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1

Infinitely many inequivalent field theories from one Lagrangian

Logarithmic time-like Liouville quantum field theory has a generalized PT invariance, where T is the time-reversal operator and P stands for an S-duality reflection of the Liouville field $\\phi$. In Euclidean space the Lagrangian of such a theory, $L=\\frac{1}{2}(\

Carl M. Bender; Daniel W. Hook; Nick E. Mavromatos; Sarben Sarkar

2014-08-11

2

We reinterpret Landau-Migdal Fermi liquid theory of nuclear matter as an effective chiral field theory with a Fermi surface.\\u000a The effective field theory is formulated in terms of a chiral Lagrangian with its mass and coupling parameters scaling la\\u000a Brown-Rho and with the Landau-Migdal parameters identified as the fixed points of the field theory. We show how this mapping\\u000a works

Mannque Rho

2001-01-01

3

New Lagrangian Formalism for Infinite-Component Field Theories

The infinite-component wave equation (?muLmu-M)varphi=0, whose fields are an infinite sum of (12k, 12k) representations of the Lorentz group, is shown to be invariant under a set of gauge transformations of the second kind. This invariance leads us to consider a new class of second-order Lagrangians which are invariant under these gauge transformations. The Lagrangians are a generalization to the

Alan Chodos; Fred Cooper

1971-01-01

4

Generalization of the extended Lagrangian formalism on a field theory and applications

Formalism of extended Lagrangian represents a systematic procedure to look for the local symmetries of a given Lagrangian action. In this work, the formalism is discussed and applied to a field theory. We describe it in detail for a field theory with first-class constraints present in the Hamiltonian formulation. The method is illustrated on examples of electrodynamics, Yang-Mills field, and nonlinear sigma model.

Deriglazov, A. A.; Rizzuti, B. F. [Departamento de Matematica, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil) and Departamento de Fisica, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

2011-06-15

5

We reinterpret Landau-Migdal Fermi-liquid theory of nuclear matter as an effective chiral field theory with a Fermi surface. The effective field theory is formulated in terms of a chiral Lagrangian with its mass and coupling parameters scaling a la Brown-Rho and with the Landau- Migdal parameters identified as the fixed points of the field theory. We show how this mapping

Mannque Rhoa

6

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To illustrate that a relativistic field theory need not be manifestly covariant, Lorentz-invariant Lagrangian densities are constructed that yield the equation satisfied by an interacting (two-component) Sakata-Taketani spin-0 field. Six types of external field couplings are considered, two scalars, two vectors, an antisymmetric second-rank tensor, and a symmetric second-rank tensor, with the results specialized to electromagnetic interactions. For either of the two second-rank couplings, the equation is found to describe noncausal wave propagation, a property that is apparent from the dependence of the coefficients of the space derivatives on the external field; in contrast, the noncausality of the corresponding manifestly covariant Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau spin-0 equation is not so obvious. The possibilities for generalizing the results to higher spin theories involving only the essential 2(2J + 1) components for a particle with a definite spin J and mass m are discussed in considerable detail.

Guertin, R. F.; Wilson, T. L.

1977-01-01

7

Grassmann-graded Lagrangian theory of even and odd variables

Graded Lagrangian formalism in terms of a Grassmann-graded variational bicomplex on graded manifolds is developed in a very general setting. This formalism provides the comprehensive description of reducible degenerate Lagrangian systems, characterized by hierarchies of non-trivial higher-order Noether identities and gauge symmetries. This is a general case of classical field theory and Lagrangian non-relativistic mechanics.

G. Sardanashvily

2012-06-12

8

The recursion relation in Lagrangian perturbation theory

We derive a recursion relation in the framework of Lagrangian perturbation theory, appropriate for studying the inhomogeneities of the large scale structure of the universe. We use the fact that the perturbative expansion of the matter density contrast is in one-to-one correspondence with standard perturbation theory (SPT) at any order. This correspondence has been recently shown to be valid up to fourth order for a non-relativistic, irrotational and dust-like component. Assuming it to be valid at arbitrary (higher) order, we express the Lagrangian displacement field in terms of the perturbative kernels of SPT, which are itself given by their own and well-known recursion relation. We argue that the Lagrangian solution always contains more non-linear information in comparison with the SPT solution, (mainly) if the non-perturbative density contrast is restored after the displacement field is obtained.

Rampf, Cornelius, E-mail: rampf@physik.rwth-aachen.de [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

2012-12-01

9

On the universality of linear Lagrangians for gravitational field

For a large class of purely metric, metric--affine, and purely affine theories of gravitation with nonlinear Lagrangians, it is proved that the theory is equivalent to the standard Einstein theory of gravitation interacting with additional matter fields.

Jakubiec, A.; Kijowski, J.

1989-05-01

10

P- and T-Violating Lagrangians in Chiral Effective Field Theory and Nuclear Electric Dipole Moments

A scheme to derive hadronic interactions induced by effective multi-quark terms is presented within the framework of chiral effective field theory. It is employed to work out the list of parity- and time-reversal-symmetry-violating hadronic interactions that are relevant for the computation of nuclear contributions to the electric dipole moments of the hydrogen-2, helium-3 and hydrogen-3 nuclei. We also derive the scattering and Faddeev equations required to compute electromagnetic form factors in general and electric dipole moments in particular.

J. Bsaisou; Ulf-G. Meißner; A. Nogga; A. Wirzba

2014-12-17

11

Lagrangian formalism for tensor fields

The Lagrangian formalism for tensor fields over differentiable manifolds with contravariant and covariant affine connections (whose components differ not only by sign) and metrics [$(\\bar{L}_n,g)$-spaces] is considered. The functional variation and the Lie variation of a Lagrangian density, depending on components of tensor fields (with finite rank) and their first and second covariant derivatives are established. A variation operator is determined and the corollaries of its commutation relations with the covariant and the Lie differential operators are found. The canonical (common) method of Lagrangians with partial derivatives (MLPD) and the method of Lagrangians with covariant derivatives (MLCD) are outlined. They differ from each other by the commutation relations the variation operator has to obey with the covariant and the Lie differential operator. The canonical and covariant Euler-Lagrange equations are found as well as their corresponding $(\\bar{L}_n,g)$-spaces. The energy-momentum tensors are considered on the basis of the Lie variation and the covariant Noether identities.

S. Manoff

2000-07-21

12

Covariant Noncommutative Field Theory

The covariant approach to noncommutative field and gauge theories is revisited. In the process the formalism is applied to field theories invariant under diffeomorphisms. Local differentiable forms are defined in this context. The lagrangian and hamiltonian formalism is consistently introduced.

Estrada-Jimenez, S. [Licenciaturas en Fisica y en Matematicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Chiapas Calle 4a Ote. Nte. 1428, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Garcia-Compean, H. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN P.O. Box 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F., Mexico and Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Monterrey Via del Conocimiento 201, Parque de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica (PIIT) Autopista nueva al Aeropuerto km 9.5, Lote 1, Manzana 29, cp. 66600 Apodaca Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Obregon, O. [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato P.O. Box E-143, 37150 Leon Gto. (Mexico); Ramirez, C. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, P.O. Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

2008-07-02

13

We investigate the late-time cosmological behaviour of scalar-tensor theories with a universal multiplicative coupling between the scalar field and the matter Lagrangian in the matter era. This class of theory encompasses the case of the massless string dilaton (see Damour and Polyakov, General Relativity and Gravitation, 26, 1171) as well as a theory with an intrinsic decoupling mechanism in the solar system (see Minazzoli and Hees, Phys. Rev. D 88, 041504). The cosmological evolution is studied in the General Relativity limit justified by solar system constraints on the gravitation theory. The behaviour of these cosmological evolutions are then compared to two types of observations: the constraints on temporal variations of the constants of Nature and the distance-luminosity measurements. In particular, the non-minimal coupling implies that the distance-luminosity relation is modified compared to General Relativity. Theories producing a cosmological behaviour in agreement with these observations are identified.

Olivier Minazzoli; Aurélien Hees

2014-07-15

14

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the late-time cosmological behavior of scalar-tensor theories with a universal multiplicative coupling between the scalar field and the matter Lagrangian in the matter era. This class of theory encompasses the case of the massless string dilaton [see Damour and Polyakov, General Relativity and Gravitation 26, 1171 (1994)] as well as a theory with an intrinsic decoupling mechanism in the solar system [see Minazzoli and Hees, Phys. Rev. D 88, 041504 (2013)]. The cosmological evolution is studied in the general relativity limit justified by solar system constraints on the gravitation theory. The behavior of these cosmological evolutions are then compared to two types of observations: the constraints on temporal variations of the constants of nature and the distance-luminosity measurements. In particular, the nonminimal coupling implies that the distance-luminosity relation is modified compared to general relativity. Theories producing a cosmological behavior in agreement with these observations are identified.

Minazzoli, Olivier; Hees, Aurélien

2014-07-01

15

In this communication, we present a class of Brans-Dicke-like theories with a universal coupling between the scalar field and the matter Lagrangian. We show this class of theories naturally exhibits a decoupling mechanism between the scalar field and matter. As a consequence, this coupling leads to almost the same phenomenology as general relativity in the Solar System: the trajectories of massive bodies and the light propagation differ from general relativity only at the second post-Newtonian order. Deviations from general relativity are beyond present detection capabilities. However, this class of theories predicts a deviation of the gravitational redshift at a level detectable by the future ACES and STE/QUEST missions.

Olivier Minazzoli; Aurélien Hees

2013-08-13

16

Computation of Lagrangian Coherent Structures from their Variational Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a computational algorithm for detecting hyperbolic Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) from a recently developed variational theory [1]. In contrast to earlier approaches to LCS, our algorithm is based on exact mathematical theorems that render LCS as smooth parametrized curves, i.e., trajectories of an associated ordinary differential equation. The algorithm also filters out LCS candidates that are pure artifacts of high shear. We demonstrate the algorithm on two-dimensional flow models and on an experimentally measured turbulent velocity field. [1] G. Haller, A variational theory of hyperbolic Lagrangian Coherent Structures, Physica D, 240 (2011) 574-598

Farazmand, M.; Mathur, M.; Haller, G.

2011-12-01

17

Computation of Lagrangian Coherent Structures from their Variational Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a computational algorithm for detecting hyperbolic Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) from a recently developed variational theory [1]. In contrast to earlier approaches to LCS, our algorithm is based on exact mathematical theorems that render LCS as smooth parametrized curves, i.e., trajectories of an associated ordinary differential equation. The algorithm also filters out LCS candidates that are pure artifacts of high shear. We demonstrate the algorithm on two-dimensional flow models and on an experimentally measured turbulent velocity field.[4pt] [1] G. Haller, A variational theory of hyperbolic Lagrangian Coherent Structures, Physica D 240 (2011) 574-598

Farazmand, Mohammad; Mathur, Manikandan; Haller, George

2011-11-01

18

The main fundamental principles characterizing the vacuum field structure are formulated and the modeling of the related vacuum medium and charged point particle dynamics by means of devised field theoretic tools are analyzed. The work is devoted to studying the vacuum structure, special relativity, electrodynamics of interacting charged point particles and quantum mechanics, and is a continuation of \\cite{BPT,BRT1}. Based on the vacuum field theory no-geometry approach, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian reformulation of some alternative classical electrodynamics models is devised. The Dirac type quantization procedure, based on the canonical Hamiltonian formulation, is developed for some alternative electrodynamics models. Within an approach developed a possibility of the combined description both of electrodynamics and gravity is analyzed.

Nikolai N. Bogolubov, Jr.; Anatoliy K. Prykarpatsky

2008-10-21

19

Lagrangian reconstruction of cosmic velocity fields

We discuss a Lagrangian reconstruction method of the velocity field from galaxy redshift catalog that takes its root in the Euler equation. This results in a ``functional'' of the velocity field which must be minimized. This is helped by an algorithm solving the minimization of cost-flow problems. The results obtained by applying this method to cosmological problems are shown and boundary effects happening in real observational cases are then discussed. Finally, a statistical model of the errors made by the reconstruction method is proposed.

G. Lavaux

2008-01-28

20

Reconstructing baryon oscillations: A Lagrangian theory perspective

Recently Eisenstein and collaborators introduced a method to 'reconstruct' the linear power spectrum from a nonlinearly evolved galaxy distribution in order to improve precision in measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations. We reformulate this method within the Lagrangian picture of structure formation, to better understand what such a method does, and what the resulting power spectra are. We show that reconstruction does not reproduce the linear density field, at second order. We however show that it does reduce the damping of the oscillations due to nonlinear structure formation, explaining the improvements seen in simulations. Our results suggest that the reconstructed power spectrum is potentially better modeled as the sum of three different power spectra, each dominating over different wavelength ranges and with different nonlinear damping terms. Finally, we also show that reconstruction reduces the mode-coupling term in the power spectrum, explaining why miscalibrations of the acoustic scale are reduced when one considers the reconstructed power spectrum.

Padmanabhan, Nikhil [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); White, Martin [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Cohn, J. D. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, California, 94720 (United States)

2009-03-15

21

Vacuum birefringence from the effective Lagrangian of the electromagnetic field

The propagation of a linearly polarized laser beam in the external transverse magnetic field is studied. We explore the effective Lagrangian of the electromagnetic field. With the help of the effective Lagrangian, Stokes parameters, induced ellipticity, and the angular rotation of the polarization plane of the beam are evaluated. Ellipticity measured in the PVLAS experiment allows us to obtain the relation between two parameters in the effective Lagrangian.

Kruglov, S. I. [University of Toronto at Scarborough, Physical and Environmental Sciences Department, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada)

2007-06-01

22

Topics in low-dimensional field theory

Conformal field theory is a natural tool for understanding two- dimensional critical systems. This work presents results in the lagrangian approach to conformal field theory. The first sections are chiefly about a particular class of field theories called coset constructions and the last part is an exposition of the connection between two-dimensional conformal theory and a three-dimensional gauge theory whose lagrangian is the Chern-Simons density.

Crescimanno, M.J.

1991-04-30

23

String perturbation theory and effective Lagrangians

We isolate logarithmic divergences from bosonic string amplitudes on a disc. These divergences are compared with 'tadpole' divergences in the effective field theory with a cosmological term, which also contains an effective potential for the dilation. Also, corrections to ..beta..-functions are compared with variations of the effective action. In both cases we find an inconsistency between the two. This is a serious problem which could undermine our ability to remove divergences from the bosonic string.

Klebanov, I.

1987-09-01

24

Scaling of chiral Lagrangians and Landau Fermi liquid theory for dense hadronic matter

We discuss the Fermi-liquid properties of hadronic matter derived from a chiral Lagrangian field theory in which Brown-Rho (BR) scaling is incorporated. We identify the BR scaling as a contribution to Landau's Fermi-liquid fixed-point quasiparticle parameter from ``heavy'' isoscalar meson degrees of freedom that are integrated out from a low-energy effective Lagrangian. We show that for the vector (convection) current,

Bengt Friman; Mannque Rho; Chaejun Song

1999-01-01

25

Renormalization and quantum field theory

The aim of this paper is to describe how to use regularization and renormalization to construct a perturbative quantum field theory from a Lagrangian. We first define renormalizations and Feynman measures, and show that although there need not exist a canonical Feynman measure, there is a canonical orbit of Feynman measures under renormalization. We then construct a perturbative quantum field theory from a Lagrangian and a Feynman measure, and show that it satisfies perturbative analogues of the Wightman axioms, extended to allow time-ordered composite operators over curved spacetimes.

R. E. Borcherds

2011-03-09

26

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the conditions of the electromagnetic potentials for systems with electric and magnetic charges and the Lagrangian theory with these potentials. The constructed Lagrangian function is valid for obtaining the field equations and the extended Lorentz force for dyonic charges for both relativistic particles in vacuum and non-relativistic entities in solids. In a second part, with the one-body Hamiltonian of independent particles in external fields, we explore some dual properties of the dyonic system under external fields. We analyze the possible diamagnetic (and 'diaelectric') response of magnetic monopoles under a weak and constant electromagnetic field and the theory of Landau levels in the case of magnetic charges under strong electromagnetic constant fields.

Costa-Quintana, J.; López-Aguilar, F.

2012-08-01

27

Cosmological structure formation with augmented Lagrangian perturbation theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new fast and efficient approach to model structure formation with augmented Lagrangian perturbation theory (ALPT). Our method is based on splitting the displacement field into a long- and a short-range component. The long-range component is computed by second-order LPT (2LPT). This approximation contains a tidal non-local and non-linear term. Unfortunately, 2LPT fails on small scales due to severe shell crossing and a crude quadratic behaviour in the low-density regime. The spherical collapse (SC) approximation has been recently reported to correct for both effects by adding an ideal collapse truncation. However, this approach fails to reproduce the structures on large scales where it is significantly less correlated with the N-body result than 2LPT or linear LPT (the Zel'dovich approximation). We propose to combine both approximations using for the short-range displacement field the SC solution. A Gaussian filter with a smoothing radius rS is used to separate between both regimes. We use the result of 25 dark-matter-only N-body simulations to benchmark at z = 0 the different approximations: first-, second-, third-order LPT, SC and our novel combined ALPT model. This comparison demonstrates that our method improves previous approximations at all scales showing ˜25 and ˜75 per cent higher correlation than 2LPT with the N-body solution at k = 1 and 2 h Mpc-1, respectively. We conduct a parameter study to determine the optimal range of smoothing radii and find that the maximum correlation is achieved with rS = 4-5 h-1 Mpc. This structure formation approach could be used for various purposes, such as setting-up initial conditions for N-body simulations, generating mock galaxy catalogues, cosmic web analysis or for reconstructions of the primordial density fluctuations.

Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Heß, Steffen

2013-08-01

28

Quantum noncanonical field theory: Symmetries and interaction

The symmetry properties of a proposal to go beyond relativistic quantum field theory based on a modification of the commutation relations of fields are identified. Poincare invariance in an auxiliary spacetime is found in the Lagrangian version of the path integral formulation. This invariance is contrasted with the idea of doubly (or deformed) special relativity. This analysis is then used to go from the free theory of a complex field to an interacting field theory.

Carmona, J. M.; Cortes, J. L.; Indurain, J.; Mazon, D. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain)

2009-11-15

29

Augmented Lagrangian formulation of orbital-free density functional theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an Augmented Lagrangian formulation and its real-space implementation for non-periodic Orbital-Free Density Functional Theory (OF-DFT) calculations. In particular, we rewrite the constrained minimization problem of OF-DFT as a sequence of minimization problems without any constraint, thereby making it amenable to powerful unconstrained optimization algorithms. Further, we develop a parallel implementation of this approach for the Thomas-Fermi-von Weizsacker (TFW) kinetic energy functional in the framework of higher-order finite-differences and the conjugate gradient method. With this implementation, we establish that the Augmented Lagrangian approach is highly competitive compared to the penalty and Lagrange multiplier methods. Additionally, we show that higher-order finite-differences represent a computationally efficient discretization for performing OF-DFT simulations. Overall, we demonstrate that the proposed formulation and implementation are both efficient and robust by studying selected examples, including systems consisting of thousands of atoms. We validate the accuracy of the computed energies and forces by comparing them with those obtained by existing plane-wave methods.

Suryanarayana, Phanish; Phanish, Deepa

2014-10-01

30

Infinite class of PT-symmetric theories from one timelike Liouville Lagrangian.

Logarithmic timelike Liouville quantum field theory has a generalized PT invariance, where T is the time-reversal operator and P stands for an S-duality reflection of the Liouville field ?. In Euclidean space, the Lagrangian of such a theory L=1/2(??)^{2}-ig?exp(ia?) is analyzed using the techniques of PT-symmetric quantum theory. It is shown that L defines an infinite number of unitarily inequivalent sectors of the theory labeled by the integer n. In one-dimensional space (quantum mechanics), the energy spectrum is calculated in the semiclassical limit and the mth energy level in the nth sector is given by E_{m,n}?(m+1/2)^{2}a^{2}/(16n^{2}). PMID:25526116

Bender, Carl M; Hook, Daniel W; Mavromatos, Nick E; Sarkar, Sarben

2014-12-01

31

Holography and defect conformal field theories

We develop both the gravity and field theory sides of the Karch-Randall conjecture that the near-horizon description of a certain D5-D3 brane configuration in string theory, realized as AdS5×S5 bisected by an AdS4×S2 ``brane,'' is dual to N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in R4 coupled to an R3 defect. We propose a complete Lagrangian for the field theory dual, a novel

Oliver Dewolfe; Daniel Z. Freedman; Hirosi Ooguri

2002-01-01

32

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface for students; Preface for instructors; Acknowledgements; Part I. Spin Zero: 1. Attempts at relativistic quantum mechanics; 2. Lorentz invariance; 3. Canonical quantization of scalar fields; 4. The spin-statistics theorem; 5. The LSZ reduction formula; 6. Path integrals in quantum mechanics; 7. The path integral for the harmonic oscillator; 8. The path integral for free field theory; 9. The path integral for interacting field theory; 10. Scattering amplitudes and the Feynman rules; 11. Cross sections and decay rates; 12. Dimensional analysis with ?=c=1; 13. The Lehmann-Källén form; 14. Loop corrections to the propagator; 15. The one-loop correction in Lehmann-Källén form; 16. Loop corrections to the vertex; 17. Other 1PI vertices; 18. Higher-order corrections and renormalizability; 19. Perturbation theory to all orders; 20. Two-particle elastic scattering at one loop; 21. The quantum action; 22. Continuous symmetries and conserved currents; 23. Discrete symmetries: P, T, C, and Z; 24. Nonabelian symmetries; 25. Unstable particles and resonances; 26. Infrared divergences; 27. Other renormalization schemes; 28. The renormalization group; 29. Effective field theory; 30. Spontaneous symmetry breaking; 31. Broken symmetry and loop corrections; 32. Spontaneous breaking of continuous symmetries; Part II. Spin One Half: 33. Representations of the Lorentz Group; 34. Left- and right-handed spinor fields; 35. Manipulating spinor indices; 36. Lagrangians for spinor fields; 37. Canonical quantization of spinor fields I; 38. Spinor technology; 39. Canonical quantization of spinor fields II; 40. Parity, time reversal, and charge conjugation; 41. LSZ reduction for spin-one-half particles; 42. The free fermion propagator; 43. The path integral for fermion fields; 44. Formal development of fermionic path integrals; 45. The Feynman rules for Dirac fields; 46. Spin sums; 47. Gamma matrix technology; 48. Spin-averaged cross sections; 49. The Feynman rules for majorana fields; 50. Massless particles and spinor helicity; 51. Loop corrections in Yukawa theory; 52. Beta functions in Yukawa theory; 53. Functional determinants; Part III. Spin One: 54. Maxwell's equations; 55. Electrodynamics in coulomb gauge; 56. LSZ reduction for photons; 57. The path integral for photons; 58. Spinor electrodynamics; 59. Scattering in spinor electrodynamics; 60. Spinor helicity for spinor electrodynamics; 61. Scalar electrodynamics; 62. Loop corrections in spinor electrodynamics; 63. The vertex function in spinor electrodynamics; 64. The magnetic moment of the electron; 65. Loop corrections in scalar electrodynamics; 66. Beta functions in quantum electrodynamics; 67. Ward identities in quantum electrodynamics I; 68. Ward identities in quantum electrodynamics II; 69. Nonabelian gauge theory; 70. Group representations; 71. The path integral for nonabelian gauge theory; 72. The Feynman rules for nonabelian gauge theory; 73. The beta function for nonabelian gauge theory; 74. BRST symmetry; 75. Chiral gauge theories and anomalies; 76. Anomalies in global symmetries; 77. Anomalies and the path integral for fermions; 78. Background field gauge; 79. Gervais-Neveu gauge; 80. The Feynman rules for N x N matrix fields; 81. Scattering in quantum chromodynamics; 82. Wilson loops, lattice theory, and confinement; 83. Chiral symmetry breaking; 84. Spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetries; 85. Spontaneously broken abelian gauge theory; 86. Spontaneously broken nonabelian gauge theory; 87. The standard model: Gauge and Higgs sector; 88. The standard model: Lepton sector; 89. The standard model: Quark sector; 90. Electroweak interactions of hadrons; 91. Neutrino masses; 92. Solitons and monopoles; 93. Instantons and theta vacua; 94. Quarks and theta vacua; 95. Supersymmetry; 96. The minimal supersymmetric standard model; 97. Grand unification; Bibliography.

Srednicki, Mark

2007-01-01

33

Non-linear corrections to Lagrangians predicted by causal set theory: Flat space bosonic toy model

A while ago a proposal have been made regarding Klein Gordon and Maxwell Lagrangians for causal set theory. These Lagrangian densities are based on the statistical analysis of the behavior of field on a sample of points taken throughout some "small" region of spacetime. However, in order for that sample to be statistically reliable, a lower bound on the size of that region needs to be imposed. This results in "unwanted contributions" from higher order derivatives to the Lagrangian density, as well as non-trivial curvature effects on the latter. It turns out that both gravitational and non-gravitational effects end up being highly non-linear. In the previous papers we were focused on leading order terms, which allowed us to neglect these nonlinearities. We would now like to go to the next order and investigate them. In the current paper we will exclusively focus on the effects of higher order derivatives in the flat-space toy model. The gravitational effects will be studied in another paper which is currently in preparation. Both papers are restricted to bosonic fields, although the issue probably generalizes to fermions once Grassmann numbers are dealt with in appropriate manner.

Roman Sverdlov

2012-01-27

34

Modelling non-linear large scale structure using Lagrangian perturbation theory re-expansions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lagrangian perturbation theory (LPT) has been widely used to model the nonlinear growth of large scale structure analytically. However, the LPT series converges only for a finite time. In recent work, the authors have examined this issue in great detail, and proposed a new algorithm (called LPT re-expansions), to extend the domain of validity of the series. This article outlines the main ideas of the algorithm, first developed for the spherical top-hat system, and later generalized to deal with inhomogeneous initial conditions arising from random fields.

Nadkarni-Ghosh, S.; Chernoff, D. F.

2014-03-01

35

Quantum field theory and the Standard Model

In this lecture we discuss the basic ingredients for gauge invariant quantum field theories. We give an introduction to the elements of quantum field theory, to the construction of the basic Lagrangian for a general gauge theory, and proceed with the formulation of QCD and the electroweak Standard Model with electroweak symmetry breaking via the Higgs mechanism. The phenomenology of W and Z bosons is discussed and implications for the Higgs boson are derived from comparison with experimental precision data.

W. Hollik

2010-12-17

36

Lagrangian Theory for 3D Vortex Sheets with Axial or Helical Symmetry

equations for flow due to a vortex sheet. A "Lagrangian" description of the motion of S is given in termsLagrangian Theory for 3D Vortex Sheets with Axial or Helical Symmetry Russel E. Caflisch and Xiao a three-dimensional vortex sheet in inviscid, incompressible flow which is irrotational away from

Caflisch, Russel

37

The Novikov theory for symplectic cohomology and exact Lagrangian embeddings

Given an exact symplectic manifold, can we find topological constraints to the existence of exact Lagrangian submanifolds? I developed an approach using symplectic cohomology which provides such conditions for exact ...

Ritter, Alexander F. (Alexander Friedrich)

2009-01-01

38

Cosmological status of Lagrangian theory of density perturbations

We show that hydrodynamical and field approaches in theory of cosmological scalar perturbations are equivalent for a single medium. We also give relations between notations introduced by V. Lukash, J. Bardeen, J. Bardeen et al. and G. Chibisov and V. Mukhanov.

V. Strokov

2006-12-14

39

About non standard Lagrangians in cosmology

A review of non standard Lagrangians present in modern cosmological models will be considered. Well known example of non standard Lagrangian is Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) type Lagrangian for tachyon field. Another type of non standard Lagrangian under consideration contains scalar field which describes open p-adic string tachyon and is called p-adic string theory Lagrangian. We will investigate homogenous cases of both DBI and p-adic fields and obtain Lagrangians of the standard type which have the same equations of motions as aforementioned non standard one.

Dimitrijevic, Dragoljub D.; Milosevic, Milan [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Nis, Visegradska 33, P.O. Box 224, 18000 Nis (Serbia)

2012-08-17

40

Effective Field Theory and Heavy Quark Physics

These notes are based on five lectures presented at the 2004 Theoretical Advanced Study Institute (TASI) on ``Physics in D>=4''. After a brief motivation of flavor physics, they provide a pedagogical introduction to effective field theory, the effective weak Lagrangian, and the technology of renormalization-group improved perturbation theory. These general methods are then applied in the context of heavy-quarks physics, introducing the concepts of heavy-quark and soft-collinear effective theory.

Matthias Neubert

2005-12-17

41

Electromagnetic Field Theory BO THIDÃ? UPSILON BOOKS #12;#12;ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY #12;#12;Electromagnetic Field Theory BO THIDÃ? Swedish Institute of Space Physics and Department of Astronomy and Space, Sweden UPSILON BOOKS Â· COMMUNA AB Â· UPPSALA Â· SWEDEN #12;Also available ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY

Hart, Gus

42

This elementary introduction to string field theory highlights the features and the limitations of this approach to quantum gravity as it is currently understood. String field theory is a formulation of string theory as a field theory in space-time with an infinite number of massive fields. Although existing constructions of string field theory require expanding around a fixed choice of space-time background, the theory is in principle background-independent, in the sense that different backgrounds can be realized as different field configurations in the theory. String field theory is the only string formalism developed so far which, in principle, has the potential to systematically address questions involving multiple asymptotically distinct string backgrounds. Thus, although it is not yet well defined as a quantum theory, string field theory may eventually be helpful for understanding questions related to cosmology in string theory.

Washington Taylor

2006-06-28

43

Modified Ostrogradski formulation of field theory

We present a method for the Hamiltonian formulation of field theories that are based on Lagrangians containing second derivatives. The new feature of our formalism is that all four partial derivatives of the field variables are initially considered as independent fields, in contrast to the conventional Ostrogradski method, where only the velocity is turned into an independent field variable. The consistency of the formalism is demonstrated by simple unconstrained and constrained second order scalar field theories. Its application to General Relativity is briefly outlined.

M. Leclerc

2007-02-27

44

Quantum Field Theory, Revised Edition

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum Field Theory Revised Edition F. Mandl and G. Shaw, Department of Theoretical Physics, The Schuster Laboratory, The University, Manchester, UK When this book first appeared in 1984, only a handful of W± and Z° bosons had been observed and the experimental investigation of high energy electro-weak interactions was in its infancy. Nowadays, W± bosons and especially Z° bosons can be produced by the thousand and the study of their properties is a precise science. We have revised the text of the later chapters to incorporate these developments and discuss their implications. We have also taken this opportunity to update the references throughout and to make some improvements in the treatment of dimen-sional regularization. Finally, we have corrected some minor errors and are grateful to various people for pointing these out. This book is designed as a short and simple introduction to quantum field theory for students beginning research in theoretical and experimental physics. The three main objectives are to explain the basic physics and formalism of quantum field theory, to make the reader fully proficient in theory calculations using Feynman diagrams, and to introduce the reader to gauge theories, which play such a central role in elementary particle physics. The theory is applied to quantum electrodynamics (QED), where quantum field theory had its early triumphs, and to weak interactions where the standard electro-weak theory has had many impressive successes. The treatment is based on the canonical quantization method, because readers will be familiar with this, because it brings out lucidly the connection between invariance and conservation laws, and because it leads directly to the Feynman diagram techniques which are so important in many branches of physics. In order to help inexperienced research students grasp the meaning of the theory and learn to handle it confidently, the mathematical formalism is developed from first principles, its physical interpretation is stressed at every point and its use is illustrated in detailed applications. After studying this book, the reader should be able to calculate any process in lowest order of perturbation theory for both QED and the standard electro-weak theory, and in addition, calculate lowest order radiative corrections in QED using the powerful technique of dimensional regularization. Contents: Preface; 1 Photons and electromagnetic field; 2 Lagrangian field theory; 3 The Klein--Gordon field; 4 The Dirac field; 5 Photons: covariant theory; 6 The S-matrix expansion; 7 Feynman diagrams and rules in QED; 8 QED processes in lowest order; 9 Radiative corrections; 10 Regularization; 11 Weak interactions; 13 Spontaneous symmetry breaking; 14 The standard electro-weak theory; Appendix A The Dirac equation; Appendix B Feynman rules and formulae for perturbation theory; Index.

Mandl, F.; Shaw, G.

1994-01-01

45

Families of N=2 field theories

This is the first article in the collection of reviews "Exact results on N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories", ed. J. Teschner. It describes how large families of field theories with N=2 supersymmetry can be described by means of Lagrangian formulations, or by compactification from the six-dimensional theory with (2,0) supersymmetry on spaces of the form $M^4 \\times C$, with C being a Riemann surface. The class of theories that can be obtained in this way is called class $\\cal S$. This description allows us to relate key aspects of the four-dimensional physics of class $\\cal S$ theories to geometric structures on C.

Davide Gaiotto

2014-12-22

46

In recent years it has become apparent that topological field theories (TFTs) are likely to be the best candidates for the truly fundamental physical theory. Supersymmetry, for instance, can be motivated and expressed in terms of TFTs. Here we build a simple example of TFT using Morse theory and Massey product. Action (invariant under supersymmetric transformations) is constructed and relations for correlators in this theory are obtained. While constructing this theory a theorem about the connection between Euler characteristic of a manifold and the sum of indices of critical points is proved for arbitrary dimension of the target space.

P. Koroteev; A. V. Zayakin

2005-08-24

47

The Lagrangian formulation of strong-field quantum electrodynamics in a plasma

The Lagrangian formulation of the scalar and spinor quantum electrodynamics in the presence of strong laser fields in a plasma medium is considered. We include the plasma influence in the free Lagrangian analogously to the “Furry picture” and obtain coupled equations of motion for the plasma particles and for the laser propagation. We demonstrate that the strong-field wave (i.e., the laser) satisfies a massive dispersion relation and obtain self-consistently the effective mass of the laser photons. The Lagrangian formulation derived in this paper is the basis for the cross sections calculation of quantum processes taking place in the presence of a plasma.

Raicher, Erez, E-mail: erez.raicher@mail.huji.ac.il [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel) [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Department of Applied Physics, Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Eliezer, Shalom [Department of Applied Physics, Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne 81800 (Israel) [Department of Applied Physics, Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Nuclear Fusion Institute, Polytechnic University of Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Zigler, Arie [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)] [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

2014-05-15

48

We review recent progress in operator algebraic approach to con- formal quantum field theory. Our emphasis is on use of representation theory in classification theory. This is based on a series of joint works with R. Longo.

Yasuyuki Kawahigashi

49

On background-independent open-string field theory

A framework for background-independent open-string field theory is proposed. The approach involves using the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, in a way suggested by recent developments in closed-string field theory, to implicitly define a gauge-invariant Lagrangian in a hypothetical ``space of all open-string world-sheet theories.'' It is built into the formalism that classical solutions of the string field theory are Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin- (BRST-) invariant

Edward Witten

1992-01-01

50

On exact tachyon potential in open string field theory

In these notes we revisit the tachyon lagrangian in the open string field theory using background independent approach of Witten from 1992. We claim that the tree level lagrangian (up to second order in derivatives and modulo some class of field redefinitions) is given by L = e-T(partialT)2+(1+T)e-T. Upon obvious change of variables this leads to the potential energy -phi2log

Anton A. Gerasimov; Samson L. Shatashvili

2000-01-01

51

Logarithmic Conformal Field Theory

#12;#12;Aspects of Logarithmic Conformal Field Theory Der FakultÂ¨at fÂ¨ur Mathematik und Physik der various aspects of logarithmic conformal field theories (LCFTs). After recalling some important definitions and relations of (logarithmic) conformal field theories we study possible extensions of conformal

Flohr, Michael

52

Irrational conformal field theory

This is a review of irrational conformal field theory, which includes rational conformal field theory as a small subspace. Central topics of the review include the Virasoro master equation, its solutions and the dynamics of irrational conformal field theory. Discussion of the dynamics includes the generalized Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations on the sphere, the corresponding heat-like systems on the torus and the

M. B. Halpern; E. Kiritsis; N. A. Obers; K. Clubok

1996-01-01

53

This is a brief review of vacuum string field theory, a new approach to open string field theory based on the stable vacuum of the tachyon. We discuss the sliver state explaining its role as a projector in the space of half-string functionals. We review the construction of D-brane solutions in vacuum string field theory, both in the algebraic approach

Leonardo Rastelli; Ashoke Sen; Barton Zwiebach

2001-01-01

54

Hamiltonian magnetohydrodynamics: Lagrangian, Eulerian, and dynamically accessible stability—Theory

Stability conditions of magnetized plasma flows are obtained by exploiting the Hamiltonian structure of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations and, in particular, by using three kinds of energy principles. First, the Lagrangian variable energy principle is described and sufficient stability conditions are presented. Next, plasma flows are described in terms of Eulerian variables and the noncanonical Hamiltonian formulation of MHD is exploited. For symmetric equilibria, the energy-Casimir principle is expanded to second order and sufficient conditions for stability to symmetric perturbation are obtained. Then, dynamically accessible variations, i.e., variations that explicitly preserve invariants of the system, are introduced and the respective energy principle is considered. General criteria for stability are obtained, along with comparisons between the three different approaches.

Andreussi, T. [Alta S.p.A., Pisa 56121 (Italy)] [Alta S.p.A., Pisa 56121 (Italy); Morrison, P. J. [Institute for Fusion Studies and Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1060 (United States)] [Institute for Fusion Studies and Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1060 (United States); Pegoraro, F. [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi, Pisa 56127 (Italy)] [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi, Pisa 56127 (Italy)

2013-09-15

55

Testing higher-order Lagrangian perturbation theory against numerical simulation. 1: Pancake models

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results showing an improvement of the accuracy of perturbation theory as applied to cosmological structure formation for a useful range of quasi-linear scales. The Lagrangian theory of gravitational instability of an Einstein-de Sitter dust cosmogony investigated and solved up to the third order is compared with numerical simulations. In this paper we study the dynamics of pancake models as a first step. In previous work the accuracy of several analytical approximations for the modeling of large-scale structure in the mildly non-linear regime was analyzed in the same way, allowing for direct comparison of the accuracy of various approximations. In particular, the Zel'dovich approximation (hereafter ZA) as a subclass of the first-order Lagrangian perturbation solutions was found to provide an excellent approximation to the density field in the mildly non-linear regime (i.e. up to a linear r.m.s. density contrast of sigma is approximately 2). The performance of ZA in hierarchical clustering models can be greatly improved by truncating the initial power spectrum (smoothing the initial data). We here explore whether this approximation can be further improved with higher-order corrections in the displacement mapping from homogeneity. We study a single pancake model (truncated power-spectrum with power-spectrum with power-index n = -1) using cross-correlation statistics employed in previous work. We found that for all statistical methods used the higher-order corrections improve the results obtained for the first-order solution up to the stage when sigma (linear theory) is approximately 1. While this improvement can be seen for all spatial scales, later stages retain this feature only above a certain scale which is increasing with time. However, third-order is not much improvement over second-order at any stage. The total breakdown of the perturbation approach is observed at the stage, where sigma (linear theory) is approximately 2, which corresponds to the onset of hierarchical clustering. This success is found at a considerable higher non-linearity than is usual for perturbation theory. Whether a truncation of the initial power-spectrum in hierarchical models retains this improvement will be analyzed in a forthcoming work.

Buchert, T.; Melott, A. L.; Weiss, A. G.

1993-01-01

56

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algebraic mistake in the rendering of the Energy Casimir stability condition for a symmetric magnetohydrodynamics plasma configuration with flows made in the article Andreussi et al. "Hamiltonian magnetohydrodynamics: Lagrangian, Eulerian, and dynamically accessible stability—Theory," Phys. Plasmas 20, 092104 (2013) is corrected.

Andreussi, T.; Morrison, P. J.; Pegoraro, F.

2015-03-01

57

Field theory of monochromatic optical beams. I

We study monochromatic, scalar solutions of the Helmholtz and paraxial wave equations from a field-theoretic point of view. We introduce appropriate time-independent Lagrangian densities for which the Euler-Lagrange equations reproduces either Helmholtz and paraxial wave equations with the $z$-coordinate, associated with the main direction of propagation of the fields, playing the same role of time in standard Lagrangian theory. For both Helmholtz and paraxial scalar fields, we calculate the canonical energy-momentum tensor and determine the continuity equations relating "energy" and "momentum" of the fields. Eventually, the reduction of the Helmholtz wave equation to a useful first-order Dirac form, is presented. This work sheds some light on the intriguing and not so acknowledged connections between angular spectrum representation of optical wavefields, cosmological models and physics of black holes.

Andrea Aiello

2014-12-02

58

Quantum Field Theory and Representation Theory

Quantum Field Theory and Representation Theory Peter Woit woit@math.columbia.edu Department of Mathematics Columbia University Quantum Field Theory and Representation Theory Â p.1 #12;Outline of the talk Â· Quantum Mechanics and Representation Theory: Some History Quantum Field Theory and Representation Theory

Woit, Peter

59

Applied Conformal Field Theory

These lectures consisted of an elementary introduction to conformal field theory, with some applications to statistical mechanical systems, and fewer to string theory. Contents: 1. Conformal theories in d dimensions 2. Conformal theories in 2 dimensions 3. The central charge and the Virasoro algebra 4. Kac determinant and unitarity 5. Identication of m = 3 with the critical Ising model

Paul Ginsparg

1988-01-01

60

Tulczyjew Triples in Higher Derivative Field Theory

The geometrical structure known as Tulczyjew triple has been used with success in analytical mechanics and first order field theory to describe a wide range of physical systems including Lagrangian/Hamiltonian systems with constraints and/or sources, or with singular Lagrangian. Starting from the first principles of the variational calculus we derive Tulczyjew triples for classical field theories of arbitrary high order, i.e. depending on arbitrary high derivatives of the fields. A first triple appears as the result of considering higher order theories as first order ones with configurations being constrained to be holonomic jets. A second triple is obtained after a reduction procedure aimed at getting rid of nonphysical degrees of freedom. This picture we present is fully covariant and complete: it contains both Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, in particular the Euler-Lagrange equations. Notice that, the required Geometry of jet bundles is affine (as opposed to the linear Geometry of the tangent bundle). Accordingly, the notions of affine duality and affine phase space play a distinguished role in our picture. In particular the Tulczyjew triples in this paper consist of morphisms of double affine-vector bundles which, moreover, preserve suitable presymplectic structures.

Katarzyna Grabowska; Luca Vitagliano

2015-02-20

61

Transport induced by mean-eddy interaction: I. Theory, and relation to Lagrangian lobe dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we develop a method for the estimation of Transport Induced by the Mean-Eddy interaction (TIME) in two-dimensional unsteady flows. The method is based on the dynamical systems approach to fluid transport and can be viewed as a hybrid combination of Lagrangian and Eulerian methods. The (Eulerian) boundaries across which we consider (Lagrangian) transport are kinematically defined by appropriately chosen streamlines of the mean flow. By evaluating the impact of the mean-eddy interaction on transport, the TIME method can be used as a diagnostic tool for transport processes that occur during a specified time interval along a specified boundary segment. We introduce two types of TIME functions: one that quantifies the accumulation of flow properties and another that measures the displacement of the transport geometry. The spatial geometry of transport is described by the so-called pseudo-lobes, and temporal evolution of transport by their dynamics. In the case where the TIME functions are evaluated along a separatrix, the pseudo-lobes have a relationship to the lobes of Lagrangian transport theory. In fact, one of the TIME functions is identical to the Melnikov function that is used to measure the distance, at leading order in a small parameter, between the two invariant manifolds that define the Lagrangian lobes. We contrast the similarities and differences between the TIME and Lagrangian lobe dynamics in detail. An application of the TIME method is carried out for inter-gyre transport in the wind-driven oceanic circulation model and a comparison with the Lagrangian transport theory is made.

Ide, Kayo; Wiggins, Stephen

2015-02-01

62

Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism for discontinuous fluid and gravitational field

The barotropic ideal fluid with step and delta-function discontinuities coupled to Einstein's gravity is studied. The discontinuities represent star surfaces and thin shells; only non-intersecting discontinuity hypersurfaces are considered. No symmetry (like eg. the spherical symmetry) is assumed. The symplectic structure as well as the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian variational principles for the system are written down. The dynamics is described completely by the fluid variables and the metric on the fixed background manifold. The Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian are given in two forms: the volume form, which is identical to that corresponding to the smooth system, but employs distributions, and the surface form, which is a sum of volume and surface integrals and employs only smooth variables. The surface form is completely four- or three-covariant (unlike the volume form). The spacelike surfaces of time foliations can have a cusp at the surface of discontinuity. Geometrical meaning of the surface terms in the Hamiltonian is given. Some of the constraint functions that result from the shell Hamiltonian cannot be smeared so as to become differentiable functions on the (unconstrained) phase space. Generalization of the formulas to more general fluid is straifgtforward.

P. Hajicek; J. Kijowski

1997-07-09

63

The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian functions describing average motion of a relativistic particle under the action of intensive high-frequency electromagnetic radiation are obtained. In weak, low-frequency background fields, such a particle on average drifts with an effective, relativistically invariant mass, which depends on the intensity of the electromagnetic field.

I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch; G.M. Fraiman

2003-02-06

64

Superspace conformal field theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conformal sigma models and Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type-I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.

Quella, Thomas; Schomerus, Volker

2013-12-01

65

Superspace conformal field theory

Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.

Thomas Quella; Volker Schomerus

2014-09-23

66

Boundary Conformal Field Theory

Boundary conformal field theory (BCFT) is simply the study of conformal field theory (CFT) in domains with a boundary. It gains its significance because, in some ways, it is mathematically simpler: the algebraic and geometric structures of CFT appear in a more straightforward manner; and because it has important applications: in string theory in the physics of open strings and D-branes, and in condensed matter physics in boundary critical behavior and quantum impurity models. In this article, however, I describe the basic ideas from the point of view of quantum field theory, without regard to particular applications nor to any deeper mathematical formulations.

John Cardy

2008-02-20

67

Axiomatic Conformal Field Theory

: A new rigourous approach to conformal field theory is presented. The basic objects are families of complex-valued amplitudes,\\u000a which define a meromorphic conformal field theory (or chiral algebra) and which lead naturally to the definition of topological\\u000a vector spaces, between which vertex operators act as continuous operators. In fact, in order to develop the theory, Möbius\\u000a invariance rather than full

Matthias R. Gaberdiel; Peter Goddard

2000-01-01

68

On vector field reconstructions for semi-Lagrangian transport methods on geodesic staggered grids

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse several vector reconstruction methods, based on the knowledge of only specific pointwise vector components, and extend their use to non-structured polygonal C-grids on the sphere. The emphasis is on the reconstruction of the vector field at arbitrary locations on the sphere, as required by semi-Lagrangian transport schemes. This is done by first reconstructing the vector field to fixed locations, followed by interpolations with generalized barycentric coordinates. We derive a hybrid scheme, combining the efficiency of Perot's method with the accuracy of a least square scheme. This method is second order accurate, and has shown to be competitive and computationally efficient. We analysed the vector reconstruction methods within a semi-Lagrangian transport method, and demonstrated that second order accurate reconstructions are enough to fulfil the requirements for second order accurate semi-Lagrangian methods on icosahedral C-grids.

Peixoto, Pedro S.; Barros, Saulo R. M.

2014-09-01

69

Attractive Lagrangians for noncanonical inflation

Treating inflation as an effective theory, we expect the effective Lagrangian to contain higher-dimensional kinetic operators suppressed by the scale of UV physics. When these operators are powers of the inflaton kinetic energy, the scalar field can support a period of noncanonical inflation which is smoothly connected to the usual slow-roll inflation. We show how to construct noncanonical inflationary solutions to the equations of motion for the first time, and demonstrate that noncanonical inflation is an attractor in phase space for all small- and large-field models. We identify some sufficient conditions on the functional form of the Lagrangian that lead to successful noncanonical inflation since not every Lagrangian with higher-dimensional kinetic operators can support noncanonical inflation. This extends the class of known viable Lagrangians and excludes many Lagrangians which do not work.

Franche, Paul; Underwood, Bret; Wissanji, Alisha [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Gwyn, Rhiannon [Department of Physics, King's College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

2010-06-15

70

Lagrangians with electric and magnetic charges of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories

General Lagrangians are constructed for N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories in four space-time dimensions involving gauge groups with (non-abelian) electric and magnetic charges. The charges induce a scalar potential, which, when the charges are regarded as spurionic quantities, is invariant under electric/magnetic duality. The resulting theories are especially relevant for supergravity, but details of the extension to local supersymmetry will be discussed elsewhere. The results include the coupling to hypermultiplets. Without the latter, it is demonstrated how an off-shell representation can be constructed based on vector and tensor supermultiplets.

Mathijs de Vroome; Bernard de Wit

2007-07-18

71

Nonrational conformal field theory

We discuss the problem to develop a mathematical theory of a certain class of nonrational conformal field theories (CFT) which contain the unitary CFT. A variant of the concept of a modular functor is proposed that appears to be suitable for such CFT.

J. Teschner

2008-03-06

72

Understanding conformal field theory through parafermions and Chern Simons theory

Conformal field theories comprise a vast class of exactly solvable two dimensional quantum field theories. Conformal theories with an enlarged symmetry group, the current algebra symmetry, axe a key ingredient to possible string compactification models. The following work explores a Lagrangian approach to these theories. In the first part of this thesis, a large class of conformal theories, the so-called coset models, are derived semi-classically from a gauged version Of the Wess-Zumino-Witten functional. A non-local field transformation to the parafermionic field description is employed in the quantization procedure. Classically, these parafermionic fields satisfy non-trivial Poisson brackets, providing insight into the fractional spin nature of the conformal theory. The W-algebra symmetry is shown to appear naturally in this approach. In the second part of this thesis, the connection between the fusion algebra structure of Wess-Zumino-Witten models and the quantization of the Chern-Simons action on the torus is made explicit. The modular properties of the conformal model are also derived in this context, giving a natural demonstration of the Verlinde conjecture. The effects of background gauge fields and monopoles are also discussed.

Hotes, S.A.

1992-11-19

73

On p-Adic Sector of Open Scalar Strings and Zeta Field Theory

We consider construction of Lagrangians which may be suitable for description of p-adic sector of an open scalar string. Such Lagrangians have their origin in Lagrangian for a single p-adic string and they contain the Riemann zeta function with the d'Alembertian in its argument. However, investigation of the field theory with Riemann zeta function is interesting in itself as well. We present a brief review and some new results.

Dragovich, Branko [Institute of Physics, Pregrevica 118, Zemun, P.O. Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

2010-06-17

74

A two-field modified Lagrangian formulation for robust simulations of extrinsic cohesive zone models

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the robust implementation of a cohesive zone model based on extrinsic cohesive laws (i.e. laws involving an infinite initial stiffness). To this end, a two-field Lagrangian weak formulation in which cohesive tractions are chosen as the field variables along the crack's path is presented. Unfortunately, this formulation cannot model the infinite compliance of the broken elements accurately, and no simple criterion can be defined to determine the loading-unloading change of state at the integration points of the cohesive elements. Therefore, a modified Lagrangian formulation using a fictitious cohesive traction instead of the classical cohesive traction as the field variable is proposed. Thanks to this change of variable, the cohesive law becomes an increasing function of the equivalent displacement jump, which eliminates the problems mentioned previously. The ability of the proposed formulations to simulate fracture accurately and without field oscillations is investigated through three numerical test examples.

Cazes, F.; Coret, M.; Combescure, A.

2013-06-01

75

Free field theory at null infinity and white noise calculus: a BMS invariant dynamical system

In the context of asymptotically flat spacetimes we exploit techniques proper either of white noise analysis either of dynamical systems in order to develop the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian approach to a BMS invariant field theory at null infinity.

Claudio Dappiaggi

2006-07-25

76

Bosonic String and String Field Theory: a solution using the holomorphic representation

In this paper we show that the holomorphic representation is appropriate for description in a consistent way string and string field theories, when the considered number of component fields of the string field is finite. A new Lagrangian for the closed string is obtained and shown to be equivalent to Nambu-Goto's Lagrangian. We give the notion of anti-string, evaluate the propagator for the string field, and calculate the convolution of two of them.

C. G. Bollini; M. C. Rocca

2009-08-20

77

We study field theories in two spacetime dimensions invariant under a chiral scaling symmetry that acts only on right-movers. The local symmetries include one copy of the Virasoro algebra and a U(1) current algebra. This differs from the 2d conformal group, but in some respects is equally powerful in constraining the theory. In particular, the symmetries on a torus lead to modular covariance of the partition function, which is used to derive a universal formula for the asymptotic density of states. For an application we turn to the holographic description of black holes in quantum gravity, motivated by the fact that the symmetries in the near horizon geometry of any extremal black hole are identical to those of a 2d field theory with chiral scaling. We consider two examples: black holes in warped AdS_3 in topologically massive gravity, and in string theory. In both cases, the density of states in the 2d field theory reproduces the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of black holes in the gravity theory.

Stephane Detournay; Thomas Hartman; Diego M. Hofman

2012-10-15

78

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study field theories in two spacetime dimensions invariant under a chiral scaling symmetry that acts only on right-movers. The local symmetries include one copy of the Virasoro algebra and a U(1) current algebra. This differs from the two-dimensional conformal group but in some respects is equally powerful in constraining the theory. In particular, the symmetries on a torus lead to modular covariance of the partition function, which is used to derive a universal formula for the asymptotic density of states. For an application we turn to the holographic description of black holes in quantum gravity, motivated by the fact that the symmetries in the near-horizon geometry of any extremal black hole are identical to those of a two-dimensional field theory with chiral scaling. We consider two examples: black holes in warped AdS3 in topologically massive gravity and in string theory. In both cases, the density of states in the two-dimensional field theory reproduces the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of black holes in the gravity theory.

Detournay, Stéphane; Hartman, Thomas; Hofman, Diego M.

2012-12-01

79

Algebraic Quantum Field Theory

Algebraic quantum field theory provides a general, mathematically precise description of the structure of quantum field theories, and then draws out consequences of this structure by means of various mathematical tools -- the theory of operator algebras, category theory, etc.. Given the rigor and generality of AQFT, it is a particularly apt tool for studying the foundations of QFT. This paper is a survey of AQFT, with an orientation towards foundational topics. In addition to covering the basics of the theory, we discuss issues related to nonlocality, the particle concept, the field concept, and inequivalent representations. We also provide a detailed account of the analysis of superselection rules by S. Doplicher, R. Haag, and J. E. Roberts (DHR); and we give an alternative proof of Doplicher and Roberts' reconstruction of fields and gauge group from the category of physical representations of the observable algebra. The latter is based on unpublished ideas due to Roberts and the abstract duality theorem for symmetric tensor *-categories, a self-contained proof of which is given in the appendix.

Hans Halvorson; Michael Mueger

2006-02-14

80

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a tool for daily validation of modeled or satellite derived velocity fields in the southeastern region of the Mediterranean. Within this tool, spatial patterns of Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) derived from the velocity field are compared to distribution patterns of satellite derived surface chlorophyll. This comparison is advantageous to pollution spread predictions since it compares the location of fronts in passive tracer spread. The suggested methodology is based on Lagrangian tools that were shown to be very effective in reconstructing the specific effect of horizontal stirring on individual oceanic patterns. Lagrangian techniques are based, in general, on the identification of the velocity field characteristics along particle trajectories. They are well suited for diagnosing properties of tracers like chlorophyll, since they allow to quantify the dynamical properties experienced by a parcel of water during its motion. The Lagrangian diagnostics performed in this tool are based on analyzing the spatial structure of LCS from calculation of finite size Lyapunov exponents (FSLE). These LCS induce in advected tracer fields filament patterns with typical length in the range of 10 - 100 km and lifetime in the range of days/weeks (though it can be much longer if the patterns are associated to long-lived and energetic mesoscale features with low temporal variability). Since LCS represent transport barriers and tracer boundaries, they separate between water bodies with possibly different physical - biogeochemical properties. Daily analyses ( available online at http://isramar.ocean.org.il/isramar2009/cosem/fsle.aspx ) of LCS is performed on AVISO altimetry derived velocity fields and on operational numerical circulation forecasts, which are produced as part of the South Eastern Levantine Israeli Prediction System (SELIPS). The LCS analyses are then placed atop maps of surface Chlorophyll concentrations, which is provided within the MyOcean project. A subjective scoring criteria for the fit quality is formulated and implemented for a year of validating circulation estimates in the southeastern Levantine.

Goldman, Ron; Efrati, Shai; Lehahn, Yoav; Gertman, Isaac; Heifetz, Eyal

2014-05-01

81

We prove the existence of the Bogoliubov S(g) operator for the (: ?4 :)2 quantum field theory for coupling functions g of compact support in space and time. The construction is nonperturbative and relies on a theorem of Kisynski. It implies almost automatically the properties of unitarity and causality for disjoint supports in the time variable.

Walter F. Wreszinski; Luiz A. Manzoni; Oscar Bolinaa

82

Nonrelativistic conformal field theories

We study representations of the Schrödinger algebra in terms of operators in nonrelativistic conformal field theories. We prove a correspondence between primary operators and eigenstates of few-body systems in a harmonic potential. Using the correspondence we compute analytically the energy of fermions at unitarity in a harmonic potential near two and four spatial dimensions. We also compute the energy of

Yusuke Nishida; Dam T. Son

2007-01-01

83

CONFORMAL INVARIANT QUANTUM FIELD THEORY CONFORMAL INVARIANT QUANTUM FIELD THEORY

CONFORMAL INVARIANT QUANTUM FIELD THEORY CONFORMAL INVARIANT QUANTUM FIELD THEORY G. MACK Institut invariant quantum field theory (QFT). Such a theory, if it exists, has a good chance of being relevant will address ourselves to the question of the construction and properties of a non-trivial exactly conformal

Boyer, Edmond

84

Based on investigations of the fundamental properties of the generalized Einstein Lagrangian density for a gravitational system, the theoretical foundations of the modified Einstein field equations and the Lorentz and Levi-Civita conservation laws are systematically studied. The theory of cosmology developed on the basis of these equations and laws is analyzed in detail. Some new properties and new effects of the cosmos are deduced; these new properties and new effects could be tested via future experiments and observations.

Fang-Pei Chen

2007-03-10

85

Twenty-first Century Lattice Gauge Theory: Results from the QCD Lagrangian

Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) reduces the strong interactions, in all their variety, to an elegant nonabelian gauge theory. It clearly and elegantly explains hadrons at short distances, which has led to its universal acceptance. Since its advent, however, many of its long-distance, emergent properties have been believed to be true, without having been demonstrated to be true. This paper reviews a variety of results in this regime that have been established with lattice gauge theory, directly from the QCD Lagrangian. This body of work sheds light on the origin of hadron masses, its interplay with dynamical symmetry breaking, as well as on other intriguing features such as the phase structure of QCD. In addition, nonperturbative QCD is quantitatively important to many aspects of particle physics (especially the quark flavor sector), nuclear physics, and astrophysics. This review also surveys some of the most interesting connections to those subjects.

Kronfeld, Andreas S.; /Fermilab

2012-03-01

86

Hybrid conformal field theories

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a class of (2,2) superconformal field theories obtained by fibering a Landau-Ginzburg orbifold CFT over a compact Kähler base manifold. While such models are naturally obtained as phases in a gauged linear sigma model, our construction is independent of such an embedding. We discuss the general properties of such theories and present a technique to study the massless spectrum of the associated heterotic compactification. We test the validity of our method by applying it to hybrid phases of linear models and comparing spectra among the phases.

Bertolini, Marco; Melnikov, Ilarion V.; Plesser, M. Ronen

2014-05-01

87

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Minimal Multiscale Lagrangian Mapping procedure developed in the context of neutral fluid turbulence is a simple method for generating synthetic vector fields. Using a sequence of low-pass filtered fields, fluid particles are displaced at their rms speed for some scale-dependent time interval, and then interpolated back to a regular grid. Fields produced in this way are seen to possess certain properties of real turbulence. This paper extends the technique to plasmas by taking into account the coupling between the velocity and magnetic fields. We examine several possible applications to plasma systems. One use is as initial conditions for simulations, wherein these synthetic fields may efficiently produce a strongly intermittent cascade. The intermittency properties of the synthetic fields are also compared with those of the solar wind. Finally, studies of cosmic ray transport and modulation in the test particle approximation may benefit from improved realism in synthetic fields produced in this way.

Subedi, P.; Chhiber, R.; Tessein, J. A.; Wan, M.; Matthaeus, W. H.

2014-12-01

88

Algebraic Coset Conformal Field Theories

: All unitary Rational Conformal Field Theories (RCFT) are conjectured to be related to unitary coset Conformal Field Theories,\\u000a i.e., gauged Wess–Zumino–Witten (WZW) models with compact gauge groups. In this paper we use subfactor theory and ideas of\\u000a algebraic quantum field theory to approach coset Conformal Field Theories. Two conjectures are formulated and their consequences\\u000a are discussed. Some results are presented

Feng Xu

2000-01-01

89

Nonrelativistic conformal field theories

We study representations of the Schr\\"odinger algebra in terms of operators in nonrelativistic conformal field theories. We prove a correspondence between primary operators and eigenstates of few-body systems in a harmonic potential. Using the correspondence we compute analytically the energy of fermions at unitarity in a harmonic potential near two and four spatial dimensions. We also compute the energy of anyons in a harmonic potential near the bosonic and fermionic limits.

Yusuke Nishida; Dam T. Son

2007-10-31

90

Nonrelativistic conformal field theories

We study representations of the Schroedinger algebra in terms of operators in nonrelativistic conformal field theories. We prove a correspondence between primary operators and eigenstates of few-body systems in a harmonic potential. Using the correspondence we compute analytically the energy of fermions at unitarity in a harmonic potential near two and four spatial dimensions. We also compute the energy of anyons in a harmonic potential near the bosonic and fermionic limits.

Nishida, Yusuke; Son, Dam T. [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1550 (United States)

2007-10-15

91

The relativistic generalization of the Newtonian Lagrangian perturbation theory is investigated. In previous works, the first-order trace solutions that are generated by the spatially projected gravitoelectric part of the Weyl tensor were given together with extensions and applications for accessing the nonperturbative regime. We here furnish construction rules to obtain from Newtonian solutions the gravitoelectric class of relativistic solutions, for which we give the complete perturbation and solution schemes at any order of the perturbations. By construction, these schemes generalize the complete hierarchy of solutions of the Newtonian Lagrangian perturbation theory.

Alles, Alexandre; Roumi, Fosca Al; Wiegand, Alexander

2015-01-01

92

On Lagrangian approach to self-dual gauge fields in spacetime of nontrivial topology

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the Lagrangian description of chiral bosons, p-form gauge fields with (anti-)self-dual gauge field strengths, in D = 2 p + 2 dimensional spacetime of non-trivial topology. We show that the manifestly Lorentz and diffeomorphism invariant Pasti-Sorokin-Tonin (PST) approach is consistent and produces the (anti-)self-duality equation also in topologically nontrivial spacetime. We discuss in what circumstances the nontrivial topology makes difference between two disconnected, da-timelike and da-spacelike branches of the PST system, the gauge fixed version of which are described by not manifestly invariant Henneaux-Teitelboim (HT) and Perry-Schwarz (PS) actions, respectively.

Bandos, Igor

2014-08-01

93

Vlasov-Poisson in 1D for initially cold systems: post-collapse Lagrangian perturbation theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study analytically the collapse of an initially smooth, cold, self-gravitating collisionless system in one dimension. The system is described as a central 'S' shape in phase-space surrounded by a nearly stationary halo acting locally like a harmonic background on the S. To resolve the dynamics of the S under its self-gravity and under the influence of the halo, we introduce a novel approach using post-collapse Lagrangian perturbation theory. This approach allows us to follow the evolution of the system between successive crossing times and to describe in an iterative way the interplay between the central S and the halo. Our theoretical predictions are checked against measurements in entropy conserving numerical simulations based on the waterbag method. While our post-collapse Lagrangian approach does not allow us to compute rigorously the long-term behaviour of the system, i.e. after many crossing times, it explains the close to power-law behaviour of the projected density observed in numerical simulations. Pushing the model at late time suggests that the system could build at some point a very small flat core, but this is very speculative. This analysis shows that understanding the dynamics of initially cold systems requires a fine-grained approach for a correct description of their very central part. The analyses performed here can certainly be extended to spherical symmetry.

Colombi, Stéphane

2015-01-01

94

The authors propose a new route to vibrational Raman intensities based on analytical derivatives of a fully variational polarizability Lagrangian. The Lagrangian is constructed to recover the negative frequency-dependent polarizability of time-dependent Hartree-Fock or adiabatic (hybrid) density functional theory at its stationary point. By virtue of the variational principle, first-order polarizability derivatives can be computed without using derivative molecular orbital coefficients. As a result, the intensities of all Raman-active modes within the double harmonic approximation are obtained at approximately the same cost as the frequency-dependent polarizability itself. This corresponds to a reduction of the scaling of computational expense by one power of the system size compared to a force constant calculation and to previous implementations. Since the Raman intensity calculation is independent of the harmonic force constant calculation more, computationally demanding density functionals or basis sets may be used to compute the polarizability gradient without much affecting the total time required to compute a Raman spectrum. As illustrated for fullerene C60, the present approach considerably extends the domain of molecular vibrational Raman calculations at the (hybrid) density functional level. The accuracy of absolute and relative Raman intensities of benzene obtained using the PBE0 hybrid functional is assessed by comparison with experiment. PMID:17552747

Rappoport, Dmitrij; Furche, Filipp

2007-05-28

95

Noncommutative Field Theories and (Super)String Field Theories

In this lecture notes we explain and discuss some ideas concerning noncommutative ge- ometry in general, as well as noncommutative field theories and string field theories. We consider noncommutative quantum field theories emphasizing an issue of their renormaliz- ability and the UV\\/IR mixing. Sen's conjectures on open string tachyon condensation and their application to the D-brane physics have led to

A. A. Giryavets; A. S. Kosheleva; P. B. Medvedeve

96

Reverse engineering quantum field theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach to the foundations of quantum theory is advertised that proceeds by "reverse engineering" quantum field theory. As a concrete instance of this approach, the general boundary formulation of quantum theory is outlined.

Oeckl, Robert

2012-12-01

97

Strings and Unified Field Theory

It is argued that string theory predicts unified field theory rather than general relativity coupled to matter fields. In unified field theory all the objects are geometrical, for strings the Kalb-Ramond matter field is identical to the asymmetric part of the metric except that the fields contribute to different sides of the field equations. The dilaton is related to the object of non-metricity.

Mark D. Roberts

2006-11-15

98

Towards a double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds

In a previous paper, we have shown that the geometry of double field theory has a natural interpretation on flat para-Kähler manifolds. In this paper, we show that the same geometric constructions can be made on any para-Hermitian manifold. The field is interpreted as a compatible (pseudo-)Riemannian metric. The tangent bundle of the manifold has a natural, metric-compatible bracket that extends the C-bracket of double field theory. In the para-Kähler case, this bracket is equal to the sum of the Courant brackets of the two Lagrangian foliations of the manifold. Then, we define a canonical connection and an action of the field that correspond to similar objects of double field theory. Another section is devoted to the Marsden-Weinstein reduction in double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds. Finally, we give examples of fields on some well-known para-Hermitian manifolds.

Vaisman, Izu [Department of Mathematics, University of Haifa, Haifa (Israel)] [Department of Mathematics, University of Haifa, Haifa (Israel)

2013-12-15

99

Towards a double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous paper, we have shown that the geometry of double field theory has a natural interpretation on flat para-Kähler manifolds. In this paper, we show that the same geometric constructions can be made on any para-Hermitian manifold. The field is interpreted as a compatible (pseudo-)Riemannian metric. The tangent bundle of the manifold has a natural, metric-compatible bracket that extends the C-bracket of double field theory. In the para-Kähler case, this bracket is equal to the sum of the Courant brackets of the two Lagrangian foliations of the manifold. Then, we define a canonical connection and an action of the field that correspond to similar objects of double field theory. Another section is devoted to the Marsden-Weinstein reduction in double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds. Finally, we give examples of fields on some well-known para-Hermitian manifolds.

Vaisman, Izu

2013-12-01

100

We describe some features of the recently constructed "Puff Field Theory," and present arguments in favor of it being a field theory decoupled from gravity. We construct its supergravity dual and calculate the entropy of this theory in the limit of large 't Hooft coupling. We also determine the leading irrelevant operator that governs its deviation from N=4 super Yang-Mills theory.

Ganor, Ori J; Jue, Sharon; Kim, Bom Soo; Ndirango, Anthony; 10.1088/1126-6708/2007/08/035

2008-01-01

101

We describe some features of the recently constructed "Puff Field Theory," and present arguments in favor of it being a field theory decoupled from gravity. We construct its supergravity dual and calculate the entropy of this theory in the limit of large 't Hooft coupling. We also determine the leading irrelevant operator that governs its deviation from N=4 super Yang-Mills theory.

Ori J. Ganor; Akikazu Hashimoto; Sharon Jue; Bom Soo Kim; Anthony Ndirango

2007-02-05

102

Mimetic Theory for Cell-Centered Lagrangian Finite Volume Formulation on General Unstructured Grids

A finite volume cell-centered Lagrangian scheme for solving large deformation problems is constructed based on the hypo-elastic model and using the mimetic theory. Rigorous analysis in the context of gas and solid dynamics, and arbitrary polygonal meshes, is presented to demonstrate the ability of cell-centered schemes in mimicking the continuum properties and principles at the discrete level. A new mimetic formulation based gradient evaluation technique and physics-based, frame independent and symmetry preserving slope limiters are proposed. Furthermore, a physically consistent dissipation model is employed which is both robust and inexpensive to implement. The cell-centered scheme along with these additional new features are applied to solve solids undergoing elasto-plastic deformation.

Sambasivan, Shiv Kumar [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burton, Donald E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Christon, Mark A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-19

103

Mean-field theory for turbulent transport of a passive scalar e.g., particles and gases is discussed orders due to the nonlocal nature of passive scalar transport in a random velocity field with a finite . The important role of the statistics of the field of Lagrangian trajectories in turbulent transport of a passive

Elperin, Tov

104

CONFORMAL FIELD THEORY Krzysztof Gawedzki

LECTURES on CONFORMAL FIELD THEORY Krzysztof GawÂ¸edzki C.N.R.S., I.H.E.S., 91440 BuresÂsurÂYvette, France Introduction Over the last decade and a half, conformal field theory (CFT) has been one of the theory of conformally invariant quantum fields in two spaceÂtime dimensions. The twoÂdimensional CFT

105

Sewing conformal field theories I

There is a well-defined prescription for sewing two Riemann surfaces. When a conformal field theory is defined on the original surfaces, how to extend the theory to the sewn surface becomes a problem. In this paper we treat the problem field theoretically, present a prescription for sewing, and check its consistency. We also show that any conformal field theory admits

Hidenori Sonoda

1988-01-01

106

Logarithmic conformal field theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conformal field theory (CFT) has proven to be one of the richest and deepest subjects of modern theoretical and mathematical physics research, especially as regards statistical mechanics and string theory. It has also stimulated an enormous amount of activity in mathematics, shaping and building bridges between seemingly disparate fields through the study of vertex operator algebras, a (partial) axiomatisation of a chiral CFT. One can add to this that the successes of CFT, particularly when applied to statistical lattice models, have also served as an inspiration for mathematicians to develop entirely new fields: the Schramm-Loewner evolution and Smirnov's discrete complex analysis being notable examples. When the energy operator fails to be diagonalisable on the quantum state space, the CFT is said to be logarithmic. Consequently, a logarithmic CFT is one whose quantum space of states is constructed from a collection of representations which includes reducible but indecomposable ones. This qualifier arises because of the consequence that certain correlation functions will possess logarithmic singularities, something that contrasts with the familiar case of power law singularities. While such logarithmic singularities and reducible representations were noted by Rozansky and Saleur in their study of the U (1|1) Wess-Zumino-Witten model in 1992, the link between the non-diagonalisability of the energy operator and logarithmic singularities in correlators is usually ascribed to Gurarie's 1993 article (his paper also contains the first usage of the term 'logarithmic conformal field theory'). The class of CFTs that were under control at this time was quite small. In particular, an enormous amount of work from the statistical mechanics and string theory communities had produced a fairly detailed understanding of the (so-called) rational CFTs. However, physicists from both camps were well aware that applications from many diverse fields required significantly more complicated non-rational theories. Examples include critical percolation, supersymmetric string backgrounds, disordered electronic systems, sandpile models describing avalanche processes, and so on. In each case, the non-rationality and non-unitarity of the CFT suggested that a more general theoretical framework was needed. Driven by the desire to better understand these applications, the mid-1990s saw significant theoretical advances aiming to generalise the constructs of rational CFT to a more general class. In 1994, Nahm introduced an algorithm for computing the fusion product of representations which was significantly generalised two years later by Gaberdiel and Kausch who applied it to explicitly construct (chiral) representations upon which the energy operator acts non-diagonalisably. Their work made it clear that underlying the physically relevant correlation functions are classes of reducible but indecomposable representations that can be investigated mathematically to the benefit of applications. In another direction, Flohr had meanwhile initiated the study of modular properties of the characters of logarithmic CFTs, a topic which had already evoked much mathematical interest in the rational case. Since these seminal theoretical papers appeared, the field has undergone rapid development, both theoretically and with regard to applications. Logarithmic CFTs are now known to describe non-local observables in the scaling limit of critical lattice models, for example percolation and polymers, and are an integral part of our understanding of quantum strings propagating on supermanifolds. They are also believed to arise as duals of three-dimensional chiral gravity models, fill out hidden sectors in non-rational theories with non-compact target spaces, and describe certain transitions in various incarnations of the quantum Hall effect. Other physical applications range from two-dimensional turbulence and non-equilibrium systems to aspects of the AdS/CFT correspondence and describing supersymmetric sigma models beyond the topological sector. We refer the reader to the

Gainutdinov, Azat; Ridout, David; Runkel, Ingo

2013-12-01

107

Field identification in coset conformal field theories

The fields appearing in G\\/H coset conformal field theories are shown to obey certain relations. These relations, in conjunction with the modular transformations imply a certain identification of fields. The use of these relations and identifications leads to the correct modular invariant spectrum of the theories. The consistency of this spectrum with the operator product algebra is discussed.

Doron Gepner

1989-01-01

108

Electric-Magnetic Duality Invariant Lagrangians

We find general non-linear lagrangians of a U(1) field invariant under electric-magnetic duality. They are characterized by an arbitrary function and go to the Maxwell theory in the weak field limit. We give some explicit examples which are generalizations of the Born-Infeld theory.

Machiko Hatsuda; Kiyoshi Kamimura; Sayaka Sekiya

1999-08-24

109

Theory of Passive Magnetic Field Transport

In recent years, our knowledge of photospheric magnetic fields went through a thorough transformation--nearly unnoticed by dynamo theorists. It is now practically certain that the overwhelming majority of the unsigned magnetic flux crossing the solar surface is in turbulent form (intranetwork and hidden fields). Furthermore, there are now observational indications (supported by theoretical arguments discussed in this paper) that the net polarity imbalance of the turbulent field may give a significant or even dominant contribution to the weak large-scale background magnetic fields outside unipolar network areas. This turbulent magnetic field consists of flux tubes with magnetic fluxes below 1e10 Wb (1e18 Mx). The motion of these thin tubes is dominated by the drag of the surrounding flows, so the transport of this component of the solar magnetic field must fully be determined by the kinematics of the turbulence (i.e. it is "passive"), and it can be described by a one-fluid model like mean-field theory (MFT). This paper reviews the theory of passive magnetic field transport using mostly first (and occasionally higher) order smoothing formalism; the most important transport effects are however also independently derived using Lagrangian analysis for a simple two-component flow model. Solar applications of the theory are also presented. Among some other novel findings it is proposed that the observed unsigned magnetic flux density in the photosphere requires a small-scale dynamo effect operating in the convective zone and that the net polarity imbalance in turbulent (and, in particular, hidden) fields may give a major contribution to the weak large-scale background magnetic fields on the Sun.

Kristof Petrovay

1997-03-25

110

Lorentz symmetric quantum field theory for symplectic fermions

A free quantum field theory with Lorentz symmetry is derived for spin-half symplectic fermions in 2+1 dimensions. In particular, we show that fermionic spin-half fields may be canonically quantized in a free theory with a Klein-Gordon Lagrangian. This theory is shown to have all the required properties of a consistent free quantum field theory, namely, causality, unitarity, adherence to the spin-statistics theorem, CPT symmetry, and the Hermiticity and positive definiteness of the Hamiltonian. The global symmetry of the free theory is Sp(4){approx_equal}SO(5). Possible interacting theories of both the pseudo-Hermitian and Hermitian variety are then examined briefly.

Robinson, Dean J.; Kapit, Eliot; LeClair, Andre [Newman Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States)

2009-11-15

111

Polymer Parametrised Field Theory

Free scalar field theory on 2 dimensional flat spacetime, cast in diffeomorphism invariant guise by treating the inertial coordinates of the spacetime as dynamical variables, is quantized using LQG type `polymer' representations for the matter field and the inertial variables. The quantum constraints are solved via group averaging techniques and, analogous to the case of spatial geometry in LQG, the smooth (flat) spacetime geometry is replaced by a discrete quantum structure. An overcomplete set of Dirac observables, consisting of (a) (exponentials of) the standard free scalar field creation- annihilation modes and (b) canonical transformations corresponding to conformal isometries, are represented as operators on the physical Hilbert space. None of these constructions suffer from any of the `triangulation' dependent choices which arise in treatments of LQG. In contrast to the standard Fock quantization, the non- Fock nature of the representation ensures that the algebra of conformal isometries as well as that of spacetime diffeomorphisms are represented in an anomaly free manner. Semiclassical states can be analysed at the gauge invariant level. It is shown that `physical weaves' necessarily underly such states and that such states display semiclassicality with respect to, at most, a countable subset of the (uncountably large) set of observables of type (a). The model thus offers a fertile testing ground for proposed definitions of quantum dynamics as well as semiclassical states in LQG.

Alok Laddha; Madhavan Varadarajan

2008-05-02

112

Closed conformal vector fields and Lagrangian submanifolds in complex space forms

, topologically equivalent to S1 Ã? Rn-1 and Rn , which can be considered like the Lagrangian version of the tubes Lagrangian examples, except the totally geo- desic ones, do not have parallel mean curvature vector, property

Urbano, Francisco

113

Snapshots of Conformal Field Theory

In snapshots, this exposition introduces conformal field theory, with a focus on those perspectives that are relevant for interpreting superconformal field theory by Calabi-Yau geometry. It includes a detailed discussion of the elliptic genus as an invariant which certain superconformal field theories share with the Calabi-Yau manifolds. K3 theories are (re)viewed as prime examples of superconformal field theories where geometric interpretations are known. A final snapshot addresses the K3-related Mathieu Moonshine phenomena, where a lead role is predicted for the chiral de Rham complex.

Katrin Wendland

2014-04-11

114

Quantum field theory of fluids.

The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around noninteracting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is "freer", in the sense that the noninteracting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree and loop level, we give evidence that a quantum perfect fluid can be consistently formulated as a low-energy, effective field theory. We speculate that the quantum behavior is radically different from both classical fluids and quantum fields. PMID:25763950

Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave

2015-02-20

115

Quantum Field Theory of Fluids

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around noninteracting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is "freer", in the sense that the noninteracting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree and loop level, we give evidence that a quantum perfect fluid can be consistently formulated as a low-energy, effective field theory. We speculate that the quantum behavior is radically different from both classical fluids and quantum fields.

Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave

2015-02-01

116

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chameleons are light scalar fields with remarkable properties. Through the interplay of self-interactions and coupling to matter, chameleon particles have a mass that depends on the ambient matter density. The manifestation of the fifth force mediated by chameleons therefore depends sensitively on their environment, which makes for a rich phenomenology. In this paper, we review two recent results on chameleon phenomenology. The first result a pair of no-go theorems limiting the cosmological impact of chameleons and their generalizations: (i) the range of the chameleon force at cosmological density today can be at most ˜Mpc (ii) the conformal factor relating Einstein- and Jordan-frame scale factors is essentially constant over the last Hubble time. These theorems imply that chameleons have negligible effect on the linear growth of structure, and cannot account for the observed cosmic acceleration except as some form of dark energy. The second result pertains to the quantum stability of chameleon theories. We show how requiring that quantum corrections be small, so as to allow reliable predictions of fifth forces, leads to an upper bound of m < 0.0073(?/10?g?cm-3)1/3 eV for gravitational strength coupling, whereas fifth force experiments place a lower bound of m > 0.0042 eV. An improvement of less than a factor of 2 in the range of fifth force experiments could test all classical chameleon field theories whose quantum corrections are well-controlled and couple to matter with nearly gravitational strength regardless of the specific form of the chameleon potential.

Khoury, Justin

2013-11-01

117

Noncommutative Field Theories and (Super)String Field Theories

In this lecture notes we explain and discuss some ideas concerning\\u000anoncommutative geometry in general, as well as noncommutative field theories\\u000aand string field theories. We consider noncommutative quantum field theories\\u000aemphasizing an issue of their renormalizability and the UV\\/IR mixing. Sen's\\u000aconjectures on open string tachyon condensation and their application to the\\u000aD-brane physics have led to wide investigations

I. Ya. Aref'eva; D. M. Belov; A. A. Giryavets; A. S. Koshelev; P. B. Medvedev

2001-01-01

118

Lagrangian model for the evolution of turbulent magnetic and passive scalar fields

In this Brief Report we present an extension of the recent fluid deformation (RFD) closure introduced by Chevillard and Meneveau [L. Chevillard and C. Meneveau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 174501 (2006)] which was developed for modeling the time evolution of Lagrangian fluctuations in incompressible Navier-Stokes turbulence. We apply the RFD closure to study the evolution of magnetic and passive scalar fluctuations. This comparison is especially interesting since the stretching term for the magnetic field and for the gradient of the passive scalar are similar but differ by a sign such that the effect of stretching and compression by the turbulent velocity field is reversed. Probability density functions (PDFs) of magnetic fluctuations and fluctuations of the gradient of the passive scalar obtained from the RFD closure are compared against PDFs obtained from direct numerical simulations.

Hater, T.; Grauer, R. [Theoretische Physik I, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Homann, H. [Theoretische Physik I, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Laboratoire Cassiopee, Bd. de l'Observatoire, F-06300 Nice (France)

2011-01-15

119

Field Theory of Tachyon Matter

We propose a field theory for describing the tachyon on a brane-antibrane system near the minimum of the potential. This field theory realizes two known properties of the tachyon effective action: (a) absence of plane-wave solutions around the minimum, and (b) exponential fall off of the pressure at late time as the tachyon field evolves from any spatially homogeneous initial

Ashoke Sen

2002-01-01

120

Screening of scalar fields in Dirac-Born-Infeld theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a new screening mechanism which is present in Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI)-like theories. A scalar field with a DBI-like Lagrangian is minimally coupled to matter. In the vicinity of sufficiently dense sources, nonlinearities in the scalar dominate and result in an approximately constant acceleration on a test particle, thereby suppressing the scalar force relative to gravity. Unlike generic P(X) or chameleon theories, screening happens within the regime of validity of the effective field theory thanks to the DBI symmetry. We derive an exact form for the field profile around multiple sources and determine the constraints on the theory parameters from tests of gravity. Perturbations around the spherically-symmetric background propagate superluminally, but we argue for a chronology protection analogous to Galileons. This is the first example of a screening mechanism for which quantum corrections to the theory are under control and exact solutions to cosmological N-body problems can be found.

Burrage, Clare; Khoury, Justin

2014-07-01

121

In The Quantum Theory of Fields, Nobel Laureate Steven Weinberg combines his exceptional physical insight with his gift for clear exposition to provide a self-contained, comprehensive, and up-to-date introduction to quantum field theory. This is a two-volume work. Volume I introduces the foundations of quantum field theory. The development is fresh and logical throughout, with each step carefully motivated by

Steven Weinberg

1995-01-01

122

Nonlinear quantum equations: Classical field theory

An exact classical field theory for nonlinear quantum equations is presented herein. It has been applied recently to a nonlinear Schrödinger equation, and it is shown herein to hold also for a nonlinear generalization of the Klein-Gordon equation. These generalizations were carried by introducing nonlinear terms, characterized by exponents depending on an index q, in such a way that the standard, linear equations, are recovered in the limit q? 1. The main characteristic of this field theory consists on the fact that besides the usual ?(x(vector sign),t), a new field ?(x(vector sign),t) needs to be introduced in the Lagrangian, as well. The field ?(x(vector sign),t), which is defined by means of an additional equation, becomes ?{sup *}(x(vector sign),t) only when q? 1. The solutions for the fields ?(x(vector sign),t) and ?(x(vector sign),t) are found herein, being expressed in terms of a q-plane wave; moreover, both field equations lead to the relation E{sup 2}=p{sup 2}c{sup 2}+m{sup 2}c{sup 4}, for all values of q. The fact that such a classical field theory works well for two very distinct nonlinear quantum equations, namely, the Schrödinger and Klein-Gordon ones, suggests that this procedure should be appropriate for a wider class nonlinear equations. It is shown that the standard global gauge invariance is broken as a consequence of the nonlinearity.

Rego-Monteiro, M. A.; Nobre, F. D. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas and National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)] [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas and National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)

2013-10-15

123

From euclidean field theory to quantum field theory

In order to construct examples for interacting quantum field theory models,\\u000athe methods of euclidean field theory turned out to be powerful tools since\\u000athey make use of the techniques of classical statistical mechanics.\\u000a Starting from an appropriate set of euclidean n-point functions (Schwinger\\u000adistributions), a Wightman theory can be reconstructed by an application of the\\u000afamous Osterwalder-Schrader reconstruction theorem.

Dirk Schlingemann; Theoretische Physik; Erwin Schrodinger

1998-01-01

124

Lagrangian Distributions and Connections in Symplectic Geometry

We discuss the interplay between lagrangian distributions and connections in symplectic geometry, beginning with the traditional case of symplectic manifolds and then passing to the more general context of poly- and multisymplectic structures on fiber bundles, which is relevant for the covariant hamiltonian formulation of classical field theory. In particular, we generalize Weinstein's tubular neighborhood theorem for symplectic manifolds carrying a (simple) lagrangian foliation to this situation. In all cases, the Bott connection, or an appropriately extended version thereof, plays a central role.

Forger, Michael

2012-01-01

125

Modern Classical Electrodynamics and Electromagnetic Radiation - Vacuum Field Theory Aspects

The work is devoted to studying some new classical electrodynamics models of interacting charged point particles and related with them physical aspects. Based on the vacuum field theory no-geometry approach, developed in \\cite{BPT,BPT1}, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian reformulations of some alternative classical electrodynamics models are devised. A problem closely related to the radiation reaction force is analyzed aiming to explain the Wheeler and Feynman reaction radiation mechanism, well known as the absorption radiation theory, and strongly dependent on the Mach type interaction of a charged point particle in an ambient vacuum electromagnetic medium. There are discussed some relationships between this problem and the one derived within the context of the vacuum field theory approach. The R. \\ Feynman's \\textquotedblleft heretical\\textquotedblright\\ approach \\cite{Dy1,Dy2} to deriving the Lorentz force based Maxwell electromagnetic equations is also revisited, its complete legacy is argued both by means of the geometric considerations and its deep relation with the vacuum field theory approach devised before in \\cite{BPT0,BPT1}. \\ Being completely classical, we reanalyze the Feynman's derivation from the classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian points of view \\ and construct its nontrivial \\ relativistic generalization compatible with the mentioned above vacuum field theory approach.

N. N. Bogolubov; A. K. Prykarpatsky

2013-02-16

126

Partial wave expansion and Wightman positivity in conformal field theory

A new method for computing exact conformal partial wave expansions is developed and applied to approach the problem of Hilbert space (Wightman) positivity in a non-perturbative four-dimensional quantum field theory model. The model is based on the assumption of global conformal invariance on compactified Minkowski space. Bilocal fields arising in the harmonic decomposition of the operator product expansion prove to be a powerful instrument in exploring the field content. In particular, in the theory of a field of dimension 4 which has the properties of a (gauge invariant) Lagrangian, the scalar field contribution to the 6-point function of the twist 2 bilocal field is analyzed with the aim to separate the free field part from the nontrivial part.

N. M. Nikolov; K. -H. Rehren; I. T. Todorov

2005-04-29

127

A Lagrangian dynamical theory for the mass function of cosmic structures - II. Statistics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical tools needed to obtain a mass function from realistic collapse-time estimates are presented. Collapse dynamics has been dealt with in Paper I of this series by means of the powerful Lagrangian perturbation theory and the simple ellipsoidal collapse model. The basic quantity considered here is the inverse collapse time F; it is a non-linear functional of the initial potential, with a non-Gaussian distribution. In the case of sharp k-space smoothing, it is demonstrated that the fraction of collapsed mass can be determined by extending to the F process the diffusion formalism introduced by Bond et al. The problem is then reduced to that of a random walk with a moving absorbing barrier, and numerically solved; an accurate analytical fit, valid for small and moderate resolutions, is found. For Gaussian smoothing, the F trajectories are strongly correlated in resolution. In this case, an approximation proposed by Peacock & Heavens can be used to determine the mass functions. Gaussian smoothing is preferred, as it optimizes the performances of dynamical predictions and stabilizes the F trajectories. The relation between resolution and mass is treated at a heuristic level, and the consequences of this approximation are discussed. The resulting mass functions, compared with the classical Press & Schechter one, are shifted toward large masses (confirming the findings of Monaco), and tend to give more intermediate-mass objects at the expense of small-mass objects. However, the small-mass part of the mass function, which depends on uncertain dynamics and is likely to be affected by uncertainties in the resolution-mass relation, is not considered a robust prediction of this theory.

Monaco, Pierluigi

1997-09-01

128

Quantum Field Theory Frank Wilczeky

Quantum Field Theory Frank Wilczeky Institute for Advanced Study, School of Natural Science, Olden Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 I discuss the general principles underlying quantum eld theory, and attempt achieved and prospective. Possible limitations of quantum eld theory are viewed in the light of its history

Wilczek, Frank

129

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In The Quantum Theory of Fields, Nobel Laureate Steven Weinberg combines his exceptional physical insight with his gift for clear exposition to provide a self-contained, comprehensive, and up-to-date introduction to quantum field theory. This is a two-volume work. Volume I introduces the foundations of quantum field theory. The development is fresh and logical throughout, with each step carefully motivated by what has gone before, and emphasizing the reasons why such a theory should describe nature. After a brief historical outline, the book begins anew with the principles about which we are most certain, relativity and quantum mechanics, and the properties of particles that follow from these principles. Quantum field theory emerges from this as a natural consequence. The author presents the classic calculations of quantum electrodynamics in a thoroughly modern way, showing the use of path integrals and dimensional regularization. His account of renormalization theory reflects the changes in our view of quantum field theory since the advent of effective field theories. The book's scope extends beyond quantum electrodynamics to elementary particle physics, and nuclear physics. It contains much original material, and is peppered with examples and insights drawn from the author's experience as a leader of elementary particle research. Problems are included at the end of each chapter. This work will be an invaluable reference for all physicists and mathematicians who use quantum field theory, and it is also appropriate as a textbook for graduate students in this area.

Weinberg, Steven

1995-06-01

130

Gerbes and quantum field theory

The basic mechanism how gerbes arise in quantum field theory is explained; in particular the case of chiral fermions in background fields is treated. The role of of various gauge group extensions (central extensions of loop groups and their generalizations) is also explained, in relation to index theory computation of the Dixmier-Douady class of a gerbe.

Jouko Mickelsson

2006-03-11

131

Naturality in conformal field theory

We discuss constraints on the operator product coefficients in diagonal and nondiagonal rational conformal field theories. Nondiagonal modular invariants always arise from automorphisms of the fusion rule algebra or from extensions of the chiral algebra. Moreover, when the chiral algebra has been maximally extended a strong form of the naturality principle of field theory can be proven for rational conformal

Gregory Moore; Nathan Seiberg

1989-01-01

132

Invariants from classical field theory

We introduce a method that generates invariant functions from perturbative classical field theories depending on external parameters. By applying our methods to several field theories such as Abelian BF, Chern-Simons, and two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory, we obtain, respectively, the linking number for embedded submanifolds in compact varieties, the Gauss' and the second Milnor's invariant for links in S{sup 3}, and invariants under area-preserving diffeomorphisms for configurations of immersed planar curves.

Diaz, Rafael [Grupo de Fisica-Matematica, Universidad Experimental Politecnica de las Fuerzas Armadas, Caracas 1010 (Venezuela); Leal, Lorenzo [Centro de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas 1041-A (Venezuela)

2008-06-15

133

Conformal Field Theory Between Supersymmetry and Indecomposable

Conformal Field Theory Between Supersymmetry and Indecomposable Structures Dissertation zur;Abstract This thesis considers conformal field theory in its supersymmetric extension as well as in its relaxation to logarithmic conformal field theory. Compactification of superstring theory on four

Flohr, Michael

134

Spinons in conformal field theory

We study the su(2) conformal field theory in its spinon description, adapted to the yangian invariance. By evaluating the action of the yangian generators on the primary fields, we find a new connection between this conformal field theory and the Calogero-Sutherland model with su(2) spin. We use this connection to describe how the spinons are the quasi-particles spanning the irreducible

D. Bernard; V. Pasquier; D. Serban

1994-01-01

135

Weak-field approximation of effective gravitational theory with local Galilean invariance

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the weak-field approximation of locally Galilean invariant gravitational theories with general covariance in a (4 + 1)-dimensional Galilean framework. The additional degrees of freedom allow us to obtain Poisson, diffusion, and Schrödinger equations for the fluctuation field. An advantage of this approach over the usual (3 + 1)-dimensional General Relativity is that it allows us to choose an ansatz for the fluctuation field that can accommodate the field equations of the Lagrangian approach to MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) known as AQUAdratic Lagrangian (AQUAL). We investigate a wave solution for the Schrödinger equations.

Cuzinatto, R. R.; Pompeia, P. J.; de Montigny, M.; Khanna, F. C.

2009-09-01

136

Extended BPH Renormalization of Cutoff Scalar Field Theories

We show that general cutoff scalar field theories in four dimensions are perturbatively renormalizable through the use of diagrammatic techniques and an adapted BPH renormalization method. Weinberg's convergence theorem is used to show that operators in the Lagrangian with dimension greater than four, which are divided by powers of the cutoff, produce perturbatively only local divergences in the two-, three-, and four-point correlation functions. We also show that the renormalized Green's functions are the same as in ordinary $\\Phi^4$ theory up to corrections suppressed by inverse powers of the cutoff. These conclusions are consistent with those of existing proofs based on the renormalization group.

Gordon Chalmers

1994-04-29

137

The logarithmic conformal field theories

We study the correlation functions of logarithmic conformal field theories. First, assuming conformal invariance, we explicitly calculate two- and three- point functions. This calculation is done for the general case of more than one logarithmic field in a block, and more than one set of logarithmic fields. Then we show that one can regard the logarithmic field as a formal derivative of the ordinary field with respect to its conformal weight. This enables one to calculate any n-point function containing the logarithmic field in terms of ordinary n-point functions. At last, we calculate the OPE coefficients of a logarithmic conformal field theory, and show that these can be obtained from the corresponding coefficients of ordinary conformal theory by a simple derivation.

Tabar, M R R; Khorrami, M

1996-01-01

138

The effect of spatial and temporal resolutions and random errors on identification of Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) from Eulerian velocity fields is evaluated using two canonical flows: a two-dimensional vortex pair and a vortex ring formed by transient ejection of a jet from a tube. The flow field for the vortex pair case was steady and obtained analytically while the transient vortex ring flow was simulated using computational fluid dynamics. To evaluate resolution and random error effects, the flow fields were degraded by locally smoothing the flow and sampling it on a sparser grid to reduce spatial resolution, adding Gaussian distributed random noise to provide random errors, and/or subsampling the time series of vector fields to reduce the temporal resolution (the latter applying only for the vortex ring case). The degradation methods were meant to emulate distortions and errors introduced in common flow measurement methods such as digital particle image velocimetry. Comparing the LCS corresponding to the vortex boundary (separatrix) obtained from the degraded velocity fields with the true separatrix (obtained analytically for the vortex pair case or from high resolution, noise-free velocity fields for the vortex ring case) showed that noise levels as low as 5%-10% of the vortex velocity can cause the separatrix to significantly deviate from its true location in a random fashion, but the "mean" location still remained close to the true location. Temporal and spatial resolution degradations were found to primarily affect transient portions of the flow with strong spatial gradients. Significant deviations in the location of the separatrix were observed even for spatial resolutions as high as 2% of the jet diameter for the vortex ring case. PMID:20370296

Olcay, Ali B; Pottebaum, Tait S; Krueger, Paul S

2010-03-01

139

We reveal nonmanifest gauge and SO(1,5) Lorentz symmetries in the Lagrangian description of a six-dimensional free chiral field derived from the Bagger-Lambert-Gustavsson model in [P.-M. Ho and Y. Matsuo, J. High Energy Phys. 06 (2008) 105.] and make this formulation covariant with the use of a triplet of auxiliary scalar fields. We consider the coupling of this self-dual construction to gravity and its supersymmetrization. In the case of the nonlinear model of [P.-M. Ho, Y. Imamura, Y. Matsuo, and S. Shiba, J. High Energy Phys. 08 (2008) 014.] we solve the equations of motion of the gauge field, prove that its nonlinear field strength is self-dual and find a gauge-covariant form of the nonlinear action. Issues of the relation of this model to the known formulations of the M5-brane worldvolume theory are discussed.

Pasti, Paolo; Tonin, Mario [Dipartimento di Fisica 'Galileo Galilei', Universita degli Studi di Padova (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Samsonov, Igor [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Sorokin, Dmitri [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

2009-10-15

140

Historical Lagrangian Dynamics

This paper presents (in its Lagrangian version) a very general "historical" formalism for dynamical systems, including time-dynamics and field theories. It is based on the universal notion of history. Its condensed and universal formulation provides a synthesis and a generalization different approaches of dynamics. It is in our sense closer to its real essence. The formalism is by construction explicitely covariant and does not require the introduction of time, or of a time function in relativistic theories. It considers space-time (in field theories) exactly in the same manner than time in usual dynamics, with the only difference that it has 4 dimensions. Both time and space-time are considered as particular cases of the general notion of an evolution domain. In addition, the formalism encompasses the cases where histories are not functions (e.g., of time or of space-time), but forms. This applies to electromag-netism and to first order general relativity (that we treat explicitely). It has both Lagrangian and Hamiltonian versions. An interesting result is the existence of a covariant generalized symplectic form, which generalizes the usual symplectic or the multisymplectic form, and the symplectic currents. Its conservation on shell provides a genuine symplectic form on the space of solutions.

Marc Lachieze-Rey

2014-11-16

141

Double field theory at order ?'

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate ?' corrections of bosonic strings in the framework of double field theory. The previously introduced "doubled ?'-geometry" gives ?'-deformed gauge transformations arising in the Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation mechanism but does not apply to bosonic strings. These require a different deformation of the duality-covariantized Courant bracket which governs the gauge structure. This is revealed by examining the ?' corrections in the gauge algebra of closed string field theory. We construct a four-derivative cubic double field theory action invariant under the deformed gauge transformations, giving a first glimpse of the gauge principle underlying bosonic string ?' corrections. The usual metric and b-field are related to the duality covariant fields by non-covariant field redefinitions.

Hohm, Olaf; Zwiebach, Barton

2014-11-01

142

Topological quantum field theory

A twisted version of four dimensional supersymmetric gauge theory is formulated. The model, which refines a nonrelativistic treatment by Atiyah, appears to underlie many recent developments in topology of low dimensional manifolds; the Donaldson polynomial invariants of four manifolds and the Floer groups of three manifolds appear naturally. The model may also be interesting from a physical viewpoint; it is

Edward Witten

1988-01-01

143

Rationality in conformal field theory

We show that if the one-loop partition function of a modular invariant conformal field theory can be expressed as a finite sum of holomorphically factorized terms thenc and all values ofh are rational.

Greg Anderson; Greg Moore

1988-01-01

144

The existence of momentum and winding modes of closed string on a torus leads to a natural idea that the field theoretical approach of string theory should involve winding type coordinates as well as the usual space-time ...

Kwak, Seung Ki

2012-01-01

145

Group Field Theory: An overview

We give a brief overview of the properties of a higher dimensional generalization of matrix model which arises naturally in the context of a background independent approach to quantum gravity, the so called group field theory. We show that this theory leads to a natural proposal for the physical scalar product of quantum gravity. We also show in which sense this theory provides a third quantization point of view on quantum gravity.

Laurent Freidel

2005-05-02

146

The Theory of Conceptual Fields

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theory of conceptual fields is a developmental theory. It has two aims: (1) to describe and analyse the progressive complexity, on a long- and medium-term basis, of the mathematical competences that students develop inside and outside school, and (2) to establish better connections between the operational form of knowledge, which consists in…

Vergnaud, Gerard

2009-01-01

147

Theory of fossil magnetic field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theory of fossil magnetic field is based on the observations, analytical estimations and numerical simulations of magnetic flux evolution during star formation in the magnetized cores of molecular clouds. Basic goals, main features of the theory and manifestations of MHD effects in young stellar objects are discussed.

Dudorov, Alexander E.; Khaibrakhmanov, Sergey A.

2015-02-01

148

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant disease epidemics caused by pathogenic spores are a common and consequential threat to agricultural crops. In most cases, pathogenic spores are produced and released deep inside plant canopies and must be transported out of the canopy region in order to infect other fields and spread the disease. The fraction of spores that "escape" the canopy is crucial in determining how fast and far these plant diseases will spread. The goal of this work is to use a field experiment, coupled with a Lagrangian Stochastic Model (LSM), to investigate how properties of canopy turbulence impact the dispersion of spores inside the canopy and the fraction of spores that escape from the canopy. An extensive field experiment was conducted to study spore dispersion inside and outside a corn canopy. The spores were released from point sources located at various depths inside the canopy. Concentration measurements were obtained inside and above the canopy by a 3-dimensional grid of spore collectors. The experimental measurements of mean spore concentration are used to validate a LSM for spore dispersion. In the LSM, flow field statistics used to drive the particle dispersion are specified by a second-order closure model for turbulence within plant canopies. The dispersion model includes spore deposition on and rebound from canopy elements. The combination of experimental and numerical simulations is used to quantify the fraction of spores that escape the canopy. Effects of release height, friction velocity, and canopy architecture on the escape fraction of spores are explored using the LSM, and implications for disease propagation are discussed.

Gleicher, S.; Chamecki, M.; Isard, S.; Katul, G. G.

2012-12-01

149

Double field theory inspired cosmology

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double field theory proposes a generalized spacetime action possessing manifest T-duality on the level of component fields. We calculate the cosmological solutions of double field theory with vanishing Kalb-Ramond field. It turns out that double field theory provides a more consistent way to construct cosmological solutions than the standard string cosmology. We construct solutions for vanishing and non-vanishing symmetry preserving dilaton potentials. The solutions assemble the pre- and post-big bang evolutions in one single line element. Our results show a smooth evolution from an anisotropic early stage to an isotropic phase without any special initial conditions in contrast to previous models. In addition, we demonstrate that the contraction of the dual space automatically leads to both an inflation phase and a decelerated expansion of the ordinary space during different evolution stages.

Wu, Houwen; Yang, Haitang

2014-07-01

150

Analytic progress in open string field theory

Open string field theory provides an action functional for open string fields, and it is thus a manifestly off-shell formulation of open string theory. The solutions to the equation of motion of open string field theory ...

Kiermaier, Michael Stefan

2009-01-01

151

Geometer energy unified field theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GEOMETER - ENERGY UNIFIED FIELD THEORY Author: Anacleto Rivera Nivón Co-author: Susana Rivera Cabrera This work is an attempt to find the relationship between the Electromagnetic Field and the Gravitational Field. Despite it is based on the existence of Strings of Energy, it is not the same kind of strings that appears on other theories like Superstring Theory, Branas Theory, M - Theory, or any other related string theories. Here, the Strings are concentrated energy lines that vibrates, and experiences shrinking and elongations, absorbing and yielding on each contraction and expansion all that is found in the Universe: matter and antimatter, waves and energy in all manifestations. In contrast to superstring theory, which strings are on the range of the Length of Planck, these Strings can be on the cosmological size, and can contain many galaxies, or clusters, or groups of galaxies; but also they can reach as small sizes as subatomic levels. Besides, and contrary to what it is stated in some other string theories that need the existence of ten or more dimensions, the present proposal sustains in only four particular dimensions. It has been developed a mathematical support that will try to help to improve the understanding of the phenomena that take place at the Universe.

Rivera, Susana; Rivera, Anacleto

152

A new bound constraints method for 3-D potential field data inversion using Lagrangian multipliers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a method for incorporating prior geological information into potential field data inversion problem. As opposed to the traditional inverse algorithm, our proposed method takes full advantage of prior geological information as a constraint and thus obtains a new objective function for inversion by adding Lagrangian multipliers and slack variables to the traditional inversion method. These additional parameters can be easily solved during iterations. We used both synthetic and observed data sets to test the stability and validity of the proposed method. Our results using synthetic gravity data show that our new method predicts depth and density anomalies more efficiently and accurately than the traditional inversion method that does not include prior geological constraints. Then using observed gravity data in the Three Gorges area and geological constraint information, we obtained the density distribution of the upper and middle crust in this area thus revealing its geological structure. These results confirm the proposed method's validity and indicate its potential application for magnetism data inversion and exploration of geological structures.

Zhang, Yi; Yan, Jianguo; Li, Fei; Chen, Chao; Mei, Bao; Jin, Shuanggen; Dohm, James H.

2015-04-01

153

Entropy Viscosity Method for Lagrangian Hydrodynamics and Central Schemes for Mean Field Games

In this dissertation we consider two major subjects. The primary topic is the Entropy Viscosity method for Lagrangian hydrodynamics, the goal of which is to solve numerically the Euler equations of compressible gas dynamics. The second topic...

Tomov, Vladimir

2014-04-18

154

(Studies in quantum field theory)

During the period 4/1/89--3/31/90 the theoretical physics group supported by Department of Energy Contract No. AC02-78ER04915.A015 and consisting of Professors Bender and Shrauner, Associate Professor Papanicolaou, Assistant Professor Ogilvie, and Senior Research Associate Visser has made progress in many areas of theoretical and mathematical physics. Professors Bender and Shrauner, Associate Professor Papanicolaou, Assistant Professor Ogilvie, and Research Associate Visser are currently conducting research in many areas of high energy theoretical and mathematical physics. These areas include: strong-coupling approximation; classical solutions of non-Abelian gauge theories; mean-field approximation in quantum field theory; path integral and coherent state representations in quantum field theory; lattice gauge calculations; the nature of perturbation theory in large order; quark condensation in QCD; chiral symmetry breaking; the 1/N expansion in quantum field theory; effective potential and action in quantum field theories, including OCD; studies of the early universe and inflation, and quantum gravity.

Not Available

1990-01-01

155

Tachyonic Field Theory and Neutrino Mass Running

In this paper three things are done. (i) We investigate the analogues of Cerenkov radiation for the decay of a superluminal neutrino and calculate the Cerenkov angles for the emission of a photon through a W loop, and for a collinear electron-positron pair, assuming the tachyonic dispersion relation for the superluminal neutrino. The decay rate of a freely propagating neutrino is found to depend on the shape of the assumed dispersion relation, and is found to decrease with decreasing tachyonic mass of the neutrino. (ii) We discuss a few properties of the tachyonic Dirac equation (symmetries and plane-wave solutions), which may be relevant for the description of superluminal neutrinos seen by the OPERA experiment, and discuss the calculation of the tachyonic propagator. (iii) In the absence of a commonly accepted tachyonic field theory, and in view of an apparent "running" of the observed neutrino mass with the energy, we write down a model Lagrangian, which describes a Yukawa-type interaction of a neutrino coupling to a scalar background field via a scalar-minus-pseudoscalar interaction. This constitutes an extension of the standard model. If the interaction is strong, then it leads to a substantial renormalization-group "running" of the neutrino mass and could potentially explain the experimental observations.

U. D. Jentschura

2012-05-01

156

Universality of the rho-meson coupling in effective field theory

It is shown that both the universal coupling of the rho-meson and the Kawarabayashi-Suzuki-Riadzuddin-Fayyazuddin expression for the magnitude of its coupling constant follow from the requirement that chiral perturbation theory of pions, nucleons, and rho-mesons is a consistent effective field theory. The prerequisite of the derivation is that all ultraviolet divergences can be absorbed in the redefinition of fields and the available parameters of the most general effective Lagrangian.

D. Djukanovic; M. R. Schindler; J. Gegelia; G. Japaridze; S. Scherer

2004-07-21

157

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Halos are biased tracers of the dark matter distribution. It is often assumed that the initial patches from which halos formed are locally biased with respect to the initial fluctuation field, meaning that the halo-patch fluctuation field can be written as a Taylor series in the dark matter density fluctuation field. If quantities other than the local density influence halo formation, then this Lagrangian bias will generically be nonlocal; the Taylor series must be performed with respect to these other variables as well. We illustrate the effect with Monte Carlo simulations of a model in which halo formation depends on the local shear (the quadrupole of perturbation theory) and provide an analytic model that provides a good description of our results. Our model, which extends the excursion set approach to walks in more than one dimension, works both when steps in the walk are uncorrelated, as well as when there are correlations between steps. For walks with correlated steps, our model includes two distinct types of nonlocality: one is due to the fact that the initial density profile around a patch which is destined to form a halo must fall sufficiently steeply around it—this introduces k dependence to even the linear bias factor, but otherwise only affects the monopole of the clustering signal. The other type of nonlocality is due to the surrounding shear field; this affects the quadratic and higher-order bias factors and introduces an angular dependence to the clustering signal. In both cases, our analysis shows that these nonlocal Lagrangian bias terms can be significant, particularly for massive halos; they must be accounted for in, e.g., analyses of higher-order clustering in Lagrangian or Eulerian space. Comparison of our predictions with measurements of the halo bispectrum in simulations is encouraging. Although we illustrate these effects using halos, our analysis and conclusions also apply to the other constituents of the cosmic web—filaments, sheets and voids.

Sheth, Ravi K.; Chan, Kwan Chuen; Scoccimarro, Román

2013-04-01

158

Conceptual Foundations of Quantum Field Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: Conceptual issues in quantum field theory; Part I. Philosophers' Interests in Quantum Field Theory: 1. Why are we philosophers interested in quantum field theory; 2. Quantum field theory and the philosopher; Part II. Three Approaches to the Foundations of Quantum Field Theory: 3. The usefulness of a general theory of quantized fields; 4. Effective field theory in condensed matter physics; 5. The triumph and limitations of quantum field theory; 6. Comments; Discussions; Part III. Does Quantum Field Theory Need a Foundation: 7. Does quantum field theory need a foundation?; Part IV. Mathematics, Statistical Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory: 8. Renormalization group theory: its basis and formulation in statistical physics; 9. Where does quantum field theory fit into the big picture?; 10. The unreasonable effectiveness of quantum field theory; 11. Comment: the quantum field theory of physics and of mathematics; Part V. Quantum Field Theory and Spacetime: Introduction; 12. Quantum field theory and spacetime: formalism and reality; 13. Quantum field theory of geometry; 14. 'Localization' in quantum field theory: how much of QFT is compatible with what we know about spacetime; 15. Comments; VI. 16. What is quantum field theory and what did we think it was?; 17. Comments; Discussions; Part VII.Renormalization Group: 18. What is fundamental physics? A renormalization group perspective; 19. Renormalization group: an interesting yet puzzling idea; Part VIII. Non-Abelian Gauge Theory: 20. Gauge fields, gravity and Bohm's theory; 21. Is the Aharonov-Bohm effect local?; Discussions; Part IX. The Ontology of Particles or Fields: 22. The ineliminable classical face of quantum field theory; 23. The logic of quanta; 24. Do Feynman diagrams endorse a particle ontology?; 25. On the ontology of QFT; Part X. Panel Discussion.

Cao, Tian Yu

2004-03-01

159

The effective field theory of inflation/dark energy and the Horndeski theory

The effective field theory (EFT) of cosmological perturbations is a useful framework to deal with the low-energy degrees of freedom present for inflation and dark energy. We review the EFT for modified gravitational theories by starting from the most general action in unitary gauge that involves the lapse function and the three-dimensional geometric scalar quantities appearing in the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. Expanding the action up to quadratic order in the perturbations and imposing conditions for the elimination of spatial derivatives higher than second order, we obtain the Lagrangian of curvature perturbations and gravitational waves with a single scalar degree of freedom. The resulting second-order Lagrangian is exploited for computing the scalar and tensor power spectra generated during inflation. We also show that the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order equations of motion-Horndeski theory-belongs to the action of our general EFT framework and that the background equations of motion in Horndeski theory can be conveniently expressed in terms of three EFT parameters. Finally we study the equations of matter density perturbations and the effective gravitational coupling for dark energy models based on Horndeski theory, to confront the models with the observations of large-scale structures and weak lensing.

Shinji Tsujikawa

2014-09-01

160

The Effective Field Theory of Inflation/Dark Energy and the Horndeski Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective field theory (EFT) of cosmological perturbations is a useful framework to deal with the low-energy degrees of freedom present for inflation and dark energy. We review the EFT for modified gravitational theories by starting from the most general action in unitary gauge that involves the lapse function and the three-dimensional geometric scalar quantities appearing in the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. Expanding the action up to quadratic order in the perturbations and imposing conditions for the elimination of spatial derivatives higher than second order, we obtain the Lagrangian of curvature perturbations and gravitational waves with a single scalar degree of freedom. The resulting second-order Lagrangian is exploited for computing the scalar and tensor power spectra generated during inflation. We also show that the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order equations of motion—Horndeski theory—belongs to the action of our general EFT framework and that the background equations of motion in Horndeski theory can be conveniently expressed in terms of three EFT parameters. Finally we study the equations of matter density perturbations and the effective gravitational coupling for dark energy models based on Horndeski theory, to confront the models with the observations of large-scale structures and weak lensing.

Tsujikawa, Shinji

161

The method of Lagrangians with covariant derivative (MLCD) is applied to a special type of Lagrangian density depending on scalar and vector fields as well as on their first covariant derivatives. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange's equations and energy-momentum tensors are found on the basis of the covariant Noether's identities.

Sawa Manoff

2002-05-07

162

Field-theory methods in coagulation theory

Coagulating systems are systems of chaotically moving particles that collide and coalesce, producing daughter particles of mass equal to the sum of the masses involved in the respective collision event. The present article puts forth basic ideas underlying the application of methods of quantum-field theory to the theory of coagulating systems. Instead of the generally accepted treatment based on the use of a standard kinetic equation that describes the time evolution of concentrations of particles consisting of a preset number of identical objects (monomers in the following), one introduces the probability W(Q, t) to find the system in some state Q at an instant t for a specific rate of transitions between various states. Each state Q is characterized by a set of occupation numbers Q = (n{sub 1}, n{sub 2}, ..., n{sub g}, ...), where n{sub g} is the total number of particles containing precisely g monomers. Thereupon, one introduces the generating functional {Psi} for the probability W(Q, t). The time evolution of {Psi} is described by an equation that is similar to the Schroedinger equation for a one-dimensional Bose field. This equation is solved exactly for transition rates proportional to the product of the masses of colliding particles. It is shown that, within a finite time interval, which is independent of the total mass of the entire system, a giant particle of mass about the mass of the entire system may appear in this system. The particle in question is unobservable in the thermodynamic limit, and this explains the well-known paradox of mass-concentration nonconservation in classical kinetic theory. The theory described in the present article is successfully applied in studying the time evolution of random graphs.

Lushnikov, A. A., E-mail: alex.lushnikov@mail.ru [Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry (Russian Federation)

2011-08-15

163

We present an efficient general approach to first principles molecular dynamics simulations based on extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [A. M. N. Niklasson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123004 (2008)] in the limit of vanishing self-consistent field optimization. The reduction of the optimization requirement reduces the computational cost to a minimum, but without causing any significant loss of accuracy or long-term energy drift. The optimization-free first principles molecular dynamics requires only one single diagonalization per time step, but is still able to provide trajectories at the same level of accuracy as “exact,” fully converged, Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations. The optimization-free limit of extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics therefore represents an ideal starting point for robust and efficient first principles quantum mechanical molecular dynamics simulations.

Souvatzis, Petros, E-mail: petros.souvatsiz@fysik.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Materials Theory, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120, Uppsala (Sweden)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Materials Theory, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120, Uppsala (Sweden); Niklasson, Anders M. N., E-mail: amn@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2013-12-07

164

AdS Field Theory from Conformal Field Theory

We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a Conformal Field Theory to have a description in terms of a perturbative Effective Field Theory in AdS. The first two conditions are well-known: the existence of a perturbative `1/N' expansion and an approximate Fock space of states generated by a finite number of low-dimension operators. We add a third condition, that the Mellin amplitudes of the CFT correlators must be well-approximated by functions that are bounded by a polynomial at infinity in Mellin space, or in other words, that the Mellin amplitudes have an effective theory-type expansion. We explain the relationship between our conditions and unitarity, and provide an analogy with scattering amplitudes that becomes exact in the flat space limit of AdS. The analysis also yields a simple connection between conformal blocks and AdS diagrams, providing a new calculational tool very much in the spirit of the S-Matrix program. We also begin to explore the potential pathologies associated with higher spin fields in AdS by generalizing Weinberg's soft theorems to AdS/CFT. The AdS analog of Weinberg's argument constrains the interactions of conserved currents in CFTs, but there are potential loopholes that are unavailable to theories of massless higher spin particles in flat spacetime.

A. Liam Fitzpatrick; Jared Kaplan

2012-08-01

165

AdS field theory from conformal field theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a Conformal Field Theory to have a description in terms of a perturbative Effective Field Theory in AdS. The first two conditions are well-known: the existence of a perturbative `1/ N ' expansion and an approximate Fock space of states generated by a finite number of low-dimension operators. We add a third condition, that the Mellin amplitudes of the CFT correlators must be well- approximated by functions that are bounded by a polynomial at infinity in Mellin space, or in other words, that the Mellin amplitudes have an effective theory-type expansion. We explain the relationship between our conditions and unitarity, and provide an analogy with scattering amplitudes that becomes exact in the flat space limit of AdS. The analysis also yields a simple connection between conformal blocks and AdS diagrams, providing a new calculational tool very much in the spirit of the S-Matrix program. We also begin to explore the potential pathologies associated with higher spin fields in AdS by generalizing Weinberg's soft theorems to AdS/CFT. The AdS analog of Weinberg's argument constrains the interactions of conserved currents in CFTs, but there are potential loopholes that are unavailable to theories of massless higher spin particles in flat spacetime.

Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared

2013-02-01

166

Introduction to string theory and conformal field theory

A concise survey of noncritical string theory and two-dimensional conformal field theory is presented. A detailed derivation of a conformal anomaly and the definition and general properties of conformal field theory are given. Minimal string theory, which is a special version of the theory, is considered. Expressions for the string susceptibility and gravitational dimensions are derived.

Belavin, A. A., E-mail: belavin@itp.ac.ru; Tarnopolsky, G. M., E-mail: Hetzif@yandex.r [Russian Academy of Sciences, Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation)

2010-05-15

167

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lagrangian assimilation algorithm LAVA (LAgrangian Variational Analysis) is customized for coastal areas in the framework of the TOSCA (Tracking Oil Spills & Coastal Awareness network) Project, to improve the response to maritime accidents in the Mediterranean Sea. LAVA assimilates drifters' trajectories in the velocity fields which may come from either coastal radars or numerical models. In the present study, LAVA is applied to the coastal area in front of Toulon (France). Surface currents are available from a WERA radar network (2km spatial resolution, every 20 minutes) and from the GLAZUR model (1/64° spatial resolution, every hour). The cluster of drifters considered is constituted by 7 buoys, transmitting every 15 minutes for a period of 5 days. Three assimilation cases are considered: i) correction of the radar velocity field, ii) correction of the model velocity field and iii) reconstruction of the velocity field from drifters only. It is found that drifters' trajectories compare well with the ones obtained by the radar and the correction to radar velocity field is therefore minimal. Contrarily, observed and numerical trajectories separate rapidly and the correction to the model velocity field is substantial. For the reconstruction from drifters only, the velocity fields obtained are similar to the radar ones, but limited to the neighbor of the drifter paths.

Berta, Maristella; Bellomo, Lucio; Griffa, Annalisa; Gatimu Magaldi, Marcello; Marmain, Julien; Molcard, Anne; Taillandier, Vincent

2013-04-01

168

A correspondence between Teichmller theory and conformal field theory

A correspondence between TeichmÃ¼ller theory and conformal field theory Eric Schippers Department (Uppsala Universitet). It is part of a program to rigorously construct conformal field theory according of TeichmÃ¼ller space A connection between TeichmÃ¼ller space and conformal field theory 4 A few words about

Schippers, Eric

169

In this paper we show that Ultradistributions of Exponential Type (UET) are appropriate for the description in a consistent way world sheet superstring and superstring field theories. A new Lagrangian for the closed world sheet superstring is obtained. We also show that the superstring field is a linear superposition of UET of compact support (CUET), and give the notion of anti-superstring. We evaluate the propagator for the string field, and calculate the convolution of two of them.

C. G. Bollini; A. L. De Paoli; M. C. Rocca

2010-02-12

170

Quantum Field Theory in Graphene

This is a short non-technical introduction to applications of the Quantum Field Theory methods to graphene. We derive the Dirac model from the tight binding model and describe calculations of the polarization operator (conductivity). Later on, we use this quantity to describe the Quantum Hall Effect, light absorption by graphene, the Faraday effect, and the Casimir interaction.

I. V. Fialkovsky; D. V. Vassilevich

2011-11-18

171

We review the effective field theory of modified gravity in which the Lagrangian involves three dimensional geometric quantities appearing in the 3+1 decomposition of space-time. On the flat isotropic cosmological background we expand a general action up to second order in the perturbations of geometric scalars, by taking into account spatial derivatives higher than two. Our analysis covers a wide range of gravitational theories-- including Horndeski theory/its recent generalizations and the projectable/non-projectable versions of Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity. We derive the equations of motion for linear cosmological perturbations and apply them to the calculations of inflationary power spectra as well as the dark energy dynamics in Galileon theories. We also show that our general results conveniently recover stability conditions of Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity already derived in the literature.

Ryotaro Kase; Shinji Tsujikawa

2015-02-23

172

Lagrangian description of warm plasmas

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts are described to extend the averaged Lagrangian method of describing small signal wave propagation and nonlinear wave interaction, developed by earlier workers for cold plasmas, to the more general conditions of warm collisionless plasmas, and to demonstrate particularly the effectiveness of the method in analyzing wave-wave interactions. The theory is developed for both the microscopic description and the hydrodynamic approximation to plasma behavior. First, a microscopic Lagrangian is formulated rigorously, and expanded in terms of perturbations about equilibrium. Two methods are then described for deriving a hydrodynamic Lagrangian. In the first of these, the Lagrangian is obtained by velocity integration of the exact microscopic Lagrangian. In the second, the expanded hydrodynamic Lagrangian is obtained directly from the expanded microscopic Lagrangian. As applications of the microscopic Lagrangian, the small-signal dispersion relations and the coupled mode equations are derived for all possible waves in a warm infinite, weakly inhomogeneous magnetoplasma, and their interactions are examined.

Kim, H.

1970-01-01

173

Non-Abelian tensor gauge fields: generalization of Yang-Mills theory

We suggest an extension of the gauge principle which includes tensor gauge fields. The extended non-Abelian gauge transformations of the tensor gauge fields form a new large group. On this group one can define field strength tensors, which are transforming homogeneously with respect to the extended gauge transformations. The invariant Lagrangian is quadratic in the field strength tensors and describes interaction of tensor gauge fields of arbitrary large integer spin $1,2,...$. It does not contain higher derivatives of the tensor gauge fields, and all interactions take place through three- and four-particle exchanges with dimensionless coupling constant. In this extension of the Yang-Mills theory the vector gauge boson becomes a member of a bigger family of tensor gauge bosons. We shall present a second invariant Lagrangian which can be constructed in terms of the above field strength tensors. The total Lagrangian is a sum of the two Lagrangians and exhibits enhanced local gauge invariance with double number of gauge parameters. This allows to eliminate all negative norm states of the nonsymmetric second-rank tensor gauge field, which describes therefore three physical polarizations: two symmetric polarizations of helicity-two massless charged tensor gauge bosons and antisymmetric polarization of helicity-zero charged B field.

George Savvidy

2007-06-09

174

Electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon in effective field theory

We calculate the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon to third chiral order in manifestly Lorentz-invariant effective field theory. The rho and omega mesons as well as the Delta(1232) resonance are included as explicit dynamical degrees of freedom. To obtain a self-consistent theory with respect to constraints we consider the proper relations among the couplings of the effective Lagrangian. For the purpose of generating a systematic power counting, the extended on-mass-shell renormalization scheme is applied in combination with the small-scale expansion. The results for the electric and magnetic Sachs form factors are analyzed in terms of experimental data and compared to previous findings in the framework of chiral perturbation theory. The pion-mass dependence of the form factors is briefly discussed.

T. Bauer; J. C. Bernauer; S. Scherer

2012-09-18

175

Extended BPH renormalization of cutoff scalar field theories

We show through the use of diagrammatic techniques and a newly adapted BPH renormalization method that general momentum cutoff scalar field theories in four dimensions are perturbatively renormalizable. Weinberg{close_quote}s convergence theorem is used to show that operators in the Lagrangian with dimension greater than four, which are divided by powers of the cutoff, produce perturbatively only local divergences in the two-, three-, and four-point correlation functions. The naive use of the convergence theorem together with the BPH method is not appropriate for understanding the local divergences and renormalizability of these theories. We also show that the renormalized Green{close_quote}s functions are the same as in ordinary {Phi}{sup 4} theory up to corrections suppressed by inverse powers of the cutoff. These conclusions are consistent with those of existing proofs based on the renormalization group. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Chalmers, G. [Department of Physics and Theoretical Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Theoretical Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

1996-06-01

176

On the Lagrangian description of unsteady boundary layer separation. Part 1: General theory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although unsteady, high-Reynolds number, laminar boundary layers have conventionally been studied in terms of Eulerian coordinates, a Lagrangian approach may have significant analytical and computational advantages. In Lagrangian coordinates the classical boundary layer equations decouple into a momentum equation for the motion parallel to the boundary, and a hyperbolic continuity equation (essentially a conserved Jacobian) for the motion normal to the boundary. The momentum equations, plus the energy equation if the flow is compressible, can be solved independently of the continuity equation. Unsteady separation occurs when the continuity equation becomes singular as a result of touching characteristics, the condition for which can be expressed in terms of the solution of the momentum equations. The solutions to the momentum and energy equations remain regular. Asymptotic structures for a number of unsteady 3-D separating flows follow and depend on the symmetry properties of the flow. In the absence of any symmetry, the singularity structure just prior to separation is found to be quasi 2-D with a displacement thickness in the form of a crescent shaped ridge. Physically the singularities can be understood in terms of the behavior of a fluid element inside the boundary layer which contracts in a direction parallel to the boundary and expands normal to it, thus forcing the fluid above it to be ejected from the boundary layer.

Vandommelen, Leon L.; Cowley, Stephen J.

1989-01-01

177

Conformal field theory and elliptic cohomology

In this paper, we use conformal field theory to construct a generalized cohomology theory which has some properties of elliptic cohomology theory which was some properties of elliptic cohomology. A part of our presentation is a rigorous definition of conformal field theory following Segal's axioms, and some examples, such as lattice theories associated with a unimodular even lattice. We also

P. HU; I. KRIZ

2004-01-01

178

N = 1 Field Theory Duality from M-theory

We investigate Seiberg's N=1 field theory duality for four-dimensional supersymmetric QCD with the M-theory 5-brane. We find that the M-theory configuration for the magnetic dual theory arises via a smooth deformation of the M-theory configuration for the electric theory. The creation of Dirichlet 4-branes as Neveu-Schwarz 5-branes are passed through each other in Type IIA string theory is given a nice derivation from M-theory.

Martin Schmaltz; Raman Sundrum

1997-08-27

179

Field theory of pattern identification

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the psychological experimental fact that images in mental space are transformed into other images for pattern identification, a field theory of pattern identification of geometrical patterns is developed with the use of gauge field theory in Euclidean space. Here, the ``image'' or state function ?[?] of the brain reacting to a geometrical pattern ? is made to correspond to the electron's wave function in Minkowski space. The pattern identification of the pattern ? with the modified pattern ?+?? is assumed to be such that their images ?[?] and ?[?+??] in the brain are transformable with each other through suitable transformation groups such as parallel transformation, dilatation, or rotation. The transformation group is called the ``image potential'' which corresponds to the vector potential of the gauge field. An ``image field'' derived from the image potential is found to be induced in the brain when the two images ?[?] and ?[?+??] are not transformable through suitable transformation groups or gauge transformations. It is also shown that, when the image field exists, the final state of the image ?[?] is expected to be different, depending on the paths of modifications of the pattern ? leading to a final pattern. The above fact is interpreted as a version of the Aharonov and Bohm effect of the electron's wave function [A. Aharonov and D. Bohm, Phys. Rev. 115, 485 (1959)]. An excitation equation of the image field is also derived by postulating that patterns are identified maximally for the purpose of minimizing the number of memorized standard patterns.

Agu, Masahiro

1988-06-01

180

Quantum Algorithms for Quantum Field Theories

Quantum Algorithms for Quantum Field Theories Stephen P. Jordan,1 * Keith S. M. Lee,2 John Preskill3 Quantum field theory reconciles quantum mechanics and special relativity, and plays a central role probabilities in a massive quantum field theory with quartic self-interactions (f4 theory) in spacetime of four

Preskill, John

181

Conformal Field Theory and Operator Algebras

Conformal Field Theory and Operator Algebras Yasuyuki Kawahigashi Department of Mathematical spacetime symme- try, conformal symmetry, we have conformal field theory and there we have seen many new approach to conformal field theory, that is, theory of vertex operator algebras. Supported in part by JSPS

Kawahigashi, Yasuyuki

182

Topological Analysis of a Nonlinear Field Theory

This paper is concerned with a class of nonlinear field theories that exhibit conserved particlelike structures. An example of such a theory is quoted. Fields belonging to this theory are classical fields, single-valued under the action of the rotation group. It is explained how, when the theory is quantized, the quantum mechanical states which correspond to 1-particle systems in the

J. G. Williams

1970-01-01

183

Bias in the Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures

We study how to describe collapsed objects, such as galaxies, in the context of the Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures. The overdensity of galaxies at a given location and time is determined by the initial tidal tensor, velocity gradients and spatial derivatives of the regions of dark matter that, during the evolution of the universe, ended up at that given location. Similarly to what recently done for dark matter, we show how this Lagrangian space description can be recovered by upgrading simpler Eulerian calculations. We describe the Eulerian theory. We show that it is perturbatively local in space, but non-local in time, and we explain the observational consequences of this fact. We give an argument for why to a certain degree of accuracy the theory can be considered as quasi time-local and explain what the operator structure is in this case. We describe renormalization of the bias coefficients so that, after this and after upgrading the Eulerian calculation to a Lagrangian one, the perturbative series for galaxies correlation functions results in a manifestly convergent expansion in powers of $k/k_{\\rm NL}$ and $k/k_{\\rm M}$, where $k$ is the wavenumber of interest, $k_{\\rm NL}$ is the wavenumber associated to the non-linear scale, and $k_{\\rm M}$ is the comoving wavenumber enclosing the mass of a galaxy.

Leonardo Senatore

2014-11-05

184

A multisymplectic approach to defects in integrable classical field theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the concept of multisymplectic formalism, familiar in covariant field theory, for the study of integrable defects in 1 + 1 classical field theory. The main idea is the coexistence of two Poisson brackets, one for each spacetime coordinate. The Poisson bracket corresponding to the time coordinate is the usual one describing the time evolution of the system. Taking the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation as an example, we introduce the new bracket associated to the space coordinate. We show that, in the absence of any defect, the two brackets yield completely equivalent Hamiltonian descriptions of the model. However, in the presence of a defect described by a frozen Bäcklund transformation, the advantage of using the new bracket becomes evident. It allows us to reinterpret the defect conditions as canonical transformations. As a consequence, we are also able to implement the method of the classical r matrix and to prove Liouville integrability of the system with such a defect. The use of the new Poisson bracket completely bypasses all the known problems associated with the presence of a defect in the discussion of Liouville integrability. A by-product of the approach is the reinterpretation of the defect Lagrangian used in the Lagrangian description of integrable defects as the generating function of the canonical transformation representing the defect conditions.

Caudrelier, V.; Kundu, A.

2015-02-01

185

A multisymplectic approach to defects in integrable classical field theory

We introduce the concept of multisymplectic formalism, familiar in covariant field theory, for the study of integrable defects in 1+1 classical field theory. The main idea is the coexistence of two Poisson brackets, one for each spacetime coordinate. The Poisson bracket corresponding to the time coordinate is the usual one describing the time evolution of the system. Taking the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger (NLS) equation as an example, we introduce the new bracket associated to the space coordinate. We show that, in the absence of any defect, the two brackets yield completely equivalent Hamiltonian descriptions of the model. However, in the presence of a defect described by a frozen B\\"acklund transformation, the advantage of using the new bracket becomes evident. It allows us to reinterpret the defect conditions as canonical transformations. As a consequence, we are also able to implement the method of the classical r matrix and to prove Liouville integrability of the system with such a defect. The use of the new Poisson bracket completely bypasses all the known problems associated with the presence of a defect in the discussion of Liouville integrability. A by-product of the approach is the reinterpretation of the defect Lagrangian used in the Lagrangian description of integrable defects as the generating function of the canonical transformation representing the defect conditions.

V. Caudrelier; A. Kundu

2015-02-20

186

Variational methods for field theories

Four field theory models are studied: Periodic Quantum Electrodynamics (PQED) in (2 + 1) dimensions, free scalar field theory in (1 + 1) dimensions, the Quantum XY model in (1 + 1) dimensions, and the (1 + 1) dimensional Ising model in a transverse magnetic field. The last three parts deal exclusively with variational methods; the PQED part involves mainly the path-integral approach. The PQED calculation results in a better understanding of the connection between electric confinement through monopole screening, and confinement through tunneling between degenerate vacua. This includes a better quantitative agreement for the string tensions in the two approaches. Free field theory is used as a laboratory for a new variational blocking-truncation approximation, in which the high-frequency modes in a block are truncated to wave functions that depend on the slower background modes (Boron-Oppenheimer approximation). This ''adiabatic truncation'' method gives very accurate results for ground-state energy density and correlation functions. Various adiabatic schemes, with one variable kept per site and then two variables per site, are used. For the XY model, several trial wave functions for the ground state are explored, with an emphasis on the periodic Gaussian. A connection is established with the vortex Coulomb gas of the Euclidean path integral approach. The approximations used are taken from the realms of statistical mechanics (mean field approximation, transfer-matrix methods) and of quantum mechanics (iterative blocking schemes). In developing blocking schemes based on continuous variables, problems due to the periodicity of the model were solved. Our results exhibit an order-disorder phase transition. The transfer-matrix method is used to find a good (non-blocking) trial ground state for the Ising model in a transverse magnetic field in (1 + 1) dimensions.

Ben-Menahem, S.

1986-09-01

187

Diffeomorphisms in group field theories

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the issue of diffeomorphism symmetry in group field theories (GFT), using the noncommutative metric representation introduced by A. Baratin and D. Oriti [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 221302 (2010).PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.105.221302]. In the colored Boulatov model for 3d gravity, we identify a field (quantum) symmetry which ties together the vertex translation invariance of discrete gravity, the flatness constraint of canonical quantum gravity, and the topological (coarse-graining) identities for the 6j symbols. We also show how, for the GFT graphs dual to manifolds, the invariance of the Feynman amplitudes encodes the discrete residual action of diffeomorphisms in simplicial gravity path integrals. We extend the results to GFT models for higher-dimensional BF theories and discuss various insights that they provide on the GFT formalism itself.

Baratin, Aristide; Girelli, Florian; Oriti, Daniele

2011-05-01

188

Aging logarithmic Galilean field theories

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analytically compute correlation and response functions of scalar operators for the systems with Galilean and corresponding aging symmetries for general spatial dimensions d and dynamical exponent z, along with their logarithmic and logarithmic squared extensions, using the gauge/gravity duality. These non-conformal extensions of the aging geometry are marked by two dimensionful parameters, eigenvalue M of an internal coordinate and aging parameter ?. We further perform systematic investigations on two-time response functions for general d and z, and identify the growth exponent as a function of the scaling dimensions ? of the dual field theory operators and aging parameter ? in our theory. The initial growth exponent is only controlled by ?, while its late time behavior by ? as well as ?. These behaviors are separated by a time scale order of the waiting time. We attempt to make contact our results with some field theoretical growth models, such as Kim-Kosterlitz model at higher number of spatial dimensions d.

Hyun, Seungjoon; Jeong, Jaehoon; Kim, Bom Soo

2013-09-01

189

The breathing-mode isoscalar giant monopole resonance (GMR) is investigated using the generator coordinate method within the relativistic mean-field (RMF) theory. Employing the Lagrangian models of the nonlinear-$\\sigma$ model (NL$\\sigma$), the scalar-vector interaction model (SVI) and the $\\sigma$-$\\omega$ coupling model (SIGO), we show that each Lagrangian model exhibits a distinctly different GMR response. Consequently, Lagrangian models yield a different value of the GMR energy for a given value of the nuclear matter incompressibility $K_\\infty$. It is shown that this effect arises largely from a different value of the surface incompressibility $K_{surf}$ inherent to each Lagrangian model, thus giving rise to the ratio $K_{surf}/K_\\infty$ which depends upon the Lagrangian model used. This is attributed to a difference in the density dependence of the meson masses and hence to the density dependence of the nuclear interaction amongst various Lagrangian models. The sensitivity of the GMR energy to the Lagrangian model used and thus emergence of a multitude of GMR energies for a given value of $K_\\infty$ renders the method of extracting $K_\\infty$ on the basis of interpolation amongst forces as inappropriate. As a remedy, the need to 'calibrate' the density dependence of the nuclear interaction in the RMF theory is proposed.

M. M. Sharma

2008-11-17

190

Conformal Field Theory and Operator Algebras

We review recent progress in operator algebraic approach to conformal quantum field theory. Our emphasis is on use of representation theory in classification theory. This is based on a series of joint works with R. Longo.

Yasuyuki Kawahigashi

2007-04-01

191

Haag's theorem in noncommutative quantum field theory

Haag's theorem was extended to the general case of noncommutative quantum field theory when time does not commute with spatial variables. It was proven that if S matrix is equal to unity in one of two theories related by unitary transformation, then the corresponding one in the other theory is equal to unity as well. In fact, this result is valid in any SO(1, 1)-invariant quantum field theory, an important example of which is noncommutative quantum field theory.

Antipin, K. V. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)] [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Mnatsakanova, M. N., E-mail: mnatsak@theory.sinp.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Vernov, Yu. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

2013-08-15

192

Mean Field Theory for Sigmoid Belief Networks

We develop a mean field theory for sigmoid belief networks based on ideas from statistical mechanics. Our mean field theory provides a tractable approximation to the true probability distribution in these networks; it ...

Saul, Lawrence K.

1996-08-01

193

Effective Field Theory in Nuclear Physics

I review recent developments in the application of effective field theory to nuclear physics. Emphasis is placed on precision two-body calculations and efforts to formulate the nuclear shell model in terms of an effective field theory.

Martin J. Savage

2000-07-11

194

Motion of small bodies in classical field theory

I show how prior work with R. Wald on geodesic motion in general relativity can be generalized to classical field theories of a metric and other tensor fields on four-dimensional spacetime that (1) are second-order and (2) follow from a diffeomorphism-covariant Lagrangian. The approach is to consider a one-parameter-family of solutions to the field equations satisfying certain assumptions designed to reflect the existence of a body whose size, mass, and various charges are simultaneously scaled to zero. (That such solutions exist places a further restriction on the class of theories to which our results apply.) Assumptions are made only on the spacetime region outside of the body, so that the results apply independent of the body's composition (and, e.g., black holes are allowed). The worldline 'left behind' by the shrinking, disappearing body is interpreted as its lowest-order motion. An equation for this worldline follows from the 'Bianchi identity' for the theory, without use of any properties of the field equations beyond their being second-order. The form of the force law for a theory therefore depends only on the ranks of its various tensor fields; the detailed properties of the field equations are relevant only for determining the charges for a particular body (which are the ''monopoles'' of its exterior fields in a suitable limiting sense). I explicitly derive the force law (and mass-evolution law) in the case of scalar and vector fields, and give the recipe in the higher-rank case. Note that the vector force law is quite complicated, simplifying to the Lorentz force law only in the presence of the Maxwell gauge symmetry. Example applications of the results are the motion of 'chameleon' bodies beyond the Newtonian limit, and the motion of bodies in (classical) non-Abelian gauge theory. I also make some comments on the role that scaling plays in the appearance of universality in the motion of bodies.

Gralla, Samuel E. [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics University of Chicago 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2010-04-15

195

Motion of small bodies in classical field theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I show how prior work with R. Wald on geodesic motion in general relativity can be generalized to classical field theories of a metric and other tensor fields on four-dimensional spacetime that (1) are second-order and (2) follow from a diffeomorphism-covariant Lagrangian. The approach is to consider a one-parameter-family of solutions to the field equations satisfying certain assumptions designed to reflect the existence of a body whose size, mass, and various charges are simultaneously scaled to zero. (That such solutions exist places a further restriction on the class of theories to which our results apply.) Assumptions are made only on the spacetime region outside of the body, so that the results apply independent of the body’s composition (and, e.g., black holes are allowed). The worldline “left behind” by the shrinking, disappearing body is interpreted as its lowest-order motion. An equation for this worldline follows from the “Bianchi identity” for the theory, without use of any properties of the field equations beyond their being second-order. The form of the force law for a theory therefore depends only on the ranks of its various tensor fields; the detailed properties of the field equations are relevant only for determining the charges for a particular body (which are the “monopoles” of its exterior fields in a suitable limiting sense). I explicitly derive the force law (and mass-evolution law) in the case of scalar and vector fields, and give the recipe in the higher-rank case. Note that the vector force law is quite complicated, simplifying to the Lorentz force law only in the presence of the Maxwell gauge symmetry. Example applications of the results are the motion of “chameleon” bodies beyond the Newtonian limit, and the motion of bodies in (classical) non-Abelian gauge theory. I also make some comments on the role that scaling plays in the appearance of universality in the motion of bodies.

Gralla, Samuel E.

2010-04-01

196

Vertex operator algebras and conformal field theory

This paper discusses conformal field theory, an important physical theory, describing both two-dimensional critical phenomena in condensed matter physics and classical motions of strings in string theory. The study of conformal field theory will deepen the understanding of these theories and will help to understand string theory conceptually. Besides its importance in physics, the beautiful and rich mathematical structure of conformal field theory has interested many mathematicians. New relations between different branches of mathematics, such as representations of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras and Lie groups, Riemann surfaces and algebraic curves, the Monster sporadic group, modular functions and modular forms, elliptic genera and elliptic cohomology, Calabi-Yau manifolds, tensor categories, and knot theory, are revealed in the study of conformal field theory. It is therefore believed that the study of the mathematics involved in conformal field theory will ultimately lead to new mathematical structures which would be important to both mathematics and physics.

Huang, Y.Z. (School of Mathematics, Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (US))

1992-04-20

197

Fractional Statistics in Algebraic Quantum Field Theory

Fractional Statistics in Algebraic Quantum Field Theory and the Fractional Quantum Hall-states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 3 Effective Gauge Theory for Quantum Hall-Effects 33 3.1 Effective Gauge Field Action the connection of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect with Braid statistics in Algebraic Quantum Field Theory

van Elburg, Ronald A.J.

198

Logarithmic Conformal Field Theory with Supersymmetry

Logarithmic Conformal Field Theory with Supersymmetry Diplomarbeit Angefertigt am Institut f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Conclusions and Outlook 62 1 #12;Chapter 1 Introduction Conformal field theories (CFTs) are the class of quantum field theories which in addition to the PoincarÂ´e group are invariant under conformal

Flohr, Michael

199

Boundary States in Logarithmic Conformal Field Theory

Boundary States in Logarithmic Conformal Field Theory -- A novel Approach -- Diploma Thesis states in ordinary conformal field theories but extendible to cases that have a more complicated structure, such as rank-2 indecomposable Jordan cells as in logarithmic conformal field theories

Flohr, Michael

200

Quantum Field Theory in (0 + 1) Dimensions

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We show that many of the key ideas of quantum field theory can be illustrated simply and straightforwardly by using toy models in (0 + 1) dimensions. Because quantum field theory in (0 + 1) dimensions is equivalent to quantum mechanics, these models allow us to use techniques from quantum mechanics to gain insight into quantum field theory. In…

Boozer, A. D.

2007-01-01

201

Quantum Field Theory of Interacting Tachyons

A quantum field theory of spin-0 particles traveling with speeds greater than that of light has been constructed. The theory constructed here is explicitly Lorentz-invariant; and the quanta of the field obey Bose statistics. Formalism developed for the free field has been extended to the case of interaction of these particles with nucleons. A new feature of theory is the

J. Dhar; E. C. G. Sudarshan

1968-01-01

202

Noncommutative Dipole Field Theories And Unitarity

We extend the argument of Gomis and Mehen for violation of unitarity in field theories with space-time noncommutativity to dipole field theories. In dipole field theories with a timelike dipole vector, we present 1-loop amplitudes that violate the optical theorem. A quantum mechanical system with nonlocal potential of finite extent in time also shows violation of unitarity.

Chiou, Dah-Wei; Ganor, Ori J.

2003-10-24

203

Lagrangian perfect fluids and black hole mechanics

The first law of black hole mechanics (in the form derived by Wald), is expressed in terms of integrals over surfaces, at the horizon and spatial infinity, of a stationary, axisymmetric black hole, in a diffeomorphism invariant Lagrangian theory of gravity. The original statement of the first law given by Bardeen, Carter and Hawking for an Einstein-perfect fluid system contained, in addition, volume integrals of the fluid fields, over a spacelike slice stretching between these two surfaces. When applied to the Einstein-perfect fluid system, however, Wald's methods yield restricted results. The reason is that the fluid fields in the Lagrangian of a gravitating perfect fluid are typically nonstationary. We therefore first derive a first law-like relation for an arbitrary Lagrangian metric theory of gravity coupled to arbitrary Lagrangian matter fields, requiring only that the metric field be stationary. This relation includes a volume integral of matter fields over a spacelike slice between the black hole horizon and spatial infinity, and reduces to the first law originally derived by Bardeen, Carter and Hawking when the theory is general relativity coupled to a perfect fluid. We also consider a specific Lagrangian formulation for an isentropic perfect fluid given by Carter, and directly apply Wald's analysis. The resulting first law contains only surface integrals at the black hole horizon and spatial infinity, but this relation is much more restrictive in its allowed fluid configurations and perturbations than that given by Bardeen, Carter and Hawking. In the Appendix, we use the symplectic structure of the Einstein-perfect fluid system to derive a conserved current for perturbations of this system: this current reduces to one derived ab initio for this system by Chandrasekhar and Ferrari.

Vivek Iyer

1996-10-15

204

Classical Theorems in Noncommutative Quantum Field Theory

Classical results of the axiomatic quantum field theory - Reeh and Schlieder's theorems, irreducibility of the set of field operators and generalized Haag's theorem are proven in SO(1,1) invariant quantum field theory, of which an important example is noncommutative quantum field theory. In SO(1,3) invariant theory new consequences of generalized Haag's theorem are obtained. It has been proven that the equality of four-point Wightman functions in two theories leads to the equality of elastic scattering amplitudes and thus the total cross-sections in these theories.

M. Chaichian; M. Mnatsakanova; A. Tureanu; Yu. Vernov

2006-12-12

205

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reveal nonmanifest gauge and SO(1,5) Lorentz symmetries in the Lagrangian description of a six-dimensional free chiral field derived from the Bagger-Lambert-Gustavsson model in [P.-M. Ho and Y. Matsuo, J. High Energy Phys.JHEPFG1029-8479 06 (2008) 105.10.1088/1126-6708/2008/06/105] and make this formulation covariant with the use of a triplet of auxiliary scalar fields. We consider the coupling of this self-dual construction to gravity and its supersymmetrization. In the case of the nonlinear model of [P.-M. Ho, Y. Imamura, Y. Matsuo, and S. Shiba, J. High Energy Phys.JHEPFG1029-8479 08 (2008) 014.10.1088/1126-6708/2008/08/014] we solve the equations of motion of the gauge field, prove that its nonlinear field strength is self-dual and find a gauge-covariant form of the nonlinear action. Issues of the relation of this model to the known formulations of the M5-brane worldvolume theory are discussed.

Pasti, Paolo; Samsonov, Igor; Sorokin, Dmitri; Tonin, Mario

2009-10-01

206

Relationship between the comma theory and Witten's string field theory

The comma representation of interacting string field theory is further elucidated. The proof that Witten's vertex solves the comma overlap equations is established. In this representation, the associativity of the star algebra is seen to hold. The relationship of the symmetry K in the standard formulation of Witten's string field theory to that in the comma theory is discussed.

A. Abdurrahman; J. Bordes

1998-01-01

207

On conformal field theories with low number of primary fields

Using Verlinde formula and the symmetry of the modular matrix we describe an algorithm to find all conformal field theories with low number of primary fields. We employ the algorithm on up to eight primary fields. Four new conformal field theories are found which do not appear to come from current algebras. This supports evidence to the fact that rational conformal field theories are far richer than suspected before.

Roman Dovgard; Doron Gepner

2009-03-11

208

A Student's Guide to Lagrangians and Hamiltonians

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. Lagrangian Mechanics: 1. Fundamental concepts; 2. The calculus of variations; 3. Lagrangian dynamics; Part II. Hamiltonian Mechanics: 4. Hamilton's equations; 5. Canonical transformations: Poisson brackets; 6. Hamilton-Jacobi theory; 7. Continuous systems; Further reading; Index.

Hamill, Patrick

2013-11-01

209

A Naturally Renormalized Quantum Field Theory

It was shown that quantum metric fluctuations smear out the singularities of Green's functions on the light cone [1], but it does not remove other ultraviolet divergences of quantum field theory. We have proved that the quantum field theory in Krein space, {\\it i.e.} indefinite metric quantization, removes all divergences of quantum field theory with exception of the light cone singularity [2,3]. In this paper, it is discussed that the combination of quantum field theory in Krein space together with consideration of quantum metric fluctuations, results in quantum field theory without any divergences.

S. Rouhani; M. V. Takook

2006-07-07

210

Conformal field theories in a periodic potential: results from holography and field theory

Conformal field theories in a periodic potential: results from holography and field theory Paul study 2+1 dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs) with a globally conserved U(1) charge, placed[hep-th]1Aug2013 #12;Conformal field theories in a periodic potential: results from holography

211

Gauge fields: introduction to quantum theory

A detailed exposition of quantum dynamics of gauge fields is presented. The classical dynamics of gauge fields and their geometric meaning are described first. Then a detailed exposition of path integral method in quantum theory is given. It is shown that this method allows consideration of all the specifics of gauge field theory. Quantization of the Yang-Mills field is discussed.

L. D. Faddeev; A. A. Slavnov

1980-01-01

212

Mathematical quantization of Hamiltonian field theories

We define the renormalized evolution operator of the Schr\\"odinger equation in the infinite dimensional Weyl-Moyal algebra during a time interval for a wide class of Hamiltonians depending on time. This leads to a mathematical definition of quantum field theory $S$-matrix and Green functions. We show that for renormalizable field theories, our theory yields the renormalized perturbation series of perturbative quantum field theory. All the results are based on the Feynman graph series technique.

A. V. Stoyanovsky

2015-02-04

213

Gauge fields and fermions in tachyon effective field theories

In this paper we incorporate gauge fields into the tachyon field theory models for unstable D-branes in bosonic and in type-II string theories. The chosen couplings yield massless gauge fields and an infinite set of equally spaced massive gauge fields on codimension one branes. A lack of a continuum spectrum is taken as evidence that the stable tachyon vacuum does

Joseph A. Minahan; Barton Zwiebach

2001-01-01

214

Permutation Orbifolds in Conformal Field Theories and String Theory

We summarize the results obtained in the last few years about permutation orbifolds in two-dimensional conformal field theories, their application to string theory and their use in the construction of four-dimensional heterotic string models.

M. Maio

2011-11-03

215

Conformal Field Theory and Algebraic Structure of Gauge Theory

We consider various homotopy algebras related to Yang-Mills theory and two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT). Our main objects of study are Yang-Mills $L_{\\infty}$ and $C_{\\infty}$ algebras and their relation to the certain algebraic structures of Lian-Zuckerman type in CFT. We also consider several examples of algebras related to gauge theory, involving first order formulations and gauge theories with matter fields.

Anton M. Zeitlin

2010-04-15

216

Large N field theories, string theory and gravity

We review the holographic correspondence between field theories and string\\/M theory, focusing on the relation between compactifications of string\\/M theory on Anti-de Sitter spaces and conformal field theories. We review the background for this correspondence and discuss its motivations and the evidence for its correctness. We describe the main results that have been derived from the correspondence in the regime

Ofer Aharony; Steven S. Gubser; Juan Maldacena; Hirosi Ooguri; Yaron Oz

2000-01-01

217

Conformal Field Theory and algebraic structure of gauge theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider various homotopy algebras related to Yang-Mills theory and twodimensional conformal field theory (CFT). Our main objects of study are Yang-Mills L ? and C ? algebras and their relation to the certain algebraic structures of Lian-Zuckerman type in CFT. We also consider several examples of algebras related to gauge theory, involving first order formulations and gauge theories with matter fields.

Zeitlin, Anton M.

2010-03-01

218

Conformal Field Theories: From Old to New

In a short review of recent work, we discuss the general problem of constructing the actions of new conformal field theories from old conformal field theories. Such a construction follows when the old conformal field theory admits new conformal stress tensors in its chiral algebra, and it turns out that the new conformal field theory is generically a new spin-two gauge theory. As an example we discuss the new spin-two gauged sigma models which arise in this fashion from the general conformal non-linear sigma model.

Halpern, M.B.; Schwartz, C.

1998-02-11

219

Polynomial equations for rational conformal field theories

Duality of the conformal blocks of a rational conformal field theory defines matrices which may be used to construct representations of all monodromies and modular transformations in the theory. These duality matrices satisfy a finite number of independent polynomial equations, which imply constraints on monodromies allowed in rational conformal field theories. The equations include a key identity needed to prove

Gregory Moore; Nathan Seiberg

1988-01-01

220

Operator algebras and conformal field theory

We define and study two-dimensional, chiral conformal field theory by the methods of algebraic field theory. We start by characterizing the vacuum sectors of such theories and show that, under very general hypotheses, their algebras of local observables are isomorphic to the unique hyperfinite type III1 factor. The conformal net determined by the algebras of local observables is proven to

Fabrizio Gabbiani; Jürg Fröhlich

1993-01-01

221

Logarithmic operators in conformal field theory

Conformal field theories with correlation functions which have logarithmic singularities are considered. It is shown that those singularities imply the existence of additional operators in the theory which together with ordinary primary operators form the basis of the Jordan cell for the operator L0. An example of the field theory possessing such correlation functions is given.

V. Gurarie

1993-01-01

222

Constitutive Theories for Thermoelastic Solids in Lagrangian Description Using Gibbs Potential

of the constitution of the matter, the second law of thermodynamics, i.e. entropy inequality, must form the basis for all constitutive theories of the deforming matter to ensure thermodynamic equilibrium during the evolution [1, 2]. The entropy inequality expressed...

Mendoza, Yusshy

2012-08-31

223

Dual of the Janus solution: An interface conformal field theory

We propose and study a specific gauge theory dual of the smooth, nonsupersymmetric (and apparently stable) Janus solution of Type IIB supergravity found in Bak et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 05 (2003) 072]. The dual field theory is N=4 SYM theory on two half-spaces separated by a planar interface with different coupling constants in each half-space. We assume that the position dependent coupling multiplies the operator L{sup '} which is the fourth descendent of the primary TrX{sup {l_brace}}{sup I}X{sup J{r_brace}} and closely related to the N=4 Lagrangian density. At the classical level supersymmetry is broken explicitly, but SO(3,2) conformal symmetry is preserved. We use conformal perturbation theory to study various correlation functions to first and second order in the discontinuity of g{sub YM}{sup 2}, confirming quantum level conformal symmetry. Certain quantities such as the vacuum expectation value

Clark, A.B.; Karch, A. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States); Freedman, D.Z. [Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Schnabl, M. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2005-03-15

224

Dislocation theory as a physical field theory

Dislocations are the elementary carriers in many situations of plastic flow. Since they can be seen, counted and typified, e.g. in the electron microscope, and since their presence changes the state of the (elastoplastic) medium, the dislocations have the status of a physical state quantity. In spite of this a continuum theory of elastoplasticity can be built up which does

Ekkehart Kröner

1996-01-01

225

W symmetry in conformal field theory

We review various aspects of W algebra symmetry in two-dimensional conformal field theory and string theory. We pay particular attention to the construction of W algebras through the quantum Drinfeld-Sokolov reduction and through the coset construction.

Peter Bouwknegt; Kareljan Schoutens

1993-01-01

226

Microscopic Formulation of Puff Field Theory

We describe a generalization of Puff Field Theory to p+1 dimensions where 0 \\le p \\le 5. We then focus on the case of p=0, ``Puff Quantum Mechanics,'' and construct a formulation independent of string theory.

Haque, Sheikh Shajidul

2008-01-01

227

Microscopic Formulation of Puff Field Theory

We describe a generalization of Puff Field Theory to p+1 dimensions where 0 \\le p \\le 5. We then focus on the case of p=0, ``Puff Quantum Mechanics,'' and construct a formulation independent of string theory.

Sheikh Shajidul Haque; Akikazu Hashimoto

2008-01-28

228

Fermions and supersymmetry in E6(6) exceptional field theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct the supersymmetric completion of E6(6)-covariant exceptional field theory. The theory is based on a (5 + 27)-dimensional generalized space-time subject to a covariant section constraint. The fermions are tensors under the local Lorentz group SO(1, 4) × USp(8) and transform as weighted scalars under the E6(6) (internal) generalized diffeomorphisms. We present the complete Lagrangian and prove its invariance under supersymmetry. Upon explicit solution of the section constraint the theory embeds full D = 11 supergravity and IIB supergravity, respectively.

Musaev, Edvard T.; Samtleben, Henning

2015-03-01

229

Classical and quantum conformal field theory

We define chiral vertex operators and duality matrices and review the fundamental identities they satisfy. In order to understand the meaning of these equations, and therefore of conformal field theory, we define the classical limit of a conformal field theory as a limit in which the conformal weights of all primary fields vanish. The classical limit of the equations for

Gregory Moore; Nathan Seiberg

1989-01-01

230

The conformal field theory of orbifolds

A prescription for the calculation of any correlation function in orbifold conformal field theory is given. The method is applied to the scattering of four twisted string states, which allows the extraction of operator product coefficients of conformal twist fields. We derive Yukawa couplings in the effective field theory for fermionic strings on orbifolds. Supported in part by DOE grant

Lance Dixon; Daniel Friedan; Emil Martinec; Stephen Shenker

1987-01-01

231

Quasiparticles operators in conformal field theories

Gauge invariant fermion fields in fermionic coset models play a central role in the quasiparticle description of certain Conformal Field Theories (CFT's). We briefly outline the description for unitary minimal models, and show how spinon fields in SU(N){sub 1} Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) theories appear naturally within this scheme.

Cabra, Daniel C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

1998-01-10

232

Noncommutative Tachyons And String Field Theory

It has been shown recently that by turning on a large noncommutativity parameter, the description of tachyon condensation in string theory can be drastically simplified. We reconsider these issues from the standpoint of string field theory, showing that, from this point of view, the key fact is that in the limit of a large B-field, the string field algebra factors

Edward Witten

2000-01-01

233

Einstein's vierbein field theory of curved space

General Relativity theory is reviewed following the vierbein field theory approach proposed in 1928 by Einstein. It is based on the vierbein field taken as the "square root" of the metric tensor field. Einstein's vierbein theory is a gauge field theory for gravity; the vierbein field playing the role of a gauge field but not exactly like the vector potential field does in Yang-Mills theory--the correction to the derivative (the covariant derivative) is not proportional to the vierbein field as it would be if gravity were strictly a Yang-Mills theory. Einstein discovered the spin connection in terms of the vierbein fields to take the place of the conventional affine connection. To date, one of the most important applications of the vierbein representation is for the derivation of the correction to a 4-spinor quantum field transported in curved space, yielding the correct form of the covariant derivative. Thus, the vierbein field theory is the most natural way to represent a relativistic quantum field theory in...

Yepez, Jeffrey

2011-01-01

234

Homotopy Classification of Bosonic String Field Theory

We prove the decomposition theorem for the loop homotopy algebra of quantum closed string field theory and use it to show that closed string field theory is unique up to gauge transformations on a given string background and given S-matrix. For the theory of open and closed strings we use results in open-closed homotopy algebra to show that the space of inequivalent open string field theories is isomorphic to the space of classical closed string backgrounds. As a further application of the open-closed homotopy algebra we show that string field theory is background independent and locally unique in a very precise sense. Finally we discuss topological string theory in the framework of homotopy algebras and find a generalized correspondence between closed strings and open string field theories.

Korbinian Muenster; Ivo Sachs

2012-08-28

235

Homotopy Classification of Bosonic String Field Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove the decomposition theorem for the loop homotopy Lie algebra of quantum closed string field theory and use it to show that closed string field theory is unique up to gauge transformations on a given string background and given S-matrix. For the theory of open and closed strings we use results in open-closed homotopy algebra to show that the space of inequivalent open string field theories is isomorphic to the space of classical closed string backgrounds. As a further application of the open-closed homotopy algebra, we show that string field theory is background independent and locally unique in a very precise sense. Finally, we discuss topological string theory in the framework of homotopy algebras and find a generalized correspondence between closed strings and open string field theories.

Münster, Korbinian; Sachs, Ivo

2014-09-01

236

Effective field theory of modified gravity with two scalar fields: dark energy and dark matter

We present a framework for discussing the cosmology of dark energy and dark matter based on two scalar degrees of freedom. An effective field theory of cosmological perturbations is employed. A unitary gauge choice renders the dark energy field into the gravitational sector, for which we adopt a generic Lagrangian depending on three-dimensional geometrical scalar quantities arising in the ADM decomposition. We add to this dark-energy associated gravitational sector a scalar field $\\phi$ and its kinetic energy $X$ as dark matter variables. Compared to the single-field case, we find that there are additional conditions to obey in order to keep the equations of motion for linear cosmological perturbations at second order. For such a second-order multi-field theory we derive conditions under which ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of the scalar and tensor perturbations are absent. We apply our general results to models with dark energy emerging in the framework of the Horndeski theory and dark matter described b...

Gergely, László Á

2014-01-01

237

Unitary Fermi gas, epsilon expansion, and nonrelativistic conformal field theories

We review theoretical aspects of unitary Fermi gas (UFG), which has been realized in ultracold atom experiments. We first introduce the epsilon expansion technique based on a systematic expansion in terms of the dimensionality of space. We apply this technique to compute the thermodynamic quantities, the quasiparticle spectrum, and the critical temperature of UFG. We then discuss consequences of the scale and conformal invariance of UFG. We prove a correspondence between primary operators in nonrelativistic conformal field theories and energy eigenstates in a harmonic potential. We use this correspondence to compute energies of fermions at unitarity in a harmonic potential. The scale and conformal invariance together with the general coordinate invariance constrains the properties of UFG. We show the vanishing bulk viscosities of UFG and derive the low-energy effective Lagrangian for the superfluid UFG. Finally we propose other systems exhibiting the nonrelativistic scaling and conformal symmetries that can be in principle realized in ultracold atom experiments.

Yusuke Nishida; Dam Thanh Son

2010-04-20

238

Effective field theory of multi-field inflation a la Weinberg

We generalise Weinberg's effective field theory approach to multiple-field inflation. In addition to standard terms in the Lagrangian we consider terms containing up to the fourth derivative of the scalar fields and the metric. The results illustrate the possible shapes of the interactions which will yield non-Gaussianity. Generally we find that the speed of sound differs from, but is close to unity, however large non-Gaussianities are possible in the multi-field case. The non-Gaussianity of the adiabatic mode and the entropy mode are correlated in shape and amplitude with the amount of the non-Gaussianity depending on the curvature of the classical field path in phase-space. We emphasize that in general the time derivative of adiabatic and entropy perturbations do not invariant due to the shift symmetry. However we find two specific combinations of them are invariant under such a symmetry and these combinations should be employed to construct an effective field theory of multi-field inflation.

Khosravi, Nima, E-mail: nima@aims.ac.za [Cosmology Group, African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Muizenberg 7945, Cape Town (South Africa)

2012-05-01

239

Conformal field theory on the plane

We provide an introduction to conformal field theory on the plane in the conformal bootstrap approach. We introduce the main ideas of the bootstrap approach to quantum field theory, and how they apply to two-dimensional theories with local conformal symmetry. We describe the mathematical structures which appear in such theories, from the Virasoro algebra and its representations, to the BPZ equations and their solutions. As examples, we study a number of models: Liouville theory, (generalized) minimal models, free bosonic theories, the $H_3^+$ model, and the $SU_2$ and $\\widetilde{SL}_2(\\mathbb{R})$ WZW models.

Sylvain Ribault

2014-09-19

240

Logarithmic operators and logarithmic conformal field theories

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Logarithmic operators and logarithmic conformal field theories are reviewed. Prominent examples considered here include c = -2 and c = 0 logarithmic conformal field theories. c = 0 logarithmic conformal field theories are especially interesting since they describe some of the critical points of a variety of longstanding problems involving a two dimensional quantum particle moving in a spatially random potential, as well as critical two dimensional self-avoiding random walks and percolation. Lack of classification of logarithmic conformal field theories remains a major impediment to progress towards finding complete solutions to these problems.

Gurarie, Victor

2013-12-01

241

Tachyon Condensation: Calculations in String Field Theory

In this Ph.D. thesis, we study tachyon condensation in string field theories. In chapter 2, we review Witten's bosonic string field theory and calculate the tachyon potential. In chapter 3, we calculate the tachyon potential in Berkovits' superstring field theory. In chapter 4, we look for exact solutions in a toy model. Unpublished result: we use conservation laws to calculate the level (4,8) approximation of the tachyon potential in Berkovits' superstring field theory. We verify Sen's conjecture up to 94.4%.

Pieter-Jan De Smet

2001-09-24

242

The quantum character of physical fields. Foundations of field theories

The existing field theories are based on the properties of closed exterior forms, which are invariant ones and correspond to conservation laws for physical fields. Hence, to understand the foundations of field theories and their unity, one has to know how such closed exterior forms are obtained. In the present paper it is shown that closed exterior forms corresponding to field theories are obtained from the equations modelling conservation (balance)laws for material media. It has been developed the evolutionary method that enables one to describe the process of obtaining closed exterior forms. The process of obtaining closed exterior forms discloses the mechanism of evolutionary processes in material media and shows that material media generate, discretely, the physical structures, from which the physical fields are formed. This justifies the quantum character of field theories. On the other hand, this process demonstrates the connection between field theories and the equations for material media and points to the fact that the foundations of field theories must be conditioned by the properties of material media. It is shown that the external and internal symmetries of field theories are conditioned by the degrees of freedom of material media. The classification parameter of physical fields and interactions, that is, the parameter of the unified field theory, is connected with the number of noncommutative balance conservation laws for material media.

L. I. Petrova

2006-03-15

243

Energy-momentum currents in Finsler/Kawaguchi Lagrangian formulation

We reformulate the standard Lagrangian formalism to a reparameterisation invariant Lagrangian formalism by means of Finsler and Kawaguchi geometry. In our formalism, various types of symmetries that appears in theories of physics are expressed geometrically by symmetries of Finsler (Kawaguchi) metric, and the conservation law of energy-momentum is a part of Euler-Lagrange equations. The application to scalar field, Dirac field, electromagnetic field and general relativity are discussed. By this formalism, we try to propose an alternative definition of energy-momentum current of gravity.

Takayoshi Ootsuka; Ryoko Yahagi; Muneyuki Ishida; Erico Tanaka

2014-07-12

244

Subfactors and Conformal Field Theory DAVID E. EVANS

Subfactors and Conformal Field Theory DAVID E. EVANS University of Wales, Swansea, SA2 8PP, WALES) conformal field theory, and topological quantum field theory. Key words: conformal field theory, modular-symbols, rational conformal field theory and topological quantum field theory. Further details

Kawahigashi, Yasuyuki

245

Field Theory for Fractional Quantum Hall States

We develop a field theory description of fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states. We show that in the leading approximation in a gradient expansion, Laughlin states are described by a Gaussian free field theory with a background charge which is identified with the anomalous viscosity of the states. The background charge increases the central charge of the corresponding conformal field theory above 1, similar to that of the theory of 2D quantum gravity. Gradient corrections to the Gaussian field theory arising from ultraviolet regularization reflect the gravitational anomaly. They are also related to the Liouville theory of quantum gravity. We show how the gradient expansion of the field action encodes the universal features of the FQH effect beyond that of Hall conductance. This method provides a more transparent and useful alternative for computing the gravitational anomaly and correlation functions of the FQHE in a curved space than the method of iterating the Ward identity employed by the authors in previous papers.

T. Can; M. Laskin; P. Wiegmann

2014-12-30

246

Functional Integration for Quantum Field Theory

The functional integration scheme for path integrals advanced by Cartier and DeWitt-Morette is extended to the case of fields. The extended scheme is then applied to quantum field theory. Several aspects of the construction are discussed.

J. LaChapelle

2006-10-16

247

Pascual Jordan's legacy and the ongoing research in quantum field theory?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pascual Jordan's path-breaking role as the protagonist of quantum field theory (QFT) is recalled and his friendly dispute with Dirac's particle-based relativistic quantum theory is presented as the start of the field-particle conundrum which, though in modified form, persists up to this date. Jordan had an intuitive understanding that the existence of a causal propagation with finite propagation speed in a quantum theory led to radically different physical phenomena than those of QM. The conceptional-mathematical understanding for such an approach began to emerge only 30 years later. The strongest link between Jordan's view of QFT and modern "local quantum physics" is the central role of causal locality as the defining principle of QFT as opposed to the Born localization in QM. The issue of causal localization is also the arena where misunderstandings led to a serious derailment of large part of particle theory e.g. the misinterpretation of an infinite component pointlike field resulting from the quantization of the Nambu-Goto Lagrangian as a spacetime quantum string. The new concept of modular localization, which replaces Jordan's causal locality, is especially important to overcome the imperfections of gauge theories for which Jordan was the first to note nonlocal aspects of physical (not Lagrangian) charged fields. Two interesting subjects in which Jordan was far ahead of his contemporaries will be presented in two separate sections. Dedicated to my teacher and role model: Rudolf Haag.

Schroer, B.

2010-04-01

248

Pascual Jordan's legacy and the ongoing research in quantum field theory?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pascual Jordan's path-breaking role as the protagonist of quantum field theory (QFT) is recalled and his friendly dispute with Dirac's particle-based relativistic quantum theory is presented as the start of the field-particle conundrum which, though in modified form, persists up to this date. Jordan had an intuitive understanding that the existence of a causal propagation with finite propagation speed in a quantum theory led to radically different physical phenomena than those of QM. The conceptional-mathematical understanding for such an approach began to emerge only 30 years later. The strongest link between Jordan's view of QFT and modern "local quantum physics" is the central role of causal locality as the defining principle of QFT as opposed to the Born localization in QM. The issue of causal localization is also the arena where misunderstandings led to a serious derailment of large part of particle theory e.g. the misinterpretation of an infinite component pointlike field resulting from the quantization of the Nambu-Goto Lagrangian as a spacetime quantum string. The new concept of modular localization, which replaces Jordan's causal locality, is especially important to overcome the imperfections of gauge theories for which Jordan was the first to note nonlocal aspects of physical(not Lagrangian) charged fields. Two interesting subjects in which Jordan was far ahead of his contemporaries will be presented in two separate sections.

Schroer, B.

2011-04-01

249

String field theory vertex from integrability

We propose a framework for computing the (light cone) string field theory vertex in the case when the string worldsheet QFT is a generic integrable theory. The prime example and ultimate goal would be the $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ superstring theory cubic string vertex and the chief application will be to use this framework as a formulation for ${ \\cal N}=4$ SYM theory OPE coefficients valid at any coupling up to wrapping corrections. In this paper we propose integrability axioms for the vertex, illustrate them on the example of the pp-wave string field theory and also uncover similar structures in weak coupling computations of OPE coefficients.

Bajnok, Zoltan

2015-01-01

250

We construct a ultraviolet completion of the bosonic sector of 11-dimensional supergravity motivated by string field theory. We start from a general class of theories characterized by an entire nonpolynomial form factor which allows one to avoid new poles in the propagator and improves the high-energy behavior of the loops amplitudes. Comparing these models with effective string field theory, a unique form factor is selected out. In view of this, we modify 10-dimensional supergravity and finally get a ultraviolet completion of 11-dimensional supergravity by an oxidation process. The result is a candidate for a finite and unitary particle-field limit of M-theory.

Gianluca Calcagni; Leonardo Modesto

2014-04-08

251

We construct a ultraviolet completion of the bosonic sector of 11-dimensional supergravity motivated by string field theory. We start from a general class of theories characterized by an entire nonpolynomial form factor which allows one to avoid new poles in the propagator and improves the high-energy behavior of the loops amplitudes. Comparing these models with effective string field theory, a unique form factor is selected out. In view of this, we modify 10-dimensional supergravity and finally get a ultraviolet completion of 11-dimensional supergravity by an oxidation process. The result is a candidate for a finite and unitary particle-field limit of M-theory.

Calcagni, Gianluca

2014-01-01

252

Axiomatic quantum field theory in curved spacetime

The usual formulations of quantum field theory in Minkowski spacetime make crucial use of features--such as Poincare invariance and the existence of a preferred vacuum state--that are very special to Minkowski spacetime. In order to generalize the formulation of quantum field theory to arbitrary globally hyperbolic curved spacetimes, it is essential that the theory be formulated in an entirely local and covariant manner, without assuming the presence of a preferred state. We propose a new framework for quantum field theory, in which the existence of an Operator Product Expansion (OPE) is elevated to a fundamental status, and, in essence, all of the properties of the quantum field theory are determined by its OPE. We provide general axioms for the OPE coefficients of a quantum field theory. These include a local and covariance assumption (implying that the quantum field theory is locally and covariantly constructed from the spacetime metric), a microlocal spectrum condition, an "associativity" condition, and the requirement that the coefficient of the identity in the OPE of the product of a field with its adjoint have positive scaling degree. We prove curved spacetime versions of the spin-statistics theorem and the PCT theorem. Some potentially significant further implications of our new viewpoint on quantum field theory are discussed.

S. Hollands; R. M. Wald

2008-03-13

253

Numerical Object Oriented Quantum Field Theory Calculations

The qft++ package is a library of C++ classes that facilitate numerical (not algebraic) quantum field theory calculations. Mathematical objects such as matrices, tensors, Dirac spinors, polarization and orbital angular momentum tensors, etc. are represented as C++ objects in qft++. The package permits construction of code which closely resembles quantum field theory expressions, allowing for quick and reliable calculations.

M. Williams

2009-05-07

254

Quantum Field Theory with Extra Dimensions

We explain that a bulk with arbitrary dimensions can be added to the space over which a quantum field theory is defined. This gives a TQFT such that its correlation functions in a slice are the same as those of the original quantum field theory. This generalizes the stochastic quantization scheme, where the bulk is one dimensional.

Laurent Baulieu

2002-01-15

255

Bonus symmetry in conformal field theory

Conformal field theories typically have an enlarged symmetry over that of the chiral algebra. These enlarged symmetries simplify the analysis of a theory by linking representations that would appear independent based on considerations of the smaller symmetry of the chiral algebra. It will be shown that this bonus symmetry occurs whenever a primary field g has a fusion rule with

Kenneth Intriligator

1990-01-01

256

osp(1|2) conformal field theory

We review some results recently obtained for the conformal field theories based on the affine Lie superalgebra osp(1|2). In particular, we study the representation theory of the osp(1|2) current algebras and their character formulas. By means of a free field representation of the conformal blocks, we obtain the structure constants and the fusion rules of the model.

Ennes, I. P.; Ramallo, A. V.; Sanchez de Santos, J. M. [Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Universidad de Santiago, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

1998-01-10

257

Tachyon Matter in Boundary String Field Theory

We analyse the classical decay process of unstable D-branes in superstring theory using the boundary string field theory (BSFT) action. We show that the solutions of the equations of motion for the tachyon field asymptotically approach to T = x0 and the pressure rapidly falls off at late time producing the tachyon matter irrespective of the initial condition. We also

Shigeki Sugimoto; Seiji Terashima

2002-01-01

258

Unified univariate and multivariate random field theory

We report new random field theory P-values for peaks of canonical correlation SPMs for detecting multiple contrasts in a linear model for multivariate image data. This completes results for all types of univariate and multivariate image data analysis. All other known univariate and multivariate random field theory results are now special cases, so these new results present a true unification

Keith J. Worsley; Jonathan E. Taylor; Francesco Tomaiuolo; Jason Lerch; J. E. Taylor

2004-01-01

259

Axiomatic Quantum Field Theory in Curved Spacetime

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The usual formulations of quantum field theory in Minkowski spacetime make crucial use of features—such as Poincaré invariance and the existence of a preferred vacuum state—that are very special to Minkowski spacetime. In order to generalize the formulation of quantum field theory to arbitrary globally hyperbolic curved spacetimes, it is essential that the theory be formulated in an entirely local and covariant manner, without assuming the presence of a preferred state. We propose a new framework for quantum field theory, in which the existence of an Operator Product Expansion (OPE) is elevated to a fundamental status, and, in essence, all of the properties of the quantum field theory are determined by its OPE. We provide general axioms for the OPE coefficients of a quantum field theory. These include a local and covariance assumption (implying that the quantum field theory is constructed in a local and covariant manner from the spacetime metric and other background structure, such as time and space orientations), a microlocal spectrum condition, an “associativity” condition, and the requirement that the coefficient of the identity in the OPE of the product of a field with its adjoint have positive scaling degree. We prove curved spacetime versions of the spin-statistics theorem and the PCT theorem. Some potentially significant further implications of our new viewpoint on quantum field theory are discussed.

Hollands, Stefan; Wald, Robert M.

2010-01-01

260

String Field Theory Around the Tachyon Vacuum

Assuming that around the tachyon vacuum the kinetic term of cubic open string field theory is made purely of ghost operators we are led to gauge invariant actions which manifestly implement the absence of open string dynamics around this vacuum. We test this proposal by showing the existence of lump solutions of arbitrary codimension in this string field theory. The

Leonardo Rastelli; Ashoke Sen; Barton Zwiebach

2000-01-01

261

Effective Field Theory for Top Quark Physics

Physics beyond the standard model can affect top-quark physics indirectly. We describe the effective field theory approach to describing such physics, and contrast it with the vertex-function approach that has been pursued previously. We argue that the effective field theory approach has many fundamental advantages and is also simpler.

Cen Zhang; Scott Willenbrock

2010-08-18

262

Some convolution products in Quantum Field Theory

This paper aims to show constructions of scale dependence and interaction on some probabilistic models which may be revelant for renormalization theory in Quantum Field Theory. We begin with a review of the convolution product's use in the Kreimer-Connes formalism of perturbative renormalization. We show that the Wilson effective action can be obtained from a convolution product propriety of regularized Gaussian measures on the space of fields. Then, we propose a natural C*-algebraic framework for scale dependent field theories which may enhance the conceptual approach to renormalization theory. In the same spirit, we introduce a probabilistic construction of interacting theories for simple models and apply it for quantum field theory by defining a partition function in this setting.

Herintsitohaina Ratsimbarison

2006-12-05

263

Field theory models for tachyon and gauge field string dynamics

In hep-th\\/0008227, the unstable lump solution of phi3 theory was shown to have a spectrum governed by the solvable Schroedinger equation with the ell = 3 reflectionless potential and was used as a model for tachyon condensation in string theory. In this paper we study in detail an ellrightarrowinfty scalar field theory model whose lump solution mimics remarkably the string

Joseph A. Minahan; Barton Zwiebach

2000-01-01

264

Conformal Field Theory Correlators from Classical Scalar Field Theory on $AdS_{d+1}$

We use the correspondence between scalar field theory on $AdS_{d+1}$ and a\\u000aconformal field theory on $R^d$ to calculate the 3- and 4-point functions of\\u000athe latter. The classical scalar field theory action is evaluated at tree\\u000alevel.

W. Muck; K. S. Viswanathan

1998-01-01

265

From Percolation to Logarithmic Conformal Field Theory

The smallest deformation of the minimal model M(2,3) that can accommodate Cardy's derivation of the percolation crossing probability is presented. It is shown that this leads to a consistent logarithmic conformal field theory at c=0. A simple recipe for computing the associated fusion rules is given. The differences between this theory and the other recently proposed c=0 logarithmic conformal field theories are underlined. The discussion also emphasises the existence of invariant logarithmic couplings that generalise Gurarie's anomaly number.

Pierre Mathieu; David Ridout

2007-10-19

266

Entanglement entropy for logarithmic conformal field theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study holographic entanglement entropy for certain logarithmic conformal field theories by making use of their gravity descriptions. The corresponding gravity descriptions are provided by higher-derivative gravity at critical points where the equations of motion degenerate leading to a log gravity. When a central charge of the dual theory is zero, the entanglement entropy has a new divergent term whose coefficient is given by the "new anomaly" of the logarithmic conformal field theory.

Alishahiha, Mohsen; Faraji Astaneh, Amin; Mohammadi Mozaffar, M. Reza

2014-03-01

267

Entanglement Entropy for Logarithmic Conformal Field Theory

We study holographic entanglement entropy for certain logarithmic conformal field theories by making use of their gravity descriptions. The corresponding gravity descriptions are provided by higher derivative gravity at critical points where the equations of motion degenerate leading to a log gravity. When the central charge of the dual theory is zero, the entanglement entropy has a new divergent term whose coefficient is given by the new anomaly of the logarithmic conformal field theory.

Mohsen Alishahiha; Amin Faraji Astaneh; M. Reza Mohammadi Mozaffar

2014-05-13

268

Descent relations in cubic superstring field theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The descent relations between string field theory (SFT) vertices are characteristic relations of the operator formulation of SFT and they provide self-consistency of this theory. The descent relations langleV2|V1rangle and langleV3|V1rangle in the NS fermionic string field theory in the ? and discrete bases are established. Different regularizations and schemes of calculations are considered and relations between them are discussed.

Aref'eva, I. Y.; Gorbachev, R.; Medvedev, P. B.; Rychkov, D. V.

2008-01-01

269

Conformal nets and local field theory

We describe a coordinate-free notion of conformal nets as a mathematical model of conformal field theory. We define defects between conformal nets and introduce composition of defects, thereby providing a notion of morphism between conformal field theories. Altogether we characterize the algebraic structure of the collection of conformal nets as a symmetric monoidal tricategory. Dualizable objects of this tricategory correspond to conformal-net-valued 3-dimensional local topological quantum field theories. We prove that the dualizable conformal nets are the finite sums of irreducible nets with finite \\mu-index. This classification provides a variety of 3-dimensional local field theories, including local field theories associated to central extensions of the loop groups of the special unitary groups.

Arthur Bartels; Christopher L. Douglas; André G. Henriques

2010-10-10

270

Space–time noncommutative field theories and unitarity

We study the perturbative unitarity of noncommutative scalar field theories. Field theories with space–time noncommutativity do not have a unitary S-matrix. Field theories with only space noncommutativity are perturbatively unitary. This can be understood from string theory, since space noncommutative field theories describe a low energy limit of string theory in a background magnetic field. On the other hand, there

Jaume Gomis; Thomas Mehen

2000-01-01

271

Quantum field theory on noncommutative spaces

A pedagogical and self-contained introduction to noncommutative quantum field theory is presented, with emphasis on those properties that are intimately tied to string theory and gravity. Topics covered include the Weyl–Wigner correspondence, noncommutative Feynman diagrams, UV\\/IR mixing, noncommutative Yang–Mills theory on infinite space and on the torus, Morita equivalences of noncommutative gauge theories, twisted reduced models, and an in-depth study

Richard J. Szabo

2003-01-01

272

Geometric Engineering of Quantum Field Theories

this paper is whether we can derive non-trivialfield theory results directly as a consequence of the recently acquired deeper understandingof string theory dynamics, rather than as a result of a consequence of a duality conjecture.If so we can claim to understand non-trivial results in field theory simply based on theexistence of string theory and its established properties! As we shall

Sheldon Katz; Albrecht Klemm; Cumrun Vafa

1996-01-01

273

Resonant Tunneling in Scalar Quantum Field Theory

The resonant tunneling phenomenon is well understood in quantum mechanics. We argue why a similar phenomenon must be present in quantum field theory. We then use the functional Schr\\"odinger method to show how resonant tunneling through multiple barriers takes place in quantum field theory with a single scalar field. We also show how this phenomenon in scalar quantum field theory can lead to an exponential enhancement of the single-barrier tunneling rate. Our analysis is carried out in the thin-wall approximation.

S. -H. Henry Tye; Daniel Wohns

2009-10-06

274

Cosmological implications of conformal field theory

Requiring all massless elementary fields to have conformal scaling symmetry removes a conflict between gravitational theory and the quantum theory of elementary particles and fields. Extending this postulate to the scalar field of the Higgs model, dynamical breaking of both gauge and conformal symmetries determines parameters for the interacting fields. In uniform isotropic geometry a modified Friedmann cosmic evolution equation is derived with nonvanishing cosmological constant. Parameters determined by numerical solution are consistent with empirical data for redshifts $z\\leq z_*=1090$, including luminosity distances for observed type Ia supernovae and peak structure ratios in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The theory does not require dark matter.

Robert K. Nesbet

2011-02-14

275

Background independent action for double field theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double field theory describes a massless subsector of closed string theory with both momentum and winding excitations. The gauge algebra is governed by the Courant bracket in certain subsectors of this double field theory. We construct the associated nonlinear background-independent action that is T-duality invariant and realizes the Courant gauge algebra. The action is the sum of a standard action for gravity, antisymmetric tensor, and dilaton fields written with ordinary derivatives, a similar action for dual fields with dual derivatives, and a mixed term that is needed for gauge invariance.

Hohm, Olaf; Hull, Chris; Zwiebach, Barton

2010-07-01

276

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1990s, Kempf and his collaborators Mangano and Mann introduced a D-dimensional (?, ??)-two-parameter deformed Heisenberg algebra which leads to an isotropic minimal length (\\triangle Xi)\\min = \\hbar ? {D? +? '}, \\forall i\\in \\{1, 2, ..., D\\}. In this work, the Lagrangian formulation of a magnetostatic field in three spatial dimensions (D = 3) described by Kempf algebra is presented in the special case of ?? = 2? up to the first-order over ?. We show that at the classical level there is a similarity between magnetostatics in the presence of a minimal length scale (modified magnetostatics) and the magnetostatic sector of the Abelian Lee-Wick model in three spatial dimensions. The integral form of Ampere's law and the energy density of a magnetostatic field in the modified magnetostatics are obtained. Also, the Biot-Savart law in the modified magnetostatics is found. By studying the effect of minimal length corrections to the gyromagnetic moment of the muon, we conclude that the upper bound on the isotropic minimal length scale in three spatial dimensions is 4.42×10-19 m. The relationship between magnetostatics with a minimal length and the Gaete-Spallucci nonlocal magnetostatics [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45, 065401 (2012)] is investigated.

Moayedi, S. K.; Setare, M. R.; Khosropour, B.

2013-11-01

277

We review the effective field theory of modified gravity in which the Lagrangian involves three dimensional geometric quantities appearing in the 3+1 decomposition of space-time. On the flat isotropic cosmological background we expand a general action up to second order in the perturbations of geometric scalars, by taking into account spatial derivatives higher than two. Our analysis covers a wide range of gravitational theories-- including Horndeski theory/its recent generalizations and the projectable/non-projectable versions of Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity. We derive the equations of motion for linear cosmological perturbations and apply them to the calculations of inflationary power spectra as well as the dark energy dynamics in Galileon theories. We also show that our general results conveniently recover stability conditions of Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity already derived in the literature.

Kase, Ryotaro

2014-01-01

278

Two-time physics in field theory

A field theory formulation of two-time physics in d+2 dimensions is obtained from the covariant quantization of the constraint system associated with the OSp(n\\\\|2) worldline gauge symmetries of two-time physics. Interactions among fields can then be included consistently with the underlying gauge symmetries. Through this process a relation between Dirac's work in 1936 on conformal symmetry in field theory and

Itzhak Bars

2000-01-01

279

Giant Gravitons in Conformal Field Theory

Giant gravitons in AdS5 × S5, and its orbifolds, have a dual field theory representation as states created by chiral primary operators. We argue that these operators are not single-trace operators in the conformal field theory, but rather are determinants and subdeterminants of scalar fields; the stringy exclusion principle applies to these operators. Evidence for this identification comes from three

Vijay Balasubramanian; Micha Berkooz; Asad Naqvi; Matthew J. Strassler

2002-01-01

280

Novel perturbative scheme in quantum field theory

A novel perturbative technique for solving quantum field theory is proposed. In this paper we explore this scheme in the context of self-interacting scalar field theory. For a phi/sup 2//sup p/ theory the method consists of expanding a phi/sup 2(1+//sup delta//sup )/ theory in powers of delta. A diagrammatic procedure for computing the terms in this series is given. We believe that for any Green's function the radius of convergence of this series is finite and is, in fact, 1. Moreover, while the terms in the unrenormalized series are individually divergent, they are considerably less so than in the standard weak-coupling perturbation series. In simple, low-dimensional quantum-field-theory models, the delta expansion gives excellent numerical results. We hope this new technique will ultimately shed some light on the question of whether a (phi/sup 4/)/sub 4/ theory is free.

Bender, C.M.; Milton, K.A.; Moshe, M.; Pinsky, S.S.; Simmons L.M. Jr.

1988-03-15

281

Path integral quantization of parametrized field theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Free scalar field theory on a flat spacetime can be cast into a generally covariant form known as parametrized field theory in which the action is a functional of the scalar field as well as the embedding variables which describe arbitrary, in general curved, foliations of the flat spacetime. We construct the path integral quantization of parametrized field theory in order to analyze issues at the interface of quantum field theory and general covariance in a path integral context. We show that the measure in the Lorentzian path integral is nontrivial and is the analog of the Fradkin-Vilkovisky measure for quantum gravity. We construct Euclidean functional integrals in the generally covariant setting of parametrized field theory using key ideas of Schleich and show that our constructions imply the existence of nonstandard “Wick rotations” of the standard free scalar field two-point function. We develop a framework to study the problem of time through computations of scalar field two-point functions. We illustrate our ideas through explicit computation for a time independent (1+1)-dimensional foliation. Although the problem of time seems to be absent in this simple example, the general case is still open. We discuss our results in the contexts of the path integral formulation of quantum gravity and the canonical quantization of parametrized field theory.

Varadarajan, Madhavan

2004-10-01

282

Supergeometry in locally covariant quantum field theory

In this paper we analyze supergeometric locally covariant quantum field theories. We develop suitable categories SLoc of super-Cartan supermanifolds, which generalize Lorentz manifolds in ordinary quantum field theory, and show that, starting from a few representation theoretic and geometric data, one can construct a functor A : SLoc --> S*Alg to the category of super-*-algebras which can be interpreted as a non-interacting super-quantum field theory. This construction turns out to disregard supersymmetry transformations as the morphism sets in the above categories are too small. We then solve this problem by using techniques from enriched category theory, which allows us to replace the morphism sets by suitable morphism supersets that contain supersymmetry transformations as their higher superpoints. We construct super-quantum field theories in terms of enriched functors eA : eSLoc --> eS*Alg between the enriched categories and show that supersymmetry transformations are appropriately described within the en...

Hack, Thomas-Paul; Schenkel, Alexander

2015-01-01

283

The theory of the Galactic magnetic field

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses the role of the magnetic field in determining the large scale structure and dynamics of the interstellar medium. It then discusses the origin and maintenance of the Galactic field. The two major competing theories are that the field is primordial and connected to an intergalactic field or that the field is removed from and regenerated within the Galaxy. Finally, cosmic ray acceleration and confinement in the interstellar medium are discussed.

Zweibel, Ellen G.

1987-01-01

284

Computational Methods in Quantum Field Theory

After a brief introduction to the statistical description of data, these lecture notes focus on quantum field theories as they emerge from lattice models in the critical limit. For the simulation of these lattice models, Markov chain Monte-Carlo methods are widely used. We discuss the heat bath and, more modern, cluster algorithms. The Ising model is used as a concrete illustration of important concepts such as correspondence between a theory of branes and quantum field theory or the duality map between strong and weak couplings. The notes then discuss the inclusion of gauge symmetries in lattice models and, in particular, the continuum limit in which quantum Yang-Mills theories arise.

Kurt Langfeld

2007-11-19

285

Perturbative Deformations of Conformal Field Theories Revisited

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to revisit the theory of perturbative deformations of conformal field theory from a mathematically rigorous, purely worldsheet point of view. We specifically include the case of N = (2,2) conformal field theories. From this point of view, we find certain surprising obstructions, which appear to indicate that contrary to previous findings, not all deformations along marginal fields exist perturbatively. This includes the case of deformation of the Gepner model of the Fermat quintic along certain cc fields. In other cases, including Gepner models of K3-surfaces and the free field theory, our results coincides with known predictions. We give partial interpretation of our results via renormalization and mirror symmetry.

Kriz, Igor

286

Mass corrections in string theory and lattice field theory

Kaluza-Klein (KK) compactifications of higher-dimensional Yang-Mills theories contain a number of 4-dimensional scalars corresponding to the internal components of the gauge field. While at tree level the scalar zero modes are massless, it is well known that quantum corrections make them massive. We compute these radiative corrections at 1 loop in an effective field theory framework, using the background field method and proper Schwinger-time regularization. In order to clarify the proper treatment of the sum over KK modes in the effective field theory approach, we consider the same problem in two different UV completions of Yang-Mills: string theory and lattice field theory. In both cases, when the compactification radius R is much bigger than the scale of the UV completion (R>>{radical}({alpha}{sup '}), a), we recover a mass renormalization that is independent of the UV scale and agrees with the one derived in the effective field theory approach. These results support the idea that the value of the mass corrections is, in this regime, universal for any UV completion that respects locality and gauge invariance. The string analysis suggests that this property holds also at higher loops. The lattice analysis suggests that the mass of the adjoint scalars appearing in N=2, 4 super Yang-Mills is highly suppressed, even if the lattice regularization breaks all supersymmetries explicitly. This is due to an interplay between the higher-dimensional gauge invariance and the degeneracy of bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom.

Del Debbio, Luigi; Kerrane, Eoin; Russo, Rodolfo [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Centre for Research in String Theory, Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

2009-07-15

287

Teaching electromagnetic field theory using differential forms

The calculus of differential forms has significant advantages over traditional methods as a tool for teaching electromagnetic (EM) field theory. First, films clarify the relationship between field intensity and flux density, by providing distinct mathematical and graphical representations for the two types of fields. Second, Ampere's and Faraday's laws obtain graphical representations that are as intuitive as the representation of

Karl F. Warnick; Richard H. Selfridge; David V. Arnold

1997-01-01

288

Effective Field Theory out of Equilibrium: Brownian quantum fields

The emergence of an effective field theory out of equilibrium is studied in the case in which a light field --the system-- interacts with very heavy fields in a finite temperature bath. We obtain the reduced density matrix for the light field, its time evolution is determined by an effective action that includes the \\emph{influence action} from correlations of the heavy degrees of freedom. The non-equilibrium effective field theory yields a Langevin equation of motion for the light field in terms of dissipative and noise kernels that obey a generalized fluctuation dissipation relation. These are completely determined by the spectral density of the bath which is analyzed in detail for several cases. At $T=0$ we elucidate the effect of thresholds in the renormalization aspects and the asymptotic emergence of a local effective field theory with unitary time evolution. At $T\

Boyanovsky, D

2015-01-01

289

Quantum Algorithms for Fermionic Quantum Field Theories

Extending previous work on scalar field theories, we develop a quantum algorithm to compute relativistic scattering amplitudes in fermionic field theories, exemplified by the massive Gross-Neveu model, a theory in two spacetime dimensions with quartic interactions. The algorithm introduces new techniques to meet the additional challenges posed by the characteristics of fermionic fields, and its run time is polynomial in the desired precision and the energy. Thus, it constitutes further progress towards an efficient quantum algorithm for simulating the Standard Model of particle physics.

Stephen P. Jordan; Keith S. M. Lee; John Preskill

2014-04-28

290

Quantum Field Theory and the Standard Model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. Field Theory: 1. Microscopic theory of radiation; 2. Lorentz invariance and second quantization; 3. Classical Field Theory; 4. Old-fashioned perturbation theory; 5. Cross sections and decay rates; 6. The S-matrix and time-ordered products; 7. Feynman rules; Part II. Quantum Electrodynamics: 8. Spin 1 and gauge invariance; 9. Scalar QED; 10. Spinors; 11. Spinor solutions and CPT; 12. Spin and statistics; 13. Quantum electrodynamics; 14. Path integrals; Part III. Renormalization: 15. The Casimir effect; 16. Vacuum polarization; 17. The anomalous magnetic moment; 18. Mass renormalization; 19. Renormalized perturbation theory; 20. Infrared divergences; 21. Renormalizability; 22. Non-renormalizable theories; 23. The renormalization group; 24. Implications of Unitarity; Part IV. The Standard Model: 25. Yang-Mills theory; 26. Quantum Yang-Mills theory; 27. Gluon scattering and the spinor-helicity formalism; 28. Spontaneous symmetry breaking; 29. Weak interactions; 30. Anomalies; 31. Precision tests of the standard model; 32. QCD and the parton model; Part V. Advanced Topics: 33. Effective actions and Schwinger proper time; 34. Background fields; 35. Heavy-quark physics; 36. Jets and effective field theory; Appendices; References; Index.

Schwartz, Matthew D.

2014-03-01

291

N=2 gauge theories and degenerate fields of Toda theory

We discuss the correspondence between degenerate fields of the W{sub N} algebra and punctures of Gaiotto's description of the Seiberg-Witten curve of N=2 superconformal gauge theories. Namely, we find that the type of degenerate fields of the W{sub N} algebra, with null states at level one, is classified by Young diagrams with N boxes, and that the singular behavior of the Seiberg-Witten curve near the puncture agrees with that of W{sub N} generators. We also find how to translate mass parameters of the gauge theory to the momenta of the Toda theory.

Kanno, Shoichi; Matsuo, Yutaka; Shiba, Shotaro [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Tachikawa, Yuji [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

2010-02-15

292

Chiral field theories from conifolds

We discuss the geometric engineering and large n transition for an N=1 U(n) chiral gauge theory with one adjoint, one conjugate symmetric, one antisymmetric and eight fundamental chiral multiplets. Our IIB realization involves an orientifold of a non-compact Calabi-Yau A_2 fibration, together with D5-branes wrapping the exceptional curves of its resolution as well as the orientifold fixed locus. We give a detailed discussion of this background and of its relation to the Hanany-Witten realization of the same theory. In particular, we argue that the T-duality relating the two constructions maps the Z_2 orientifold of the Hanany-Witten realization into a Z_4 orientifold in type IIB. We also discuss the related engineering of theories with SO/Sp gauge groups and symmetric or antisymmetric matter.

Landsteiner, K; Tatar, R; Tatar, Radu

2003-01-01

293

Sedeonic theory of massless fields

In present paper we develop the description of massless fields on the basis of space-time algebra of sixteen-component sedeons. The generalized sedeonic second-order equation for unified gravitoelectromagnetic (GE) field describing simultaneously gravity and electromagnetism is proposed. The second-order relations for the GE field energy, momentum and Lorentz invariants are derived. We consider also the generalized sedeonic first-order equation for the massless neutrino field. The second-order relations for the neutrino potentials analogues to the Pointing theorem and Lorentz invariant relations in gravitoelectromagnetism are also derived.

V. L. Mironov; S. V. Mironov; S. A. Korolev

2012-06-26

294

Generating functionals and Lagrangian partial differential equations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this paper is to derive an alternative characterization of the multisymplectic form formula for classical field theories using the geometry of the space of boundary values. We review the concept of Type-I/II generating functionals defined on the space of boundary data of a Lagrangian field theory. On the Lagrangian side, we define an analogue of Jacobi's solution to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for field theories, and we show that by taking variational derivatives of this functional, we obtain an isotropic submanifold of the space of Cauchy data, described by the so-called multisymplectic form formula. As an example of the latter, we show that Lorentz's reciprocity principle in electromagnetism is a particular instance of the multisymplectic form formula. We also define a Hamiltonian analogue of Jacobi's solution, and we show that this functional is a Type-II generating functional. We finish the paper by defining a similar framework of generating functions for discrete field theories, and we show that for the linear wave equation, we recover the multisymplectic conservation law of Bridges.

Vankerschaver, Joris; Liao, Cuicui; Leok, Melvin

2013-08-01

295

Generating functionals and Lagrangian partial differential equations

The main goal of this paper is to derive an alternative characterization of the multisymplectic form formula for classical field theories using the geometry of the space of boundary values. We review the concept of Type-I/II generating functionals defined on the space of boundary data of a Lagrangian field theory. On the Lagrangian side, we define an analogue of Jacobi's solution to the Hamilton–Jacobi equation for field theories, and we show that by taking variational derivatives of this functional, we obtain an isotropic submanifold of the space of Cauchy data, described by the so-called multisymplectic form formula. As an example of the latter, we show that Lorentz's reciprocity principle in electromagnetism is a particular instance of the multisymplectic form formula. We also define a Hamiltonian analogue of Jacobi's solution, and we show that this functional is a Type-II generating functional. We finish the paper by defining a similar framework of generating functions for discrete field theories, and we show that for the linear wave equation, we recover the multisymplectic conservation law of Bridges.

Vankerschaver, Joris; Liao, Cuicui; Leok, Melvin [Department of Mathematics, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0112, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States)] [Department of Mathematics, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0112, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States)

2013-08-15

296

Zero Dimensional Field Theory of Tachyon Matter

The first issue about the object (now) called tachyons was published almost one century ago. Even though there is no experimental evidence of tachyons there are several reasons why tachyons are still of interest today, in fact interest in tachyons is increasing. Many string theories have tachyons occurring as some of the particles in the theory. In this paper we consider the zero dimensional version of the field theory of tachyon matter proposed by A. Sen. Using perturbation theory and ideas of S. Kar, we demonstrate how this tachyon field theory can be connected with a classical mechanical system, such as a massive particle moving in a constant field with quadratic friction. The corresponding Feynman path integral form is proposed using a perturbative method. A few promising lines for further applications and investigations are noted.

D. D. Dimitrijevic; G. S. Djordjevic

2006-11-28

297

Zero Dimensional Field Theory of Tachyon Matter

The first issue about the object (now) called tachyons was published almost one century ago. Even though there is no experimental evidence of tachyons there are several reasons why tachyons are still of interest today, in fact interest in tachyons is increasing. Many string theories have tachyons occurring as some of the particles in the theory. In this paper we consider the zero dimensional version of the field theory of tachyon matter proposed by A. Sen. Using perturbation theory and ideas of S. Kar, we demonstrate how this tachyon field theory can be connected with a classical mechanical system, such as a massive particle moving in a constant field with quadratic friction. The corresponding Feynman path integral form is proposed using a perturbative method. A few promising lines for further applications and investigations are noted.

Dimitrijevic, D. D. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Nis (Serbia); Djordjevic, G. S. [Department of Physics, University of Nis, P.O.Box 224, Nis (Serbia)

2007-04-23

298

A Superdimensional Dual-covariant Approach to Unified Field Theory

An approach to a Unified Field Theory (UFT) is developed as an attempt to establish unification of the Theory of Quantum Fields (QFT) and General Theory of Relativity (GTR) on the background of a covariant differential calculus. A dual State Vector field (DSV)consisting of covariant and contravariant N-component functions of variables of a N-dimensional unified manifod (UM)is introduced to represents matter. DSV is supposed to transform in a way distinct from that of the differentials of the UM variables. Consequently, the hybrid tensors and a hybrid affine tensor (Dynamic Connection, DC) are introduced. The hybrid curvature form (HCF) is introduced as a covariant derivative of DC. A system of covariant Euler-Lagrange (EL) equations for DSV, DC, and a twin couple of the triadic hybrid tensors (Split Metric, SM)is derived. A scalar Lagrangian form is composed based on a set of principles suited for UFT, including the homogeneity in the UM space, differential irreducibility and scale invariance. The type of the manifold geometry is not specified in advance, in neither local (signature) nor regional (topology) aspects. Equations for DSV play role of the Schroedinger-Dirac equation in space of UM. By the correspondent EL equations, DC and SM are connected to DSV and become responsible for the non-linear features of the system i.e. interactions. In this paper we mark breaking of a background paradigm of the modern QFT, the superposition principle. The issue of the UM-MF dimensionality will be addressed, and relations to the principles and methodology of QFT and GTR will be discussed.

Yaroslav Derbenev

2014-08-01

299

M-Theory as a Holographic Field Theory

We suggest that M-theory could be non-perturbatively equivalent to a local quantum field theory. More precisely, we present a ``renormalizable'' gauge theory in eleven dimensions, and show that it exhibits various properties expected of quantum M-theory, most notably the holographic principle of 't~Hooft and Susskind. The theory also satisfies Mach's principle: A macroscopically large space-time (and the inertia of low-energy excitations) is generated by a large number of ``partons'' in the microscopic theory. We argue that at low energies in large eleven dimensions, the theory should be effectively described by eleven-dimensional supergravity. This effective description breaks down at much lower energies than naively expected, precisely when the system saturates the Bekenstein bound on energy density. We show that the number of partons scales like the area of the surface surrounding the system, and discuss how this holographic reduction of degrees of freedom affects the cosmological constant problem. We propose the holographic field theory as a candidate for a covariant, non-perturbative formulation of quantum M-theory.

Petr Horava

1998-11-10

300

Austerity and Geometric Structure of Field Theories

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relation between the austerity idea and the geometric structure of the three basic field theories- -electrodynamics, Yang-Mills theory, and general relativity --is studied. The idea of austerity was originally suggested by J. A. Wheeler in an attempt to formulate the laws of physics in such a way that they would come into being only within "the gates of time" extending from big bang to big crunch, rather than exist from everlasting to everlasting. One of the most significant manifestations of the austerity idea in field theories is thought to be expressed by the boundary of a boundary principle (BBP). The BBP says that almost all content of the field theories can be deduced from the topological identity (PAR-DIFF)(CCIRC)(PAR -DIFF) = 0 used twice, at the 1-2-3-dimensional level (providing the homgeneous field equations), and at the 2-3-4-dimensional level (providing the conservation laws for the source currents). There are some difficulties in this line of thought due to the apparent lack of universality in application of the BBP to the three basic modern field theories--electrodynamics, Yang-Mills theory, and general relativity. This dissertation: (a) analyses the difficulties by means of algebraic topology, integration theory and modern differential geometry based on the concepts of principal bundles and Ehresmann connections; (b) extends the BBP to the unified Kaluza-Klein theory; (c) reformulates the inhomogeneous field equations and the BBP in terms of E. Cartan moment of rotation, in the way universal for all the three theories and compatible with the original austerity idea; (d) underlines the important role of the soldering structure on spacetime, and indicates that the future development of the austerity idea would involve the generalized theories, including the soldering form as a dynamical variable rather than as a background structure.

Kheyfets, Arkady

301

MEDSLIK-II, a Lagrangian marine oil spill model for short-term forecasting - Part 1: Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processes of transport, diffusion and transformation of surface oil in seawater can be simulated using a Lagrangian model formalism coupled with Eulerian circulation models. This paper describes the formalism and the conceptual assumptions of a Lagrangian marine oil slick numerical model and re-writes the constitutive equations in a modern mathematical framework. The Lagrangian numerical representation of the oil slick requires three different state variables: the slick, the particle and the structural state variables. Transformation processes (evaporation, spreading, dispersion and coastal adhesion) act on the slick state variables, while particles variables are used to model the transport and diffusion processes. The slick and particle variables are recombined together to compute the oil concentration in water, a structural state variable. The mathematical and numerical formulation of oil transport, diffusion and transformation processes described in this paper, together with the many simplifying hypothesis and parameterizations, form the basis of a new, open source Lagrangian surface oil spill model, so-called MEDSLIK-II. Part 2 of this paper describes the applications of MEDSLIK-II to oil spill simulations that allow the validation of the model results and the study of the sensitivity of the simulated oil slick to different model numerical parameterizations.

De Dominicis, M.; Pinardi, N.; Zodiatis, G.

2013-03-01

302

MEDSLIK-II, a Lagrangian marine surface oil spill model for short-term forecasting - Part 1: Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processes of transport, diffusion and transformation of surface oil in seawater can be simulated using a Lagrangian model formalism coupled with Eulerian circulation models. This paper describes the formalism and the conceptual assumptions of a Lagrangian marine surface oil slick numerical model and rewrites the constitutive equations in a modern mathematical framework. The Lagrangian numerical representation of the oil slick requires three different state variables: the slick, the particle and the structural state variables. Transformation processes (evaporation, spreading, dispersion and coastal adhesion) act on the slick state variables, while particle variables are used to model the transport and diffusion processes. The slick and particle variables are recombined together to compute the oil concentration in water, a structural state variable. The mathematical and numerical formulation of oil transport, diffusion and transformation processes described in this paper, together with the many simplifying hypothesis and parameterizations, form the basis of a new, open source Lagrangian surface oil spill model, the so-called MEDSLIK-II, based on its precursor MEDSLIK (Lardner et al., 1998, 2006; Zodiatis et al., 2008a). Part 2 of this paper describes the applications of the model to oil spill simulations that allow the validation of the model results and the study of the sensitivity of the simulated oil slick to different model numerical parameterizations.

De Dominicis, M.; Pinardi, N.; Zodiatis, G.; Lardner, R.

2013-11-01

303

Spinless Quantum Field Theory and Interpretation

Quantum field theory is mostly known as the most advanced and well-developed theory in physics, which combines quantum mechanics and special relativity consistently. In this work, we study the spinless quantum field theory, namely the Klein-Gordon equation, and we find that there exists a Dirac form of this equation which predicts the existence of spinless fermion. For its understanding, we start from the interpretation of quantum field based on the concept of quantum scope, we also extract new meanings of wave-particle duality and quantum statistics. The existence of spinless fermion is consistent with spin-statistics theorem and also supersymmetry, and it leads to several new kinds of interactions among elementary particles. Our work contributes to the study of spinless quantum field theory and could have implications for the case of higher spin.

Dong-Sheng Wang

2013-03-07

304

Introduction to Quantum Field Theory Arthur Jaffe

Introduction to Quantum Field Theory Arthur Jaffe Harvard University Cambridge, MA 02138, USA c by Arthur Jaffe. Reproduction only with permission of the author. 24 May, 2005 at 7:26 #12;ii #12;Contents I

Jaffe, Arthur

305

Conformal quantum field theory in various dimensions

Various relations between conformal quantum field theories in one, two and four dimensions are explored. The intention is to obtain a better understanding of 4D CFT with the help of methods from lower dimensional CFT.

Marcel Bischoff; Daniel Meise; Karl-Henning Rehren; Ingo Wagner

2009-08-24

306

Tachyon condensation in string field theory

In this thesis, we present some results that strongly support Sen's conjectures on tachyon condensation on a bosonic D-brane. Our main tool of analysis is level truncated open bosonic string field theory We use level ...

Moeller, Nicolas, 1975-

2003-01-01

307

Weyl's Abandonment of Unified Field Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1918, Hermann Weyl proposed a generalisation of Riemannian geometry, in order to unify general relativity and electrodynamics. This paper investigates the physical, mathematical and philosophical reasons for his subsequent abandonment of any such attempt towards a unified field theory.

Sieroka, Norman

2015-01-01

308

Pure field theories and MACSYMA algorithms

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pure field theory attempts to describe physical phenomena through singularity-free solutions of field equations resulting from an action principle. The physics goes into forming the action principle and interpreting specific results. Algorithms for the intervening mathematical steps are sketched. Vacuum general relativity is a pure field theory, serving as model and providing checks for generalizations. The fields of general relativity are the 10 components of a symmetric Riemannian metric tensor; those of the Einstein-Straus generalization are the 16 components of a nonsymmetric. Algebraic properties are exploited in top level MACSYMA commands toward performing some of the algorithms of that generalization. The light cone for the theory as left by Einstein and Straus is found and simplifications of that theory are discussed.

Ament, W. S.

1977-01-01

309

Effective Field Theory for Nuclear Physics

I summarize the motivation for the effective field theory approach to nuclear physics, and highlight some of its recent accomplishments. The results are compared with those computed in potential models.

David B. Kaplan

1999-01-01

310

Heavy quarks in effective field theories

Heavy quark physics serves as a probe to understand QCD, measure standard model parameters, and look for signs of new physics. We study several aspects of heavy quark systems in an effective field theory framework, including ...

Jain, Ambar

2009-01-01

311

SLE martingales in coset conformal field theory

Scharmm-Loewner evolution (SLE) and conformal field theory (CFT) are popular and widely used instruments to study critical behavior of two-dimensional models, but they use different objects. While SLE has natural connection with lattice models and is suitable for strict proofs, it lacks computational and predictive power of conformal field theory. To provide a way for the concurrent use of SLE and CFT we consider CFT correlation functions which are martingales with respect to SLE. We establish connection between parameters of Schramm-Loewner evolution on coset space and algebraic data of coset conformal field theory. Then we check the consistency of our approach with the behaviour of parafermionic and minimal models. Coset models are connected with off-critical massive field theories and we discuss implications for SLE.

Anton Nazarov

2012-08-08

312

Conformal quantum field theory in various dimensions

Various relations between conformal quantum field theories in one, two and four dimensions are explored. The intention is to obtain a better understanding of 4D CFT with the help of methods from lower dimensional CFT.

Bischoff, Marcel; Rehren, Karl-Henning; Wagner, Ingo

2009-01-01

313

Effective field theories for inclusive B decays

In this thesis, we study inclusive decays of the B meson. These allow one to determine CKM elements precisely and to search for physics beyond the Standard Model. We use the framework of effective field theories, in ...

Lee, Keith S. M. (Keith Seng Mun)

2006-01-01

314

Conformal Field Theories in Fractional Dimensions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the conformal bootstrap in fractional space-time dimensions, obtaining rigorous bounds on operator dimensions. Our results show strong evidence that there is a family of unitary conformal field theories connecting the 2D Ising model, the 3D Ising model, and the free scalar theory in 4D. We give numerical predictions for the leading operator dimensions and central charge in this family at different values of D and compare these to calculations of ?4 theory in the ? expansion.

El-Showk, Sheer; Paulos, Miguel; Poland, David; Rychkov, Slava; Simmons-Duffin, David; Vichi, Alessandro

2014-04-01

315

Holographic applications of logarithmic conformal field theories

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the relations between Jordan cells in various branches of physics, ranging from quantum mechanics to massive gravity theories. Our main focus is on holographic correspondences between critically tuned gravity theories in anti-de Sitter space and logarithmic conformal field theories in various dimensions. We summarize the developments in the past five years, include some novel generalizations and provide an outlook on possible future developments.

Grumiller, D.; Riedler, W.; Rosseel, J.; Zojer, T.

2013-12-01

316

Holographic applications of logarithmic conformal field theories

We review the relations between Jordan cells in various branches of physics, ranging from quantum mechanics to massive gravity theories. Our main focus is on holographic correspondences between critically tuned gravity theories in Anti-de Sitter space and logarithmic conformal field theories in various dimensions. We summarize the developments in the past five years, include some novel generalizations and provide an outlook on possible future developments.

D. Grumiller; W. Riedler; J. Rosseel; T. Zojer

2013-02-27

317

Solitonic integrable perturbations of conformal field theories

The construction of new series of integrable quantum field theories whose equations-of-motion are related to the non-abelian affine Toda equations is summarized. All these theories can be thought of as generalizations of the sine-Gordon theory. They admit (charged) soliton solutions, exhibit a mass-gap, and are described by a unitary (real positive-definite) action. Their quantum integrability and semi-classical spectrum of solitons are also discussed.

Miramontes, J. Luis [Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

1998-01-10

318

General Covariance in Algebraic Quantum Field Theory

In this review we report on how the problem of general covariance is treated within the algebraic approach to quantum field theory by use of concepts from category theory. Some new results on net cohomology and superselection structure attained in this framework are included.

Romeo Brunetti; Martin Porrmann; Giuseppe Ruzzi

2005-12-17

319

Tree Amplitudes in Scalar Field Theories

The tree amplitudes in scalar field theories are presented at all $n$. The momentum routing of propagators is given at $n$-point in terms of a specified set of numbers, and the mass expansion of the massive theories is generated. A group structure on the diagrams is given. The tree amplitudes can be used to find the effective action.

Gordon Chalmers

2005-04-24

320

A local logarithmic conformal field theory

The local logarithmic conformal field theory corresponding to the triplet algebra at c = -2 is constructed. The constraints of locality and duality are explored in detail, and a consistent set of amplitudes is found. The spectrum of the corresponding theory is determined, and it is found to be modular invariant. This provides the first construction of a non-chiral rational

Matthias R. Gaberdiel; Horst G. Kausch

1999-01-01

321

An introduction to conformal field theory

A comprehensive introduction to two-dimensional conformal field theory is given. The structure of the meromorphic subtheory is described in detail, and a number of examples are presented explicitly. Standard constructions such as the coset and the orbifold construction are explained. The concept of a representation of the meromorphic theory is introduced, and the role of Zhu's algebra in classifying highest

Matthias R Gaberdiel

2000-01-01

322

Algebraic conformal quantum field theory in perspective

Conformal quantum field theory is reviewed in the perspective of Axiomatic, notably Algebraic QFT. This theory is particularly developped in two spacetime dimensions, where many rigorous constructions are possible, as well as some complete classifications. The structural insights, analytical methods and constructive tools are expected to be useful also for four-dimensional QFT.

Karl-Henning Rehren

2015-01-14

323

Conformal field theory: a case study

This is a set of introductory lecture notes devoted to the Wess-Zumino-Witten model of two-dimensional conformal field theory. We review the construction of the exact solution of the model from the functional integral point of view. The boundary version of the theory is also briefly discussed.

Krzysztof Gawedzki

1999-01-01

324

Random loops and conformal field theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a review of results obtained by the author concerning the relation between conformally invariant random loops and conformal field theory. This review also attempts to provide a physical context in which to interpret these results by making connections with aspects of the nucleation theory of phase transitions and with general properties of criticality.

Doyon, Benjamin

2014-02-01

325

Boundary conditions in rational conformal field theories

We develop further the theory of Rational Conformal Field Theories (RCFTs) on a cylinder with specified boundary conditions emphasizing the role of a triplet of algebras: the Verlinde, graph fusion and Pasquier algebras. We show that solving Cardy's equation, expressing consistency of a RCFT on a cylinder, is equivalent to finding integer valued matrix representations of the Verlinde algebra. These

Roger E. Behrend; Paul A. Pearce; Valentina B. Petkova; Jean-Bernard Zuber

2000-01-01

326

RATIONAL SYMPLECTIC FIELD THEORY FOR LEGENDRIAN KNOTS

, Symplectic Field Theory (SFT), which was introduced by Eliashberg, Givental, and Hofer about a decade ago [EGH00]. The relevant portion of the SFT package for our purposes is a filtered theory for contact puncture, SFT counts holomorphic curves with arbitrarily many positive punctures. In the "closed" case (in

Ng, Lenny

327

Propagators in Lagrangian space

It has been found recently that propagators, e.g. the cross-correlation spectra of the cosmic fields with the initial density field, decay exponentially at large-k in an Eulerian description of the dynamics. We explore here similar quantities defined for a Lagrangian space description. We find that propagators in Lagrangian space do not exhibit the same properties: they are found not to be monotonic functions of time, and to track back the linear growth rate at late time (but with a renormalized amplitude). These results have been obtained with a novel method which we describe alongside. It allows the formal resummation of the same set of diagrams as those that led to the known results in Eulerian space. We provide a tentative explanation for the marked differences seen between the Eulerian and the Lagrangian cases, and we point out the role played by the vorticity degrees of freedom that are specific to the Lagrangian formalism. This provides us with new insights into the late-time behavior of the propagators.

Francis Bernardeau; Patrick Valageas

2008-05-06

328

Einstein manifolds and conformal field theories

In light of the anti-de Sitter space conformal field theory correspondence, it is natural to try to define a conformal field theory in a large N, strong coupling limit via a supergravity compactification on the product of an Einstein manifold and anti-de Sitter space. We consider the five-dimensional manifolds Tpq which are coset spaces [SU(2)×SU(2)]\\/U(1). The central charge and a

Steven S. Gubser

1999-01-01

329

Meromorphic c =24 conformal field theories

Modular invariant conformal field theories with just one primary field and central chargec=24 are considered. It has been shown previously that if the chiral algebra of such a theory contains spin-1 currents, it is either the Leech lattice CFT, or it contains a Kac-Moody sub-algebra with total central charge 24. In this paper all meromorphic modular invariant combinations of the

A. N. Schellekens

1993-01-01

330

Conformal field theory of twisted vertex operators

The Z2-twisted bosonic conformal field theory associated with a d-dimensional momentum lattice Lambda is constructed explicitly. A complete system of vertex operators (conformal fields) which describes this theory on the Riemann sphere is given and is demonstrated to form a mutually local set when d is a multiple of 8, Lambda is even, and &surd;2Lambda* is also even. (This last

L. Dolan; P. Goddard; P. Montague

1990-01-01

331

Tachyon Matter in Boundary String Field Theory

We analyse the classical decay process of unstable D-branes in superstring theory using the boundary string field theory (BSFT) action. We show that the solutions of the equations of motion for the tachyon field asymptotically approach to T=x^0 and the pressure rapidly falls off at late time producing the tachyon matter irrespective of the initial condition. We also consider the cosmological evolution driven by the rolling tachyon using the BSFT action as an effective action.

S. Sugimoto; S. Terashima

2002-05-18

332

Chiral field theories from conifolds

We discuss the geometric engineering and large n transition for an N=1 U(n) chiral gauge theory with one adjoint, one conjugate symmetric, one antisymmetric and eight fundamental chiral multiplets. Our IIB realization involves an orientifold of a non-compact Calabi-Yau A2 fibration, together with D5-branes wrapping the exceptional curves of its resolution as well as the orientifold fixed locus. We give

Karl Landsteiner; Calin Iuliu Lazaroiu; Radu Tatar

2003-01-01

333

Dark energy or modified gravity? An effective field theory approach

We take an Effective Field Theory (EFT) approach to unifying existing proposals for the origin of cosmic acceleration and its connection to cosmological observations. Building on earlier work where EFT methods were used with observations to constrain the background evolution, we extend this program to the level of the EFT of the cosmological perturbations — following the example from the EFT of Inflation. Within this framework, we construct the general theory around an assumed background which will typically be chosen to mimic ?CDM, and identify the parameters of interest for constraining dark energy and modified gravity models with observations. We discuss the similarities to the EFT of Inflation, but we also identify a number of subtleties including the relationship between the scalar perturbations and the Goldstone boson of the spontaneously broken time translations. We present formulae that relate the parameters of the fundamental Lagrangian to the speed of sound, anisotropic shear stress, effective Newtonian constant, and Caldwell's varpi parameter, emphasizing the connection to observations. It is anticipated that this framework will be of use in constraining individual models, as well as for placing model-independent constraints on dark energy and modified gravity model building.

Bloomfield, Jolyon; Flanagan, Éanna É. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Park, Minjoon [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Watson, Scott, E-mail: jkb84@cornell.edu, E-mail: eef3@cornell.edu, E-mail: minjoonp@physics.umass.edu, E-mail: gswatson@syr.edu [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)

2013-08-01

334

Generalized Schwinger-DeWitt expansions and effective field theories

The well-known small-proper-time expansion (DeWitt WKB expansion) for the Schwinger proper-time Green's function is generalized such that it may have more versatile purposes. Our generalized form incorporates the heavy-mass expansion (in the form of the ..lambda../sup -1/ expansion recently introduced by us) and the derivative expansion as special cases, and should also be useful for studying perturbative renormalization of high-dimensional local operators or vertices. Using this result we explicitly verify our recent factorization-theory-based conjecture as regards the cancellation of infrared-sensitive parts when the ..lambda../sup -1/ expansion is employed to derive the low-energy effective field theory within the one-loop approximation. To demonstrate the power of our method further, the generalized Schwinger-DeWitt expansion is used to deduce the nonlinear sigma-model-type Lagrangians from the linear sigma models in the large-M/sub sigma/ limit.

Lee, C.; Lee, T.; Min, H.

1989-03-15

335

More Holography from Conformal Field Theory

We extend the work of [4] to support the conjecture that any conformal field theory with a large N expansion and a large gap in the spectrum of anomalous dimensions has a local bulk dual. We count to O(1/N^2) the solutions to the crossing constraints in conformal field theory for a completely general scalar four-point function and show that, to this order, the counting matches the number of independent interactions in a general scalar theory on Anti-de Sitter space. We introduce parity odd conformal blocks for this purpose.

Idse Heemskerk; James Sully

2010-06-04

336

8.324 Relativistic Quantum Field Theory II, Fall 2005

This course is the second course of the quantum field theory trimester sequence beginning with Relativistic Quantum Field Theory I (8.323) and ending with Relativistic Quantum Field Theory III (8.325). It develops in depth ...

Zwiebach, Barton

337

Lagrangian reduction and the double spherical pendulum

This paper studies the stability and bifurcations of the relative equilibrium of the double spherical pendulum, which has the circle as its symmetry group. The example as well as others with nonabelian symmetry groups, such as the rigid body, illustrate some useful general theory about Lagrangian reduction. In particular, we establish a satisfactory global theory of Lagrangian reduction that is

Jerrold E. Marsden; Juergen Scheurle

1993-01-01

338

Dark matter, Elko fields and Weinberg's quantum field theory formalism

The Elko quantum field was introduced by Ahluwalia and Grumiller, who proposed it as a candidate for dark matter. We study the Elko field in Weinberg's formalism for quantum field theory. We prove that if one takes the symmetry group to be the full Poincar\\'e group then the Elko field is not a quantum field in the sense of Weinberg. This confirms results of Ahluwalia, Lee and Schritt, who showed using a different approach that the Elko field does not transform covariantly under rotations and hence has a preferred axis.

Adam Gillard; Benjamin Martin

2012-05-08

339

Group field theory in dimension 4 -?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building on an analogy with ordinary scalar field theories, an ? -expansion for rank-3 tensorial group field theories with gauge invariance condition is introduced. This allows us to continuously interpolate between the dimension four group SU (2 )×U (1 ) and the dimension three SU(2). In the first situation, there is a unique marginal ?4 coupling constant, but in contrast to ordinary scalar field theory this model is asymptotically free. In the SU(2) case, the presence of two marginally relevant ?6 coupling constants and one ?4 super-renormalizable interaction spoils this interesting property. However, the existence of a nontrivial fixed point is established in dimension 4 -? , hence suggesting that the SU(2) theory might be asymptotically safe. To pave the way to future nonperturbative calculations, the present perturbative results are discussed in the framework of the effective average action.

Carrozza, Sylvain

2015-03-01

340

Viscosity, Black Holes, and Quantum Field Theory

We review recent progress in applying the AdS/CFT correspondence to finite-temperature field theory. In particular, we show how the hydrodynamic behavior of field theory is reflected in the low-momentum limit of correlation functions computed through a real-time AdS/CFT prescription, which we formulate. We also show how the hydrodynamic modes in field theory correspond to the low-lying quasinormal modes of the AdS black p-brane metric. We provide a proof of the universality of the viscosity/entropy ratio within a class of theories with gravity duals and formulate a viscosity bound conjecture. Possible implications for real systems are mentioned.

D. T. Son; A. O. Starinets

2007-07-11

341

Codimension two lump solutions in string field theory and tachyonic theories

We present some solutions for lumps in two dimensions in level-expanded string field theory, as well as in two tachyonic theories: pure tachyonic string field theory and pure $\\\\phi^3$ theory. Much easier to handle, these theories might be used to help understanding solitonic features of string field theory. We compare lump solutions between these theories and we discuss some convergence

Nicolas Moeller

2000-01-01

342

Conformal Field Theory and Geometry of Strings

What is quantum geometry? This question is becoming a popular leitmotiv in theoretical physics and in mathematics. Conformal field theory may catch a glimpse of the right answer. We review global aspects of the geometry of conformal fields, such as duality and mirror symmetry, and interpret them within Connes' non-commutative geometry. Extended version of lectures given by the 2nd author

Jurg Frohlich; Krzysztof Gawedzki

1993-01-01

343

Full counting statistics and field theory

We review the relations between the full counting statistics and the field theory of electric circuits. We demonstrate that for large conductances the counting statistics is determined by non-trivial saddle-point of the field. Coulomb effects in this limit are presented as quantum corrections that can stongly renormalize the action at low energies.

Yuli V. Nazarov

2007-01-01

344

Nonperturbative Quantum Field Theory in Astrophysics

The extreme electromagnetic or gravitational fields associated with some astrophysical objects can give rise to macroscopic effects arising from the physics of the quantum vacuum. Therefore, these objects are incredible laboratories for exploring the physics of quantum field theories. In this dissertation, we explore this idea in three astrophysical scenarios.

Dan Mazur

2012-09-20

345

D-branes and string field theory

In this thesis we study the D-brane physics in the context of Witten's cubic string field theory. We compute first few terms the low energy effective action for the non-abelian gauge field A, from Witten's action. We show ...

Sigalov, Ilya

2006-01-01

346

Phase-space quantization of field theory.

In this lecture, a limited introduction of gauge invariance in phase-space is provided, predicated on canonical transformations in quantum phase-space. Exact characteristic trajectories are also specified for the time-propagating Wigner phase-space distribution function: they are especially simple--indeed, classical--for the quantized simple harmonic oscillator. This serves as the underpinning of the field theoretic Wigner functional formulation introduced. Scalar field theory is thus reformulated in terms of distributions in field phase-space. This is a pedagogical selection from work published and reported at the Yukawa Institute Workshop ''Gauge Theory and Integrable Models'', 26-29 January, 1999.

Curtright, T.; Zachos, C.

1999-04-20

347

Parafermionic conformal field theory on the lattice

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finding the precise correspondence between lattice operators and the continuum fields that describe their long-distance properties is a largely open problem for strongly interacting critical points. Here, we solve this problem essentially completely in the case of the three-state Potts model, which exhibits a phase transition described by a strongly interacting ‘parafermion’ conformal field theory. Using symmetry arguments, insights from integrability, and extensive simulations, we construct lattice analogues of nearly all the relevant and marginal physical fields governing this transition. This construction includes chiral fields such as the parafermion. Along the way we also clarify the structure of operator product expansions between order and disorder fields, which we confirm numerically. Our results both suggest a systematic methodology for attacking non-free field theories on the lattice and find broader applications in the pursuit of exotic topologically ordered phases of matter.

Mong, Roger S. K.; Clarke, David J.; Alicea, Jason; Lindner, Netanel H.; Fendley, Paul

2014-11-01

348

Conformal field theory on affine Lie groups

Working directly on affine Lie groups, we construct several new formulations of the WZW model, the gauged WZW model, and the generic affine-Virasoro action. In one formulation each of these conformal field theories (CFTs) is expressed as a one-dimensional mechanical system whose variables are coordinates on the affine Lie group. When written in terms of the affine group element, this formulation exhibits a two-dimensional WZW term. In another formulation each CFT is written as a two-dimensional field theory, with a three- dimensional WZW term, whose fields are coordinates on the affine group. On the basis of these equivalent formulations, we develop a translation dictionary in which the new formulations on the affine Lie group are understood as mode formulations of the conventional formulations on the Lie group. Using this dictionary, we also express each CFT as a three-dimensional field theory on the Lie group with a four-dimensional WZW term. 36 refs.

Clubok, K.S.

1996-04-01

349

Generalized extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics.

Extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory is generalized in the limit of vanishing self-consistent field optimization prior to the force evaluations. The equations of motion are derived directly from the extended Lagrangian under the condition of an adiabatic separation between the nuclear and the electronic degrees of freedom. We show how this separation is automatically fulfilled and system independent. The generalized equations of motion require only one diagonalization per time step and are applicable to a broader range of materials with improved accuracy and stability compared to previous formulations. PMID:25362288

Niklasson, Anders M N; Cawkwell, Marc J

2014-10-28

350

Generalized extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics

Extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory is generalized in the limit of vanishing self-consistent field optimization prior to the force evaluations. The equations of motion are derived directly from the extended Lagrangian under the condition of an adiabatic separation between the nuclear and the electronic degrees of freedom. We show how this separation is automatically fulfilled and system independent. The generalized equations of motion require only one diagonalization per time step and are applicable to a broader range of materials with improved accuracy and stability compared to previous formulations.

Niklasson, Anders M. N., E-mail: amn@lanl.gov; Cawkwell, Marc J. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2014-10-28

351

Generalized Extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics

Extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory is generalized in the limit of vanishing self-consistent field optimization prior to the force evaluations. The equations of motion are derived directly from the extended Lagrangian under the condition of an adiabatic separation between the nuclear and the electronic degrees of freedom. We show how this separation is automatically fulfilled and system independent. The generalized equations of motion require only one diagonalization per time step and are applicable to a broader range of materials with improved accuracy and stability compared to previous formulations.

Niklasson, Anders M N

2014-01-01

352

Generalized extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory is generalized in the limit of vanishing self-consistent field optimization prior to the force evaluations. The equations of motion are derived directly from the extended Lagrangian under the condition of an adiabatic separation between the nuclear and the electronic degrees of freedom. We show how this separation is automatically fulfilled and system independent. The generalized equations of motion require only one diagonalization per time step and are applicable to a broader range of materials with improved accuracy and stability compared to previous formulations.

Niklasson, Anders M. N.; Cawkwell, Marc J.

2014-10-01

353

World sheet commuting ?? conformal field theory and nonrelativistic string theories

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a sigma model in two dimensions with Galilean symmetry in flat target space similar to the sigma model of the critical string theory with Lorentz symmetry in 10 flat spacetime dimensions. This is motivated by the works of Gomis and Ooguri [J. Math. Phys. (N.Y.)JMAPAQ0022-2488 42, 3127 (2001)10.1063/1.1372697] and Danielsson et al. [J. High Energy Phys.JHEPFG1029-8479 10 (2000) 02010.1088/1126-6708/2000/10/020; J. High Energy Phys.JHEPFG1029-8479 03 (2001) 041.10.1088/1126-6708/2001/03/041]. Our theory is much simpler than their theory and does not assume a compact coordinate. This nonrelativistic string theory has a bosonic matter ?? conformal field theory with the conformal weight of ? as 1. It is natural to identify time as a linear combination of ? and ?¯ through an explicit realization of the Galilean boost symmetry. The angle between ? and ?¯ parametrizes one parameter family of selection sectors. These selection sectors are responsible for having a nonrelativistic dispersion relation without a nontrivial topology in the nonrelativistic setup, which is one of the major differences from the previous works of Gomis and Ooguri and of Danielsson and co-workers. This simple theory is the nonrelativistic analogue of the critical string theory, and there are many different avenues ahead to be investigated. We mention a possible consistent generalization of this theory with different conformal weights for the ?? conformal field theory. We also mention supersymmetric generalizations of these theories.

Kim, Bom Soo

2007-11-01

354

Pauli-Villars regularization of field theories on the light front

Four-dimensional quantum field theories generally require regularization to be well defined. This can be done in various ways, but here we focus on Pauli-Villars (PV) regularization and apply it to nonperturbative calculations of bound states. The philosophy is to introduce enough PV fields to the Lagrangian to regulate the theory perturbatively, including preservation of symmetries, and assume that this is sufficient for the nonperturbative case. The numerical methods usually necessary for nonperturbative bound-state problems are then applied to a finite theory that has the original symmetries. The bound-state problem is formulated as a mass eigenvalue problem in terms of the light-front Hamiltonian. Applications to quantum electrodynamics are discussed.

Hiller, John R. [Department of Physics, University of Minnesota-Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota 55812 (United States)

2010-12-22

355

"Quantum Field Theory and QCD"

This grant partially funded a meeting, "QFT & QCD: Past, Present and Future" held at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA on March 18-19, 2005. The participants ranged from senior scientists (including at least 9 Nobel Prize winners, and 1 Fields medalist) to graduate students and undergraduates. There were several hundred persons in attendance at each lecture. The lectures ranged from superlative reviews of past progress, lists of important, unsolved questions, to provocative hypotheses for future discovery. The project generated a great deal of interest on the internet, raising awareness and interest in the open questions of theoretical physics.

Jaffe, Arthur M.

2006-02-25

356

Discriminating quantum field theories in curved spacetime

We initiate a program of using quantum channel discrimination to test physical theories. In particular, we focus on quantum field theories in curved spacetimes. We use the example of the Unruh effect to illustrate the principle of this approach, discriminating it against an existing alternative theory that does not predict thermal particles. We find that the usual strategy of counting particles in the vacuum can be improved on, thereby enhancing the discrimination. Coherent state probes, which are practical and feasible, give exponential improvement in the discrimination of the Unruh channel and come very close to optimal. These results are expected to be relevant to upcoming experimental tests of quantum field theory in curved spacetimes in analogue systems.

Jason Doukas; Gerardo Adesso; Stefano Pirandola; Andrzej Dragan

2013-06-19

357

Lagrangian postprocessing of computational hemodynamics.

Recent advances in imaging, modeling, and computing have rapidly expanded our capabilities to model hemodynamics in the large vessels (heart, arteries, and veins). This data encodes a wealth of information that is often under-utilized. Modeling (and measuring) blood flow in the large vessels typically amounts to solving for the time-varying velocity field in a region of interest. Flow in the heart and larger arteries is often complex, and velocity field data provides a starting point for investigating the hemodynamics. This data can be used to perform Lagrangian particle tracking, and other Lagrangian-based postprocessing. As described herein, Lagrangian methods are necessary to understand inherently transient hemodynamic conditions from the fluid mechanics perspective, and to properly understand the biomechanical factors that lead to acute and gradual changes of vascular function and health. The goal of the present paper is to review Lagrangian methods that have been used in post-processing velocity data of cardiovascular flows. PMID:25059889

Shadden, Shawn C; Arzani, Amirhossein

2015-01-01

358

Caustic Formation in Tachyon Effective Field Theories

Certain configurations of D-branes, for example wrong dimensional branes or the brane-antibrane system, are unstable to decay. This instability is described by the appearance of a tachyonic mode in the spectrum of open strings ending on the brane(s). The decay of these unstable systems is described by the rolling of the tachyon field from the unstable maximum to the minimum of its potential. We analytically study the dynamics of the inhomogeneous tachyon field as it rolls towards the true vacuum of the theory in the context of several different tachyon effective actions. We find that the vacuum dynamics of these theories is remarkably similar and in particular we show that in all cases the tachyon field forms caustics where second and higher derivatives of the field blow up. The formation of caustics signals a pathology in the evolution since each of the effective actions considered is not reliable in the vicinity of a caustic. We speculate that the formation of caustics is an artifact of truncating the tachyon action, which should contain all orders of derivatives acting on the field, to a finite number of derivatives. Finally, we consider inhomogeneous solutions in p-adic string theory, a toy model of the bosonic tachyon which contains derivatives of all orders acting on the field. For a large class of initial conditions we conclusively show that the evolution is well behaved in this case. It is unclear if these caustics are a genuine prediction of string theory or not.

Neil Barnaby

2004-07-13

359

Conformal Field Theory on the Fermi Surface

The Fermi surface may be usefully viewed as a collection of 1+1 dimensional chiral conformal field theories. This approach permits straightforward calculation of many anomalous ground state properties of the Fermi gas including entanglement entropy and number fluctuations. The 1+1 dimensional picture also generalizes to finite temperature and the presence of interactions. Finally, I argue that the low energy entanglement structure of Fermi liquid theory is universal, depending only on the geometry of the interacting Fermi surface.

Brian Swingle

2010-02-25

360

Tachyon condensation in superstring field theory

It has been conjectured that at the stationary point of the tachyon potential for the D-brane–anti-D-brane pair or for the non-BPS D-brane of superstring theories, the negative energy density cancels the brane tensions. We study this conjecture using a Wess–Zumino–Witten-like open superstring field theory free of contact term divergences and recently shown to give 60% of the vacuum energy by

Nathan Berkovits; Ashoke Sen; Barton Zwiebach

2000-01-01

361

Tachyon condensation in string field theory

It has been conjectured that at a stationary point of the tachyon potential for the D-brane of bosonic string theory, the negative energy density exactly cancels the D-brane tension. We evaluate this tachyon potential by off-shell calculations in open string field theory. Surprisingly, the condensation of the tachyon mode alone into the stationary point of its cubic potential is found

Ashoke Sen; Barton Zwiebach

2000-01-01

362

Non Perturbative Aspects of Field Theory

For any quantum field theory (QFT), there exists a set of Schwinger-Dyson equations (SDE) for all its Green functions. However, it is not always straight forward to extract quantitatively exact physical information from this set of equations, especially in the non perturbative regime. The situation becomes increasingly complex with growing number of external legs. I give a qualitative account of the hunt for the non perturbative Green functions in gauge theories.

Bashir, A. [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Apartado Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacn 58040 (Mexico)

2009-04-20

363

The role of the Beltrami parametrization of complex structures in 2-d Free Conformal Field Theory

This talk gives a review on how complex geometry and a Lagrangian formulation of 2-d conformal field theory are deeply related. In particular, how the use of the Beltrami parametrization of complex structures on a compact Riemann surface fits perfectly with the celebrated locality principle of field theory, the latter requiring the use infinite dimensional spaces. It also allows a direct application of the local index theorem for families of elliptic operators due to J.-M. Bismut, H. Gillet and C. Soul\\'{e}. The link between determinant line bundles equipped with the Quillen\\'s metric and the so-called holomorphic factorization property will be addressed in the case of free spin $j$ b-c systems or more generally of free fields with values sections of a holomorphic vector bundles over a compact Riemann surface.

Serge Lazzarini

2005-09-30

364

A CSP Field Theory with Helicity Correspondence

We propose the first covariant local action describing the propagation of a single free continuous-spin degree of freedom. The theory is simply formulated as a gauge theory in a "vector superspace", but can also be formulated in terms of a tower of symmetric tensor gauge fields. When the spin invariant $\\rho$ vanishes, the helicity correspondence is manifest -- familiar gauge theory actions are recovered and couplings to conserved currents can easily be introduced. For non-zero $\\rho$, a tower of tensor currents must be present, of which only the lowest rank is exactly conserved. A paucity of local gauge-invariant operators for non-zero $\\rho$ suggests that the equations of motion in any interacting theory should be covariant, not invariant, under a generalization of the free theory's gauge symmetry.

Philip Schuster; Natalia Toro

2014-04-02

365

A New World Sheet Field Theory

A second quantized field theory on the world sheet is developed for summing planar graphs of the phi^3 theory. This is in contrast to the earlier work, which was based on first quantization. The ground state of the model is investigated with the help of a variational ansatz. In complete agreement with standard perturbation theory, the infinities encountered in carrying out this calculation can be eliminated by the renormalization of the parameters of the model. We also find that, as in the earlier work, in the ground state, graphs form a dense network (condensate) on the world sheet.

Korkut Bardakci

2008-10-13

366

Supergeometry in locally covariant quantum field theory

In this paper we analyze supergeometric locally covariant quantum field theories. We develop suitable categories SLoc of super-Cartan supermanifolds, which generalize Lorentz manifolds in ordinary quantum field theory, and show that, starting from a few representation theoretic and geometric data, one can construct a functor A : SLoc --> S*Alg to the category of super-*-algebras which can be interpreted as a non-interacting super-quantum field theory. This construction turns out to disregard supersymmetry transformations as the morphism sets in the above categories are too small. We then solve this problem by using techniques from enriched category theory, which allows us to replace the morphism sets by suitable morphism supersets that contain supersymmetry transformations as their higher superpoints. We construct super-quantum field theories in terms of enriched functors eA : eSLoc --> eS*Alg between the enriched categories and show that supersymmetry transformations are appropriately described within the enriched framework. As examples we analyze the superparticle in 1|1-dimensions and the free Wess-Zumino model in 3|2-dimensions.

Thomas-Paul Hack; Florian Hanisch; Alexander Schenkel

2015-01-07

367

Extending the standard model effective field theory with the complete set of dimension-7 operators

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a complete list of the independent dimension-7 operators that are constructed using the standard model degrees of freedom and are invariant under the standard model gauge group. This list contains only 20 independent operators, far fewer than the 63 operators available at dimension 6. All of these dimension-7 operators contain fermions and violate lepton number, and 7 of the 20 violate baryon number as well. This result extends the standard model effective field theory and allows a more detailed exploration of the structure and properties of possible deformations from the standard model Lagrangian.

Lehman, Landon

2014-12-01

368

Extending the Standard Model Effective Field Theory with the Complete Set of Dimension-7 Operators

We present a complete list of the independent dimension-7 operators that are constructed using the Standard Model degrees of freedom and are invariant under the Standard Model gauge group. This list contains only 20 independent operators; far fewer than the 63 operators available at dimension 6. All of these dimension-7 operators contain fermions and violate lepton number, and 7 of the 20 violate baryon number as well. This result extends the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT) and allows a more detailed exploration of the structure and properties of possible deformations from the Standard Model Lagrangian.

Landon Lehman

2014-12-26

369

Percolation Crossing Formulas and Conformal Field Theory

Using conformal field theory, we derive several new crossing formulas at the two-dimensional percolation point. High-precision simulation confirms these results. Integrating them gives a unified derivation of Cardy's formula for the horizontal crossing probability $\\Pi_h(r)$, Watts' formula for the horizontal-vertical crossing probability $\\Pi_{hv}(r)$, and Cardy's formula for the expected number of clusters crossing horizontally $\\mathcal{N}_h(r)$. The main step in our approach implies the identification of the derivative of one primary operator with another. We present operator identities that support this idea and suggest the presence of additional symmetry in $c=0$ conformal field theories.

Jacob J. H. Simmons; Peter Kleban; Robert M. Ziff

2007-06-03

370

Conformal Field Theory, Geometry, and Entropy

In the context of the AdS\\/CFT correspondence, an explicit relation between\\u000athe physical degrees of freedom of 2+1d gravity and the stress tensor of 1+1d\\u000aconformal field theory is exhibited. Gravity encodes thermodynamic state\\u000avariables of conformal field theory, but does not distinguish among different\\u000aCFT states with the same expectation value for the stress tensor. Simply put,\\u000agravity is

Emil J. Martinec

1998-01-01

371

New approach to vacuum string field theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the possibility of applying a purely ghost kinetic operator in open string field theory from the perspective of a modern analytic method based on the KBc subalgebra. A purely ghost kinetic operator is obtained as a result of gauge fixing string field theory around the identity-based tachyon vacuum solution. We show that the obtained kinetic operator is not equivalent to the midpoint insertion of a conformal ghost, to which an extensive literature is devoted. We also show that the equation of motion does not admit nontrivial solutions.

Zeze, S.

2014-06-01

372

Conformal Field Theory and black hole physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis reviews the use of 2-dimensional conformal field theory applied to gravity, specifically calculating Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of black holes in (2+1) dimensions. A brief review of general relativity, Conformal Field Theory, energy extraction from black holes, and black hole thermodynamics will be given. The Cardy formula, which calculates the entropy of a black hole from the AdS/CFT duality, will be shown to calculate the correct Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the static and rotating BTZ black holes. The first law of black hole thermodynamics of the static, rotating, and charged-rotating BTZ black holes will be verified.

Sidhu, Steve

2012-01-01

373

Field Anti-Field Duality, p-Form Gauge Fields and Topological Field Theories

We construct a framework which unifyies in dual pairs the fields and anti-fields of the Batalin and Vilkovisky quantization method. We consider gauge theories of p-forms coupled to Yang-Mills fields. Our algorithm generates many topological models of the Chern-Simon type or of the Donaldson-Witten type. Some of these models can undergo a partial breaking of their topological symmetries.

Laurent Baulieu

1995-12-05

374

Astrophysical data analysis with information field theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-parametric imaging and data analysis in astrophysics and cosmology can be addressed by information field theory (IFT), a means of Bayesian, data based inference on spatially distributed signal fields. IFT is a statistical field theory, which permits the construction of optimal signal recovery algorithms. It exploits spatial correlations of the signal fields even for nonlinear and non-Gaussian signal inference problems. The alleviation of a perception threshold for recovering signals of unknown correlation structure by using IFT will be discussed in particular as well as a novel improvement on instrumental self-calibration schemes. IFT can be applied to many areas. Here, applications in in cosmology (cosmic microwave background, large-scale structure) and astrophysics (galactic magnetism, radio interferometry) are presented.

Enßlin, Torsten

2014-12-01

375

Coherent states formulation of polymer field theory

We introduce a stable and efficient complex Langevin (CL) scheme to enable the first direct numerical simulations of the coherent-states (CS) formulation of polymer field theory. In contrast with Edwards’ well-known auxiliary-field (AF) framework, the CS formulation does not contain an embedded nonlinear, non-local, implicit functional of the auxiliary fields, and the action of the field theory has a fully explicit, semi-local, and finite-order polynomial character. In the context of a polymer solution model, we demonstrate that the new CS-CL dynamical scheme for sampling fluctuations in the space of coherent states yields results in good agreement with now-standard AF-CL simulations. The formalism is potentially applicable to a broad range of polymer architectures and may facilitate systematic generation of trial actions for use in coarse-graining and numerical renormalization-group studies.

Man, Xingkun; Villet, Michael C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States) [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Delaney, Kris T. [Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)] [Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Orland, Henri [Institut de Physique Théorique, CE-Saclay, CEA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)] [Institut de Physique Théorique, CE-Saclay, CEA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Fredrickson, Glenn H., E-mail: ghf@mrl.ucsb.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2014-01-14

376

Mixing angles of quarks and leptons in quantum field theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arguments coming from Quantum Field Theory are supplemented with a 1-loop perturbative calculation to settle the non-unitarity of mixing matrices linking renormalized mass eigenstates to bare flavor states for non-degenerate coupled fermions. We simultaneously diagonalize the kinetic and mass terms and counterterms in the renormalized Lagrangian. SU(2) L gauge invariance constrains the mixing matrix in charged currents of renormalized mass states, for example the Cabibbo matrix, to stay unitary. Leaving aside CP violation, we observe that the mixing angles exhibit, within experimental uncertainty, a very simple breaking pattern of SU(2) f horizontal symmetry linked to the algebra of weak neutral currents, the origin of which presumably lies beyond the Standard Model. It concerns on the one hand the three quark mixing angles; on the other hand a neutrino-like pattern in which ? 23 is maximal and tan (2 ? 12)=2. The Cabibbo angle fulfills the condition tan (2 ? c )=1/2 and ? 12 for neutrinos satisfies accordingly the “quark-lepton complementarity condition” ? c + ? 12= ?/4. ? 13=±5.7?10-3 are the only values obtained for the third neutrino mixing angle that lie within present experimental bounds. Flavor symmetries, their breaking by a non-degenerate mass spectrum, and their entanglement with the gauge symmetry, are scrutinized; the special role of flavor rotations as a very mildly broken symmetry of the Standard Model is outlined.

Duret, Q.; Machet, B.; Vysotsky, M. I.

2009-05-01

377

(Quantum Correction) , ' . N=2 Super Conformal Field Theory (SCFT)1)

5 (Quantum Correction) , ' . . N=2 Super Conformal Field Theory (SCFT)1 Conformal Field Theory . A- a B- b . Mirror Map m M involution a Ã? m5b A- B- . (X, I, b1iv field theory; contact homology 81T45 Topological field theories 1990 , 15 . 2010

Spaeth, Peter

378

Noncommutative Geometry in M-Theory and Conformal Field Theory

In the first part of the thesis I will investigate in the Matrix theory framework, the subgroup of dualities of the Discrete Light Cone Quantization of M-theory compactified on tori, which corresponds to T-duality in the auxiliary Type II string theory. After a review of matrix theory compactification leading to noncommutative supersymmetric Yang-Mills gauge theory, I will present solutions for the fundamental and adjoint sections on a two-dimensional twisted quantum torus and generalize to three-dimensional twisted quantum tori. After showing how M-theory T-duality is realized in supersymmetric Yang-Mills gauge theories on dual noncommutative tori I will relate this to the mathematical concept of Morita equivalence of C*-algebras. As a further generalization, I consider arbitrary Ramond-Ramond backgrounds. I will also discuss the spectrum of the toroidally compactified Matrix theory corresponding to quantized electric fluxes on two and three tori. In the second part of the thesis I will present an application to conformal field theory involving quantum groups, another important example of a noncommutative space. First, I will give an introduction to Poisson-Lie groups and arrive at quantum groups using the Feynman path integral. I will quantize the symplectic leaves of the Poisson-Lie group SU(2)*. In this way we obtain the unitary representations of U{sub q}(SU(2)). I discuss the X-structure of SU(2)* and give a detailed description of its leaves using various parametrizations. Then, I will introduce a new reality structure on the Heisenberg double of Fun{sub q} (SL(N,C)) for q phase, which can be interpreted as the quantum phase space of a particle on the q-deformed mass-hyperboloid. I also present evidence that the above real form describes zero modes of certain non-compact WZNW-models.

Morariu, Bogdan

1999-05-01

379

Symmetry analysis for anisotropic field theories

The purpose of this paper is to study with the help of Noether's theorem the symmetries of anisotropic actions for arbitrary fields which generally depend on higher order spatial derivatives, and to find the corresponding current densities and the Noether charges. We study in particular scale invariance and consider the cases of higher derivative extensions of the scalar field, electrodynamics and Chern-Simons theory.

Parra, Lorena; Vergara, J. David [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria. Delg. Coyoacan. C.P. 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)

2012-08-24

380

Einstein manifolds and conformal field theories

In light of the anti{endash}de Sitter space conformal field theory correspondence, it is natural to try to define a conformal field theory in a large {ital N}, strong coupling limit via a supergravity compactification on the product of an Einstein manifold and anti{endash}de Sitter space. We consider the five-dimensional manifolds T{sup pq} which are coset spaces [SU(2){times}SU(2)]/U(1). The central charge and a part of the chiral spectrum are calculated, respectively, from the volume of T{sup pq} and the spectrum of the scalar Laplacian. Of the manifolds considered, only T{sup 11} admits any supersymmetry: it is this manifold which characterizes the supergravity solution corresponding to a large number of D3-branes at a conifold singularity, discussed recently by Klebanov and Witten. Through a field theory analysis of anomalous three point functions we are able to reproduce the central charge predicted for the T{sup 11} theory by supergravity: it is (27) /(32) of the central charge of the N=2{bold Z}{sub 2} orbifold theory from which it descends via a renormalization group flow. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Gubser, S.S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)] [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

1999-01-01

381

Continuous wavelet transform in quantum field theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the application of the continuous wavelet transform to calculation of the Green functions in quantum field theory: scalar ?4 theory, quantum electrodynamics, and quantum chromodynamics. The method of continuous wavelet transform in quantum field theory, presented by Altaisky [Phys. Rev. D 81, 125003 (2010)] for the scalar ?4 theory, consists in substitution of the local fields ?(x) by those dependent on both the position x and the resolution a. The substitution of the action S[?(x)] by the action S[?a(x)] makes the local theory into a nonlocal one and implies the causality conditions related to the scale a, the region causality [J. D. Christensen and L. Crane, J. Math. Phys. (N.Y.) 46, 122502 (2005)]. These conditions make the Green functions G(x1,a1,…,xn,an)=??a1(x1)…?an(xn)? finite for any given set of regions by means of an effective cutoff scale A=min?(a1,…,an).

Altaisky, M. V.; Kaputkina, N. E.

2013-07-01

382

Aspects of Four Dimensional N = 2 Field Theory

four dimensional gauge theory and two dimensional conformal field theory may have some deep implications. The S-duality of four dimensional theory and the crossing symmetry and modular invariance of two dimensional theory are naturally related....

Xie, Dan

2011-07-11

383

Logarithmic conformal field theory: beyond an introduction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article aims to review a selection of central topics and examples in logarithmic conformal field theory. It begins with the remarkable observation of Cardy that the horizontal crossing probability of critical percolation may be computed analytically within the formalism of boundary conformal field theory. Cardy’s derivation relies on certain implicit assumptions which are shown to lead inexorably to indecomposable modules and logarithmic singularities in correlators. For this, a short introduction to the fusion algorithm of Nahm, Gaberdiel and Kausch is provided. While the percolation logarithmic conformal field theory is still not completely understood, there are several examples for which the formalism familiar from rational conformal field theory, including bulk partition functions, correlation functions, modular transformations, fusion rules and the Verlinde formula, has been successfully generalized. This is illustrated for three examples: the singlet model \\mathfrak {M} (1,2), related to the triplet model \\mathfrak {W} (1,2), symplectic fermions and the fermionic bc ghost system; the fractional level Wess-Zumino-Witten model based on \\widehat{\\mathfrak {sl}} \\left( 2 \\right) at k=-\\frac{1}{2}, related to the bosonic ?? ghost system; and the Wess-Zumino-Witten model for the Lie supergroup \\mathsf {GL} \\left( 1 {\\mid} 1 \\right), related to \\mathsf {SL} \\left( 2 {\\mid} 1 \\right) at k=-\\frac{1}{2} and 1, the Bershadsky-Polyakov algebra W_3^{(2)} and the Feigin-Semikhatov algebras W_n^{(2)}. These examples have been chosen because they represent the most accessible, and most useful, members of the three best-understood families of logarithmic conformal field theories. The logarithmic minimal models \\mathfrak {W} (q,p), the fractional level Wess-Zumino-Witten models, and the Wess-Zumino-Witten models on Lie supergroups (excluding \\mathsf {OSP} \\left( 1 {\\mid} 2n \\right)). In this review, the emphasis lies on the representation theory of the underlying chiral algebra and the modular data pertaining to the characters of the representations. Each of the archetypal logarithmic conformal field theories is studied here by first determining its irreducible spectrum, which turns out to be continuous, as well as a selection of natural reducible, but indecomposable, modules. This is followed by a detailed description of how to obtain character formulae for each irreducible, a derivation of the action of the modular group on the characters, and an application of the Verlinde formula to compute the Grothendieck fusion rules. In each case, the (genuine) fusion rules are known, so comparisons can be made and favourable conclusions drawn. In addition, each example admits an infinite set of simple currents, hence extended symmetry algebras may be constructed and a series of bulk modular invariants computed. The spectrum of such an extended theory is typically discrete and this is how the triplet model \\mathfrak {W} (1,2) arises, for example. Moreover, simple current technology admits a derivation of the extended algebra fusion rules from those of its continuous parent theory. Finally, each example is concluded by a brief description of the computation of some bulk correlators, a discussion of the structure of the bulk state space, and remarks concerning more advanced developments and generalizations. The final part gives a very short account of the theory of staggered modules, the (simplest class of) representations that are responsible for the logarithmic singularities that distinguish logarithmic theories from their rational cousins. These modules are discussed in a generality suitable to encompass all the examples met in this review and some of the very basic structure theory is proven. Then, the important quantities known as logarithmic couplings are reviewed for Virasoro staggered modules and their role as fundamentally important parameters, akin to the three-point constants of rational conformal field theory, is discussed. An appendix is also provided in order to introduce some of the necessary, but perhaps unfamiliar, la

Creutzig, Thomas; Ridout, David

2013-12-01

384

Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.

Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel

2008-01-01

385

Fusion Rules in Conformal Field Theory

Several aspects of fusion rings and fusion rule algebras, and of their manifestations in twodimensional (conformal) field theory, are described: diagonalization and the connection with modular invariance; the presentation in terms of quotients of polynomial rings; fusion graphs; various strategies that allow for a partial classification; and the role of the fusion rules in the conformal bootstrap programme.

Jürgen Fuchs

1994-01-01

386

Conformal Field Theories of Stochastic Loewner Evolutions

Stochastic Loewner evolutions ( SLE ?) are random growth processes of sets, called hulls, embedded in the two dimensional upper half plane. We elaborate and develop a relation between SLE ? evolutions and conformal field theories (CFT) which is based on a group theoretical formulation of SLE ? processes and on the identification of the proper hull boundary states. This

Michel Bauer; Denis Bernard

2003-01-01

387

Twisted Conformal Field Theories and Morita equivalence

The Morita equivalence for field theories on noncommutative two-tori is analysed in detail for rational values of the noncommutativity parameter theta (in appropriate units): an isomorphism is established between an abelian noncommutative field theory (NCFT) and a non-abelian theory of twisted fields on ordinary space. We focus on a particular conformal field theory (CFT), the one obtained by means of the m-reduction procedure (V. Marotta, J. Phys. A 26 (1993) 3481; V. Marotta, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 13} (1998) 853; V. Marotta, Nucl. Phys. B 527 (1998) 717; V. Marotta, A. Sciarrino, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 13 (1998) 2863), and show that it is the Morita equivalent of a NCFT. Finally, the whole m-reduction procedure is shown to be the image in the ordinary space of the Morita duality. An application to the physics of a quantum Hall fluid at Jain fillings nu =m/2pm+1 is explicitly discussed in order to further elucidate such a correspondence and to clarify its role in the physics of strongly correlated systems. A new picture emerges, which is very different from the existing relationships between noncommutativity and many body systems (A. P. Polychronakos, arXiv:0706.1095v2).

Vincenzo Marotta; Adele Naddeo

2009-01-09

388

Closed string field theory from polyhedra

A fully nonpolynomial framework for closed string field theory is studied. All interactions are geometrical, the pattern of string overlaps gives polyhedra with equal perimeter faces and three edges at each vertex. All interactions are cubic in the sense that at most three strings can coincide at a point. The three point vertex used is that of Witten which is

Maha Saadi; Barton Zwiebach

1989-01-01

389

Prequantum Classical Statistical Field Theory: Fundamentals

We present fundamentals of a prequantum model with hidden variables of the classical field type. In some sense this is the comeback of classical wave mechanics. Our approach also can be considered as incorporation of quantum mechanics into classical signal theory. All quantum averages (including correlations of entangled systems) can be represented as classical signal averages and correlations.

Khrennikov, Andrei [International Center for Mathematical Modelling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences, Linnaeus University, Vaexjoe, S-35195 (Sweden)

2011-03-28

390

Bound States in Quantum Field Theory

The relativistic two-body equation of Bethe and Salpeter is derived from field theory. It is shown that the Feynman two-body kernel may be written as a sum of wave functions over the states of the system. These wave functions depend exponentially on the energies of the states to which they correspond and therefore provide a means of calculating energy levels

Murray Gell-Mann; Francis Low

1951-01-01

391

Effective field theory approach to nuclear matter

Effective field theory provides a systematic approach to hardon physics and few-nucleon systems. It allows one to determine the effective two-, three-, and more-nucleon interactions which are consistent with each other. We present a project to derive bulk properties of nuclei from the effective nucleonic interactions.

Saviankou, P.; Gruemmer, F. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Epelbaum, E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (United States); Krewald, S., E-mail: s.krewald@fz-juelich.de; Meissner, Ulf-G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany)], E-mail: meissner@itkp.uni-bonn.de

2006-07-15

392

Shape Dynamics and Effective Field Theory

Shape Dynamics is a gauge theory based on spatial diffeomorphism- and Weyl-invariance which is locally indistinguishable form classical General Relativity. If taken seriously, it suggests that the spacetime--geometry picture that underlies General Relativity can be replaced by a picture based on spatial conformal geometry. This classically well understood trading of gauge symmetries opens new conceptual avenues in many approaches to quantum gravity. I focus on the general implications for quantum gravity and effective field theory and consider the application of the Shape Dynamics picture in the exact renormalization group approaches to gravity, loop- and polymer- quantization approaches to gravity and low energy effective field theories. I also discuss the interpretation of known results through in the Shape Dynamics picture, in particular holographic renormalization and the problem of time in canonical quantum gravity.

Tim Koslowski

2013-05-07

393

Multi-orientable group field theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Group field theories (GFTs) are quantum field theories over group manifolds; they can be seen as a generalization of matrix models. GFT Feynman graphs are tensor graphs generalizing ribbon graphs (or combinatorial maps); these graphs are not always dual to manifolds. In order to simplify the topological structure of these various singularities, colored GFT was recently introduced and intensively studied. We propose here a different simplification of GFT, which we call multi-orientable GFT. We study the relation between multi-orientable GFT Feynman graphs and colorable graphs. We prove that tadfaces and some generalized tadpoles are absent. Some Feynman amplitude computations are performed. A few remarks on the renormalizability of both multi-orientable and colorable GFT are made. A generalization from three-dimensional to four-dimensional theories is also proposed.

Tanasa, Adrian

2012-04-01

394

Bipartite field theories from D-branes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop tools for determining the gauge theory resulting from a configuration of Type IIB D3-branes probing a non-compact, toric Calabi-Yau 3-fold, in the presence of additional flavor D7-branes with general embeddings. Two main ingredients of our approach are dimer models and mirror symmetry. D7-branes with general embeddings are obtained by recombination of elementary D7-brane constituents. These tools are then used to engineer a large set of Bipartite Field Theories, a class of 4d, = 1 quantum field theories defined by bipartite graphs on bordered Riemann surfaces. Several explicit examples, including infinite families of models, associated to both planar and non-planar graphs are presented.

Franco, Sebastián; Uranga, Angel

2014-04-01

395

Relating field theories via stochastic quantization

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This note aims to subsume several apparently unrelated models under a common framework. Several examples of well-known quantum field theories are listed which are connected via stochastic quantization. We highlight the fact that the quantization method used to obtain the quantum crystal is a discrete analog of stochastic quantization. This model is of interest for string theory, since the (classical) melting crystal corner is related to the topological A-model. We outline several ideas for interpreting the quantum crystal on the string theory side of the correspondence, exploring interpretations in the Wheeler-De Witt framework and in terms of a non-Lorentz invariant limit of topological M-theory.

Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne

2010-01-01

396

Exact Rolling Tachyon in Noncommutative Field Theory

We study the exact rolling tachyon solutions in DBI type noncommutative field theory with a constant open string metric and noncommutative parameter on an unstable D$p$-brane. Functional shapes of the obtained solutions span all possible homogeneous rolling tachyon configurations; that is, they are hyperbolic-cosine, hyperbolic-sine, and exponential under $1/\\cosh$ runaway NC tachyon potential. Even if general DBI type NC electric field is turned on, only a constant electric field satisfies the equations of motion, and again, exact rolling tachyon solutions are obtained.

Yoonbai Kim; O-Kab Kwon

2005-04-13

397

Sigma Models as Perturbed Conformal Field Theories

We show that two-dimensional sigma models are related to certain perturbed conformal field theories. When the fields in the sigma model take values in a space G/H for a group G and a maximal subgroup H , we argue that the corresponding conformal field theory is the k{yields}{infinity} limit of the coset model (G/H){sub k} , and the perturbation is related to the current of G . Nonperturbative instanton contributions to the sigma model free energy are perturbative when k is finite. We use this mapping to find the free energy for the ''O(n) '' [=O(n)/O(n-1) ] sigma model at nonzero temperature. It also results in a new approach to the CP{sup n} model. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

Fendley, Paul

1999-11-29

398

Quantum stability of chameleon field theories.

Chameleon scalar fields are dark-energy candidates which suppress fifth forces in high density regions of the Universe by becoming massive. We consider chameleon models as effective field theories and estimate quantum corrections to their potentials. Requiring that quantum corrections be small, so as to allow reliable predictions of fifth forces, leads to an upper bound m<0.0073(?/10 g cm(-3))(1/3) eV for gravitational-strength coupling whereas fifth force experiments place a lower bound of m>0.0042 eV. An improvement of less than a factor of two in the range of fifth force experiments could test all classical chameleon field theories whose quantum corrections are well controlled and couple to matter with nearly gravitational strength regardless of the specific form of the chameleon potential. PMID:23006073

Upadhye, Amol; Hu, Wayne; Khoury, Justin

2012-07-27

399

Confluent primary fields in the conformal field theory

For any complex simple Lie algebra, we generalize primary fileds in the Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten conformal field theory with respect to the case of irregular singularities and we construct integral representations of hypergeometric functions of confluent type, as expectation values of products of generalized primary fields. In the case of sl(2), these integral representations coincide with solutions to confluent KZ equations. Computing the operator product expansion of the energy-momentum tensor and the generalized primary field, new differential operators appear in the result. In the case of sl(2), these differential operators are the same as those of the confluent KZ equations.

Hajime Nagoya; Juanjuan Sun

2010-08-23

400

In this thesis, the author presents some works in the direction of studying quantum effects in locally supersymmetric effective field theories that appear in the low energy limit of superstring theory. After reviewing the Kaehler covariant formulation of supergravity, he shows the calculation of the divergent one-loop contribution to the effective boson Lagrangian for supergravity, including the Yang-Mills sector and the helicity-odd operators that arise from integration over fermion fields. The only restriction is on the Yang-Mills kinetic energy normalization function, which is taken diagonal in gauge indices, as in models obtained from superstrings. He then presents the full result for the divergent one-loop contribution to the effective boson Lagrangian for supergravity coupled to chiral and Yang-Mills supermultiplets. He also considers the specific case of dilaton couplings in effective supergravity Lagrangians from superstrings, for which the one-loop result is considerably simplified. He studies gaugino condensation in the presence of an intermediate mass scale in the hidden sector. S-duality is imposed as an approximate symmetry of the effective supergravity theory. Furthermore, the author includes in the Kaehler potential the renormalization of the gauge coupling and the one-loop threshold corrections at the intermediate scale. It is shown that confinement is indeed achieved. Furthermore, a new running behavior of the dilaton arises which he attributes to S-duality. He also discusses the effects of the intermediate scale, and possible phenomenological implications of this model.

Saririan, K.

1997-05-01

401

Inflation and deformation of conformal field theory

It has recently been suggested that a strongly coupled phase of inflation may be described holographically in terms of a weakly coupled quantum field theory (QFT). Here, we explore the possibility that the wave function of an inflationary universe may be given by the partition function of a boundary QFT. We consider the case when the field theory is a small deformation of a conformal field theory (CFT), by the addition of a relevant operator O, and calculate the primordial spectrum predicted in the corresponding holographic inflation scenario. Using the Ward-Takahashi identity associated with Weyl rescalings, we derive a simple relation between correlators of the curvature perturbation ? and correlators of the deformation operator O at the boundary. This is done without specifying the bulk theory of gravitation, so that the result would also apply to cases where the bulk dynamics is strongly coupled. We comment on the validity of the Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality, relating the bi-spectrum and tri-spectrum of the curvature perturbation.

Garriga, Jaume; Urakawa, Yuko, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: yurakawa@ffn.ub.es [Departament de Física Fonamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

2013-07-01

402

Exclusion Statistics in Conformal Field Theory Spectra

We propose a new method for investigating the exclusion statistics of quasiparticles in conformal field theory (CFT) spectra. The method leads to one-particle distribution functions, which generalize the Fermi-Dirac distribution. For the simplest SU(n) invariant CFTs we find a generalization of Gentile parafermions, and we obtain new distributions for the simplest Z{sub N} -invariant CFTs. In special examples, our approach reproduces distributions based on {open_quotes}fractional exclusion statistics{close_quotes} in the sense of Haldane. We comment on applications to fractional quantum Hall effect edge theories. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Schoutens, K. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (The Netherlands)] [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (The Netherlands)

1997-10-01

403

Tachyon condensation in string field theory

It has been conjectured that at a stationary point of the tachyon potential for the D-brane of bosonic string theory, the negative energy density exactly cancels the D-brane tension. We evaluate this tachyon potential by off-shell calculations in open string field theory. Surprisingly, the condensation of the tachyon mode alone into the stationary point of its cubic potential is found to cancel about 70% of the D-brane tension. Keeping relevant scalars up to four mass levels above the tachyon, the energy density at the shifted stationary point cancels 99% of the D-brane tension.

Ashoke Sen; Barton Zwiebach

1999-12-24

404

Nonrelativistic effective field theory of unstable top

We develop a new nonrelativistic effective field theory of $\\rho$NRQCD [1] to describe the finite lifetime effects in the threshold production of top quark-antiquark pairs. The theory is based on the expansion in a parameter $\\rho=1-m_W/m_t$ characterizing the dynamics of the top-quark decay. Within this framework we compute the nonresonant contribution to the total cross section of the top quark-antiquark threshold production in electron-positron annihilation up to the next-to-next-to-leading order. Our method naturally resolves the problem of spurious divergences in the analysis of the unstable top production.

Alexander A. Penin; Jan H. Piclum

2012-09-18

405

Melonic phase transition in group field theory

Group field theories have recently been shown to admit a 1/N expansion dominated by so-called `melonic graphs', dual to triangulated spheres. In this note, we deepen the analysis of this melonic sector. We obtain a combinatorial formula for the melonic amplitudes in terms of a graph polynomial related to a higher dimensional generalization of the Kirchhoff tree-matrix theorem. Simple bounds on these amplitudes show the existence of a phase transition driven by melonic interaction processes. We restrict our study to the Boulatov-Ooguri models, which describe topological BF theories and are the basis for the construction of four dimensional models of quantum gravity.

Aristide Baratin; Sylvain Carrozza; Daniele Oriti; James P. Ryan; Matteo Smerlak

2014-06-09

406

Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Topological Quantum Field Theory

These third-year lecture notes are designed for a 1-semester course in topological quantum field theory (TQFT). Assumed background in mathematics and physics are only standard second-year subjects: multivariable calculus, introduction to quantum mechanics and basic electromagnetism. Keywords: quantum mechanics/field theory, path integral, Hodge decomposition, Chern-Simons and Yang-Mills gauge theories, conformal field theory

Vladimir G. Ivancevic; Tijana T. Ivancevic

2008-12-11

407

Modular invariance in conformal field theory Yi-Zhi Huang

Modular invariance in conformal field theory Yi-Zhi Huang Department of Mathematics Rutgers(2, Z). #12;Modular invariance in conformal field theory The importance of modular invariance in conformal field theory and string theory was known for a long time. If one wants to construct conformal

Huang, Yi-Zhi

408

Noether symmetries, energy-momentum tensors, and conformal invariance in classical field theory

In the framework of classical field theory, we first review the Noether theory of symmetries, with simple rederivations of its essential results, with special emphasis given to the Noether identities for gauge theories. With this baggage on board, we next discuss in detail, for Poincare invariant theories in flat spacetime, the differences between the Belinfante energy-momentum tensor and a family of Hilbert energy-momentum tensors. All these tensors coincide on shell but they split their duties in the following sense: Belinfante's tensor is the one to use in order to obtain the generators of Poincare symmetries and it is a basic ingredient of the generators of other eventual spacetime symmetries which may happen to exist. Instead, Hilbert tensors are the means to test whether a theory contains other spacetime symmetries beyond Poincare. We discuss at length the case of scale and conformal symmetry, of which we give some examples. We show, for Poincare invariant Lagrangians, that the realization of scale invariance selects a unique Hilbert tensor which allows for an easy test as to whether conformal invariance is also realized. Finally we make some basic remarks on metric generally covariant theories and classical field theory in a fixed curved background.

Pons, Josep M. [Departament ECM and ICC, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

2011-01-15

409

On the Lagrangian theory for rotating charge in the Maxwell field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We justify the Hamilton least action principle for the Maxwell-Lorentz equations coupled with the equations of motion of Abraham's rotating extended electron. The main novelty in the proof is the application of the variational Poincaré equations on the Lie group SO (3).

Imaykin, Valeriy; Komech, Alexander; Spohn, Herbert

2015-01-01

410

Relative Entropies in Conformal Field Theory

Relative entropy is a measure of distinguishability for quantum states, and plays a central role in quantum information theory. The family of Renyi entropies generalizes to Renyi relative entropies that include as special cases most entropy measures used in quantum information theory. We construct a Euclidean path-integral approach to Renyi relative entropies in conformal field theory, then compute the fidelity and the relative entropy of states in one spatial dimension at zero and finite temperature using a replica trick. In contrast to the entanglement entropy, the relative entropy is free of ultraviolet divergences, and is obtained as a limit of certain correlation functions. The relative entropy of two states provides an upper bound on their trace distance.

Nima Lashkari

2014-06-23

411

Relative Entropies in Conformal Field Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relative entropy is a measure of distinguishability for quantum states, and it plays a central role in quantum information theory. The family of Renyi entropies generalizes to Renyi relative entropies that include, as special cases, most entropy measures used in quantum information theory. We construct a Euclidean path-integral approach to Renyi relative entropies in conformal field theory, then compute the fidelity and the relative entropy of states in one spatial dimension at zero and finite temperature using a replica trick. In contrast to the entanglement entropy, the relative entropy is free of ultraviolet divergences, and is obtained as a limit of certain correlation functions. The relative entropy of two states provides an upper bound on their trace distance.

Lashkari, Nima

2014-08-01

412

Nuclear effective field theory on the lattice

In the low-energy region far below the chiral symmetry breaking scale (which is of the order of 1 GeV) chiral perturbation theory provides a model-independent approach for quantitative description of nuclear processes. In the two- and more-nucleon sector perturbation theory is applicable only at the level of an effective potential which serves as input in the corresponding dynamical equation. To deal with the resulting many-body problem we put chiral effective field theory (EFT) on the lattice. Here we present the results of our lattice EFT study up to next-to-next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion. Accurate description of two-nucleon phase-shifts and ground state energy ratio of dilute neutron matter up to corrections of higher orders shows that lattice EFT is a promising tool for a quantitative description of low-energy few- and many-body systems.

Hermann Krebs; Bugra Borasoy; Evgeny Epelbaum; Dean Lee; Ulf-G. Meiß ner

2008-10-01

413

Vortex operators in gauge field theories

Several related aspects of the 't Hooft vortex operator are studied. The current picture of the vacuum of quantum chromodynamics, the idea of dual field theories, and the idea of the vortex operator are reviewed first. The Abelian vortex operator written in terms of elementary fields and the calculation of its Green's functions are considered. A two-dimensional solvable model of a Dirac string is presented. The expression of the Green's functions more neatly in terms of Wu and Yang's geometrical idea of sections is addressed. The renormalization of the Green's functions of two kinds of Abelian looplike operators, the Wilson loop and the vortex operator, is studied; for both operators only an overall multiplicative renormalization is needed. In the case of the vortex this involves a surprising cancellation. Next, the dependence of the Green's functions of the Wilson and 't Hooft operators on the nature of the vacuum is discussed. The cluster properties of the Green's functions are emphasized. It is seen that the vortex operator in a massive Abelian theory always has surface-like clustering. The form of Green's functions in terms of Feynman graphs is the same in Higgs and symmetric phases; the difference appears in the sum over all tadpole trees. Finally, systems having fields in the fundamental representation are considered. When these fields enter only weakly into the dynamics, a vortex-like operator is anticipated. Any such operator can no longer be local looplike, but must have commutators at long range. A U(1) lattice gauge theory with two matter fields, one singly charged (fundamental) and one doubly charged (adjoint), is examined. When the fundamental field is weakly coupled, the expected phase transitions are found. When it is strongly coupled, the operator still appears to be a good order parameter, a discontinuous change in its behavior leads to a new phase transition. 18 figures.

Polchinski, J.

1980-07-01

414

Advances in mean-field dynamo theories

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a short introduction to the subject and review advances in understanding the basic ingredients of the mean-field dynamo theory. The discussion includes the recent analytic and numerical work in developments for the mean electromotive force of the turbulent flows and magnetic field, the nonlinear effects of the magnetic helicity, the non-local generation effects in the dynamo. We give an example of the mean-field solar dynamo model that incorporates the fairly complete expressions for the mean-electromotive force, the subsurface shear layer and the conservation of the total helicity. The model is used to shed light on the issues in the solar dynamo and on the future development of this field of research.

Pipin, V. V.

2013-07-01

415

Advances in mean-field dynamo theories

We give a short introduction to the subject and review advances in understanding the basic ingredients of the mean-field dynamo theory. The discussion includes the recent analytic and numerical work in developments for the mean electromotive force of the turbulent flows and magnetic field, the nonlinear effects of the magnetic helicity, the non-local generation effects in the dynamo. We give an example of the mean-field solar dynamo model that incorporates the fairly complete expressions for the mean-electromotive force, the subsurface shear layer and the conservation of the total helicity. The model is used to shed light on the issues in the solar dynamo and on the future development of this field of research.

Pipin, V V

2012-01-01

416

Graphene as a Lattice Field Theory

We introduce effective field theories for the electronic properties of graphene in terms of relativistic fermions propagating in 2+1 dimensions, and outline how strong inter-electron interactions may be modelled by numerical simulation of a lattice field theory. For strong enough coupling an insulating state can form via condensation of particle-hole pairs, and it is demonstrated that this is a theoretical possibility for monolayer graphene. For bilayer graphene the effect of an interlayer bias voltage can be modelled by the introduction of a chemical potential (akin to isopsin chemical potential in QCD) with no accompanying sign problem; simulations reveal the presence of strong interactions among the residual degrees of freedom at the resulting Fermi surface, which is disrupted by an excitonic condensate. We also present preliminary results for the quasiparticle dispersion, which permit direct estimates of both the Fermi momentum and the induced gap.

Simon Hands; Wes Armour; Costas Strouthos

2015-01-08

417

Graphene as a Lattice Field Theory

We introduce effective field theories for the electronic properties of graphene in terms of relativistic fermions propagating in 2+1 dimensions, and outline how strong inter-electron interactions may be modelled by numerical simulation of a lattice field theory. For strong enough coupling an insulating state can form via condensation of particle-hole pairs, and it is demonstrated that this is a theoretical possibility for monolayer graphene. For bilayer graphene the effect of an interlayer bias voltage can be modelled by the introduction of a chemical potential (akin to isopsin chemical potential in QCD) with no accompanying sign problem; simulations reveal the presence of strong interactions among the residual degrees of freedom at the resulting Fermi surface, which is disrupted by an excitonic condensate. We also present preliminary results for the quasiparticle dispersion, which permit direct estimates of both the Fermi momentum and the induced gap.

Hands, Simon; Strouthos, Costas

2015-01-01

418

Conformal Field Theories of Stochastic Loewner Evolutions

Stochastic Loewner evolutions (SLE) are random growth processes of sets, called hulls, embedded in the two dimensional upper half plane. We elaborate and develop a relation between SLE evolutions and conformal field theories (CFT) which is based on a group theoretical formulation of SLE processes and on the identification of the proper hull boundary states. This allows us to define an infinite set of SLE zero modes, or martingales, whose existence is a consequence of the existence of a null vector in the appropriate Virasoro modules. This identification leads, for instance, to linear systems for generalized crossing probabilities whose coefficients are multipoint CFT correlation functions. It provides a direct link between conformal correlation functions and probabilities of stopping time events in SLE evolutions. We point out a relation between SLE processes and two dimensional gravity and conjecture a reconstruction procedure of conformal field theories from SLE data.

Michel Bauer; Denis Bernard

2003-03-13

419

Operator algebra in logarithmic conformal field theory

For some time now, conformal field theories in two dimensions have been studied as integrable systems. Much of the success of these studies is related to the existence of an operator algebra of the theory. In this paper, some of the extensions of this machinery to the logarithmic case are studied and used. More precisely, from Moebius symmetry constraints, the generic three- and four-point functions of logarithmic quasiprimary fields are calculated in closed form for arbitrary Jordan rank. As an example, c=0 disordered systems with nondegenerate vacua are studied. With the aid of two-, three-, and four-point functions, the operator algebra is obtained and associativity of the algebra studied.

Nagi, Jasbir

2005-10-15

420

Spin clusters and conformal field theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study numerically the fractal dimensions and the bulk three-point connectivity for spin clusters of the Q-state Potts model in two dimensions with 1 ? Q ? 4. We check that the usually invoked correspondence between FK clusters and spin clusters works at the level of fractal dimensions. However, the fine structure of the conformal field theories describing critical clusters first manifests at the level of the three-point connectivities. Contrary to what was recently found for FK clusters, no obvious relation emerges for generic Q between the spin cluster connectivity and the structure constants obtained from analytic continuation of the minimal model constants. The numerical results strongly suggest that spin and FK clusters are described by conformal field theories with different realizations of the color symmetry of the Potts model.

Delfino, G.; Picco, M.; Santachiara, R.; Viti, J.

2013-11-01

421

Double field theory on group manifolds

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new version of double field theory (DFT) is derived for the exactly solvable background of an in general left-right asymmetric WZW model in the large level limit. This generalizes the original DFT that was derived via expanding closed string field theory on a torus up to cubic order. The action and gauge transformations are derived for fluctuations around the generalized group manifold background up to cubic order, revealing the appearance of a generalized Lie derivative and a corresponding C-bracket upon invoking a new version of the strong constraint. In all these quantities a background dependent covariant derivative appears reducing to the partial derivative for a toroidal background. This approach sheds some new light on the conceptual status of DFT, its background (in-)dependence and the up-lift of non-geometric Scherk-Schwarz reductions.

Blumenhagen, Ralph; Hassler, Falk; Lüst, Dieter

2015-02-01

422

Effective field theory for lattice nuclei.

We show how nuclear effective field theory (EFT) and ab initio nuclear-structure methods can turn input from lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD) into predictions for the properties of nuclei. We argue that pionless EFT is the appropriate theory to describe the light nuclei obtained in LQCD simulations carried out at pion masses heavier than the physical pion mass. We solve the EFT using the effective-interaction hyperspherical harmonics and auxiliary-field diffusion Monte Carlo methods. Fitting the three leading-order EFT parameters to the deuteron, dineutron, and triton LQCD energies at m_{?}?800??MeV, we reproduce the corresponding alpha-particle binding and predict the binding energies of mass-5 and mass-6 ground states. PMID:25699436

Barnea, N; Contessi, L; Gazit, D; Pederiva, F; van Kolck, U

2015-02-01

423

Magnetic fields and density functional theory

A major focus of this dissertation is the development of functionals for the magnetic susceptibility and the chemical shielding within the context of magnetic field density functional theory (BDFT). These functionals depend on the electron density in the absence of the field, which is unlike any other treatment of these responses. There have been several advances made within this theory. The first of which is the development of local density functionals for chemical shieldings and magnetic susceptibilities. There are the first such functionals ever proposed. These parameters have been studied by constructing functionals for the current density and then using the Biot-Savart equations to obtain the responses. In order to examine the advantages and disadvantages of the local functionals, they were tested numerically on some small molecules.

Salsbury Jr., Freddie

1999-02-01

424

Cosmological tachyon from cubic string field theory

The classical dynamics of the tachyon scalar field of cubic string field theory is considered on a cosmological background. Starting from a nonlocal action with arbitrary tachyon potential, which encodes the bosonic and several supersymmetric cases, we study the equations of motion in the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism and with a generalized Friedmann equation, appliable in braneworld or modified gravity models. The cases of cubic (bosonic) and quartic (supersymmetric) tachyon potential in general relativity are automatically included. We comment the validity of the slow-roll approximation, the stability of the cosmological perturbations, and the relation between this tachyon and the Dirac-Born-Infeld one.

Gianluca Calcagni

2006-05-04

425

Quantum Field Theory for Mathematicians Hamiltonian Mechanics and Symplectic Geometry

Quantum Field Theory for Mathematicians Â· Hamiltonian Mechanics and Symplectic Geometry Integral Quantization Â Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics Â Introduction to Scattering Theory Â· Classical Field Theory Â· Relativistic Fields, PoincarÂ´e Group and Wigner Classification Â· Free Quantum Fields

Woit, Peter

426

Locality in Free String Field Theory II. J. Dimock #

Locality in Free String Field Theory Â II. J. Dimock # Dept. of Mathematics SUNY at Bu#alo Bu#alo, NY 14214 January 29, 2001 Abstract We study the covariant free bosonic string field theory field theory 14 3.1 String field equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3

427

Superconformal quantum field theory in curved spacetime

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By conformally coupling vector and hyper multiplets in Minkowski space, we obtain a class of field theories with extended rigid conformal supersymmetry on any Lorentzian 4-manifold admitting twistor spinors. We construct the conformal symmetry superalgebras which describe classical symmetries of these theories and derive an appropriate BRST operator in curved spacetime. In the process, we elucidate the general framework of cohomological algebra which underpins the construction. We then consider the corresponding perturbative quantum field theories. In particular, we examine the conditions necessary for conformal supersymmetries to be preserved at the quantum level, i.e. when the BRST operator commutes with the perturbatively defined S-matrix, which ensures superconformal invariance of amplitudes. To this end, we prescribe a renormalization scheme for time-ordered products that enter the perturbative S-matrix and show that such products obey certain Ward identities in curved spacetime. These identities allow us to recast the problem in terms of the cohomology of the BRST operator. Through a careful analysis of this cohomology, and of the renormalization group in curved spacetime, we establish precise criteria which ensure that all conformal supersymmetries are preserved at the quantum level. As a by-product, we provide a rigorous proof that the beta-function for such theories is one-loop exact. We also briefly discuss the construction of chiral rings and the role of non-perturbative effects in curved spacetime.

de Medeiros, Paul; Hollands, Stefan

2013-09-01

428

Open descendants in conformal field theory

Open descendants extend Conformal Field Theory to unoriented surfaces with\\u000aboundaries. The construction rests on two types of generalizations of the\\u000afusion algebra. The first is needed even in the relatively simple case of\\u000adiagonal models. It leads to a new tensor that satisfies the fusion algebra,\\u000abut whose entries are signed integers. The second is needed when dealing with

Augusto Sagnotti; Yassen S. Stanev

1997-01-01

429

Entanglement entropy and conformal field theory

We review the conformal field theory approach to entanglement entropy. We show how to apply these methods to the calculation of the entanglement entropy of a single interval, and the generalization to different situations such as finite size, systems with boundaries, and the case of several disjoint intervals. We discuss the behaviour away from the critical point and the spectrum of the reduced density matrix. Quantum quenches, as paradigms of non-equilibrium situations, are also considered.

Pasquale Calabrese; John Cardy

2009-10-14

430

Non-compact WZW conformal field theories

Non-compact WZW sigma models are considered, especially the ones with symmetric space H(sup C)\\/H as the target, for H in a compact Lie group. The author offers examples of non-rational conformal field theories. The author notes their relation to the compact WZW models, but stresses their distinctive features such as the continuous spectrum of conformal weights, diverging partition functions, and

Krzysztof Gawedzki

1991-01-01

431

Incompressible Turbulence as Nonlocal Field Theory

It is well known that incompressible turbulence is nonlocal in real space because sound speed is infinite in incompressible fluids. The equation in Fourier space indicates that it is nonlocal in Fourier space as well. Contrast this with Burgers equation which is local in real space. Note that the sound speed in Burgers equation is zero. In our presentation we will contrast these two equations using nonlocal field theory. Energy spectrum and renormalized parameters will be discussed.

Mahendra K. Verma

2005-10-19

432

Tachyon condensation in cubic superstring field theory

It has been conjectured that at the stationary point of the tachyon potential for the non-BPS D-brane or brane–anti-D-brane pair, the negative energy density cancels the brane tension. We study this conjecture using a cubic superstring field theory with insertion of a double-step inverse picture changing operator. We compute the tachyon potential at levels (1\\/2,1) and (2,6). In the first

I. Ya. Aref'eva; A. S. Koshelev; D. M. Belov; P. B. Medvedev

2002-01-01

433

Advances in String Field Theory (Abstract)

In this talk we have reviewed basics of Witten's open string field theory. We have described tools that allow one to construct a solution of the classical equations of motion describing the tachyon vacuum, and to prove two of the Sen's conjectures. Discussion of background independence and related issue of representing marginal deformations of the underlying CFT was also given. Finally some preliminary results hinting at existence of solutions describing multiple space-filling D-branes were presented.

Schnabl, M. [Institute of Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

2007-10-03

434

The Global Approach to Quantum Field Theory

Bryce Seligman DeWitt (1923–2004), a friend and mentor to many, was a towering figure in the development of the quantum theories of gravity and gauge fields. To appreciate his uniqueness, one must recall the history through which he lived. From DeWitt's birth date through 1965, general relativity (GR) was considered to have so few empirically testable predictions that its practitioners

S A Fulling

2006-01-01

435

Covariant Poisson Brackets in Geometric Field Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We establish a link between the multisymplectic and the covariant phase space approach to geometric field theory by showing how to derive the symplectic form on the latter, as introduced by Crnkovi?-Witten and Zuckerman, from the multisymplectic form. The main result is that the Poisson bracket associated with this symplectic structure, according to the standard rules, is precisely the covariant bracket due to Peierls and DeWitt.

Forger, Michael; Romero, Sandro Vieira

2005-06-01

436

Discrete Differential Geometry and Lattice Field Theory

We develope a difference calculus analogous to the differential geometry by translating the forms and exterior derivatives to similar expressions with difference operators, and apply the results to fields theory on the lattice [Ref. 1]. Our approach has the advantage with respect to other attempts [Ref. 2-6] that the Lorentz invariance is automatically preserved as it can be seen explicitely in the Maxwell, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations on the lattice.

M. Lorente

2003-12-31

437

Lagrangian fronts in the ocean

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the concept of Lagrangian fronts (LFs) in the ocean and describe their importance for analyzing water mixing and transport and the specific features and differences from hydrological fronts. A method of calculating LFs in a given velocity field is proposed. Based on altimeter velocity fields from AVISO data in the northwestern Pacific, we calculate the Lagrangian synoptic maps and identify LFs of different spatial and temporal scales. Using statistical analysis of saury catches in different years according to the Goskomrybolovstvo (State Fisheries Committee of the Russian Federation), we show that LFs can serve as good indicators of places that are favorable for fishing.

Prants, S. V.; Budyansky, M. V.; Uleysky, M. Yu.

2014-05-01

438

Lagrangian continuum dynamics in ALEGRA.

Alegra is an ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) multi-material finite element code that emphasizes large deformations and strong shock physics. The Lagrangian continuum dynamics package in Alegra uses a Galerkin finite element spatial discretization and an explicit central-difference stepping method in time. The goal of this report is to describe in detail the characteristics of this algorithm, including the conservation and stability properties. The details provided should help both researchers and analysts understand the underlying theory and numerical implementation of the Alegra continuum hydrodynamics algorithm.

Wong, Michael K. W.; Love, Edward

2007-12-01

439

Spaces of Conformal Theories and String Field Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems studied in this thesis were motivated by (a) the program of constructing closed bosonic string field theories (CSFTs), and (b) the issue of background independence in string field theory. Certain minimal area metrics on punctured Riemann surfaces can be used to construct a CSFT, if among other things, these metrics are flat around punctures. The theorem proved in Chapter 2 shows that a minimal area metric is flat around punctures, if there exist neighbourhoods of the punctures that are uniquely foliated by the saturating curves of the metric. Since such foliation was expected the theorem moved one closer to verifying that CSFTs can be constructed. Once CSFTs were in hand, background dependence of the string field action engaged interest. This led to a study of covariant derivatives (interchangeably called connections) on the bundle of states of a space of CFTs, the results of which are presented in Chapter 3. The study clarified the general framework for examining spaces of CFTs and this led (a) to the characterization of covariant derivatives by operator forms omega^epsilon, and (b) to the canonical connection types, Gamma ^{D}, c and | c . One expects to be able to (through use of CFT data) infer, from knowledge of an omega^ epsilon characterizing a connection Gamma, most of the interesting properties and off shoots of Gamma. Things fall short of this expectation, somewhat. The shortfall is analyzed with regard to connection coefficients in an eigenbasis of L_0 and | L_0, BPZ metric compatibility, pull backs of connections to the base and curvature. For a test of the ideas in Chapter 3, toroidally compactified theories are an accessible playground and Chapter 4 recounts a visit to these parts. The highpoints are, that nabla ^{KZ}, a connection that arises naturally in such theory spaces, is a Gamma ^{D} type connection with D the unit disc and that nabla^{KZ } becomes the Zamolodchikov connection when pulled back to the base. Chapter 5 is concerned with the perturbative construction of a CFT in the state space of another. The use of parallel transport yields, as expected, a canonical construction manifestly free of divergences. From this perturbative construction, we extract necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of an extension to a theory space. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617 -253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).

Kirshnan, Ranganathan

440

A novel string field theory solving string theory by liberating left and right movers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We put forward ideas to a novel string field theory based on making some "objects" that essentially describe "liberated" left- and right- mover fields ( ? + ?) and ( ? - ?) on the string. Our novel string field theory is completely definitely different from any other string theory in as far as a "null set" of information in the string field theory Fock space has been removed relatively, to the usual string field theories. So our theory is definitely new. The main progress is that we manage to make our novel string field theory provide the correct mass square spectrum for the string. We finally suggest how to obtain the Veneziano amplitude in our model.

Nielsen, Holger B.; Ninomiya, Masao

2014-05-01

441

Yangian Superalgebras in Conformal Field Theory

Quantum Yangian symmetry in several sigma models with supergroup or supercoset as target is established. Starting with a two-dimensional conformal field theory that has current symmetry of a Lie superalgebra with vanishing Killing form we construct non-local charges and compute their properties. Yangian axioms are satisfied, except that the Serre relations only hold for a subsector of the space of fields. Yangian symmetry implies that correlation functions of fields in this sector satisfy Ward identities. We then show that this symmetry is preserved by certain perturbations of the conformal field theory. The main example are sigma models of the supergroups PSL(N|N), OSP(2N+2|2N) and D(2,1;\\alpha) away from the WZW point. Further there are the OSP(2N+2|2N) Gross-Neveu models and current-current perturbations of ghost systems, both for the disc as world-sheet. The latter we show to be equivalent to CP^{N-1|N} sigma models, while the former are conjecturally dual to supersphere sigma models.

Thomas Creutzig

2010-12-07

442

Scalar Field Theories with Polynomial Shift Symmetries

We continue our study of naturalness in nonrelativistic QFTs of the Lifshitz type, focusing on scalar fields that can play the role of Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. Such systems allow for an extension of the constant shift symmetry to a shift by a polynomial of degree $P$ in spatial coordinates. These "polynomial shift symmetries" in turn protect the technical naturalness of modes with a higher-order dispersion relation, and lead to a refinement of the proposed classification of infrared Gaussian fixed points available to describe NG modes in nonrelativistic theories. Generic interactions in such theories break the polynomial shift symmetry explicitly to the constant shift. It is thus natural to ask: Given a Gaussian fixed point with polynomial shift symmetry of degree $P$, what are the lowest-dimension operators that preserve this symmetry, and deform the theory into a self-interacting scalar field theory with the shift symmetry of degree $P$? To answer this (essentially cohomological) question, we develop a new graph-theoretical technique, and use it to prove several classification theorems. First, in the special case of $P=1$ (essentially equivalent to Galileons), we reproduce the known Galileon $N$-point invariants, and find their novel interpretation in terms of graph theory, as an equal-weight sum over all labeled trees with $N$ vertices. Then we extend the classification to $P>1$ and find a whole host of new invariants, including those that represent the most relevant (or least irrelevant) deformations of the corresponding Gaussian fixed points, and we study their uniqueness.

Tom Griffin; Kevin T. Grosvenor; Petr Horava; Ziqi Yan

2014-12-02

443

The clebsch potential approach to fluid lagrangians

The clebsch potential approach to fluid lagrangians is developed in order to establish contact with other approaches to fluids. Three variants of the perfect fluid approach are looked at. The first is an explicit linear lagrangian constructed directly from the clebsch potentials, this has fixed equation of state and explicit expression for the pressure but is less general than a perfect fluid. The second is lagrangians more general than that of a perfect fluid which are constructed from higher powers of the comoving vector. The third is lagrangians depending on two vector fields which can represent both density flow and entropy flow.

Mark D. Roberts

2009-10-19

444

Pauli-Villars regulatization of supergravity and field theory anomalies

A procedure for Pauli-Villars regularization of locally and globally supersymmetric theories is described. Implications for specific theories, especially those obtained from superstrings, are discussed with emphasis on the role of field theory anomalies.

Gaillard, M.K.

1995-06-01

445

Dissipative inertial transport patterns near coherent Lagrangian eddies in the ocean

Recent developments in dynamical systems theory have revealed long-lived and coherent Lagrangian (i.e., material) eddies in incompressible, satellite-derived surface ocean velocity fields. Paradoxically, observed drifting buoys and floating matter tend to create dissipative-looking patterns near oceanic eddies, which appear to be inconsistent with the conservative fluid particle patterns created by coherent Lagrangian eddies. Here we show that inclusion of inertial effects (i.e., those produced by the buoyancy and size finiteness of an object) in a rotating two-dimensional incompressible flow context resolves this paradox. Specifically, we obtain that anticyclonic coherent Lagrangian eddies attract (repel) negatively (positively) buoyant finite-size particles, while cyclonic coherent Lagrangian eddies attract (repel) positively (negatively) buoyant finite-size particles. We show how these results explain dissipative-looking satellite-tracked surface drifter and subsurface float trajectories, as well as satellite-derived \\emph{Sargassum} distributions.

F. J. Beron-Vera; M. J. Olascoaga; G. Haller; M. Farazmand; J. Trinanes; Y. Wang

2015-02-23

446

Physics 221B: Solution to HW # 8 Quantum Field Theory

Physics 221B: Solution to HW # 8 Quantum Field Theory 1) Bosonic Grand-Partition Function The solution to this problem is outlined clearly in the beginning of the lecture notes `Quantum Field Theory II

Murayama, Hitoshi

447

Conformal Field Theory, Tensor Categories and Operator Algebras

This is a set of lecture notes on the operator algebraic approach to 2-dimensional conformal field theory. Representation theoretic aspects and connections to vertex operator algebras are emphasized. No knowledge on operator algebras or quantum field theory is assumed.

Yasuyuki Kawahigashi

2015-03-19

448

New mathematical structures in renormalizable quantum field theories

Computations in renormalizable perturbative quantum field theories reveal mathematical structures which go way beyond the formal structure which is usually taken as underlying quantum field theory. We review these new structures and the role they can play in future developments.

Dirk Kreimer

2003-01-01

449

8.323 Relativistic Quantum Field Theory I, Spring 2003

In 8.323, Relativistic Quantum Field Theory I, concepts and basic techniques are developed through applications in elementary particle physics, and condensed matter physics. Topics include: Classical field theory, symmetries, ...

Guth, Alan H.

450

On conformal field theories with extremal values

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unitary conformal field theories (CFTs) are believed to have positive (non-negative) energy correlators. Energy correlators are universal observables in higher-dimensional CFTs built out of integrated Wightman functions of the stress-energy tensor. We analyze energy correlators in parity invariant four-dimensional CFTs. The goal is to use the positivity of energy correlators to further constrain unitary CFTs. It is known that the positivity of the simplest one-point energy correlator implies that where a and c are the Weyl anomaly coefficients. We use the positivity of higher point energy correlators to show that CFTs with extremal values of have trivial scattering observables. More precisely, for and all energy correlators are fixed to be the ones of the free boson and the free vector theory correspondingly. Similarly, we show that the positivity and finiteness of energy correlators together imply that the three-point function of the stress tensor in a CFT cannot be proportional to the one in the theory of free boson, free fermion or free vector field.

Zhiboedov, Alexander

2014-04-01

451

Algebraic quantum field theory in curved spacetimes

This article sets out the framework of algebraic quantum field theory in curved spacetimes, based on the idea of local covariance. In this framework, a quantum field theory is modelled by a functor from a category of spacetimes to a category of ($C^*$)-algebras obeying supplementary conditions. Among other things: (a) the key idea of relative Cauchy evolution is described in detail, and related to the stress-energy tensor; (b) a systematic "rigidity argument" is used to generalise results from flat to curved spacetimes; (c) a detailed discussion of the issue of selection of physical states is given, linking notions of stability at microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic scales; (d) the notion of subtheories and global gauge transformations are formalised; (e) it is shown that the general framework excludes the possibility of there being a single preferred state in each spacetime, if the choice of states is local and covariant. Many of the ideas are illustrated by the example of the free Klein-Gordon theory, which is given a new "universal definition".

Christopher J. Fewster; Rainer Verch

2015-04-02

452

The Boundary and Crosscap States in Conformal Field Theories

A method to obtain the boundary states and the crosscap states explicitly in various conformal field theories, is presented. This makes it possible to construct and analyse open string theories in several closed string backgrounds. We discuss the construction of such theories in the case of the backgrounds corresponding to the conformal field theories with SU(2) current algebra symmetry.

Nobuyuki Ishibashi

1989-01-01

453

The effective field theory treatment of quantum gravity

This is a pedagogical introduction to the treatment of quantum general relativity as an effective field theory. It starts with an overview of the methods of effective field theory and includes an explicit example. Quantum general relativity matches this framework and I discuss gravitational examples as well as the limits of the effective field theory. I also discuss the insights from effective field theory on the gravitational effects on running couplings in the perturbative regime.

Donoghue, John F. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

2012-09-24

454

On open-closed extension of boundary string field theory

We investigate a classical open-closed string field theory whose open string sector is given by boundary string field theory. The open-closed interaction is introduced by the overlap of a boundary state with a closed string field. With the help of the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, the closed string sector is determined to be the HIKKO closed string field theory. We also discuss the gauge invariance of this theory in both open and closed string sides.

Akira Ishida; Shunsuke Teraguchi

2012-07-11

455

Lattice field theory simulations of graphene

We discuss the Monte Carlo method of simulating lattice field theories as a means of studying the low-energy effective theory of graphene. We also report on simulational results obtained using the Metropolis and Hybrid Monte Carlo methods for the chiral condensate, which is the order parameter for the semimetal-insulator transition in graphene, induced by the Coulomb interaction between the massless electronic quasiparticles. The critical coupling and the associated exponents of this transition are determined by means of the logarithmic derivative of the chiral condensate and an equation-of-state analysis. A thorough discussion of finite-size effects is given, along with several tests of our calculational framework. These results strengthen the case for an insulating phase in suspended graphene, and indicate that the semimetal-insulator transition is likely to be of second order, though exhibiting neither classical critical exponents, nor the predicted phenomenon of Miransky scaling.

Joaquín E. Drut; Timo A. Lähde

2009-04-21

456

Heterotic $?$'-corrections in Double Field Theory

We extend the generalized flux formulation of Double Field Theory to include all the first order bosonic contributions to the $\\alpha '$ expansion of the heterotic string low energy effective theory. The generalized tangent space and duality group are enhanced by $\\alpha'$ corrections, and the gauge symmetries are generated by the usual (gauged) generalized Lie derivative in the extended space. The generalized frame receives derivative corrections through the spin connection with torsion, which is incorporated as a new degree of freedom in the extended bein. We compute the generalized fluxes and find the Riemann curvature tensor with torsion as one of their components. All the four-derivative terms of the action, Bianchi identities and equations of motion are reproduced. Using this formalism, we obtain the first order $\\alpha'$ corrections to the heterotic Buscher rules. The relation of our results to alternative formulations in the literature is discussed and future research directions are outlined.

Oscar A. Bedoya; Diego Marques; Carmen Nunez

2014-12-15

457

Working Group Report: Lattice Field Theory

This is the report of the Computing Frontier working group on Lattice Field Theory prepared for the proceedings of the 2013 Community Summer Study ("Snowmass"). We present the future computing needs and plans of the U.S. lattice gauge theory community and argue that continued support of the U.S. (and worldwide) lattice-QCD effort is essential to fully capitalize on the enormous investment in the high-energy physics experimental program. We first summarize the dramatic progress of numerical lattice-QCD simulations in the past decade, with some emphasis on calculations carried out under the auspices of the U.S. Lattice-QCD Collaboration, and describe a broad program of lattice-QCD calculations that will be relevant for future experiments at the intensity and energy frontiers. We then present details of the computational hardware and software resources needed to undertake these calculations.

Blum, T.; et al.,

2013-10-22

458

The effective field theory of dark energy

We propose a universal description of dark energy and modified gravity that includes all single-field models. By extending a formalism previously applied to inflation, we consider the metric universally coupled to matter fields and we write in terms of it the most general unitary gauge action consistent with the residual unbroken symmetries of spatial diffeomorphisms. Our action is particularly suited for cosmological perturbation theory: the background evolution depends on only three operators. All other operators start at least at quadratic order in the perturbations and their effects can be studied independently and systematically. In particular, we focus on the properties of a few operators which appear in non-minimally coupled scalar-tensor gravity and galileon theories. In this context, we study the mixing between gravity and the scalar degree of freedom. We assess the quantum and classical stability, derive the speed of sound of fluctuations and the renormalization of the Newton constant. The scalar can always be de-mixed from gravity at quadratic order in the perturbations, but not necessarily through a conformal rescaling of the metric. We show how to express covariant field-operators in our formalism and give several explicit examples of dark energy and modified gravity models in our language. Finally, we discuss the relation with the covariant EFT methods recently appeared in the literature.

Gubitosi, Giulia; Vernizzi, Filippo [CEA, IPhT, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cédex (France); Piazza, Federico, E-mail: giulia.gubitosi@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: fpiazza@apc.univ-paris7.fr, E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr [Paris Center for Cosmological Physics (PCCP) and Laboratoire APC, Université Paris 7, 75205 Paris (France)

2013-02-01

459

Transfer operators and topological field theory

The transfer operator (TO) formalism of the dynamical systems (DS) theory is reformulated here in terms of the recently proposed cohomological theory (ChT) of stochastic differential equations (SDE). It turns out that the stochastically generalized TO (GTO) of the DS theory is the finite-time ChT Fokker-Planck evolution operator. As a result comes the supersymmetric trivialization of the so-called sharp trace and sharp determinant of the GTO, with the former being the Witten index of the ChT. Moreover, the Witten index is also the stochastic generalization of the Lefschetz index so that it equals the Euler characteristic of the (closed) phase space for any flow vector field, noise metric, and temperature. The enabled possibility to apply the spectral theorems of the DS theory to the ChT Fokker-Planck operators allows to extend the previous picture of the spontaneous topological supersymmetry (Q-symmetry) breaking onto the situations with negative ground state's attenuation rate. The later signifies the exponential growth of the number of periodic solutions/orbits in the large time limit, which is the unique feature of chaotic behavior proving that the spontaneous breakdown of Q-symmetry is indeed the field-theoretic definition and stochastic generalization of the concept of deterministic chaos. In addition, the previously proposed low-temperature classification of SDE's, i.e., thermodynamic equilibrium / noise-induced chaos ((anti-)instanton condensation) / ordinary chaos (non-integrability), is complemented by the discussion of the high-temperature regime where the sharp boundary between the noise-induced and ordinary chaotic phases must smear out into a crossover, and at even higher temperatures the Q-symmetry is restored. An unambiguous resolution of the Ito-Stratonovich dilemma in favor of the Stratonovich approach and/or Weyl quantization is also presented.

Igor V. Ovchinnikov

2014-10-24

460

Conformal Field Theory Properties of Two-Dimensional Percolation

Conformal Field Theory Properties of Two-Dimensional Percolation Michael Flohr and Annekathrin M in two dimensions has interesting features in conformal field theory such as the conformal invari- ance Network HPRN-CT-2002-00325 (EUCLID) anne@th.physik.uni-bonn.de 1 #12;conformal field theory which matches

Flohr, Michael

461

Orbifold Conformal Field Theory and Cohomology of the Monster

Orbifold Conformal Field Theory and Cohomology of the Monster Geoffrey Mason University of California, Santa Cruz December 10, 2002 1 #12;31: Introduction. In this lecture, Conformal Field Theory (CFT- rectly with the quantum fields (or vertex operators) that define the theory. We will say nothing about

Greenlees, John

462

RESERCH REPORT CONFORMAL FIELD THEORY, BRAID GROUPS AND

RESERCH REPORT CONFORMAL FIELD THEORY, BRAID GROUPS AND QUANTUM GROUPS VALERIO TOLEDANO LAREDO Contents Introduction 2 Part I. Conformal field theory and operator algebras 2 1. The problem of fusion 2 2 1997) to 1999, my research has centred mainly on the study of Conformal Field Theory from the point

Schapira, Pierre

463

Perturbed Conformal Field Theory: A Tool for Investigating Integrable

Perturbed Conformal Field Theory: A Tool for Investigating Integrable Models Marco Ameduri Newman of perturbed conformal field theory is reviewed, and its applications to the analysis of new families]. #12; CONFORMAL FIELD THEORY A physical system at a second order phase transition can be described

464

Locality in Free String Field Theory J. Dimock \\Lambda

Locality in Free String Field Theory J. Dimock \\Lambda Dept. of Mathematics SUNY at Buffalo Buffalo field theory is local. The question for interacting strings is completely unsettled, since the theory, NY 14214 April 27, 1998 Abstract Free string field operators are constructed for the open bosonic

465

The vacuum state functional of interacting string field theory

We show that the vacuum state functional for both open and closed string field theories can be constructed from the vacuum expectation values it must generate. The method also applies to quantum field theory and as an application we give a diagrammatic description of the equivalance between Schrodinger and covariant repreresentations of field theory.

A. Ilderton

2005-06-21

466

Compressible Lagrangian hydrodynamics without Lagrangian cells

Traditional Lagrangian hydrodynamic codes for time dependent, compressible, multimaterial problems in two dimensions use the same general method. A Lagrangian mesh is defined, which moves with the fluid and this mesh defines a set of Lagrangian cells. The mass in each cell remains fixed and the motion of the mesh determines the volume and hence the density of each cell. These methods work well until the mesh becomes distorted due to shear or turbulence. Large distortions cause computer codes to quickly grind to a halt. The usual solution to distortion is to ''rezone'' the mesh. Here we move the mesh points artificially so as to reduce distortions and then map the quantities from the old mesh to the new. This results in unwanted diffusion of mass, momentum and energy throughout the mesh. Even with rezoning, few Lagrangian codes can handle more than limited distortions. Recently, what we call ''Free-Lagrangian'' codes have been developed specifically to handle large distortions. These codes, in addition to adjusting the mesh points, can reconnect mesh points, thus creating new cells. While Free-Lagrangian codes can handle virtually any distortion, they are even more diffusive than rezoners. We are trying a different aproach to the problem. We abandon the idea of Lagrangian cells entirely. In the next section we will discuss how the conservation equations can be solved directly without resorting to Lagrangian cells. Next we will give some examples of calculations using this method. Finally, we will give details of the calculational method presently being used.

Clark, R.A.

1985-01-01

467

Canonical quantization of Galilean covariant field theories

The Galilean-invariant field theories are quantized by using the canonical method and the five-dimensional Lorentz-like covariant expressions of non-relativistic field equations. This method is motivated by the fact that the extended Galilei group in 3 + 1 dimensions is a subgroup of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group in 4 + 1 dimensions. First, we consider complex scalar fields, where the Schroedinger field follows from a reduction of the Klein-Gordon equation in the extended space. The underlying discrete symmetries are discussed, and we calculate the scattering cross-sections for the Coulomb interaction and for the self-interacting term {lambda}{phi} {sup 4}. Then, we turn to the Dirac equation, which, upon dimensional reduction, leads to the Levy-Leblond equations. Like its relativistic analogue, the model allows for the existence of antiparticles. Scattering amplitudes and cross-sections are calculated for the Coulomb interaction, the electron-electron and the electron-positron scattering. These examples show that the so-called 'non-relativistic' approximations, obtained in low-velocity limits, must be treated with great care to be Galilei-invariant. The non-relativistic Proca field is discussed briefly.

Santos, E.S. [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2J1 (Canada)]. E-mail: esantos@phys.ualberta.ca; Montigny, M. de [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2J1 (Canada) and Faculte Saint-Jean, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta., T6C 4G9 (Canada)]. E-mail: montigny@phys.ualberta.ca; Khanna, F.C. [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta., T6G 2J1 (Canada) and TRIUMF, 4004, Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada)]. E-mail: khanna@phys.ualberta.ca

2005-11-01

468

Microscopic Fields and Macroscopic Averages in Einstein's Unified Field Theory

The relation between microscopic and macroscopic entities in the generally covariant theories is considered, and it is argued that a sensible definition of the macroscopic averages requires a restriction of the allowed transformations of coordinates. Spacetime averages of the geometric objects of Einstein's unified field theory are then defined, and the reconstruction of some features of macroscopic reality from hypothetic microscopic structures is attempted. It is shown how a fluctuating microscopic behaviour of the metric field can rule the constitutive relation for electromagnetism both in vacuo and in nondispersive material media. Moreover, if both the metric and the skew tensor density that represents the electric displacement and the magnetic field are assumed to possess a wavy microscopic structure, nonvanishing generalized force densities can appear in the continuum. They originate from a resonance process, in which at least three waves need to be involved. This process only occurs if the wavevectors fulfil the three-wave resonance condition, so ubiquitous in quantum physics. The wavy behaviour of the metric is essential for the occurrence of this resonance phenomenon.

S. Antoci

1998-01-15

469

Effective field theory of interacting ? electrons

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a ?-electron effective field theory (?-EFT) wherein the two-body Hamiltonian for a ?-electron system is expressed in terms of three effective parameters: the ?-orbital quadrupole moment, the on-site repulsion, and a dielectric constant. As a first application of this ?-EFT, we develop a model of screening in molecular junctions based on image multipole moments, and use this to investigate the reduction of the HOMO-LUMO gap of benzene. Beyond this, we also use ?-EFT to calculate the differential conductance spectrum of the prototypical benzenedithiol-Au single-molecule junction and the ?-electron contribution to the van der Waals interaction between benzene and a metallic electrode.

Barr, J. D.; Stafford, C. A.; Bergfield, J. P.

2012-09-01

470

The Heisenberg group and conformal field theory

A mathematical construction of the conformal field theory (CFT) associated to a compact torus, also called the "nonlinear Sigma-model" or "lattice-CFT", is given. Underlying this approach to CFT is a unitary modular functor, the construction of which follows from a "Quantization commutes with reduction"- type of theorem for unitary quantizations of the moduli spaces of holomorphic torus-bundles and actions of loop groups. This theorem in turn is a consequence of general constructions in the category of affine symplectic manifolds and their associated generalized Heisenberg groups.

Hessel Posthuma

2011-05-24

471

OPE Convergence in Conformal Field Theory

We clarify questions related to the convergence of the OPE and conformal block decomposition in unitary Conformal Field Theories (for any number of spacetime dimensions). In particular, we explain why these expansions are convergent in a finite region. We also show that the convergence is exponentially fast, in the sense that the operators of dimension above Delta contribute to correlation functions at most exp(-a Delta). Here the constant a>0 depends on the positions of operator insertions and we compute it explicitly.

Duccio Pappadopulo; Slava Rychkov; Johnny Espin; Riccardo Rattazzi

2014-08-19

472

Galois Groups in Rational Conformal Field Theory

It was established before that fusion rings in a rational conformal field theory (RCFT) can be described as rings of polynomials, with integer coefficients, modulo some relations. We use the Galois group of these relations to obtain a local set of equation for the points of the fusion variety. These equations are sufficient to classify all the RCFT, Galois group by Galois group. It is shown that the Galois group is equivalent to the pseudo RCFT group. We prove that the Galois groups encountered in RCFT are all abelian, implying solvability by radicals of the modular matrix.

Doron Gepner

2006-08-23

473

Drift estimation from a simple field theory

Given the outcome of a Wiener process, what can be said about the drift and diffusion coefficients? If the process is stationary, these coefficients are related to the mean and variance of the position displacements distribution. However, if either drift or diffusion are time-dependent, very little can be said unless some assumption about that dependency is made. In Bayesian statistics, this should be translated into some specific prior probability. We use Bayes rule to estimate these coefficients from a single trajectory. This defines a simple, and analytically tractable, field theory.

Mendes, F. M.; Figueiredo, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, CP: 04455, 70919-970-Brasilia (Brazil)

2008-11-06

474

Purely cubic action for string field theory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that Witten's (1986) open-bosonic-string field-theory action and a closed-string analog can be written as a purely cubic interaction term. The conventional form of the action arises by expansion around particular solutions of the classical equations of motion. The explicit background dependence of the conventional action via the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator is eliminated in the cubic formulation. A closed-form expression is found for the full nonlinear gauge-transformation law.

Horowitz, G. T.; Lykken, J.; Rohm, R.; Strominger, A.

1986-01-01

475

Exact integrability in quantum field theory

The treatment of exactly integrable systems in various branches of two-dimensional classical and quantum physics has recently been placed in a unified framework by the development of the quantum inverse method. This method consolidates a broad range of developments in classical nonlinear wave (soliton) physics, statistical mechanics, and quantum field theory. The essential technique for analyzing exactly integrable quantum systems was invested by Bethe in 1931. The quantum-mechanical extension of the inverse scattering method and its relationship to the methods associated with Bethe's ansatz are examined here. (RWR)

Thacker, H.B.

1980-08-01

476

Theory of microemulsions in a gravitational field

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory of microemulsions developed previously is extended to include the effect of a gravitational field. It predicts variation with position of drop size, drop volume fraction, and area per molecule in the surfactant films within a microemulsion phase. Variation in volume fraction is greatest and occurs in such a way that oil content increases with increasing elevation, as has been found experimentally. Large composition variations are predicted within a middle phase microemulsion near optimal conditions because inversion from the water-continuous to the oil-continuous arrangement occurs with increasing elevation. Generally speaking, gravity reduces solubilization within microemulsions and promotes separation of excess phases.

Jeng, J. F.; Miller, Clarence A.

1989-01-01

477

Scalar-field theory of dark matter

We develop a theory of dark matter based on a previously proposed picture, in which a complex vacuum scalar field makes the universe a superfluid, with the energy density of the superfluid giving rise to dark energy, and variations from vacuum density giving rise to dark matter. We formulate a nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation to describe the superfluid, treating galaxies as external sources. We study the response of the superfluid to the galaxies, in particular, the emergence of the dark-matter galactic halo, contortions during galaxy collisions, and the creation of vortices due to galactic rotation.

Kerson Huang; Chi Xiong; Xiaofei Zhao

2014-04-29

478

Dynamic field theory and equations of motion in cosmology

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a field-theoretical approach based on general-relativistic variational principle to derive the covariant field equations and hydrodynamic equations of motion of baryonic matter governed by cosmological perturbations of dark matter and dark energy. The action depends on the gravitational and matter Lagrangian. The gravitational Lagrangian depends on the metric tensor and its first and second derivatives. The matter Lagrangian includes dark matter, dark energy and the ordinary baryonic matter which plays the role of a bare perturbation. The total Lagrangian is expanded in an asymptotic Taylor series around the background cosmological manifold defined as a solution of Einstein's equations in the form of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric tensor. The small parameter of the decomposition is the magnitude of the metric tensor perturbation. Each term of the series expansion is gauge-invariant and all of them together form a basis for the successive post-Friedmannian approximations around the background metric. The approximation scheme is covariant and the asymptotic nature of the Lagrangian decomposition does not require the post-Friedmannian perturbations to be small though computationally it works the most effectively when the perturbed metric is close enough to the background FLRW metric. The temporal evolution of the background metric is governed by dark matter and dark energy and we associate the large scale inhomogeneities in these two components as those generated by the primordial cosmological perturbations with an effective matter density contrast ?? / ? ? 1. The small scale inhomogeneities are generated by the condensations of baryonic matter considered as the bare perturbations of the background manifold that admits ?? / ? ? 1. Mathematically, the large scale perturbations are given by the homogeneous solution of the linearized field equations while the small scale perturbations are described by a particular solution of these equations with the bare stress-energy tensor of the baryonic matter. We explicitly work out the covariant field equations of the successive post-Friedmannian approximations of Einstein's equations in cosmology and derive equations of motion of large and small scale inhomogeneities of dark matter and dark energy. We apply these equations to derive the post-Friedmannian equations of motion of baryonic matter comprising stars, galaxies and their clusters.

Kopeikin, Sergei M.; Petrov, Alexander N.

2014-11-01

479

A Survey of Lagrangian Mechanics and Control on Lie algebroids and groupoids

In this survey, we present a geometric description of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Mechanics on Lie algebroids. The flexibility of the Lie algebroid formalism allows us to analyze systems subject to nonholonomic constraints, mechanical control systems, Discrete Mechanics and extensions to Classical Field Theory within a single framework. Various examples along the discussion illustrate the soundness of the approach.

Jorge Cortes; Manuel de Leon; Juan C. Marrero; D. Martin de Diego; Eduardo Martinez

2005-11-03

480

A Conformal Field Theory for Eternal Inflation

We study a statistical model defined by a conformally invariant distribution of overlapping spheres in arbitrary dimension d. The model arises as the asymptotic distribution of cosmic bubbles in d+1 dimensional de Sitter space, and also as the asymptotic distribution of bubble collisions with the domain wall of a fiducial "observation bubble" in d+2 dimensional de Sitter space. In this note we calculate the 2-,3-, and 4-point correlation functions of exponentials of the "bubble number operator" analytically in d=2. We find that these correlators, when carefully defined, are free of infrared divergences, covariant under the global conformal group, charge conserving, and transform with positive conformal dimensions that are related in a novel way to the charge. Although by themselves these operators probably do not define a full-fledged conformal field theory, one can use the partition function on a sphere to compute an approximate central charge in the 2D case. The theory in any dimension has a noninteracting limit when the nucleation rate of the bubbles in the bulk is very large. The theory in two dimensions is related to some models of continuum percolation, but it is conformal for all values of the tunneling rate.

Ben Freivogel; Matthew Kleban

2009-03-12

481

Characters of graded parafermion conformal field theory

The graded parafermion conformal field theory at level k is a close cousin of the much-studied Z_k parafermion model. Three character formulas for the graded parafermion theory are presented, one bosonic, one fermionic (both previously known) and one of spinon type (which is new). The main result of this paper is a proof of the equivalence of these three forms using q-series methods combined with the combinatorics of lattice paths. The pivotal step in our approach is the observation that the graded parafermion theory -- which is equivalent to the coset osp(1,2)_k/ u(1) -- can be factored as (osp(1,2)_k/ su(2)_k) x (su(2)_k/ u(1)), with the two cosets on the right equivalent to the minimal model M(k+2,2k+3) and the Z_k parafermion model, respectively. This factorisation allows for a new combinatorial description of the graded parafermion characters in terms of the one-dimensional configuration sums of the (k+1)-state Andrews--Baxter--Forrester model.

J. -F. Fortin; P. Mathieu; S. O. Warnaar

2006-02-23

482

Four-dimensional deformed special relativity from group field theories

We derive a scalar field theory of the deformed special relativity type, living on noncommutative {kappa}-Minkowski space-time and with a {kappa}-deformed Poincare symmetry, from the SO(4,1) group field theory defining the transition amplitudes for topological BF theory in 4 space-time dimensions. This is done at a nonperturbative level of the spin foam formalism working directly with the group field theory (GFT). We show that matter fields emerge from the fundamental model as perturbations around a specific phase of the GFT, corresponding to a solution of the fundamental equations of motion, and that the noncommutative field theory governs their effective dynamics.

Girelli, Florian [SISSA, Via Beirut 2-4, 34014 Trieste, Italy and INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Livine, Etera R. [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon, CNRS UMR 5672, 46 Allee d'Italie, 69007 Lyon (France); Oriti, Daniele [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Utrecht 3584 TD (Netherlands); Albert Einstein Institute, Am Muehlenberg 4, Golm (Germany)

2010-01-15

483

Relating Lagrangian and Eulerian horizontal eddy statistics in the surfzone

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concurrent Lagrangian and Eulerian observations of rotational, low-frequency (10-4 to 10-2 Hz) surfzone eddies are compared. Surface drifters were tracked for a few hours on each of 11 days at two alongshore uniform beaches. A cross-shore array of near-bottom current meters extended from near the shoreline to seaward of the surfzone (typically 100 m wide in