Park. [FR Doc....

2011-02-17

328

36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a... All waters within Olympic National Park are open...published annually by the Washington State Department of Game and the Washington...

2010-07-01

329

36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a... All waters within Olympic National Park are open...published annually by the Washington State Department of Game and the Washington...

2009-07-01

330

Modeling spatial accessibility to parks: a national study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Parks provide ideal open spaces for leisure-time physical activity and important venues to promote physical activity. The\\u000a spatial configuration of parks, the number of parks and their spatial distribution across neighborhood areas or local regions,\\u000a represents the basic park access potential for their residential populations. A new measure of spatial access to parks, population-weighted\\u000a distance (PWD) to parks, combines the

Xingyou Zhang; Hua Lu; James B Holt

2011-01-01

331

Lagrange L4/L5 points and the origin of our Moon and Saturn's moons and rings.  

PubMed

The current standard theory of the origin of the Moon is that the Earth was hit by a giant impactor the size of Mars causing ejection of debris from its mantle that coalesced to form the moon; but where did this Mars-sized impactor come from? Isotopic evidence suggests that it came from 1 AU radius in the solar nebula, and computer simulations are consistent with its approaching Earth on a zero-energy parabolic trajectory. How could such a large object form at 1 AU in a quiescent disk of planetesimals without having already collided with the Earth at an earlier epoch before having the chance to grow large? Belbruno and Gott propose that the giant impactor could have formed in a stable orbit from debris at the Earth's Lagrange point L(5) (or L(4)). It would grow quietly by accretion at L(5) (or L(4)), but eventually gravitational perturbations by other growing planetesimals would kick it out into a horseshoe orbit and finally into a chaotic creeping orbit, which Belbruno and Gott show would, with high probability, hit the Earth on a near zero-energy parabolic trajectory. We can see other examples of this phenomenon occurring in the solar system. Asteroid 2002AA29 is in a horseshoe orbit relative to the Earth that looks exactly like the horseshoe orbits that Belbruno and Gott found for objects that had been perturbed from L(4)/L(5). The regular moons of Saturn are made of ice and have the same albedo as the ring particles (ice chunks, plus some dust). We (J. R. Gott, R. Vanderbei, and E. Belbruno) propose that the regular icy moons of Saturn (out to the orbit of Titan), which are all in nearly circular orbits, formed out of a thin disk of planetesimals (ice chunks) rather like the rings of Saturn today only larger in extent. In such a situation formation of objects at L(4)/L(5) might be expected. Indeed, Saturn's moon Dione is accompanied by moons (Helene and Polydeuces) at both L(4) and L(5) Lagrange points, and Saturn's moon Tethys is also accompanied by moons (Telesto and Calypso) at both L(4) and L(5) Lagrange points. Epimetheus is in a horseshoe orbit relative to Janus that is exactly like the horseshoe orbit expected for an object that has been perturbed from a location at L(4)/L(5). We propose that the rings of Saturn visible today are all that remains of this original disk; they lie inside the Roche limit where tidal forces have simply prevented the formation of large moons by accretion. Further out, the icy particles have accumulated into icy moons. Objects in external solar systems on horseshoe orbits (like those of Epimetheus relative to Janus) could be detected by a slow sinusoidal variation with time of the calculated mass of a planet from radial velocity measurements. PMID:16510418

Gott, J Richard

2005-12-01

332

75 FR 11169 - Reedsport OPT Wave Park Project; Reedsport OPT Wave Park; LLC Notice of Scoping Meetings and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Project No. 12713-002] Reedsport OPT Wave Park Project; Reedsport OPT Wave Park; LLC Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental...February 1, 2010. d. Submitted by: Reedsport OPT Wave Park, LLC. e. Name of Project: Reedsport...

2010-03-10

333

Private Sector Thinking Saves Park U.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recounts the restructuring and resulting survival of Park University (Missouri) over the last decade. A process of evaluating the university's competitive strategy resulted in changes in tuition pricing; development of the Park School of Distance Learning, which serves primarily military installations; minority student marketing; and development…

Breckon, Donald; Gibb, John

2000-01-01

334

Design of Parking Lots and Garages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Layout, control, and sign posting in the design of parking facilities is discussed emphasizing self parking and automated control. Considerations such as site, traffic, function of the facility, city codes, and sizes are related to design considerations. Traffic control factors are related to the direction and placement of cars and the collection…

McConochie, William R.

335

Wetland Resources of Yellowstone National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park online report provides an overview of the park's wetlands and associated flora and fauna. Chapters include wetland plants, wetlands and wildlife, wetlands and people, thermal wetlands, a wetland inventory, wetland classification and acreage, and others. Information is presented as text, photos, graphs, tables, and maps.

Charles, Elliott

336

Jackson Park Hospital Green Building Medical Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jackson Park Hospital completed the construction of a new Medical Office Building on its campus this spring. The new building construction has adopted the City of Chicago's recent focus on protecting the environment, and conserving energy and resources, with the introduction of green building codes. Located in a poor, inner city neighborhood on the South side of Chicago, Jackson Park

William Dorsey; Nelson Vasquez

2010-01-01

337

Disability Awareness Training Manual for Park Personnel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to increase the awareness and understanding of disabilities by Virginia park personnel, this guide provides information about the characteristics and needs of park visitors who have disabilities. Four different categories of disabilities are addressed: (1) mobility impairments; (2) visual impairments; (3) hearing impairments; and (4)…

Myers, Laurie C.

338

Proposed Wilderness Classification, Haleakala National Park, Hawaii.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Park Service proposes that 19,270 acres of Haleakala National Park be designated as wilderness. An area of 5,500 acres is also proposed as potential wilderness addition, to be designated by the Secretary of the Interior as wilderness at such ...

1973-01-01

339

ALIEN PLANTS IN HALEAKALA NATIONAL PARK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alien plant problems of Haleakala National Park are substantial but may be fewer than those of other Hawaiian natural areas, partly because most of the Park is at high elevation (75% above 5,000 ft or 1,525 m). However, potential problems with alien plants are still not clear because of the suppression of all vegetation by intense herbivory by feral

Lloyd L. Loo; Ronald J. Nagata; C. Medeiros

340

Networked parking spaces: architecture and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding a parking space is a common challenge faced by millions of city-dwellers every day. As common is the revenue generation by fee and fine collection in these municipalities. Wireless ad hoc networking technologies offer a new and efficient means to both simplify the process of parking and find collection as well as extending the convenience for drivers. In this

Prithwish Basu; Thomas D. C. Little

2002-01-01

341

How Safe Are School and Park Playgrounds?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Playgrounds traditionally have been found in both schools and parks in America. Each year, parent-teacher associations and school administrations, as well as park and recreation departments, spend millions of dollars to provide playground structures. However, since 1981, HPER professionals and the public have become increasingly aware that these…

Hudson, Susan D.; Thompson, Donna; Olsen, Heather

2005-01-01

342

Yellowstone National Park Region Seismicity Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Utah website provides numerous maps of the Yellowstone National Park area that show the location and magnitude of historical earthquakes. Time intervals include the previous day, week, 30-days, 90-days, year, 1973 to present, 1973-1981, and 1983 to present. The maps also include latitude and longitude, park boundary, and fault information.

Stations, University O.

343

Master Plan Process for Parks and Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents guidelines for creating a master plan for community parks and recreation programs. The master plan is a written document used by community decision makers to provide a consistent 5 to 10 year parks and recreation plan. Chapters provide information on: (1) definition and general description of master plans; (2) goals and…

Kelsey, Craig; Gray, Howard

344

Demarketing in park and recreation management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper revives demarketing as a concept, and expands, adopts and adapts it to create an umbrella theory relevant to parks and recreation administration. Demarketing can occur at all levels government, i.e., federal, state, and municipal, as well as in private organizations. Demarketing is a viable way to reduce the demand of a product, service, programme or park area temporarily

Christopher Groff

1998-01-01

345

Design of Parking Lots and Garages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Layout, control, and sign posting in the design of parking facilities is discussed emphasizing self parking and automated control. Considerations such as site, traffic, function of the facility, city codes, and sizes are related to design considerations. Traffic control factors are related to the direction and placement of cars and the collection…

McConochie, William R.

346

Park Olof Davidson: 1937-1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distinguished career of Park Davidson came to a tragic end when he and his wife, Sheena, were killed in an automobile accident on December 21, 1980. The impact of this shattering event is not yet fully comprehended by the community of psychologists in Canada, but we know how sorely his friendship, inspiration, and guidance will be missed. Park had

Suzanne Vaughan; Ken Craig

1981-01-01

347

Herpetofaunal Species Richness of Southeastern National Parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southeast is the stronghold of US herpetofaunal biodiversity and comprises approximately half of the nation's species of amphibians and reptiles, of which about 20% are endemic. However, few areas have been inventoried, thus hampering efforts to monitor and protect populations. We conducted 2-year herpeto- logical inventories of 16 parks within the National Park Service's Southeast Coast Network. We used

Tracey D. Tuberville; John D. Willson; Michael E. Dorcas; J. Whitfield Gibbons

2005-01-01

348

NATIONAL PARK SITING AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice of a site for a national park includes an evaluation of the natural beauty and value of the physical geography as well as socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding area. For some parks, consideration of the human geography was of little import because of the sparse population, but in other cases (primarily in the East), whole communities were displaced

Margaret F. Boorstein

1992-01-01

349

IL1Ra: il suo ruolo nell'artrite reumatoide IL1Ra: its role in rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is one of the pivotal cytokines in initiating and driving the processes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and the body's natural response, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), has been shown conclusively to block its effects. IL-1 mediate several clinical symptoms of the inflammatory reaction (i.e. fever, pain, sleep disturbances). IL-1 is con- sidered a key mediator in RA joint

M. Cutolo

350

Bleomycin and IL-1?-mediated pulmonary fibrosis is IL-17A dependent  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a destructive inflammatory disease with limited therapeutic options. To better understand the inflammatory responses that precede and concur with collagen deposition, we used three models of pulmonary fibrosis and identify a critical mechanistic role for IL-17A. After exposure to bleomycin (BLM), but not Schistosoma mansoni eggs, IL-17A produced by CD4+ and ??+ T cells induced significant neutrophilia and pulmonary fibrosis. Studies conducted with C57BL/6 il17a?/? mice confirmed an essential role for IL-17A. Mechanistically, using ifn??/?, il10?/?, il10?/?il12p40?/?, and il10?/?il17a?/? mice and TGF-? blockade, we demonstrate that IL-17A–driven fibrosis is suppressed by IL-10 and facilitated by IFN-? and IL-12/23p40. BLM-induced IL-17A production was also TGF-? dependent, and recombinant IL-17A–mediated fibrosis required TGF-?, suggesting cooperative roles for IL-17A and TGF-? in the development of fibrosis. Finally, we show that fibrosis induced by IL-1?, which mimics BLM-induced fibrosis, is also highly dependent on IL-17A. IL-17A and IL-1? were also increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with IPF. Together, these studies identify a critical role for IL-17A in fibrosis, illustrating the potential utility of targeting IL-17A in the treatment of drug and inflammation-induced fibrosis.

Wilson, Mark S.; Madala, Satish K.; Ramalingam, Thirumalai R.; Gochuico, Bernadette R.; Rosas, Ivan O.; Cheever, Allen W.

2010-01-01

351

Adaptive lagrange finite element methods for high precision vibrations and piezoelectric acoustic wave computations in SMT structures and plates with nano interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the validity of (adaptive) Lagrange generalized plain finite element method (FEM) and plate element method\\u000a for accurate analysis of acoustic waves in multi-layered piezoelectric structures with tiny interfaces between metal electrodes\\u000a and surface mounted piezoelectric substrates. We have come to conclusion that the quantitative relationships between the acoustic\\u000a and electric fields in a piezoelectric structure can be

Zhang Wu; Hong Tao

2002-01-01

352

On a new approach of deriving the Weyl-Lanczos equations giving rise to a physical interpretation of the Lagrange multiplier q  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we incorporate Lanczos' six differential gauge conditions and eight algebraic conditions to the tensor form of the Weyl-Lanczos equation and subsequently apply the null tetrad formalism to obtain the Weyl-Lanczos equation in spin coefficient form. This technique is then applied to the Ricci tensor. As a consequence, Lanczos' Lagrange multiplier ensuremath Q_{alpha beta} is found to be

Peter O'Donnell

2011-01-01

353

On the extension of the Laplace-Lagrange secular theory to order two in the masses for extrasolar systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the secular evolution of several exoplanetary systems by extending the Laplace-Lagrange theory to order two in the masses. Using an expansion of the Hamiltonian in the Poincaré canonical variables, we determine the fundamental frequencies of the motion and compute analytically the long-term evolution of the Keplerian elements. Our study clearly shows that, for systems close to a mean-motion resonance, the second order approximation describes their secular evolution more accurately than the usually adopted first order one. Moreover, this approach takes into account the influence of the mean anomalies on the secular dynamics. Finally, we set up a simple criterion that is useful to discriminate between three different categories of planetary systems: (i) secular systems (HD 11964, HD 74156, HD 134987, HD 163607, HD 12661 and HD 147018); (ii) systems near a mean-motion resonance (HD 11506, HD 177830, HD 9446, HD 169830 and Andromedae); (iii) systems really close to or in a mean-motion resonance (HD 108874, HD 128311 and HD 183263).

Libert, Anne-Sophie; Sansottera, Marco

2013-10-01

354

Association and Interaction of the IL4R, IL4, and IL13 Loci with Type 1 Diabetes among Filipinos  

PubMed Central

In the search for genes involved in type 1 diabetes (T1D), other than the well-established risk alleles at the human leukocyte antigen loci, we have investigated the association and interaction of polymorphisms in genes involved in the IL4/IL13 pathway in a sample of 90 Filipino patients with T1D and 94 controls. Ten single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including two promoter SNPs in the IL4R locus on chromosome 16p11, one promoter SNP in the IL4 locus on chromosome 5q31, and four SNPs—including two promoter SNPs—in the IL13 locus on chromosome 5q31 were examined for association, linkage disequilibrium, and interaction. We found that both individual SNPs (IL4R L389L; odds ratio [OR] 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.17–0.67; P=.001) and specific haplotypes both in IL4R (OR 0.10; 95% CI 0–0.5; P=.001) and for the five linked IL4 and IL13 SNPs (OR 3.47; P=.004) were strongly associated with susceptibility to T1D. Since IL4 and IL13 both serve as ligands for a receptor composed, in part, of the IL4R ? chain, we looked for potential epistasis between polymorphisms in the IL4R locus on chromosome 16p11 and the five SNPs in the IL4 and IL13 loci on chromosome 5q31 and found, through use of a logistic-regression model, significant gene-gene interactions (P=.045, corrected for multiple comparisons by permutation analysis). Our data suggest that the risk for T1D is determined, in part, by polymorphisms within the IL4R locus, including promoter and coding-sequence variants, and by specific combinations of genotypes at the IL4R and the IL4 and IL13 loci.

Bugawan, Teodorica L.; Mirel, Daniel B.; Valdes, Ana M.; Panelo, Araceli; Pozzilli, Paolo; Erlich, Henry A.

2003-01-01

355

Signaling by IL31 and functional consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokines are key to control cellular communication. Interleukin-31 (IL-31) was recently discovered as a new member of the IL-6 family of cytokines. IL-31 signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of OSMR and IL-31RA, a complex that stimulates the JAK-STAT, the RAS\\/ERK and the PI3K\\/AKT signal transduction pathways. The available data suggests that IL-31 is important for both innate and adaptive

Christian Cornelissen; Juliane Lüscher-Firzlaff; Jens Malte Baron; Bernhard Lüscher

356

Evaluation of the IL2/IL21, IL2RA and IL2RB genetic variants influence on the endogenous non-anterior uveitis genetic predisposition  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, different genetic variants located within the IL2/IL21 genetic region as well as within both IL2RA and IL2RB loci have been associated to multiple autoimmune disorders. We aimed to investigate for the first time the potential influence of the IL2/IL21, IL2RA and IL2RB most associated polymorphisms with autoimmunity on the endogenous non-anterior uveitis genetic predisposition. Methods A total of 196 patients with endogenous non-anterior uveitis and 760 healthy controls, all of them from Caucasian population, were included in the current study. The IL2/IL21 (rs2069762, rs6822844 and rs907715), IL2RA (2104286, rs11594656 and rs12722495) and IL2RB (rs743777) genetic variants were genotyped using TaqMan® allelic discrimination assays. Results A statistically significant difference was found for the rs6822844 (IL2/IL21 region) minor allele frequency in the group of uveitis patients compared with controls (P-value=0.02, OR=0.64 CI 95%=0.43-0.94) although the significance was lost after multiple testing correction. Furthermore, no evidence of association with uveitis was detected for the analyzed genetic variants of the IL2RA or IL2RB loci. Conclusion Our results indicate that analyzed IL2/IL21, IL2RA and IL2RB polymorphisms do not seem to play a significant role on the non-anterior uveitis genetic predisposition although further studies are needed in order to clear up the influence of these loci on the non-anterior uveitis susceptibility.

2013-01-01

357

Nucleic acids encoding IL13 mutants  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention provides nucleic acid molecules encoding mutant human interleukin 13 molecules showing varying specificity for the restricted (IL4 independent) IL13 receptor. The mutant hIL13 molecules include those made by substituting the amino acid residues that occur in the alpha-helix regions of native hIL13 with various other amino acid residues. Some of the mutants retain the ability to bind and cause signaling through IL13 receptors, while other mutants do not.

2009-10-06

358

IL-2 negatively regulates IL-7 receptor ? chain expression in activated T lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Interleukin (IL)-2 is a type I four-?-helical bundle cytokine that plays vital roles in antigen-mediated proliferation of peripheral blood T cells and also is critical for activation-induced cell death. We now demonstrate that IL-2 potently decreases expression of IL-7 receptor ? chain (IL-7R?) mRNA and protein. The fact that IL-7R? is a component of the receptors for both IL-7 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) suggests that IL-2 can negatively regulate signals by each of these cytokines. Previously it was known that the IL-2 and IL-7 receptors shared the common cytokine receptor ? chain, ?c, which suggested a possible competition between these cytokines for a receptor component. Our findings now suggest a previously unknown type of cross-talk between IL-2 and IL-7 signaling by showing that IL-2 signaling can diminish IL-7R? expression via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-dependent mechanism.

Xue, Hai-Hui; Kovanen, Panu E.; Pise-Masison, Cynthia A.; Berg, Maria; Radovich, Michael F.; Brady, John N.; Leonard, Warren J.

2002-01-01

359

IL TRAPIANTO ORTOTOPICO DEL FEGATO  

PubMed Central

E’ormai noto che esiste la possibilità rivoluzionaria di utilizzare il fegato per il trattamento della stadio terminale delle epatopatie. Nel gennaio 1980 si celebra il decimo anna di sopravvivenza con fegato trapiantato (la più lunga della letteratura) di un paziente da noi trattato. Si tratta di uno dei 12 malati sottoposti a trapianto e seguiti per più di 5 anni. La nota positiva di questa tipo di trattamento è rappresentata dall’eccellente tenore di vita che i pazienti conducono e dalla riabilitazione sociale e professionale. La nota negativa è data, invece, dal fatto che i buoni risultati non vengono raggiunti con regolarità e non possono essere previsti con esattezza. In questa breve rassegna considereremo la esperienza da noi fatta presso l’Università di Denver nel Colorado, mettendo in risalto le cause dell’elevata mortalità precoce e le prospettive future di questa mezzo terapeutico.

STARZL, THOMAS E.

2010-01-01

360

IL-32 and IL-17 interact and have the potential to aggravate osteoclastogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Interleukin (IL)-32 and IL-17 play critical roles in pro-inflammatory responses and are highly expressed in the synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated the relations between these two cytokines (IL-17 and IL-32) for their ability to induce each other and to stimulate osteoclasts in RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) and T cells. Methods FLSs were isolated through surgical synovectomy obtained from patients with RA or osteoarthritis (OA). Real-time PCR were performed to evaluate the expression of IL-32, IL-17 and osteoclast-related genes. Immunohistochemical staining and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining were performed to determine the distribution of inflammatory cytokines and the presence of osteoclastogenesis. Results IL-17 induced the expression of IL-32 in the FLSs from RA patients, as assessed by microarray. IL-32 production was increased by IL-17. IL-32 in the FLSs from RA patients induced the production of IL-17 in CD4+ T cells. IL-32 and IL-17 were colocalized near TRAP-positive areas in joint specimens. IL-17 and IL-32 synergistically induced the differentiation of osteoclasts, as demonstrated by the expression of osteoclast-related genes. IL-32 and IL-17 also could induce resorption by osteoclasts in a RANKL-dependent manner. Conclusions IL-17 affected the expression of IL-32 in FLSs of RA patients and IL-32 induced the production of IL-17 in CD4+ T cells. Both IL-17 and IL-32 cytokines can reciprocally influence each other's production and amplify the function of osteoclastogenesis in the in RA synovium. Separately, IL-17 and IL-32 each stimulated osteoclastogenesis without RANKL. Together, the two cytokines synergistically amplified the differentiation of osteoclasts, independent of RANKL stimulation.

2012-01-01

361

IL-23 Dampens the Allergic Response to Cryptococcus neoformans through IL-17-Independent and -Dependent Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

The cytokines IL-23 and IL-17 have been implicated in resistance to cryptococcal disease, but it is not clear whether IL-23–mediated production of IL-17 promotes fungal containment following pulmonary challenge with Cryptococcus neoformans. We used mice lacking IL-23 (IL-23p19?/?) or IL-17RA (IL-17RA?/?), and wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice to examine the IL-23/IL-17 axis after intranasal infection with the C. neoformans strain 52D. The absence of IL-23 or IL-17RA had no effect on pulmonary or brain fungal burden at 1 or 6 weeks after infection. However, survival of IL-23p19?/? mice was reduced compared to IL-17RA?/? mice. IL-I7 production by CD4 T cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells was impaired in IL-23p19?/? lungs, but was not completely abolished. Both IL-23p19?/? and IL-17RA?/? mice exhibited impaired neutrophil recruitment, increased serum levels of IgE and IgG2b, and increased deposition of YM1/YM2 crystals in the lung, but only IL-23p19?/? mice developed persistent lung eosinophilia. Although survival of IL-17RA?/? and WT mice was similar after 17 weeks of infection, only surviving IL-17RA?/? mice exhibited cryptococcal dissemination to the blood. These data demonstrate that IL-23 dampens the allergic response to cryptococcal infection through IL-17–independent suppression of eosinophil recruitment and IL-17–dependent regulation of antibody production and crystal deposition. Furthermore, IL-23, and to a lesser extent IL-17, contribute to disease resistance.

Szymczak, Wendy A.; Sellers, Rani S.; Pirofski, Liise-anne

2012-01-01

362

Optimal parking orbits for manned Mars missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes a Mars parking orbit optimization effort. This parking orbit study includes the selection of optimal elliptic Mars parking orbits that meet mission constraints and that include pertinent apsidal misalignment losses. Mars missions examined are for the opportunity years of 2014, 2016, and 2018. For these mission opportunities, it is shown that the optimal parking orbits depend on the year that the mission occurs and are coupled with the outbound, Mars stay, and return phases of the mission. Constraints included in the parking orbit optimization process are periapsis lighting angle (related to a daylight landing requirement), periapsis latitude (related to a landing latitude range requirement) and the vehicle Trans-Earth-Injection stage mass. Also, effects of mission abort requirements on optimal parking orbits are investigated. Off-periapsis maneuvers for Mars orbit capture were found to be cost effective in reducing the mission delta-V for the 2016 abort from Mars capture scenario. The total capture and departure delta-V was `split' between the capture maneuver and the departure maneuver to reduce the 2016 Mars departure delta-V to below the level of the corresponding stage of the 2014 baseline mission. Landing results are provided that show Mars landing site access from the optimal elliptic parking orbits for Mars excursion vehicles with low (0.2) and high (1.3 and 1.6) lift to drag ratio.

Cupples, Michael L.; Nordwall, Jill A.

363

The quandary of local people—Park relations in Nepal's Royal Chitwan National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzes five major causes of park-people conflicts that have occurred in Nepal's Royal Chitwan National Park. The causes include illegal transactions of forest products from the park, livestock grazing in the park, illegal hunting and fishing, crop damage, and threats to human and animal life caused by wild animals from the park. The conflicts indicate a reciprocal relationship between the park and local people. They reflect the attitudes of local people and representatives of the park authority whose priorities and objectives largely diverge. The results show that people settled adjacent to the park are heavily dependent on its resources. Even in places where some, albeit few alternative sources exist, local people continue to trespass the park boundary as these sources are inadequate to ensure the fulfillment of local people's resource needs. Illegal transactions of resources continue throughout the year; however, they are less intense during summer due to flooding caused by the Rapti River, which forms the park boundary towards the northern section where this study is conducted. The frequency of local people's visits to the park is mainly determined by their age, distance between homesteads and park, and volume of crop loss caused by wild animals. Crop damage is the function of size of landholding, distance, and frequency of crop raid. Local people claim that they have no intention of letting their livestock graze in the park; however, the dense vegetation of the park attracts livestock grazing on riverbanks just outside the open park boundary. Many head of livestock are killed by carnivores of the park. Human casualties are mainly caused by sloth bear ( Melursus ursinus), tiger ( Panthera tigris), wild pig ( Sug scrofa), and rhinoceros ( Rhinoceros unicornis). There had been some earlier attempts to reconcile the conflicts by offering local people different kinds of compensations; however, these were unsuccessful measures. An integrated approach is essential if efforts to resolve the park-people conflicts are to succeed. The government is in the process of launching a project that aims to resolve the inherent problems with such an approach. Suggestions are made to incorporate some key elements, such as maintaining effective communication between various parties and the potential for wildlife conservation among local people.

Nepal, Sanjay K.; Weber, Karl E.

1995-11-01

364

National Park Service: Digital Image Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Park Service maintains many informational Web sites including the Digital Image Archives database. Here, visitors have access to public domain images of the national parks, monuments, and historic places including Yosemite, Yellowstone, and the Grand Canyon. After choosing a park, users are able to click on individual pictures, scroll through the individual collection, and yes, download them free of charge. Although no descriptions are provided, the beautiful and interesting pictures are more than enough to make this site a worthwhile stop for anyone.

365

Cytokine interactions in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals: roles of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, and IL-15  

PubMed Central

Cytokines have been shown to be powerful regulators of the immune response. In this study, we analyze the effect that the newly recognized cytokine interleukin (IL)-15 has on proliferation and cytokine induction using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and purified CD4+ T cells from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who are at various stages in their disease. We observed that IL-15 enhances the proliferative response in a dose-dependent manner from PBMCs of HIV-infected individuals when stimulated by polyclonal mitogen, tetanus toxoid, or HIV-specific antigen. The effects of exogenous IL-15 are substantially diminished by adding a neutralizing antibody to the beta chain of the IL-2 receptor. Moreover, the ability of IL-15 to increase proliferation is enhanced by the presence of endogenous IL-2 produced in the cultures. The effect that exogenous IL-15 had on IL-2, IL-4, and interferon (IFN)-gamma induction from PBMC's or CD4+ T cells in response to mitogen or tetanus toxoid was also examined. This was compared to the effect that exogenous IL-2 and IL-12 had under the same conditions. Addition of IL- 2 or IL-15 to short-term in vitro cultures of either PBMCs or CD4+ T cells had little effect on IL-2, IL-4, or IFN-gamma production. By contrast, IL-12 caused substantial enhancement of both IL-2 and IFN- gamma production from these cultures. The role that endogenous cytokines have on IFN-gamma induction was also studied. Addition of a neutralizing antibody to the alpha chain of the IL-2 receptor or IL-12 to antigen stimulated cultures caused a striking decrease in IFN-gamma production. Neutralization of endogenous IL-15 also resulted in diminished IFN-gamma production from cultures stimulated with mitogen. IL-4 and IFN-gamma protein production by PBMCs and CD4+ T cells stimulated with mitogen was assessed to see if we could detect a specific bias of cytokine production. Small amounts of IL-4 were detected from CD4+ T cells but not PBMCs from most individuals tested. IFN-gamma and IL-2, however, were also produced from these same cultures. These results further elucidate the mechanism of cytokine regulation in HIV-infected individuals, and they provide evidence that IL-15 may be a useful immune modulator.

1995-01-01

366

36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests...REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. (a) Fishing â(1) Commercial...

2010-07-01

367

36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Property 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests...REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. (a) Fishing â(1) Commercial...

2009-07-01

368

Science\\/Technology Parks and Regional Development Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science\\/technology (or research) parks have become a prominent element in regional development strategies. Most existing studies of these parks are anecdotal, or focus on parks as real estate ventures only. No study we have seen attempts to analyze the types of regional development outcomes we can expect from science\\/technology parks and how and why those outcomes might vary. These are

Harvey A. Goldstein; Michael I. Luger

1990-01-01

369

36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a) Commercial...passengers by motor vehicles to Grand Canyon National Park contained...

2010-07-01

370

36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a) Commercial...passengers by motor vehicles to Grand Canyon National Park contained...

2009-07-01

371

36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks...REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National Park. (a) Cave entry. No...

2010-07-01

372

36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Public Property 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks...REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National Park. (a) Cave entry. No...

2009-07-01

373

36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7.2 Section 7.2...THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a) Fishing. Fishing in Crater Lake and park streams is permitted from May...

2013-07-01

374

Management Policy in and Typology of State Park Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Parks, with particular emphasis on national and state parks, host varied interactions between human and natural systems. In particular, state park systems manage important resources related to quality of life and also are mainstays in tourism, economic development and preservation of heritage and conservation of ecosystems. Management of these parks and the human activity occurring in them is

Lowell Caneday; Debra Jordan; Yating Liang

2009-01-01

375

1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, FROM PARK AND MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, FROM PARK AND MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, ALONG 20TH STREET NORTH TOWARDS THE BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER WITH BIRMINGHAM MUSEUM OF ART (BOTTOM LEFT), BIRMINGHAM MUNICIPAL AUDITORIUM (BOTTOM RIGHT), BIRMINGHAM CITY HALL (CENTER RIGHT), JEFFERSON COUNTY COURTHOUSE (CENTER LEFT) AND LINN PARK (CENTER) - Linn Park, Bounded by Park Place, Eighth Avenue, Short Twentieth & Twenty-first Streets, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

376

36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Public Property 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests...REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a) Fishing â(1)...

2009-07-01

377

36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests...REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a) Fishing â(1)...

2010-07-01

378

ECONOMIC VALUE OF PERLIS STATE PARK AS A RECREATIONAL AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valuation of protected natural areas such as national parks and state parks allows park managers to obtain information that could be used in cost benefit analysis as an aid for public sector decision making processes. The main purpose of the study is to analyse the demand for the Perlis State Park (PSP) as a recreational area. The travel cost model

A. K. Azyyati; H. M. A. Syamsul; S. Ahmad

379

A case study of underground parking planning in Shenzhen, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As most metropolis in other countries, Shenzhen of China is facing with serious parking problems. It is necessary for Shenzhen to construct underground parking space by analyzing current situation of Shenzhen parking demand; This paper proposed that underground parking demand of different land can be achieved through research on four aspects i.e., the same land nature in different regions, the

Zhang Ping; Chen Zhilong; Wang Hui

2011-01-01

380

36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks...REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. (a) Fishing â(1)...

2013-07-01

381

41 CFR 102-74.275 - May Federal agencies authorize lessors or parking management contractors to manage, regulate and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...lessors or parking management contractors to manage, regulate and police parking facilities...lessors or parking management contractors to manage, regulate and police parking facilities...lessors or parking management contractors to manage, regulate and police parking...

2009-07-01

382

41 CFR 102-74.275 - May Federal agencies authorize lessors or parking management contractors to manage, regulate and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...lessors or parking management contractors to manage, regulate and police parking facilities...lessors or parking management contractors to manage, regulate and police parking facilities...lessors or parking management contractors to manage, regulate and police parking...

2010-07-01

383

Brain IL-6 and autism.  

PubMed

Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication, and repetitive behavior and restricted interests. Emerging evidence suggests that aberrant neuroimmune responses may contribute to phenotypic deficits and could be appropriate targets for pharmacologic intervention. Interleukin (IL)-6, one of the most important neuroimmune factors, has been shown to be involved in physiological brain development and in several neurological disorders. For instance, findings from postmortem and animal studies suggest that brain IL-6 is an important mediator of autism-like behaviors. In this review, a possible pathological mechanism behind autism is proposed, which suggests that IL-6 elevation in the brain, caused by the activated glia and/or maternal immune activation, could be an important inflammatory cytokine response involved in the mediation of autism-like behaviors through impairments of neuroanatomical structures and neuronal plasticity. Further studies to investigate whether IL-6 could be used for therapeutic interventions in autism would be of great significance. PMID:23994594

Wei, H; Alberts, I; Li, X

2013-08-28

384

Dreaming of a Better ILS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What would technological librarians like to see in the next generation of Integrated Library Systems (ILS)? This question was asked of several well- known library technology experts, and their responses are presented in this article. Survey respondents expressed a clear desire for the following features and functionality: (1) Direct, read-only…

Bahr, Ellen

2007-01-01

385

The role of cytokines in seizures: interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1Ra, IL-8, and IL-10  

PubMed Central

Brain insults, including neurotrauma, infection, and perinatal injuries such as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, generate inflammation in the brain. These inflammatory cascades induce a wide spectrum of cytokines, which can cause neuron degeneration, have neurotoxic effects on brain tissue, and lead to the development of seizures, even if they are subclinical and occur at birth. Cytokines are secreted by the glial cells of the central nervous system and they function as immune system mediators. Cytokines can be proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory. Interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-8 are proinflammatory cytokines that activate additional cytokine cascades and increase seizure susceptibility and organ damage, whereas IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-10 act as anti-inflammatory cytokines that have protective and anticonvulsant effects. Therefore, the immune system and its associated inflammatory reactions appear to play an important role in brain damage. Whether cytokine release is relevant for the processes of epileptogenesis and antiepileptogenesis, and whether epileptogenesis could be prevented by immunomodulatory treatment should be addressed in future clinical studies. Furthermore, early detection of brain damage and early intervention are essential for the prevention of disease progression and further neurological complications. Therefore, cytokines might be useful as biomarkers for earlier detection of brain damage in high-risk infants.

Youn, Youngah; Sung, In Kyung

2013-01-01

386

Anti-IL-5 (mepolizumab) therapy reduces eosinophil activation ex vivo and increases IL-5 and IL-5 receptor levels  

PubMed Central

Background Anti–IL-5 might be a useful therapeutic agent for eosinophilic disorders, yet its immunologic consequences have not been well characterized. Objective We sought to characterize the hematologic and immunologic effects of anti-IL-5 in human subjects. Methods The effects of 3-month infusions of mepolizumab were assessed in 25 patients with a variety of eosinophilic syndromes. Samples with increased IL-5 levels after therapy were analyzed by using size exclusion filtration. Immunoreactive IL-5 fraction and plasma samples were subsequently precipitated with saturating concentrations of protein A/G. Results Twenty-three patients responded to anti–IL-5 therapy with a decrease in blood eosinophil counts and a reduced percentage of CCR3+ cells by 20- and 13-fold, respectively (P < .0001). Responsiveness was not related to the levels of baseline plasma IL-5 or the presence of FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene. Persistently decreased blood eosinophilia remained for 3 months after final infusion in76%of subjects. Therapy was associated with a large increase in blood IL-5 levels, likely because of a circulating IL-5/mepolizumab complex precipitated with protein A/G, a significant increase in eosinophil IL-5 receptor ? expression, and increased percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ cells producing intracellular IL-5 (P <.05). Additionally, anti-IL-5 therapy decreased eotaxin-stimulated eosinophil shape change ex vivo. Conclusions Anti–IL-5 therapy induces a dramatic and sustained decrease in blood eosinophilia (including CCR3+ cells), decreased eosinophil activation, and increased circulating levels of IL-5 in a variety of eosinophilic disorders. Increased levels of IL-5 receptor ? and lymphocyte IL-5 production after anti–IL-5 therapy suggest an endogenous IL-5 autoregulatory pathway.

Stein, Miguel L.; Villanueva, Joyce M.; Buckmeier, Bridget K.; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Filipovich, Alexandra H.; Assa'ad, Amal H.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

2009-01-01

387

Minimal interleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor stalk composition for IL-6 receptor shedding and IL-6 classic signaling.  

PubMed

Signaling of the pleiotropic cytokine Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is coordinated by membrane-bound and soluble forms of the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) in processes called classic and trans-signaling, respectively. The soluble IL-6R is mainly generated by ADAM10- and ADAM17-mediated ectodomain shedding. Little is known about the role of the 52-amino acid-residue-long IL-6R stalk region in shedding and signal transduction. Therefore, we generated and analyzed IL-6R stalk region deletion variants for cleavability and biological activity. Deletion of 10 amino acids of the stalk region surrounding the ADAM17 cleavage site substantially blocked IL-6R proteolysis by ADAM17 but only slightly affected proteolysis by ADAM10. Interestingly, additional deletion of the remaining five juxtamembrane-located amino acids also abrogated ADAM10-mediated IL-6R shedding. Larger deletions within the stalk region, that do not necessarily include the ADAM17 cleavage site, also reduced ADAM10 and ADAM17-mediated IL-6R shedding, questioning the importance of cleavage site recognition. Furthermore, we show that a 22-amino acid-long stalk region is minimally required for IL-6 classic signaling. The gp130 cytokine binding sites are separated from the plasma membrane by ~96 ?. 22 amino acid residues, however, span maximally 83.6 ? (3.8 ?/amino acid), indicating that the three juxtamembrane fibronectin domains of gp130 are not necessarily elongated but somehow flexed to allow IL-6 classic signaling. Our findings underline a dual role of the IL-6R stalk region in IL-6 signaling. In IL-6 trans-signaling, it regulates proper proteolysis by ADAM10 and ADAM17. In IL-6 classic-signaling, it acts as a spacer to ensure IL-6·IL-6R·gp130 signal complex formation. PMID:23564454

Baran, Paul; Nitz, Rebecca; Grötzinger, Joachim; Scheller, Jürgen; Garbers, Christoph

2013-04-05

388

IL-32-dependent effects of IL-1? on endothelial cell functions  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence demonstrates that interleukin (IL)–32 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, inducing IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)–?, and chemokines via nuclear factor (NF)–?B, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and activating protein (AP)-1 activation. Here we report that IL-32 is expressed and is also functional in human vascular endothelial cells (EC) of various origins. Compared with primary blood monocytes, high levels of IL-32 are constitutively produced in human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC), aortic macrovascular EC, and cardiac as well as pulmonary microvascular EC. At concentrations as low as 0.1 ng/ml, IL-1? stimulated IL-32 up to 15-fold over constitutive levels, whereas 10 ng/ml of TNF? or 100 ng/ml of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were required to induce similar quantities of IL-32. IL-1?–induced IL-32 was reduced by inhibition of the I?B kinase-?/NF-?B and ERK pathways. In addition to IL-1?, pro-coagulant concentrations of thrombin or fresh platelets increased IL-32 protein up to 6-fold. IL-1? and thrombin induced an isoform-switch in steady-state mRNA levels from IL-32?/? to ?/?. Adult EC responded in a similar fashion. To prove functionality, we silenced endogenous IL-32 with siRNA, decreasing intracellular IL-32 protein levels by 86%. The knockdown of IL-32 resulted in reduction of constitutive as well as IL-1?–induced intercellular adhesion molecule–1 (ICAM-1) (of 55% and 54%, respectively), IL-1? (of 62% and 43%), IL-6 (of 53% and 43%), and IL-8 (of 46% and 42%). In contrast, the anti-inflammatory/anti-coagulant CD141/thrombomodulin increased markedly when IL-32 was silenced. This study introduces IL-32 as a critical regulator of endothelial function, expanding the properties of this cytokine relevant to coagulation, endothelial inflammation, and atherosclerosis.

Nold-Petry, Claudia A.; Nold, Marcel F.; Zepp, Jarod A.; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Voelkel, Norbert F.; Dinarello, Charles A.

2009-01-01

389

Autocrine Induction of the Human Pro-IL1 Gene Promoter by IL1 in Monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-1 is produced primarily by activated monocytes\\/macrophages. We report in this study that IL-1 induces the human pro- IL-1 (IL1B) gene promoter in human THP-1 monocytic cells. The 131 to 12 minimal IL1B promoter was induced by IL-1 in a dose-dependent manner. The promoter possesses two important transcription factor binding motifs, one for an ETS family transcription factor Spi-1 (PU.1),

Yoko Toda; Junichi Tsukada; Masahiro Misago; Yoshihiko Kominato; Philip E. Auron; Yoshiya Tanaka

390

IL15-induced IL10 increases the cytolytic activity of human natural killer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates diverse functions of immune cells. Natural killer (NK)\\u000a cells express the IL-10 and IL-10 receptor, but little is known about the function of IL-10 on NK cell activation. In this\\u000a study, we show the expression and role of IL-10 in human NK cells. Among the cytokines tested, IL-15 was the most

Ju Yeong Park; Suk Hyung Lee; Suk-Ran Yoon; Young-Jun Park; Haiyoung Jung; Tae-Don Kim; Inpyo Choi

391

Structural and Biophysical Studies of the Human IL7\\/IL7R[alpha] Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-7 and IL-7R bind the {sub c} receptor, forming a complex crucial to several signaling cascades leading to the development and homeostasis of T and B cells. We report that the IL-7R ectodomain uses glycosylation to modulate its binding constants to IL-7, unlike the other receptors in the {sub c} family. IL-7 binds glycosylated IL-7R 300-fold more tightly than unglycosylated

Craig A. McElroy; Julie A. Dohm; Scott T. R. Walsh

2009-01-01

392

Urban region parks and black minorities: Subculture, marginality, and interracial relations in park use in the Detroit metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares participation in Detroit city parks and surrounding regional parks by black and white Detroit residents. Black Detroit residents participate more than whites in Detroit city parks, but less than whites in surrounding region parks. The paper explores a variety of explanations for these findings including “marginality”; (economic barriers), subcultural preferences, and interracial relations. Marginality plays some role

Patrick C. West

1989-01-01

393

Liposome-mediated IL28 and IL29 expression in A549 cells and antiviral effect of IL28 and IL29 on WISH cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To construct the recombinant vectors carrying interleukin (IL)-28A, IL-28B and IL-29 cDNAs and express them in human A549 cells, and analyze their antiviral activity in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-infected human immortalized amnion epithelial cell line (WISH cells).Methods:Total cell RNA was extracted from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) activated with poly I:C. The cDNAs encoding human IL-28A, IL-28B, and IL-29

Ming-cai Li; Hao-yang Wang; Hai-yan Wang; Tao Li; Shao-heng He

2006-01-01

394

15 CFR 265.16 - Parking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATIONS GOVERNING TRAFFIC AND CONDUCT ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS & TECHNOLOGY, GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Traffic and Vehicular Regulations § 265.16 Parking. No person,...

2013-01-01

395

15 CFR 265.17 - Parking permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATIONS GOVERNING TRAFFIC AND CONDUCT ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS & TECHNOLOGY, GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Traffic and Vehicular Regulations § 265.17 Parking permits. No...

2013-01-01

396

Yellowstone National Park Visitor Study, Summer 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This visitor study report profiles a systematic random sample of Yellowstone National Park (NP) visitors during July 23-29, 2011. In total, 1314 questionnaires were distributed to visitor groups. Of those, 900 questionnaires were returned, resulting in a ...

C. Kulesza J. Gramann S. J. Hollenhorst Y. Le

2012-01-01

397

Accelerometer Measurements in the Amusement Park.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the use of the Texas Instruments' calculator-based laboratory (CBL) and Vernier accelerometer for measuring the vector sum of the gravitational field and the acceleration of amusement park rides. (JRH)|

Reno, Charles; Speers, Robert R.

1995-01-01

398

Coastal Park Inventory and Monitoring Handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document is the product of an inventory and monitoring workshop for scientists, managers and resource management specialists. The handbook identifies the common natural resource and management features of these parks that could be incorporated into st...

T. R. Simons

1995-01-01

399

Hawaii Volcanoes National Park: Collection Management Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The collections of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park are comprised of historical, ethnographic, archeological, and fine arts objects as well as an extensive and active natural history collection. In a recent appraisal the cultural objects were valued at more...

D. R. Pardue D. Nicholson D. Cumberland M. Tanaka-Sanders

1989-01-01

400

National Park Service Administrative History: A Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because the preservation and interpretation of historic places and features is a primary mission of the National Park Service, the bureau has long employed historians to conduct research on its historic properties and communicate their significance to the...

1986-01-01

401

National Park Service: Data and Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Park Service Data and Information Web site contains several helpful links for data related to the Parks. The Data Clearinghouse link has national and regional data sets such as civil war and land status data, local and regional historic and scenic trails data sets, and information on the Virgin Islands in a well designed and easily browseable format. The Interactive Map Center allows visitors to explore the National Parks using interactive interfaces, while other links explain the National Park Service's standards and specifications, and how to use metadata correctly with other data. The unique and limited scope of the data makes the site a good example of how the Web is increasingly becoming an excellent source for hard-to-find free information.

402

Proposed Yellowstone Wilderness, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is proposed that 1,963,000 acres of Yellowstone National Park be designated as wilderness. Some of the adverse effects are possible rationed use, restrictions on backcountry facility development, shifting mass recreational needs to other areas, increas...

1972-01-01

403

Geology Fieldnotes: Kobuk Valley National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This feature discusses the geology, landforms, glacial history, soils, and mineral resources of Kobuk Valley National Park. Links are provided to maps, visitor information, a history of gold prospecting in the area, and to related geology and conservation organizations.

404

Super Bowl XLVI Local Traffic and Parking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This session will examine the planning and operation of local traffic and parking in the affected Indianapolis metro area during the Super Bowl and related events. Interagency and NFL consultant coordination will be discussed.

Lori Miser; Joseph Wiesinger

2012-01-01

405

Marketing national parks: oxymoron or opportunity?  

Treesearch

Global Forest Information Service ... This paper reviews selected issues of " national park" marketing from the viewpoints of the varied ... ot) greater marketing effort and mutual benefit, in terms of effectively influencing consumer attitudes, beliefs ...

406

Death Valley National Park Paleontological Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A strategy was developed to begin work in the largest National Park Service unit in the continental United States. Overcoming the high temperatures and limited available funding, a comprehensive inventory of all currently known sources of information rega...

T. G. Nyborg V. L. Santucci

1999-01-01

407

Metropolitan and Regional Parks. Phase II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second phase of the Council's Regional and Metropolitan Parks Report has re-evaluated the regional facilities of the phase one report in relation to new definitions, criteria, and standards; recently adopted goals, objectives, and policies; and variou...

L. D. Leitner

1971-01-01

408

Strategies for Combatting Crime in the Parks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three primary kinds of crime occurring in park settings--behavioral conflicts, crimes against property, and crimes against persons--are described. Suggestions for developing solutions and prevention techniques are included. (CJ)|

Perry, Michael J.

1983-01-01

409

Park Range: Atmospheric Water Resources Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The procedures and results of a five-year program of cloud seeding to increase orographic precipitation in the Park Range of Colorado are presented. Winter precipitation systems were seeded with silver iodide from ground generators and aircraft. Measureme...

J. O. Rhea P. Willis L. G. Davis

1969-01-01

410

Master Plan, Guadalupe Mountains National Park.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The master plan for Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Culberson and Hudspeth Counties, Texas, provides the broad guidelines for the orderly development, management and operation of the area in such a manner as to provide maximum visitor enjoyment, preser...

1971-01-01

411

IL-23 enhances host defense against vaccinia virus infection via a mechanism partly involving IL-17.  

PubMed

To investigate roles of IL-23 in viral infection, we have engineered recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) expressing IL-12 (VV-IL-12) and expressing IL-23 (VV-IL-23). We found VV-IL-23 was less virulent in BALB/c mice than wild-type VV (VV-WT), indicating that IL-23 enhances resistance to VV. VV-specific CTL activity in VV-IL-23-infected mice was slightly higher than activity in VV-WT-inoculated mice, although antiviral Ab production and NK activity were not increased. IL-12/23p40-deficient mice survived the infection with VV-IL-23, indicating that IL-23 promotes VV resistance independently of IL-12. The mechanism of the IL-23-mediated resistance was distinct from that of the IL-12-regulated resistance because IFN-gamma-deficient mice did not eliminate VV-IL-12, but did eradicate VV-IL-23. These data indicate that IFN-gamma is essential for the IL-12-mediated resistance, but dispensable for the IL-23-regulated resistance. Because IL-17 is a key in the IL-23-regulated resistance to bacteria, we hypothesized an involvement of IL-17 in the resistance to VV. Treatment with an anti-IL-17 mAb resulted in a significant increase of viral titers in VV-IL-23-infected IFN-gamma-deficient mice. In addition, VV-IL-17 was less virulent than VV-WT in BALB/c mice, and IL-17-deficient mice were more sensitive to VV-WT than control mice. However, the effect of neutralization with an anti-IL-17 mAb was limited, and IL-17-deficient mice survived the infection with VV-IL-23. Taken together, these data suggest that the IL-23/IL-17 axis plays a certain but subdominant role in the IL-23-mediated resistance to VV. Unveiling of an alternative pathway in the IL-23-regulated resistance might provide a novel strategy against infectious pathogens without side effects of autoimmunity. PMID:17785829

Kohyama, Shunsuke; Ohno, Satoshi; Isoda, Akihiro; Moriya, Osamu; Belladonna, Maria Laura; Hayashi, Hidenori; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Yoshimoto, Takayuki; Akatsuka, Toshitaka; Matsui, Masanori

2007-09-15

412

Regulation and function of IL-17A- and IL-22-producing ?? T cells  

PubMed Central

The regulation of IL-17A and IL-22 production differs between human and murine ?? T cells. We find that human ?? T cells expressing V?2V?2 T cell receptors are peripherally polarized to produce IL-17A or IL-22, much like CD4 ?? Th17 T cells. This requires IL-6, IL-1?, and TGF-?, whereas expansion and maintenance requires IL-23, IL-1?, and TGF-?. In contrast, IL-17A and IL-22 production by murine ?? T cells is innately programmed during thymic ontogeny but requires IL-23 and IL-1? for maintenance. Murine ?? cells producing IL-17A and IL-22 play important roles in microbial, autoimmune, and inflammatory responses. However, the roles played by human IL-17A- and IL-22-producing ?? T cells are less clear but are also likely to be important. These observations highlight differences between humans and murine ?? T cells and underscore the importance of IL-17A- and IL-22-producing ?? T cells.

Ness-Schwickerath, Kristin J.

2011-01-01

413

IL-27 Is a Key Regulator of IL-10 and IL-17 Production by Human CD4+ T Cells1  

PubMed Central

Although the physiologic pathways that control regulatory T cells (Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells, IL-10-secreting Tr1 cells) and Th17 cells in rodents have been defined, the factors that control these differentiation pathways in humans are not well understood. In this study, we show that IL-27 promotes the differentiation of IL-10-secreting Tr1 cells while inhibiting Th17 generation and molecules associated with Th17 function. Furthermore, IL-27 inhibits IL-17-polarizing cytokines on dendritic cells, which in turn decrease IL-17 secretion from T cells. Our results demonstrate that IL-27 plays a key role in human T cells by promoting IL-10-secreting Tr1 cells and inhibiting Th17 cells and thus provides a dual regulatory mechanism to control autoimmunity and tissue inflammation.

Murugaiyan, Gopal; Mittal, Akanksha; Lopez-Diego, Rocio; Maier, Lisa M.; Anderson, David E.; Weiner, Howard L.

2010-01-01

414

Jackson Park Hospital Green Building Medical Center  

SciTech Connect

Jackson Park Hospital completed the construction of a new Medical Office Building on its campus this spring. The new building construction has adopted the City of Chicago�s recent focus on protecting the environment, and conserving energy and resources, with the introduction of green building codes. Located in a poor, inner city neighborhood on the South side of Chicago, Jackson Park Hospital has chosen green building strategies to help make the area a better place to live and work.

William Dorsey; Nelson Vasquez

2010-03-01

415

A park for all the people.  

PubMed Central

A small park in downtown Oakland, California, has been a focal point for community-building and neighborhood improvement. This effort embodies the Healthy Cities cooperative approach to promoting social justice and positive community change. The story of the revitalization of this park is a story of individual and personal actions that collectively have shaped policy and strategy to improve the quality of life in this city. Images p254-a p256-a

Briggs-Marsh, J; Warren, J

2000-01-01

416

Water quality standards: Everglades National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality criteria were developed for delivery waters to Everglades National Park. The park receives a minimum of 12.34 m3\\/sec (315,000 acre-ft\\/yr) of water from controlled sources external to its boundary. These waters often originate from areas that are or potentially are impacted from urban and agricultural developments. When, in 1970, the U.S. Congress guaranteed minimum water deliveries to Everglades

Peter C. Rosendahl; Paul W. Rose

1979-01-01

417

Geology Fieldnotes: Zion National Park, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Zion is located on the edge of the Colorado Plateau, and is part of a formation known as the Grand Staircase (Bryce Canyon and the Grand Canyon are also part of this formation). The site discusses the formation of the park, from sedimentation 240 million years ago (Triassic), to lithification, uplift, and erosion. Visible formations include the Navajo sandstone and the Kaibab formation. Additional resources include visitor information, maps, photographs, and a teacher feature (lessons for teaching geology with National Parks as examples).

Foos, Annabelle

418

Feasibility of cooling the Earth with a cloud of small spacecraft near the inner Lagrange point (L1)  

PubMed Central

If it were to become apparent that dangerous changes in global climate were inevitable, despite greenhouse gas controls, active methods to cool the Earth on an emergency basis might be desirable. The concept considered here is to block 1.8% of the solar flux with a space sunshade orbited near the inner Lagrange point (L1), in-line between the Earth and sun. Following the work of J. Early [Early, JT (1989) J Br Interplanet Soc 42:567–569], transparent material would be used to deflect the sunlight, rather than to absorb it, to minimize the shift in balance out from L1 caused by radiation pressure. Three advances aimed at practical implementation are presented. First is an optical design for a very thin refractive screen with low reflectivity, leading to a total sunshade mass of ?20 million tons. Second is a concept aimed at reducing transportation cost to $50/kg by using electromagnetic acceleration to escape Earth's gravity, followed by ion propulsion. Third is an implementation of the sunshade as a cloud of many spacecraft, autonomously stabilized by modulating solar radiation pressure. These meter-sized “flyers” would be assembled completely before launch, avoiding any need for construction or unfolding in space. They would weigh a gram each, be launched in stacks of 800,000, and remain for a projected lifetime of 50 years within a 100,000-km-long cloud. The concept builds on existing technologies. It seems feasible that it could be developed and deployed in ?25 years at a cost of a few trillion dollars, <0.5% of world gross domestic product (GDP) over that time.

Angel, Roger

2006-01-01

419

Feasibility of cooling the Earth with a cloud of small spcecraft near the inner Lagrange point (L1)  

SciTech Connect

If it were to become apparent that dangerous changes in global climate were inevitable, despite greenhouse gas controls, active methods to cool the Earth on an emergency basis might be desirable. The concept considered here is to block 1.8% of the solar flux with a space sunshade orbited near the inner Lagrange point (L1), in-line between the Earth and sun. Following the work of J. Early [Early, JT (1989) J Br Interplanet Soc 42:567-569], transparent material would be used to deflect the sunlight, rather than to absorb it, to minimize the shift in balance out from L1 caused by radiation pressure. Three advances aimed at practical implementation are presented. First is an optical design for a very thin refractive screen with low reflectivity, leading to a total sunshade mass of {approx}20 million tons. Second is a concept aimed at reducing transportation cost to $50/kg by using electromatnetic acceleration to escape Earth's gravity, followed by ion propulsion. Third is an implementation of the sunshade as a cloud of many spacecraft, autonomously stabilized by modulating solar radiation pressure. These meter-sized 'flyers' would be assembled completely before launch, avoiding any need for construction or unfolding in space. They would weigh a gram each, be launched in stacks of 800,000, and remain for a projected lifetime of 50 years within a 100,000-km-long cloud. The concept builds on existing technologies. It seems feasible that it could be developed and deployed in {approx}25 years at a cost of a few trillion dollars, <0.5% of world gross domestic product (GDP) over that time.

Angel, R. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Steward Observatory

2006-11-14

420

The Epistatic Interrelationships of IL1, IL1 Receptor Antagonist, and the Type I IL1 Receptor1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice lacking the gene for the IL-1R antagonist (IL-1ra) show abnormal development and homeostasis as well as altered responses to infectious and inflammatory stimuli. A reduction in the level of IL-1 signaling, either by deletion of the receptor or increased expression of IL-1ra, does not affect development or homeostasis, but does alter immune responses. In this study we use genetic

Vera M. Irikura; Mouna Lagraoui; David Hirsh

421

IL-4 and IL-2 promote human T-cell proliferation through symmetrical but independent pathways.  

PubMed

The role of IL-4 and IL-2 on normal human T-cell activation and proliferation was studied. Both IL-2 and IL-4 were unable to induce proliferation of resting T cells. Therefore, we investigated their effect and the regulation of the T-cell proliferative response in competent T cells. T cells were rendered competent following incubation with PDB/ionomycin for 30 min or suboptimal concentrations of PHA for 60 min. Cells were then washed and recultured with PDB, IL-2, or IL-4 in the second or progression phase of the culture. Cells cultured in medium alone in this phase did not proliferate. IL-2 and IL-4 independently promoted competent T cells to proliferate to a similar degree as the response to PDB and the combination of IL-2 and IL-4 was not additive. The induction of competence and subsequent responsiveness to IL-2 and IL-4 could be maintained for about 24 hr after which time they become gradually less responsive to the interleukin in the progression phase. Addition of anti-IL-2R mAb or anti-IL-2 mAb resulted in selective inhibition of IL-2-mediated proliferation only. Similarly, addition of anti-IL-4 mAb resulted only in inhibition of IL-4-mediated proliferation. Addition of IL-2 during the progression phase led to an enhancement of IL-2R (TAC) expression while IL-4 did not affect IL-2R expression. The production of IL-2 and IL-4 by competent T cells could not be enhanced by the noncorresponding lymphokine. These results on the protein level were confirmed at the mRNA level as well and demonstrated that only PDB and IL-2 could induce IL-2 mRNA and PDB and IL-4 enhanced IL-4 mRNA. The immunosuppressive drug, cyclosporin A, failed to inhibit progression triggered by PDB, IL-2 or IL-4 in competent T cells. These findings suggest that IL-2 and IL-4 trigger T-cell proliferation through symmetrical, but independent pathways. PMID:1643754

Or, R; Renz, H; Terada, N; Gelfand, E W

1992-09-01

422

Fishes of the Adirondack Park  

SciTech Connect

This review of the ichthyology of the area of the Adirondack Park contained within the blue line centers on biological surveys of the six major watersheds of the study area done in 1930-1935. The total area of 9261 square miles contains 2000-3000 water bodies. The ichthyofauna consists of 96 forms, including four kinds of hybrids commonly produced and used in stock programs; of the remaining 92 forms, 23 may be classified as Boreal or peri-glacial. The Atlantian group consists of 20 species and the Mississippian and adjacent Pleistocene refugia have provided about 45 members of the fauna. Two of the fauna are the rainbow and steelhead trout and the Kokanee salmon, introduced from the west coast; three species are from the old world. Spraying for insect control, introduction of exotic plant species, and acid precipitation have all measurably impacted fish populations in recent years, often in complex and synergistic ways. For example, a decline of fish populations in Big Moose Lake is probably the complex result of present and past lumbering, fishing, stocking, forest fires and hurricane damage, as well as acid precipitation. As the system diversifies, many populations of Boreal forms are being lost, and new forms of Atlantian and Mississippian heritage are being established. 253 references, 7 tables.

George, C.J.

1980-01-01

423

Recombinant Hu IL-6 Product Data Sheet  

Cancer.gov

RECOMBINANT HUMAN INTERLEUKIN-6 (IL-6) - BULK 07030801 Lot Number: L0406011 Amount Provided: 200 mcg/3 ml vial Presentation: Lyophilized, buffered, IL-6 - See instructions for proper reconstitution. Description: White to off-white cake. Colorless, clear

424

National Park Service Science in the 21st Century. A National Parks Science Committee Report to the National Park System Advisory Board.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

IN MAY 2002, the Director of the National Park Service asked the National Park System Advisory Board to review the Services Natural Resource Challenge program and offer recommendations concerning future directions for science and scientific resource manag...

2004-01-01

425

Interleukin (IL) 4 and IL-13 act on human lung fibroblasts. Implication in asthma.  

PubMed Central

Airway hyperresponsiveness leading to subepithelial fibrosis is mediated by inflammatory cells activated by T helper (Th) 2-derived cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-5. By analyzing the phenotype and response of human lung fibroblasts derived from either fetal (ICIG7) or adult (CCL202) tissue as well as from a Th2-type stromal reaction (FPA) to IL-4 and IL-13, we provide evidence that human lung fibroblasts may behave as inflammatory cells upon activation by IL-4 and IL-13. We show that the three types of fibroblasts constitute different populations that display a distinct pattern in cell surface molecule expression and proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine release. All fibroblasts express functional but different IL-4/IL-13 receptors. Thus, while IL-4 receptor (R) alpha and IL-13Ralpha1 chains are present in all the cells, CCL202 and FPA fibroblasts coexpress the IL-13Ralpha2 and the IL-2Rgamma chain, respectively, suggesting the existence of a heterotrimeric receptor (IL-4Ralpha/IL-13Ralpha/IL-2Rgamma) able to bind IL-4 and IL-13. Stimulation with IL-4 or IL-13 triggers in the fibroblasts a differential signal transduction and upregulation in the expression of beta1 integrin and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and in the production of IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, two inflammatory cytokines important in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. Our results suggest that when activated by IL-4 and IL-13, different subsets of lung fibroblasts may act as effector cells not only in the pathogenesis of asthma but also in lung remodeling processes. They may also differentially contribute to trigger and maintain the recruitment, homing, and activation of inflammatory cells.

Doucet, C; Brouty-Boye, D; Pottin-Clemenceau, C; Canonica, G W; Jasmin, C; Azzarone, B

1998-01-01

426

Interleukin (IL)-1?, IL2, IL4, IL6 and transforming growth factor-? levels are elevated in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid in juvenile parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-? were measured for the first time in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (VCSF) from control non-parkinsonian patients, patients with juvenile parkinsonism (JP) and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) by highly sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassays. All cytokines were detectable in VCSF from control and parkinsonian patients, and the concentrations

Makio Mogi; Minoru Harada; Hirotaro Narabayashi; Hirofumi Inagaki; Masayasu Minami; Toshiharu Nagatsu

1996-01-01

427

Il lato B della città  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entrare in un bagno — con consapevolezza, intendo — è un’esperienza che può dare i brividi. Dai muri spuntano tubi ricurvi\\u000a che riversano a comando acqua nascosta da qualche parte là fuori; nel suolo si aprono pozzi liquidi collegati a brulicanti\\u000a forme di vita e a ecosistemi alieni. Il bagno è una sorta di tempio laico dedicato al dio nettuno,

Lorenzo Monaco

428

Il \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beowulf, as a character and as a story, lives fortunate days. Two films and a drama have come or are about to come out between this year and the next. Beowulf's reception in the Twentieth century is not as rich as Ulysses' reception, for example, but there are several works that rewrite the Old English story. Two of them are

FRANCESCO GIUSTI

429

Mass media and park management: Reaching the public beyond the park boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass media can be used to reach a large audience, create knowledge and spread information, and lead to changes in attitudes. Newspapers, radio and television offer a valuable mechanism for parks and preserves to influence the public beyond their boundaries. With the park system in Sabah, Malaysia, a series of newspaper articles with the goal of increasing public interest in

Susan K. Jacobson

1989-01-01

430

Grasshopper assemblage response to a restored national park (Mountain Zebra National Park, South Africa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve grassland sites were sampled inside and outside the Mountain Zebra National Park (MZNP), South Africa to assess changes in grasshopper assemblages to grazing by indigenous mammals inside the park compared to grazing by domestic cattle outside. The MZNP has been restored from cattle-grazed farmland to indigenous mammal parkland for 62 years. The number of grasshopper species and families inside

S. Gebeyehu; M. J. Samways

2002-01-01

431

Annual Data Summary: Mount Rainier National Park, 2002. National Park Service Gaseous Air Pollutant Monitoring Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mount Rainier National Park, a Class I area, is located in Washington about 40 kilometers southeast of Seattle. Its location and site specifications are presented on the following page.The purpose of Mount Rainier National Park is to protect, preserve and...

2002-01-01

432

IL26 gene inactivation in Equidae.  

PubMed

Interleukin-26 (IL26) is a member of the IL10 cytokine family. The IL26 gene is located between two other well-known cytokines genes of this family encoding interferon-gamma (IFNG) and IL22 in an evolutionary conserved gene cluster. In contrast to humans and most other mammals, mice lack a functional Il26 gene. We analyzed the genome sequences of other vertebrates for the presence or absence of functional IL26 orthologs and found that the IL26 gene has also become inactivated in several equid species. We detected a one-base pair frameshift deletion in exon 2 of the IL26 gene in the domestic horse (Equus caballus), Przewalski horse (Equus przewalskii) and donkey (Equus asinus). The remnant IL26 gene in the horse is still transcribed and gives rise to at least five alternative transcripts. None of these transcripts share a conserved open reading frame with the human IL26 gene. A comparative analysis across diverse vertebrates revealed that the IL26 gene has also independently been inactivated in a few other mammals, including the African elephant and the European hedgehog. The IL26 gene thus appears to be highly variable, and the conserved open reading frame has been lost several times during mammalian evolution. PMID:23808390

Shakhsi-Niaei, M; Drögemüller, M; Jagannathan, V; Gerber, V; Leeb, T

2013-06-28

433

New Insights in the Immunobiology of IL-1 Family Members  

PubMed Central

The interleukin-1 (IL 1) family of ligands is associated with acute and chronic inflammation, and plays an essential role in the non-specific innate response to infection. The biological properties of IL 1 family ligands are typically pro-inflammatory. The IL 1 family has 11 family members and can be categorized into subfamilies according to the length of their precursor and the length of the propiece for each precursor (Figure 1). The IL 1 subfamily consists of IL 1?, IL 1?, and IL 33, with the longest propieces of the IL 1 family. IL 18 and IL 37 belong to the IL 18 subfamily and contain smaller propieces than IL 1 and IL-33. Since IL 37 binds to the IL 18R? chain it is part of the IL 18 subfamily, however it remains to be elucidated how the propiece of IL 37 is removed. IL 36?, ?, and ? as well as IL 36 Ra belong to the IL 36 subfamily. In addition, IL 38 likely belongs to this family since it has the ability to bind to the IL 36R. The IL 36 subfamily has the shortest propiece. The one member of the IL 1 family that cannot be categorized in these subfamilies is IL 1 receptor antagonist (IL 1Ra), which has a signal peptide and is readily secreted. In the present review we will describe the biological functions of the IL-1F members and new insights in their biology.

van de Veerdonk, Frank L.; Netea, Mihai G.

2013-01-01

434

IL-18 Induces Emphysema and Airway and Vascular Remodeling via IFN-?, IL-17A, and IL-13  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation, alveolar destruction, and airway and vascular remodeling. However, the mechanisms that lead to these diverse alterations have not been defined. Objectives: We hypothesized that IL-18 plays a central role in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Methods: We generated and characterized lung-specific, inducible IL-18 transgenic mice. Measurements and Main Results: Here we demonstrate that the expression of IL-18 in the mature murine lung induces inflammation that is associated with the accumulation of CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, and NK1.1+ cells; emphysema; mucus metaplasia; airway fibrosis; vascular remodeling; and right ventricle cardiac hypertrophy. We also demonstrate that IL-18 induces type 1, type 2, and type 17 cytokines with IFN-?–inhibiting macrophage, lymphocyte, and eosinophil accumulation while stimulating alveolar destruction and genes associated with cell cytotoxicity and IL-13 and IL-17A inducing mucus metaplasia, airway fibrosis, and vascular remodeling. We also highlight interactions between these responses with IL-18 inducing IL-13 via an IL-17A–dependent mechanism and the type 1 and type17/type 2 responses counterregulating each another. Conclusions: These studies define the spectrum of inflammatory, parenchymal, airway, and vascular alterations that are induced by pulmonary IL-18; highlight the similarities between these responses and the lesions in COPD; and define the selective roles that type 1, type 2, and type 17 responses play in the generation of IL-18–induced pathologies.

Kang, Min-Jong; Choi, Je-Min; Kim, Bo Hye; Lee, Chang-Min; Cho, Won-Kyung; Choe, Gina; Kim, Do-Hyun; Lee, Chun Geun

2012-01-01

435

Structural and Biophysical Studies of the Human IL-7/IL-7R[alpha] Complex  

SciTech Connect

IL-7 and IL-7R{alpha} bind the {gamma}{sub c} receptor, forming a complex crucial to several signaling cascades leading to the development and homeostasis of T and B cells. We report that the IL-7R{alpha} ectodomain uses glycosylation to modulate its binding constants to IL-7, unlike the other receptors in the {gamma}{sub c} family. IL-7 binds glycosylated IL-7R{alpha} 300-fold more tightly than unglycosylated IL-7R{alpha}, and the enhanced affinity is attributed primarily to an accelerated on rate. Structural comparison of IL-7 in complex to both forms of IL-7R{alpha} reveals that glycosylation does not participate directly in the binding interface. The SCID mutations of IL-7R{alpha} locate outside the binding interface with IL-7, suggesting that the expressed mutations cause protein folding defects in IL-7R{alpha}. The IL-7/IL-7R{alpha} structures provide a window into the molecular recognition events of the IL-7 signaling cascade and provide sites to target for designing new therapeutics to treat IL-7-related diseases.

McElroy, Craig A.; Dohm, Julie A.; Walsh, Scott T.R.; (OSU); (UPENN)

2009-03-06

436

IL-4 and IL-10 inhibition of spontaneous monocyte apoptosis is associated with Flip upregulation.  

PubMed

Human peripheral blood monocytes undergo spontaneous apoptosis in culture. Spontaneous monocyte apoptosis is regulated by the death ligand, Fas Ligand (FasL) binding to its receptor Fas. The pro-inflammatory molecules, LPS and IL-1beta, prevent spontaneous monocyte apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 inhibit spontaneous monocyte apoptosis compared to control-treated cells. IL-4- or IL-10-mediated suppression of spontaneous monocyte apoptosis is associated with the induction of Flip, an essential inhibitor of the Fas-death signal. In contrast, IL-4 and IL-10 inhibit LPS or IL-1beta induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production. These data suggest that in monocytes IL-4 or IL-10 has a dual function, to inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine production and to suppress spontaneous apoptosis. PMID:15527169

Eslick, Joy; Scatizzi, John C; Albee, Lee; Bickel, Emily; Bradley, Kathleen; Perlman, Harris

2004-06-01

437

Geology Fieldnotes: Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming/Idaho/Montana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park site contains park geology information, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the Park's geologic history, structural geology, and describes many of the geologic sites and wildlife found in the park. It describes the sites found on the routes from Old Faithful to Mammoth Springs (East Thumb, Old Faithful, Midway, Lower, and Norris geysers, geyser basins, Gibbon Falls), Mammoth Springs to Tower Junction and the Canyon (Undine Falls, Lava Creek, Lamar Valley, Hayden Valley), and at the Yellowstone Lake area (West Thumb and Grant Village).

438

Disease-associated functions of IL33: the new kid in the IL1 family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-33 (IL-33), a newly described member of the IL-1 family, is expressed by many cell types following pro-inflammatory stimulation and is thought to be released on cell lysis. The IL-33 receptor, consisting of ST2 and IL-1 receptor accessory protein, is also widely expressed, particularly by T helper 2 (TH2) cells and mast cells. IL-33 is host-protective against helminth infection and

Nick I. Pitman; Iain B. McInnes; Foo Y. Liew

2010-01-01

439

IL18: A TH1 -inducing, proinflammatory cytokine and new member of the IL1 family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formerly called IFN-?–inducing factor, IL-18 is the new name of a novel cytokine that plays an important role in the TH1 response, primarily by its ability to induce IFN-? production in T cells and natural killer cells. Mice deficient in IL-18 have suppressed IFN-? production despite the presence of IL-12. IL-18 is related to the IL-1 family in terms of

Charles A. Dinarello

1999-01-01

440

Signaling by IL-31 and functional consequences.  

PubMed

Cytokines are key to control cellular communication. Interleukin-31 (IL-31) was recently discovered as a new member of the IL-6 family of cytokines. IL-31 signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of OSMR and IL-31RA, a complex that stimulates the JAK-STAT, the RAS/ERK and the PI3K/AKT signal transduction pathways. The available data suggests that IL-31 is important for both innate and adaptive immunity in tissues that are in close contact with the environment, i.e. the skin, the airways and the lung, and the lining of the intestine. Enhanced expression of IL-31 is associated with a number of diseases, including pruritic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, but also in allergy and inflammatory bowel disease. In these tissues IL-31 coordinates the interaction of different immune cells, including T-cells, mast cells, and eosinophils, with epithelial cells. In this review we have summarized the available data on IL-31 and its receptor, their expression pattern and how they are regulated. We describe the current state of knowledge of the involvement of IL-31 in diseases, both in humans and in mouse models. From these studies it is becoming clear that IL-31 plays an important role in the proper functioning of the skin and of airway and intestinal epithelia. The findings available suggest that IL-31 might be an interesting target for directed drug therapy. PMID:21982586

Cornelissen, Christian; Lüscher-Firzlaff, Juliane; Baron, Jens Malte; Lüscher, Bernhard

2011-10-05

441

IL-17 family: Cytokines, receptors and signaling.  

PubMed

The interleukin 17 (IL-17) family, a subset of cytokines consisting of IL-17A-F, plays crucial roles in host defense against microbial organisms and in the development of inflammatory diseases. Although IL-17A is the signature cytokine produced by T helper 17 (Th17) cells, IL-17A and other IL-17 family cytokines have multiple sources ranging from immune cells to non-immune cells. The IL-17 family signals via their correspondent receptors and activates downstream pathways that include NF?B, MAPKs and C/EBPs to induce the expression of anti-microbial peptides, cytokines and chemokines. The proximal adaptor Act1 is a common mediator during the signaling of all IL-17 cytokines so far and is thus involved in IL-17 mediated host defense and IL-17-driven autoimmune conditions. This review will give an overview and recent updates on the IL-17 family, the activation and regulation of IL-17 signaling as well as diseases associated with this cytokine family. PMID:24011563

Gu, Chunfang; Wu, Ling; Li, Xiaoxia

2013-09-03

442

IL-18 activity in systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an inflammation-related cytokine that plays a central role both in innate defense reactions and in Th1 activation and specific immune responses. Increased levels of IL-18 can be detected in biological fluids and organs of individuals affected by several autoimmune pathologies, as well as in autoimmune animal models. In this review, the role of IL-18 in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is critically examined, including its possible role in the pathogenesis of disease. In SLE, increased levels of IL-18 have been found in serum/plasma of affected persons, which positively correlated with disease severity. The possibility that circulating IL-18 levels are predictive of renal damage has been proposed, suggesting that IL-18 may be a prognostic marker of renal involvement useful to identify patients at risk of renal failure. The evaluation of urinary levels of free active IL-18 indeed suggests a correlation with the degree of renal involvement. The possible pathogenic role of IL-18 in lupus has been studied in a mouse model of progressive disease, which makes possible the identification, at the level of the different affected organs, of IL-18 changes preceding disease development and those appearing after disease onset. It can be concluded that IL-18 has a multifaceted role in autoimmune lupus, being apparently involved both in the effector phases of the late organ damage and, in some organs, in the initial pathogenic events. Therapeutic strategies targeting IL-18 in autoimmunity are under development. PMID:19758166

Favilli, Flavia; Anzilotti, Consuelo; Martinelli, Lucia; Quattroni, Paola; De Martino, Salvatore; Pratesi, Federico; Neumann, Detlef; Beermann, Silke; Novick, Daniela; Dinarello, Charles A; Boraschi, Diana; Migliorini, Paola

2009-09-01

443

A Brief History of IL-9  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-9 was first described in the late 1980s as a member of a growing number of cytokines that had pleiotropic functions in the immune system. Although many biological functions have been attributed to IL-9, it remains an understudied cytokine. A resurgence of interest in IL-9 has been spurred by recent work demonstrating a role for IL-9 in regulating inflammatory immunity, and in defining the transcription factors that activate the Il9 gene in cells that most efficiently produce IL-9. In this review we summarize the characterization of IL-9 biological activities, highlight roles for the cytokine that are clearly defined, and outline questions regarding IL-9 functions that still require further exploration.

Goswami, Ritobrata; Kaplan, Mark H.

2011-01-01

444

The Lagrange Equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Let \\u000a {M;dm<\\/font\\u000a>}\\\\{\\\\mathcal{M};d\\\\mu \\\\}\\u000a be a material system whose mechanical state is described by N Lagrangian coordinates \\u000a q = (q1,¼<\\/font\\u000a>, qN)q = ({q}_{1},\\\\ldots, {q}_{N})\\u000a . Since every point \\u000a P Î<\\/font\\u000a> {M;dm<\\/font\\u000a>}P \\\\in \\\\{\\\\mathcal{M};d\\\\mu \\\\}\\u000a is identified along its motion by the map (q, t) ? P(q, t), the configuration of the system is determined, instant by instant,

Emmanuele DiBenedetto

445

IL-17 induces production of IL-6 and IL-8 in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts via NF-?B- and PI3-kinase/Akt-dependent pathways  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have revealed that both synovial fibroblasts and T cells participate in the perpetuation of joint inflammation as dynamic partners in a mutual activation feedback, via secretion of cytokines and chemokines that stimulate each other. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-17, a major Th1 cytokine produced by activated T cells, in the activation of RA synovial fibroblasts. Transcripts of IL-17R (IL-17 receptor) and IL-17RB (IL-17 receptor B) were present in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) of RA patients. IL-17R responded with increased expression upon in vitro stimulation with IL-17, while the level of IL-17RB did not change. IL-17 enhanced the production of IL-6 and IL-8 in FLS, as previously shown, but did not affect the synthesis of IL-15. IL-17 appears to be a stronger inducer of IL-6 and IL-8 than IL-15, and even exerted activation comparable to that of IL-1? in RA FLS. IL-17-mediated induction of IL-6 and IL-8 was transduced via activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and NF-?B, while CD40 ligation and p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) are not likely to partake in the process. Together these results suggest that IL-17 is capable of more than accessory roles in the activation of RA FLS and provide grounds for targeting IL-17-associated pathways in therapeutic modulation of arthritis inflammation.

Hwang, Sue-Yun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Woon; Park, Mi-Kyung; Moon, Youngmee; Kim, Wan-Uk; Kim, Ho-Youn

2004-01-01

446

Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-20 (IL-20) is an IL-10-family cytokine that regulates innate and adaptive immunity in skin and other tissues. In addition to protecting the host from various external pathogens, dysregulated IL-20 signaling has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of human psoriasis. IL-20 signals through two cell-surface receptor heterodimers, IL-20R1–IL-20R2 and IL-22R1–IL-20R2. In this report, crystals of the IL-20–IL-20R1–IL-20R2 ternary complex have been grown from polyethylene glycol solutions. The crystals belonged to space group P41212 or P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = 111, c = 135?Å, and diffracted X-­rays to 3?Å resolution. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains one IL-­20–IL-20R1–IL-20R2 complex, corresponding to a solvent content of approximately 54%.

Logsdon, Naomi J.; Allen, Christopher E.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Walter, Mark R.

2012-01-01

447

IL-33 reduces the development of atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vasculature commonly leading to myocardial infarction and stroke. We show that IL-33, which is a novel IL-1–like cytokine that signals via ST2, can reduce atherosclerosis development in ApoE?/? mice on a high-fat diet. IL-33 and ST2 are present in the normal and atherosclerotic vasculature of mice and humans. Although control PBS-treated mice developed severe and inflamed atherosclerotic plaques in the aortic sinus, lesion development was profoundly reduced in IL-33–treated animals. IL-33 also markedly increased levels of IL-4, -5, and -13, but decreased levels of IFN? in serum and lymph node cells. IL-33 treatment also elevated levels of total serum IgA, IgE, and IgG1, but decreased IgG2a, which is consistent with a Th1-to-Th2 switch. IL-33–treated mice also produced significantly elevated antioxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) antibodies. Conversely, mice treated with soluble ST2, a decoy receptor that neutralizes IL-33, developed significantly larger atherosclerotic plaques in the aortic sinus of the ApoE?/? mice compared with control IgG-treated mice. Furthermore, coadministration of an anti–IL-5 mAb with IL-33 prevented the reduction in plaque size and reduced the amount of ox-LDL antibodies induced by IL-33. In conclusion, IL-33 may play a protective role in the development of atherosclerosis via the induction of IL-5 and ox-LDL antibodies.

Miller, Ashley M.; Xu, Damo; Asquith, Darren L.; Denby, Laura; Li, Yubin; Sattar, Naveed; Baker, Andrew H.; McInnes, Iain B.; Liew, Foo Y.

2008-01-01

448

A cytokine network involving brain-borne IL-1?, IL-1ra, IL-18, IL-6, and TNF? operates during long-term potentiation and learning.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that long-term potentiation (LTP) induces hippocampal IL-1? and IL-6 over-expression, and interfering their signalling either inhibits or supports, respectively, LTP maintenance. Consistently, blockade of endogenous IL-1 or IL-6 restricts or favours hippocampal-dependent memory, effects that were confirmed in genetically manipulated mice. Since cytokines are known for their high degree of mutual crosstalk, here we studied whether a network of cytokines with known neuromodulatory actions is activated during LTP and learning. We found that, besides IL-1? and IL-6, also IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and IL-18, but not TNF? are over-expressed during LTP maintenance in freely moving rats. The increased expression of these cytokines is causally related to an increase in synaptic strength since it was abrogated when LTP was interfered by blockade of NMDA-glutamate receptors. Likewise, IL-1 and IL-6 were found to be over-expressed in defined regions of the hippocampus during learning a hippocampus-dependent task. However, during learning, changes in IL-18 were restricted to the dorsal hippocampus, and no differences in TNF? and IL1-ra expression were noticed in the hippocampus. Noticeably, IL-1ra transcripts were significantly reduced in the prefrontal cortex. The relation between cytokine expression and learning was causal because such changes were not observed in animals from a pseudo-trained group that was subject to the same manipulation but could not learn the task. Taken together with previous studies, we conclude that activation of a cytokine network in the brain is a physiologic relevant phenomenon not only for LTP maintenance but also for certain types of learning. PMID:23747799

Del Rey, Adriana; Balschun, Detlef; Wetzel, Wolfram; Randolf, Anke; Besedovsky, Hugo O

2013-06-06

449

[Recreational attraction of urban park wetlands in Beijing].  

PubMed

Taking the 20 urban park wetlands in Beijing as test objects, a 3-layer evaluation index system including urban park wetland landscape quality, location condition, and accessibility for the recreational attraction of urban bark wetlands was established, and, by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and an integrating index evaluation method, the recreational attraction of the urban park wetlands in Beijing was quantitatively assessed, and validated with questionnaire data. In Beijing, the urban park wetlands with high recreational attraction were in the order of the Summer Palace, Olympic Park, Qinglong Lake Park, Beihai Park, Yuanmingyuan Park, Yuyuantan Park, Shidu, Golden Sea Lake scenic area, Taoranting Park, and Yeyahu wetland. The Rice Fragrance Lake wetland and Zhenzhuhu scenic area had the lowest recreational attraction, and the others were fair. The evaluation results were supported by the questionnaire data, which indicated that the index system and evaluation model were useful. According to the recreational services, the 20 park wetlands in Beijing could be clustered into four categories, which could be managed in different ways. Appropriately assessing the recreational services of urban park wetlands could help the decision-making on the urban parks optimal planning and designing, improve human living environment, and optimize the spatial distribution of urban landscape. PMID:23189684

Li, Fen; Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding

2012-08-01

450

Lichens of the U.S. National Parks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over 26,100 records of lichens present in 144 U.S. national park units were assembled from various sources into a database and analyzed. Within these 144 park units 2,435 species and 375 genera are reported, representing 63% and 74% of the North American flora, respectively. The park units are located in 41 states and Washington, D.C. The average number of species in a park is 104, but the median is 60, indicating there are many parks with a small number of species and a few with high numbers. Isle Royale National Park has the most species, 611, and twelve parks have only one species reported. The number of records of lichens present ranged from one for 25 parks, to 1,623 for Isle Royale. Physcia aipolia is the most frequently observed species, being found in 65 parks. One fourth of the park units are classified cultural resource parks, while the remainder are considered natural resource parks. This study was based on 453 sources, including literature citations, park reports and collections in the University of Minnesota Herbarium.

Bennett, J. P.; Wetmore, C. M.

2005-01-01

451

43 CFR 3811.2-2 - Lands in national parks and monuments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2-2 Lands in national parks and monuments. The Mining in the Parks Act...effectively withdrew all National Parks and Monuments from...under the General Mining Law of 1872, as...28, 1976, all National Parks and Monuments...

2010-10-01

452

43 CFR 3811.2-2 - Lands in national parks and monuments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2-2 Lands in national parks and monuments. The Mining in the Parks Act...effectively withdrew all National Parks and Monuments from...under the General Mining Law of 1872, as...28, 1976, all National Parks and Monuments...

2009-10-01

453

Natchez National Historical Park Long-Range Interpretive Plan, January 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This long-range interpretive plan (LRIP) for the Natchez National Historical Park (NATC) is a component of the park's comprehensive interpretive plan (CIP), as outlined in the National Park Service Interpretive Guidelines (NPS-6). Using the park's mission...

2001-01-01

454

78 FR 60309 - Minor Boundary Revision at Rocky Mountain National Park  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1] Minor Boundary Revision at Rocky Mountain National Park AGENCY: National Park...SUMMARY: The boundary of Rocky Mountain National Park is modified to include...the current eastern boundary of Rocky Mountain National Park. DATES: The...

2013-10-01

455

75 FR 61772 - Meeting of the Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park Advisory Commission  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park Advisory Commission AGENCY...Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park Advisory Commission...Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park National Park Service...verbatim they must submit them in writing. Written comments and...

2010-10-06

456

The endocannabinoid anandamide downregulates IL-23 and IL-12 subunits in a viral model of multiple sclerosis: evidence for a cross-talk between IL-12p70/IL-23 axis and IL-10 in microglial cells.  

PubMed

Theiler's virus (TMEV) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) induces an immune-mediated demyelinating disease in susceptible mouse strains and serves as a relevant infection model for human multiple sclerosis (MS). The endocannabinoid system represents a novel therapeutic target for autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases due to its anti-inflammatory properties by regulating cytokine network. IL-12p70 and IL-23 are functionally related heterodimeric cytokines that play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of MS. In the present study we showed that the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) downregulated the gene expression of IL-12p70 and IL-23 forming subunits mRNAs in the spinal cord of TMEV-infected mice and ameliorated motor disturbances. This was accompanied by significant decreases on the serological levels of IL-12p70/IL-23 and more interestingly, of IL-17A. In contrast, serum levels of IL-10 resulted elevated. In addition, we studied the signalling pathways involved in the regulation of IL-12p70/IL-23 and IL-10 expression in TMEV-infected microglia and addressed the possible interactions of AEA with these pathways. AEA acted through the ERK1/2 and JNK pathways to downregulate IL-12p70 and IL-23 while upregulating IL-10. These effects were partially mediated by CB2 receptor activation. We also described an autocrine circuit of cross-talk between IL-12p70/IL-23 and IL-10, since endogenously produced IL-10 negatively regulates IL-12p70 and IL-23 cytokines in TMEV-infected microglia. This suggests that by altering the cytokine network, AEA could indirectly modify the type of immune responses within the CNS. Accordingly, pharmacological modulation of endocannabinoids might be a useful tool for treating neuroinflammatory diseases. PMID:21310228

Correa, Fernando; Hernangómez-Herrero, Miriam; Mestre, Leyre; Loría, Frida; Docagne, Fabian; Guaza, Carmen

2011-02-16

457

The Parkes 21 CM multibeam receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several extragalactic HI surveys using a 21-cm 13-beam focal plane array will begin in late 1996 using the Parkes 64-m telescope. These surveys are designed to detect efficiently nearby galaxies that have failed to be identified optically because of low optical surface brightness or high optical extinction. We discuss scientific and technical aspects of the multibeam receiver including astronomical objectives, feed, receiver and correlator design and data acquisition. A comparison with other telescopes shows that the Parkes multibeam receiver has significant speed advantages for any large-area 21- cm galaxy survey in the velocity range range 0 - 14000 km per sec.

Staveley-Smith, L.; Wilson, W. E.; Bird, T. S.; Disney, M. J.; Ekers, R. D.; Freeman, K. C.; Haynes, R. F.; Sinclair, M. W.; Vaile, R. A.; Webster, R. L.; Wright, A. E.

1996-11-01

458

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Regulates the Accessibility of the IL-2-Responsive Enhancer in the IL-2 Receptor ? Gene to Transcription Factors  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) responsiveness of T lymphocytes is controlled through transcription of the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) ? subunit by antigen and by IL-2 itself. IL-2 induces IL-2R? transcription via an IL-2-responsive enhancer (IL-2rE), whose activity depends on the cooperative binding of IL-2-induced STAT5 to two sites and of constitutively active Elf-1 to a third one. Here we describe the changes in IL-2rE chromatin that occur in normal T lymphocytes upon activation of IL-2R? expression. In cells induced to transiently express IL-2R? with concanavalin A (which mimics antigen), none of the IL-2rE sites is occupied despite the presence of Elf-1 and STAT1, which bind to the IL-2rE in vitro. The two STAT binding sites are occupied rapidly upon IL-2 stimulation, concomitantly with STAT5 activation. Occupation of the Elf-1 binding site is delayed, although Elf-1 concentration and binding activity are not modified by IL-2. Digestion of T-cell chromatin with DNase I and micrococcal nuclease shows that IL-2 induces the appearance of nuclease-hypersensitive sites flanking the IL-2rE. Thus IL-2, in addition to activating STAT5, appears to regulate IL-2R? transcription by making IL-2R? chromatin accessible to transcription factors.

Rusterholz, Corinne; Henrioud, Patricia Corthesy; Nabholz, Markus

1999-01-01

459

12. VIEW OF NATURAL BRIDGE OVERLOOK PARKING AREA, FACING NORTHEAST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF NATURAL BRIDGE OVERLOOK PARKING AREA, FACING NORTHEAST. NOTE DETERIORATION OF WALL AND USE OF AESTHETICALLY INTRUSIVE FENCING. - Bryce Canyon National Park Rim Road, State Highway 63 to Rainbow Point, Tropic, Garfield County, UT

460

195. View of the Waterrock Knob Overlook parking area from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

195. View of the Waterrock Knob Overlook parking area from the Waterrock Knob Trail looking southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

461

Secretary Salazar: Announcing Investments in America's National Parks  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Secretary Salazar at the podium as he announces a $750 million investment in national parks. Behind him left to right are Tom Kiernan, President of the National Parks Conservation Association and Mindy Meade of the American Recreation Coalition....

2009-04-23

462

6. LITTLE GREENBRIER SCHOOL CEMETERY AND PARKING AREA LOOKING S, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. LITTLE GREENBRIER SCHOOL CEMETERY AND PARKING AREA LOOKING S, OFF SPUR FROM METCALF BOTTOMS TO WEAR COVE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Little River Road, Between Sugarlands Visitor Center & Townsend Wye, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

463

127. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the flat ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

127. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the flat top manor from the bass lake carriage road. Looking north-northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

464

128. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the stone ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

128. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the stone faced bridge on the bass lake carriage trail. Facing west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

465

Detail, exterior side of doubleplanked north end, Burton Park Club ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail, exterior side of double-planked north end, Burton Park Club House, view to south-southwest (135mm lens). - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

466

3. EXTERIOR, VIEW TO NORTHEAST, AT NEW SITE (HERITAGE PARK). ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EXTERIOR, VIEW TO NORTHEAST, AT NEW SITE (HERITAGE PARK). SHERMAN-GILBERT HOUSE AT LEFT; BUSHYLEAD HOUSE IN CENTER; CHRISTIAN HOUSE AT RIGHT - Sherman-Gilbert House, Heritage Park, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

467

Natural Resource Condition Assessment for Cumberland Gap National Historical Park.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the state of natural resources at Cumberland Gap National Historical Park (CUGA). It also addresses sets of stressors that threaten these resources and the biological integrity of habitats in the park. Th...

G. Grossman G. Sundin L. Worsham M. T. Mengak N. P. Nibbelink

2013-01-01

468

36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...National Park Service, along the Colorado River within Grand Canyon National Park...permitted on beach areas along the Colorado River. (8) Swimming and bathing...also authorizes camping along the Colorado River by persons in the river...

2013-07-01

469

Astrobiology Student Intern Program at Lassen Volcanic National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) Ames Team has partnered with Lassen Volcanic National Park and Red Bluff High School to engage high school students in the collection of scientific data for NASA astrobiologists and the National Park Service.

Dueck, S. L.; Zachary, S.; Michael, D.; Parenteau, M.; Kubo, M.; Jahnke, L. L.; Scalice, D.; Des Marais, D. J.

2010-04-01

470

36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park. (a) Cave entry. (1) With the exception of the...National Park Service, no person shall enter any cave or undeveloped part or passage of any cave without a permit. (2) Permits. The...

2013-07-01

471

Effects of TOD on Housing, Parking, and Travel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

TCRP Report 128: Effects of TOD on Housing, Parking, and Travel provides original data on TOD residential trip generation and parking, the behavior and motivation of TOD residents, employees, and employers in their mode choice. The report also identifies ...

G. B. Arrington R. Cervero

2008-01-01

472

Geology Fieldnotes: Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This park is home to the Fairweather Mountains, which formed during the Laramide Orogeny, as well as many glaciers. The site includes introductory information about glacial formation and icebergs, links to park maps, and visitor information.

473

12. Deck view of bridge near Alum Cave parking area ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Deck view of bridge near Alum Cave parking area looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

474

Mammoth Cave National Park. Geologic Resources Inventory Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As a World Heritage Site and International Biosphere Reserve, Mammoth Cave National Park preserves part of a complex and spectacular karst ecosystem in southcentral Kentucky. The park lies at the edge of the Chester Upland, where resistant sandstones and ...

2011-01-01

475

Something is Askew at Mammoth Cave National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spreadsheets Across the Curriculum/Geology of National Parks module. Students use the geometric mean and multiplicative standard deviation to examine the right-skewed distribution of nutrient concentrations in water-quality data at Mammoth Cave National Park.

Module by: Amie O. West, University of South Florida Cover Page by: Amie O. West, University of South Florida

476

VIEW OF HOWLAND HILL ROAD, JEDEDIAH SMITH STATE PARK. CRESCENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF HOWLAND HILL ROAD, JEDEDIAH SMITH STATE PARK. CRESCENT CITY, DEL NORTE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING E. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

477

36 CFR 7.37 - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS...taken; and (iii) Will not have an adverse effect on the ecosystem. (3) Violation of established conditions or...

2013-07-01

478

Valley Forge National Historical Park Annual Report, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2005, Valley Forge National Historical Park made strides in preserving historic buildings and reducing its maintenance backlog. With over 150 structures to manage, park staff frequently works with partners and other agencies to ensure that these histor...

2005-01-01

479

Overall view of Lincoln Park homes complex from corner of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Overall view of Lincoln Park homes complex from corner of West Colfax Avenue and Mariposa Street. View to southwest. - Lincoln Park Homes, West Colfax Avenue & Marispoa Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

480

Overall view of Lincoln Park homes complex from corner of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Overall view of Lincoln Park homes complex from corner of West 13th Avenue and Mariposa Street. View to northwest. - Lincoln Park Homes, West Colfax Avenue & Marispoa Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

481

View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, from building 746 parking lot across Walnut Avenue; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

482

36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...from its junction with the Oconaluftee River upstream and paralleling the Big Cove Road to the park boundary are open to fishing in accordance with the Cherokee Fish and Game Management regulations. (ii) All other park waters are open to...

2013-07-01

483

111. Doughton Park Recreation Area. View of parkway with the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

111. Doughton Park Recreation Area. View of parkway with the road crossing alligator back. Facing southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

484

Partial southwest side and view of stairway to parking area ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Partial southwest side and view of stairway to parking area - Glacier Park Villas, Edna Sears Graham Cabin, South of Lake McDonald Lodge on Lake Mcdonald Lodge Loop Road, Lake McDonald, Flathead County, MT

485

Oblique view, north end and west side, Burton Park Club ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Oblique view, north end and west side, Burton Park Club House, view to south (90mm lens). - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

486

Serum TNF-?, sTNFR1, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 levels in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.  

PubMed

It is generally accepted that the pathogenesis of hantavirus infections is the result of virus-mediated host immune response. Hantaviruses, and mainly Dobrava-Belgrade virus, are present in Greece, and cause to humans hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-? and sTNFR1 levels were measured in 29 HFRS Greek patients. Significant higher sTNFR1, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 levels were observed in severe than in mild/moderate cases, while TNF-? did not seem to be associated with disease severity. Correlations between cytokine levels and their fluctuation over time after onset of the illness, along with comparisons from previously published data on the field, led in building an immune response pattern for HFRS. PMID:23603136

Kyriakidis, Ioannis; Papa, Anna

2013-04-17

487

Parks, Place and Pedagogy - Education Partnerships with the National Park Service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Michigan Teaching Excellence Program (MITEP) is a multi-year program of teacher leadership development that empowers science teachers in Grand Rapids, Kalamazoo, and Jackson to lead their schools and districts through the process of improving science teaching and learning. A component of this program is facilitated through partnership between academia, K-12 educators, and the National Park Service (NPS) that aims to develop place-based education strategies that improve diversity and Earth Science literacy. This tangible education method draws upon both the sense of place that National Parks offer and the art of interpretation employed by the park service. Combined, these deepen cognitive process and provide a more diverse reflection of what place means and the processes behind shaping what we see. Our partnerships present participants the opportunity to intern in a Midwest national park for 3-8 weeks during their third year in the program. In summer 2011, eleven teachers from the Grand Rapids school district participated in this innovative way of learning and teaching Earth Science. One goal was to develop geological interpretive materials desired and needed for the parks. Secondly, and important to place-based educational methodologies, these deliverables will be used as a way of bringing the parks to urban classrooms. Participants lived in the parks and worked directly with both national park and Michigan Tech staff to create lesson plans, podcasts, media clips, video, and photographic documentation of their experiences. These lesson plans will be hosted in the Views of the National Park website in an effort to provide innovative teaching resources nationally for teachers or free-choice learners wishing to access information on Midwest national parks. To the benefit of park staff, working with teachers from urban areas offered an opportunity for park staff to access diverse learners in urban settings unable to visit the park. The foundation has been laid for future work in this program aiming to develop a stronger appreciation of environment and geological processes and connections between what K-12 students do and their impact on Earth systems. This paper presents preliminary results of the following evaluation methods: 1) pre-post surveys administered to examine depth and breadth of geological knowledge, awareness of cultural significance, and emotional meanings and attachments toward the park, and 2) semi-structured interviews with participants, park staff, and academic faculty to determine how these programs can be best implemented and improved in both parks and classrooms alike. Learning about Earth system processes can be fostered by employing different ways of knowing, or the art of interpretation. It is hoped that this engagement between teachers, parks, and academia will increase diversity in Earth Science, enrich Earth Science curriculum, and help develop a sense of place for students

Vye, E. C.; Rose, W. I.; Nash, B.; Klawiter, M.; Huntoon, J. E.; Engelmann, C. A.; Gochis, E. E.; MiTEP

2011-12-01

488

IL-2/IL-2Ab Complexes Induce Regulatory T Cell Expansion and Protect against Proteinuric CKD  

PubMed Central

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) help protect against autoimmune renal injury. The use of agonist antibodies and antibody/cytokine combinations to expand Tregs in vivo may have therapeutic potential for renal disease. Here, we investigated the effects of administering IL-2/IL-2Ab complexes in mice with adriamycin nephropathy, a model of proteinuric kidney disease that resembles human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Injecting IL-2/IL-2Ab complexes before or, to a lesser extent, after induction of disease promoted expansion of Tregs. Furthermore, administration of this complex was renoprotective, evidenced by improved renal function, maintenance of body weight, less histologic injury, and reduced inflammation. IL-2/IL-2Ab reduced serum IL-6 and renal expression of IL-6 and IL-17 but enhanced expression of IL-10 and Foxp3 in the spleen. In vitro, the addition of IL-2/IL-2Ab complexes induced rapid STAT-5 phosphorylation in CD4 T cells. In summary, these data suggest that inducing the expansion of Tregs by administering IL-2/IL-2Ab complexes is a possible strategy to treat renal disease.

Polhill, Tania; Zhang, Geoff Yu; Hu, Min; Sawyer, Andrew; Zhou, Jimmy Jianheng; Saito, Mitsuru; Webster, Kylie E.; Wang, Ya; Wang, Yiping; Grey, Shane T.; Sprent, Jonathan; Harris, David C.H.; Wang, Yuan Min

2012-01-01

489

IL-12 elispot assays to detect and enumerate IL-12 secreting cells.  

PubMed

The cytokine IL-12 promotes Th(1)type immune responses and plays a key role in immune regulation. The complex nature of IL-12 hampered its detection without use of stimulants that might give less relevant information. To detect circulating IL-12 p40, we developed enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays that allow enumeration of IL-12 p40 secreting cells without prior in vitro stimulation of the cells. In parallel, intracellular staining of IL-12 p40 by flow cytometry was performed to compare the two methods. IL-12 p40 secreting cells were detected in healthy subjects at a mean number of 103+/-155 per 10(5)blood mononuclear cells (MNC). Numbers of IL-12 p40 secreting blood MNC correlated with IL-12 p40 positive blood MNC detected by flow cytometry. Bacterial endotoxins and the inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma control IL-12 production by antigen presenting cells. Utilizing IL-12 p40 ELISPOT assays, we could confirm occurrence of elevated numbers of IL-12 p40 secreting blood MNC after stimulation with TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, LPS, LPS+TNF-alpha or LPS+IFN-gamma, compared to cultures without stimulant. Due to its central role in inflammation and autoimmunity, IL-12 is an attractive target for immunotherapy. IL-12 p40 ELISPOT assays represent a sensitive, specific and reliable tool for investigating the role of IL-12 in both health and disease. PMID:10930299

Ozenci, V; Kouwenhoven, M; Press, R; Link, H; Huang, Y M

2000-08-01

490

IL-15 positively regulates IL-21 production in celiac disease mucosa.  

PubMed

Celiac disease (CD)-associated inflammation is characterized by high interleukin- 21 (IL-21), but the mechanisms that control IL-21 production are not fully understood. Here we analyzed IL-21 cell sources and examined how IL-21 production is regulated in CD. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs), isolated from CD patients and non-CD controls, were analyzed for cell markers, cytokines, and transcription factors by flow cytometry. IL-21 was highly produced by CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ IELs and LPLs in active CD. IL-21-producing cells coexpressed interferon-? (IFN-?) and to a lesser extent T helper type 17 (Th17) cytokines. Treatment of control LPLs with IL-15, a cytokine overproduced in CD, activated Akt and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), thus enhancing IL-21 synthesis. Active CD biopsies contained elevated levels of Akt, and blockade of IL-15 in those samples reduced IL-21. Similarly, neutralization of IL-15 in biopsies of inactive CD patients inhibited peptic-tryptic digest of gliadin-induced IL-21 expression. These findings indicate that in CD, IL-15 positively regulates IL-21 production. PMID:22785229

Sarra, M; Cupi, M L; Monteleone, I; Franzè, E; Ronchetti, G; Di Sabatino, A; Gentileschi, P; Franceschilli, L; Sileri, P; Sica, G; Del Vecchio Blanco, G; Cretella, M; Paoluzi, O A; Corazza, G R; Pallone, F; Monteleone, G

2012-07-11

491

The proinflammatory cytokines IL-2, IL-15 and IL-21 modulate the repertoire of mature human natural killer cell receptors.  

PubMed

Natural killer (NK) cells play a crucial role in the immune response to micro-organisms and tumours. Recent evidence suggests that NK cells also regulate the adaptive T-cell response and that it might be possible to exploit this ability to eliminate autoreactive T cells in autoimmune disease and alloreactive T cells in transplantation. Mature NK cells consist of a highly diverse population of cells that expresses different receptors to facilitate recognition of diseased cells and possibly pathogens themselves. Ex vivo culture of NK cells with cytokines such as IL-2 and IL-15 is an approach that permits significant expansion of the NK cell subpopulations, which are likely to have potent antitumour, antiviral, or immunomodulatory effects in autoimmunity. Our data indicate that the addition of IL-21 has a synergistic effect by increasing the numbers of NK cells on a large scale. IL-2 and IL-15 may induce the expression of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) in KIR-negative populations, the c-lectin receptor NKG2D and the natural cytotoxic receptor NKp44. The addition of IL-21 to IL-15 or IL-2 can modify the pattern of the KIR receptors and inhibit NKp44 expression by reducing the expression of the adaptor DAP-12. IL-21 also preserved the production of interferon-gamma and enhanced the cytotoxic properties of NK cells. Our findings indicate that the proinflammatory cytokines IL-2, IL-15 and IL-21 can modify the peripheral repertoire of NK cells. These properties may be used to endow subpopulations of NK cells with specific phenotypes, which may be used in ex vivo cellular immunotherapy strategies. PMID:18053164

de Rham, Casimir; Ferrari-Lacraz, Sylvie; Jendly, Sabrina; Schneiter, Gregory; Dayer, Jean-Michel; Villard, Jean

2007-01-01

492

National parks. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning U.S. and foreign national parks. Citations discuss terrestrial biology, botany, coastal biology, fire ecology, endangered and exotic species, and resource analysis. Topics also include the impact of park visitors on natural resources in the parks, resource management, planning, and mapping. Information about specific parks including Rocky Mountain, Great Smoky Mountains, Redwood, Grand Canyon, Sequoia, Glacier Bay, and others is presented. (Contains a minimum of 55 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-02-01

493

Nature and Science at North Cascades National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) website highlights the natural resources of North Cascades National Park. Topics covered include animals of the park (amphibians, fish, insects, spiders, centipedes and millipedes), plant life (lichens and fungi), environmental factors (air quality, fire regime, night sky, vistas, and weather), and natural features (geologic formations, glaciers and glacial landforms, wetlands, marshes and swamps). There are links to more information about park glaciers, endangered species and plant life.

494

A method for evaluating areas for national park status  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for evaluating different areas as national parks based on a scoring system is proposed. A National Park Evaluation\\u000a Form (NPEF) evaluating natural, cultural, and recreational resources in accordance with international criteria for national\\u000a parks is presented. The evaluation points given to an area indicate the possibility of the area becoming a national park.\\u000a In this method, subjectivity and

Sümer Gülez

1992-01-01

495

Inhibition of SAPK/JNK leads to enhanced IL-1-induced IL-6 synthesis in osteoblasts.  

PubMed

Stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK)(1) which belongs to the MAP kinase superfamily regulates many cellular events. We previously reported that interleukin 1 (IL-1) stimulates the synthesis of interleukin 6 (IL-6) through activation of ERK and p38 MAP kinase in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells, and that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) negatively regulates the IL-1-induced IL-6 synthesis through I?B/NF-?B pathway. In the present study, we investigated the role of SAPK/JNK in the IL-1-stimulated IL-6 synthesis in these cells. IL-1 induced the phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK. SP600125, an inhibitor of SAPK/JNK, increased the release and the mRNA expression levels of IL-6 induced by IL-1. IL-1-stimulated IL-6 release was significantly up-regulated in SAPK/JNK-knocked down cells. SP600125 remarkably suppressed the IL-1-induced phosphorylation of both I?B and NF-?B, whereas SP600125 failed to affect the IL-1-induced phosphorylation of AMPK, STAT3 or Src. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, attenuated the IL-1-induced phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK. SP600125 enhanced IL-1-stimulated IL-6 release also in normal human osteoblasts. These results strongly suggest that SAPK/JNK negatively regulates IL-1-stimulated IL-6 synthesis and acts at the point between AMPK and I?B/NF-?B in osteoblasts. PMID:23624146

Kondo, Akira; Otsuka, Takanobu; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Mizutani, Jun; Wada, Ikuo; Kozawa, Osamu; Tokuda, Haruhiko

2013-04-24

496

Associations of IL4, IL4R, and IL13 Gene Polymorphisms in Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis in China: A Case-Control Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe IL-4, IL-4 receptor (IL4R), and IL-13 genes are crucial immune factors and may influence the course of various diseases. In the present study, we investigated the association between the potential functional polymorphisms in IL-4, IL-4R, and IL-13 and coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) risk in a Chinese population.MethodsSix polymorphisms (C-590T in IL-4, Ile50Val, Ser478Pro, and Gln551Arg in IL-4R, C-1055T and

Meilin Wang; Shasha Wang; Zhifang Song; Xiaomin Ji; Zhengdong Zhang; Jianwei Zhou; Chunhui Ni

2011-01-01

497

Autonomous parallel parking system for Ackerman steering four wheelers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parallel parking is challenge for all drivers say amateurs or the experts. An automatic car parking system is a solution to this ordeal. This vehicular technology has been implemented using many other systems but a cost effective, simple and accurate solution will be greatly appreciated. This paper explains in detail a simple and precise autonomous car-parking algorithm for Ackerman steering

Ankit Gupta; Rohan Divekar; Mohit Agrawal

2010-01-01

498

A Guide to Establishing Environmental Education Programs in Municipal Parks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to help those in the field of Parks and Recreation who wish to develop an environmental learning program in their parks with the cooperation of the local schools. The guide reviews an environmental learning program which was developed in Forest Park, Springfield (Massachusetts), and provides guidelines which could be…

Bradley, Kenneth; Stanley, Robert

499

Zoning for Parking as Policy Process: A Historical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zoning for parking is reviewed as a historical process of public policy development. Zoning for parking was relatively rare among US cities before the Second World War. By 1969, however, virtually all US cities with populations exceeding 25 000 zoned for parking as their primary method of dealing with land?use problems associated with rising automobile ownership rates. A brief history

ERIK FERGUSON

2004-01-01

500

C and O Canal: The Making of a Park.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park is one of 358 units of the national park system at the writing. The historic C and O Canal is its primary feature, justifying its designation as a historical park. But hikers and bicyclists along the ...

B. Mackintosh

1991-01-01