A Lagrangian effective field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vlah, Zvonimir; White, Martin; Aviles, Alejandro
2015-09-01
We have continued the development of Lagrangian, cosmological perturbation theory for the low-order correlators of the matter density field. We provide a new route to understanding how the effective field theory (EFT) of large-scale structure can be formulated in the Lagrandian framework and a new resummation scheme, comparing our results to earlier work and to a series of high-resolution N-body simulations in both Fourier and configuration space. The `new' terms arising from EFT serve to tame the dependence of perturbation theory on small-scale physics and improve agreement with simulations (though with an additional free parameter). We find that all of our models fare well on scales larger than about two to three times the non-linear scale, but fail as the non-linear scale is approached. This is slightly less reach than has been seen previously. At low redshift the Lagrangian model fares as well as EFT in its Eulerian formulation, but at higher z the Eulerian EFT fits the data to smaller scales than resummed, Lagrangian EFT. All the perturbative models fare better than linear theory.
"Lagrangian" for a Non-Lagrangian Field Theory with N=2 Supersymmetry.
Gadde, Abhijit; Razamat, Shlomo S; Willett, Brian
2015-10-23
We suggest that at least some of the strongly coupled N=2 quantum field theories in 4D can have a nonconformal N=1 Lagrangian description flowing to them at low energies. In particular, we construct such a description for the N=2 rank one superconformal field theory with E_{6} flavor symmetry, for which a Lagrangian description was previously unavailable. We utilize this description to compute several supersymmetric partition functions. PMID:26551100
"Lagrangian" for a Non-Lagrangian Field Theory with N =2 Supersymmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gadde, Abhijit; Razamat, Shlomo S.; Willett, Brian
2015-10-01
We suggest that at least some of the strongly coupled N =2 quantum field theories in 4D can have a nonconformal N =1 Lagrangian description flowing to them at low energies. In particular, we construct such a description for the N =2 rank one superconformal field theory with E6 flavor symmetry, for which a Lagrangian description was previously unavailable. We utilize this description to compute several supersymmetric partition functions.
Field theory Lagrangian approach to nuclear structure
Tapas Sil; S. K. Patra; B. K. Sharma; M. Centelles; X. Vinas
2004-06-09
We show that in the search of a unified mean field description of finite nuclei and of nuclear and neutron matter even at high densities, the relativistic nuclear model derived from effective field theory and density functional theory methods constitutes a competitive framework. The model predicts a soft equation of state, owing to the additional meson interaction terms, consistently with the results of the microscopic Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory and recent experimental observations from heavy ion collisions. In finite systems, after inclusion of the pairing correlations, the model is able to describe both stable and exotic nuclei. We address two examples at the limits of the nuclear landscape. On the one hand, we analyze the giant halo effect and the isoscalar giant monopole resonance in very neutron-rich Zr isotopes. On the other hand, we discuss the structure of superheavy nuclei with double shell closures.
Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism for field theory
A. Echeverría-Enríquez; C. López; J. Marín-Solano; M. C. Muñoz-Lecanda; N. Román-Roy
2004-02-13
The Rusk-Skinner formalism was developed in order to give a geometrical unified formalism for describing mechanical systems. It incorporates all the characteristics of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian descriptions of these systems (including dynamical equations and solutions, constraints, Legendre map, evolution operators, equivalence, etc.). In this work we extend this unified framework to first-order classical field theories, and show how this description comprises the main features of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, both for the regular and singular cases. This formulation is a first step toward further applications in optimal control theory for PDE's.
Pictures and equations of motion in Lagrangian quantum field theory
Bozhidar Z. Iliev
2003-02-01
The Heisenberg, interaction, and Schr\\"odinger pictures of motion are considered in Lagrangian (canonical) quantum field theory. The equations of motion (for state vectors and field operators) are derived for arbitrary Lagrangians which are polynomial or convergent power series in field operators and their first derivatives. The general links between different time-dependent pictures of motion are derived. It is pointed that all of them admit covariant formulation, similar to the one of interaction picture. A new picture, called the momentum picture, is proposed. It is a 4-dimensional analogue of the Schr\\"odinger picture of quantum mechanics as in it the state vectors are spacetime-dependent, while the field operators are constant relative to the spacetime. The equations of motion in momentum picture are derived and partially discussed. In particular, the ones for the field operators turn to be of algebraic type. The general idea of covariant pictures of motion is presented. The equations of motion in these pictures are derived.
A unifying framework for ghost-free Lorentz-invariant Lagrangian field theories
Li, Wenliang
2015-01-01
We develop a general framework for Lorentz-invariant Lagrangian field theories that leads to second order equations of motion. The key ingredient is the antisymmetric Kronecker delta. Then we reformulate the general ghost-free Lagrangians in the language of differential forms. The absence of higher order equations of motion stems from the basic fact that every exact form is closed. All known ghost-free Lagrangian theories for spin-0, spin-1, spin-2 fields have natural formulations in this framework. We propose new ghost-free Lagrangians, for example, novel nonlinear kinetic terms for graviton.
Cosmic density and velocity fields in Lagrangian perturbation theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Susperregi, M.; Buchert, T.
1997-07-01
A first- and second-order relation between cosmic density and peculiar-velocity fields is presented. The calculation is purely Lagrangian and it is derived using the second-order solutions of the Lagrange-Newton system obtained by Buchert & Ehlers (1993MNRAS.264..375B). The procedure is applied to two particular solutions given generic initial conditions. In this approach, the continuity equation yields a relation between the over-density and peculiar-velocity fields that automatically satisfies Euler's equation because the orbits are derived from the Lagrange-Newton system. This scheme generalizes some results obtained by Nusser et al. (1991ApJ...379....6N) in the context of the Zel'dovich approximation. As opposed to several other reconstruction schemes, in this approach it is not necessary to truncate the expansion of the Jacobian given by the continuity equation in order to calculate a first- or second-order expression for the density field. In these previous schemes, the density contrast given by (a) the continuity equation and (b) Euler's equation are mutually incompatible. This inconsistency arises as a consequence of an improper handling of Lagrangian and Eulerian coordinates in the analysis. Here, we take into account the fact that an exact calculation of the density is feasible in the Lagrangian picture and therefore an accurate and consistent description is obtained.
Unified Theory of Field with Modul of Squared Curvature as Lagrangian
V. I. Drosdov
2001-04-27
The 4-D theory with connection components Gamma^k_{mn} as field variables and module of squared curvature |R^k_{lmn}R^{lmn}_k| as Lagrangian is described. The Maxwell equations, the Lorentz condition and the gravity field equation, that agrees with Newton's theory, result from equations of motion.
A study on relativistic lagrangian field theories with non-topological soliton solutions
Diaz-Alonso, J. Rubiera-Garcia, D.
2009-04-15
We perform a general analysis of the dynamic structure of two classes of relativistic lagrangian field theories exhibiting static spherically symmetric non-topological soliton solutions. The analysis is concerned with (multi-) scalar fields and generalized gauge fields of compact semi-simple Lie groups. The lagrangian densities governing the dynamics of the (multi-) scalar fields are assumed to be general functions of the kinetic terms, whereas the gauge-invariant lagrangians are general functions of the field invariants. These functions are constrained by requirements of regularity, positivity of the energy and vanishing of the vacuum energy, defining what we call 'admissible' models. In the scalar case we establish the general conditions which determine exhaustively the families of admissible lagrangian models supporting this kind of finite-energy solutions. We analyze some explicit examples of these different families, which are defined by the asymptotic and central behaviour of the fields of the corresponding particle-like solutions. From the variational analysis of the energy functional, we show that the admissibility constraints and the finiteness of the energy of the scalar solitons are necessary and sufficient conditions for their linear static stability against small charge-preserving perturbations. Furthermore, we perform a general spectral analysis of the dynamic evolution of the small perturbations around the statically stable solitons, establishing their dynamic stability. Next, we consider the case of many-components scalar fields, showing that the resolution of the particle-like field problem in this case reduces to that of the one-component case. The study of these scalar models is a necessary step in the analysis of the gauge fields. In this latter case, we add the requirement of parity invariance to the admissibility constraints. We determine the general conditions defining the families of admissible gauge-invariant models exhibiting finite-energy electrostatic spherically symmetric solutions which, unlike the (multi-) scalar case, are not always stable. The variational analysis of the energy functional leads now to supplementary restrictions to be imposed on the lagrangian densities in order to ensure the linear stability of the solitons. We establish a correspondence between any admissible soliton-supporting (multi-) scalar model and a family of admissible generalized gauge models supporting finite-energy electrostatic point-like solutions. Conversely, for each admissible soliton-supporting gauge-invariant model there is an associated unique admissible (multi-) scalar model with soliton solutions. This shows the exhaustive character of the admissibility and stability conditions in determining the class of soliton-supporting generalized gauge models. The usual Born-Infeld electrodynamic theory and its non-abelian extensions are shown to be (very particular) examples of one of these families.
A "Lagrangian" for a non-Lagrangian theory
Abhijit Gadde; Shlomo S. Razamat; Brian Willett
2015-05-21
We suggest an N=1 Lagrangian flowing in the infra-red to the N=2 rank one superconformal field theory with E_6 flavor symmetry. We utilize this description to compute several supersymmetric partition functions.
The Lagrangian-space Effective Field Theory of large scale structures
Porto, Rafael A.; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Senatore, Leonardo E-mail: senatore@stanford.edu
2014-05-01
We introduce a Lagrangian-space Effective Field Theory (LEFT) formalism for the study of cosmological large scale structures. Unlike the previous Eulerian-space construction, it is naturally formulated as an effective field theory of extended objects in Lagrangian space. In LEFT the resulting finite size effects are described using a multipole expansion parameterized by a set of time dependent coefficients and organized in powers of the ratio of the wavenumber of interest k over the non-linear scale k{sub NL}. The multipoles encode the effects of the short distance modes on the long-wavelength universe and absorb UV divergences when present. There are no IR divergences in LEFT. Some of the parameters that control the perturbative approach are not assumed to be small and can be automatically resummed. We present an illustrative one-loop calculation for a power law universe. We describe the dynamics both at the level of the equations of motion and through an action formalism.
Relativistic Thermodynamics, a Lagrangian Field Theory for general flows including rotation
Christian Frønsdal
2015-06-19
The formulation of a dynamical theory of General Relativity, including matter, is viewed as a problem of coupling Einstein's theory of pure gravity, formulated as an action principle, to an independently chosen and well defined field theory of matter. It is well known that this is accomplished in a most natural way when the matter theory is formulated as a relativistic, Lagrangian field theory. Special matter models of this type have been available; here a thermodynamical model that allows for general flows is used. A problem that is of even older date, one that was pursued vigorously by leading scientists of the 19'th century, is that of subjecting hydrodynamics and thermodynamics to an Action Principle. A solution to this problem has been known for some time, but only under the strong restriction to potential flows. A variational principle for general flows has now become available. The present paper lifts this theory to the relativistic context, Special Relativity and General Relativity. The energy momentum tensor has a structure that is more general than that postulated by Tolman, and different from proposed generalizations; it appears to be well suited to represent rotational flows in General Relativity. It incorporates a conserved mass current, the relativistic analogue of the hydrodynamical equation of continuity.
Emmanuele Battista; Simone Dell'Agnello; Giampiero Esposito; Luciano Di Fiore; Jules Simo; Aniello Grado
2015-09-09
In the restricted four-body problem consisting of the Earth, the Moon and the Sun as the primaries and a spacecraft as the planetoid, we take into account the solar perturbation in the description of the motion of a spacecraft in the vicinity of the stable Earth-Moon libration points L4 and L5 both in the classical regime and in the context of effective field theories of gravity. We then evaluate the location of all Lagrangian points in the Earth-Moon system within the framework of general relativity. For the points L4 and L5, the corrections of coordinates are of order a few millimeters. After that, we set up a scheme where the theory which is quantum corrected has as its classical counterpart the Einstein theory, instead of the Newtonian one. By virtue of the effective-gravity correction to the longdistance form of the potential among two point masses, all terms involving the ratio between the gravitational radius of the primary and its separation from the planetoid get modified. Within this framework, for the Lagrangian points of stable equilibrium, we find quantum corrections of order two millimeters, whereas for Lagrangian points of unstable equilibrium we find quantum corrections below a millimeter. In the latter case, for the point L1, general relativity corrects Newtonian theory by 7.61 meters, comparable, as an order of magnitude, with the lunar geodesic precession of about 3 meters per orbit. Thus, it is possible to conceive a new, first-generation laser ranging test of general relativity with a relative accuracy in between 1/100 and 1/1000, by measuring the 7.61-meter correction to the L1 Lagrangian point, an observable never used before in the Sun-Earth-Moon system. This will be the basis to consider a second-generation experiment to set experimental constraints on deviations of effective field theories of gravity from general relativity.
Grassmann-graded Lagrangian theory of even and odd variables
G. Sardanashvily
2012-06-12
Graded Lagrangian formalism in terms of a Grassmann-graded variational bicomplex on graded manifolds is developed in a very general setting. This formalism provides the comprehensive description of reducible degenerate Lagrangian systems, characterized by hierarchies of non-trivial higher-order Noether identities and gauge symmetries. This is a general case of classical field theory and Lagrangian non-relativistic mechanics.
Effective field theory Lagrangians for baryons with two and three heavy quarks
Brambilla, Nora; Vairo, Antonio; Roesch, Thomas
2005-08-01
By analogy with potential nonrelativistic QCD, we construct effective field theories suitable to describe the heavy-quark sector of baryons made of two and three heavy quarks. A long-standing discrepancy between the hyperfine splitting of doubly heavy baryons obtained in the heavy-quark effective theory and potential models is solved. The one-loop matching of the 4-quark operators of dimension 6 is provided.
Testing Lagrangian theories of internal wave spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klaassen, Gary
Our incomplete understanding of the physical dissipation processes within an internal gravity wave field impacts on questions of mixing and momentum deposition in stratified geophysical flows, with enormous dynamical ramifications in the case of the Earth's middle atmosphere. Efforts to solve the puzzle have centered on nonlinear interactions among internal waves, but the inherent complexity has hindered progress. There is a growing body of literature which maintains that this complexity can be circumvented by using a Lagrangian, rather than Eulerian, formulation. I have investigated this proposition with a Lagrangian wave model and wave fields typical of the middle atmosphere; the results raise serious questions concerning the methods and approximations invoked by certain Lagrangian theories of wave spectra, specifi- cally those advanced by Hines, Allen and Joseph and Chunchuzov. They also have important implications for Hines' Doppler spread parameterization, which has been employed in several middle atmosphere general circulation models.
The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Aspects of the Electrodynamic Vacuum-Field Theory Models
Nikolai N. Bogolubov Jr.; Denis Blackmore; Anatolij K. Prykarpatsky
2015-10-31
We review the modern classical electrodynamics problems and present the related main fundamental principles characterizing the electrodynamical vacuum-field structure. We analyze the models of the vacuum field medium and charged point particle dynamics using the developed field theory concepts. There is also described a new approach to the classical Maxwell theory based on the derived and newly interpreted basic equations making use of the vacuum field theory approach. In particular, there are obtained the main classical special relativity theory relations and their new explanations. The well known Feynman approach to Maxwell electromagnetic equations and the Lorentz type force derivation is also discussed in detail. A related charged point particle dynamics and a hadronic string model analysis is also presented. We also revisited and reanalyzed the classical Lorentz force expression in arbitrary non-inertial reference frames and present some new interpretations of the relations between special relativity theory and its quantum mechanical aspects. Some results related with the charge particle radiation problem and the magnetic potential topological aspects are discussed. The electromagnetic Dirac-Fock-Podolsky problem of the Maxwell and Yang-Mills type dynamical systems is analyzed within the classical Dirac-Marsden-Weinstein symplectic reduction theory. The problem of constructing Fock type representations and retrieving their creation-annihilation operator structure is analyzed. An application of the suitable current algebra representation to describing the non-relativistic Aharonov-Bohm paradox is presented. The current algebra coherent functional representations are constructed and their importance subject to the linearization problem of nonlinear dynamical systems in Hilbert spaces is demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battista, Emmanuele; Dell'Agnello, Simone; Esposito, Giampiero; Di Fiore, Luciano; Simo, Jules; Grado, Aniello
2015-09-01
We first analyze the restricted four-body problem consisting of the Earth, the Moon, and the Sun as the primaries and a spacecraft as the planetoid. This scheme allows us to take into account the solar perturbation in the description of the motion of a spacecraft in the vicinity of the stable Earth-Moon libration points L4 and L5 both in the classical regime and in the context of effective field theories of gravity. A vehicle initially placed at L4 or L5 will not remain near the respective points. In particular, in the classical case the vehicle moves on a trajectory about the libration points for at least 700 days before escaping. We show that this is true also if the modified long-distance Newtonian potential of effective gravity is employed. We also evaluate the impulse required to cancel out the perturbing force due to the Sun in order to force the spacecraft to stay precisely at L4 or L5. It turns out that this value is slightly modified with respect to the corresponding Newtonian one. In the second part of the paper, we first evaluate the location of all Lagrangian points in the Earth-Moon system within the framework of general relativity. For the points L4 and L5, the corrections of coordinates are of order a few millimeters and describe a tiny departure from the equilateral triangle. After that, we set up a scheme where the theory which is quantum corrected has as its classical counterpart the Einstein theory, instead of the Newtonian one. In other words, we deal with a theory involving quantum corrections to Einstein gravity, rather than to Newtonian gravity. By virtue of the effective-gravity correction to the long-distance form of the potential among two masses, all terms involving the ratio between the gravitational radius of the primary and its separation from the planetoid get modified. Within this framework, for the Lagrangian points of stable equilibrium, we find quantum corrections of order 2 mm, whereas for Lagrangian points of unstable equilibrium we find quantum corrections below a millimeter. In the latter case, for the point L1, general relativity corrects Newtonian theory by 7.61 m, comparable, as an order of magnitude, with the lunar geodesic precession of about 3 m per orbit. The latter is a cumulative effect accurately measured at the centimeter level through the lunar laser ranging positioning technique. Thus, it is possible to study a new laser ranging test of general relativity to measure the 7.61 m correction to the L1 Lagrangian point, an observable never used before in the Sun-Earth-Moon system. Performing such an experiment requires controlling the propulsion to precisely reach L1, using an instrumental accuracy comparable to the measurement of the lunar geodesic precession, and understanding systematic effects resulting from thermal radiation and multibody gravitational perturbations. This will then be the basis to consider a second-generation experiment to study deviations of effective field theories of gravity from general relativity in the Sun-Earth-Moon system.
P- and T-Violating Lagrangians in Chiral Effective Field Theory and Nuclear Electric Dipole Moments
J. Bsaisou; Ulf-G. Meißner; A. Nogga; A. Wirzba
2015-04-30
A scheme to derive hadronic interactions induced by effective multi-quark terms is presented within the framework of chiral effective field theory. It is employed to work out the list of parity- and time-reversal-symmetry-violating hadronic interactions that are relevant for the computation of nuclear contributions to the electric dipole moments of the hydrogen-2, helium-3 and hydrogen-3 nuclei. We also derive the scattering and Faddeev equations required to compute electromagnetic form factors in general and electric dipole moments in particular.
Thermal Effective Lagrangian of Static Gravitational Fields
F T Brandt; J B Siqueira
2012-03-08
We compute the effective Lagrangian of static gravitational fields interacting with thermal fields. Our approach employs the usual imaginary time formalism as well as the equivalence between the static and space-time independent external gravitational fields. This allows to obtain a closed form expression for the thermal effective Lagrangian in $d$ space-time dimensions.
Fibre Bundles, Jet Manifolds and Lagrangian Theory. Lectures for Theoreticians
G. Sardanashvily
2009-09-29
In contrast with QFT, classical field theory can be formulated in a strict mathematical way by treating classical fields as sections of smooth fibre bundles. Addressing to the theoreticians, these Lectures aim to compile the relevant material on fibre bundles, jet manifolds, connections, graded manifolds and Lagrangian theory. They follow the perennial course of lectures on geometric methods in field theory at the Department of Theoretical Physics of Moscow State University.
Olivier Minazzoli; Aurélien Hees
2013-08-13
In this communication, we present a class of Brans-Dicke-like theories with a universal coupling between the scalar field and the matter Lagrangian. We show this class of theories naturally exhibits a decoupling mechanism between the scalar field and matter. As a consequence, this coupling leads to almost the same phenomenology as general relativity in the Solar System: the trajectories of massive bodies and the light propagation differ from general relativity only at the second post-Newtonian order. Deviations from general relativity are beyond present detection capabilities. However, this class of theories predicts a deviation of the gravitational redshift at a level detectable by the future ACES and STE/QUEST missions.
Lagrangian of Self-dual Gauge Fields in Various Formulations
Wung-Hong Huang
2012-03-24
The Lagrangian of self-dual gauge theory in various formulations are reviewed. From these results we see a simple rule and use it to present some new non-covariant Lagrangian based on the decomposition of spacetime into $D=D_1+D_2+D_3$. Our prescription could be easily extended to more complex decomposition of spacetime and some more examples are presented therefore. The self-dual property of the new Lagrangian is proved in detail. We also show that the new non-covariant actions give field equations with 6d Lorentz invariance.
Nikolai N. Bogolubov, Jr.; Anatoliy K. Prykarpatsky
2008-10-21
The main fundamental principles characterizing the vacuum field structure are formulated and the modeling of the related vacuum medium and charged point particle dynamics by means of devised field theoretic tools are analyzed. The work is devoted to studying the vacuum structure, special relativity, electrodynamics of interacting charged point particles and quantum mechanics, and is a continuation of \\cite{BPT,BRT1}. Based on the vacuum field theory no-geometry approach, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian reformulation of some alternative classical electrodynamics models is devised. The Dirac type quantization procedure, based on the canonical Hamiltonian formulation, is developed for some alternative electrodynamics models. Within an approach developed a possibility of the combined description both of electrodynamics and gravity is analyzed.
Relativistic Lagrangian displacement field and tensor perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rampf, Cornelius; Wiegand, Alexander
2014-12-01
We investigate the purely spatial Lagrangian coordinate transformation from the Lagrangian to the basic Eulerian frame. We demonstrate three techniques for extracting the relativistic displacement field from a given solution in the Lagrangian frame. These techniques are (a) from defining a local set of Eulerian coordinates embedded into the Lagrangian frame; (b) from performing a specific gauge transformation; and (c) from a fully nonperturbative approach based on the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) split. The latter approach shows that this decomposition is not tied to a specific perturbative formulation for the solution of the Einstein equations. Rather, it can be defined at the level of the nonperturbative coordinate change from the Lagrangian to the Eulerian description. Studying such different techniques is useful because it allows us to compare and develop further the various approximation techniques available in the Lagrangian formulation. We find that one has to solve the gravitational wave equation in the relativistic analysis, otherwise the corresponding Newtonian limit will necessarily contain spurious nonpropagating tensor artifacts at second order in the Eulerian frame. We also derive the magnetic part of the Weyl tensor in the Lagrangian frame, and find that it is not only excited by gravitational waves but also by tensor perturbations which are induced through the nonlinear frame dragging. We apply our findings to calculate for the first time the relativistic displacement field, up to second order, for a ? CDM Universe in the presence of a local primordial non-Gaussian component. Finally, we also comment on recent claims about whether mass conservation in the Lagrangian frame is violated.
ELKO Spinor Fields: Lagrangians for Gravity derived from Supergravity
da Rocha, Roldao
2009-01-01
Dual-helicity eigenspinors of the charge conjugation operator (ELKO spinor fields) belong -- together with Majorana spinor fields -- to a wider class of spinor fields, the so-called flagpole spinor fields, corresponding to the class-(5), according to Lounesto spinor field classification based on the relations and values taken by their associated bilinear covariants. There exists only six such disjoint classes: the first three corresponding to Dirac spinor fields, and the other three respectively corresponding to flagpole, flag-dipole and Weyl spinor fields. Using the mapping from ELKO spinor fields to the three classes Dirac spinor fields, it is shown that the Einstein-Hilbert, the Einstein-Palatini, and the Holst actions can be derived from the Quadratic Spinor Lagrangian (QSL), as the prime Lagrangian for supergravity. The Holst action is related to the Ashtekar's quantum gravity formulation. To each one of these classes, there corresponds a unique kind of action for a covariant gravity theory. Furthermore ...
Polysymplectic Hamiltonian Field Theory
G. Sardanashvily
2015-05-06
Applied to field theory, the familiar symplectic technique leads to instantaneous Hamiltonian formalism on an infinite-dimensional phase space. A true Hamiltonian partner of first order Lagrangian theory on fibre bundles $Y\\to X$ is covariant Hamiltonian formalism in different variants, where momenta correspond to derivatives of fields relative to all coordinates on $X$. We follow polysymplectic (PS) Hamiltonian formalism on a Legendre bundle over $Y$ provided with a polysymplectic $TX$-valued form. If $X=\\mathbb R$, this is a case of time-dependent non-relativistic mechanics. PS Hamiltonian formalism is equivalent to the Lagrangian one if Lagrangians are hyperregular. A non-regular Lagrangian however leads to constraints and requires a set of associated Hamiltonians. We state comprehensive relations between Lagrangian and PS Hamiltonian theories in a case of semiregular and almost regular Lagrangians. Quadratic Lagrangian and PS Hamiltonian systems, e.g. Yang - Mills gauge theory are studied in detail. Quantum PS Hamiltonian field theory can be developed in the frameworks both of familiar functional integral quantization and quantization of the PS bracket.
Lagrangian and Hamiltonian constraints for guiding-center Hamiltonian theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tronko, Natalia; Brizard, Alain J.
2015-11-01
A consistent guiding-center Hamiltonian theory is derived by Lie-transform perturbation method, with terms up to second order in magnetic-field nonuniformity. Consistency is demonstrated by showing that the guiding-center transformation presented here satisfies separate Jacobian and Lagrangian constraints that have not been explored before. A new first-order term appearing in the guiding-center phase-space Lagrangian is identified through a calculation of the guiding-center polarization. It is shown that this new polarization term also yields a simpler expression of the guiding-center toroidal canonical momentum, which satisfies an exact conservation law in axisymmetric magnetic geometries. Finally, an application of the guiding-center Lagrangian constraint on the guiding-center Hamiltonian yields a natural interpretation for its higher-order corrections.
ELKO Spinor Fields: Lagrangians for Gravity derived from Supergravity
Roldao da Rocha; J. M. Hoff da Silva
2009-01-07
Dual-helicity eigenspinors of the charge conjugation operator (ELKO spinor fields) belong -- together with Majorana spinor fields -- to a wider class of spinor fields, the so-called flagpole spinor fields, corresponding to the class-(5), according to Lounesto spinor field classification based on the relations and values taken by their associated bilinear covariants. There exists only six such disjoint classes: the first three corresponding to Dirac spinor fields, and the other three respectively corresponding to flagpole, flag-dipole and Weyl spinor fields. Using the mapping from ELKO spinor fields to the three classes Dirac spinor fields, it is shown that the Einstein-Hilbert, the Einstein-Palatini, and the Holst actions can be derived from the Quadratic Spinor Lagrangian (QSL), as the prime Lagrangian for supergravity. The Holst action is related to the Ashtekar's quantum gravity formulation. To each one of these classes, there corresponds a unique kind of action for a covariant gravity theory. Furthermore we consider the necessary and sufficient conditions to map Dirac spinor fields (DSFs) to ELKO, in order to naturally extend the Standard Model to spinor fields possessing mass dimension one. As ELKO is a prime candidate to describe dark matter and can be obtained from the DSFs, via a mapping explicitly constructed that does not preserve spinor field classes, we prove that in particular the Einstein-Hilbert, Einstein-Palatini, and Holst actions can be derived from the QSL, as a fundamental Lagrangian for supergravity, via ELKO spinor fields. The geometric meaning of the mass dimension-transmuting operator - leading ELKO Lagrangian into the Dirac Lagrangian - is also pointed out, together with its relationship to the instanton Hopf fibration.
Using Lagrangian perturbation theory for precision cosmology
Sugiyama, Naonori S.
2014-06-10
We explore the Lagrangian perturbation theory (LPT) at one-loop order with Gaussian initial conditions. We present an expansion method to approximately compute the power spectrum LPT. Our approximate solution has good convergence in the series expansion and enables us to compute the power spectrum in LPT accurately and quickly. Non-linear corrections in this theory naturally satisfy the law of conservation of mass because the relation between matter density and the displacement vector of dark matter corresponds to the conservation of mass. By matching the one-loop solution in LPT to the two-loop solution in standard perturbation theory, we present an approximate solution of the power spectrum which has higher order corrections than the two-loop order in standard perturbation theory with the conservation of mass satisfied. With this approximation, we can use LPT to compute a non-linear power spectrum without any free parameters, and this solution agrees with numerical simulations at k = 0.2 h Mpc{sup –1} and z = 0.35 to better than 2%.
Application of Kawaguchi Lagrangian formulation to string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yahagi, Ryoko; Sugamoto, Akio
2015-11-01
String-scalar duality proposed by Y. Hosotani and membrane-scalar duality by A. Sugamoto are reexamined in the context of Kawaguchi Lagrangian formulation. The characteristic feature of this formulation is the indifferent nature of fields and parameters. Therefore even the exchange of roles between fields and parameters is possible. In this manner, dualities above can be proved easily. Between Kawaguchi metrics of the dually related theories, a simple relation is found. As an example of the exchange between fermionic fields and parameters, a replacement of the role of Grassmann parameters of the 2-dimensional superspace by the 9th component of Neveu-Schwarz-Ramond (NSR) fermions is studied in superstring model. Compactification is also discussed in this model.
General Lagrangian of Non-Covariant Self-dual Gauge Field
Wung-Hong Huang
2012-10-05
We present the general formulation of non-covariant Lagrangian of self-dual gauge theory. After specifying the parameters therein the previous Lagrangian in the decomposition of spacetime into $6=D_1+D_2$ and $6=D_1+D_2+D_3$ can be obtained. The self-dual property of the general Lagrangian is proved in detail. We furthermore show that the new non-covariant actions give field equations with 6d Lorentz invariance. The method can be straightforward extended to any dimension and we also give a short discussion about the 10D self-dual gauge theory.
String perturbation theory and effective Lagrangians
Klebanov, I.
1987-09-01
We isolate logarithmic divergences from bosonic string amplitudes on a disc. These divergences are compared with 'tadpole' divergences in the effective field theory with a cosmological term, which also contains an effective potential for the dilation. Also, corrections to ..beta..-functions are compared with variations of the effective action. In both cases we find an inconsistency between the two. This is a serious problem which could undermine our ability to remove divergences from the bosonic string.
Topics in low-dimensional field theory
Crescimanno, M.J.
1991-04-30
Conformal field theory is a natural tool for understanding two- dimensional critical systems. This work presents results in the lagrangian approach to conformal field theory. The first sections are chiefly about a particular class of field theories called coset constructions and the last part is an exposition of the connection between two-dimensional conformal theory and a three-dimensional gauge theory whose lagrangian is the Chern-Simons density.
Introduction to Symplectic Field Theory
Yakov Eliashberg; Alexander Givental; Helmut Hofer
2000-10-06
We sketch in this article a new theory, which we call Symplectic Field Theory or SFT, which provides an approach to Gromov-Witten invariants of symplectic manifolds and their Lagrangian submanifolds in the spirit of topological field theory, and at the same time serves as a rich source of new invariants of contact manifolds and their Legendrian submanifolds. Moreover, we hope that the applications of SFT go far beyond this framework.
Renormalization and quantum field theory
R. E. Borcherds
2011-03-09
The aim of this paper is to describe how to use regularization and renormalization to construct a perturbative quantum field theory from a Lagrangian. We first define renormalizations and Feynman measures, and show that although there need not exist a canonical Feynman measure, there is a canonical orbit of Feynman measures under renormalization. We then construct a perturbative quantum field theory from a Lagrangian and a Feynman measure, and show that it satisfies perturbative analogues of the Wightman axioms, extended to allow time-ordered composite operators over curved spacetimes.
Lorentz Covariant Lagrangians of Self-dual Gauge Fields
Wung-Hong Huang
2013-07-08
We extend the method of PST formulation to find a systematic way to covariantize several non-covariant Lagrangians of self-dual gauge fields. We derive in detail the necessary basic formulas which are used to prove the existence of extra local symmetry that allows us to gauge fix the auxiliary fields therein and non-covariant formulations are restored. We see that, the extra local symmetry in the PST and PSST formulations, which describe the covariant Lagrangians in the 6D decomposition of $6=1+5$ and $6=3+3$ respectively, can be expressed as a simple linear form in the field strength. However, although in this paper we have found the covariant Lagrangians in the other decomposition of $6=2+4$, the extra local symmetry of the gauge field cannot be expressed as a simple linear form in the field strength. We present a no-go theorem to prove this specific property. We also find other covariant Lagrangians with more complex decomposition of spacetime.
Intersection theory on the moduli space of holomorphic curves with Lagrangian boundary conditions
Solomon, Jake P. (Jake Philip)
2006-01-01
We define a new family of open Gromov-Witten type invariants based on intersection theory on the moduli space of pseudoholomorphic curves of arbitrary genus with boundary in a Lagrangian submanifold. We assume the Lagrangian ...
Cosmological structure formation with augmented Lagrangian perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Heß, Steffen
2013-08-01
We present a new fast and efficient approach to model structure formation with augmented Lagrangian perturbation theory (ALPT). Our method is based on splitting the displacement field into a long- and a short-range component. The long-range component is computed by second-order LPT (2LPT). This approximation contains a tidal non-local and non-linear term. Unfortunately, 2LPT fails on small scales due to severe shell crossing and a crude quadratic behaviour in the low-density regime. The spherical collapse (SC) approximation has been recently reported to correct for both effects by adding an ideal collapse truncation. However, this approach fails to reproduce the structures on large scales where it is significantly less correlated with the N-body result than 2LPT or linear LPT (the Zel'dovich approximation). We propose to combine both approximations using for the short-range displacement field the SC solution. A Gaussian filter with a smoothing radius rS is used to separate between both regimes. We use the result of 25 dark-matter-only N-body simulations to benchmark at z = 0 the different approximations: first-, second-, third-order LPT, SC and our novel combined ALPT model. This comparison demonstrates that our method improves previous approximations at all scales showing ˜25 and ˜75 per cent higher correlation than 2LPT with the N-body solution at k = 1 and 2 h Mpc-1, respectively. We conduct a parameter study to determine the optimal range of smoothing radii and find that the maximum correlation is achieved with rS = 4-5 h-1 Mpc. This structure formation approach could be used for various purposes, such as setting-up initial conditions for N-body simulations, generating mock galaxy catalogues, cosmic web analysis or for reconstructions of the primordial density fluctuations.
A heavy quark effective field lagrangian keeping particle and antiparticle mixed sectors
F. Berto; J. L. Domenech; M. A. Sanchis-Lozano
1999-07-22
We derive a tree-level heavy quark effective Lagrangian keeping particle-antiparticle mixed sectors allowing for heavy quark-antiquark pair annihilation and creation. However, when removing the unwanted degrees of freedom from the effective Lagrangian one has to be careful in using the classical equations of motion obeyed by the effective fields in order to get a convergent expansion on the reciprocal of the heavy quark mass. Then the application of the effective theory to such hard processes should be sensible for special kinematic regimes as for example heavy quark pair production near threshold.
Effective Lagrangian Models for gauge theories of fundamental interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sannino, Francesco
The non abelian gauge theory which describes, in the perturbative regime, the strong interactions is Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Quarks and gluons are the fundamental degrees of freedom of the theory. A key feature of the theory (due to quantum corrections) is asymptotic freedom, i.e. the strong coupling constant increases as the energy scale of interest decreases. The perturbative approach becomes unreliable below a characteristic scale of the theory (?). Quarks and gluons confine themselves into colorless particles called hadrons (pions, protons,/...). The latter are the true physical states of the theory. We need to investigate alternative ways to describe strong interactions, and in general any asymptotically free theory, in the non perturbative regime. This is the fundamental motivation of the present thesis. Although the underlying gauge theory cannot be easily treated in the non perturbative regime we can still use its global symmetries as a guide to build Effective Lagrangian Models. These models will be written directly in terms of the colorless physical states of the theory, i.e. hadrons.
Costa-Quintana, J. Lopez-Aguilar, F.
2012-08-15
We analyze the conditions of the electromagnetic potentials for systems with electric and magnetic charges and the Lagrangian theory with these potentials. The constructed Lagrangian function is valid for obtaining the field equations and the extended Lorentz force for dyonic charges for both relativistic particles in vacuum and non-relativistic entities in solids. In a second part, with the one-body Hamiltonian of independent particles in external fields, we explore some dual properties of the dyonic system under external fields. We analyze the possible diamagnetic (and 'diaelectric') response of magnetic monopoles under a weak and constant electromagnetic field and the theory of Landau levels in the case of magnetic charges under strong electromagnetic constant fields. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the Lagrangian formalism for magnetic charges. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze the electromagnetic potentials for dyons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study two dual properties of solid systems with magnetic charges. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A quantum study of solids with monopoles under electromagnetic constant fields.
Regular hyperbolicity, dominant energy condition and causality for Lagrangian theory of maps
Willie Wai-Yeung Wong
2011-05-16
The goal of the present paper is three-fold. First is to clarify the connection between the dominant energy condition and hyperbolicity properties of Lagrangian field theories. Second is to provide further analysis on the breakdown of hyperbolicity for the Skyrme model, sharpening the results of Crutchfield and Bell and comparing against a result of Gibbons, and provide a local well-posedness result for the dynamical problem in the Skyrme model. Third is to provide a short summary of the framework of regular hyperbolicity of Christodoulou for the relativity community. In the process, a general theorem about dominant energy conditions for Lagrangian theories of maps is proved, as well as several results concerning hyperbolicity of those maps.
Augmented Lagrangian formulation of orbital-free density functional theory
Suryanarayana, Phanish Phanish, Deepa
2014-10-15
We present an Augmented Lagrangian formulation and its real-space implementation for non-periodic Orbital-Free Density Functional Theory (OF-DFT) calculations. In particular, we rewrite the constrained minimization problem of OF-DFT as a sequence of minimization problems without any constraint, thereby making it amenable to powerful unconstrained optimization algorithms. Further, we develop a parallel implementation of this approach for the Thomas–Fermi–von Weizsacker (TFW) kinetic energy functional in the framework of higher-order finite-differences and the conjugate gradient method. With this implementation, we establish that the Augmented Lagrangian approach is highly competitive compared to the penalty and Lagrange multiplier methods. Additionally, we show that higher-order finite-differences represent a computationally efficient discretization for performing OF-DFT simulations. Overall, we demonstrate that the proposed formulation and implementation are both efficient and robust by studying selected examples, including systems consisting of thousands of atoms. We validate the accuracy of the computed energies and forces by comparing them with those obtained by existing plane-wave methods.
Variational Principles for multisymplectic second-order classical field theories
Pedro Daniel Prieto-Martínez; Narciso Román-Roy
2015-03-31
We state a unified geometrical version of the variational principles for second-order classical field theories. The standard Lagrangian and Hamiltonian variational principles and the corresponding field equations are recovered from this unified framework.
Quantum field theory and the Standard Model
W. Hollik
2010-12-17
In this lecture we discuss the basic ingredients for gauge invariant quantum field theories. We give an introduction to the elements of quantum field theory, to the construction of the basic Lagrangian for a general gauge theory, and proceed with the formulation of QCD and the electroweak Standard Model with electroweak symmetry breaking via the Higgs mechanism. The phenomenology of W and Z bosons is discussed and implications for the Higgs boson are derived from comparison with experimental precision data.
Unification Principle and a Geometric Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wanas, Mamdouh I.; Osman, Samah N.; El-Kholy, Reham I.
2015-08-01
In the context of the geometrization philosophy, a covariant field theory is constructed. The theory satisfies the unification principle. The field equations of the theory are constructed depending on a general differential identity in the geometry used. The Lagrangian scalar used in the formalism is neither curvature scalar nor torsion scalar, but an alloy made of both, the W-scalar. The physical contents of the theory are explored depending on different methods. The analysis shows that the theory is capable of dealing with gravity, electromagnetism and material distribution with possible mutual interactions. The theory is shown to cover the domain of general relativity under certain conditions.
About non standard Lagrangians in cosmology
Dimitrijevic, Dragoljub D.; Milosevic, Milan
2012-08-17
A review of non standard Lagrangians present in modern cosmological models will be considered. Well known example of non standard Lagrangian is Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) type Lagrangian for tachyon field. Another type of non standard Lagrangian under consideration contains scalar field which describes open p-adic string tachyon and is called p-adic string theory Lagrangian. We will investigate homogenous cases of both DBI and p-adic fields and obtain Lagrangians of the standard type which have the same equations of motions as aforementioned non standard one.
Problems of describing spin-(3/2 baryon resonances in the effective Lagrangian theory
Benmerrouche, M.; Davidson, R. M.; Mukhopadhyay, N. C.
1989-06-01
We investigate some important theoretical issues associated with the treatment of the spin-3/2 baryons in the effective Lagrangian theory. These are the form of the spin-3/2 particle propagator, off-shell parameters involving the spin-3/2 field; strategies of implementing gauge invariance, and unitarity. We comment on previous works by Peccei, Nath /ital et/ /ital al/., Williams, and Adelseck /ital et/ /ital al/., the last three works being in the context of recent revival of interest of baryon resonance structure in quantum chromodynamics. Our experience on the ..delta..(1232) resonance is invoked as a concrete example of dealing with these problems. Examples of some related problems in theories of massive vector and spin-3/2 particles, in pion decay and supersymmetry, respectively, are also discussed. These discussions should trigger new theoretical and experimental investigations in the study of baryon resonances excited from free hadrons and in complex nuclei.
Tulczyjew triples: from statics to field theory
Katarzyna Grabowska; Janusz Grabowski
2014-01-18
We propose a geometric approach to dynamical equations of physics, based on the idea of the Tulczyjew triple. We show the evolution of these concepts, starting with the roots lying in the variational calculus for statics, through Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, and concluding with Tulczyjew triples for classical field theories, illustrated with a numer of important examples.
Modelling non-linear evolution using Lagrangian perturbation theory re-expansions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nadkarni-Ghosh, Sharvari; Chernoff, David F.
2013-05-01
We present a new method to calculate formation of cosmological structure in the Newtonian limit. The method is based on Lagrangian perturbation theory (LPT) plus two key theoretical extensions. One advance involves identifying and fixing a previously ignored gauge-like degree of freedom relating quantities calculated in LPT to those measured by a preferred Friedmann-Robertson-Walker observer. Handling this connection between calculational and observer frames is physically essential and ensures a momentum conserving description. The second extension is to systematically re-expand the equations of motion to increase LPT's radius of convergence to the maximum future time prior to orbit crossing. The paper implements a complete algorithm and performs extensive `proof of principle' tests of the new method, including direct comparison to known solutions, evaluation of conserved quantities and formal convergence studies. All are satisfactory. We show that convergence is exponential in grid size and Lagrangian order and polynomial in step size. There are three powerful advantages afforded by the new technique: (1) it employs a smooth representation of all fields, and the results are not limited by particle induced shot-noise errors, (2) it permits the numerical error to be controlled by changing Lagrangian order and/or number of steps allowing, in principle, arbitrarily small errors to be achieved prior to orbit crossing and (3) it handles generic cold initial data (any periodic density and velocity fields, including those with initial rotational components). Together, these properties make the new technique well suited to handle quasi-linear scales where analytic methods and/or numerical simulations fail to provide suitably accurate answers.
Effective Field Theories from Soft Limits
Clifford Cheung; Karol Kampf; Jiri Novotny; Jaroslav Trnka
2014-12-12
We derive scalar effective field theories - Lagrangians, symmetries, and all - from on-shell scattering amplitudes constructed purely from Lorentz invariance, factorization, a fixed power counting order in derivatives, and a fixed order at which amplitudes vanish in the soft limit. These constraints leave free parameters in the amplitude which are the coupling constants of well-known theories: Nambu-Goldstone bosons, Dirac-Born-Infeld scalars, and Galileons. Moreover, soft limits imply conditions on the Noether current which can then be inverted to derive Lagrangians for each theory. We propose a natural classification of all scalar effective field theories according to two numbers which encode the derivative power counting and soft behavior of the corresponding amplitudes. In those cases where there is no consistent amplitude, the corresponding theory does not exist.
Washington Taylor
2006-06-28
This elementary introduction to string field theory highlights the features and the limitations of this approach to quantum gravity as it is currently understood. String field theory is a formulation of string theory as a field theory in space-time with an infinite number of massive fields. Although existing constructions of string field theory require expanding around a fixed choice of space-time background, the theory is in principle background-independent, in the sense that different backgrounds can be realized as different field configurations in the theory. String field theory is the only string formalism developed so far which, in principle, has the potential to systematically address questions involving multiple asymptotically distinct string backgrounds. Thus, although it is not yet well defined as a quantum theory, string field theory may eventually be helpful for understanding questions related to cosmology in string theory.
Quantum Field Theory, Revised Edition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandl, F.; Shaw, G.
1994-01-01
Quantum Field Theory Revised Edition F. Mandl and G. Shaw, Department of Theoretical Physics, The Schuster Laboratory, The University, Manchester, UK When this book first appeared in 1984, only a handful of W± and Z° bosons had been observed and the experimental investigation of high energy electro-weak interactions was in its infancy. Nowadays, W± bosons and especially Z° bosons can be produced by the thousand and the study of their properties is a precise science. We have revised the text of the later chapters to incorporate these developments and discuss their implications. We have also taken this opportunity to update the references throughout and to make some improvements in the treatment of dimen-sional regularization. Finally, we have corrected some minor errors and are grateful to various people for pointing these out. This book is designed as a short and simple introduction to quantum field theory for students beginning research in theoretical and experimental physics. The three main objectives are to explain the basic physics and formalism of quantum field theory, to make the reader fully proficient in theory calculations using Feynman diagrams, and to introduce the reader to gauge theories, which play such a central role in elementary particle physics. The theory is applied to quantum electrodynamics (QED), where quantum field theory had its early triumphs, and to weak interactions where the standard electro-weak theory has had many impressive successes. The treatment is based on the canonical quantization method, because readers will be familiar with this, because it brings out lucidly the connection between invariance and conservation laws, and because it leads directly to the Feynman diagram techniques which are so important in many branches of physics. In order to help inexperienced research students grasp the meaning of the theory and learn to handle it confidently, the mathematical formalism is developed from first principles, its physical interpretation is stressed at every point and its use is illustrated in detailed applications. After studying this book, the reader should be able to calculate any process in lowest order of perturbation theory for both QED and the standard electro-weak theory, and in addition, calculate lowest order radiative corrections in QED using the powerful technique of dimensional regularization. Contents: Preface; 1 Photons and electromagnetic field; 2 Lagrangian field theory; 3 The Klein--Gordon field; 4 The Dirac field; 5 Photons: covariant theory; 6 The S-matrix expansion; 7 Feynman diagrams and rules in QED; 8 QED processes in lowest order; 9 Radiative corrections; 10 Regularization; 11 Weak interactions; 13 Spontaneous symmetry breaking; 14 The standard electro-weak theory; Appendix A The Dirac equation; Appendix B Feynman rules and formulae for perturbation theory; Index.
The Lagrangian formulation of strong-field quantum electrodynamics in a plasma
Raicher, Erez; Department of Applied Physics, Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne 81800 ; Eliezer, Shalom; Nuclear Fusion Institute, Polytechnic University of Madrid, Madrid ; Zigler, Arie
2014-05-15
The Lagrangian formulation of the scalar and spinor quantum electrodynamics in the presence of strong laser fields in a plasma medium is considered. We include the plasma influence in the free Lagrangian analogously to the “Furry picture” and obtain coupled equations of motion for the plasma particles and for the laser propagation. We demonstrate that the strong-field wave (i.e., the laser) satisfies a massive dispersion relation and obtain self-consistently the effective mass of the laser photons. The Lagrangian formulation derived in this paper is the basis for the cross sections calculation of quantum processes taking place in the presence of a plasma.
Symmetries and conservation laws in the Gunther k-symplectic formalism of field theory
Narciso Román-Roy; Modesto Salgado; Silvia Vilariño
2007-03-12
This paper is devoted to studying symmetries of k-symplectic Hamiltonian and Lagrangian first-order classical field theories. In particular, we define symmetries and Cartan symmetries and study the problem of associating conservation laws to these symmetries, stating and proving Noether's theorem in different situations for the Hamiltonian and Lagrangian cases. We also characterize equivalent Lagrangians, which lead to an introduction of Lagrangian gauge symmetries, as well as analyzing their relation with Cartan symmetries.
Tatekawa, Takayuki
2014-04-01
We study the initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations for precision cosmology. In general, Zel'dovich approximation has been applied for the initial conditions of N-body simulations for a long time. These initial conditions provide incorrect higher-order growth. These error caused by setting up the initial conditions by perturbation theory is called transients. We investigated the impact of transient on non-Gaussianity of density field by performing cosmological N-body simulations with initial conditions based on first-, second-, and third-order Lagrangian perturbation theory in previous paper. In this paper, we evaluates the effect of the transverse mode in the third-order Lagrangian perturbation theory for several statistical quantities such as power spectrum and non-Gaussianty. Then we clarified that the effect of the transverse mode in the third-order Lagrangian perturbation theory is quite small.
Kheirandish, F.; Amooshahi, M.
2008-11-18
Quantum field theory of a damped vibrating string as the simplest dissipative scalar field theory is investigated by introducing a minimal coupling method. The rate of energy flowing between the system and its environment is obtained.
Euler-Poincare reduction for discrete field theories
Joris Vankerschaver
2007-03-29
In this note, we develop a theory of Euler-Poincare reduction for discrete Lagrangian field theories. We introduce the concept of Euler-Poincare equations for discrete field theories, as well as a natural extension of the Moser-Veselov scheme, and show that both are equivalent. The resulting discrete field equations are interpreted in terms of discrete differential geometry. An application to the theory of discrete harmonic mappings is also briefly discussed.
Hamiltonian magnetohydrodynamics: Lagrangian, Eulerian, and dynamically accessible stability--Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreussi, T.; Morrison, P. J.; Pegoraro, F.
2013-09-01
Stability conditions of magnetized plasma flows are obtained by exploiting the Hamiltonian structure of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations and, in particular, by using three kinds of energy principles. First, the Lagrangian variable energy principle is described and sufficient stability conditions are presented. Next, plasma flows are described in terms of Eulerian variables and the noncanonical Hamiltonian formulation of MHD is exploited. For symmetric equilibria, the energy-Casimir principle is expanded to second order and sufficient conditions for stability to symmetric perturbation are obtained. Then, dynamically accessible variations, i.e., variations that explicitly preserve invariants of the system, are introduced and the respective energy principle is considered. General criteria for stability are obtained, along with comparisons between the three different approaches.
Lorentz-Poincaré type aspects of the matter Lagrangian in General Relativity Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broekaert, Jan B.
2007-04-01
It is well known that the solution to the Einstein Field Equation, g??, can be either interpreted as the metric tensor itself or the mere gravitational field, their geochronometric correspondence being assured by the Equivalence Principle (e.g. Brown 2005). Within the field interpretation, which allows emphasis on physical effects of gravitation on microphysical constituents of matter, we expose gravitational Lorentz-Poincaré type properties of the relativistic gravitational matter Lagrangian. The Weierstrass parametrization (Johns 2005) of the matter Lagrangian LM in the explicit Lorentz-Poincaré type gravitation model is shown to render it equal to the standard matter Lagrangian —which can be reduced to the proper time invariant (g??dx? / d?dx? / d?)1/2 for the geodesic motion (Stephani 2004)— in GRT. As such the GRT matter Lagrangian can be interpreted to result —following a Legendre transformation— from the energy of the matter fields obtained from Gravitationally Modified Lorentz Transformations (Broekaert 2005). The resultant correspondence between matter Lagrangians exposes explicitly the Lorentz-Poincaré type features such as (coordinate) spatially-variable speed of light, c(r) = c'?2, partial Machian mass induction m(r, ?) = m0'??-3 and gravitational affecting of space and time observations in local coordinates in GRT. These features are only apparent relative to the coordinative manifold, while locally and in physical coordinates the effects all vanish in concordance with the local Minkowski metric.
Testing higher-order Lagrangian perturbation theory against numerical simulations I. Pancake models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchert, T.; Melott, A. L.; Weiss, A. G.
1994-08-01
We present results showing an improvement of the accuracy of perturbation theory as applied to cosmological structure formation for a useful range of quasilinear scales. The Lagrangian theory of gravitational instability of an Einstein-de Sitter dust cosmogony investigated and solved up to the third order in the series of papers by Buchert (1989, 1992, 1993), Buchert & Ehlers (1993), Buchert (1994), Ehlers & Buchert (1994), is compared with numerical simulations. In this paper we study the dynamics of pancake models as a first step. In previous work (Coles et al. 1993; Melott et al. 1994a; Melott 1993) the accuracy of several analytical approximations for the modeling of large-scale structure in the mildly non-linear regime was analyzed in the same way, allowing for direct comparison of the accuracy of various approximations. In particular, the "Zel'dovich approximation" (Zel'dovich 1970, 1973, hereafter ZA) as a subclass of the first-order Lagrangian perturbation solutions was found to provide an excellent approximation to the density field in the mildly non-linear regime (i.e. up to a linear rms density contrast of ?=~2). The performance of ZA in hierarchical clustering models can be greatly improved by truncating the initial power spectrum (smoothing the initial data). We here explore whether this approximation can be further improved with higher-order corrections in the displacement mapping from homogeneity. We study a single pancake model (truncated power-spectrum with power-index n=-1) using cross-correlation statistics employed in previous work. We found that for all statistical methods used the higher-order corrections improve the results obtained for the first-order solution up to the stage when ?(linear theory) =~1. While this improvement can be seen for all spatial scales, later stages retain this feature only above a certain scale which is increasing with time. However, third-order is not much improvement over second-order at any stage. The total breakdown of the perturbation approach is observed at the stage, where ?(linear theory)=~2, which corresponds to the onset of hierarchical clustering. This success is found at a considerably higher non-linearity than is usual for perturbation theory. Whether a truncation of the initial power-spectrum in hierarchical models retains this improvement will be analyzed in a forthcoming work.
Testing higher-order Lagrangian perturbation theory against numerical simulation. 1: Pancake models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buchert, T.; Melott, A. L.; Weiss, A. G.
1993-01-01
We present results showing an improvement of the accuracy of perturbation theory as applied to cosmological structure formation for a useful range of quasi-linear scales. The Lagrangian theory of gravitational instability of an Einstein-de Sitter dust cosmogony investigated and solved up to the third order is compared with numerical simulations. In this paper we study the dynamics of pancake models as a first step. In previous work the accuracy of several analytical approximations for the modeling of large-scale structure in the mildly non-linear regime was analyzed in the same way, allowing for direct comparison of the accuracy of various approximations. In particular, the Zel'dovich approximation (hereafter ZA) as a subclass of the first-order Lagrangian perturbation solutions was found to provide an excellent approximation to the density field in the mildly non-linear regime (i.e. up to a linear r.m.s. density contrast of sigma is approximately 2). The performance of ZA in hierarchical clustering models can be greatly improved by truncating the initial power spectrum (smoothing the initial data). We here explore whether this approximation can be further improved with higher-order corrections in the displacement mapping from homogeneity. We study a single pancake model (truncated power-spectrum with power-spectrum with power-index n = -1) using cross-correlation statistics employed in previous work. We found that for all statistical methods used the higher-order corrections improve the results obtained for the first-order solution up to the stage when sigma (linear theory) is approximately 1. While this improvement can be seen for all spatial scales, later stages retain this feature only above a certain scale which is increasing with time. However, third-order is not much improvement over second-order at any stage. The total breakdown of the perturbation approach is observed at the stage, where sigma (linear theory) is approximately 2, which corresponds to the onset of hierarchical clustering. This success is found at a considerable higher non-linearity than is usual for perturbation theory. Whether a truncation of the initial power-spectrum in hierarchical models retains this improvement will be analyzed in a forthcoming work.
Generalized Lee-Wick formulation from higher derivative field theories
Cho, Inyong; Kwon, O-Kab
2010-07-15
We study a higher derivative (HD) field theory with an arbitrary order of derivative for a real scalar field. The degree of freedom for the HD field can be converted to multiple fields with canonical kinetic terms up to the overall sign. The Lagrangian describing the dynamics of the multiple fields is known as the Lee-Wick (LW) form. The first step to obtain the LW form for a given HD Lagrangian is to find an auxiliary field (AF) Lagrangian which is equivalent to the original HD Lagrangian up to the quantum level. Until now, the AF Lagrangian has been studied only for N=2 and 3 cases, where N is the number of poles of the two-point function of the HD scalar field. We construct the AF Lagrangian for arbitrary N. By the linear combinations of AF fields, we also obtain the corresponding LW form. We find the explicit mapping matrices among the HD fields, the AF fields, and the LW fields. As an exercise of our construction, we calculate the relations among parameters and mapping matrices for N=2, 3, and 4 cases.
Field theory of monochromatic optical beams. I
Andrea Aiello
2014-12-02
We study monochromatic, scalar solutions of the Helmholtz and paraxial wave equations from a field-theoretic point of view. We introduce appropriate time-independent Lagrangian densities for which the Euler-Lagrange equations reproduces either Helmholtz and paraxial wave equations with the $z$-coordinate, associated with the main direction of propagation of the fields, playing the same role of time in standard Lagrangian theory. For both Helmholtz and paraxial scalar fields, we calculate the canonical energy-momentum tensor and determine the continuity equations relating "energy" and "momentum" of the fields. Eventually, the reduction of the Helmholtz wave equation to a useful first-order Dirac form, is presented. This work sheds some light on the intriguing and not so acknowledged connections between angular spectrum representation of optical wavefields, cosmological models and physics of black holes.
Quantum Field Theory and Representation Theory
Woit, Peter
Quantum Field Theory and Representation Theory Peter Woit woit@math.columbia.edu Department of Mathematics Columbia University Quantum Field Theory and Representation Theory p.1 #12;Outline of the talk · Quantum Mechanics and Representation Theory: Some History Quantum Field Theory and Representation Theory
Kaku, M.
1987-02-01
In this article, the authors summarize the rapid progress in constructing string field theory actions, such as the development of the covariant BRST theory. They also present the newer geometric formulation of string field theory, from which the BRST theory and the older light cone theory can be derived from first principles. This geometric formulation allows us to derive the complete field theory of strings from two geometric principles, in the same way that general relativity and Yang-Mills theory can be derived from two principles based on global and local symmetry. The geometric formalism therefore reduces string field theory to a problem of finding an invariant under a new local gauge group they call the universal string group (USG). Thus, string field theory is the gauge theory of the universal string group in much the same way that Yang-Mills theory is the gauge theory of SU(N). The geometric formulation places superstring theory on the same rigorous group theoretical level as general relativity and gauge theory.
I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch; G.M. Fraiman
2003-02-06
The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian functions describing average motion of a relativistic particle under the action of intensive high-frequency electromagnetic radiation are obtained. In weak, low-frequency background fields, such a particle on average drifts with an effective, relativistically invariant mass, which depends on the intensity of the electromagnetic field.
Quantum Field Perturbation Theory Revised
Marco Matone
2015-07-27
Schwinger's trick in quantum field theory can be easily implemented in the case of scalar theories in D-dimension, with exponential interactions, such as $\\mu^D\\exp(\\alpha\\phi)$. The key point is the relation $$ \\exp\\big(\\alpha{\\delta\\over \\delta J(x)}\\big)\\exp(-Z_0[J])=\\exp(-Z_0[J+\\alpha_x]) $$ with $J$ the external source, and $\\alpha_x(y)=\\alpha\\delta(y-x)$. Such a shift, related to the normal ordering of $\\exp(\\alpha\\phi)$, leads to an exact scaling relation by renormalizing $\\mu$. The theory exhibits spontaneous symmetry breaking of space-time translations, due to the fact that the vacuum is filled in by infinitely many point-like sources $\\alpha_x(y)$. This suggests that the vev of the energy-momentum tensor of the purely scalar part of the Higgs lagrangian, proposed in arXiv:1506.05761, may explain the origin of the cosmological constant. In this respect, we derive the expression of $\\langle\\phi(x)\\rangle$, compute its space-time integral, and prove that $x$-dependent contributions to $\\langle\\phi(x)\\rangle$ start only at $\\alpha^5$. Next, we derive a new formulation of perturbation theory for the potentials $V(\\phi)=\\lambda:\\phi^n:$, using the partition function associated to $:\\exp(\\alpha\\phi):$. The $\\Delta_F(0)$ related to the normal ordering are absorbed at once. The functional derivatives with respect to $J$ are explicitly computed and the Green's functions are expressed in terms of combinatorics involving ordinary derivatives. Finally, we note that the Feynman propagator can be seen as building block for a metric on suitable moduli spaces. In the two-dimensional case, this shows a connection with the moduli space of punctured spheres and with the underlying Liouville theory. The present investigation can be extended to more general quantum field theories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katz, Joseph; Livshits, Gideon I.
2008-09-01
The prescription of Silva to derive superpotential equations from variational derivatives rather than from Lagrangian densities is applied to theories of gravity derived from Lovelock Lagrangians in the Palatini representation. Spacetimes are without torsion and isolated sources of gravity are minimally coupled. On a closed boundary of spacetime, the metric is given and the connection coefficients are those of Christoffel. We derive equations for the superpotentials in these conditions. The equations are easily integrated and we give the general expression for all superpotentials associated with Lovelock Lagrangians. We find, in particular, that in Einstein's theory, in any number of dimensions, the superpotential, valid at spatial and at null infinity, is that of Katz, Bi?ák and Lynden-Bell, the KBL superpotential. We also give explicitly the superpotential for Gauss Bonnet theories of gravity. Finally, we find a simple expression for the superpotential of Einstein Gauss Bonnet theories with an anti-de Sitter background: it is minus the KBL superpotential, confirming, as it should, the calculation of the total mass energy of spacetime at spatial infinity by Deser and Tekin.
Joseph Katz; Gideon I. Livshits
2008-07-19
The prescription of Silva to derive superpotential equations from variational derivatives rather than from Lagrangian densities is applied to theories of gravity derived from Lovelock Lagrangians in the Palatini representation. Spacetimes are without torsion and isolated sources of gravity are minimally coupled. On a closed boundary of spacetime, the metric is given and the connection coefficients are those of Christoffel. We derive equations for the superpotentials in these conditions. The equations are easily integrated and we give the general expression for all superpotentials associated with Lovelock Lagrangians. We find, in particular, that in Einstein's theory, in any number of dimensions, the superpotential, valid at spatial and at null infinity, is that of Katz, Bicak and Lynden-Bell, the KBL superpotential. We also give explicitly the superpotential for Gauss-Bonnet theories of gravity. Finally, we find a simple expression for the superpotential of Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theories with an anti-de Sitter background: it is minus the KBL superpotential, confirming, as it should, the calculation of the total mass-energy of spacetime at spatial infinity by Deser and Tekin.
A topological quantum field theory with fractional statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gamboa, J.
1990-11-01
0We present a topological quantum field theory model that exhibits, at the propagator level, a first order pole in {?}/{?} and that we identify as the angular momenta of a field with lagrangian L = ( {?}/{?})? ?? ?, i.e. the statistics can be fermionic (?=?(n+ {1}/{2})) , bosonic ( ?=2 ?n) or fractional. The model does not use Chern-Simons terms.
Covariantizing Classical Field Theories
Marco Castrillón López; Mark J. Gotay
2010-08-18
We show how to enlarge the covariance group of any classical field theory in such a way that the resulting "covariantized" theory is 'essentially equivalent' to the original. In particular, our technique will render any classical field theory generally covariant, that is, the covariantized theory will be spacetime diffeomorphism-covariant and free of absolute objects. Our results thus generalize the well-known parametrization technique of Dirac and Kucha\\v{r}. Our constructions apply equally well to internal covariance groups, in which context they produce natural derivations of both the Utiyama minimal coupling and St\\"uckelberg tricks.
Reduced classical field theories. k-cosymplectic formalism on Lie algebroids
D. Martin de Diego; S. Vilariñ o
2010-01-07
In this paper we introduce a geometric description of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian classical field theories on Lie algebroids in the framework of $k$-cosymplectic geometry. We discuss the relation between Lagrangian and Hamiltonian descriptions through a convenient notion of Legendre transformation. The theory is a natural generalization of the standard one; in addition, other interesting examples are studied, mainly on reduction of classical field theories.
On p-Adic Sector of Open Scalar Strings and Zeta Field Theory
Dragovich, Branko
2010-06-17
We consider construction of Lagrangians which may be suitable for description of p-adic sector of an open scalar string. Such Lagrangians have their origin in Lagrangian for a single p-adic string and they contain the Riemann zeta function with the d'Alembertian in its argument. However, investigation of the field theory with Riemann zeta function is interesting in itself as well. We present a brief review and some new results.
Understanding conformal field theory through parafermions and Chern Simons theory
Hotes, S.A.
1992-11-19
Conformal field theories comprise a vast class of exactly solvable two dimensional quantum field theories. Conformal theories with an enlarged symmetry group, the current algebra symmetry, axe a key ingredient to possible string compactification models. The following work explores a Lagrangian approach to these theories. In the first part of this thesis, a large class of conformal theories, the so-called coset models, are derived semi-classically from a gauged version Of the Wess-Zumino-Witten functional. A non-local field transformation to the parafermionic field description is employed in the quantization procedure. Classically, these parafermionic fields satisfy non-trivial Poisson brackets, providing insight into the fractional spin nature of the conformal theory. The W-algebra symmetry is shown to appear naturally in this approach. In the second part of this thesis, the connection between the fusion algebra structure of Wess-Zumino-Witten models and the quantization of the Chern-Simons action on the torus is made explicit. The modular properties of the conformal model are also derived in this context, giving a natural demonstration of the Verlinde conjecture. The effects of background gauge fields and monopoles are also discussed.
Fermion boson metamorphosis in field theory
Ha, Y.K.
1982-01-01
In two-dimensional field theories many features are especially transparent if the Fermi fields are represented by non-local expressions of the Bose fields. Such a procedure is known as boson representation. Bilinear quantities appear in the Lagrangian of a fermion theory transform, however, as simple local expressions of the bosons so that the resulting theory may be written as a theory of bosons. Conversely, a theory of bosons may be transformed into an equivalent theory of fermions. Together they provide a basis for generating many interesting equivalences between theories of different types. In the present work a consistent scheme for constructing a canonical Fermi field in terms of a real scalar field is developed and such a procedure is valid and consistent with the tenets of quantum field theory is verified. A boson formulation offers a unifying theme in understanding the structure of many theories. This is illustrated by the boson formulation of a multifermion theory with chiral and internal symmetries. The nature of dynamical generation of mass when the theory undergoes boson transmutation and the preservation of continuous chiral symmetry in the massive case are examined. The dynamics of the system depends to a great extent on the specific number of fermions and different models of the same system can have very different properties. Many unusual symmetries of the fermion theory, such as hidden symmetry, duality and triality symmetries, are only manifest in the boson formulation. The underlying connections between some models with U(N) internal symmetry and another class of fermion models built with Majorana fermions which have O(2N) internal symmetry are uncovered.
Causality Constraints in Conformal Field Theory
Thomas Hartman; Sachin Jain; Sandipan Kundu
2015-08-31
Causality places nontrivial constraints on QFT in Lorentzian signature, for example fixing the signs of certain terms in the low energy Lagrangian. In d-dimensional conformal field theory, we show how such constraints are encoded in crossing symmetry of Euclidean correlators, and derive analogous constraints directly from the conformal bootstrap (analytically). The bootstrap setup is a Lorentzian four-point function corresponding to propagation through a shockwave. Crossing symmetry fixes the signs of certain log terms that appear in the conformal block expansion, which constrains the interactions of low-lying operators. As an application, we use the bootstrap to rederive the well known sign constraint on the $(\\partial\\phi)^4$ coupling in effective field theory, from a dual CFT. We also find constraints on theories with higher spin conserved currents. Our analysis is restricted to scalar correlators, but we argue that similar methods should also impose nontrivial constraints on the interactions of spinning operators.
Causality Constraints in Conformal Field Theory
Hartman, Thomas; Kundu, Sandipan
2015-01-01
Causality places nontrivial constraints on QFT in Lorentzian signature, for example fixing the signs of certain terms in the low energy Lagrangian. In d-dimensional conformal field theory, we show how such constraints are encoded in crossing symmetry of Euclidean correlators, and derive analogous constraints directly from the conformal bootstrap (analytically). The bootstrap setup is a Lorentzian four-point function corresponding to propagation through a shockwave. Crossing symmetry fixes the signs of certain log terms that appear in the conformal block expansion, which constrains the interactions of low-lying operators. As an application, we use the bootstrap to rederive the well known sign constraint on the $(\\partial\\phi)^4$ coupling in effective field theory, from a dual CFT. We also find constraints on theories with higher spin conserved currents. Our analysis is restricted to scalar correlators, but we argue that similar methods should also impose nontrivial constraints on the interactions of spinning o...
Information channel capacity in the field theory estimation
J. S?adkowski; J. Syska
2012-12-26
The construction of the information capacity for the vector position parameter in the Minkowskian space-time is presented. This lays the statistical foundations of the kinematical term of the Lagrangian of the physical action for many field theory models, derived by the extremal physical information method of Frieden and Soffer.
Effective Lagrangians for (0+1) and (1+1) dimensionally reduced versions of D=4 N=2 SYM theory
A. V. Smilga
2002-11-04
We consider dimensionally reduced versions of N=2 four- dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and determine the one-loop effective Lagrangians associated with the motion over the corresponding moduli spaces. In the (0+1) case, the effective Lagrangian describes an N=4 supersymmetric quantum mechanics of the Diaconescu--Entin type. In (1+1) dimensions, the effective Lagrangian represents a twisted N=4 supesymmetric sigma model due to Gates, Hull, and Rocek. We discuss the genetic relationship between these two models and present the explicit results for all gauge groups.
Bosonic String and String Field Theory: a solution using the holomorphic representation
C. G. Bollini; M. C. Rocca
2009-08-20
In this paper we show that the holomorphic representation is appropriate for description in a consistent way string and string field theories, when the considered number of component fields of the string field is finite. A new Lagrangian for the closed string is obtained and shown to be equivalent to Nambu-Goto's Lagrangian. We give the notion of anti-string, evaluate the propagator for the string field, and calculate the convolution of two of them.
Algebraic Quantum Field Theory
Hans Halvorson; Michael Mueger
2006-02-14
Algebraic quantum field theory provides a general, mathematically precise description of the structure of quantum field theories, and then draws out consequences of this structure by means of various mathematical tools -- the theory of operator algebras, category theory, etc.. Given the rigor and generality of AQFT, it is a particularly apt tool for studying the foundations of QFT. This paper is a survey of AQFT, with an orientation towards foundational topics. In addition to covering the basics of the theory, we discuss issues related to nonlocality, the particle concept, the field concept, and inequivalent representations. We also provide a detailed account of the analysis of superselection rules by S. Doplicher, R. Haag, and J. E. Roberts (DHR); and we give an alternative proof of Doplicher and Roberts' reconstruction of fields and gauge group from the category of physical representations of the observable algebra. The latter is based on unpublished ideas due to Roberts and the abstract duality theorem for symmetric tensor *-categories, a self-contained proof of which is given in the appendix.
Effective Field Theories from Soft Limits of Scattering Amplitudes.
Cheung, Clifford; Kampf, Karol; Novotny, Jiri; Trnka, Jaroslav
2015-06-01
We derive scalar effective field theories-Lagrangians, symmetries, and all-from on-shell scattering amplitudes constructed purely from Lorentz invariance, factorization, a fixed power counting order in derivatives, and a fixed order at which amplitudes vanish in the soft limit. These constraints leave free parameters in the amplitude which are the coupling constants of well-known theories: Nambu-Goldstone bosons, Dirac-Born-Infeld scalars, and Galilean internal shift symmetries. Moreover, soft limits imply conditions on the Noether current which can then be inverted to derive Lagrangians for each theory. We propose a natural classification of all scalar effective field theories according to two numbers which encode the derivative power counting and soft behavior of the corresponding amplitudes. In those cases where there is no consistent amplitude, the corresponding theory does not exist. PMID:26196613
Effective Field Theories from Soft Limits of Scattering Amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheung, Clifford; Kampf, Karol; Novotny, Jiri; Trnka, Jaroslav
2015-06-01
We derive scalar effective field theories—Lagrangians, symmetries, and all—from on-shell scattering amplitudes constructed purely from Lorentz invariance, factorization, a fixed power counting order in derivatives, and a fixed order at which amplitudes vanish in the soft limit. These constraints leave free parameters in the amplitude which are the coupling constants of well-known theories: Nambu-Goldstone bosons, Dirac-Born-Infeld scalars, and Galilean internal shift symmetries. Moreover, soft limits imply conditions on the Noether current which can then be inverted to derive Lagrangians for each theory. We propose a natural classification of all scalar effective field theories according to two numbers which encode the derivative power counting and soft behavior of the corresponding amplitudes. In those cases where there is no consistent amplitude, the corresponding theory does not exist.
Tracker fields from nonminimally coupled theory
R. de Ritis; A. A. Marino; C. Rubano; P. Scudellaro
1999-07-27
We extend the concept of quintessence to a flat nonminimally coupled scalar - tensor theories of gravity. By means of Noether's symmetries for the cosmological pointlike Lagrangian L, it is possible to exhibit exact solutions for a class of models depending on a free parameter s. This parameter comes out in the relationship existing between the coupling F(\\phi) and the potential V(\\phi) because of such a symmetry for L. When inverse power law potentials are taken in account, a whole family of exact solutions parametrized by such an s is proposed as a class of tracker fields, and some considerations are made about them.
Chiral Lagrangians from lattice gauge theories in the strong coupling limit
Nagao, Taro; Nishigaki, Shinsuke M.
2001-07-01
We derive nonlinear {sigma} models (chiral Lagrangians) over symmetric spaces U(n), U(2n)/Sp(2n), and U(2n)/O(2n) from U(N), O(N), and Sp(2N) lattice gauge theories coupled to n flavors of staggered fermions, in the large-N and g{sup 2}N limit. To this end, we employ Zirnbauer{close_quote}s color-flavor transformation. We prove the spatial homogeneity of the vacuum configurations of mesons by explicitly solving the large-N saddle point equations, and thus establish these patterns of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the above limit.
Gauge Theory of the Gravitational-Electromagnetic Field
Robert D. Bock
2015-05-26
We develop a gauge theory of the combined gravitational-electromagnetic field by expanding the Poincar\\'e group to include clock synchronization transformations. We show that the electromagnetic field can be interpreted as a local gauge theory of the synchrony group. According to this interpretation, the electromagnetic field equations possess nonlinear terms and electromagnetic gauge transformations acquire a space-time interpretation as local synchrony transformations. The free Lagrangian for the fields leads to the usual Einstein-Maxwell field equations with additional gravitational-electromagnetic coupling terms. The connection between the electromagnetic field and the invariance properties of the Lagrangian under clock synchronization transformations provides a strong theoretical argument in favor of the thesis of the conventionality of simultaneity. This suggests that clock synchronization invariance (or equivalently, invariance under transformations of the one-way speed of light) is a fundamental invariance principle of physics.
Effective field theory of cosmological perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piazza, Federico; Vernizzi, Filippo
2013-11-01
The effective field theory of cosmological perturbations stems from considering a cosmological background solution as a state displaying spontaneous breaking of time translations and (adiabatic) perturbations as the related Nambu-Goldstone modes. With this insight, one can systematically develop a theory for the cosmological perturbations during inflation and, with minor modifications, also describe in full generality the gravitational interactions of dark energy, which are relevant for late-time cosmology. The formalism displays a unique set of Lagrangian operators containing an increasing number of cosmological perturbations and derivatives. We give an introductory description of the unitary gauge formalism for theories with broken gauge symmetry—that allows us to write down the most general Lagrangian—and of the Stückelberg ‘trick’—that allows to recover gauge invariance and to make the scalar field explicit. We show how to apply this formalism to gravity and cosmology and we reproduce the detailed analysis of the action in the ADM variables. We also review some basic applications to inflation and dark energy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melott, A. L.; Buchert, T.; Weib, A. G.
1995-01-01
We present results showing an improvement of the accuracy of perturbation theory as applied to cosmological structure formation for a useful range of scales. The Lagrangian theory of gravitational instability of Friedmann-Lemaitre cosmogonies is compared with numerical simulations. We study the dynamics of hierarchical models as a second step. In the first step we analyzed the performance of the Lagrangian schemes for pancake models, the difference being that in the latter models the initial power spectrum is truncated. This work probed the quasi-linear and weakly non-linear regimes. We here explore whether the results found for pancake models carry over to hierarchical models which are evolved deeply into the non-linear regime. We smooth the initial data by using a variety of filter types and filter scales in order to determine the optimal performance of the analytical models, as has been done for the 'Zel'dovich-approximation' - hereafter TZA - in previous work. We find that for spectra with negative power-index the second-order scheme performs considerably better than TZA in terms of statistics which probe the dynamics, and slightly better in terms of low-order statistics like the power-spectrum. However, in contrast to the results found for pancake models, where the higher-order schemes get worse than TZA at late non-linear stages and on small scales, we here find that the second-order model is as robust as TZA, retaining the improvement at later stages and on smaller scales. In view of these results we expect that the second-order truncated Lagrangian model is especially useful for the modelling of standard dark matter models such as Hot-, Cold-, and Mixed-Dark-Matter.
Altimetric Lagrangian advection to reconstruct Pacific Ocean fine-scale surface tracer fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogé, Marine; Morrow, Rosemary A.; Dencausse, Guillaume
2015-09-01
In past studies, Lagrangian stirring of surface tracer fields by altimetric surface geostrophic currents has been performed in different mid- to high-latitude regions, showing good results in reconstructing finer scale tracer patterns. Here, we explore the pertinence of the technique in the western equatorial Pacific and in the subtropical southwest Pacific. Initial conditions are derived from weekly gridded low-resolution temperature and salinity fields based on in situ hydrographic data. Validation of the reconstructed fine-scale surface tracer fields is performed using satellite AMSRE Sea Surface Temperature data and high-resolution ship thermosalinograph data. We test two kinds of Lagrangian advection. The standard one-way advection leads to an increased error as the advection time increases, due to the missing physics, such as air-sea fluxes or non-geostrophic dynamics. A second "backward-forward" advection technique is explored to reduce this bias in the tracer field, with improved results. In the subtropical southwest Pacific Ocean, the mesoscale temperature and salinity fronts are well represented by both Lagrangian advection techniques over a short 7- to 14-day advection time, including westward-propagating features not apparent in the initial fields. In the tropics, the results are less clear. The validation is hampered by the complex vertical stratification, and the lateral stirring technique is limited by the pertinence of using geostrophic surface current fields in the tropics. We suggest that the passive lateral stirring technique is efficient in regions with moderate to high mesoscale energy, where mesoscale surface tracer and surface height fields are correlated. In other regions, more complex dynamical processes may need to be included.
Subedi, P.; Chhiber, R.; Tessein, J. A.; Wan, M.; Matthaeus, W. H.
2014-12-01
The Minimal Multiscale Lagrangian Mapping procedure developed in the context of neutral fluid turbulence is a simple method for generating synthetic vector fields. Using a sequence of low-pass filtered fields, fluid particles are displaced at their rms speed for some scale-dependent time interval, and then interpolated back to a regular grid. Fields produced in this way are seen to possess certain properties of real turbulence. This paper extends the technique to plasmas by taking into account the coupling between the velocity and magnetic fields. We examine several possible applications to plasma systems. One use is as initial conditions for simulations, wherein these synthetic fields may efficiently produce a strongly intermittent cascade. The intermittency properties of the synthetic fields are also compared with those of the solar wind. Finally, studies of cosmic ray transport and modulation in the test particle approximation may benefit from improved realism in synthetic fields produced in this way.
Linear Stability of Elliptic Lagrangian Solutions of the Planar Three-Body Problem via Index Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Xijun; Long, Yiming; Sun, Shanzhong
2014-09-01
It is well known that the linear stability of Lagrangian elliptic equilateral triangle homographic solutions in the classical planar three-body problem depends on the mass parameter and the eccentricity . We are not aware of any existing analytical method which relates the linear stability of these solutions to the two parameters directly in the full rectangle [0, 9] × [0, 1), aside from perturbation methods for e > 0 small enough, blow-up techniques for e sufficiently close to 1, and numerical studies. In this paper, we introduce a new rigorous analytical method to study the linear stability of these solutions in terms of the two parameters in the full ( ?, e) range [0, 9] × [0, 1) via the ?-index theory of symplectic paths for ? belonging to the unit circle of the complex plane, and the theory of linear operators. After establishing the ?-index decreasing property of the solutions in ? for fixed , we prove the existence of three curves located from left to right in the rectangle [0, 9] × [0, 1), among which two are -1 degeneracy curves and the third one is the right envelope curve of the ?-degeneracy curves, and show that the linear stability pattern of such elliptic Lagrangian solutions changes if and only if the parameter ( ?, e) passes through each of these three curves. Interesting symmetries of these curves are also observed. The linear stability of the singular case when the eccentricity e approaches 1 is also analyzed in detail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Masanori; Matsubara, Takahiko
2011-08-01
Understanding a behavior of galaxy biasing is crucial for future galaxy redshift surveys. One aim is to measure the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) within the precision of a few percent level. Using 30 large cosmological N-body simulations for a standard ?CDM cosmology, we study the halo biasing over a wide redshift range. We compare the simulation results with theoretical predictions proposed by Matsubara [T. Matsubara, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 78, 083519 (2008).10.1103/PhysRevD.78.083519] which naturally incorporate the halo bias and redshift-space distortions into their formalism of perturbation theory with a resummation technique via the Lagrangian picture. The power spectrum and correlation function of halos obtained from Lagrangian resummation theory (LRT) well agree with N-body simulation results on scales of BAOs. Especially nonlinear effects on the baryon acoustic peak of the halo correlation function are accurately explained both in real and redshift space. We find that nonlinearity and scale dependence of bias are fairly well reproduced by 1-loop LRT up to k=0.35hMpc-1 (z=2 and 3) within a few percent level in real space and up to k=0.1hMpc-1 (z=2) and 0.15hMpc-1 (z=3) in redshift space. Thus, the LRT is very powerful for accurately extracting cosmological information in upcoming high redshift BAO surveys.
Twenty-first Century Lattice Gauge Theory: Results from the QCD Lagrangian
Kronfeld, Andreas S.; /Fermilab
2012-03-01
Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) reduces the strong interactions, in all their variety, to an elegant nonabelian gauge theory. It clearly and elegantly explains hadrons at short distances, which has led to its universal acceptance. Since its advent, however, many of its long-distance, emergent properties have been believed to be true, without having been demonstrated to be true. This paper reviews a variety of results in this regime that have been established with lattice gauge theory, directly from the QCD Lagrangian. This body of work sheds light on the origin of hadron masses, its interplay with dynamical symmetry breaking, as well as on other intriguing features such as the phase structure of QCD. In addition, nonperturbative QCD is quantitatively important to many aspects of particle physics (especially the quark flavor sector), nuclear physics, and astrophysics. This review also surveys some of the most interesting connections to those subjects.
Inductive approach towards a phenomenologically more satisfactory unififed field theory
Rayski, J.; Rayski J.M. Jnr.
1985-11-01
A unified field theory constituting a fusion of the ideas of supersymmetries with general relativity and gauge theory is investigated. A Lagrangian formalism is constructed step by step; the last step consists in a marriage with Kaluza's idea of a multidimensional space-time. Our aim is not to achieve a full local supersymmetry in eleven dimensions, but rather to attain a compromise with the symmetries of the fundamental interactions either known phenomenologically, or only suspected to exist in nature.
Vlasov-Poisson in 1D for initially cold systems: post-collapse Lagrangian perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colombi, Stéphane
2015-01-01
We study analytically the collapse of an initially smooth, cold, self-gravitating collisionless system in one dimension. The system is described as a central 'S' shape in phase-space surrounded by a nearly stationary halo acting locally like a harmonic background on the S. To resolve the dynamics of the S under its self-gravity and under the influence of the halo, we introduce a novel approach using post-collapse Lagrangian perturbation theory. This approach allows us to follow the evolution of the system between successive crossing times and to describe in an iterative way the interplay between the central S and the halo. Our theoretical predictions are checked against measurements in entropy conserving numerical simulations based on the waterbag method. While our post-collapse Lagrangian approach does not allow us to compute rigorously the long-term behaviour of the system, i.e. after many crossing times, it explains the close to power-law behaviour of the projected density observed in numerical simulations. Pushing the model at late time suggests that the system could build at some point a very small flat core, but this is very speculative. This analysis shows that understanding the dynamics of initially cold systems requires a fine-grained approach for a correct description of their very central part. The analyses performed here can certainly be extended to spherical symmetry.
Beyond mean field theory: statistical field theory for neural networks
Buice, Michael A; Chow, Carson C
2014-01-01
Mean field theories have been a stalwart for studying the dynamics of networks of coupled neurons. They are convenient because they are relatively simple and possible to analyze. However, classical mean field theory neglects the effects of fluctuations and correlations due to single neuron effects. Here, we consider various possible approaches for going beyond mean field theory and incorporating correlation effects. Statistical field theory methods, in particular the Doi–Peliti–Janssen formalism, are particularly useful in this regard. PMID:25243014
Perturbative quantum gravity in double field theory
Boels, Rutger H
2015-01-01
We study perturbative general relativity with a two-form and a dilaton using the double field theory formulation which features explicit index factorisation at the Lagrangian level. Explicit checks to known tree level results are performed. In a natural covariant gauge a ghost-like scalar which contributes even at tree level is shown to decouple consistently as required by perturbative unitarity. In addition, a lightcone gauge is explored which bypasses the problem altogether. Using this gauge to study BCFW on-shell recursion, we can show that most of the D-dimensional tree level S-matrix of the theory, including all pure graviton scattering amplitudes, is reproduced by the double field theory. More generally, we argue that the integrand may be reconstructed from its single cuts and provide limited evidence for off-shell cancellations in the Feynman graphs. As a straightforward application of the developed technology double field theory-like expressions for four field string corrections are derived.
Reverse engineering quantum field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oeckl, Robert
2012-12-01
An approach to the foundations of quantum theory is advertised that proceeds by "reverse engineering" quantum field theory. As a concrete instance of this approach, the general boundary formulation of quantum theory is outlined.
A. Delfino; M. Malheiro; T. Frederico
1996-02-22
The link between non-linear chiral effective Lagrangians and the Walecka model description of bulk nuclear matter [1] is questioned. This fact is by itself due to the Mean Field Approximation (MFA) which in nuclear mater makes the picture of a nucleon-nucleon interaction based on scalar(vector) meson exchange, equivalent to the description of a nuclear matter based on attractive and repulsive contact interactions. We present a linear chiral model where this link between the Walecka model and an underlying to chiral symmetry realization still holds, due to MFA.
Geometries from field theories
Sinya Aoki; Kengo Kikuchi; Tetsuya Onogi
2015-08-18
We propose a method to define a $d+1$ dimensional geometry from a $d$ dimensional quantum field theory in the $1/N$ expansion. We first construct a $d+1$ dimensional field theory from the $d$ dimensional one via the gradient flow equation, whose flow time $t$ represents the energy scale of the system such that $t\\rightarrow 0$ corresponds to the ultra-violet (UV) while $t\\rightarrow\\infty$ to the infra-red (IR). We then define the induced metric from $d+1$ dimensional field operators. We show that the metric defined in this way becomes classical in the large $N$ limit, in a sense that quantum fluctuations of the metric are suppressed as $1/N$ due to the large $N$ factorization property. As a concrete example, we apply our method to the O(N) non-linear $\\sigma$ model in two dimensions. We calculate the three dimensional induced metric, which is shown to describe an AdS space in the massless limit. We finally discuss several open issues in future studies.
Geometries from field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aoki, Sinya; Kikuchi, Kengo; Onogi, Tetsuya
2015-10-01
We propose a method to define a d+1-dimensional geometry from a d-dimensional quantum field theory in the 1/N expansion. We first construct a d+1-dimensional field theory from the d-dimensional one via the gradient-flow equation, whose flow time t represents the energy scale of the system such that trArr 0 corresponds to the ultraviolet and trArr infty to the infrared. We then define the induced metric from d+1-dimensional field operators. We show that the metric defined in this way becomes classical in the large-N limit, in the sense that quantum fluctuations of the metric are suppressed as 1/N due to the large-N factorization property. As a concrete example, we apply our method to the O(N) nonlinear ? model in two dimensions. We calculate the 3D induced metric, which is shown to describe an anti-de Sitter space in the massless limit. Finally, we discuss several open issues for future studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Destri, C.; de Vega, H. J.
1998-04-01
Recent developments on integrable field theories and statistical models in two dimensions are reviewed. The best way to investigate the continuum limit of lattice models is through the light-cone approach. This method allows to find the underlying quantum field theory for any integrable lattice model in its gapless regime. The relativistic spectrum and S-matrix follows straightforwardly in this way through the Bethe Ansatz. We show here how to derive the infinite number of local commuting and non-local and non-commuting conserved charges in integrable QFT, taking the massive Thirring model (sine-Gordon) as an example. They are generated by quantum monodromy operators and provide a representation of q-deformed affine Lie algebras {U_q}(hat {G}). Therefore, these models enjoy infinite dimensional non-abelian symmetries. A new lattice local formulation of integrable field models is presented and applied to the massive Thirring model (sine-Gordon) as an example. Finally, the new thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz (DDV equations) allowing an unified treatment of finite size and finite temperature integrable models is reviewed.
Mimetic Theory for Cell-Centered Lagrangian Finite Volume Formulation on General Unstructured Grids
Sambasivan, Shiv Kumar; Shashkov, Mikhail J.; Burton, Donald E.; Christon, Mark A.
2012-07-19
A finite volume cell-centered Lagrangian scheme for solving large deformation problems is constructed based on the hypo-elastic model and using the mimetic theory. Rigorous analysis in the context of gas and solid dynamics, and arbitrary polygonal meshes, is presented to demonstrate the ability of cell-centered schemes in mimicking the continuum properties and principles at the discrete level. A new mimetic formulation based gradient evaluation technique and physics-based, frame independent and symmetry preserving slope limiters are proposed. Furthermore, a physically consistent dissipation model is employed which is both robust and inexpensive to implement. The cell-centered scheme along with these additional new features are applied to solve solids undergoing elasto-plastic deformation.
Unified Field Theories Hitoshi Murayama
Murayama, Hitoshi
Unified Field Theories Hitoshi Murayama Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley This article explains the idea of unified field theories in particle physics. It starts with a historical review of two successful theories which unified two apparently distinct forces: Maxwell's theory
Towards a double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds
Vaisman, Izu
2013-12-15
In a previous paper, we have shown that the geometry of double field theory has a natural interpretation on flat para-Kähler manifolds. In this paper, we show that the same geometric constructions can be made on any para-Hermitian manifold. The field is interpreted as a compatible (pseudo-)Riemannian metric. The tangent bundle of the manifold has a natural, metric-compatible bracket that extends the C-bracket of double field theory. In the para-Kähler case, this bracket is equal to the sum of the Courant brackets of the two Lagrangian foliations of the manifold. Then, we define a canonical connection and an action of the field that correspond to similar objects of double field theory. Another section is devoted to the Marsden-Weinstein reduction in double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds. Finally, we give examples of fields on some well-known para-Hermitian manifolds.
Logarithmic conformal field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gainutdinov, Azat; Ridout, David; Runkel, Ingo
2013-12-01
Conformal field theory (CFT) has proven to be one of the richest and deepest subjects of modern theoretical and mathematical physics research, especially as regards statistical mechanics and string theory. It has also stimulated an enormous amount of activity in mathematics, shaping and building bridges between seemingly disparate fields through the study of vertex operator algebras, a (partial) axiomatisation of a chiral CFT. One can add to this that the successes of CFT, particularly when applied to statistical lattice models, have also served as an inspiration for mathematicians to develop entirely new fields: the Schramm-Loewner evolution and Smirnov's discrete complex analysis being notable examples. When the energy operator fails to be diagonalisable on the quantum state space, the CFT is said to be logarithmic. Consequently, a logarithmic CFT is one whose quantum space of states is constructed from a collection of representations which includes reducible but indecomposable ones. This qualifier arises because of the consequence that certain correlation functions will possess logarithmic singularities, something that contrasts with the familiar case of power law singularities. While such logarithmic singularities and reducible representations were noted by Rozansky and Saleur in their study of the U (1|1) Wess-Zumino-Witten model in 1992, the link between the non-diagonalisability of the energy operator and logarithmic singularities in correlators is usually ascribed to Gurarie's 1993 article (his paper also contains the first usage of the term 'logarithmic conformal field theory'). The class of CFTs that were under control at this time was quite small. In particular, an enormous amount of work from the statistical mechanics and string theory communities had produced a fairly detailed understanding of the (so-called) rational CFTs. However, physicists from both camps were well aware that applications from many diverse fields required significantly more complicated non-rational theories. Examples include critical percolation, supersymmetric string backgrounds, disordered electronic systems, sandpile models describing avalanche processes, and so on. In each case, the non-rationality and non-unitarity of the CFT suggested that a more general theoretical framework was needed. Driven by the desire to better understand these applications, the mid-1990s saw significant theoretical advances aiming to generalise the constructs of rational CFT to a more general class. In 1994, Nahm introduced an algorithm for computing the fusion product of representations which was significantly generalised two years later by Gaberdiel and Kausch who applied it to explicitly construct (chiral) representations upon which the energy operator acts non-diagonalisably. Their work made it clear that underlying the physically relevant correlation functions are classes of reducible but indecomposable representations that can be investigated mathematically to the benefit of applications. In another direction, Flohr had meanwhile initiated the study of modular properties of the characters of logarithmic CFTs, a topic which had already evoked much mathematical interest in the rational case. Since these seminal theoretical papers appeared, the field has undergone rapid development, both theoretically and with regard to applications. Logarithmic CFTs are now known to describe non-local observables in the scaling limit of critical lattice models, for example percolation and polymers, and are an integral part of our understanding of quantum strings propagating on supermanifolds. They are also believed to arise as duals of three-dimensional chiral gravity models, fill out hidden sectors in non-rational theories with non-compact target spaces, and describe certain transitions in various incarnations of the quantum Hall effect. Other physical applications range from two-dimensional turbulence and non-equilibrium systems to aspects of the AdS/CFT correspondence and describing supersymmetric sigma models beyond the topological sector. We refer the reader to the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choy, Ting-Pong
One of the leading problems in condensed matter physics is what state of matter obtain when there is a strong Coulomb repulsion between the electrons. One of the exotic examples is the high temperature superconductivity which was discovered in copper-oxide ceramics (cuprates) over twenty years ago. Thus far, a satisfactory theory is absent. In particular, the nature of the electron state outside the superconducting phase remains controversial. In analogy with the BCS theory of a conventional superconductor, in which the metal is well known to be a Fermi liquid, a complete understanding of the normal state of cuprate is necessary prior to the study of the superconducting mechanism in the high temperature superconductors. In this thesis, we will provide a theory for these exotic normal state properties by studying the minimal microscopic model which captures the physics of strong electron correlation. Even in such a simple microscopic model, striking properties including charge localization and presence of a Luttinger surface resemble the normal state properties of cuprate. An exact low energy theory of a doped Mott insulator will be constructed by explicitly integrating (rather than projecting) out the degrees of freedom far away from the chemical potential. The exact low energy theory contains degrees of freedom that cannot be obtained from projective schemes. In particular, a charge 2e bosonic field which is not made out of elemental excitations emerges at low energies. Such a field accounts for dynamical spectral weight transfer across the Mott gap. At half-filling, we show that two such excitations emerge which play a crucial role in preserving the Luttinger surface along which the single-particle Green function vanishes. We also apply this method to the Anderson-U impurity and show that in addition to the Kondo interaction, bosonic degrees of freedom appear as well. We show that many of the normal state properties of the cuprates can result from this new charge 2e bosonic field. In particular, the (1) mid-infrared band including the nonvanishing of the restricted f-sum rule in the Mott insulator, (2) the T2 contribution to the thermal conductivity, (3) pseudogap, (4) bifurcation of the electron spectrum below the chemical potential, as recently seen in angle-resolved photoemission, (5) insulating behavior away from half-filling, (6) high- and low-energy kinks in the electron dispersion, and (7) T-linear resistivity all derive from the charge 2e bosonic field. We also calculate the inverse dielectric function and show that it possesses a sharp quasiparticle peak and a broad particle-hole continuum. The sharp peak is mediated by a new charge e composite excitation formed from the binding of a charge 2e boson and a hole and represents a distinctly new prediction of this theory. It is this feature that is responsible for the dynamical part of the spectral weight transferred across the Mott gap. We propose that electron-energy loss spectroscopy at finite momentum and frequency can be used to probe the existence of such a sharp feature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Surana, K. S.; Reddy, J. N.; Nunez, D.
2015-05-01
The paper presents rate constitutive theories for finite deformation of homogeneous, isotropic, compressible, and incompressible thermoviscoelastic solids without memory in Lagrangian description derived using the second law of thermodynamics expressed in terms of Gibbs potential ?. To ensure thermodynamic equilibrium during evolution, the rate constitutive theories must be derived using entropy inequality [as other three conservation and balance laws are do not provide a mechanism for deriving constitutive theories for the deforming matter (Surana in Advanced mechanics of continuua. in preparation, 2014)]. The two forms of the entropy inequality in ? derived using conjugate pairs , : first Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor and material derivative of the Jacobian of deformation and , ; second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor and material derivative of Green's strain tensor are precisely equivalent as the conjugate pairs , and , are transformable from each other. In the present work, we use , as conjugate pair. Two possible choices of dependent variables in the constitutive theories: ?, ?, , and ?, ?, , (in which ? is entropy density and is heat vector) are explored based on conservation and balance laws. It is shown that the choice of ?, ?, , is essential when the entropy inequality is expressed in terms of ?. The arguments of these dependent variables are decided based on desired physics. Viscoelastic behavior requires considerations of at least and (or ) in the constitutive theories. We generalize and consider strain rates ; i = 0, 1, …, n-1 as arguments of the dependent variables in the derivations of the ordered rate theories of up to orders n. At the onset, , ; i = 0, 1, …, n-1, ? and are considered as arguments of ?, ?, and . When is substituted in the entropy inequality, the resulting conditions eliminate ? as a dependent variable, reduce arguments of some of the dependent variables in the constitutive theory etc. but do not provide a mechanism to derive constitutive theories for and . The stress tensor is decomposed into equilibrium stress and deviatoric stress . Upon substituting this in the entropy inequality, we finally arrive at the inequality that must be satisfied by , and . Derivations of the constitutive theory for follow directly from , equilibrium Cauchy stress tensor, and the constitutive theory for is derived using the theory of generators and invariants. Constitutive theories for the heat vector of up to orders n that are consistent (in terms of the argument tensors) with the constitutive theories for are also derived. Many simplified forms of the rate theories of orders n are presented. Material coefficients are derived by considering Taylor series expansions of the coefficients in the linear combinations representing and using the combined generators of the argument tensors about a known configuration in the combined invariants of the argument tensors and temperature. It is shown that the rate constitutive theories of order one ( n = 1) when further simplified results in constitutive theories that resemble currently used theories but are in fact different. The solid materials characterized by these theories have mechanisms of elasticity and dissipation but have no memory, i.e., no relaxation behavior or rheology. Fourier heat conduction law is shown to be an over-simplified case of the rate theory of order one for . The paper establishes when there is equivalence between the constitutive theories derived here using ? and those presented in Surana et al. (Acta Mech 224(11):2785—2816, 2013), that are derived using Helmholtz free energy density ?.
Polymer Parametrised Field Theory
Alok Laddha; Madhavan Varadarajan
2008-05-02
Free scalar field theory on 2 dimensional flat spacetime, cast in diffeomorphism invariant guise by treating the inertial coordinates of the spacetime as dynamical variables, is quantized using LQG type `polymer' representations for the matter field and the inertial variables. The quantum constraints are solved via group averaging techniques and, analogous to the case of spatial geometry in LQG, the smooth (flat) spacetime geometry is replaced by a discrete quantum structure. An overcomplete set of Dirac observables, consisting of (a) (exponentials of) the standard free scalar field creation- annihilation modes and (b) canonical transformations corresponding to conformal isometries, are represented as operators on the physical Hilbert space. None of these constructions suffer from any of the `triangulation' dependent choices which arise in treatments of LQG. In contrast to the standard Fock quantization, the non- Fock nature of the representation ensures that the algebra of conformal isometries as well as that of spacetime diffeomorphisms are represented in an anomaly free manner. Semiclassical states can be analysed at the gauge invariant level. It is shown that `physical weaves' necessarily underly such states and that such states display semiclassicality with respect to, at most, a countable subset of the (uncountably large) set of observables of type (a). The model thus offers a fertile testing ground for proposed definitions of quantum dynamics as well as semiclassical states in LQG.
Polymer parametrized field theory
Laddha, Alok; Varadarajan, Madhavan
2008-08-15
Free scalar field theory on 2-dimensional flat spacetime, cast in diffeomorphism invariant guise by treating the inertial coordinates of the spacetime as dynamical variables, is quantized using loop quantum gravity (LQG) type 'polymer' representations for the matter field and the inertial variables. The quantum constraints are solved via group averaging techniques and, analogous to the case of spatial geometry in LQG, the smooth (flat) spacetime geometry is replaced by a discrete quantum structure. An overcomplete set of Dirac observables, consisting of (a) (exponentials of) the standard free scalar field creation-annihilation modes and (b) canonical transformations corresponding to conformal isometries, are represented as operators on the physical Hilbert space. None of these constructions suffer from any of the 'triangulation'-dependent choices which arise in treatments of LQG. In contrast to the standard Fock quantization, the non-Fock nature of the representation ensures that the group of conformal isometries as well as that of the gauge transformations generated by the constraints are represented in an anomaly free manner. Semiclassical states can be analyzed at the gauge invariant level. It is shown that 'physical weaves' necessarily underlie such states and that such states display semiclassicality with respect to, at most, a countable subset of the (uncountably large) set of observables of type (a). The model thus offers a fertile testing ground for proposed definitions of quantum dynamics as well as semiclassical states in LQG.
Lagrangian model for the evolution of turbulent magnetic and passive scalar fields
Hater, T.; Grauer, R.; Homann, H.
2011-01-15
In this Brief Report we present an extension of the recent fluid deformation (RFD) closure introduced by Chevillard and Meneveau [L. Chevillard and C. Meneveau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 174501 (2006)] which was developed for modeling the time evolution of Lagrangian fluctuations in incompressible Navier-Stokes turbulence. We apply the RFD closure to study the evolution of magnetic and passive scalar fluctuations. This comparison is especially interesting since the stretching term for the magnetic field and for the gradient of the passive scalar are similar but differ by a sign such that the effect of stretching and compression by the turbulent velocity field is reversed. Probability density functions (PDFs) of magnetic fluctuations and fluctuations of the gradient of the passive scalar obtained from the RFD closure are compared against PDFs obtained from direct numerical simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Surana, K. S.; Reddy, J. N.; Nunez, Daniel
2015-11-01
This paper presents ordered rate constitutive theories of orders m and n, i.e., ( m, n) for finite deformation of homogeneous, isotropic, compressible and incompressible thermoviscoelastic solids with memory in Lagrangian description using entropy inequality in Gibbs potential ? as an alternate approach of deriving constitutive theories using entropy inequality in terms of Helmholtz free energy density ?. Second Piola-Kirchhoff stress ? [0] and Green's strain tensor ? [0] are used as conjugate pair. We consider ?, heat vector q, entropy density ? and rates of upto orders m and n of ? [0] and ? [0], i.e., ? [ i]; i = 0, 1, . . . , m and ? [ j]; j = 0, 1, . . . , n. We choose ?, ? [ n], q and ? as dependent variables in the constitutive theories with ? [ j]; j = 0, 1, . . . , n - 1, ? [ i]; i = 0, 1, . . . , m, temperature gradient g and temperature ? as their argument tensors. Rationale for this choice is explained in the paper. Entropy inequality, decomposition of ? [0] into equilibrium and deviatoric stresses, the conditions resulting from entropy inequality and the theory of generators and invariants are used in the derivations of ordered rate constitutive theories of orders m and n in stress and strain tensors. Constitutive theories for the heat vector q (of up to orders m and n - 1) that are consistent (in terms of the argument tensors) with the constitutive theories for ? [ n] (of up to orders m and n) are also derived. Many simplified forms of the rate theories of orders ( m, n) are presented. Material coefficients are derived by considering Taylor series expansions of the coefficients in the linear combinations representing ? [ n] and q using the combined generators of the argument tensors about a known configuration {{\\underline{\\varOmega}}} in the combined invariants of the argument tensors and temperature. It is shown that the rate constitutive theories of order one ( m = 1, n = 1) when further simplified result in constitutive theories that resemble currently used theories but are in fact different. The solid continua characterized by these theories have mechanisms of elasticity, dissipation and memory, i.e., relaxation behavior or rheology. Fourier heat conduction law is shown to be an over simplified case of the rate theory of order one ( m = 1, n = 1) for q. The paper establishes when there is equivalence between the constitutive theories derived here using ? and those presented in reference Surana et al. (Acta Mech. doi:10.1007/s00707-014-1173-6, 2014) that are derived using Helmholtz free energy density ?. The fundamental differences between the two constitutive theories in terms of physics and their explicit forms using ? and ? are difficult to distinguish from the ordered theories of orders ( m, n) due to complexity of expressions. However, by choosing lower ordered theories, the difference between the two approaches can be clearly seen.
Quantum field theory of fluids.
Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave
2015-02-20
The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around noninteracting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is "freer", in the sense that the noninteracting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree and loop level, we give evidence that a quantum perfect fluid can be consistently formulated as a low-energy, effective field theory. We speculate that the quantum behavior is radically different from both classical fluids and quantum fields. PMID:25763950
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khoury, Justin
2013-11-01
Chameleons are light scalar fields with remarkable properties. Through the interplay of self-interactions and coupling to matter, chameleon particles have a mass that depends on the ambient matter density. The manifestation of the fifth force mediated by chameleons therefore depends sensitively on their environment, which makes for a rich phenomenology. In this paper, we review two recent results on chameleon phenomenology. The first result a pair of no-go theorems limiting the cosmological impact of chameleons and their generalizations: (i) the range of the chameleon force at cosmological density today can be at most ˜Mpc (ii) the conformal factor relating Einstein- and Jordan-frame scale factors is essentially constant over the last Hubble time. These theorems imply that chameleons have negligible effect on the linear growth of structure, and cannot account for the observed cosmic acceleration except as some form of dark energy. The second result pertains to the quantum stability of chameleon theories. We show how requiring that quantum corrections be small, so as to allow reliable predictions of fifth forces, leads to an upper bound of m < 0.0073(?/10?g?cm-3)1/3 eV for gravitational strength coupling, whereas fifth force experiments place a lower bound of m > 0.0042 eV. An improvement of less than a factor of 2 in the range of fifth force experiments could test all classical chameleon field theories whose quantum corrections are well-controlled and couple to matter with nearly gravitational strength regardless of the specific form of the chameleon potential.
Application of Quantum Field Theory
Ashaq Hussain Sofi; Mohammad Ashraf Shah
2013-10-10
In this paper we will analyse some interesting structures that occur in scalar quantum field theory. We will quantize this theory using path integrals. We will analyse the Bogomolny Bound for scalar quantum field theory in two dimensions. We will also analyse the generalization of this result to fractional powers of the differential operator.
Fermion Fields in the (Non)Symmetric Kaluza-Klein Theory
M. W. Kalinowski
2015-11-10
The paper is devoted to the unification of fermons within Nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein Theory.We obtain a Lagrangian in Non-Abelian Kaluza-Klein Theory and Non-Abelian Kaluza-Klein Theory with spontaneous symmetry breaking and Higgs'mechanism.We get also Lagrangian for fermions in our approach for bosonic GSW model.We get Yukawa-type terms and mass terms coming from higher dimensions.We consider 1/2-spin fields and also 3/2-spin fields.
Screening of scalar fields in Dirac-Born-Infeld theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burrage, Clare; Khoury, Justin
2014-07-01
We study a new screening mechanism which is present in Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI)-like theories. A scalar field with a DBI-like Lagrangian is minimally coupled to matter. In the vicinity of sufficiently dense sources, nonlinearities in the scalar dominate and result in an approximately constant acceleration on a test particle, thereby suppressing the scalar force relative to gravity. Unlike generic P(X) or chameleon theories, screening happens within the regime of validity of the effective field theory thanks to the DBI symmetry. We derive an exact form for the field profile around multiple sources and determine the constraints on the theory parameters from tests of gravity. Perturbations around the spherically-symmetric background propagate superluminally, but we argue for a chronology protection analogous to Galileons. This is the first example of a screening mechanism for which quantum corrections to the theory are under control and exact solutions to cosmological N-body problems can be found.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tao; Jiang, Wensheng; Chen, Xu; Feng, Shizuo
2013-12-01
In this paper, a new particle image velocimetry (PIV)-based measurement method is proposed to obtain the high-resolution tide-induced Lagrangian residual current field in the laboratory. A long gravity wave was generated to simulate the tide in a narrow tank full of water laden with PIV particles. Consecutive charge-coupled device (CCD) images were recorded with the studied layer illuminated with a laser beam. Two images separated by one tidal period were processed by applying the pattern-matching algorithm to get the horizontal tide-induced Lagrangian residual current field. The results coincide with sporadic results from the traditional surface-float tracing method, but with much higher spatial resolution and accuracy. Furthermore, it is found that the direct acquisition of the Lagrangian residual current may reduce the error at least by one order compared with those acquisition methods that require the detailed information of the tidal cycle.
Generalized gauge field theories with non-topological soliton solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diaz-Alonso, Joaquin; Rubiera-Garcia, Diego
2007-12-01
We perform a systematic analysis of the conditions under which generalized gauge field theories of compact semisimple Lie groups exhibit electrostatic spherically symmetric non-topological soliton solutions in three space dimensions. By the term generalized, we mean that the dynamics of the concerned fields is governed by Lagrangian densities which are general functions of the quadratic field invariants, leading to physically consistent models. The analysis defines exhaustively the class of this kind of Lagrangian models supporting those soliton solutions and leads to methods for their explicit determination. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the linear stability of the finite-energy solutions against charge-preserving perturbations are established, going beyond the usual Derrick-like criteria, which only provides necessary conditions.
Vector field theories in cosmology
A. Tartaglia; N. Radicella
2007-08-05
Recently proposed theories based on the cosmic presence of a vectorial field are compared and contrasted. In particular the so called Einstein aether theory is discussed in parallel with a recent proposal of a strained space-time theory (Cosmic Defect theory). We show that the latter fits reasonably well the cosmic observed data with only one, or at most two, adjustable parameters, whilst other vector theories use much more. The Newtonian limits are also compared. Finally we show that the CD theory may be considered as a special case of the aether theories, corresponding to a more compact and consistent paradigm.
Numerical simulations of PT-symmetric quantum field theories Claude Bernard* and Van M. Savage
Savage, Van M.
in statistical physics and in Minkowski space. We compute the equal-time one- and two-point Green's functions the k-point Green's functions Gk of these theories. A PT-symmetric Lagrangian that has been studied Schwinger-Dyson techniques to study this self-interacting scalar quantum field theory 17 . Green's functions
Aspects of affine Toda field theory
Corrigan, E. )
1992-06-01
This paper describes affine Toda field theory which is a theory of r scalar fields in two-dimensional Minkowski space-time, where r is the rank of a compact semi-simple Lie algebra g. The classical field theory is determined by the lagrangian density L = 1/2 {partial derivative}{sub {rho}}{phi}{sup a}{partial derivative}{sup {mu}}{phi}{sup a} {minus} V({phi}) where V({phi}) = m{sup 2}/{beta}{sup 2} {Sigma}{sub 0}{sup r}n{sub i}e{sup {beta}{alpha}{sub i} {center dot} {phi}}. m and {beta} are real, classically unimportant constants, {alpha}{sub i} i = 1, . . . ,r are the simple roots of the Lie algebra g, and {alpha}{sub 0} = {Sigma}{sub 1}{sup 4} n{alpha}{sub i} is a linear combination of the simple roots; it corresponds to the extra spot on an extended Dynkin diagram for g. A reasonable question to ask is whether the classical integrability survives into the quantum field theory and, if so, what is the spectrum and to what extent is it possible to calculate explicitly quantities of interest such as S-matrices and form factors. The recent discoveries leave no doubt that these relatively simple models have much structure and their study (even in the {beta}{sup 2} {gt} 0 regime) will be informative. In this short review, the ADE series of Lie algebras will be singled out for special attention.
Modern Classical Electrodynamics and Electromagnetic Radiation - Vacuum Field Theory Aspects
N. N. Bogolubov; A. K. Prykarpatsky
2013-02-16
The work is devoted to studying some new classical electrodynamics models of interacting charged point particles and related with them physical aspects. Based on the vacuum field theory no-geometry approach, developed in \\cite{BPT,BPT1}, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian reformulations of some alternative classical electrodynamics models are devised. A problem closely related to the radiation reaction force is analyzed aiming to explain the Wheeler and Feynman reaction radiation mechanism, well known as the absorption radiation theory, and strongly dependent on the Mach type interaction of a charged point particle in an ambient vacuum electromagnetic medium. There are discussed some relationships between this problem and the one derived within the context of the vacuum field theory approach. The R. \\ Feynman's \\textquotedblleft heretical\\textquotedblright\\ approach \\cite{Dy1,Dy2} to deriving the Lorentz force based Maxwell electromagnetic equations is also revisited, its complete legacy is argued both by means of the geometric considerations and its deep relation with the vacuum field theory approach devised before in \\cite{BPT0,BPT1}. \\ Being completely classical, we reanalyze the Feynman's derivation from the classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian points of view \\ and construct its nontrivial \\ relativistic generalization compatible with the mentioned above vacuum field theory approach.
Quantum Field Theory Frank Wilczeky
Wilczek, Frank
Quantum Field Theory Frank Wilczeky Institute for Advanced Study, School of Natural Science, Olden Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 I discuss the general principles underlying quantum eld theory, and attempt achieved and prospective. Possible limitations of quantum eld theory are viewed in the light of its history
Invariants from classical field theory
Diaz, Rafael; Leal, Lorenzo
2008-06-15
We introduce a method that generates invariant functions from perturbative classical field theories depending on external parameters. By applying our methods to several field theories such as Abelian BF, Chern-Simons, and two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory, we obtain, respectively, the linking number for embedded submanifolds in compact varieties, the Gauss' and the second Milnor's invariant for links in S{sup 3}, and invariants under area-preserving diffeomorphisms for configurations of immersed planar curves.
Reparametrizations and Gauge and General Coordinate Transformations in String Field Theory
Das, Sumit R.; Rubin, Mark A.
1985-10-01
The authors relate reparametrizations of the parameter ? to point transformations of scalar field in ''loop space,'' the configuration space of string field theory. Formulas are given for the changes induced by these transformations in the infinite set of ''component'' spacetime-tensor fields into which a scalar field on loop space may be decomposed. New derivative operators on loop space are defined, motivated by the parametrization-dependence of the mapping from loop space to spacetime. A generalization to loop space of the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian is proposed as a candidate for a 2nd-quantized string Lagrangian not tied to any preferred background geometry.
Pasti, Paolo; Tonin, Mario; Samsonov, Igor; Sorokin, Dmitri
2009-10-15
We reveal nonmanifest gauge and SO(1,5) Lorentz symmetries in the Lagrangian description of a six-dimensional free chiral field derived from the Bagger-Lambert-Gustavsson model in [P.-M. Ho and Y. Matsuo, J. High Energy Phys. 06 (2008) 105.] and make this formulation covariant with the use of a triplet of auxiliary scalar fields. We consider the coupling of this self-dual construction to gravity and its supersymmetrization. In the case of the nonlinear model of [P.-M. Ho, Y. Imamura, Y. Matsuo, and S. Shiba, J. High Energy Phys. 08 (2008) 014.] we solve the equations of motion of the gauge field, prove that its nonlinear field strength is self-dual and find a gauge-covariant form of the nonlinear action. Issues of the relation of this model to the known formulations of the M5-brane worldvolume theory are discussed.
Double field theory at order ?'
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohm, Olaf; Zwiebach, Barton
2014-11-01
We investigate ?' corrections of bosonic strings in the framework of double field theory. The previously introduced "doubled ?'-geometry" gives ?'-deformed gauge transformations arising in the Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation mechanism but does not apply to bosonic strings. These require a different deformation of the duality-covariantized Courant bracket which governs the gauge structure. This is revealed by examining the ?' corrections in the gauge algebra of closed string field theory. We construct a four-derivative cubic double field theory action invariant under the deformed gauge transformations, giving a first glimpse of the gauge principle underlying bosonic string ?' corrections. The usual metric and b-field are related to the duality covariant fields by non-covariant field redefinitions.
A Superdimensional Dual-covariant Field Theory
Yaroslav Derbenev
2015-08-12
An approach to a Unified Field Theory (UFT) is developed as an attempt to establish unification of the Theory of Quantum Fields (QFT) and General Theory of Relativity (GTR) on the background of a covariant differential calculus. A dual State Vector field (DSV)consisting of covariant and contravariant N-component functions of variables of a N-dimensional unified manifod (UM)is introduced to represents matter. DSV is supposed to transform in a way distinct from that of the differentials of the UM variables. Consequently, the hybrid tensors and a hybrid affine tensor (Dynamic Connection, DC) are introduced. The hybrid curvature form (HCF) is introduced as a covariant derivative of DC. A system of covariant Euler-Lagrange (EL) equations for DSV, DC, and a twin couple of the triadic hybrid tensors (Split Metric, SM)is derived. A scalar Lagrangian form is composed based on a set of principles suited for UFT, including the homogeneity in the UM space, differential irreducibility and scale invariance. The type of the manifold geometry is not specified in advance, in neither local (signature) nor regional (topology) aspects. Equations for DSV play role of the Schroedinger-Dirac equation in space of UM. By the correspondent EL equations, DC and SM are connected to DSV and become responsible for the non-linear features of the system i.e. interactions. In this paper we mark breaking of a background paradigm of the modern QFT, the superposition principle. The issue of the UM-MF dimensionality will be addressed, and relations to the principles and methodology of QFT and GTR will be discussed.
Maxfield, Travis; Sethi, Savdeep
2015-01-01
Studying a quantum field theory involves a choice of space-time manifold and a choice of background for any global symmetries of the theory. We argue that many more choices are possible when specifying the background. In the context of branes in string theory, the additional data corresponds to a choice of supergravity tensor fluxes. We propose the existence of a landscape of field theory backgrounds, characterized by the space-time metric, global symmetry background and a choice of tensor fluxes. As evidence for this landscape, we study the supersymmetric six-dimensional (2,0) theory compactified to two dimensions. Different choices of metric and flux give rise to distinct two-dimensional theories, which can preserve differing amounts of supersymmetry.
Travis Maxfield; Daniel Robbins; Savdeep Sethi
2015-12-13
Studying a quantum field theory involves a choice of space-time manifold and a choice of background for any global symmetries of the theory. We argue that many more choices are possible when specifying the background. In the context of branes in string theory, the additional data corresponds to a choice of supergravity tensor fluxes. We propose the existence of a landscape of field theory backgrounds, characterized by the space-time metric, global symmetry background and a choice of tensor fluxes. As evidence for this landscape, we study the supersymmetric six-dimensional (2,0) theory compactified to two dimensions. Different choices of metric and flux give rise to distinct two-dimensional theories, which can preserve differing amounts of supersymmetry.
Kwak, Seung Ki
2012-01-01
The existence of momentum and winding modes of closed string on a torus leads to a natural idea that the field theoretical approach of string theory should involve winding type coordinates as well as the usual space-time ...
Double field theory inspired cosmology
Wu, Houwen; Yang, Haitang E-mail: hyanga@scu.edu.cn
2014-07-01
Double field theory proposes a generalized spacetime action possessing manifest T-duality on the level of component fields. We calculate the cosmological solutions of double field theory with vanishing Kalb-Ramond field. It turns out that double field theory provides a more consistent way to construct cosmological solutions than the standard string cosmology. We construct solutions for vanishing and non-vanishing symmetry preserving dilaton potentials. The solutions assemble the pre- and post-big bang evolutions in one single line element. Our results show a smooth evolution from an anisotropic early stage to an isotropic phase without any special initial conditions in contrast to previous models. In addition, we demonstrate that the contraction of the dual space automatically leads to both an inflation phase and a decelerated expansion of the ordinary space during different evolution stages.
Einstein-aether theory with a Maxwell field: General formalism
Balakin, Alexander B.; Lemos, José P.S.
2014-11-15
We extend the Einstein-aether theory to include the Maxwell field in a nontrivial manner by taking into account its interaction with the time-like unit vector field characterizing the aether. We also include a generic matter term. We present a model with a Lagrangian that includes cross-terms linear and quadratic in the Maxwell tensor, linear and quadratic in the covariant derivative of the aether velocity four-vector, linear in its second covariant derivative and in the Riemann tensor. We decompose these terms with respect to the irreducible parts of the covariant derivative of the aether velocity, namely, the acceleration four-vector, the shear and vorticity tensors, and the expansion scalar. Furthermore, we discuss the influence of an aether non-uniform motion on the polarization and magnetization of the matter in such an aether environment, as well as on its dielectric and magnetic properties. The total self-consistent system of equations for the electromagnetic and the gravitational fields, and the dynamic equations for the unit vector aether field are obtained. Possible applications of this system are discussed. Based on the principles of effective field theories, we display in an appendix all the terms up to fourth order in derivative operators that can be considered in a Lagrangian that includes the metric, the electromagnetic and the aether fields.
The hbar Expansion in Quantum Field Theory
Stanley J. Brodsky; Paul Hoyer
2011-02-19
We show how expansions in powers of Planck's constant hbar = h/2\\pi can give new insights into perturbative and nonperturbative properties of quantum field theories. Since hbar is a fundamental parameter, exact Lorentz invariance and gauge invariance are maintained at each order of the expansion. The physics of the hbar expansion depends on the scheme; i.e., different expansions are obtained depending on which quantities (momenta, couplings and masses) are assumed to be independent of hbar. We show that if the coupling and mass parameters appearing in the Lagrangian density are taken to be independent of hbar, then each loop in perturbation theory brings a factor of hbar. In the case of quantum electrodynamics, this scheme implies that the classical charge e, as well as the fine structure constant are linear in hbar. The connection between the number of loops and factors of hbar is more subtle for bound states since the binding energies and bound-state momenta themselves scale with hbar. The hbar expansion allows one to identify equal-time relativistic bound states in QED and QCD which are of lowest order in hbar and transform dynamically under Lorentz boosts. The possibility to use retarded propagators at the Born level gives valence-like wave-functions which implicitly describe the sea constituents of the bound states normally present in its Fock state representation.
The $\\hbar$ Expansion in Quantum Field Theory
Brodsky, Stanley J.; Hoyer, Paul
2010-10-27
We show how expansions in powers of Planck's constant {h_bar} = h = 2{pi} can give new insights into perturbative and nonperturbative properties of quantum field theories. Since {h_bar} is a fundamental parameter, exact Lorentz invariance and gauge invariance are maintained at each order of the expansion. The physics of the {h_bar} expansion depends on the scheme; i.e., different expansions are obtained depending on which quantities (momenta, couplings and masses) are assumed to be independent of {h_bar}. We show that if the coupling and mass parameters appearing in the Lagrangian density are taken to be independent of {h_bar}, then each loop in perturbation theory brings a factor of {h_bar}. In the case of quantum electrodynamics, this scheme implies that the classical charge e, as well as the fine structure constant are linear in {h_bar}. The connection between the number of loops and factors of {h_bar} is more subtle for bound states since the binding energies and bound-state momenta themselves scale with {h_bar}. The {h_bar} expansion allows one to identify equal-time relativistic bound states in QED and QCD which are of lowest order in {h_bar} and transform dynamically under Lorentz boosts. The possibility to use retarded propagators at the Born level gives valence-like wave-functions which implicitly describe the sea constituents of the bound states normally present in its Fock state representation.
On supersymmetric Lifshitz field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapman, Shira; Oz, Yaron; Raviv-Moshe, Avia
2015-10-01
We consider field theories that exhibit a supersymmetric Lifshitz scaling with two real supercharges. The theories can be formulated in the language of stochastic quan-tization. We construct the free field supersymmetry algebra with rotation singlet fermions for an even dynamical exponent z = 2 k in an arbitrary dimension. We analyze the classical and quantum z = 2 supersymmetric interactions in 2 + 1 and 3 + 1 spacetime dimensions and reveal a supersymmetry preserving quantum diagrammatic cancellation. Stochastic quantization indicates that Lifshitz scale invariance is broken in the (3 + 1)-dimensional quantum theory.
Analytic progress in open string field theory
Kiermaier, Michael Stefan
2009-01-01
Open string field theory provides an action functional for open string fields, and it is thus a manifestly off-shell formulation of open string theory. The solutions to the equation of motion of open string field theory ...
David J. Gross; Washington Taylor
2001-06-27
We describe the ghost sector of cubic string field theory in terms of degrees of freedom on the two halves of a split string. In particular, we represent a class of pure ghost BRST operators as operators on the space of half-string functionals. These BRST operators were postulated by Rastelli, Sen, and Zwiebach to give a description of cubic string field theory in the closed string vacuum arising from condensation of a D25-brane in the original tachyonic theory. We find a class of solutions for the ghost equations of motion using the pure ghost BRST operators. We find a vanishing action for these solutions, and discuss possible interpretations of this result. The form of the solutions we find in the pure ghost theory suggests an analogous class of solutions in the original theory on the D25-brane with BRST operator Q_B coupling the matter and ghost sectors.
Lectures on Conformal Field Theory
Qualls, Joshua D
2015-01-01
These lectures notes are based on courses given at National Taiwan University, National Chiao-Tung University, and National Tsing Hua University in the spring term of 2015. Although the course was offered primarily for graduate students, these lecture notes have been prepared for a more general audience. They are intended as an introduction to conformal field theories in various dimensions, with applications related to topics of particular interest: topics include the conformal bootstrap program, boundary conformal field theory, and applications related to the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the reader to be familiar with quantum mechanics at the graduate level and to have some basic knowledge of quantum field theory. Familiarity with string theory is not a prerequisite for this lectures, although it can only help.
Lectures on Conformal Field Theory
Joshua D. Qualls
2015-11-12
These lectures notes are based on courses given at National Taiwan University, National Chiao-Tung University, and National Tsing Hua University in the spring term of 2015. Although the course was offered primarily for graduate students, these lecture notes have been prepared for a more general audience. They are intended as an introduction to conformal field theories in various dimensions, with applications related to topics of particular interest: topics include the conformal bootstrap program, boundary conformal field theory, and applications related to the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the reader to be familiar with quantum mechanics at the graduate level and to have some basic knowledge of quantum field theory. Familiarity with string theory is not a prerequisite for this lectures, although it can only help.
Teleparallel Lagrange Geometry and a Unified Field Theory
M. I. Wanas; Nabil L. Youssef; A. M. Sid-Ahmed
2010-02-13
In this paper, we construct a field theory unifying gravity and electromagnetism in the context of Extended Absolute Parallelism (EAP-) geometry. This geometry combines, within its structure, the geometric richness of the tangent bundle and the mathematical simplicity of Absolute Parallelism (AP-) geometry. The constructed field theory is a generalization of the Generalized Field Theory (GFT) formulated by Mikhail and Wanas. The theory obtained is purely geometric. The horizontal (resp. vertical) field equations are derived by applying the Euler-Lagrange equations to an appropriate horizontal (resp. vertical) scalar Lagrangian. The symmetric part of the resulting horizontal (resp. vertical) field equations gives rise to a generalized form of Einstein's field equations in which the horizontal (resp. vertical) energy-momentum tensor is purely geometric. The skew-symmetric part of the resulting horizontal (resp. vertical) field equations gives rise to a generalized form of Maxwell equations in which the electromagnetic field is purely geometric. Some interesting special cases, which reveal the role of the nonlinear connection in the obtained field equations, are examined. Finally, the condition under which our constructed field equations reduce to the GFT is explicitly established.
Tachyonic Field Theory and Neutrino Mass Running
U. D. Jentschura
2012-05-01
In this paper three things are done. (i) We investigate the analogues of Cerenkov radiation for the decay of a superluminal neutrino and calculate the Cerenkov angles for the emission of a photon through a W loop, and for a collinear electron-positron pair, assuming the tachyonic dispersion relation for the superluminal neutrino. The decay rate of a freely propagating neutrino is found to depend on the shape of the assumed dispersion relation, and is found to decrease with decreasing tachyonic mass of the neutrino. (ii) We discuss a few properties of the tachyonic Dirac equation (symmetries and plane-wave solutions), which may be relevant for the description of superluminal neutrinos seen by the OPERA experiment, and discuss the calculation of the tachyonic propagator. (iii) In the absence of a commonly accepted tachyonic field theory, and in view of an apparent "running" of the observed neutrino mass with the energy, we write down a model Lagrangian, which describes a Yukawa-type interaction of a neutrino coupling to a scalar background field via a scalar-minus-pseudoscalar interaction. This constitutes an extension of the standard model. If the interaction is strong, then it leads to a substantial renormalization-group "running" of the neutrino mass and could potentially explain the experimental observations.
Böckmann, Marcus; Doltsinis, Nikos L; Marx, Dominik
2015-06-01
An extended Lagrangian formalism that allows for a smooth transition between two different descriptions of interactions during a molecular dynamics simulation is presented. This time-adaptive method is particularly useful in the context of multiscale simulation as it provides a sound recipe to switch on demand between different hierarchical levels of theory, for instance between ab initio ("QM") and force field ("MM") descriptions of a given (sub)system in the course of a molecular dynamics simulation. The equations of motion can be integrated straightforwardly using the usual propagators, such as the Verlet algorithm. First test cases include a bath of harmonic oscillators, of which a subset is switched to a different force constant and/or equilibrium position, as well as an all-MM to QM/MM transition in a hydrogen-bonded water dimer. The method is then applied to a smectic 8AB8 liquid crystal and is shown to be able to switch dynamically a preselected 8AB8 molecule from an all-MM to a QM/MM description which involves partition boundaries through covalent bonds. These examples show that the extended Lagrangian approach is not only easy to implement into existing code but that it is also efficient and robust. The technique moreover provides easy access to a conserved energy quantity, also in cases when Nosé-Hoover chain thermostatting is used throughout dynamical switching. A simple quadratic driving potential proves to be sufficient to guarantee a smooth transition whose time scale can be easily tuned by varying the fictitious mass parameter associated with the auxiliary variable used to extend the Lagrangian. The method is general and can be applied to time-adaptive switching on demand between two different levels of theory within the framework of hybrid scale-bridging simulations. PMID:26575543
Exact form factors in integrable quantum field theories: the scaling Z(N)-Ising model
H. Babujian; A. Foerster; M. Karowski
2005-11-28
A general form factor formula for the scaling Z(N)-Ising model is constructed. Exact expressions for matrix elements are obtained for several local operators. In addition, the commutation rules for order, disorder parameters and para-Fermi fields are derived. Because of the unusual statistics of the fields, the quantum field theory seems to be not related to any classical Lagrangian or field equation.
Energy-momentum tensors in classical field theories - a modern perspective
Nicoleta Voicu
2015-11-27
The paper presents a general geometric approach to energy-momentum tensors in Lagrangian field theories, based on a Hilbert-type definition. The approach is consistent with the ones defining energy-momentum tensors in terms of hypermomentum maps given by the diffeomorphism invariance of the Lagrangian - and, in a sense, complementary to these, with the advantage of an increased simplicity of proofs and also, opening up new insights into the topic. A special attention is paid to the particular cases of metric and metric-affine theories.
Effective field theories for gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwartz, Matthew Dean
Nobody knows how to incorporate the classical theory of gravity and the quantum field theory which describes the Standard Model into a single consistent framework. We can, however, study gravity and the Standard Model together with techniques of self-consistent effective field theory, as long as we are content to probe distances larger than the Planck length, 10-33 cm. In this dissertation, I demonstrate a number of predictions coming from the effective field theory approach in two broad areas. First, I show that in curved spaces, gravity can be regulated in a position-dependent way. This regulator is used to understand the thermodynamics of black holes and other gravitational systems, as well as the unification of the Standard Model couplings in certain phenomenologically interesting extra-dimensional models. The second part of this dissertation is concerned with consequences of breaking general coordinate invariance. I provide a simple technique for studying massive gravitons, and use it not only to explain a number of peculiar features of massive gravity in a transparent way but also to pinpoint the reason that models with discrete gravitational dimensions are difficult to construct. These effective field theory investigations leave a number of clues about what properties a fundamental theory of gravity might possess.
Sawa Manoff
2002-05-07
The method of Lagrangians with covariant derivative (MLCD) is applied to a special type of Lagrangian density depending on scalar and vector fields as well as on their first covariant derivatives. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange's equations and energy-momentum tensors are found on the basis of the covariant Noether's identities.
Validation of a Lagrangian dust transport model with data from the Fennec/LADUNEX field campaign
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sodemann, H.; Lai, M.; Knippertz, P.; Bart, M.; Marenco, F.; McQuaid, J. B.; Rosenberg, P.; Ryder, C.
2012-04-01
Mineral dust aerosol is a key player in the Earth system. Strong winds over the world's major deserts mobilise and subsequently lift mineral dust high into the atmosphere. Due to the harshness and inaccessibility of desert regions, the exact processes of mobilisation and lifting, and layer formation are still unclear. One major unknown in the dust cycle is the dust source or emission strength. Despite better quantification being key for global models, the assessment of impacts on clouds, radiation and biogeochemical cycles, estimates in the literature from global and regional models span a wide range. Here, we validate the state-of-the-art Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART, which has been made capable of simulating dust mobilisation and settling, with airborne and ground-based mineral aerosol and turbulence measurements from the Fennec/LADUNEX field campaign, which was carried out over the western Sahara during June 2011. For a selected case study we compare in-situ and remote-sensing data from an aircraft and the CALIOP LIDAR observations with FLEXPART dust transport simulations. The reliability of ECMWF analysis data in the vicinity of a convectively-generated dust plume is assessed using a set of model simulations, in which dust emissions are prescribed manually from SEVIRI satellite images. Dust emission associated with deep moist convection has been recently identified as a key problem. Overall, this research underlines the potential of jointly using measurements and observations from many data sources with models to better understand dust emission processes in the Sahara desert, and to limit model uncertainty.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuhlmann, Meinard
2010-10-01
I argue that algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT) permits an undisturbed view of the right ontology for fundamental physics, whereas standard (or Lagrangian) QFT offers different mutually incompatible ontologies. My claim does not depend on the mathematical inconsistency of standard QFT but on the fact that AQFT has the same concerns as ontology, namely categorical parsimony and a clearly structured hierarchy of entities.
David J. Gross; Washington Taylor
2001-06-04
We describe projection operators in the matter sector of Witten's cubic string field theory using modes on the right and left halves of the string. These projection operators represent a step towards an analytic solution of the equations of motion of the full string field theory, and can be used to construct Dp-brane solutions of the string field theory when the BRST operator Q is taken to be pure ghost, as suggested in the recent conjecture by Rastelli, Sen and Zwiebach. We show that a family of solutions related to the sliver state are rank one projection operators on the appropriate space of half-string functionals, and we construct higher rank projection operators corresponding to configurations of multiple D-branes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, Kenneth R.; Joseph, Richard I.
1989-05-01
A formulation of fluid dynamics in terms of Lagrangian variables allows one to make direct use of the standard methods of statistical mechanics. However, most observations and empirical studies of large geophysical fluid systems are in terms of Eulerian variables, and this raises the issue of how to relate quantities given in terms of one set of variables to the corresponding quantities given in terms of the other set. In a completely general treatment of fluids, one must consider both oscillatory and translational modes of motion. The oscillatory modes are wavelike and lead to correlations which are analogous to those for phonons in the solid. The translational modes are particlelike and lead to correlations which correspond to diffusion in a weakly interacting gas. In this paper we consider the class of fluids for which the translational modes can be neglected. Based upon the assumption that the statistical distribution of the canonically conjugate Lagrangian variables is of a Gaussian form, we obtain a tractable expression for the Eulerian spectra in terms of the Lagrangian spectra and show that, in general, the two types of spectra are significantly different. In particular, it is shown that the Eulerian wave-number spectrum exhibits a large wave-number power-law decay which is similar to that often observed in geophysical systems and further is independent of the detailed nature of the Lagrangian wave-number spectrum. The large wave-number decay of the Eulerian spectrum is due to advection and is strictly a kinematic effect. This also implies that experiments which focus on the large wave-number advective tail cannot yield information about the true dynamics of the system. The application of this result to the problem of explaining the observed distribution of oceanic internal waves is discussed.
Fornace, Mark E; Lee, Joonho; Miyamoto, Kaito; Manby, Frederick R; Miller, Thomas F
2015-02-10
We introduce embedded mean-field theory (EMFT), an approach that flexibly allows for the embedding of one mean-field theory in another without the need to specify or fix the number of particles in each subsystem. EMFT is simple, is well-defined without recourse to parameters, and inherits the simple gradient theory of the parent mean-field theories. In this paper, we report extensive benchmarking of EMFT for the case where the subsystems are treated using different levels of Kohn-Sham theory, using PBE or B3LYP/6-31G* in the high-level subsystem and LDA/STO-3G in the low-level subsystem; we also investigate different levels of density fitting in the two subsystems. Over a wide range of chemical problems, we find EMFT to perform accurately and stably, smoothly converging to the high-level of theory as the active subsystem becomes larger. In most cases, the performance is at least as good as that of ONIOM, but the advantages of EMFT are highlighted by examples that involve partitions across multiple bonds or through aromatic systems and by examples that involve more complicated electronic structure. EMFT is simple and parameter free, and based on the tests provided here, it offers an appealing new approach to a multiscale electronic structure. PMID:26580914
The Effective Field Theory of Inflation/Dark Energy and the Horndeski Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsujikawa, Shinji
The effective field theory (EFT) of cosmological perturbations is a useful framework to deal with the low-energy degrees of freedom present for inflation and dark energy. We review the EFT for modified gravitational theories by starting from the most general action in unitary gauge that involves the lapse function and the three-dimensional geometric scalar quantities appearing in the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. Expanding the action up to quadratic order in the perturbations and imposing conditions for the elimination of spatial derivatives higher than second order, we obtain the Lagrangian of curvature perturbations and gravitational waves with a single scalar degree of freedom. The resulting second-order Lagrangian is exploited for computing the scalar and tensor power spectra generated during inflation. We also show that the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order equations of motion—Horndeski theory—belongs to the action of our general EFT framework and that the background equations of motion in Horndeski theory can be conveniently expressed in terms of three EFT parameters. Finally we study the equations of matter density perturbations and the effective gravitational coupling for dark energy models based on Horndeski theory, to confront the models with the observations of large-scale structures and weak lensing.
Tail terms in gravitational radiation reaction via effective field theory
S. Foffa; R. Sturani
2012-12-24
Gravitational radiation reaction affects the dynamics of gravitationally bound binary systems. Here we focus on the leading "tail" term which modifies binary dynamics at fourth post-Newtonian order, as first computed by Blanchet and Damour. We re-produce this result using effective field theory techniques in the framework of the Lagrangian formalism suitably extended to include dissipation effects. We recover the known logarithmic tail term, consistently with the recent interpretation of the logarithmic tail term in the mass parameter as a renormalization group effect of the Bondi mass of the system.
Computers for Lattice Field Theories
Y. Iwasaki
1994-01-26
Parallel computers dedicated to lattice field theories are reviewed with emphasis on the three recent projects, the Teraflops project in the US, the CP-PACS project in Japan and the 0.5-Teraflops project in the US. Some new commercial parallel computers are also discussed. Recent development of semiconductor technologies is briefly surveyed in relation to possible approaches toward Teraflops computers.
Quantum Field Theory in Graphene
I. V. Fialkovsky; D. V. Vassilevich
2011-11-18
This is a short non-technical introduction to applications of the Quantum Field Theory methods to graphene. We derive the Dirac model from the tight binding model and describe calculations of the polarization operator (conductivity). Later on, we use this quantity to describe the Quantum Hall Effect, light absorption by graphene, the Faraday effect, and the Casimir interaction.
A unitary and causal effective field theory
Gasparyan, A. M.; Lutz, M. F. M.
2011-10-24
We report on a novel scheme based on the chiral Lagrangian. It is used to analyze pion-nucleon scattering, pion photoproduction, and nucleon Compton scattering. Subthreshold partial-wave amplitudes are calculated in chiral perturbation theory and analytically extrapolated with constraints imposed by electromagnetic-gauge invariance, causality and unitarity. Experimental quantities are reproduced up to energies {radical}(s){approx_equal}1300 MeV in terms of the parameters relevant at order Q{sup 3}.
Lagrangian description of warm plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, H.
1970-01-01
Efforts are described to extend the averaged Lagrangian method of describing small signal wave propagation and nonlinear wave interaction, developed by earlier workers for cold plasmas, to the more general conditions of warm collisionless plasmas, and to demonstrate particularly the effectiveness of the method in analyzing wave-wave interactions. The theory is developed for both the microscopic description and the hydrodynamic approximation to plasma behavior. First, a microscopic Lagrangian is formulated rigorously, and expanded in terms of perturbations about equilibrium. Two methods are then described for deriving a hydrodynamic Lagrangian. In the first of these, the Lagrangian is obtained by velocity integration of the exact microscopic Lagrangian. In the second, the expanded hydrodynamic Lagrangian is obtained directly from the expanded microscopic Lagrangian. As applications of the microscopic Lagrangian, the small-signal dispersion relations and the coupled mode equations are derived for all possible waves in a warm infinite, weakly inhomogeneous magnetoplasma, and their interactions are examined.
C. G. Bollini; A. L. De Paoli; M. C. Rocca
2010-02-12
In this paper we show that Ultradistributions of Exponential Type (UET) are appropriate for the description in a consistent way world sheet superstring and superstring field theories. A new Lagrangian for the closed world sheet superstring is obtained. We also show that the superstring field is a linear superposition of UET of compact support (CUET), and give the notion of anti-superstring. We evaluate the propagator for the string field, and calculate the convolution of two of them.
Introduction to string theory and conformal field theory
Belavin, A. A. Tarnopolsky, G. M.
2010-05-15
A concise survey of noncritical string theory and two-dimensional conformal field theory is presented. A detailed derivation of a conformal anomaly and the definition and general properties of conformal field theory are given. Minimal string theory, which is a special version of the theory, is considered. Expressions for the string susceptibility and gravitational dimensions are derived.
Renormalized nonequilibrium quantum field theory: Scalar fields
Borsanyi, Sz.; Reinosa, U.
2009-12-15
We discuss the renormalization of the initial value problem in quantum field theory using the two-particle irreducible (2PI) effective action formalism. The nonequilibrium dynamics is renormalized by counterterms determined in equilibrium. We emphasize the importance of the appropriate choice of initial conditions and go beyond the Gaussian initial density operator by defining self-consistent initial conditions. We study the corresponding time evolution and present a numerical example which supports the existence of a continuum limit for this type of initial conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barutello, Vivina; Jadanza, Riccardo D.; Portaluri, Alessandro
2015-07-01
It is well known that the linear stability of the Lagrangian elliptic solutions in the classical planar three-body problem depends on a mass parameter ? and on the eccentricity e of the orbit. We consider only the circular case (e = 0) but under the action of a broader family of singular potentials: ?-homogeneous potentials, for ? in (0, 2) , and the logarithmic one. It turns out indeed that the Lagrangian circular orbit persists also in this more general setting. We discover a region of linear stability expressed in terms of the homogeneity parameter ? and the mass parameter ?, then we compute the Morse index of this orbit and of its iterates and we find that the boundary of the stability region is the envelope of a family of curves on which the Morse indices of the iterates jump. In order to conduct our analysis we rely on a Maslov-type index theory devised and developed by Y. Long, X. Hu and S. Sun; a key role is played by an appropriate index theorem and by some precise computations of suitable Maslov-type indices.
Quantum Algorithms for Quantum Field Theories
Preskill, John
Quantum Algorithms for Quantum Field Theories Stephen P. Jordan,1 * Keith S. M. Lee,2 John Preskill3 Quantum field theory reconciles quantum mechanics and special relativity, and plays a central role probabilities in a massive quantum field theory with quartic self-interactions (f4 theory) in spacetime of four
Bias in the effective field theory of large scale structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Senatore, Leonardo
2015-11-01
We study how to describe collapsed objects, such as galaxies, in the context of the Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures. The overdensity of galaxies at a given location and time is determined by the initial tidal tensor, velocity gradients and spatial derivatives of the regions of dark matter that, during the evolution of the universe, ended up at that given location. Similarly to what was recently done for dark matter, we show how this Lagrangian space description can be recovered by upgrading simpler Eulerian calculations. We describe the Eulerian theory. We show that it is perturbatively local in space, but non-local in time, and we explain the observational consequences of this fact. We give an argument for why to a certain degree of accuracy the theory can be considered as quasi time-local and explain what the operator structure is in this case. We describe renormalization of the bias coefficients so that, after this and after upgrading the Eulerian calculation to a Lagrangian one, the perturbative series for galaxies correlation functions results in a manifestly convergent expansion in powers of k/kNL and k/kM, where k is the wavenumber of interest, kNL is the wavenumber associated to the non-linear scale, and kM is the comoving wavenumber enclosing the mass of a galaxy.
Diffeomorphisms in group field theories
Baratin, Aristide; Girelli, Florian; Oriti, Daniele
2011-05-15
We study the issue of diffeomorphism symmetry in group field theories (GFT), using the noncommutative metric representation introduced by A. Baratin and D. Oriti [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 221302 (2010).]. In the colored Boulatov model for 3d gravity, we identify a field (quantum) symmetry which ties together the vertex translation invariance of discrete gravity, the flatness constraint of canonical quantum gravity, and the topological (coarse-graining) identities for the 6j symbols. We also show how, for the GFT graphs dual to manifolds, the invariance of the Feynman amplitudes encodes the discrete residual action of diffeomorphisms in simplicial gravity path integrals. We extend the results to GFT models for higher-dimensional BF theories and discuss various insights that they provide on the GFT formalism itself.
Martin Rivas
2006-08-08
The concept of elementary particle rests on the idea that it is a physical system with no excited states, so that all possible states of the particle are just kinematical modifications of any one of them. In this way instead of describing the particle attributes it amounts to describe the collection of consecutive inertial observers who describe the particle in the same kinematical state. The kinematical state space of an elementary particle is a homogeneous space of the kinematical group.By considering the largest homogeneous spaces of both, Galilei and Poincare groups, it is shown how the spin structure is related to the different degrees of freedom. Finally, the spacetime symmetry group of a relativistic particle which satisfies Dirac's equation when quantized, is enlarged to take into account additional symmetries like spacetime dilations and local rotations. An interaction Lagrangian invariant under this enlarged group is proposed and the compound system of two Dirac particles is analyzed.
Translations in Quantum Field Theory and the Poincaré Gauge Theory of Gravity
Marcin Ka?mierczak
2009-09-29
In standard quantum field theory, the one-particle states are classified by the unitary representations of the Poincar\\'e group, whereas the causal fields' classification employs the finite-dimensional (non-unitary) representations of the (homogeneous) Lorentz group. We investigate the possibility of constructing fields that transform under the full representation of the Poincar\\'e group. We show that such fields can be consistently constructed, although the Lagrangians that describe them exhibit explicit dependence on the space-time coordinates. The inclusion of gravity within the framework of the Poincar\\'e gauge theory is then discussed. A new feature that occurs is that the translational gauge fields enter the covariant derivative of matter fields. The Poincar\\'e-gauge approach works still well and leads to interesting consequences. The detailed discussion of the Dirac field is presented and the relation to the earlier accounts on Poincar\\'e-spinors is drawn. Another example that is considered is the Poincar\\'e-vector field. The presentation has a partly didactic character and is addressed to all the readers who are interested in the rudiments of quantum field theory and the gauge description of gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oettl, Dietmar
2015-05-01
A revised microscale flow field model has been implemented in the Lagrangian particle model Graz Lagrangian Model (GRAL) for computing flows around obstacles. It is based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations in three dimensions and the widely used standard turbulence model. Here we focus on evaluating the model regarding computed concentrations by use of a comprehensive wind-tunnel experiment with numerous combinations of building geometries, stack positions, and locations. In addition, two field experiments carried out in Denmark and in the U.S were used to evaluate the model. Further, two different formulations of the standard deviation of wind component fluctuations have also been investigated, but no clear picture could be drawn in this respect. Overall the model is able to capture several of the main features of pollutant dispersion around obstacles, but at least one future model improvement was identified for stack releases within the recirculation zone of buildings. Regulatory applications are the bread-and-butter of most GRAL users nowadays, requiring fast and robust modelling algorithms. Thus, a few simplifications have been introduced to decrease the computational time required. Although predicted concentrations for the two field experiments were found to be in good agreement with observations, shortcomings were identified regarding the extent of computed recirculation zones for the idealized wind-tunnel building geometries, with approaching flows perpendicular to building faces.
Unifying Ghost-Free Lorentz-Invariant Lagrangians
Li, Wenliang
2015-01-01
We present the details of the novel framework for Lagrangian field theories that are Lorentz-invariant and lead to at most second order equations of motion. The use of antisymmetric structure is of crucial importance. The general ghost-free Lagrangians are constructed and then translated into the language of differential forms. The ghost-freeness has a geometric nature. A novel duality is proposed which generalizes the Hodge duality in Maxwell's theory. We discuss how the well-established theories are reformulated and propose many new theories.
Wang, Junming; Hiscox, April L; Miller, David R; Meyer, Thomas H; Sammis, Ted W
2009-11-01
A Lagrangian particle model has been adapted to examine human exposures to particulate matter < or = 10 microm (PM10) in agricultural settings. This paper reports the performance of the model in comparison to extensive measurements by elastic LIDAR (light detection and ranging). For the first time, the LIDAR measurements allowed spatially distributed and time dynamic measurements to be used to test the predictions of a field-scale model. The model outputs, which are three-dimensional concentration distribution maps from an agricultural disking operation, were compared with the LIDAR-scanned images. The peak cross-correlation coefficient and the offset distance of the measured and simulated plumes were used to quantify both the intensity and location accuracy. The appropriate time averaging and changes in accuracy with height of the plume were examined. Inputs of friction velocity, Monin-Obukhov length, and wind direction (1 sec) were measured with a three-axis sonic anemometer at a single point in the field (at 1.5-m height). The Lagrangian model of Wang et al. predicted the near-field concentrations of dust plumes emitted from a field disking operation with an overall accuracy of approximately 0.67 at 3-m height. Its average offset distance when compared with LIDAR measurements was approximately 38 m, which was 6% of the average plume moving distance during the simulation periods. The model is driven by weather measurements, and its near-field accuracy is highest when input time averages approach the turbulent flow time scale (3-70 sec). The model accuracy decreases with height because of smoothing and errors in the input wind field, which is modeled rather than measured at heights greater than the measurement anemometer. The wind steadiness parameter (S) can be used to quantify the combined effects of wind speed and direction on model accuracy. PMID:19947118
The effective field theory of K-mouflage
Brax, Philippe
2015-01-01
We describe K-mouflage models of modified gravity using the effective field theory of dark energy. We show how the Lagrangian density $K$ defining the K-mouflage models appears in the effective field theory framework, at both the exact fully nonlinear level and at the quadratic order of the effective action. We find that K-mouflage scenarios only generate the operator $(\\delta g^{00}_{(u)})^n$ at each order $n$. We also reverse engineer K-mouflage models by reconstructing the whole effective field theory, and the full cosmological behaviour, from two functions of the Jordan-frame scale factor in a tomographic manner. This parameterisation is directly related to the implementation of the K-mouflage screening mechanism: screening occurs when $ K'$ is large in a dense environment such as the deep matter and radiation eras. In this way, K-mouflage can be easily implemented as a calculable subclass of models described by the effective field theory of dark energy which could be probed by future surveys.
The effective field theory of K-mouflage
Philippe Brax; Patrick Valageas
2015-09-02
We describe K-mouflage models of modified gravity using the effective field theory of dark energy. We show how the Lagrangian density $K$ defining the K-mouflage models appears in the effective field theory framework, at both the exact fully nonlinear level and at the quadratic order of the effective action. We find that K-mouflage scenarios only generate the operator $(\\delta g^{00}_{(u)})^n$ at each order $n$. We also reverse engineer K-mouflage models by reconstructing the whole effective field theory, and the full cosmological behaviour, from two functions of the Jordan-frame scale factor in a tomographic manner. This parameterisation is directly related to the implementation of the K-mouflage screening mechanism: screening occurs when $ K'$ is large in a dense environment such as the deep matter and radiation eras. In this way, K-mouflage can be easily implemented as a calculable subclass of models described by the effective field theory of dark energy which could be probed by future surveys.
Haag's theorem in noncommutative quantum field theory
Antipin, K. V.; Mnatsakanova, M. N.; Vernov, Yu. S.
2013-08-15
Haag's theorem was extended to the general case of noncommutative quantum field theory when time does not commute with spatial variables. It was proven that if S matrix is equal to unity in one of two theories related by unitary transformation, then the corresponding one in the other theory is equal to unity as well. In fact, this result is valid in any SO(1, 1)-invariant quantum field theory, an important example of which is noncommutative quantum field theory.
Effective field theory in nuclear physics
Martin J. Savage
2000-12-12
I review recent developments in the application of effective field theory to nuclear physics. Emphasis is placed on precision two-body calculations and efforts to formulate the nuclear shell model in terms of an effective field theory.
Gravity Duals for Nonrelativistic Conformal Field Theories
McGreevy, John
We attempt to generalize the anti–de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence to nonrelativistic conformal field theories which are invariant under Galilean transformations. Such systems govern ultracold atoms at ...
Symmetries and strings in field theory and gravity
Banks, Tom; Seiberg, Nathan
2011-04-15
We discuss aspects of global and gauged symmetries in quantum field theory and quantum gravity, focusing on discrete gauge symmetries. An effective Lagrangian description of Z{sub p} gauge theories shows that they are associated with an emergent Z{sub p} 1-form (Kalb-Ramond) gauge symmetry. This understanding leads us to uncover new observables and new phenomena in nonlinear {sigma} models. It also allows us to expand on Polchinski's classification of cosmic strings. We argue that in models of quantum gravity, there are no global symmetries, all continuous gauge symmetries are compact, and all charges allowed by Dirac quantization are present in the spectrum. These conjectures are not new, but we present them from a streamlined and unified perspective. Finally, our discussion about string charges and symmetries leads to a more physical and more complete understanding of recently found consistency conditions of supergravity.
Motion of small bodies in classical field theory
Gralla, Samuel E.
2010-04-15
I show how prior work with R. Wald on geodesic motion in general relativity can be generalized to classical field theories of a metric and other tensor fields on four-dimensional spacetime that (1) are second-order and (2) follow from a diffeomorphism-covariant Lagrangian. The approach is to consider a one-parameter-family of solutions to the field equations satisfying certain assumptions designed to reflect the existence of a body whose size, mass, and various charges are simultaneously scaled to zero. (That such solutions exist places a further restriction on the class of theories to which our results apply.) Assumptions are made only on the spacetime region outside of the body, so that the results apply independent of the body's composition (and, e.g., black holes are allowed). The worldline 'left behind' by the shrinking, disappearing body is interpreted as its lowest-order motion. An equation for this worldline follows from the 'Bianchi identity' for the theory, without use of any properties of the field equations beyond their being second-order. The form of the force law for a theory therefore depends only on the ranks of its various tensor fields; the detailed properties of the field equations are relevant only for determining the charges for a particular body (which are the ''monopoles'' of its exterior fields in a suitable limiting sense). I explicitly derive the force law (and mass-evolution law) in the case of scalar and vector fields, and give the recipe in the higher-rank case. Note that the vector force law is quite complicated, simplifying to the Lorentz force law only in the presence of the Maxwell gauge symmetry. Example applications of the results are the motion of 'chameleon' bodies beyond the Newtonian limit, and the motion of bodies in (classical) non-Abelian gauge theory. I also make some comments on the role that scaling plays in the appearance of universality in the motion of bodies.
Motion of small bodies in classical field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gralla, Samuel E.
2010-04-01
I show how prior work with R. Wald on geodesic motion in general relativity can be generalized to classical field theories of a metric and other tensor fields on four-dimensional spacetime that (1) are second-order and (2) follow from a diffeomorphism-covariant Lagrangian. The approach is to consider a one-parameter-family of solutions to the field equations satisfying certain assumptions designed to reflect the existence of a body whose size, mass, and various charges are simultaneously scaled to zero. (That such solutions exist places a further restriction on the class of theories to which our results apply.) Assumptions are made only on the spacetime region outside of the body, so that the results apply independent of the body’s composition (and, e.g., black holes are allowed). The worldline “left behind” by the shrinking, disappearing body is interpreted as its lowest-order motion. An equation for this worldline follows from the “Bianchi identity” for the theory, without use of any properties of the field equations beyond their being second-order. The form of the force law for a theory therefore depends only on the ranks of its various tensor fields; the detailed properties of the field equations are relevant only for determining the charges for a particular body (which are the “monopoles” of its exterior fields in a suitable limiting sense). I explicitly derive the force law (and mass-evolution law) in the case of scalar and vector fields, and give the recipe in the higher-rank case. Note that the vector force law is quite complicated, simplifying to the Lorentz force law only in the presence of the Maxwell gauge symmetry. Example applications of the results are the motion of “chameleon” bodies beyond the Newtonian limit, and the motion of bodies in (classical) non-Abelian gauge theory. I also make some comments on the role that scaling plays in the appearance of universality in the motion of bodies.
Encoding field theories into gravities
Aoki, Sinya; Onogi, Tetsuya
2015-01-01
We propose a method, which encodes the information of a $d$ dimensional quantum field theory into a $d+1$ dimensional gravity in the $1/N$ expansion. We first construct a $d+1$ dimensional field theory from the $d$ dimensional one via the gradient flow equation, whose flow time $t$ represents the energy scale of the system such that $t\\rightarrow 0$ corresponds to the ultra-violet (UV) while $t\\rightarrow\\infty$ to the infra-red (IR). We then define the induced metric from $d+1$ dimensional field operators. We show that the metric defined in this way becomes classical in the large $N$ limit, in a sense that quantum fluctuations of the metric are suppressed as $1/N$ due to the large $N$ factorization property. As a concrete example, we apply our method to the O(N) non-linear $\\sigma$ model in two dimensions. We calculate the induced metric in three dimensions, which is shown to describe De Sitter (dS) or Anti De Sitter (AdS) space in the massless limit, where the mass is dynamically generated in the O(N) non-l...
Distance Between Quantum Field Theories As A Measure Of Lorentz Violation
Damiano Anselmi; Dario Buttazzo
2011-09-16
We study the distance between symmetry-violating quantum field theories and the surface of symmetric theories. We use this notion to quantify how precise Lorentz symmetry is today, according to experimental data. The metric in parameter space is defined \\`a la Zamolodchikov, from the two-point function of the Lagrangian perturbation. The distance is obtained minimizing the length of paths connecting the Lorentz-violating theory to the Lorentz surface. This definition depends on the Lagrangian used to formulate the theory, including total derivatives and the choice of coordinate frame. We eliminate such dependencies minimizing with respect to them. We derive a number of general formulas and evaluate the distance in the CPT-invariant, QED subsectors of the Standard Model Extension (SME) and the renormalizable high-energy-Lorentz-violating Standard Model. We study the properties of the distance and address a number of applications.
Lagrangian perfect fluids and black hole mechanics
Vivek Iyer
1996-10-15
The first law of black hole mechanics (in the form derived by Wald), is expressed in terms of integrals over surfaces, at the horizon and spatial infinity, of a stationary, axisymmetric black hole, in a diffeomorphism invariant Lagrangian theory of gravity. The original statement of the first law given by Bardeen, Carter and Hawking for an Einstein-perfect fluid system contained, in addition, volume integrals of the fluid fields, over a spacelike slice stretching between these two surfaces. When applied to the Einstein-perfect fluid system, however, Wald's methods yield restricted results. The reason is that the fluid fields in the Lagrangian of a gravitating perfect fluid are typically nonstationary. We therefore first derive a first law-like relation for an arbitrary Lagrangian metric theory of gravity coupled to arbitrary Lagrangian matter fields, requiring only that the metric field be stationary. This relation includes a volume integral of matter fields over a spacelike slice between the black hole horizon and spatial infinity, and reduces to the first law originally derived by Bardeen, Carter and Hawking when the theory is general relativity coupled to a perfect fluid. We also consider a specific Lagrangian formulation for an isentropic perfect fluid given by Carter, and directly apply Wald's analysis. The resulting first law contains only surface integrals at the black hole horizon and spatial infinity, but this relation is much more restrictive in its allowed fluid configurations and perturbations than that given by Bardeen, Carter and Hawking. In the Appendix, we use the symplectic structure of the Einstein-perfect fluid system to derive a conserved current for perturbations of this system: this current reduces to one derived ab initio for this system by Chandrasekhar and Ferrari.
Quantum Field Theory in (0 + 1) Dimensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boozer, A. D.
2007-01-01
We show that many of the key ideas of quantum field theory can be illustrated simply and straightforwardly by using toy models in (0 + 1) dimensions. Because quantum field theory in (0 + 1) dimensions is equivalent to quantum mechanics, these models allow us to use techniques from quantum mechanics to gain insight into quantum field theory. In…
Fractional Statistics in Algebraic Quantum Field Theory
van Elburg, Ronald A.J.
Fractional Statistics in Algebraic Quantum Field Theory and the Fractional Quantum Hall-states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 3 Effective Gauge Theory for Quantum Hall-Effects 33 3.1 Effective Gauge Field Action the connection of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect with Braid statistics in Algebraic Quantum Field Theory
Inner Product in Quantum Field Theory
Ashaq Hussain Sofi; Muhammad Ashraf Shah
2013-09-30
In this paper we will analyse the inner product for a general tensor field theory. We will first analyse a generalized inner product for scalar field theories. Then we will use it to construct a inner product for tensor field theories. We will use this inner product to construct the two-point function.
Hamiltonian Anomalies from Extended Field Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monnier, Samuel
2015-09-01
We develop a proposal by Freed to see anomalous field theories as relative field theories, namely field theories taking value in a field theory in one dimension higher, the anomaly field theory. We show that when the anomaly field theory is extended down to codimension 2, familiar facts about Hamiltonian anomalies can be naturally recovered, such as the fact that the anomalous symmetry group admits only a projective representation on the Hilbert space, or that the latter is really an abelian bundle gerbe over the moduli space. We include in the discussion the case of non-invertible anomaly field theories, which is relevant to six-dimensional (2, 0) superconformal theories. In this case, we show that the Hamiltonian anomaly is characterized by a degree 2 non-abelian group cohomology class, associated to the non-abelian gerbe playing the role of the state space of the anomalous theory. We construct Dai-Freed theories, governing the anomalies of chiral fermionic theories, and Wess-Zumino theories, governing the anomalies of Wess-Zumino terms and self-dual field theories, as extended field theories down to codimension 2.
Classical Theorems in Noncommutative Quantum Field Theory
M. Chaichian; M. Mnatsakanova; A. Tureanu; Yu. Vernov
2006-12-12
Classical results of the axiomatic quantum field theory - Reeh and Schlieder's theorems, irreducibility of the set of field operators and generalized Haag's theorem are proven in SO(1,1) invariant quantum field theory, of which an important example is noncommutative quantum field theory. In SO(1,3) invariant theory new consequences of generalized Haag's theorem are obtained. It has been proven that the equality of four-point Wightman functions in two theories leads to the equality of elastic scattering amplitudes and thus the total cross-sections in these theories.
Aging Logarithmic Galilean Field Theories
Seungjoon Hyun; Jaehoon Jeong; Bom Soo Kim
2013-06-13
We analytically compute correlation and response functions of scalar operators for the systems with Galilean and corresponding aging symmetries for general spatial dimensions $d$ and dynamical exponent $z$, along with their logarithmic and logarithmic squared extensions, using the gauge/gravity duality. These non-conformal extensions of the aging geometry are marked by two dimensionful parameters, eigenvalue $\\mathcal M$ of an internal coordinate and aging parameter $\\alpha$. We further perform systematic investigations on two-time response functions for general $d$ and $z$, and identify the growth exponent as a function of the scaling dimensions $\\Delta$ of the dual field theory operators and aging parameter $\\alpha$ in our theory. The initial growth exponent is only controlled by $\\Delta$, while its late time behavior by $\\alpha$ as well as $\\Delta$. These behaviors are separated by a time scale order of the waiting time. We attempt to make contact our results with some field theoretical growth models, such as Kim-Kosterlitz model at higher number of spatial dimensions $d$.
A Student's Guide to Lagrangians and Hamiltonians
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamill, Patrick
2013-11-01
Part I. Lagrangian Mechanics: 1. Fundamental concepts; 2. The calculus of variations; 3. Lagrangian dynamics; Part II. Hamiltonian Mechanics: 4. Hamilton's equations; 5. Canonical transformations: Poisson brackets; 6. Hamilton-Jacobi theory; 7. Continuous systems; Further reading; Index.
Quadratic ??-corrections to heterotic double field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kanghoon
2015-10-01
We investigate ??-corrections of heterotic double field theory up to quadratic order in the language of supersymmetric O (D, D + dim ? G) gauged double field theory. After introducing double-vielbein formalism with a parametrization which reproduces heterotic supergravity, we show that supersymmetry for heterotic double field theory up to leading order ??-correction is obtained from supersymmetric gauged double field theory. We discuss the necessary modifications of the symmetries defined in supersymmetric gauged double field theory. Further, we construct supersymmetric completion at quadratic order in ??.
A Naturally Renormalized Quantum Field Theory
S. Rouhani; M. V. Takook
2006-07-07
It was shown that quantum metric fluctuations smear out the singularities of Green's functions on the light cone [1], but it does not remove other ultraviolet divergences of quantum field theory. We have proved that the quantum field theory in Krein space, {\\it i.e.} indefinite metric quantization, removes all divergences of quantum field theory with exception of the light cone singularity [2,3]. In this paper, it is discussed that the combination of quantum field theory in Krein space together with consideration of quantum metric fluctuations, results in quantum field theory without any divergences.
Mathematical quantization of Hamiltonian field theories
Stoyanovsky, A V
2015-01-01
We define the renormalized evolution operator of the Schr\\"odinger equation in the infinite dimensional Weyl-Moyal algebra during a time interval for a wide class of Hamiltonians depending on time. This leads to a mathematical definition of quantum field theory $S$-matrix and Green functions. We show that for renormalizable field theories, our theory yields the renormalized perturbation series of perturbative quantum field theory. All the results are based on the Feynman graph series technique.
Topics in Effective Field Theory for Lattice QCD
Andre Walker-Loud
2006-08-16
In this work, we extend and apply effective field theory techniques to systematically understand a subset of lattice artifacts which pollute the lattice correlation functions for a few processes of physical interest. Where possible, we compare to existing lattice QCD calculations. In particular, we extend the heavy baryon Lagrangian to the next order in partially quenched chiral perturbation theory and use it to compute the masses of the lightest spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 baryons to next-to-next-to leading order. We then construct the twisted mass chiral Lagrangian for baryons and apply it to compute the lattice spacing corrections to the baryon masses simulated with twisted mass lattice QCD. We extend computations of the nucleon electromagnetic structure to account for finite volume effects, as these observables are particularly sensitive to the finite extent of the lattice. We resolve subtle peculiarities for lattice QCD simulations of polarizabilities and we show that using background field techniques, one can make predictions for the 4 spin-dependent nucleon polarizabilities, quantities which are difficult to access experimentally. We then discuss the two-pion system in finite volume, determining the exponentially small volume corrections necessary for lattice determinations of the scattering parameters. We also determine the lattice spacing artifacts that arise for a mixed-action lattice simulation of the two-pion system with Ginsparg-Wilson valence quarks and staggered sea quarks. We show that the isospin 2 scattering length has a near continuum like behavior, differing from the chiral perturbation theory calculation by a computable difference.
Einstein's vierbein field theory of curved space
Jeffrey Yepez
2011-06-10
General Relativity theory is reviewed following the vierbein field theory approach proposed in 1928 by Einstein. It is based on the vierbein field taken as the "square root" of the metric tensor field. Einstein's vierbein theory is a gauge field theory for gravity; the vierbein field playing the role of a gauge field but not exactly like the vector potential field does in Yang-Mills theory--the correction to the derivative (the covariant derivative) is not proportional to the vierbein field as it would be if gravity were strictly a Yang-Mills theory. Einstein discovered the spin connection in terms of the vierbein fields to take the place of the conventional affine connection. To date, one of the most important applications of the vierbein representation is for the derivation of the correction to a 4-spinor quantum field transported in curved space, yielding the correct form of the covariant derivative. Thus, the vierbein field theory is the most natural way to represent a relativistic quantum field theory in curved space. Using the vierbein field theory, presented is a derivation of the the Einstein equation and then the Dirac equation in curved space. Einstein's original 1928 manuscripts translated into English are included.
Permutation Orbifolds in Conformal Field Theories and String Theory
M. Maio
2011-11-03
We summarize the results obtained in the last few years about permutation orbifolds in two-dimensional conformal field theories, their application to string theory and their use in the construction of four-dimensional heterotic string models.
A Geometric Hamilton-Jacobi Theory for Classical Field Theories
M. de Leon; J. C. Marrero; D. Martin de Diego
2008-01-08
In this paper we extend the geometric formalism of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory for hamiltonian mechanics to the case of classical field theories in the framework of multisymplectic geometry and Ehresmann connections.
Renormalization of the three flavor Lagrangian in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory
G. Müller; Ulf-G. Meißner
1997-01-16
The complete renormalization of the generating functional for Green functions of quark currents between one--baryon states in three flavor heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory is performed to order q^3. As an example, we study the kaon loop induced divergences in neutral pion photoproduction off protons.
Dislocation theory as a 3-dimensional translation gauge theory
Markus Lazar
2000-06-19
We consider the static elastoplastic theory of dislocations in an elastoplastic material. We use a Yang-Mills type Lagrangian (the teleparallel equivalent of Hilbert-Einstein Lagrangian) and some Lagrangians with anisotropic constitutive laws. The translational part of the generalized affine connection is utilized to describe the theory of elastoplasticity in the framework of a translation gauge theory. We obtain a system of Yang-Mills field equations which express the balance of force and moment.
Instantons in Lifshitz field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujimori, Toshiaki; Nitta, Muneto
2015-10-01
BPS instantons are discussed in Lifshitz-type anisotropic field theories. We consider generalizations of the sigma model/Yang-Mills instantons in renormalizable higher dimensional models with the classical Lifshitz scaling invariance. In each model, BPS instanton equation takes the form of the gradient flow equations for "the superpotential" defining "the detailed balance condition". The anisotropic Weyl rescaling and the coset space dimensional reduction are used to map rotationally symmetric instantons to vortices in two-dimensional anisotropic systems on the hyperbolic plane. As examples, we study anisotropic BPS baby Skyrmion 1+1 dimensions and BPS Skyrmion in 2+1 dimensions, for which we take Kähler 1-form and the Wess-Zumiono-Witten term as the superpotentials, respectively, and an anisotropic generalized Yang-Mills instanton in 4 + 1 dimensions, for which we take the Chern-Simons term as the superpotential.
Nuclear Dynamics with Effective Field Theories
Evgeny Epelbaum; Hermann Krebs
2013-09-05
These are the proceedings of the international workshop on "Nuclear Dynamics with Effective Field Theories" held at Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Germany from July 1 to 3, 2013. The workshop focused on effective field theories of low-energy QCD, chiral perturbation theory for nuclear forces as well as few- and many-body physics. Included are a short contribution per talk.
Descent Relations in Cubic Superstring Field Theory
I. Ya. Aref'eva; R. V. Gorbachev; P. B. Medvedev; D. V. Rychkov
2008-01-15
The descent relations between string field theory (SFT) vertices are characteristic relations of the operator formulation of SFT and they provide self-consistency of this theory. The descent relations and in the NS fermionic string field theory in the kappa and discrete bases are established. Different regularizations and schemes of calculations are considered and relations between them are discussed.
Large N Field Theories, String Theory and Gravity
O. Aharony; S. S. Gubser; J. Maldacena; H. Ooguri; Y. Oz
1999-10-01
We review the holographic correspondence between field theories and string/M theory, focusing on the relation between compactifications of string/M theory on Anti-de Sitter spaces and conformal field theories. We review the background for this correspondence and discuss its motivations and the evidence for its correctness. We describe the main results that have been derived from the correspondence in the regime that the field theory is approximated by classical or semiclassical gravity. We focus on the case of the N=4 supersymmetric gauge theory in four dimensions, but we discuss also field theories in other dimensions, conformal and non-conformal, with or without supersymmetry, and in particular the relation to QCD. We also discuss some implications for black hole physics.
Cestmir Burdik; Alexander Reshetnyak
2011-11-29
We derive non-linear commutator HS symmetry algebra, which encode unitary irreducible representations of AdS group subject to Young tableaux $Y(s_1,...,s_k)$ with $k\\geq 2$ rows on $d$-dimensional anti-de-Sitter space. Auxiliary representations for specially deformed non-linear HS symmetry algebra in terms of generalized Verma module in order to additively convert a subsystem of second-class constraints in the HS symmetry algebra into one with first-class constraints are found explicitly for the case of HS fields for $k=2$ Young tableaux. The oscillator realization over Heisenberg algebra for obtained Verma module is constructed. The results generalize the method of auxiliary representations construction for symplectic $sp(2k)$ algebra used for mixed-symmetry HS fields on a flat spaces and can be extended on a case of arbitrary HS fields in AdS-space. Gauge-invariant unconstrained reducible Lagrangian formulation for free bosonic HS fields with generalized spin $(s_1,s_2)$ is derived.
Phys. 591. Gauge Field Theory Typical Textbook: Stefan Pokorski GAUGE FIELD THEORIES
Akerib, Daniel S.
Phys. 591. Gauge Field Theory Typical Textbook: Stefan Pokorski GAUGE FIELD THEORIES l Gauge invariance 1. Abelian gauge invariance 2. Elements of group theory 3. Non-Abelian gauge invariance 3. 1. Yang-Mills theory. 3.2. Equations of motion 11 Singular theories 1 . Hamiltonian formalism for the systems
Einstein's vierbein field theory of curved space
Yepez, Jeffrey
2011-01-01
General Relativity theory is reviewed following the vierbein field theory approach proposed in 1928 by Einstein. It is based on the vierbein field taken as the "square root" of the metric tensor field. Einstein's vierbein theory is a gauge field theory for gravity; the vierbein field playing the role of a gauge field but not exactly like the vector potential field does in Yang-Mills theory--the correction to the derivative (the covariant derivative) is not proportional to the vierbein field as it would be if gravity were strictly a Yang-Mills theory. Einstein discovered the spin connection in terms of the vierbein fields to take the place of the conventional affine connection. To date, one of the most important applications of the vierbein representation is for the derivation of the correction to a 4-spinor quantum field transported in curved space, yielding the correct form of the covariant derivative. Thus, the vierbein field theory is the most natural way to represent a relativistic quantum field theory in...
Homotopy Classification of Bosonic String Field Theory
Korbinian Muenster; Ivo Sachs
2012-08-28
We prove the decomposition theorem for the loop homotopy algebra of quantum closed string field theory and use it to show that closed string field theory is unique up to gauge transformations on a given string background and given S-matrix. For the theory of open and closed strings we use results in open-closed homotopy algebra to show that the space of inequivalent open string field theories is isomorphic to the space of classical closed string backgrounds. As a further application of the open-closed homotopy algebra we show that string field theory is background independent and locally unique in a very precise sense. Finally we discuss topological string theory in the framework of homotopy algebras and find a generalized correspondence between closed strings and open string field theories.
Non-Abelian gauge field theory in scale relativity
Laurent Nottale; Marie-Noëlle Célérier; Thierry Lehner
2006-05-29
Gauge field theory is developed in the framework of scale relativity. In this theory, space-time is described as a non-differentiable continuum, which implies it is fractal, i.e., explicitly dependent on internal scale variables. Owing to the principle of relativity that has been extended to scales, these scale variables can themselves become functions of the space-time coordinates. Therefore, a coupling is expected between displacements in the fractal space-time and the transformations of these scale variables. In previous works, an Abelian gauge theory (electromagnetism) has been derived as a consequence of this coupling for global dilations and/or contractions. We consider here more general transformations of the scale variables by taking into account separate dilations for each of them, which yield non-Abelian gauge theories. We identify these transformations with the usual gauge transformations. The gauge fields naturally appear as a new geometric contribution to the total variation of the action involving these scale variables, while the gauge charges emerge as the generators of the scale transformation group. A generalized action is identified with the scale-relativistic invariant. The gauge charges are the conservative quantities, conjugates of the scale variables through the action, which find their origin in the symmetries of the ``scale-space''. We thus found in a geometric way and recover the expression for the covariant derivative of gauge theory. Adding the requirement that under the scale transformations the fermion multiplets and the boson fields transform such that the derived Lagrangian remains invariant, we obtain gauge theories as a consequence of scale symmetries issued from a geometric space-time description.
Effective field theory calculation of second post-Newtonian binary dynamics
Gilmore, James B.; Ross, Andreas
2008-12-15
We use the effective field theory for gravitational bound states, proposed by Goldberger and Rothstein, to compute the interaction Lagrangian of a binary system at the second post-Newtonian order. Throughout the calculation, we use a metric parametrization based on a temporal Kaluza-Klein decomposition and test the claim by Kol and Smolkin that this parametrization provides important calculational advantages. We demonstrate how to use the effective field theory method efficiently in precision calculations, and we reproduce known results for the second post-Newtonian order equations of motion in harmonic gauge in a straightforward manner.
Effective Field Theory for Low-Energy Two-Nucleon Systems
Tae-Sun Park; Kuniharu Kubodera; Dong-Pil Min; Mannque Rho
1998-06-23
We illustrate how effective field theories work in nuclear physics by using an effective Lagrangian in which all other degrees of freedom than the nucleonic one have been integrated out to calculate the low-energy properties of two-nucleon systems, viz, the deuteron properties, the np 1S0 scattering amplitude and the M1 transition amplitude entering into the radiative np capture process. Exploiting a finite cut-off regularization procedure, we find all the two-nucleon low-energy properties to be accurately described with little cut-off dependence, in consistency with the general philosophy of effective field theories.
Leading three-baryon forces from SU(3) chiral effective field theory
Stefan Petschauer; Norbert Kaiser; Johann Haidenbauer; Ulf-G. Meißner; Wolfram Weise
2015-11-06
Leading three-baryon forces are derived within SU(3) chiral effective field theory. Three classes of irreducible diagrams contribute: three-baryon contact terms, one-meson exchange and two-meson exchange diagrams. We provide the minimal non-relativistic terms of the chiral Lagrangian, that contribute to these diagrams. SU(3) relations are given for the strangeness S=0 and -1 sectors. In the strangeness-zero sector we recover the well-known three-nucleon forces from chiral effective field theory. Explicit expressions for the lambda-nucleon-nucleon chiral potential in isospin space are presented.
The quantum character of physical fields. Foundations of field theories
L. I. Petrova
2006-03-15
The existing field theories are based on the properties of closed exterior forms, which are invariant ones and correspond to conservation laws for physical fields. Hence, to understand the foundations of field theories and their unity, one has to know how such closed exterior forms are obtained. In the present paper it is shown that closed exterior forms corresponding to field theories are obtained from the equations modelling conservation (balance)laws for material media. It has been developed the evolutionary method that enables one to describe the process of obtaining closed exterior forms. The process of obtaining closed exterior forms discloses the mechanism of evolutionary processes in material media and shows that material media generate, discretely, the physical structures, from which the physical fields are formed. This justifies the quantum character of field theories. On the other hand, this process demonstrates the connection between field theories and the equations for material media and points to the fact that the foundations of field theories must be conditioned by the properties of material media. It is shown that the external and internal symmetries of field theories are conditioned by the degrees of freedom of material media. The classification parameter of physical fields and interactions, that is, the parameter of the unified field theory, is connected with the number of noncommutative balance conservation laws for material media.
Functional Integration for Quantum Field Theory
J. LaChapelle
2006-10-16
The functional integration scheme for path integrals advanced by Cartier and DeWitt-Morette is extended to the case of fields. The extended scheme is then applied to quantum field theory. Several aspects of the construction are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nucci, M. C.; Leach, P. G. L.
2007-12-01
Searching for a Lagrangian may seem either a trivial endeavor or an impossible task. In this paper, we show that the Jacobi last multiplier associated with the Lie symmetries admitted by simple models of classical mechanics produces (too?) many Lagrangians in a simple way. We exemplify the method by such a classic as the simple harmonic oscillator, the harmonic oscillator in disguise [H. Goldstein, Classical Mechanics, 2nd edition (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1980)], and the damped harmonic oscillator. This is the first paper in a series dedicated to this subject.
M. C. Nucci; P. G. L. Leach
2007-06-07
Searching for a Lagrangian may seem either a trivial endeavour or an impossible task. In this paper we show that the Jacobi last multiplier associated with the Lie symmetries admitted by simple models of classical mechanics produces (too?) many Lagrangians in a simple way. We exemplify the method by such a classic as the simple harmonic oscillator, the harmonic oscillator in disguise [H Goldstein, {\\it Classical Mechanics}, 2nd edition (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1980)] and the damped harmonic oscillator. This is the first paper in a series dedicated to this subject.
Semi-Lagrangian schemes with field aligned interpolation for ion turbulence simulations in a
Franchi, Jacques
magnetic field B = B0^z + ( ) Ã? ^z. We suppose that does not depend on z. Its norm is denoted by B and b use cylindrical coordinates (r, , z). As previously, the magnetic field is defined by B = B0^z + ( ) Ã? ^z = 0 -d dr B0 . The components are given in cylindrical coordinate and we assume
The spinor field theory of the photon
Ruo Peng Wang
2011-09-18
I introduce a spinor field theory for the photon. The three-dimensional vector electromagnetic field and the four-dimensional vector potential are components of this spinor photon field. A spinor equation for the photon field is derived from Maxwell's equations,the relations between the electromagnetic field and the four-dimensional vector potential, and the Lorentz gauge condition. The covariant quantization of free photon field is done, and only transverse photons are obtained. The vacuum energy divergence does not occur in this theory. A covariant "positive frequency" condition is introduced for separating the photon field from its complex conjugate in the presence of the electric current and charge.
Killing Vector Fields and Superharmonic Field Theories
Josua Groeger
2013-01-23
The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, referred to as superharmonic action, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of the superharmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.
Entropy Viscosity Method for Lagrangian Hydrodynamics and Central Schemes for Mean Field Games
Tomov, Vladimir
2014-04-18
is concerned with applications of second order central differencing schemes to the Mean Field Games equations. The Entropy Viscosity method discretizes all kinematic and thermodynamic variables by high-order finite elements and solves the resulting discrete...
Compact shell solitons in K field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adam, C.; Klimas, P.; Sánchez-Guillén, J.; Wereszczy?ski, A.
2009-10-01
Some models providing shell-shaped static solutions with compact support (compactons) in 3+1 and 4+1 dimensions are introduced, and the corresponding exact solutions are calculated analytically. These solutions turn out to be topological solitons and may be classified as maps S3?S3 and suspended Hopf maps, respectively. The Lagrangian of these models is given by a scalar field with a nonstandard kinetic term (K field) coupled to a pure Skyrme term restricted to S2, rised to the appropriate power to avoid the Derrick scaling argument. Further, the existence of infinitely many exact shell solitons is explained using the generalized integrability approach. Finally, similar models allowing for nontopological compactons of the ball type in 3+1 dimensions are briefly discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moayedi, S. K.; Setare, M. R.; Khosropour, B.
2013-11-01
In the 1990s, Kempf and his collaborators Mangano and Mann introduced a D-dimensional (?, ??)-two-parameter deformed Heisenberg algebra which leads to an isotropic minimal length (\\triangle Xi)\\min = \\hbar ? {D? +? '}, \\forall i\\in \\{1, 2, ..., D\\}. In this work, the Lagrangian formulation of a magnetostatic field in three spatial dimensions (D = 3) described by Kempf algebra is presented in the special case of ?? = 2? up to the first-order over ?. We show that at the classical level there is a similarity between magnetostatics in the presence of a minimal length scale (modified magnetostatics) and the magnetostatic sector of the Abelian Lee-Wick model in three spatial dimensions. The integral form of Ampere's law and the energy density of a magnetostatic field in the modified magnetostatics are obtained. Also, the Biot-Savart law in the modified magnetostatics is found. By studying the effect of minimal length corrections to the gyromagnetic moment of the muon, we conclude that the upper bound on the isotropic minimal length scale in three spatial dimensions is 4.42×10-19 m. The relationship between magnetostatics with a minimal length and the Gaete-Spallucci nonlocal magnetostatics [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45, 065401 (2012)] is investigated.
Classical and quantal Liouville field theory
D'Hoker, E.; Jackiw, R.
1982-12-15
The canonical structure of the Liouville theory is investigated. We present two canonical transformations which map the theory onto a free field theory. The first makes use of conformal invariance and relies on a Yang-Feldman solution to the field equation. The second employs the inverse scattering method, which is uncommonly intricate, owing to the conformal invariance. We also analyze the quantized theory. Semiclassical arguments, supplemented by a study of the exact effective potential, suggest that the theory has a conformally invariant, continuous energy spectrum, bounded from below, but no translationally invariant ground state.
Boson formulation of fermion field theories
Ha, Y.K.
1984-04-15
The nonperturbative connection between a canonical Fermi field and a canonical Bose field in two dimensions is developed and its validity verified according to the tenets of quantum field theory. We advocate the point of view that a boson formulation offers a unifying theme in understanding the structure of many theories. This is illustrated by the boson formulation of a multifermion theory with chiral and internal symmetries. Many features of the massless theory, such as dynamical mass generation with asymptotic-freedom behavior, hidden chiral symmetry, and connections with models of apparently different internal symmetries, are readily transparent through such fermion-boson metamorphosis.
Numerical Object Oriented Quantum Field Theory Calculations
M. Williams
2009-05-07
The qft++ package is a library of C++ classes that facilitate numerical (not algebraic) quantum field theory calculations. Mathematical objects such as matrices, tensors, Dirac spinors, polarization and orbital angular momentum tensors, etc. are represented as C++ objects in qft++. The package permits construction of code which closely resembles quantum field theory expressions, allowing for quick and reliable calculations.
Axiomatic quantum field theory in curved spacetime
S. Hollands; R. M. Wald
2008-03-13
The usual formulations of quantum field theory in Minkowski spacetime make crucial use of features--such as Poincare invariance and the existence of a preferred vacuum state--that are very special to Minkowski spacetime. In order to generalize the formulation of quantum field theory to arbitrary globally hyperbolic curved spacetimes, it is essential that the theory be formulated in an entirely local and covariant manner, without assuming the presence of a preferred state. We propose a new framework for quantum field theory, in which the existence of an Operator Product Expansion (OPE) is elevated to a fundamental status, and, in essence, all of the properties of the quantum field theory are determined by its OPE. We provide general axioms for the OPE coefficients of a quantum field theory. These include a local and covariance assumption (implying that the quantum field theory is locally and covariantly constructed from the spacetime metric), a microlocal spectrum condition, an "associativity" condition, and the requirement that the coefficient of the identity in the OPE of the product of a field with its adjoint have positive scaling degree. We prove curved spacetime versions of the spin-statistics theorem and the PCT theorem. Some potentially significant further implications of our new viewpoint on quantum field theory are discussed.
Classical field theory. Advanced mathematical formulation
G. Sardanashvily
2009-03-04
In contrast with QFT, classical field theory can be formulated in strict mathematical terms of fibre bundles, graded manifolds and jet manifolds. Second Noether theorems provide BRST extension of this classical field theory by means of ghosts and antifields for the purpose of its quantization.
Quantum Field Theory in de Sitter spacetime
Ashaq Hussain Sofi; Muhammad Ashraf Shah; Marlina Rosalinda Sibuea; Shabir Ahmad Akhoon; Bilal Nisar Khanday; Sajad Ul Majeed; Asloob Ahmad Rather; Ishaq Nahvi
2013-12-11
In this paper we will analyse quantum field theory on de Sitter spacetime. We will analyse a general scalar and vector field theory on de Sitter spacetime. This is done by first calculating these propagators on four-Sphere and then analytically continuing it to de Sitter spacetime.
Some convolution products in Quantum Field Theory
Herintsitohaina Ratsimbarison
2006-12-05
This paper aims to show constructions of scale dependence and interaction on some probabilistic models which may be revelant for renormalization theory in Quantum Field Theory. We begin with a review of the convolution product's use in the Kreimer-Connes formalism of perturbative renormalization. We show that the Wilson effective action can be obtained from a convolution product propriety of regularized Gaussian measures on the space of fields. Then, we propose a natural C*-algebraic framework for scale dependent field theories which may enhance the conceptual approach to renormalization theory. In the same spirit, we introduce a probabilistic construction of interacting theories for simple models and apply it for quantum field theory by defining a partition function in this setting.
Statistical Predictions From Anarchic Field Theory Landscapes
Vijay Balasubramanian; Jan de Boer; Asad Naqvi
2008-05-27
Consistent coupling of effective field theories with a quantum theory of gravity appears to require bounds on the the rank of the gauge group and the amount of matter. We consider landscapes of field theories subject to such to boundedness constraints. We argue that appropriately "coarse-grained" aspects of the randomly chosen field theory in such landscapes, such as the fraction of gauge groups with ranks in a given range, can be statistically predictable. To illustrate our point we show how the uniform measures on simple classes of N=1 quiver gauge theories localize in the vicinity of theories with certain typical structures. Generically, this approach would predict a high energy theory with very many gauge factors, with the high rank factors largely decoupled from the low rank factors if we require asymptotic freedom for the latter.
Field Theory of Gravitation: Desire and Reality
Yurij V. Baryshev
1999-12-01
A retrospective analysis of the field theory of gravitation, describing gravitational field in the same way as other fields of matter in the flat space-time, is done. The field approach could be called "quantum gravidynamics" to distinguish it from the "geometrodynamics" or general relativity. The basic propositions and main conclusions of the field approach are discussed with reference to classical works of Birkhoff, Moshinsky, Thirring, Kalman, Feynman, Weinberg, Deser. In the case of weak fields both "gravidynamics" and "geometrodynamics" give the same predictions for classical relativistic effects. However, in the case of strong field, and taking into account quantum nature of the gravitational interaction, they are profoundly different. Contents of the paper: 1) Introduction; 2) Two ways in gravity theory: 2.1.Hypotheses of Poincar\\'e and Einstein, 2.2. Gravity as a geometry of space, 2.3. Gravitation as a material field in flat space-time; 3) Classical theory of tensor field: 3.1.Works of Birkhoff and Moshinsky, 3.2.Works of Thirring and Kalman, 3.3.Thirring and Deser about identity of GR and FTG; 4) Quantum theory of tensor field; 5) Modern problems in field theory of gravitation: 5.1.Multicomponent nature of tensor field, 5.2.Choice of energy-momentum tensor of gravitational field, 5.3.Absence of black holes in FTG, 5.4.Astrophysical tests of FTG; 6) Conclusions.
Descent relations in cubic superstring field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aref'eva, I. Y.; Gorbachev, R.; Medvedev, P. B.; Rychkov, D. V.
2008-01-01
The descent relations between string field theory (SFT) vertices are characteristic relations of the operator formulation of SFT and they provide self-consistency of this theory. The descent relations langleV2|V1rangle and langleV3|V1rangle in the NS fermionic string field theory in the ? and discrete bases are established. Different regularizations and schemes of calculations are considered and relations between them are discussed.
Scattering theory for dipole quantum fields
H. Gottschalk
2007-03-10
In the present work a general frame for the scattering theory of local, relativistic dipole quantum fields is presented and some models of interacting dipole fields are considered, i.e. local, relativistic quantum fields with indefinite metric which asymptotically do not converge to free fields, but to free dipole fields. Also, we give explicit formulae for the (nontrivial) scattering matrix of dipole in- and out- fields for these models. Furthermore we show how related dipole degrees of freedom occur in the perturbation theory of certain two dimensional models, e.g. massive sine-Gordon or sinh-Gordon models.
Unified field theories and Einstein
S C Tiwari
2006-02-16
Einstein's contribution to relativity is reviewed. It is pointed out that Weyl gave first unified theory of gravitation and electromagnetism and it was different than the five dimensional theory of Kaluza. Einstein began his work on unification in 1925 that continued whole through the rest of his life.
Resonant Tunneling in Scalar Quantum Field Theory
S. -H. Henry Tye; Daniel Wohns
2009-10-06
The resonant tunneling phenomenon is well understood in quantum mechanics. We argue why a similar phenomenon must be present in quantum field theory. We then use the functional Schr\\"odinger method to show how resonant tunneling through multiple barriers takes place in quantum field theory with a single scalar field. We also show how this phenomenon in scalar quantum field theory can lead to an exponential enhancement of the single-barrier tunneling rate. Our analysis is carried out in the thin-wall approximation.
Atomic Probes of Noncommutative Field Theory
Charles D. Lane
2002-01-07
We consider the role of Lorentz symmetry in noncommutative field theory. We find that a Lorentz-violating standard-model extension involving ordinary fields is general enough to include any realisitc noncommutative field theory as a subset. This leads to various theoretical consequences, as well as bounds from existing experiments at the level of (10 TeV)$^{-2}$ on the scale of the noncommutativity parameter.
Path integral quantization of parametrized field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varadarajan, Madhavan
2004-10-01
Free scalar field theory on a flat spacetime can be cast into a generally covariant form known as parametrized field theory in which the action is a functional of the scalar field as well as the embedding variables which describe arbitrary, in general curved, foliations of the flat spacetime. We construct the path integral quantization of parametrized field theory in order to analyze issues at the interface of quantum field theory and general covariance in a path integral context. We show that the measure in the Lorentzian path integral is nontrivial and is the analog of the Fradkin-Vilkovisky measure for quantum gravity. We construct Euclidean functional integrals in the generally covariant setting of parametrized field theory using key ideas of Schleich and show that our constructions imply the existence of nonstandard “Wick rotations” of the standard free scalar field two-point function. We develop a framework to study the problem of time through computations of scalar field two-point functions. We illustrate our ideas through explicit computation for a time independent (1+1)-dimensional foliation. Although the problem of time seems to be absent in this simple example, the general case is still open. We discuss our results in the contexts of the path integral formulation of quantum gravity and the canonical quantization of parametrized field theory.
Albaugh, Alex; Demerdash, Omar; Head-Gordon, Teresa
2015-11-01
We have adapted a hybrid extended Lagrangian self-consistent field (EL/SCF) approach, developed for time reversible Born Oppenheimer molecular dynamics for quantum electronic degrees of freedom, to the problem of classical polarization. In this context, the initial guess for the mutual induction calculation is treated by auxiliary induced dipole variables evolved via a time-reversible velocity Verlet scheme. However, we find numerical instability, which is manifested as an accumulation in the auxiliary velocity variables, that in turn results in an unacceptable increase in the number of SCF cycles to meet even loose convergence tolerances for the real induced dipoles over the course of a 1 ns trajectory of the AMOEBA14 water model. By diagnosing the numerical instability as a problem of resonances that corrupt the dynamics, we introduce a simple thermostating scheme, illustrated using Berendsen weak coupling and Nose-Hoover chain thermostats, applied to the auxiliary dipole velocities. We find that the inertial EL/SCF (iEL/SCF) method provides superior energy conservation with less stringent convergence thresholds and a correspondingly small number of SCF cycles, to reproduce all properties of the polarization model in the NVT and NVE ensembles accurately. Our iEL/SCF approach is a clear improvement over standard SCF approaches to classical mutual induction calculations and would be worth investigating for application to ab initio molecular dynamics as well. PMID:26547155
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albaugh, Alex; Demerdash, Omar; Head-Gordon, Teresa
2015-11-01
We have adapted a hybrid extended Lagrangian self-consistent field (EL/SCF) approach, developed for time reversible Born Oppenheimer molecular dynamics for quantum electronic degrees of freedom, to the problem of classical polarization. In this context, the initial guess for the mutual induction calculation is treated by auxiliary induced dipole variables evolved via a time-reversible velocity Verlet scheme. However, we find numerical instability, which is manifested as an accumulation in the auxiliary velocity variables, that in turn results in an unacceptable increase in the number of SCF cycles to meet even loose convergence tolerances for the real induced dipoles over the course of a 1 ns trajectory of the AMOEBA14 water model. By diagnosing the numerical instability as a problem of resonances that corrupt the dynamics, we introduce a simple thermostating scheme, illustrated using Berendsen weak coupling and Nose-Hoover chain thermostats, applied to the auxiliary dipole velocities. We find that the inertial EL/SCF (iEL/SCF) method provides superior energy conservation with less stringent convergence thresholds and a correspondingly small number of SCF cycles, to reproduce all properties of the polarization model in the NVT and NVE ensembles accurately. Our iEL/SCF approach is a clear improvement over standard SCF approaches to classical mutual induction calculations and would be worth investigating for application to ab initio molecular dynamics as well.
BPS solitons in Lifshitz field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobakhidze, Archil; Thompson, Jayne E.; Volkas, Raymond R.
2011-01-01
Lorentz-invariant scalar-field theories in d+1 dimensions with second-order derivative terms are unable to support static soliton solutions that are both finite in energy and stable for d>2, a result known as Derrick’s theorem. Lifshitz theories, which introduce higher-order spatial derivatives, need not obey Derrick’s theorem. We construct stable, finite-energy, static soliton solutions in Lifshitz scalar-field theories in 3+1 dimensions with a dynamical critical exponent z=2. We exhibit three generic types: nontopological point defects, topological point defects, and topological strings. We focus mainly on Lifshitz theories that are defined through a superpotential and admit Bogomolnyi-Prasad-Sommerfield solutions. These kinds of theories are the bosonic sectors of supersymmetric theories derived from the stochastic dynamics of a scalar field theory in one higher dimension. If nature obeys a Lifshitz field theory in the ultraviolet, then the novel topological defects discussed here may exist as relics from the early universe. Their discovery would prove that standard field theory breaks down at short distance scales.
BPS solitons in Lifshitz field theories
Kobakhidze, Archil; Thompson, Jayne E.; Volkas, Raymond R.
2011-01-15
Lorentz-invariant scalar-field theories in d+1 dimensions with second-order derivative terms are unable to support static soliton solutions that are both finite in energy and stable for d>2, a result known as Derrick's theorem. Lifshitz theories, which introduce higher-order spatial derivatives, need not obey Derrick's theorem. We construct stable, finite-energy, static soliton solutions in Lifshitz scalar-field theories in 3+1 dimensions with a dynamical critical exponent z=2. We exhibit three generic types: nontopological point defects, topological point defects, and topological strings. We focus mainly on Lifshitz theories that are defined through a superpotential and admit Bogomolnyi-Prasad-Sommerfield solutions. These kinds of theories are the bosonic sectors of supersymmetric theories derived from the stochastic dynamics of a scalar field theory in one higher dimension. If nature obeys a Lifshitz field theory in the ultraviolet, then the novel topological defects discussed here may exist as relics from the early universe. Their discovery would prove that standard field theory breaks down at short distance scales.
The theory of the Galactic magnetic field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zweibel, Ellen G.
1987-01-01
The paper discusses the role of the magnetic field in determining the large scale structure and dynamics of the interstellar medium. It then discusses the origin and maintenance of the Galactic field. The two major competing theories are that the field is primordial and connected to an intergalactic field or that the field is removed from and regenerated within the Galaxy. Finally, cosmic ray acceleration and confinement in the interstellar medium are discussed.
Supergeometry in locally covariant quantum field theory
Hack, Thomas-Paul; Schenkel, Alexander
2015-01-01
In this paper we analyze supergeometric locally covariant quantum field theories. We develop suitable categories SLoc of super-Cartan supermanifolds, which generalize Lorentz manifolds in ordinary quantum field theory, and show that, starting from a few representation theoretic and geometric data, one can construct a functor A : SLoc --> S*Alg to the category of super-*-algebras which can be interpreted as a non-interacting super-quantum field theory. This construction turns out to disregard supersymmetry transformations as the morphism sets in the above categories are too small. We then solve this problem by using techniques from enriched category theory, which allows us to replace the morphism sets by suitable morphism supersets that contain supersymmetry transformations as their higher superpoints. We construct super-quantum field theories in terms of enriched functors eA : eSLoc --> eS*Alg between the enriched categories and show that supersymmetry transformations are appropriately described within the en...
Valuation theory of exponential Hardy fields
Kuhlmann, Franz-Viktor
2012-01-01
We describe the residue fields of arbitrary convex valuations on certain o-minimal expansions of the ordered field of real numbers. References: [1] Franz-Viktor and Salma Kuhlmann: Residue fields of arbitrary convex valuations on restricted analytic fields with exponentiation I, The Fields Institute Preprint Series (1997). [2] Franz-Viktor and Salma Kuhlmann: Valuation theory of exponential Hardy fields I, Mathematische Zeitschrift 243, 671--688 (2003) [3] Ordered Exponential Fields, by Salma Kuhlmann, The Fields Institute Monograph Series Vol. 12, (2000).
Quantum Field Theory for Mathematicians Hamiltonian Mechanics and Symplectic Geometry
Woit, Peter
Quantum Field Theory for Mathematicians · Hamiltonian Mechanics and Symplectic Geometry Integral Quantization Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics Introduction to Scattering Theory · Classical Field Theory · Relativistic Fields, Poincar´e Group and Wigner Classification · Free Quantum Fields
Vacuum Effects and Compressional Properties of Nuclear Matter in Cutoff Field Theory
Hiroaki Kouno; Katsuaki Sakamoto; Yoshitaka Iwasaki; Nobuo Noda; Tomohiro Mitsumori; Kazuharu Koide; Akira Hasegawa; Masahiro Nakano
1997-03-26
Including the vacuum effects, the compressional properties of nuclear matter are studied in the cutoff field theory. Under the Hartree approximation, the low-energy effective Lagrangian is derived in the framework of the renormalization group methods. The coefficients are determined in a way where the physical results hardly depend on the value of the cutoff which is conveniently introduced into the theory. It is shown that, to reproduce the empirical data of the nucleus incompressibility, the compressibility of the nuclear matter is favorable to be 250$\\sim$350MeV.
Introduction to conformal field theory and string theory
Dixon, L.J.
1989-12-01
These lectures are meant to provide a brief introduction to conformal field theory (CFT) and string theory for those with no prior exposure to the subjects. There are many excellent reviews already available, and most of these go in to much more detail than I will be able to here. 52 refs., 11 figs.
Computational Methods in Quantum Field Theory
Kurt Langfeld
2007-11-19
After a brief introduction to the statistical description of data, these lecture notes focus on quantum field theories as they emerge from lattice models in the critical limit. For the simulation of these lattice models, Markov chain Monte-Carlo methods are widely used. We discuss the heat bath and, more modern, cluster algorithms. The Ising model is used as a concrete illustration of important concepts such as correspondence between a theory of branes and quantum field theory or the duality map between strong and weak couplings. The notes then discuss the inclusion of gauge symmetries in lattice models and, in particular, the continuum limit in which quantum Yang-Mills theories arise.
221B Lecture Notes Quantum Field Theory IV (Radiation Field)
Murayama, Hitoshi
this commutation relation, we introduce the photon creation and annihilation operators [ai (p), aj (q)] = ij p Early development of quantum mechanics was led by the fact that electro- magnetic radiation221B Lecture Notes Quantum Field Theory IV (Radiation Field) 1 Quantization of Radiation Field
221B Lecture Notes Quantum Field Theory III (Radiation Field)
Murayama, Hitoshi
this commutation relation, we introduce the photon creation and annihilation operators [ai (p), aj (q)] = ij p Early development of quantum mechanics was led by the fact that electro- magnetic radiation221B Lecture Notes Quantum Field Theory III (Radiation Field) 1 Quantization of Radiation Field
Noncommutative field theory from twisted Fock space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bu, Jong-Geon; Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Youngone; Vac, Chang Hyon; Yee, Jae Hyung
2006-06-01
We construct a quantum field theory in noncommutative space time by twisting the algebra of quantum operators (especially, creation and annihilation operators) of the corresponding quantum field theory in commutative space time. The twisted Fock space and S-matrix consistent with this algebra have been constructed. The resultant S-matrix is consistent with that of Filk [Tomas Filk, Phys. Lett. BPYLBAJ0370-2693 376, 53 (1996).10.1016/0370-2693(96)00024-X]. We find from this formulation that the spin-statistics relation is not violated in the canonical noncommutative field theories.
Chiral field theories from conifolds
Landsteiner, K; Tatar, R; Tatar, Radu
2003-01-01
We discuss the geometric engineering and large n transition for an N=1 U(n) chiral gauge theory with one adjoint, one conjugate symmetric, one antisymmetric and eight fundamental chiral multiplets. Our IIB realization involves an orientifold of a non-compact Calabi-Yau A_2 fibration, together with D5-branes wrapping the exceptional curves of its resolution as well as the orientifold fixed locus. We give a detailed discussion of this background and of its relation to the Hanany-Witten realization of the same theory. In particular, we argue that the T-duality relating the two constructions maps the Z_2 orientifold of the Hanany-Witten realization into a Z_4 orientifold in type IIB. We also discuss the related engineering of theories with SO/Sp gauge groups and symmetric or antisymmetric matter.
Generating functionals and Lagrangian partial differential equations
Vankerschaver, Joris; Liao, Cuicui; Leok, Melvin
2013-08-15
The main goal of this paper is to derive an alternative characterization of the multisymplectic form formula for classical field theories using the geometry of the space of boundary values. We review the concept of Type-I/II generating functionals defined on the space of boundary data of a Lagrangian field theory. On the Lagrangian side, we define an analogue of Jacobi's solution to the Hamilton–Jacobi equation for field theories, and we show that by taking variational derivatives of this functional, we obtain an isotropic submanifold of the space of Cauchy data, described by the so-called multisymplectic form formula. As an example of the latter, we show that Lorentz's reciprocity principle in electromagnetism is a particular instance of the multisymplectic form formula. We also define a Hamiltonian analogue of Jacobi's solution, and we show that this functional is a Type-II generating functional. We finish the paper by defining a similar framework of generating functions for discrete field theories, and we show that for the linear wave equation, we recover the multisymplectic conservation law of Bridges.
MEDSLIK-II, a Lagrangian marine oil spill model for short-term forecasting - Part 1: Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Dominicis, M.; Pinardi, N.; Zodiatis, G.
2013-03-01
The processes of transport, diffusion and transformation of surface oil in seawater can be simulated using a Lagrangian model formalism coupled with Eulerian circulation models. This paper describes the formalism and the conceptual assumptions of a Lagrangian marine oil slick numerical model and re-writes the constitutive equations in a modern mathematical framework. The Lagrangian numerical representation of the oil slick requires three different state variables: the slick, the particle and the structural state variables. Transformation processes (evaporation, spreading, dispersion and coastal adhesion) act on the slick state variables, while particles variables are used to model the transport and diffusion processes. The slick and particle variables are recombined together to compute the oil concentration in water, a structural state variable. The mathematical and numerical formulation of oil transport, diffusion and transformation processes described in this paper, together with the many simplifying hypothesis and parameterizations, form the basis of a new, open source Lagrangian surface oil spill model, so-called MEDSLIK-II. Part 2 of this paper describes the applications of MEDSLIK-II to oil spill simulations that allow the validation of the model results and the study of the sensitivity of the simulated oil slick to different model numerical parameterizations.
MEDSLIK-II, a Lagrangian marine surface oil spill model for short-term forecasting - Part 1: Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Dominicis, M.; Pinardi, N.; Zodiatis, G.; Lardner, R.
2013-11-01
The processes of transport, diffusion and transformation of surface oil in seawater can be simulated using a Lagrangian model formalism coupled with Eulerian circulation models. This paper describes the formalism and the conceptual assumptions of a Lagrangian marine surface oil slick numerical model and rewrites the constitutive equations in a modern mathematical framework. The Lagrangian numerical representation of the oil slick requires three different state variables: the slick, the particle and the structural state variables. Transformation processes (evaporation, spreading, dispersion and coastal adhesion) act on the slick state variables, while particle variables are used to model the transport and diffusion processes. The slick and particle variables are recombined together to compute the oil concentration in water, a structural state variable. The mathematical and numerical formulation of oil transport, diffusion and transformation processes described in this paper, together with the many simplifying hypothesis and parameterizations, form the basis of a new, open source Lagrangian surface oil spill model, the so-called MEDSLIK-II, based on its precursor MEDSLIK (Lardner et al., 1998, 2006; Zodiatis et al., 2008a). Part 2 of this paper describes the applications of the model to oil spill simulations that allow the validation of the model results and the study of the sensitivity of the simulated oil slick to different model numerical parameterizations.
Zero Dimensional Field Theory of Tachyon Matter
D. D. Dimitrijevic; G. S. Djordjevic
2006-11-28
The first issue about the object (now) called tachyons was published almost one century ago. Even though there is no experimental evidence of tachyons there are several reasons why tachyons are still of interest today, in fact interest in tachyons is increasing. Many string theories have tachyons occurring as some of the particles in the theory. In this paper we consider the zero dimensional version of the field theory of tachyon matter proposed by A. Sen. Using perturbation theory and ideas of S. Kar, we demonstrate how this tachyon field theory can be connected with a classical mechanical system, such as a massive particle moving in a constant field with quadratic friction. The corresponding Feynman path integral form is proposed using a perturbative method. A few promising lines for further applications and investigations are noted.
Austerity and Geometric Structure of Field Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kheyfets, Arkady
The relation between the austerity idea and the geometric structure of the three basic field theories- -electrodynamics, Yang-Mills theory, and general relativity --is studied. The idea of austerity was originally suggested by J. A. Wheeler in an attempt to formulate the laws of physics in such a way that they would come into being only within "the gates of time" extending from big bang to big crunch, rather than exist from everlasting to everlasting. One of the most significant manifestations of the austerity idea in field theories is thought to be expressed by the boundary of a boundary principle (BBP). The BBP says that almost all content of the field theories can be deduced from the topological identity (PAR-DIFF)(CCIRC)(PAR -DIFF) = 0 used twice, at the 1-2-3-dimensional level (providing the homgeneous field equations), and at the 2-3-4-dimensional level (providing the conservation laws for the source currents). There are some difficulties in this line of thought due to the apparent lack of universality in application of the BBP to the three basic modern field theories--electrodynamics, Yang-Mills theory, and general relativity. This dissertation: (a) analyses the difficulties by means of algebraic topology, integration theory and modern differential geometry based on the concepts of principal bundles and Ehresmann connections; (b) extends the BBP to the unified Kaluza-Klein theory; (c) reformulates the inhomogeneous field equations and the BBP in terms of E. Cartan moment of rotation, in the way universal for all the three theories and compatible with the original austerity idea; (d) underlines the important role of the soldering structure on spacetime, and indicates that the future development of the austerity idea would involve the generalized theories, including the soldering form as a dynamical variable rather than as a background structure.
QCD Effective Field Theories for Heavy Quarkonium
Brambilla, Nora
2006-02-11
QCD nonrelativistic effective field theories (NREFT) are the modern and most suitable frame to describe heavy quarkonium properties. Here I summarize few relevant concepts and some of the interesting physical applications (spectrum, decays, production) of NREFT.
Effective field theories for inclusive B decays
Lee, Keith S. M. (Keith Seng Mun)
2006-01-01
In this thesis, we study inclusive decays of the B meson. These allow one to determine CKM elements precisely and to search for physics beyond the Standard Model. We use the framework of effective field theories, in ...
Spinless Quantum Field Theory and Interpretation
Dong-Sheng Wang
2013-03-07
Quantum field theory is mostly known as the most advanced and well-developed theory in physics, which combines quantum mechanics and special relativity consistently. In this work, we study the spinless quantum field theory, namely the Klein-Gordon equation, and we find that there exists a Dirac form of this equation which predicts the existence of spinless fermion. For its understanding, we start from the interpretation of quantum field based on the concept of quantum scope, we also extract new meanings of wave-particle duality and quantum statistics. The existence of spinless fermion is consistent with spin-statistics theorem and also supersymmetry, and it leads to several new kinds of interactions among elementary particles. Our work contributes to the study of spinless quantum field theory and could have implications for the case of higher spin.
Numerical calculations in quantum field theories
Rebbi, C.
1984-01-01
Four lecture notes are included: (1) motivation for numerical calculations in Quantum Field Theory; (2) numerical simulation methods; (3) Monte Carlo studies of Quantum Chromo Dynamics; and (4) systems with fermions. 23 references. (WHK)
SLE martingales in coset conformal field theory
Anton Nazarov
2012-08-08
Scharmm-Loewner evolution (SLE) and conformal field theory (CFT) are popular and widely used instruments to study critical behavior of two-dimensional models, but they use different objects. While SLE has natural connection with lattice models and is suitable for strict proofs, it lacks computational and predictive power of conformal field theory. To provide a way for the concurrent use of SLE and CFT we consider CFT correlation functions which are martingales with respect to SLE. We establish connection between parameters of Schramm-Loewner evolution on coset space and algebraic data of coset conformal field theory. Then we check the consistency of our approach with the behaviour of parafermionic and minimal models. Coset models are connected with off-critical massive field theories and we discuss implications for SLE.
SLE martingales in coset conformal field theory
Nazarov, Anton
2012-01-01
Scharmm-Loewner evolution (SLE) and conformal field theory (CFT) are popular and widely used instruments to study critical behavior of two-dimensional models, but they use different objects. While SLE has natural connection with lattice models and is suitable for strict proofs, it lacks computational and predictive power of conformal field theory. To provide a way for the concurrent use of SLE and CFT we consider CFT correlation functions which are martingales with respect to SLE. We establish connection between parameters of Schramm-Loewner evolution on coset space and algebraic data of coset conformal field theory. Then we check the consistency of our approach with the behaviour of parafermionic and minimal models. Coset models are connected with off-critical massive field theories and we discuss implications for SLE.
Quantum field theories on the Lefschetz thimble
M. Cristoforetti; F. Di Renzo; A. Mukherjee; L. Scorzato
2013-12-04
In these proceedings, we summarize the Lefschetz thimble approach to the sign problem of Quantum Field Theories. In particular, we review its motivations, and we summarize the results of the application of two different algorithms to two test models.
Heavy quarks in effective field theories
Jain, Ambar
2009-01-01
Heavy quark physics serves as a probe to understand QCD, measure standard model parameters, and look for signs of new physics. We study several aspects of heavy quark systems in an effective field theory framework, including ...
Pure field theories and MACSYMA algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ament, W. S.
1977-01-01
A pure field theory attempts to describe physical phenomena through singularity-free solutions of field equations resulting from an action principle. The physics goes into forming the action principle and interpreting specific results. Algorithms for the intervening mathematical steps are sketched. Vacuum general relativity is a pure field theory, serving as model and providing checks for generalizations. The fields of general relativity are the 10 components of a symmetric Riemannian metric tensor; those of the Einstein-Straus generalization are the 16 components of a nonsymmetric. Algebraic properties are exploited in top level MACSYMA commands toward performing some of the algorithms of that generalization. The light cone for the theory as left by Einstein and Straus is found and simplifications of that theory are discussed.
Generating Functional in String Field Theory
Am-Gil Ri; Tae-Song Kim; Song-Jin Im
2013-11-23
In our paper, we introduce a path integral of general functional field in order to build the path integral formalism in string field theory from the fact that a string field is a functional field, and describe a method for calculating it in the case of "Gauss-type". We also obtain the generating functional of an open bosonic string and the corresponding Feynman diagram.
Solitonic integrable perturbations of conformal field theories
Miramontes, J. Luis
1998-01-10
The construction of new series of integrable quantum field theories whose equations-of-motion are related to the non-abelian affine Toda equations is summarized. All these theories can be thought of as generalizations of the sine-Gordon theory. They admit (charged) soliton solutions, exhibit a mass-gap, and are described by a unitary (real positive-definite) action. Their quantum integrability and semi-classical spectrum of solitons are also discussed.
Pion masses in quasiconformal gauge field theories
Dietrich, Dennis D.; Jaervinen, Matti
2009-03-01
We study modifications to Weinberg-like sum rules in quasiconformal gauge field theories. Beyond the two Weinberg sum rules and the oblique S parameter, we study the pion mass and the X parameter. Especially, we evaluate the pion mass for walking technicolor theories, in particular, minimal walking technicolor, and find contributions of the order of up to several hundred GeV.
An extremal {N}=2 superconformal field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benjamin, Nathan; Dyer, Ethan; Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kachru, Shamit
2015-12-01
We provide an example of an extremal chiral {N} = 2 superconformal field theory at c = 24. The construction is based on a {{{Z}}}2 orbifold of the theory associated to the {A}124 Niemeier lattice. The statespace is governed by representations of the sporadic group M 23.
RATIONAL SYMPLECTIC FIELD THEORY FOR LEGENDRIAN KNOTS
Ng, Lenny
, Symplectic Field Theory (SFT), which was introduced by Eliashberg, Givental, and Hofer about a decade ago [EGH00]. The relevant portion of the SFT package for our purposes is a filtered theory for contact puncture, SFT counts holomorphic curves with arbitrarily many positive punctures. In the "closed" case (in
General Covariance in Algebraic Quantum Field Theory
Romeo Brunetti; Martin Porrmann; Giuseppe Ruzzi
2005-12-17
In this review we report on how the problem of general covariance is treated within the algebraic approach to quantum field theory by use of concepts from category theory. Some new results on net cohomology and superselection structure attained in this framework are included.
Geometric continuum regularization of quantum field theory
Halpern, M.B. . Dept. of Physics)
1989-11-08
An overview of the continuum regularization program is given. The program is traced from its roots in stochastic quantization, with emphasis on the examples of regularized gauge theory, the regularized general nonlinear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity. In its coordinate-invariant form, the regularization is seen as entirely geometric: only the supermetric on field deformations is regularized, and the prescription provides universal nonperturbative invariant continuum regularization across all quantum field theory. 54 refs.
Quantum field theory on LQC Bianchi spacetimes
Andrea Dapor; Jerzy Lewandowski; Yaser Tavakoli
2013-05-20
Quantum theory of a scalar field is developed on the LQC Bianchi I space-time. By comparing the the quantum field theory for a single mode on classical and quantum background geometries we find that an effective Bianchi I space-time emerges. We show that by disregarding the back-reaction no Lorentz-violation is present, despite the effective metric being different than the classical Bianchi I one.
Mathematical renormalization of Hamiltonian field theories
A. V. Stoyanovsky
2015-06-18
We rigorously define renormalized evolution operator of the Schr\\"odinger equation in the infinite dimensional Weyl-Moyal algebra for any time interval for arbitrary Hamiltonian depending on time. We state that for renormalizable field theories, in the interaction representation, and for the time interval being the full real axis, our construction yields standard renormalized $S$-matrix and Green functions of perturbative quantum field theory.
Conserved Currents of Double Field Theory
Chris D. A. Blair
2015-07-27
We find the conserved current associated to invariance under generalised diffeomorphisms in double field theory. This can be used to define a generalised Komar integral. We comment on its applications to solutions, in particular to the fundamental string/pp-wave. We also discuss the current in the context of Scherk-Schwarz compactifications. We calculate the current for both the original double field theory action, corresponding to the NSNS sector alone, and for the RR sector.
Compact Picture in Extended Superconformal Field Theories
Nedanovski, Dimitar
2015-01-01
There is a complex conformal transformation, which maps the $D$ - dimensional real Minkowski space on a bounded set in the $D$ - dimensional complex vector space. It generalizes the Cayley map from $D=1$ dimensions to higher space-time dimensions. This transformation provides a very convenient coordinate picture for Conformal Field Theories called compact picture. In this paper we extend the compact picture coordinates for superconformal field theories in four space-time dimensions.
Compact Picture in Extended Superconformal Field Theories
Dimitar Nedanovski
2015-10-20
There is a complex conformal transformation, which maps the $D$ - dimensional real Minkowski space on a bounded set in the $D$ - dimensional complex vector space. It generalizes the Cayley map from $D=1$ dimensions to higher space-time dimensions. This transformation provides a very convenient coordinate picture for Conformal Field Theories called compact picture. In this paper we extend the compact picture coordinates for superconformal field theories in four space-time dimensions.
Double-Scaling Limit of a Broken Symmetry Quantum Field Theory
Carl M. Bender; Stefan Boettcher; H. F. Jones; Peter N. Meisinger
2000-07-31
The Ising limit of a conventional Hermitian parity-symmetric scalar quantum field theory is a correlated limit in which two bare Lagrangian parameters, the coupling constant $g$ and the {\\it negative} mass squared $-m^2$, both approach infinity with the ratio $-m^2/g=\\alpha>0$ held fixed. In this limit the renormalized mass of the asymptotic theory is finite. Moreover, the limiting theory exhibits universal properties. For a non-Hermitian $\\cal PT$-symmetric Lagrangian lacking parity symmetry, whose interaction term has the form $-g(i\\phi)^N/N$, the renormalized mass diverges in this correlated limit. Nevertheless, the asymptotic theory still has interesting properties. For example, the one-point Green's function approaches the value $-i\\alpha^{1/(N-2)}$ independently of the space-time dimension $D$ for $Dquantum field theory is dominated by a dilute instanton gas, the corresponding correlated limit of a $\\cal PT$-symmetric quantum field theory without parity symmetry is dominated by a constant-field configuration with corrections determined by a weak-coupling expansion in which the expansion parameter (the amplitude of the vertices of the graphs in this expansion) is proportional to an inverse power of $g$. We thus observe a weak-coupling/strong-coupling duality in that while the Ising limit is a strong-coupling limit of the quantum field theory, the expansion about this limit takes the form of a conventional weak-coupling expansion. A possible generalization of the Ising limit to dimensions $D<4$ is briefly discussed.
The zero-bin and mode factorization in quantum field theory
Manohar, Aneesh V.; Stewart, Iain W.
2007-10-01
We study a Lagrangian formalism that avoids double counting in effective field theories where distinct fields are used to describe different infrared momentum regions for the same particle. The formalism leads to extra subtractions in certain diagrams and to a new way of thinking about factorization of modes in quantum field theory. In nonrelativistic field theories, the subtractions remove unphysical pinch singularities in box-type diagrams, and give a derivation of the known pullup mechanism between soft and ultrasoft fields which is required by the renormalization group evolution. In a field theory for energetic particles, the soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), the subtractions allow the theory to be defined with different infrared and ultraviolet regulators, remove double counting between soft, ultrasoft, and collinear modes, and give results which reproduce the infrared divergences of the full theory. Our analysis shows that convolution divergences in factorization formulas occur due to an overlap of momentum regions. We propose a method that avoids this double counting, which helps to resolve a long-standing puzzle with singularities in collinear factorization in QCD. The analysis gives evidence for a factorization in rapidity space in exclusive decays.
The Zero-Bin and Mode Factorization in Quantum Field Theory
Aneesh V. Manohar; Iain W. Stewart
2007-07-22
We study a Lagrangian formalism that avoids double counting in effective field theories where distinct fields are used to describe different infrared momentum regions for the same particle. The formalism leads to extra subtractions in certain diagrams and to a new way of thinking about factorization of modes in quantum field theory. In non-relativistic field theories, the subtractions remove unphysical pinch singularities in box type diagrams, and give a derivation of the known pull-up mechanism between soft and ultrasoft fields which is required by the renormalization group evolution. In a field theory for energetic particles, the soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), the subtractions allow the theory to be defined with different infrared and ultraviolet regulators, remove double counting between soft, ultrasoft, and collinear modes, and give results which reproduce the infrared divergences of the full theory. Our analysis shows that convolution divergences in factorization formul\\ae occur due to an overlap of momentum regions. We propose a method that avoids this double counting, which helps to resolve a long standing puzzle with singularities in collinear factorization in QCD. The analysis gives evidence for a factorization in rapidity space in exclusive decays.
Symmetry aspects of nonholonomic field theories
Vankerschaver, J
2007-01-01
The developments in this paper are concerned with nonholonomic field theories in the presence of symmetries. Having previously treated the case of vertical symmetries, we now deal with the case where the symmetry action can also have a horizontal component. As a first step in this direction, we derive a new and convenient form of the field equations of a nonholonomic field theory. Nonholonomic symmetries are then introduced as symmetry generators whose virtual work is zero along the constraint submanifold, and we show that for every such symmetry, there exists a so-called momentum equation, describing the evolution of the associated component of the momentum map. Keeping up with the underlying geometric philosophy, a small modification of the derivation of the momentum lemma allows us to treat also generalized nonholonomic symmetries, which are vector fields along a projection. Such symmetries arise for example in practical examples of nonholonomic field theories such as the Cosserat rod, for which we recover...
Dark energy or modified gravity? An effective field theory approach
Bloomfield, Jolyon; Flanagan, Éanna É.; Park, Minjoon; Watson, Scott E-mail: eef3@cornell.edu E-mail: gswatson@syr.edu
2013-08-01
We take an Effective Field Theory (EFT) approach to unifying existing proposals for the origin of cosmic acceleration and its connection to cosmological observations. Building on earlier work where EFT methods were used with observations to constrain the background evolution, we extend this program to the level of the EFT of the cosmological perturbations — following the example from the EFT of Inflation. Within this framework, we construct the general theory around an assumed background which will typically be chosen to mimic ?CDM, and identify the parameters of interest for constraining dark energy and modified gravity models with observations. We discuss the similarities to the EFT of Inflation, but we also identify a number of subtleties including the relationship between the scalar perturbations and the Goldstone boson of the spontaneously broken time translations. We present formulae that relate the parameters of the fundamental Lagrangian to the speed of sound, anisotropic shear stress, effective Newtonian constant, and Caldwell's varpi parameter, emphasizing the connection to observations. It is anticipated that this framework will be of use in constraining individual models, as well as for placing model-independent constraints on dark energy and modified gravity model building.
Dark matter, Elko fields and Weinberg's quantum field theory formalism
Adam Gillard; Benjamin Martin
2012-05-08
The Elko quantum field was introduced by Ahluwalia and Grumiller, who proposed it as a candidate for dark matter. We study the Elko field in Weinberg's formalism for quantum field theory. We prove that if one takes the symmetry group to be the full Poincar\\'e group then the Elko field is not a quantum field in the sense of Weinberg. This confirms results of Ahluwalia, Lee and Schritt, who showed using a different approach that the Elko field does not transform covariantly under rotations and hence has a preferred axis.
Superstring field theory in the democratic picture
Michael Kroyter
2010-11-04
We present a new open superstring field theory, whose string fields carry an arbitrary picture number and reside in the large Hilbert space. The redundancy related to picture number is resolved by treating picture changing as a gauge transformation. A mid-point insertion is imperative for this formalism. We find that this mid-point insertion must include all multi-picture changing operators. It is also proven that this insertion as well as all the multi-picture changing operators are zero weight conformal primaries. This new theory solves the problems with the Ramond sector shared by other RNS string field theories, while naturally unifying the NS and Ramond string fields. When partially gauge fixed, it reduces in the NS sector to the modified cubic superstring field theory. Hence, it shares all the good properties of this theory, e.g., it has analytical vacuum and marginal deformation solutions. Treating the redundant gauge symmetry using the BV formalism is straightforward and results in a cubic action with a single string field, whose quantum numbers are unconstrained. The generalization to an arbitrary brane system is simple and includes the standard Chan-Paton factors and the most general string field consistent with the brane system.
Power counting in nuclear effective field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valderrama, M. Pavon
2015-10-01
The effective field theory formulation of nuclear forces is able to provide a systematic and model independent description of nuclear physics, where all processes involving nucleons and pions can be described in terms of the same set of couplings, the theoretical errors are known in advance and the connection with QCD is present. These features are a consequence of renormalization group invariance, which in turn determines the power counting of the theory. Here we present a brief outline of how to determine the power counting of nuclear effective field theory, what does it looks like and what are the predictions for the two-nucleon sector at lowest orders.
Quantum algorithms for quantum field theories.
Jordan, Stephen P; Lee, Keith S M; Preskill, John
2012-06-01
Quantum field theory reconciles quantum mechanics and special relativity, and plays a central role in many areas of physics. We developed a quantum algorithm to compute relativistic scattering probabilities in a massive quantum field theory with quartic self-interactions (?(4) theory) in spacetime of four and fewer dimensions. Its run time is polynomial in the number of particles, their energy, and the desired precision, and applies at both weak and strong coupling. In the strong-coupling and high-precision regimes, our quantum algorithm achieves exponential speedup over the fastest known classical algorithm. PMID:22654052
Weak Gravity Conjecture for Noncommutative Field Theory
Qing-Guo Huang; Jian-Huang She
2006-11-20
We investigate the weak gravity bounds on the U(1) gauge theory and scalar field theories in various dimensional noncommutative space. Many results are obtained, such as the upper bound on the noncommutative scale $g_{YM}M_p$ for four dimensional noncommutative U(1) gauge theory. We also discuss the weak gravity bounds on their commutative counterparts. For example, our result on 4 dimensional noncommutative U(1) gauge theory reduces in certain limit to its commutative counterpart suggested by Arkani-Hamed et.al at least at tree-level.
Viscosity, Black Holes, and Quantum Field Theory
D. T. Son; A. O. Starinets
2007-07-11
We review recent progress in applying the AdS/CFT correspondence to finite-temperature field theory. In particular, we show how the hydrodynamic behavior of field theory is reflected in the low-momentum limit of correlation functions computed through a real-time AdS/CFT prescription, which we formulate. We also show how the hydrodynamic modes in field theory correspond to the low-lying quasinormal modes of the AdS black p-brane metric. We provide a proof of the universality of the viscosity/entropy ratio within a class of theories with gravity duals and formulate a viscosity bound conjecture. Possible implications for real systems are mentioned.
Entanglement Entropy in Warped Conformal Field Theories
Castro, Alejandra; Iqbal, Nabil
2015-01-01
We present a detailed discussion of entanglement entropy in (1+1)-dimensional Warped Conformal Field Theories (WCFTs). We implement the Rindler method to evaluate entanglement and Renyi entropies for a single interval and along the way we interpret our results in terms of twist field correlation functions. Holographically a WCFT can be described in terms of Lower Spin Gravity, a SL(2,R)xU(1) Chern-Simons theory in three dimensions. We show how to obtain the universal field theory results for entanglement in a WCFT via holography. For the geometrical description of the theory we introduce the concept of geodesic and massive point particles in the warped geometry associated to Lower Spin Gravity. In the Chern-Simons description we evaluate the appropriate Wilson line that captures the dynamics of a massive particle.
D-branes and string field theory
Sigalov, Ilya
2006-01-01
In this thesis we study the D-brane physics in the context of Witten's cubic string field theory. We compute first few terms the low energy effective action for the non-abelian gauge field A, from Witten's action. We show ...
Information Spreading in Interacting String Field Theory
D. A. Lowe; L. Susskind; J. Uglum
1994-02-24
The commutator of string fields is considered in the context of light cone string field theory. It is shown that the commutator is in general non--vanishing outside the string light cone. This could have profound implications for our understanding of the localization of information in quantum gravity.
Electromagnetic Field Theory Fall 2014 Course Outline
Haimovich, Alexander
ECE 620 Electromagnetic Field Theory Fall 2014 Course Outline Instructor: Dr. Gerald Whitman Text: Constantine Balanis, Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics, 2nd ed., Wiley, 2012; ISBN:978-0- 470-58948-9 Reference: Roger Harrington, Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields, , Wiley-IEEE Press 2001; ISBN:978
Backlund Transformation in Quantum Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burt, Philip
1996-11-01
Solutions of nonlinear field equations with polynomial nonlin earities are well known(P.B.Burt,Quantum Mechanics and Nonlinear Waves,Harwood Academic,Chur,1981).These solutions have been used to describe spin zero systems with self interactions. General- izations to systmes of fermions and bosons with various inter- actions lend themselves to description of quantum field theories with proper normalization. No ultraviolet divergences occur in such theories. The solutions themselves represent weak Backlund transformation of the nonlinear field equations and the related Klein Gordonequation(C.Rogers and W.F.Ames,Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems in Science and Engineering, Academic Press,New York,1989).
Phase-space quantization of field theory.
Curtright, T.; Zachos, C.
1999-04-20
In this lecture, a limited introduction of gauge invariance in phase-space is provided, predicated on canonical transformations in quantum phase-space. Exact characteristic trajectories are also specified for the time-propagating Wigner phase-space distribution function: they are especially simple--indeed, classical--for the quantized simple harmonic oscillator. This serves as the underpinning of the field theoretic Wigner functional formulation introduced. Scalar field theory is thus reformulated in terms of distributions in field phase-space. This is a pedagogical selection from work published and reported at the Yukawa Institute Workshop ''Gauge Theory and Integrable Models'', 26-29 January, 1999.
Parafermionic conformal field theory on the lattice
Roger S. K. Mong; David J. Clarke; Jason Alicea; Netanel H. Lindner; Paul Fendley
2014-09-18
Finding the precise correspondence between lattice operators and the continuum fields that describe their long-distance properties is a largely open problem for strongly interacting critical points. Here we solve this problem essentially completely in the case of the three-state Potts model, which exhibits a phase transition described by a strongly interacting 'parafermion' conformal field theory. Using symmetry arguments, insights from integrability, and extensive simulations, we construct lattice analogues of nearly all the relevant and marginal physical fields governing this transition. This construction includes chiral fields such as the parafermion. Along the way we also clarify the structure of operator product expansions between order and disorder fields, which we confirm numerically. Our results both suggest a systematic methodology for attacking non-free field theories on the lattice and find broader applications in the pursuit of exotic topologically ordered phases of matter.
General Theory of Relativity of Einstein as Unified Field Theory
Boris Mordvinov
1999-09-21
Relying on a fundamental empirical identity of heavy and inertial mass it is proposed to bring a status of general theory of relativity (GTR) of Einstein up to a level of Unified Field Theory. To do this, a thoroughgoing revision of physical interpretation of energy-momentum tensor components within GTR is required. A complete system of equations for numerical simulation of the hierarchical structure of the real universe on the basis of curvature tensor invariants is proposed.
Conformal field theory on affine Lie groups
Clubok, K.S.
1996-04-01
Working directly on affine Lie groups, we construct several new formulations of the WZW model, the gauged WZW model, and the generic affine-Virasoro action. In one formulation each of these conformal field theories (CFTs) is expressed as a one-dimensional mechanical system whose variables are coordinates on the affine Lie group. When written in terms of the affine group element, this formulation exhibits a two-dimensional WZW term. In another formulation each CFT is written as a two-dimensional field theory, with a three- dimensional WZW term, whose fields are coordinates on the affine group. On the basis of these equivalent formulations, we develop a translation dictionary in which the new formulations on the affine Lie group are understood as mode formulations of the conventional formulations on the Lie group. Using this dictionary, we also express each CFT as a three-dimensional field theory on the Lie group with a four-dimensional WZW term. 36 refs.
Generalized extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics
Niklasson, Anders M. N. Cawkwell, Marc J.
2014-10-28
Extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory is generalized in the limit of vanishing self-consistent field optimization prior to the force evaluations. The equations of motion are derived directly from the extended Lagrangian under the condition of an adiabatic separation between the nuclear and the electronic degrees of freedom. We show how this separation is automatically fulfilled and system independent. The generalized equations of motion require only one diagonalization per time step and are applicable to a broader range of materials with improved accuracy and stability compared to previous formulations.
"Quantum Field Theory and QCD"
Jaffe, Arthur M.
2006-02-25
This grant partially funded a meeting, "QFT & QCD: Past, Present and Future" held at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA on March 18-19, 2005. The participants ranged from senior scientists (including at least 9 Nobel Prize winners, and 1 Fields medalist) to graduate students and undergraduates. There were several hundred persons in attendance at each lecture. The lectures ranged from superlative reviews of past progress, lists of important, unsolved questions, to provocative hypotheses for future discovery. The project generated a great deal of interest on the internet, raising awareness and interest in the open questions of theoretical physics.
Pauli-Villars regularization of field theories on the light front
Hiller, John R.
2010-12-22
Four-dimensional quantum field theories generally require regularization to be well defined. This can be done in various ways, but here we focus on Pauli-Villars (PV) regularization and apply it to nonperturbative calculations of bound states. The philosophy is to introduce enough PV fields to the Lagrangian to regulate the theory perturbatively, including preservation of symmetries, and assume that this is sufficient for the nonperturbative case. The numerical methods usually necessary for nonperturbative bound-state problems are then applied to a finite theory that has the original symmetries. The bound-state problem is formulated as a mass eigenvalue problem in terms of the light-front Hamiltonian. Applications to quantum electrodynamics are discussed.
Theory of cosmological seed magnetic fields
Saleem, H.
2007-07-15
A theory for the generation of seed magnetic field and plasma flow on cosmological scales driven by externally given baroclinic vectors is presented. The Beltrami-like plasma fields can grow from zero values at initial time t=0 from a nonequilibrium state. Exact analytical solutions of the set of two-fluid equations are obtained that are valid for large plasma {beta}-values as well. Weaknesses of previous models for seed magnetic field generation are also pointed out. The analytical calculations predict the galactic seed magnetic field generated by this mechanism to be of the order of 10{sup -14} G, which may be amplified later by the {alpha}{omega} dynamo (or by some other mechanism) to the present observed values of the order of {approx}(2-10) {mu}G. The theory has been applied to laser-induced plasmas as well and the estimate of the magnetic field's magnitude is in agreement with the experimentally observed values.
Superconformal field theories and cyclic homology
Eager, Richard
2015-01-01
One of the predictions of the AdS/CFT correspondence is the matching of protected operators between a superconformal field theory and its holographic dual. We review the spectrum of protected operators in quiver gauge theories that flow to superconformal field theories at low energies. The spectrum is determined by the cyclic homology of an algebra associated to the quiver gauge theory. Identifying the spectrum of operators with cyclic homology allows us to apply the Hochschild-Kostant-Rosenberg theorem to relate the cyclic homology groups to deRham cohomology groups. The map from cyclic homology to deRham cohomology can be viewed as a mathematical avatar of the passage from open to closed strings under the AdS/CFT correspondence.
Superconformal field theories and cyclic homology
Richard Eager
2015-10-14
One of the predictions of the AdS/CFT correspondence is the matching of protected operators between a superconformal field theory and its holographic dual. We review the spectrum of protected operators in quiver gauge theories that flow to superconformal field theories at low energies. The spectrum is determined by the cyclic homology of an algebra associated to the quiver gauge theory. Identifying the spectrum of operators with cyclic homology allows us to apply the Hochschild-Kostant-Rosenberg theorem to relate the cyclic homology groups to deRham cohomology groups. The map from cyclic homology to deRham cohomology can be viewed as a mathematical avatar of the passage from open to closed strings under the AdS/CFT correspondence.
a Nonassociative Quaternion Scalar Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giardino, Sergio; Teotônio-Sobrinho, Paulo
2013-10-01
A nonassociative Groenewold-Moyal (GM) plane is constructed using quaternion-valued function algebras. The symmetrized multiparticle states, the scalar product, the annihilation/creation algebra and the formulation in terms of a Hopf algebra are also developed. Nonassociative quantum algebras in terms of position and momentum operators are given as the simplest examples of a framework whose applications may involve string theory and nonlinear quantum field theory.
Alpha particles in effective field theory
Caniu, C.
2014-11-11
Using an effective field theory for alpha (?) particles at non-relativistic energies, we calculate the strong scattering amplitude modified by Coulomb corrections for a system of two ?s. For the strong interaction, we consider a momentum-dependent interaction which, in contrast to an energy dependent interaction alone [1], could be more useful in extending the theory to systems with more than two ? particles. We will present preliminary results of our EFT calculations for systems with two alpha particles.
Quantum field theory of treasury bonds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baaquie, Belal E.
2001-07-01
The Heath-Jarrow-Morton (HJM) formulation of treasury bonds in terms of forward rates is recast as a problem in path integration. The HJM model is generalized to the case where all the forward rates are allowed to fluctuate independently. The resulting theory is shown to be a two-dimensional Gaussian quantum field theory. The no arbitrage condition is obtained and a functional integral derivation is given for the price of a futures and an options contract.
Magnetic monopoles in field theory and cosmology.
Rajantie, Arttu
2012-12-28
The existence of magnetic monopoles is predicted by many theories of particle physics beyond the standard model. However, in spite of extensive searches, there is no experimental or observational sign of them. I review the role of magnetic monopoles in quantum field theory and discuss their implications for particle physics and cosmology. I also highlight their differences and similarities with monopoles found in frustrated magnetic systems. PMID:23166376
Alpha particles in effective field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caniu, C.
2014-11-01
Using an effective field theory for alpha (?) particles at non-relativistic energies, we calculate the strong scattering amplitude modified by Coulomb corrections for a system of two ?s. For the strong interaction, we consider a momentum-dependent interaction which, in contrast to an energy dependent interaction alone [1], could be more useful in extending the theory to systems with more than two ? particles. We will present preliminary results of our EFT calculations for systems with two alpha particles.
String Field Theory in the Temporal Gauge
M. Ikehara; N. Ishibashi; H. kawai; T. Mogami; R. Nakayama; N. Sasakura
1994-06-30
We construct the string field Hamiltonian for $c=1-\\frac{6}{m(m+1)}$ string theory in the temporal gauge. In order to do so, we first examine the Schwinger-Dyson equations of the matrix chain models and propose the continuum version of them. Results of boundary conformal field theory are useful in making a connection between the discrete and continuum pictures. The $W$ constraints are derived from the continuum Schwinger-Dyson equations. We also check that these equations are consistent with other known results about noncritical string theory. The string field Hamiltonian is easily obtained from the continuum Schwinger-Dyson equations. It looks similar to Kaku-Kikkawa's Hamiltonian and may readily be generalized to $c>1$ cases.
String field theory in the temporal gauge
Ikehara, M.; Ishibashi, N.; Kawai, H.; Mogami, T.; Nakayama, R.; Sasakura, N. Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113 Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Kyoto 606 Department of Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060 )
1994-12-15
We construct the string field Hamiltonian for [ital c]=1[minus][6/[ital m]([ital m]+1)] string theory in the temporal gauge. In order to do so, we first examine the Schwinger-Dyson equations of the matrix chain models and propose the continuum version of them. The results of boundary conformal field theory are useful in making a connection between the discrete and continuum pictures. The [ital W] constraints are derived from the continuum Schwinger-Dyson equations. We also check that these equations are consistent with other known results about noncritical string theory. The string field Hamiltonian is easily obtained from the continuum Schwinger-Dyson equations. It looks similar to the Kaku-Kikkawa Hamiltonian and may readily be generalized to [ital c][gt]1 cases.
String field theory in the temporal gauge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikehara, M.; Ishibashi, N.; Kawai, H.; Mogami, T.; Nakayama, R.; Sasakura, N.
1994-12-01
We construct the string field Hamiltonian for c=1-[6/m(m+1)] string theory in the temporal gauge. In order to do so, we first examine the Schwinger-Dyson equations of the matrix chain models and propose the continuum version of them. The results of boundary conformal field theory are useful in making a connection between the discrete and continuum pictures. The W constraints are derived from the continuum Schwinger-Dyson equations. We also check that these equations are consistent with other known results about noncritical string theory. The string field Hamiltonian is easily obtained from the continuum Schwinger-Dyson equations. It looks similar to the Kaku-Kikkawa Hamiltonian and may readily be generalized to c>1 cases.
Recent developments in d=2 string field theory
Kaku, M
1994-01-01
In this review article, we review the recent developments in constructing string field theories that have been proposed, all of which correctly reproduce the correlation functions of two-dimensional string theory. These include: (a) free fermion field theory (b) collective string field theory (c) temporal gauge string field theory (d) non-polynomial string field theory. We analyze discrete states, the w(\\infty) symmetry, and correlation functions in terms of these different string field theories. We will also comment on the relationship between these various field theories. (To appear in Int. J. of Mod. Phys. Written in LATEX.)
Recent Developments in D=2 String Field Theory
Michio Kaku
1994-03-21
In this review article, we review the recent developments in constructing string field theories that have been proposed, all of which correctly reproduce the correlation functions of two-dimensional string theory. These include: (a) free fermion field theory (b) collective string field theory (c) temporal gauge string field theory (d) non-polynomial string field theory. We analyze discrete states, the $w(\\infty)$ symmetry, and correlation functions in terms of these different string field theories. We will also comment on the relationship between these various field theories. (To appear in Int. J. of Mod. Phys. Written in LATEX.)
Ligand Field Theory: An ever-modern theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daul, Claude A.
2013-04-01
The Ligand Field (LF) model in molecular science or the Crystal Field model in condensed matter science has been introduced more than eighty years ago. Since then, this theory plays a central role each time that molecules containing d- and/or f-elements with open shells are adressed. No doubt, this fact is related to the dominant localisation of the frontier orbitals within the metal-sphere. This common feature enables us to describe approximately the electronic structure of these molecules using orbitals that are centred on a single atom and to treat their interaction with the chemical environment essentially as a perturbation. Another reason for the success of this simple theory is the fact that the more accurate molecular orbital theory does generally over-estimate covalence of transition metal atoms and thus yields wave functions that are too delocalized. We give here a survey of the development of LF theory since its introduction simultaneously by Hans Bethe and John Hasbrouck van Vleck more than eighty years ago. Over the years, LF theory was a semi-empirical model with adjustable parameter until the end of last century when we introduced non-empirical LF theory that is based on DFT calculations. The results of this first-principle prediction are in very good agreement with the experimental observations. Sample calculations of tetrahedral and octahedral Cr-complexes and hexa-acquo Ni(II)-complexes are used to validate the new model and to analyse the calculated parameters
Nonequilibrium statistical field theory for classical particles: Basic kinetic theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viermann, Celia; Fabis, Felix; Kozlikin, Elena; Lilow, Robert; Bartelmann, Matthias
2015-06-01
Recently Mazenko and Das and Mazenko [Phys. Rev. E 81, 061102 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevE.81.061102; J. Stat. Phys. 149, 643 (2012), 10.1007/s10955-012-0610-y; J. Stat. Phys. 152, 159 (2013), 10.1007/s10955-013-0755-3; Phys. Rev. E 83, 041125 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevE.83.041125] introduced a nonequilibrium field-theoretical approach to describe the statistical properties of a classical particle ensemble starting from the microscopic equations of motion of each individual particle. We use this theory to investigate the transition from those microscopic degrees of freedom to the evolution equations of the macroscopic observables of the ensemble. For the free theory, we recover the continuity and Jeans equations of a collisionless gas. For a theory containing two-particle interactions in a canonical perturbation series, we find the macroscopic evolution equations to be described by the Born-Bogoliubov-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy with a truncation criterion depending on the order in perturbation theory. This establishes a direct link between the classical and the field-theoretical approaches to kinetic theory that might serve as a starting point to investigate kinetic theory beyond the classical limits.
Fundamental problems of gauge field theory
Velo, G.; Wightman, A.S.
1986-01-01
As a result of the experimental and theoretical developments of the last two decades, gauge field theory, in one form or another, now provides the standard language for the description of Nature; QCD and the standard model of the electroweak interactions illustrate this point. It is a basic task of mathematical physics to provide a solid foundation for these developments by putting the theory in a physically transparent and mathematically rigorous form. The lecture notes collected in this volume concentrate on the many unsolved problems which arise here, and on the general ideas and methods which have been proposed for their solution. In particular, the use of rigorous renormalization group methods to obtain control over the continuum limit of lattice gauge field theories, the exploration of the extraordinary enigmatic connections between Kac-Moody-Virasoro algebras and string theory, and the systematic use of the theory of local algebras and indefinite metric spaces to classify the charged C* states in gauge field theories are mentioned.
Supergeometry in locally covariant quantum field theory
Thomas-Paul Hack; Florian Hanisch; Alexander Schenkel
2015-09-16
In this paper we analyze supergeometric locally covariant quantum field theories. We develop suitable categories SLoc of super-Cartan supermanifolds, which generalize Lorentz manifolds in ordinary quantum field theory, and show that, starting from a few representation theoretic and geometric data, one can construct a functor A : SLoc --> S*Alg to the category of super-*-algebras which can be interpreted as a non-interacting super-quantum field theory. This construction turns out to disregard supersymmetry transformations as the morphism sets in the above categories are too small. We then solve this problem by using techniques from enriched category theory, which allows us to replace the morphism sets by suitable morphism supersets that contain supersymmetry transformations as their higher superpoints. We construct super-quantum field theories in terms of enriched functors eA : eSLoc --> eS*Alg between the enriched categories and show that supersymmetry transformations are appropriately described within the enriched framework. As examples we analyze the superparticle in 1|1-dimensions and the free Wess-Zumino model in 3|2-dimensions.
Quantum Field Theory and Computational Paradigms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnamurthy, E. V.; Krishnamurthy, Vikram
We introduce the basic theory of quantization of radiation field in quantum physics and explain how it relates to the theory of recursive functions in computer science. We outline the basic differences between quantum mechanics (QM) and quantum field theory (QFT) and explain why QFT is better suited for a computational paradigm - based on algorithmic requirement, countably infinite degrees of freedom and the creation of macroscopic output objects. The quanta of the radiation field correspond to the non-negative integers and the harmonic oscillator spectra correspond to the recursive computation - with the creation and annihilation operators, respectively, playing the same role as the successor and predecessor in computability theory. Accordingly, this approach relates the classical computational model and the quantum physical model more directly than the Turing machine approach used earlier. Also, the application of Lambda calculus formalism and the associated denotational semantics (that is widely used in the classical computational paradigm involving recursive functions) for applications to computational paradigm based on quantum field theory is described. Finally, we explain where QFT and conventional paradigm depart from each other, and examine the concept of fixed points, phase transitions, programmability, emergent computation and related open problems.
Conformal field theories in fractional dimensions.
El-Showk, Sheer; Paulos, Miguel; Poland, David; Rychkov, Slava; Simmons-Duffin, David; Vichi, Alessandro
2014-04-11
We study the conformal bootstrap in fractional space-time dimensions, obtaining rigorous bounds on operator dimensions. Our results show strong evidence that there is a family of unitary conformal field theories connecting the 2D Ising model, the 3D Ising model, and the free scalar theory in 4D. We give numerical predictions for the leading operator dimensions and central charge in this family at different values of D and compare these to calculations of ?4 theory in the ? expansion. PMID:24765941
Scalar Quantum Field Theory in Disordered Media
Arias, E; Krein, G; Menezes, G; Svaiter, N F
2011-01-01
A free massive scalar field in inhomogeneous random media is investigated. The coefficients of the Klein-Gordon equation are taken to be random functions of the spatial coordinates. The case of an annealed-like disordered medium, modeled by centered stationary and Gaussian processes, is analyzed. After performing the averages over the random functions, we obtain the two-point causal Green's function of the model up to one-loop. The disordered scalar quantum field theory becomes qualitatively similar to a $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ self-interacting theory with a frequency-dependent coupling.
Scalar Quantum Field Theory in Disordered Media
E. Arias; E. Goulart; G. Krein; G. Menezes; N. F. Svaiter
2011-03-18
A free massive scalar field in inhomogeneous random media is investigated. The coefficients of the Klein-Gordon equation are taken to be random functions of the spatial coordinates. The case of an annealed-like disordered medium, modeled by centered stationary and Gaussian processes, is analyzed. After performing the averages over the random functions, we obtain the two-point causal Green's function of the model up to one-loop. The disordered scalar quantum field theory becomes qualitatively similar to a $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ self-interacting theory with a frequency-dependent coupling.
Effective field theory for deformed atomic nuclei
Papenbrock, T
2015-01-01
We present an effective field theory (EFT) for a model-independent description of deformed atomic nuclei. In leading order this approach recovers the well-known results from the collective model by Bohr and Mottelson. When higher-order corrections are computed, the EFT accounts for finer details such as the variation of the moment of inertia with the band head and the small magnitudes of interband $E2$ transitions. For rotational bands with a finite spin of the band head, the EFT is equivalent to the theory of a charged particle on the sphere subject to a magnetic monopole field.
Effective field theory for deformed atomic nuclei
T. Papenbrock; H. A. Weidenmüller
2015-11-30
We present an effective field theory (EFT) for a model-independent description of deformed atomic nuclei. In leading order this approach recovers the well-known results from the collective model by Bohr and Mottelson. When higher-order corrections are computed, the EFT accounts for finer details such as the variation of the moment of inertia with the band head and the small magnitudes of interband $E2$ transitions. For rotational bands with a finite spin of the band head, the EFT is equivalent to the theory of a charged particle on the sphere subject to a magnetic monopole field.
Near-field optical thin microcavity theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jiu Hui; Hou, Jiejie
2016-01-01
The thin microcavity theory for near-field optics is proposed in this study. By applying the power flow theorem and the variable theorem,the bi-harmonic differential governing equation for electromagnetic field of a three-dimensional thin microcavity is derived for the first time. Then by using the Hankel transform, this governing equation is solved exactly and all the electromagnetic components inside and outside the microcavity can be obtained accurately. According to the above theory, the near-field optical diffraction from a subwavelength aperture embedded in a thin conducting film is investigated, and numerical computations are performed to illustrate the edge effect by an enhancement factor of 1.8 and the depolarization phenomenon of the near-field transmission in terms of the distance from the film surface. This thin microcavity theory is verified by the good agreement between our results and those in the previous literatures. The thin microcavity theory presented in the study should be useful in the possible applications of the thin microcavities in near-field optics and thin-film optics.
On the theory of a non-linear neutral scalar field with spontaneously broken symmetry
Y. M. Poluektov
2015-07-08
On the example of a real scalar field, an approach to quantization of non-linear fields and construction of the perturbation theory with account of spontaneous symmetry breaking is proposed. The method is based on using as the main approximation of the relativistic self-consistent field model, in which the influence of vacuum field fluctuations is taken into account when constructing the one-particle states. The solutions of the self-consistent equations determine possible states, which also include the states with broken symmetries. Different states of the field are matched to particles, whose masses are determined by both parameters of the Lagrangian and vacuum fluctuations. The density of the vacuum energy in these states is calculated. It is shown that the concept of Bogolubov's quasi-averages can naturally be applied for definition of exact Green functions in the states with broken symmetries. Equations for exact one- and two-point Green functions are obtained.
Astrophysical data analysis with information field theory
Enßlin, Torsten
2014-12-05
Non-parametric imaging and data analysis in astrophysics and cosmology can be addressed by information field theory (IFT), a means of Bayesian, data based inference on spatially distributed signal fields. IFT is a statistical field theory, which permits the construction of optimal signal recovery algorithms. It exploits spatial correlations of the signal fields even for nonlinear and non-Gaussian signal inference problems. The alleviation of a perception threshold for recovering signals of unknown correlation structure by using IFT will be discussed in particular as well as a novel improvement on instrumental self-calibration schemes. IFT can be applied to many areas. Here, applications in in cosmology (cosmic microwave background, large-scale structure) and astrophysics (galactic magnetism, radio interferometry) are presented.
Coherent states formulation of polymer field theory
Man, Xingkun; Villet, Michael C.; Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 ; Delaney, Kris T.; Orland, Henri; Fredrickson, Glenn H.
2014-01-14
We introduce a stable and efficient complex Langevin (CL) scheme to enable the first direct numerical simulations of the coherent-states (CS) formulation of polymer field theory. In contrast with Edwards’ well-known auxiliary-field (AF) framework, the CS formulation does not contain an embedded nonlinear, non-local, implicit functional of the auxiliary fields, and the action of the field theory has a fully explicit, semi-local, and finite-order polynomial character. In the context of a polymer solution model, we demonstrate that the new CS-CL dynamical scheme for sampling fluctuations in the space of coherent states yields results in good agreement with now-standard AF-CL simulations. The formalism is potentially applicable to a broad range of polymer architectures and may facilitate systematic generation of trial actions for use in coarse-graining and numerical renormalization-group studies.
Field theory of Ising percolating clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delfino, Gesualdo
2009-09-01
The clusters of up spins of a two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet undergo a second order percolative transition at temperatures above the Curie point. We show that in the scaling limit the percolation threshold is described by an integrable field theory and identify the non-perturbative mechanism which allows the percolative transition in absence of thermodynamic singularities. The analysis is extended to the Kertész line along which the Coniglio-Klein droplets percolate in a positive magnetic field.
Dynamical Mean Field Approximation Applied to Quantum Field Theory
Oscar Akerlund; Philippe de Forcrand; Antoine Georges; Philipp Werner
2013-11-18
We apply the Dynamical Mean Field (DMFT) approximation to the real, scalar phi^4 quantum field theory. By comparing to lattice Monte Carlo calculations, perturbation theory and standard mean field theory, we test the quality of the approximation in two, three, four and five dimensions. The quantities considered in these tests are the critical coupling for the transition to the ordered phase and the associated critical exponents nu and beta. We also map out the phase diagram in four dimensions. In two and three dimensions, DMFT incorrectly predicts a first order phase transition for all bare quartic couplings, which is problematic, because the second order nature of the phase transition of lattice phi^4-theory is crucial for taking the continuum limit. Nevertheless, by extrapolating the behaviour away from the phase transition, one can obtain critical couplings and critical exponents. They differ from those of mean field theory and are much closer to the correct values. In four dimensions the transition is second order for small quartic couplings and turns weakly first order as the coupling increases beyond a tricritical value. In dimensions five and higher, DMFT gives qualitatively correct results, predicts reasonable values for the critical exponents and considerably more accurate critical couplings than standard mean field theory. The approximation works best for small values of the quartic coupling. We investigate the change from first to second order transition in the local limit of DMFT which is computationally much less intensive. We also discuss technical issues related to the convergence of the non-linear self-consistency equation solver and the solution of the effective single-site model using Fourier-space Monte Carlo updates in the presence of a phi^4-interaction.
Light field integration in SUGRA theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallego, Diego
2015-01-01
We revisit the integration of fields in 𝒩 = 1 Supergravity with the requirement that the effective theory has a reliable two-derivative supersymmetric description. In particular, we study, in a supersymmetric manifest way, the situation where the fields that are mapped out have masses comparable to the Supersymmetry breaking scale and masses of the remaining fields. We find that as long as one stands in regions of the field configuration space where the analytic continuation to superspace of the F-flatness conditions be reliable equations of motion for the fields that are being mapped out, and provided their solutions are stable regardless the dynamics of the remaining fields, such a two-derivative description is a reliable truncation of the full effective theory. The study is mainly focused to models with two chiral sectors, H and L, described by a Kähler invariant function with schematic dependencies of the form G = GH(H, \\bar H)+GL(L, \\bar L), which leads to a nearly decoupled theory that allows the previous requirements to be easily satisfied in a consistent way. Interestingly, enough for the matters of our study, this kind of models present a scenario that is as safe as the one presented in sequestered models. It is also possible to allow gauge symmetries as long as these appear also factorized in hidden and visible sectors. Then, the integration of the hidden vector superfields is compulsory and proceeds reliably through the D-flatness condition analytically continued to superspace.
Noncommutative Geometry in M-Theory and Conformal Field Theory
Morariu, Bogdan
1999-05-01
In the first part of the thesis I will investigate in the Matrix theory framework, the subgroup of dualities of the Discrete Light Cone Quantization of M-theory compactified on tori, which corresponds to T-duality in the auxiliary Type II string theory. After a review of matrix theory compactification leading to noncommutative supersymmetric Yang-Mills gauge theory, I will present solutions for the fundamental and adjoint sections on a two-dimensional twisted quantum torus and generalize to three-dimensional twisted quantum tori. After showing how M-theory T-duality is realized in supersymmetric Yang-Mills gauge theories on dual noncommutative tori I will relate this to the mathematical concept of Morita equivalence of C*-algebras. As a further generalization, I consider arbitrary Ramond-Ramond backgrounds. I will also discuss the spectrum of the toroidally compactified Matrix theory corresponding to quantized electric fluxes on two and three tori. In the second part of the thesis I will present an application to conformal field theory involving quantum groups, another important example of a noncommutative space. First, I will give an introduction to Poisson-Lie groups and arrive at quantum groups using the Feynman path integral. I will quantize the symplectic leaves of the Poisson-Lie group SU(2)*. In this way we obtain the unitary representations of U{sub q}(SU(2)). I discuss the X-structure of SU(2)* and give a detailed description of its leaves using various parametrizations. Then, I will introduce a new reality structure on the Heisenberg double of Fun{sub q} (SL(N,C)) for q phase, which can be interpreted as the quantum phase space of a particle on the q-deformed mass-hyperboloid. I also present evidence that the above real form describes zero modes of certain non-compact WZNW-models.
Modelling a Particle Detector in Field Theory
Fabio Costa; Federico Piazza
2009-11-04
Particle detector models allow to give an operational definition to the particle content of a given quantum state of a field theory. The commonly adopted Unruh-DeWitt type of detector is known to undergo temporary transitions to excited states even when at rest and in the Minkowski vacuum. We argue that real detectors do not feature this property, as the configuration "detector in its ground state + vacuum of the field" is generally a stable bound state of the underlying fundamental theory (e.g. the ground state-hydrogen atom in a suitable QED with electrons and protons) in the non-accelerated case. As a concrete example, we study a local relativistic field theory where a stable particle can capture a light quantum and form a quasi-stable state. As expected, to such a stable particle correspond energy eigenstates of the full theory, as is shown explicitly by using a dressed particle formalism at first order in perturbation theory. We derive an effective model of detector (at rest) where the stable particle and the quasi-stable configurations correspond to the two internal levels, "ground" and "excited", of the detector.
Even Symplectic Supermanifolds and Double Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deser, Andreas; Stasheff, Jim
2015-11-01
Over many decades, the word " double" has appeared in various contexts, which at times seem to be unrelated.1 Several have some relation to mathematical physics. Recently, this has become particularly striking in double field theory(DFT). Two `doubles' that are particularly relevant are double vector bundles and
Quantum Spacetime and Algebraic Quantum Field Theory
Dorothea Bahns; Sergio Doplicher; Gerardo Morsella; Gherardo Piacitelli
2015-01-14
We review the investigations on the quantum structure of spactime, to be found at the Planck scale if one takes into account the operational limitations to localization of events which result from the concurrence of Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity. We also discuss the different approaches to (perturbative) Quantum Field Theory on Quantum Spacetime, and some of the possible cosmological consequences.
Field-Theory Approaches to Nonequilibrium Dynamics
Täuber, Uwe Claus
7 Field-Theory Approaches to Nonequilibrium Dynamics U. C. T¨auber Department of Physics, Center. The effects of reversible mode-coupling terms, quench- ing from random initial conditions to the critical formalism can be applied to nonequilibrium systems such as driven diffusive lattice gases. Part 2 describes
Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel
2008-01-01
A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.
Recent Progress in Group Field Theory
Oriti, Daniele
2009-12-15
We introduce the key ideas behind the group field theory approach to quantum gravity, and the basic elements of its formalism. We also briefly report on some recent results obtained in this approach, concerning both the mathematical definition of these models, and possible avenues towards extracting interesting physics from them.
Logarithmic conformal field theory: beyond an introduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Creutzig, Thomas; Ridout, David
2013-12-01
This article aims to review a selection of central topics and examples in logarithmic conformal field theory. It begins with the remarkable observation of Cardy that the horizontal crossing probability of critical percolation may be computed analytically within the formalism of boundary conformal field theory. Cardy’s derivation relies on certain implicit assumptions which are shown to lead inexorably to indecomposable modules and logarithmic singularities in correlators. For this, a short introduction to the fusion algorithm of Nahm, Gaberdiel and Kausch is provided. While the percolation logarithmic conformal field theory is still not completely understood, there are several examples for which the formalism familiar from rational conformal field theory, including bulk partition functions, correlation functions, modular transformations, fusion rules and the Verlinde formula, has been successfully generalized. This is illustrated for three examples: the singlet model \\mathfrak {M} (1,2), related to the triplet model \\mathfrak {W} (1,2), symplectic fermions and the fermionic bc ghost system; the fractional level Wess-Zumino-Witten model based on \\widehat{\\mathfrak {sl}} \\left( 2 \\right) at k=-\\frac{1}{2}, related to the bosonic ?? ghost system; and the Wess-Zumino-Witten model for the Lie supergroup \\mathsf {GL} \\left( 1 {\\mid} 1 \\right), related to \\mathsf {SL} \\left( 2 {\\mid} 1 \\right) at k=-\\frac{1}{2} and 1, the Bershadsky-Polyakov algebra W_3^{(2)} and the Feigin-Semikhatov algebras W_n^{(2)}. These examples have been chosen because they represent the most accessible, and most useful, members of the three best-understood families of logarithmic conformal field theories. The logarithmic minimal models \\mathfrak {W} (q,p), the fractional level Wess-Zumino-Witten models, and the Wess-Zumino-Witten models on Lie supergroups (excluding \\mathsf {OSP} \\left( 1 {\\mid} 2n \\right)). In this review, the emphasis lies on the representation theory of the underlying chiral algebra and the modular data pertaining to the characters of the representations. Each of the archetypal logarithmic conformal field theories is studied here by first determining its irreducible spectrum, which turns out to be continuous, as well as a selection of natural reducible, but indecomposable, modules. This is followed by a detailed description of how to obtain character formulae for each irreducible, a derivation of the action of the modular group on the characters, and an application of the Verlinde formula to compute the Grothendieck fusion rules. In each case, the (genuine) fusion rules are known, so comparisons can be made and favourable conclusions drawn. In addition, each example admits an infinite set of simple currents, hence extended symmetry algebras may be constructed and a series of bulk modular invariants computed. The spectrum of such an extended theory is typically discrete and this is how the triplet model \\mathfrak {W} (1,2) arises, for example. Moreover, simple current technology admits a derivation of the extended algebra fusion rules from those of its continuous parent theory. Finally, each example is concluded by a brief description of the computation of some bulk correlators, a discussion of the structure of the bulk state space, and remarks concerning more advanced developments and generalizations. The final part gives a very short account of the theory of staggered modules, the (simplest class of) representations that are responsible for the logarithmic singularities that distinguish logarithmic theories from their rational cousins. These modules are discussed in a generality suitable to encompass all the examples met in this review and some of the very basic structure theory is proven. Then, the important quantities known as logarithmic couplings are reviewed for Virasoro staggered modules and their role as fundamentally important parameters, akin to the three-point constants of rational conformal field theory, is discussed. An appendix is also provided in order to introduce some of the necessary, but perhaps unfamiliar, la
Strongly Coupled Chameleon Fields: New Horizons in Scalar Field Theory
David F. Mota; Douglas J. Shaw
2006-09-16
We show that as a result of non-linear self-interactions, scalar field theories that couple to matter much more strongly than gravity are not only viable but could well be detected by a number of future experiments, provided these are properly designed to do so.
Monte Carlo approaches to effective field theories
Carlson, J. ); Schmidt, K.E. . Dept. of Physics)
1991-01-01
In this paper, we explore the application of continuum Monte Carlo methods to effective field theory models. Effective field theories, in this context, are those in which a Fock space decomposition of the state is useful. These problems arise both in nuclear and condensed matter physica. In nuclear physics, much work has been done on effective field theories of mesons and baryons. While the theories are not fundamental, they should be able to describe nuclear properties at low energy and momentum scales. After describing the methods, we solve two simple scalar field theory problems; the polaron and two nucleons interacting through scalar meson exchange. The methods presented here are rather straightforward extensions of methods used to solve quantum mechanics problems. Monte Carlo methods are used to avoid the truncation inherent in a Tamm-Dancoff approach and its associated difficulties. Nevertheless, the methods will be most valuable when the Fock space decomposition of the states is useful. Hence, while they are not intended for ab initio studies of QCD, they may prove valuable in studies of light nuclei, or for systems of interacting electrons and phonons. In these problems a Fock space decomposition can be used to reduce the number of degrees of freedom and to retain the rotational symmetries exactly. The problems we address here are comparatively simple, but offer useful initial tests of the method. We present results for the polaron and two non-relativistic nucleons interacting through scalar meson exchange. In each case, it is possible to integrate out the boson degrees of freedom exactly, and obtain a retarded form of the action that depends only upon the fermion paths. Here we keep the explicit bosons, though, since we would like to retain information about the boson components of the states and it will be necessary to keep these components in order to treat non-scalar of interacting bosonic fields.
Lagrangian Crumpling Equations
Mark A. Peterson
2009-01-27
A concise method for following the evolving geometry of a moving surface using Lagrangian coordinates is described. All computations can be done in the fixed geometry of the initial surface despite the evolving complexity of the moving surface. The method is applied to three problems in nonlinear elasticity: the bulging of a thin plate under pressure (the original motivation for Foeppl-von Karman theory), the buckling of a spherical shell under pressure, and the phenomenon of capillary wrinkles induced by surface tension in a thin film. In this last problem the inclusion of a gravitational potential energy term in the total energy improves the agreement with experiment.
Lagrangian crumpling equations.
Peterson, Mark A
2009-08-01
A concise method for following the evolving geometry of a moving surface using Lagrangian coordinates is described. All computations can be done in the fixed geometry of the initial surface despite the evolving complexity of the moving surface. The method is applied to three problems in nonlinear elasticity: the bulging of a thin plate under pressure (the original motivation for Föppl-von Karman theory), the buckling of a spherical shell under pressure, and the phenomenon of capillary wrinkles induced by surface tension in a thin film. In this last problem the inclusion of a gravitational potential-energy term in the total energy improves the agreement with experiment. PMID:19792134
Symmetry aspects of nonholonomic field theories
J. Vankerschaver; D. Martin de Diego
2007-12-14
The developments in this paper are concerned with nonholonomic field theories in the presence of symmetries. Having previously treated the case of vertical symmetries, we now deal with the case where the symmetry action can also have a horizontal component. As a first step in this direction, we derive a new and convenient form of the field equations of a nonholonomic field theory. Nonholonomic symmetries are then introduced as symmetry generators whose virtual work is zero along the constraint submanifold, and we show that for every such symmetry, there exists a so-called momentum equation, describing the evolution of the associated component of the momentum map. Keeping up with the underlying geometric philosophy, a small modification of the derivation of the momentum lemma allows us to treat also generalized nonholonomic symmetries, which are vector fields along a projection. Such symmetries arise for example in practical examples of nonholonomic field theories such as the Cosserat rod, for which we recover both energy conservation (a previously known result), as well as a modified conservation law associated with spatial translations.
Symmetry aspects of nonholonomic field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vankerschaver, Joris; Martín de Diego, David
2008-01-01
The developments in this paper are concerned with nonholonomic field theories in the presence of symmetries. Having previously treated the case of vertical symmetries, we now deal with the case where the symmetry action can also have a horizontal component. As a first step in this direction, we derive a new and convenient form of the field equations of a nonholonomic field theory. Nonholonomic symmetries are then introduced as symmetry generators whose virtual work is zero along the constraint submanifold, and we show that for every such symmetry, there exists a so-called momentum equation, describing the evolution of the associated component of the momentum map. Keeping up with the underlying geometric philosophy, a small modification of the derivation of the momentum lemma allows us to also treat generalized nonholonomic symmetries, which are vector fields along a projection. Such symmetries arise for example in practical examples of nonholonomic field theories such as the Cosserat rod, for which we recover both energy conservation (a previously known result) and a modified conservation law associated with spatial translations.
Field Theory at a Lifshitz Point
Bin Chen; Qing-Guo Huang
2009-12-11
We construct the general renormalizable actions for the scalar field and the gauge field at a Lifshitz point characterized by the dynamical critical exponent $z$. The Lorentz invariance is broken down in the UV region, but is recovered in the IR limit. Even though the theories are UV complete, the speed of light is related to the momentum by $z(k/M)^{z-1}$ which can go to infinity in the UV limit for $z\\geq 2$. Since the Lorentz invariance is broken down, the dispersion relation is modified and the time delays in Gamma-Ray bursts can be easily explained. In addition, we also discuss the thermal dynamics and the size of causal patch in a FRW universe for the field theory at a Lifshitz point.
Conservation laws. Generation of physical fields. Principles of field theories
L. I. Petrova
2007-04-19
In the paper the role of conservation laws in evolutionary processes, which proceed in material systems (in material media) and lead to generation of physical fields, is shown using skew-symmetric differential forms. In present paper the skew-symmetric differential forms on deforming (nondifferentiable) manifolds were used in addition to exterior forms, which have differentiable manifolds as a basis. Such skew-symmetric forms (which were named evolutionary ones since they possess evolutionary properties), as well as the closed exterior forms, describe the conservation laws. But in contrast to exterior forms, which describe conservation laws for physical fields, the evolutionary forms correspond to conservation laws for material systems. The evolutionary forms possess an unique peculiarity, namely, the closed exterior forms are obtained from these forms. It is just this that enables one to describe the process of generation of physical fields, to disclose connection between physical fields and material systems and to resolve many problems of existing field theories.
Heisenberg-picture quantum field theory
Theo Johnson-Freyd
2015-08-24
This paper discusses what we should mean by "Heisenberg-picture quantum field theory." Atiyah--Segal-type axioms do a good job of capturing the "Schr\\"odinger picture": these axioms define a "$d$-dimensional quantum field theory" to be a symmetric monoidal functor from an $(\\infty,d)$-category of "spacetimes" to an $(\\infty,d)$-category which at the second-from-top level consists of vector spaces, so at the top level consists of numbers. This paper argues that the appropriate parallel notion "Heisenberg picture" should also be defined in terms of symmetric monoidal functors from the category of spacetimes, but the target should be an $(\\infty,d)$-category that in top dimension consists of pointed vector spaces instead of numbers; the second-from-top level can be taken to consist of associative algebras or of pointed categories. The paper ends by outlining two sources of such Heisenberg-picture field theories: factorization algebras and skein theory.
Rosetta: an operator basis translator for Standard Model effective field theory
Adam Falkowski; Benjamin Fuks; Kentarou Mawatari; Ken Mimasu; Francesco Riva; Verónica sanz
2015-12-07
We introduce Rosetta, a program allowing for the translation between different bases of effective field theory operators. We present the main functions of the program and provide an example of usage. One of the Lagrangians which Rosetta can translate into has been implemented into FeynRules, which allows Rosetta to be interfaced into various high-energy physics programs such as Monte Carlo event generators. In addition to popular bases choices, such as the Warsaw and Strongly Interacting Light Higgs bases already implemented in the program, we also detail how to add new operator bases into the Rosetta package. In this way, phenomenological studies using an effective field theory framework can be straightforwardly performed.
S. S. Avancini; M. E. Bracco; M. Chiapparini; D. P. Menezes
2003-11-06
In this work we study in a formal way the density dependent hadron field theory at finite temperature for nuclear matter. The thermodynamical potential and related quantities, as energy density and pressure are derived in two different ways. We first obtain the thermodynamical potential from the grand partition function, where the Hamiltonian depends on the density operator and is truncated at first order. We then reobtain the thermodynamical potential by calculating explicitly the energy density in a Thomas-Fermi approximation and considering the entropy of a fermi gas. The distribution functions for particles and antiparticles are the output of the minimization of the thermodynamical potential. It is shown that in the mean field theory the thermodynamical consistency is achieved. The connection with effective chiral lagrangians with Brown-Rho scaling is discussed.
Field Theory for Zero Sound and Ion Acoustic Wave in Astrophysical Matter
Gabadadze, Gregory
2015-01-01
We set up a field theory model to describe the longitudinal low energy modes in high density matter present in white dwarf stars. At the relevant scales, ions -- the nuclei of oxygen, carbon and helium -- are treated as heavy point-like spin-0 charged particles in an effective field theory approach, while the electron dynamics is described by the Dirac Lagrangian at the one-loop level. We show that there always exists a longitudinal gapless mode in the system irrespective whether the ions are in a plasma, crystal, or quantum liquid state. For certain values of the parameters, the gapless mode can be interpreted as a zero sound mode and, for other values, as an ion acoustic wave; we show that the zero sound and ion acoustic wave are complementary to each other. We discuss possible physical consequences of these modes for properties of white dwarfs.
Field Theory for Zero Sound and Ion Acoustic Wave in Astrophysical Matter
Gregory Gabadadze; Rachel A Rosen
2015-07-24
We set up a field theory model to describe the longitudinal low energy modes in high density matter present in white dwarf stars. At the relevant scales, ions -- the nuclei of oxygen, carbon and helium -- are treated as heavy point-like spin-0 charged particles in an effective field theory approach, while the electron dynamics is described by the Dirac Lagrangian at the one-loop level. We show that there always exists a longitudinal gapless mode in the system irrespective whether the ions are in a plasma, crystal, or quantum liquid state. For certain values of the parameters, the gapless mode can be interpreted as a zero sound mode and, for other values, as an ion acoustic wave; we show that the zero sound and ion acoustic wave are complementary to each other. We discuss possible physical consequences of these modes for properties of white dwarfs.
Saririan, K.
1997-05-01
In this thesis, the author presents some works in the direction of studying quantum effects in locally supersymmetric effective field theories that appear in the low energy limit of superstring theory. After reviewing the Kaehler covariant formulation of supergravity, he shows the calculation of the divergent one-loop contribution to the effective boson Lagrangian for supergravity, including the Yang-Mills sector and the helicity-odd operators that arise from integration over fermion fields. The only restriction is on the Yang-Mills kinetic energy normalization function, which is taken diagonal in gauge indices, as in models obtained from superstrings. He then presents the full result for the divergent one-loop contribution to the effective boson Lagrangian for supergravity coupled to chiral and Yang-Mills supermultiplets. He also considers the specific case of dilaton couplings in effective supergravity Lagrangians from superstrings, for which the one-loop result is considerably simplified. He studies gaugino condensation in the presence of an intermediate mass scale in the hidden sector. S-duality is imposed as an approximate symmetry of the effective supergravity theory. Furthermore, the author includes in the Kaehler potential the renormalization of the gauge coupling and the one-loop threshold corrections at the intermediate scale. It is shown that confinement is indeed achieved. Furthermore, a new running behavior of the dilaton arises which he attributes to S-duality. He also discusses the effects of the intermediate scale, and possible phenomenological implications of this model.
Parametric resonance in quantum field theory
J. Berges; J. Serreau
2003-07-09
We present the first study of parametric resonance in quantum field theory from a complete next-to-leading order calculation in a 1/N-expansion of the 2PI effective action, which includes scattering and memory effects. We present a complete numerical solution for an O(N)-symmetric scalar theory and provide an approximate analytic description of the nonlinear dynamics in the entire amplification range. We find that the classical resonant amplification at early times is followed by a collective amplification regime with explosive particle production in a broad momentum range, which is not accessible in a leading-order calculation.
Melonic phase transition in group field theory
Baratin, Aristide; Oriti, Daniele; Ryan, James P; Smerlak, Matteo
2013-01-01
Group field theories have recently been shown to admit a 1/N expansion dominated by so-called `melonic graphs', dual to triangulated spheres. In this note, we deepen the analysis of this melonic sector. We obtain a combinatorial formula for the melonic amplitudes in terms of a graph polynomial related to a higher dimensional generalization of the Kirchhoff tree-matrix theorem. Simple bounds on these amplitudes show the existence of a phase transition driven by melonic interaction processes. We restrict our study to the Boulatov-Ooguri models, which describe topological BF theories and are the basis for the construction of four dimensional models of quantum gravity.
Melonic phase transition in group field theory
Aristide Baratin; Sylvain Carrozza; Daniele Oriti; James P. Ryan; Matteo Smerlak
2014-06-09
Group field theories have recently been shown to admit a 1/N expansion dominated by so-called `melonic graphs', dual to triangulated spheres. In this note, we deepen the analysis of this melonic sector. We obtain a combinatorial formula for the melonic amplitudes in terms of a graph polynomial related to a higher dimensional generalization of the Kirchhoff tree-matrix theorem. Simple bounds on these amplitudes show the existence of a phase transition driven by melonic interaction processes. We restrict our study to the Boulatov-Ooguri models, which describe topological BF theories and are the basis for the construction of four dimensional models of quantum gravity.
Conformal field theories in a periodic potential: Results from holography and field theory
Chesler, Paul Michael
We study (2+1)-dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs) with a globally conserved U(1) charge, placed in a chemical potential which is periodically modulated along the spatial direction x with zero average: ?(x)=V?cos(kx). ...
Dualities in field theories and the role of K-theory Jonathan Rosenberg
Rosenberg, Jonathan M.
Dualities in field theories and the role of K-theory Jonathan Rosenberg Quantization and NCG, RIMS, Kyoto, Feb. 21Â23, 2011 Jonathan Rosenberg Dualities in field theories and the role of K-theory #12;Plan of the Lectures Abstract: It is now known (or in some cases just believed) that many quantum field theories
Bohmian Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory Detlef Durr,1,
Goldstein, Sheldon
in the quantum field theory, the theory describes explicit creation and annihilation events: the world linesBohmian Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory Detlef D¨urr,1, Sheldon Goldstein,2, Roderich Tumulka: July 1, 2004) We discuss a recently proposed extension of Bohmian mechanics to quantum field theory
Frobenius Algebra Structures in Topological Quantum Field Theory
Abrams, Lowell
Frobenius Algebra Structures in Topological Quantum Field Theory and Quantum Cohomology by Lowell on this, we prove the oneÂtoÂone correspondence between topological quantum field theories and Frobenius and Number Theory . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3 Topological Quantum Field Theories 37 3.1 Two
Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Topological Quantum Field Theory
Vladimir G. Ivancevic; Tijana T. Ivancevic
2008-12-11
These third-year lecture notes are designed for a 1-semester course in topological quantum field theory (TQFT). Assumed background in mathematics and physics are only standard second-year subjects: multivariable calculus, introduction to quantum mechanics and basic electromagnetism. Keywords: quantum mechanics/field theory, path integral, Hodge decomposition, Chern-Simons and Yang-Mills gauge theories, conformal field theory
Edward Lee Green
2009-08-25
Pandres has developed a theory in which the geometrical structure of a real four-dimensional space-time is expressed by a real orthonormal tetrad, and the group of diffeomorphisms is replaced by a larger group called the conservation group. This paper extends the geometrical foundation for Pandres' theory by developing an appropriate covariant derivative which is covariant under all local Lorentz (frame) transformations, including complex Lorentz transformations, as well as conservative transformations. After defining this extended covariant derivative, an appropriate Lagrangian and its resulting field equations are derived. As in Pandres' theory, these field equations result in a stress-energy tensor that has terms which may automatically represent the electroweak field. Finally, the theory is extended to include 2-spinors and 4-spinors.
Noether symmetries, energy-momentum tensors, and conformal invariance in classical field theory
Pons, Josep M.
2011-01-15
In the framework of classical field theory, we first review the Noether theory of symmetries, with simple rederivations of its essential results, with special emphasis given to the Noether identities for gauge theories. With this baggage on board, we next discuss in detail, for Poincare invariant theories in flat spacetime, the differences between the Belinfante energy-momentum tensor and a family of Hilbert energy-momentum tensors. All these tensors coincide on shell but they split their duties in the following sense: Belinfante's tensor is the one to use in order to obtain the generators of Poincare symmetries and it is a basic ingredient of the generators of other eventual spacetime symmetries which may happen to exist. Instead, Hilbert tensors are the means to test whether a theory contains other spacetime symmetries beyond Poincare. We discuss at length the case of scale and conformal symmetry, of which we give some examples. We show, for Poincare invariant Lagrangians, that the realization of scale invariance selects a unique Hilbert tensor which allows for an easy test as to whether conformal invariance is also realized. Finally we make some basic remarks on metric generally covariant theories and classical field theory in a fixed curved background.
Vortex operators in gauge field theories
Polchinski, J.
1980-07-01
Several related aspects of the 't Hooft vortex operator are studied. The current picture of the vacuum of quantum chromodynamics, the idea of dual field theories, and the idea of the vortex operator are reviewed first. The Abelian vortex operator written in terms of elementary fields and the calculation of its Green's functions are considered. A two-dimensional solvable model of a Dirac string is presented. The expression of the Green's functions more neatly in terms of Wu and Yang's geometrical idea of sections is addressed. The renormalization of the Green's functions of two kinds of Abelian looplike operators, the Wilson loop and the vortex operator, is studied; for both operators only an overall multiplicative renormalization is needed. In the case of the vortex this involves a surprising cancellation. Next, the dependence of the Green's functions of the Wilson and 't Hooft operators on the nature of the vacuum is discussed. The cluster properties of the Green's functions are emphasized. It is seen that the vortex operator in a massive Abelian theory always has surface-like clustering. The form of Green's functions in terms of Feynman graphs is the same in Higgs and symmetric phases; the difference appears in the sum over all tadpole trees. Finally, systems having fields in the fundamental representation are considered. When these fields enter only weakly into the dynamics, a vortex-like operator is anticipated. Any such operator can no longer be local looplike, but must have commutators at long range. A U(1) lattice gauge theory with two matter fields, one singly charged (fundamental) and one doubly charged (adjoint), is examined. When the fundamental field is weakly coupled, the expected phase transitions are found. When it is strongly coupled, the operator still appears to be a good order parameter, a discontinuous change in its behavior leads to a new phase transition. 18 figures.
Causality in Covariant String Field Theory
Hiroyuki Hata; Hajime Oda
1996-08-20
Causality is studied in the covariant formulation of free string field theory (SFT). We find that, though the string field in the covariant formulation is a functional of the ghost coordinates as well as the space-time coordinate and the latter contains the time-like oscillators with negative norm, the condition for the commutator of two open string fields to vanish is simply given by $\\int_0^\\pi d\\sigma\\left(\\Delta X^\\mu(\\sigma)\\right)^2 >0$, which is the same condition as in the light-cone gauge SFT. For closed SFT, the corresponding condition is given in a form which is manifestly invariant under the rigid shifts of the $\\sigma$ parameters of the two string fields.
Simulating quantum field theories with superconducting circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romero, Guillermo; García-Álvarez, Laura; Casanova, Jorge; Mezzacapo, Antonio; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique
2014-03-01
In this contribution, we present the quantum simulation of fermionic field modes interacting via a continuum of bosonic modes with superconducting circuits. Unlike many quantum technologies, superconducting circuits offer naturally the continuum of bosonic modes by means of one-dimensional transmission lines. In particular, we consider a simplified version of 1+1 quantum electrodynamics (QED), which may describe Yukawa interactions, and the coupling of fermions to the Higgs field. Our proof-of-principle proposal is designed within the state-of-the-art circuit QED technology, where fermionic fields are encoded in superconducting flux qubits, in a scalable approach that may lead to a full-fledged quantum simulation of quantum field theories. The author acknowledge support from Spanish MINECO FIS2012-36673-C03-02; UPV/EHU UFI 11/55; Basque Government IT472-10; SOLID, CCQED, PROMISCE, and SCALEQIT European projects.
Relative Entropies in Conformal Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lashkari, Nima
2014-08-01
Relative entropy is a measure of distinguishability for quantum states, and it plays a central role in quantum information theory. The family of Renyi entropies generalizes to Renyi relative entropies that include, as special cases, most entropy measures used in quantum information theory. We construct a Euclidean path-integral approach to Renyi relative entropies in conformal field theory, then compute the fidelity and the relative entropy of states in one spatial dimension at zero and finite temperature using a replica trick. In contrast to the entanglement entropy, the relative entropy is free of ultraviolet divergences, and is obtained as a limit of certain correlation functions. The relative entropy of two states provides an upper bound on their trace distance.
Relative entropies in conformal field theory.
Lashkari, Nima
2014-08-01
Relative entropy is a measure of distinguishability for quantum states, and it plays a central role in quantum information theory. The family of Renyi entropies generalizes to Renyi relative entropies that include, as special cases, most entropy measures used in quantum information theory. We construct a Euclidean path-integral approach to Renyi relative entropies in conformal field theory, then compute the fidelity and the relative entropy of states in one spatial dimension at zero and finite temperature using a replica trick. In contrast to the entanglement entropy, the relative entropy is free of ultraviolet divergences, and is obtained as a limit of certain correlation functions. The relative entropy of two states provides an upper bound on their trace distance. PMID:25126908
Nuclear effective field theory on the lattice
Hermann Krebs; Bugra Borasoy; Evgeny Epelbaum; Dean Lee; Ulf-G. Meiß ner
2008-10-01
In the low-energy region far below the chiral symmetry breaking scale (which is of the order of 1 GeV) chiral perturbation theory provides a model-independent approach for quantitative description of nuclear processes. In the two- and more-nucleon sector perturbation theory is applicable only at the level of an effective potential which serves as input in the corresponding dynamical equation. To deal with the resulting many-body problem we put chiral effective field theory (EFT) on the lattice. Here we present the results of our lattice EFT study up to next-to-next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion. Accurate description of two-nucleon phase-shifts and ground state energy ratio of dilute neutron matter up to corrections of higher orders shows that lattice EFT is a promising tool for a quantitative description of low-energy few- and many-body systems.
Gravity duals for nonrelativistic conformal field theories.
Balasubramanian, Koushik; McGreevy, John
2008-08-01
We attempt to generalize the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence to nonrelativistic conformal field theories which are invariant under Galilean transformations. Such systems govern ultracold atoms at unitarity, nucleon scattering in some channels, and, more generally, a family of universality classes of quantum critical behavior. We construct a family of metrics which realize these symmetries as isometries. They are solutions of gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to pressureless dust. We discuss realizations of the dust, which include a bulk superconductor. We develop the holographic dictionary and find two-point correlators of the correct form. A strange aspect of the correspondence is that the bulk geometry has two extra noncompact dimensions. PMID:18764448
Graphene as a Lattice Field Theory
Simon Hands; Wes Armour; Costas Strouthos
2015-01-08
We introduce effective field theories for the electronic properties of graphene in terms of relativistic fermions propagating in 2+1 dimensions, and outline how strong inter-electron interactions may be modelled by numerical simulation of a lattice field theory. For strong enough coupling an insulating state can form via condensation of particle-hole pairs, and it is demonstrated that this is a theoretical possibility for monolayer graphene. For bilayer graphene the effect of an interlayer bias voltage can be modelled by the introduction of a chemical potential (akin to isopsin chemical potential in QCD) with no accompanying sign problem; simulations reveal the presence of strong interactions among the residual degrees of freedom at the resulting Fermi surface, which is disrupted by an excitonic condensate. We also present preliminary results for the quasiparticle dispersion, which permit direct estimates of both the Fermi momentum and the induced gap.
Quantum algorithms for quantum field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jordan, Stephen
2015-03-01
Ever since Feynman's original proposal for quantum computers, one of the primary applications envisioned has been efficient simulation of other quantum systems. In fact, it has been conjectured that quantum computers would be universal simulators, which can simulate all physical systems using computational resources that scale polynomially with the system's number of degrees of freedom. Quantum field theories have posed a challenge in that the set of degrees of freedom is formally infinite. We show how quantum computers, if built, could nevertheless efficiently simulate certain quantum field theories at bounded energy scales. Our algorithm includes a new state preparation technique which we believe may find additional applications in quantum algorithms. Joint work with Keith Lee and John Preskill.
Effective Field Theory for Lattice Nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnea, N.; Contessi, L.; Gazit, D.; Pederiva, F.; van Kolck, U.
2015-02-01
We show how nuclear effective field theory (EFT) and ab initio nuclear-structure methods can turn input from lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD) into predictions for the properties of nuclei. We argue that pionless EFT is the appropriate theory to describe the light nuclei obtained in LQCD simulations carried out at pion masses heavier than the physical pion mass. We solve the EFT using the effective-interaction hyperspherical harmonics and auxiliary-field diffusion Monte Carlo methods. Fitting the three leading-order EFT parameters to the deuteron, dineutron, and triton LQCD energies at m??800 MeV , we reproduce the corresponding alpha-particle binding and predict the binding energies of mass-5 and mass-6 ground states.
Effective field theory for lattice nuclei.
Barnea, N; Contessi, L; Gazit, D; Pederiva, F; van Kolck, U
2015-02-01
We show how nuclear effective field theory (EFT) and ab initio nuclear-structure methods can turn input from lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD) into predictions for the properties of nuclei. We argue that pionless EFT is the appropriate theory to describe the light nuclei obtained in LQCD simulations carried out at pion masses heavier than the physical pion mass. We solve the EFT using the effective-interaction hyperspherical harmonics and auxiliary-field diffusion Monte Carlo methods. Fitting the three leading-order EFT parameters to the deuteron, dineutron, and triton LQCD energies at m_{?}?800??MeV, we reproduce the corresponding alpha-particle binding and predict the binding energies of mass-5 and mass-6 ground states. PMID:25699436
Magnetic fields and density functional theory
Salsbury Jr., Freddie
1999-02-01
A major focus of this dissertation is the development of functionals for the magnetic susceptibility and the chemical shielding within the context of magnetic field density functional theory (BDFT). These functionals depend on the electron density in the absence of the field, which is unlike any other treatment of these responses. There have been several advances made within this theory. The first of which is the development of local density functionals for chemical shieldings and magnetic susceptibilities. There are the first such functionals ever proposed. These parameters have been studied by constructing functionals for the current density and then using the Biot-Savart equations to obtain the responses. In order to examine the advantages and disadvantages of the local functionals, they were tested numerically on some small molecules.
Cosmological tachyon from cubic string field theory
Gianluca Calcagni
2006-05-04
The classical dynamics of the tachyon scalar field of cubic string field theory is considered on a cosmological background. Starting from a nonlocal action with arbitrary tachyon potential, which encodes the bosonic and several supersymmetric cases, we study the equations of motion in the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism and with a generalized Friedmann equation, appliable in braneworld or modified gravity models. The cases of cubic (bosonic) and quartic (supersymmetric) tachyon potential in general relativity are automatically included. We comment the validity of the slow-roll approximation, the stability of the cosmological perturbations, and the relation between this tachyon and the Dirac-Born-Infeld one.
Why are tensor field theories asymptotically free?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rivasseau, V.
2015-09-01
In this pedagogic letter we explain the combinatorics underlying the generic asymptotic freedom of tensor field theories. We focus on simple combinatorial models with a 1/p2 propagator and quartic interactions and on the comparison between the intermediate field representations of the vector, matrix and tensor cases. The transition from asymptotic freedom (tensor case) to asymptotic safety (matrix case) is related to the crossing symmetry of the matrix vertex, whereas in the vector case, the lack of asymptotic freedom (“Landau ghost”), as in the ordinary scalar ?^44 case, is simply due to the absence of any wave function renormalization at one loop.
Holographic Gauge Theory with Maxwell Magnetic Field
Wung-Hong Huang
2010-03-13
We first apply the transformation of mixing azimuthal with wrapped coordinate to the 11D M-theory with a stack N M5-branes to find the spacetime of a stack of N D4-branes with magnetic field in 10D IIA string theory, after the Kaluza-Klein reduction. In the near-horizon limit the background becomes the Melvin magnetic field deformed $AdS_6 \\times S^4$. Although the solution represents the D-branes under the Melvin RR one-form we use a simple observation to see that it also describes the solution of D-branes under the Maxwell magnetic field. As the magnetic field we consider is the part of the background itself we have presented an alternative to previous literature, because our method does not require the assumption of negligible back reaction. Next, we use the found solution to investigate the meson property through D4/D8 system (Sakai-Sugimoto model) and compare it with those studied by other authors. Finally, we present a detailed analysis about the Wilson loop therein and results show that the external Maxwell magnetic field will enhance the quark-antiquark potential.
Capture Reactions with Halo Effective Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Higa, R.
2015-12-01
Loosely bound nuclei far from the stability region emerge as a quantum phenomenon with many universal properties. The connection between these properties and the underlying symmetries can be best explored with halo/cluster EFT, an effective field theory where the softness of the binding momentum and the hardness of the core(s) form the expansion parameter of a given perturbative approach. In the following I highlight a particular application where these ideas are being tested, namely capture reactions.
Effective-field theories for heavy quarkonium
Brambilla, Nora; Pineda, Antonio; Soto, Joan; Vairo, Antonio
2005-10-15
This article reviews recent theoretical developments in heavy-quarkonium physics from the point of view of effective-field theories of QCD. We discuss nonrelativistic QCD and concentrate on potential nonrelativistic QCD. The main goal will be to derive Schroedinger equations based on QCD that govern heavy-quarkonium physics in the weak- and strong-coupling regimes. Finally, the review discusses a selected set of applications, which include spectroscopy, inclusive decays, and electromagnetic threshold production.
The propagator in polymer quantum field theory
Golam Mortuza Hossain; Viqar Husain; Sanjeev S. Seahra
2011-03-23
We study free scalar field theory on flat spacetime using a background independent (polymer) quantization procedure. Specifically we compute the propagator using a method that takes the energy spectrum and position matrix elements of the harmonic oscillator as inputs. We obtain closed form results in the infrared and ultraviolet regimes that give Lorentz invariance violating dispersion relations, and show suppression of propagation at sufficiently high energy.
Effective quantum field theories in general spacetimes
Andreas Raab
2013-02-17
We introduce regular charts as physical reference frames in spacetime, and we show that general spacetimes can always be fully captured by regular charts. Effective quantum field theories (QFTs) can be conveniently defined in regular reference frames, and the definition is independent of specific background metric and independent of specific regular reference frame. As a consequence, coupling to classical gravity is possible in effective QFTs without getting back-reaction effects. Moreover, we present an approach to effective QFTs including quantum gravity.
Locality in Free String Field Theory II. J. Dimock #
Locality in Free String Field Theory Â II. J. Dimock # Dept. of Mathematics SUNY at Bu#alo Bu#alo, NY 14214 January 29, 2001 Abstract We study the covariant free bosonic string field theory field theory 14 3.1 String field equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3
Lagrangian continuum dynamics in ALEGRA.
Wong, Michael K. W.; Love, Edward
2007-12-01
Alegra is an ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) multi-material finite element code that emphasizes large deformations and strong shock physics. The Lagrangian continuum dynamics package in Alegra uses a Galerkin finite element spatial discretization and an explicit central-difference stepping method in time. The goal of this report is to describe in detail the characteristics of this algorithm, including the conservation and stability properties. The details provided should help both researchers and analysts understand the underlying theory and numerical implementation of the Alegra continuum hydrodynamics algorithm.
Energy-momentum conservation laws in Finsler/Kawaguchi Lagrangian formulation
Takayoshi Ootsuka; Ryoko Yahagi; Muneyuki Ishida; Erico Tanaka
2015-06-16
We reformulate the standard Lagrangian formalism to a reparameterisation invariant Lagrangian formalism by means of Finsler and Kawaguchi geometry. In our formalism, various types of symmetries that appears in theories of physics are expressed geometrically by symmetries of Finsler (Kawaguchi) metric, and the conservation law of energy-momentum is a part of Euler-Lagrange equations. The application to scalar field, Dirac field, electromagnetic field and general relativity coupled to perfect fluid (added: ver.3) are discussed. By this formalism, we try to propose an alternative definition of energy-momentum current of gravity.
Adaptive Perturbation Theory: Quantum Mechanics and Field Theory
Weinstein, Marvin; /SLAC
2005-10-19
Adaptive perturbation is a new method for perturbatively computing the eigenvalues and eigenstates of quantum mechanical Hamiltonians that are widely believed not to be solvable by such methods. The novel feature of adaptive perturbation theory is that it decomposes a given Hamiltonian, H, into an unperturbed part and a perturbation in a way which extracts the leading non-perturbative behavior of the problem exactly. In this talk I will introduce the method in the context of the pure anharmonic oscillator and then apply it to the case of tunneling between symmetric minima. After that, I will show how this method can be applied to field theory. In that discussion I will show how one can non-perturbatively extract the structure of mass, wavefunction and coupling constant renormalization.
A new multisymplectic unified formalism for second-order classical field theories
Pedro D. Prieto-Martínez; Narciso Román-Roy
2015-06-05
We present a new multisymplectic framework for second-order classical field theories which is based on an extension of the unified Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism to these kinds of systems. This model provides a straightforward and simple way to define the Poincar\\'e-Cartan form and clarifies the construction of the Legendre map (univocally obtained as a consequence of the constraint algorithm). Likewise, it removes the undesirable arbitrariness in the solutions to the field equations, which are analyzed in-depth, and written in terms of holonomic sections and multivector fields. Our treatment therefore completes previous attempt to achieve this aim. The formulation is applied to describing some physical examples; in particular, to giving another alternative multisymplectic description of the Korteweg-de Vries equation.
Scalar Field Theories with Polynomial Shift Symmetries
Tom Griffin; Kevin T. Grosvenor; Petr Horava; Ziqi Yan
2015-08-04
We continue our study of naturalness in nonrelativistic QFTs of the Lifshitz type, focusing on scalar fields that can play the role of Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. Such systems allow for an extension of the constant shift symmetry to a shift by a polynomial of degree $P$ in spatial coordinates. These "polynomial shift symmetries" in turn protect the technical naturalness of modes with a higher-order dispersion relation, and lead to a refinement of the proposed classification of infrared Gaussian fixed points available to describe NG modes in nonrelativistic theories. Generic interactions in such theories break the polynomial shift symmetry explicitly to the constant shift. It is thus natural to ask: Given a Gaussian fixed point with polynomial shift symmetry of degree $P$, what are the lowest-dimension operators that preserve this symmetry, and deform the theory into a self-interacting scalar field theory with the shift symmetry of degree $P$? To answer this (essentially cohomological) question, we develop a new graph-theoretical technique, and use it to prove several classification theorems. First, in the special case of $P=1$ (essentially equivalent to Galileons), we reproduce the known Galileon $N$-point invariants, and find their novel interpretation in terms of graph theory, as an equal-weight sum over all labeled trees with $N$ vertices. Then we extend the classification to $P>1$ and find a whole host of new invariants, including those that represent the most relevant (or least irrelevant) deformations of the corresponding Gaussian fixed points, and we study their uniqueness.
Scalar Field Theories with Polynomial Shift Symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griffin, Tom; Grosvenor, Kevin T.; Ho?ava, Petr; Yan, Ziqi
2015-12-01
We continue our study of naturalness in nonrelativistic QFTs of the Lifshitz type, focusing on scalar fields that can play the role of Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. Such systems allow for an extension of the constant shift symmetry to a shift by a polynomial of degree P in spatial coordinates. These "polynomial shift symmetries" in turn protect the technical naturalness of modes with a higher-order dispersion relation, and lead to a refinement of the proposed classification of infrared Gaussian fixed points available to describe NG modes in nonrelativistic theories. Generic interactions in such theories break the polynomial shift symmetry explicitly to the constant shift. It is thus natural to ask: Given a Gaussian fixed point with polynomial shift symmetry of degree P, what are the lowest-dimension operators that preserve this symmetry, and deform the theory into a self-interacting scalar field theory with the shift symmetry of degree P? To answer this (essentially cohomological) question, we develop a new graph-theoretical technique, and use it to prove several classification theorems. First, in the special case of P = 1 (essentially equivalent to Galileons), we reproduce the known Galileon N-point invariants, and find their novel interpretation in terms of graph theory, as an equal-weight sum over all labeled trees with N vertices. Then we extend the classification to P > 1 and find a whole host of new invariants, including those that represent the most relevant (or least irrelevant) deformations of the corresponding Gaussian fixed points, and we study their uniqueness.
Towards a quantum field theory of primitive string fields
Ruehl, W.
2012-10-15
We denote generating functions of massless even higher-spin fields 'primitive string fields' (PSF's). In an introduction we present the necessary definitions and derive propagators and currents of these PDF's on flat space. Their off-shell cubic interaction can be derived after all off-shell cubic interactions of triplets of higher-spin fields have become known. Then we discuss four-point functions of any quartet of PSF's. In subsequent sections we exploit the fact that higher-spin field theories in AdS{sub d+1} are determined by AdS/CFT correspondence from universality classes of critical systems in d-dimensional flat spaces. The O(N) invariant sectors of the O(N) vector models for 1 {<=} N {<=}{infinity} play for us the role of 'standard models', for varying N, they contain, e.g., the Ising model for N = 1 and the spherical model for N = {infinity}. A formula for the masses squared that break gauge symmetry for these O(N) classes is presented for d = 3. For the PSF on AdS space it is shown that it can be derived by lifting the PSF on flat space by a simple kernel which contains the sum over all spins. Finally we use an algorithm to derive all symmetric tensor higher-spin fields. They arise from monomials of scalar fields by derivation and selection of conformal (quasiprimary) fields. Typically one monomial produces a multiplet of spin s conformal higher-spin fields for all s {>=} 4, they are distinguished by their anomalous dimensions (in CFT{sub 3}) or by theirmass (in AdS{sub 4}). We sum over these multiplets and the spins to obtain 'string type fields', one for each such monomial.
Non-topological solitons in field theories with kinetic self-coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diaz-Alonso, Joaquin; Rubiera-Garcia, Diego
2007-09-01
We investigate some fundamental features of a class of non-linear relativistic Lagrangian field theories with kinetic self-coupling. We focus our attention upon theories admitting static, spherically symmetric solutions in three space dimensions which are finite-energy and stable. We determine general conditions for the existence and stability of these non-topological soliton solutions. In particular, we perform a linear stability analysis that goes beyond the usual Derrick-like criteria. On the basis of these considerations we obtain a complete characterization of the soliton-supporting members of the aforementioned class of non-linear field theories. We then classify the family of soliton-supporting theories according to the central and asymptotic behaviors of the soliton field, and provide illustrative explicit examples of models belonging to each of the corresponding sub-families. In the present work we restrict most of our considerations to one and many-components scalar models. We show that in these cases the finite-energy static spherically symmetric solutions are stable against charge-preserving perturbations, provided that the vacuum energy of the model vanishes and the energy density is positive definite. We also discuss briefly the extension of the present approach to models involving other types of fields, but a detailed study of this more general scenario will be addressed in a separate publication.
Algebraic quantum field theory in curved spacetimes
Christopher J. Fewster; Rainer Verch
2015-04-02
This article sets out the framework of algebraic quantum field theory in curved spacetimes, based on the idea of local covariance. In this framework, a quantum field theory is modelled by a functor from a category of spacetimes to a category of ($C^*$)-algebras obeying supplementary conditions. Among other things: (a) the key idea of relative Cauchy evolution is described in detail, and related to the stress-energy tensor; (b) a systematic "rigidity argument" is used to generalise results from flat to curved spacetimes; (c) a detailed discussion of the issue of selection of physical states is given, linking notions of stability at microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic scales; (d) the notion of subtheories and global gauge transformations are formalised; (e) it is shown that the general framework excludes the possibility of there being a single preferred state in each spacetime, if the choice of states is local and covariant. Many of the ideas are illustrated by the example of the free Klein-Gordon theory, which is given a new "universal definition".
Aspects of hot Galilean field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jensen, Kristan
2015-04-01
We reconsider general aspects of Galilean-invariant thermal field theory. Using the proposal of our companion paper, we recast non-relativistic hydrodynamics in a manifestly covariant way and couple it to a background spacetime. We examine the concomitant consequences for the thermal partition functions of Galilean theories on a time-independent, but weakly curved background. We work out both the hydrodynamics and partition functions in detail for the example of parity-violating normal fluids in two dimensions to first order in the gradient expansion, finding results that differ from those previously reported in the literature. As for relativistic field theories, the equality-type constraints imposed by the existence of an entropy current appear to be in one-to-one correspondence with those arising from the existence of a hydrostatic partition function. Along the way, we obtain a number of useful results about non-relativistic hydrodynamics, including a manifestly boost-invariant presentation thereof, simplified Ward identities, the systematics of redefinitions of the fluid variables, and the positivity of entropy production.
Dissipative inertial transport patterns near coherent Lagrangian eddies in the ocean
F. J. Beron-Vera; M. J. Olascoaga; G. Haller; M. Farazmand; J. Trinanes; Y. Wang
2015-02-23
Recent developments in dynamical systems theory have revealed long-lived and coherent Lagrangian (i.e., material) eddies in incompressible, satellite-derived surface ocean velocity fields. Paradoxically, observed drifting buoys and floating matter tend to create dissipative-looking patterns near oceanic eddies, which appear to be inconsistent with the conservative fluid particle patterns created by coherent Lagrangian eddies. Here we show that inclusion of inertial effects (i.e., those produced by the buoyancy and size finiteness of an object) in a rotating two-dimensional incompressible flow context resolves this paradox. Specifically, we obtain that anticyclonic coherent Lagrangian eddies attract (repel) negatively (positively) buoyant finite-size particles, while cyclonic coherent Lagrangian eddies attract (repel) positively (negatively) buoyant finite-size particles. We show how these results explain dissipative-looking satellite-tracked surface drifter and subsurface float trajectories, as well as satellite-derived \\emph{Sargassum} distributions.
Ramond Equations of Motion in Superstring Field Theory
Theodore Erler; Sebastian Konopka; Ivo Sachs
2015-06-18
We extend the recently constructed NS superstring field theories in the small Hilbert space to give classical field equations for all superstring theories, including Ramond sectors. We also comment on the realization of supersymmetry in this framework.
Physics 221B: Solution to HW # 8 Quantum Field Theory
Murayama, Hitoshi
Physics 221B: Solution to HW # 8 Quantum Field Theory 1) Bosonic Grand-Partition Function The solution to this problem is outlined clearly in the beginning of the lecture notes `Quantum Field Theory II
On Superselection Theory of Quantum Fields in Low Dimensions
Michael Mueger
2009-09-14
We discuss finite local extensions of quantum field theories in low space time dimensions in connection with categorical structures and the question of modular invariants in conformal field theory, also touching upon purely mathematical ramifications.
8.324 Quantum Field Theory II, Fall 2002
Hanany, Amihay
Second semester of a three-semester subject sequence on quantum field theory stressing the relativistic quantum field theories relevant to the physics of the Standard Model. Develops in depth some of the topics discussed ...
Parameter-Free Calculation of the Solar Proton Fusion Rate in Effective Field Theory
T. -S. Park; L. E. Marcucci; R. Schiavilla; M. Viviani; A. Kievsky; S. Rosati; K. Kubodera; D. -P. Min; M. Rho
2001-07-16
Spurred by the recent complete determination of the weak currents in two-nucleon systems up to ${\\cal O}(Q^3)$ in heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory, we carry out a parameter-free calculation of the solar proton fusion rate in an effective field theory that combines the merits of the standard nuclear physics method and systematic chiral expansion. Using the tritium beta-decay rate as an input to fix the only unknown parameter in the effective Lagrangian, we can evaluate with drastically improved precision the ratio of the two-body contribution to the well established one-body contribution; the ratio is determined to be (0.86\\pm 0.05) %. This result is essentially independent of the cutoff parameter for a wide range of its variation (500 MeV \\le \\Lambda \\le 800 MeV), a feature that substantiates the consistency of the calculation.
The effective field theory of dark energy
Gubitosi, Giulia; Vernizzi, Filippo; Piazza, Federico E-mail: fpiazza@apc.univ-paris7.fr
2013-02-01
We propose a universal description of dark energy and modified gravity that includes all single-field models. By extending a formalism previously applied to inflation, we consider the metric universally coupled to matter fields and we write in terms of it the most general unitary gauge action consistent with the residual unbroken symmetries of spatial diffeomorphisms. Our action is particularly suited for cosmological perturbation theory: the background evolution depends on only three operators. All other operators start at least at quadratic order in the perturbations and their effects can be studied independently and systematically. In particular, we focus on the properties of a few operators which appear in non-minimally coupled scalar-tensor gravity and galileon theories. In this context, we study the mixing between gravity and the scalar degree of freedom. We assess the quantum and classical stability, derive the speed of sound of fluctuations and the renormalization of the Newton constant. The scalar can always be de-mixed from gravity at quadratic order in the perturbations, but not necessarily through a conformal rescaling of the metric. We show how to express covariant field-operators in our formalism and give several explicit examples of dark energy and modified gravity models in our language. Finally, we discuss the relation with the covariant EFT methods recently appeared in the literature.
Hen Process in Effective Field Theory
Young-Ho Song; Tae-Sun Park
2003-11-17
An effective field theory technique that combines the standard nuclear physics approach and chiral perturbation theory is applied to the $hen$ process, ${}^{3}{He}+n\\to {}^{4}{He}+ \\gamma$. For the initial and final nuclear states, high-precision wave functions are generated via the variational Monte Carlo method using the Argonne $v_{14}$ potential and Urbana VIII trinucleon interactions, while the relevant transition operators are calculated up to ${\\cal O}(Q^4)$ in HB$\\chi$PT. The imposition of the renormalization condition that the magnetic moments of ${}^{3}{He}$ and ${}^{3}{H}$ be reproduced allows us to carry out a parameter-free calculation of the $hen$ cross section. The result, $\\sigma=(60\\pm 3\\pm 1) \\mu b$, is in reasonable agreement with the experimental values, $(54\\pm 6) \\mu b$ and $(55\\pm 3) \\mu b$. This agreement demonstrates the validity of the calculational method previously used for estimating the reaction rate of the solar $hep$ process.
Chiral effective field theory for nuclear matter
A. Lacour; U. -G. Meissner; J. A. Oller
2010-09-15
We report on the recent developments of a new effective field theory for nuclear matter [1,2,3]. We present first the nuclear matter chiral power counting that takes into account both short-- and long--range inter-nucleon interactions. It also identifies non-perturbative strings of diagrams, related to the iteration of nucleon-nucleon interactions, which have to be re-summed. The methods of unitary chiral perturbation theory has been shown to be a useful tool in order to perform those resummations. Results up to next-to-leading order for the ground state energy per particle of nuclear matter, the in-medium chiral quark condensate and pion self-energy are discussed.
Working Group Report: Lattice Field Theory
Blum, T.; et al.,
2013-10-22
This is the report of the Computing Frontier working group on Lattice Field Theory prepared for the proceedings of the 2013 Community Summer Study ("Snowmass"). We present the future computing needs and plans of the U.S. lattice gauge theory community and argue that continued support of the U.S. (and worldwide) lattice-QCD effort is essential to fully capitalize on the enormous investment in the high-energy physics experimental program. We first summarize the dramatic progress of numerical lattice-QCD simulations in the past decade, with some emphasis on calculations carried out under the auspices of the U.S. Lattice-QCD Collaboration, and describe a broad program of lattice-QCD calculations that will be relevant for future experiments at the intensity and energy frontiers. We then present details of the computational hardware and software resources needed to undertake these calculations.
Heterotic ?'-corrections in Double Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bedoya, Oscar A.; Marqués, Diego; Núñez, Carmen
2014-12-01
We extend the generalized flux formulation of Double Field Theory to include all the first order bosonic contributions to the ?' expansion of the heterotic string low energy effective theory. The generalized tangent space and duality group are enhanced by ?' corrections, and the gauge symmetries are generated by the usual (gauged) generalized Lie derivative in the extended space. The generalized frame receives derivative corrections through the spin connection with torsion, which is incorporated as a new degree of freedom in the extended bein. We compute the generalized fluxes and find the Riemann curvature tensor with torsion as one of their components. All the four-derivative terms of the action, Bianchi identities and equations of motion are reproduced. Using this formalism, we obtain the first order ?' corrections to the heterotic Buscher rules. The relation of our results to alternative formulations in the literature is discussed and future research directions are outlined.
Infinite circumference limit of conformal field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Tada, Tsukasa
2015-08-01
We argue that an infinite circumference limit can be obtained in two-dimensional conformal field theory by adopting {L}0-({L}1+{L}-1)/2 as a Hamiltonian instead of L0. The theory obtained has a circumference of infinite length and hence exhibits a continuous and heavily degenerated spectrum as well as the continuous Virasoro algebra. The choice of this Hamiltonian was inspired partly by the so-called sine-square deformation, which is found in the study of a certain class of quantum statistical systems. The enigmatic behavior of sine-square deformed systems such as the sharing of their vacuum states with the closed boundary systems can be understood by the appearance of an infinite circumference.
Geoffrey Compère
2007-08-23
The treatment of exact conservation laws in Lagrangian gauge theories constitutes the main axis of the first part of the thesis. The formalism is developed as a self-consistent theory but is inspired by earlier works, mainly by cohomological results, covariant phase space methods and by the Hamiltonian formalism. The thermodynamical properties of black holes, especially the first law, are studied in a general geometrical setting and are worked out for several black objects: black holes, strings and rings. Also, the geometrical and thermodynamical properties of a new family of black holes with closed timelike curves in three dimensions are described. The second part of the thesis is the natural generalization of the first part to asymptotic analyses. We start with a general construction of covariant phase spaces admitting asymptotically conserved charges. The representation of the asymptotic symmetry algebra by a covariant Poisson bracket among the conserved charges is then defined and is shown to admit generically central extensions. The asymptotic structures of three three-dimensional spacetimes are then studied in detail and the consequences for quantum gravity in three dimensions are discussed.
Why Renormalizable NonCommutative Quantum Field Theories?
Vincent Rivasseau
2007-11-12
We complete our previous recent review on noncommutative field theory, discussing in particular the constructive aproach to the Grosse-Wulkenhaar theory. We also suggest that by gluing together many Grosse-Wulkenhaar theories at high energy one can obtain an effective commutative field theory at lower energy.
The effective field theory treatment of quantum gravity
Donoghue, John F.
2012-09-24
This is a pedagogical introduction to the treatment of quantum general relativity as an effective field theory. It starts with an overview of the methods of effective field theory and includes an explicit example. Quantum general relativity matches this framework and I discuss gravitational examples as well as the limits of the effective field theory. I also discuss the insights from effective field theory on the gravitational effects on running couplings in the perturbative regime.
On open-closed extension of boundary string field theory
Akira Ishida; Shunsuke Teraguchi
2012-07-11
We investigate a classical open-closed string field theory whose open string sector is given by boundary string field theory. The open-closed interaction is introduced by the overlap of a boundary state with a closed string field. With the help of the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, the closed string sector is determined to be the HIKKO closed string field theory. We also discuss the gauge invariance of this theory in both open and closed string sides.
Microscopic Fields and Macroscopic Averages in Einstein's Unified Field Theory
S. Antoci
1998-01-15
The relation between microscopic and macroscopic entities in the generally covariant theories is considered, and it is argued that a sensible definition of the macroscopic averages requires a restriction of the allowed transformations of coordinates. Spacetime averages of the geometric objects of Einstein's unified field theory are then defined, and the reconstruction of some features of macroscopic reality from hypothetic microscopic structures is attempted. It is shown how a fluctuating microscopic behaviour of the metric field can rule the constitutive relation for electromagnetism both in vacuo and in nondispersive material media. Moreover, if both the metric and the skew tensor density that represents the electric displacement and the magnetic field are assumed to possess a wavy microscopic structure, nonvanishing generalized force densities can appear in the continuum. They originate from a resonance process, in which at least three waves need to be involved. This process only occurs if the wavevectors fulfil the three-wave resonance condition, so ubiquitous in quantum physics. The wavy behaviour of the metric is essential for the occurrence of this resonance phenomenon.
A. Ibort; A. Spivak
2015-11-10
Inspired by problems arising in the geometrical treatment of Yang-Mills theories and Palatini's gravity, the covariant formulation of Hamiltonian dynamical systems as a Hamiltonian field theory of dimension $1+0$ on a manifold with boundary is discussed. After a precise statement of Hamilton's variational principle in this context, the geometrical properties of the space of solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equations of the theory are analyzed. A sufficient condition is obtained that guarantees that the set of solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equations at the boundary of the manifold, fill a Lagrangian submanifold of the space of fields at the boundary. Finally a theory of constraints is introduced that mimics the constraints arising in Palatini's gravity.
Introduction to Nonequilibrium Quantum Field Theory
J. Berges
2004-09-20
There has been substantial progress in recent years in the quantitative understanding of the nonequilibrium time evolution of quantum fields. Important topical applications, in particular in high energy particle physics and cosmology, involve dynamics of quantum fields far away from the ground state or thermal equilibrium. In these cases, standard approaches based on small deviations from equilibrium, or on a sufficient homogeneity in time underlying kinetic descriptions, are not applicable. A particular challenge is to connect the far-from-equilibrium dynamics at early times with the approach to thermal equilibrium at late times. Understanding the ``link'' between the early- and the late-time behavior of quantum fields is crucial for a wide range of phenomena. For the first time questions such as the explosive particle production at the end of the inflationary universe, including the subsequent process of thermalization, can be addressed in quantum field theory from first principles. The progress in this field is based on efficient functional integral techniques, so-called n-particle irreducible effective actions, for which powerful nonperturbative approximation schemes are available. Here we give an introduction to these techniques and show how they can be applied in practice. Though we focus on particle physics and cosmology applications, we emphasize that these techniques can be equally applied to other nonequilibrium phenomena in complex many body systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
Five neutral points (points at which an object experiences no net gravitational force), in the combined gravitational field of two massive bodies which are orbiting their center of mass, at which an object of much smaller mass can exist in equilibrium. They are so named because Joseph-Louis Lagrange in 1772 was the first to find them as solutions to a restricted case of the three-body problem. Th...
Nontrivial realization of the space-time translations in the theory of quantum fields
Marcin Ka?mierczak
2010-09-15
In standard quantum field theory, the one-particle states are classified by unitary representations of the Poincar\\'e group, whereas the causal fields' classification employs the finite dimensional (non-unitary) representations of the (homogeneous) Lorentz group. A natural question arises - why the fields are not allowed to transform nontrivially under translations? We investigate this issue by considering the fields that transform under the full representation of the Poincar\\'e group. It follows that such fields can be consistently constructed, although the Lagrangians that describe them necessarily exhibit explicit dependence on the space-time coordinates. The two examples of the Poincar\\'e-spinor and the Poincar\\'e-vector fields are considered in details. The inclusion of Yang--Mills type interactions is considered on the simplest example of the U(1) gauge theory. The generalization to the non-abelian case is straightforward so long as the action of the gauge group on fields is independent of the action of the Poincar\\'e group. This is the case for all the known interactions but gravity.
Mean Field Theory of Learning in Pruned Perceptrons ?
Liu, Yunhao
Mean Field Theory of Learning in Pruned Perceptrons ? K. Y. Michael Wong Department of Physics@usthk.ust.hk Abstract. We consider the mean field theory of optimally pruned per ceptrons. Using the cavity method to the micro scopic equations result in high stability of the examples. 1 Introduction The mean field theory
Locality in Free String Field Theory J. Dimock \\Lambda
Locality in Free String Field Theory J. Dimock \\Lambda Dept. of Mathematics SUNY at Buffalo Buffalo field theory is local. The question for interacting strings is completely unsettled, since the theory, NY 14214 April 27, 1998 Abstract Free string field operators are constructed for the open bosonic
221B Lecture Notes Quantum Field Theory II (Bose Systems)
Murayama, Hitoshi
221B Lecture Notes Quantum Field Theory II (Bose Systems) 1 Statistical Mechanics of Bosons 1 function of the system. Let us consider the partition function of the free Schr¨odinger field theory, first the bosonic one. This calculation shows non-trivially that the quantized Schr¨odinger field theory indeed con
Dynamic field theory and equations of motion in cosmology
Kopeikin, Sergei M.; Petrov, Alexander N.
2014-11-15
We discuss a field-theoretical approach based on general-relativistic variational principle to derive the covariant field equations and hydrodynamic equations of motion of baryonic matter governed by cosmological perturbations of dark matter and dark energy. The action depends on the gravitational and matter Lagrangian. The gravitational Lagrangian depends on the metric tensor and its first and second derivatives. The matter Lagrangian includes dark matter, dark energy and the ordinary baryonic matter which plays the role of a bare perturbation. The total Lagrangian is expanded in an asymptotic Taylor series around the background cosmological manifold defined as a solution of Einstein’s equations in the form of the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) metric tensor. The small parameter of the decomposition is the magnitude of the metric tensor perturbation. Each term of the series expansion is gauge-invariant and all of them together form a basis for the successive post-Friedmannian approximations around the background metric. The approximation scheme is covariant and the asymptotic nature of the Lagrangian decomposition does not require the post-Friedmannian perturbations to be small though computationally it works the most effectively when the perturbed metric is close enough to the background FLRW metric. The temporal evolution of the background metric is governed by dark matter and dark energy and we associate the large scale inhomogeneities in these two components as those generated by the primordial cosmological perturbations with an effective matter density contrast ??/??1. The small scale inhomogeneities are generated by the condensations of baryonic matter considered as the bare perturbations of the background manifold that admits ??/??1. Mathematically, the large scale perturbations are given by the homogeneous solution of the linearized field equations while the small scale perturbations are described by a particular solution of these equations with the bare stress–energy tensor of the baryonic matter. We explicitly work out the covariant field equations of the successive post-Friedmannian approximations of Einstein’s equations in cosmology and derive equations of motion of large and small scale inhomogeneities of dark matter and dark energy. We apply these equations to derive the post-Friedmannian equations of motion of baryonic matter comprising stars, galaxies and their clusters.
Dynamic field theory and equations of motion in cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopeikin, Sergei M.; Petrov, Alexander N.
2014-11-01
We discuss a field-theoretical approach based on general-relativistic variational principle to derive the covariant field equations and hydrodynamic equations of motion of baryonic matter governed by cosmological perturbations of dark matter and dark energy. The action depends on the gravitational and matter Lagrangian. The gravitational Lagrangian depends on the metric tensor and its first and second derivatives. The matter Lagrangian includes dark matter, dark energy and the ordinary baryonic matter which plays the role of a bare perturbation. The total Lagrangian is expanded in an asymptotic Taylor series around the background cosmological manifold defined as a solution of Einstein's equations in the form of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric tensor. The small parameter of the decomposition is the magnitude of the metric tensor perturbation. Each term of the series expansion is gauge-invariant and all of them together form a basis for the successive post-Friedmannian approximations around the background metric. The approximation scheme is covariant and the asymptotic nature of the Lagrangian decomposition does not require the post-Friedmannian perturbations to be small though computationally it works the most effectively when the perturbed metric is close enough to the background FLRW metric. The temporal evolution of the background metric is governed by dark matter and dark energy and we associate the large scale inhomogeneities in these two components as those generated by the primordial cosmological perturbations with an effective matter density contrast ?? / ? ? 1. The small scale inhomogeneities are generated by the condensations of baryonic matter considered as the bare perturbations of the background manifold that admits ?? / ? ? 1. Mathematically, the large scale perturbations are given by the homogeneous solution of the linearized field equations while the small scale perturbations are described by a particular solution of these equations with the bare stress-energy tensor of the baryonic matter. We explicitly work out the covariant field equations of the successive post-Friedmannian approximations of Einstein's equations in cosmology and derive equations of motion of large and small scale inhomogeneities of dark matter and dark energy. We apply these equations to derive the post-Friedmannian equations of motion of baryonic matter comprising stars, galaxies and their clusters.
The Heisenberg group and conformal field theory
Hessel Posthuma
2011-05-24
A mathematical construction of the conformal field theory (CFT) associated to a compact torus, also called the "nonlinear Sigma-model" or "lattice-CFT", is given. Underlying this approach to CFT is a unitary modular functor, the construction of which follows from a "Quantization commutes with reduction"- type of theorem for unitary quantizations of the moduli spaces of holomorphic torus-bundles and actions of loop groups. This theorem in turn is a consequence of general constructions in the category of affine symplectic manifolds and their associated generalized Heisenberg groups.
Matrix product approximations to conformal field theories
Robert Koenig; Volkher B. Scholz
2015-09-24
We establish rigorous error bounds for approximating correlation functions of conformal field theories (CFTs) by certain finite-dimensional tensor networks. For chiral CFTs, the approximation takes the form of a matrix product state. For full CFTs consisting of a chiral and an anti-chiral part, the approximation is given by a finitely correlated state. We show that the bond dimension scales polynomially in the inverse of the approximation error and sub-exponentially in the ultraviolett cutoff. We illustrate our findings using Wess-Zumino-Witten models, and show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between group-covariant MPS and our approximation.
Drift estimation from a simple field theory
Mendes, F. M.; Figueiredo, A.
2008-11-06
Given the outcome of a Wiener process, what can be said about the drift and diffusion coefficients? If the process is stationary, these coefficients are related to the mean and variance of the position displacements distribution. However, if either drift or diffusion are time-dependent, very little can be said unless some assumption about that dependency is made. In Bayesian statistics, this should be translated into some specific prior probability. We use Bayes rule to estimate these coefficients from a single trajectory. This defines a simple, and analytically tractable, field theory.
Purely cubic action for string field theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horowitz, G. T.; Lykken, J.; Rohm, R.; Strominger, A.
1986-01-01
It is shown that Witten's (1986) open-bosonic-string field-theory action and a closed-string analog can be written as a purely cubic interaction term. The conventional form of the action arises by expansion around particular solutions of the classical equations of motion. The explicit background dependence of the conventional action via the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator is eliminated in the cubic formulation. A closed-form expression is found for the full nonlinear gauge-transformation law.
Theory of microemulsions in a gravitational field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jeng, J. F.; Miller, Clarence A.
1989-01-01
A theory of microemulsions developed previously is extended to include the effect of a gravitational field. It predicts variation with position of drop size, drop volume fraction, and area per molecule in the surfactant films within a microemulsion phase. Variation in volume fraction is greatest and occurs in such a way that oil content increases with increasing elevation, as has been found experimentally. Large composition variations are predicted within a middle phase microemulsion near optimal conditions because inversion from the water-continuous to the oil-continuous arrangement occurs with increasing elevation. Generally speaking, gravity reduces solubilization within microemulsions and promotes separation of excess phases.
Thermalization of Strongly Coupled Field Theories
Balasubramanian, V.; Bernamonti, A.; Copland, N.; Craps, B.; Staessens, W.; Boer, J. de; Keski-Vakkuri, E.; Mueller, B.; Schaefer, A.; Shigemori, M.
2011-05-13
Using the holographic mapping to a gravity dual, we calculate 2-point functions, Wilson loops, and entanglement entropy in strongly coupled field theories in d=2, 3, and 4 to probe the scale dependence of thermalization following a sudden injection of energy. For homogeneous initial conditions, the entanglement entropy thermalizes slowest and sets a time scale for equilibration that saturates a causality bound. The growth rate of entanglement entropy density is nearly volume-independent for small volumes but slows for larger volumes. In this setting, the UV thermalizes first.
Thermalization of strongly coupled field theories.
Balasubramanian, V; Bernamonti, A; de Boer, J; Copland, N; Craps, B; Keski-Vakkuri, E; Müller, B; Schäfer, A; Shigemori, M; Staessens, W
2011-05-13
Using the holographic mapping to a gravity dual, we calculate 2-point functions, Wilson loops, and entanglement entropy in strongly coupled field theories in d=2, 3, and 4 to probe the scale dependence of thermalization following a sudden injection of energy. For homogeneous initial conditions, the entanglement entropy thermalizes slowest and sets a time scale for equilibration that saturates a causality bound. The growth rate of entanglement entropy density is nearly volume-independent for small volumes but slows for larger volumes. In this setting, the UV thermalizes first. PMID:21668141
Conformal field theory of critical Casimir forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emig, Thorsten; Bimonte, Giuseppe; Kardar, Mehran
2015-03-01
Thermal fluctuations of a critical system induce long-ranged Casimir forces between objects that couple to the underlying field. For two dimensional conformal field theories (CFT) we derive exact results for the Casimir interaction for a deformed strip and for two compact objects of arbitrary shape in terms of the free energy of a standard region (circular ring or flat strip) whose dimension is determined by the mutual capacitance of two conductors with the objects' shape; and a purely geometric energy that is proportional to conformal charge of the CFT, but otherwise super-universal in that it depends only on the shapes and is independent of boundary conditions and other details. The effect of inhomogenous boundary conditions is also discussed.
Causality Is Inconsistent With Quantum Field Theory
Wolf, Fred Alan
2011-11-29
Causality in quantum field theory means the vanishing of commutators for spacelike separated fields (VCSSF). I will show that VCSSF is not tenable. For VCSSF to be tenable, and therefore, to have both retarded and advanced propagators vanish in the elsewhere, a superposition of negative energy antiparticle and positive energy particle propagators, traveling forward in time, and a superposition of negative energy particle and positive energy antiparticle propagators, traveling backward in time, are required. Hence VCSSF predicts non-vanishing probabilities for both negative energy particles in the forward-through-time direction and positive energy antiparticles in the backwards-through-time direction. Therefore, since VCSSF is unrealizable in a stable universe, tachyonic propagation must occur in denial of causality.
Bekenstein bound in asymptotically free field theory
Arias, E.; Svaiter, N. F.; Menezes, G.
2010-08-15
For spatially bounded free fields, the Bekenstein bound states that the specific entropy satisfies the inequality (S/E){<=}2{pi}R, where R stands for the radius of the smallest sphere that circumscribes the system. The validity of the Bekenstein bound in the asymptotically free side of the Euclidean ({lambda}{phi}{sup 4}){sub d} scalar field theory is investigated. We consider the system in thermal equilibrium with a reservoir at temperature {beta}{sup -1} and defined in a compact spatial region without boundaries. Using the effective potential, we discuss the thermodynamic of the model. For low and high temperatures the system presents a condensate. We present the renormalized mean energy E and entropy S for the system and show in which situations the specific entropy satisfies the quantum bound.
Classical and quantum theory of the massive spin-two field
Koenigstein, Adrian; Rischke, Dirk H
2015-01-01
In this paper, we review classical and quantum field theory of massive non-interacting spin-two fields. We derive the equations of motion and Fierz-Pauli constraints via three different methods: the eigenvalue equations for the Casimir invariants of the Poincar\\'{e} group, a Lagrangian approach, and a covariant Hamilton formalism. We also present the conserved quantities, the solution of the equations of motion in terms of polarization tensors, and the tree-level propagator. We then discuss canonical quantization by postulating commutation relations for creation and annihilation operators. We express the energy, momentum, and spin operators in terms of the former. As an application, quark-antiquark currents for tensor mesons are presented. In particular, the current for tensor mesons with quantum numbers $J^{PC}=2^{-+}$ is, to our knowledge, given here for the first time.
Perfect magnetohydrodynamics as a field theory
Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Betschart, Gerold
2006-10-15
We propose the generally covariant action for the theory of a self-coupled complex scalar field and electromagnetism which by virtue of constraints is equivalent, in the regime of long wavelengths, to perfect magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We recover from it the Euler equation with Lorentz force, and the thermodynamic relations for a prefect fluid. The equation of state of the latter is related to the scalar field's self potential. We introduce 1+3 notation to elucidate the relation between MHD and field variables. In our approach the requirement that the scalar field be single valued leads to the quantization of a certain circulation in steps of ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}); this feature leads, in the classical limit, to the conservation of that circulation. The circulation is identical to that in Oron's generalization of Kelvin's circulation theorem to perfect MHD; we here characterize the new conserved helicity associated with it. We also demonstrate the existence for MHD of two Bernoulli-like theorems for each spacetime symmetry of the flow and geometry; one of these is pertinent to suitably defined potential flow. We exhibit the conserved quantities explicitly in the case that two symmetries are simultaneously present, and give examples. Also in this case we exhibit a new conserved MHD circulation distinct from Oron's, and provide an example.
Thermal field theories and shifted boundary conditions
Leonardo Giusti; Harvey B. Meyer
2013-10-29
The analytic continuation to an imaginary velocity of the canonical partition function of a thermal system expressed in a moving frame has a natural implementation in the Euclidean path-integral formulation in terms of shifted boundary conditions. The Poincare' invariance underlying a relativistic theory implies a dependence of the free-energy on the compact length L_0 and the shift xi only through the combination beta=L_0(1+xi^2)^(1/2). This in turn implies that the energy and the momentum distributions of the thermal theory are related, a fact which is encoded in a set of Ward identities among the correlators of the energy-momentum tensor. The latter have interesting applications in lattice field theory: they offer novel ways to compute thermodynamic potentials, and a set of identities to renormalize non-perturbatively the energy-momentum tensor. At fixed bare parameters the shifted boundary conditions also provide a simple method to vary the temperature in much smaller steps than with the standard procedure.
The field theory approach to percolation processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janssen, Hans-Karl; Täuber, Uwe C.
2005-01-01
We review the field theory approach to percolation processes. Specifically, we focus on the so-called simple and general epidemic processes that display continuous non-equilibrium active to absorbing state phase transitions whose asymptotic features are governed, respectively, by the directed (DP) and dynamic isotropic percolation (dIP) universality classes. We discuss the construction of a field theory representation for these Markovian stochastic processes based on fundamental phenomenological considerations, as well as from a specific microscopic reaction-diffusion model realization. Subsequently we explain how dynamic renormalization group (RG) methods can be applied to obtain the universal properties near the critical point in an expansion about the upper critical dimensions dc = 4 (DP) and 6 (dIP). We provide a detailed overview of results for critical exponents, scaling functions, crossover phenomena, finite-size scaling, and also briefly comment on the influence of long-range spreading, the presence of a boundary, multispecies generalizations, coupling of the order parameter to other conserved modes, and quenched disorder.
Huang, Yi-Zhi
Two-dimensional conformal field theories The major problems solved Unsolved problems Two-Dimensional Conformal Field Theory Yi-Zhi Huang Department of Mathematics Rutgers University Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA Institute of Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences #12;Two-dimensional conformal field theories The major
Homogeneous cosmologies as group field theory condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gielen, Steffen; Oriti, Daniele; Sindoni, Lorenzo
2014-06-01
We give a general procedure, in the group field theory (GFT) formalism for quantum gravity, for constructing states that describe macroscopic, spatially homogeneous universes. These states are close to coherent (condensate) states used in the description of Bose-Einstein condensates. The condition on such states to be (approximate) solutions to the quantum equations of motion of GFT is used to extract an effective dynamics for homogeneous cosmologies directly from the underlying quantum theory. The resulting description in general gives nonlinear and nonlocal equations for the `condensate wavefunction' which are analogous to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in Bose-Einstein condensates. We show the general form of the effective equations for current quantum gravity models, as well as some concrete examples. We identify conditions under which the dynamics becomes linear, admitting an interpretation as a quantum-cosmological Wheeler-DeWitt equation, and give its semiclassical (WKB) approximation in the case of a kinetic term that includes a Laplace-Beltrami operator. For isotropic states, this approximation reproduces the classical Friedmann equation in vacuum with positive spatial curvature. We show how the formalism can be consistently extended from Riemannian signature to Lorentzian signature models, and discuss the addition of matter fields, obtaining the correct coupling of a massless scalar in the Friedmann equation from the most natural extension of the GFT action. We also outline the procedure for extending our condensate states to include cosmological perturbations. Our results form the basis of a general programme for extracting effective cosmological dynamics directly from a microscopic non-perturbative theory of quantum gravity.
Four-dimensional deformed special relativity from group field theories
Girelli, Florian; Livine, Etera R.; Oriti, Daniele
2010-01-15
We derive a scalar field theory of the deformed special relativity type, living on noncommutative {kappa}-Minkowski space-time and with a {kappa}-deformed Poincare symmetry, from the SO(4,1) group field theory defining the transition amplitudes for topological BF theory in 4 space-time dimensions. This is done at a nonperturbative level of the spin foam formalism working directly with the group field theory (GFT). We show that matter fields emerge from the fundamental model as perturbations around a specific phase of the GFT, corresponding to a solution of the fundamental equations of motion, and that the noncommutative field theory governs their effective dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilmore, James Brian
2010-12-01
General Relativity is the standard framework by which all gravitational systems are analyzed in modern research, and it provides the theme for all the investigations in this thesis. Beyond this common platform, very different gravitating problems are examined here, and several analytical approaches are used to investigate these systems. Effective field theory, a methodological approach prominent in quantum field theory, plays an important role in the analysis of two of the problems in this thesis. In the first instance, an effective field theory for bound gravitational states is used to compute the interaction Lagrangian of a binary system at the second post-Newtonian order. A metric parametrization based on a temporal Kaluza-Klein decomposition is also used. In this effective field theory calculation, the post-Newtonian results for the equations of motion are elegantly reproduced. In the next problem considered, effective field theory is used to investigate the thermodynamics of compactified charged black holes. The relevant thermodynamic quantities are all computed to second order in the perturbation parameter and finite size effects are incorporated through higher order worldline operators. Complete agreement is found with an exact extremal black hole solution constructed with traditional General Relativistic methods. The results indicate that the addition of charge to a compactified black hole may delay the phase transition to a black string. Finally, the third problem examined here concerns the evolution of perturbations at the end of early universe inflation. General Relativity enters this problem through cosmological perturbation theory. It is shown that the coherent oscillations in the inflaton break down at the comoving post-inflationary horizon size, about 14 e-folds after the end of inflation. This is many e-folds before any known constraints, leading to possible implications for the matching problem of inflation, and the generation of stochastic gravitational waves in the post-inflationary universe.
Hidden Gravity in Open-String Field Theory
W. Siegel
1993-12-14
We clarify the nature of the graviton as a bound state in open-string field theory: The flat metric in the action appears as the vacuum value of an OPEN string field. The bound state appears as a composite field in the FREE field theory.
String Theory and Quantum Field Theories in Three submitted to the
String Theory and Quantum Field Theories in Three Dimensions A Thesis submitted to the Tata like to thank members of the string theory group, other members of the department and other members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2 Gravity solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2
Geomagnetic Field -- From Paleomagnetism to Dynamo Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kono, M.
2008-05-01
Since 1995, self-consistent models of the geodynamo became available. There are certain problems, but some of these models have shown behaviors quite similar to those observed by paleomagnetism, including polarity reversals (Kono and Roberts, 2002). There is thus a hope that the combination of paleomagnetism and dynamo theory may provide us a very comprehensive understanding of the geomagnetic field. In this paper, I will try to highlight the possibilities and limitations in such studies. From satellite observations, it was shown that the power of the magnetic field contained in each degree is nearly the same if measured at the core-mantle boundary (CMB). The core field can be seen only to degree 13 or 14 where the field power is about (10 nT)2. Beyond that, the crustal magnetization dominates and the core signal is lost. The value of 10 nT is far larger than the accuracy of the present-day instruments, but much smaller than the resolution obtainable by paleomagnetic observations. We may safely assume that the error in paleomagnetic measurements (in direction) is of the order of 10 degrees. This error corresponds to the resolution of about 1/5. The relative powers of the low degree terms in the magnetic field at the surface are 1.0, 0.033, 0.019, 0.0055 (Langel and Estes, 1982). This means that only the degrees 1 to 3 terms may be distinguished by paleomagnetic data. From the combination of dipole, quadrupole, and octupole, what we can deduce about the fundamental properties of the geomagnetic field? Here are some of the possibilities, which may give important clues when we compare with dynamo simulation results. (1) The current dipole power is several times larger than the value expected from the trend line produced by degrees 2--13. Is this a persistent feature or transient? (2) In PSV analysis, the angular standard deviation increases with latitude. Kono and Tanaka (1995) showed that it is possible only if the (2,1) (degree, order) or (3,2) term is very large. But the present field does not show such features. What is the solution of this difference? (3) If the dynamo is very simple, the dynamo modes may be divided into two distinct groups (dipole family and quadrupole family) due to the selection rules (Roberts and Stix, 1972). McFadden et al. (1988) derived a paleosecular variation model based on this separation. Is it a real feature?
Solutions in Extended Field Theories Duality Symmetries in String and M-Theory
Nelson, Richard
Solutions in Extended Field Theories Duality Symmetries in String and M-Theory CERN August 10, 2015 Theories Fundamental and Solitonic Solutions in DFT The Fundamental String Key Result The fundamental. Berman #12;Solutions in Extended Field Theories Key Points Solutions to EoMs of DFT and EFT Impose
Standard Model as a Double Field Theory.
Choi, Kang-Sin; Park, Jeong-Hyuck
2015-10-23
We show that, without any extra physical degree introduced, the standard model can be readily reformulated as a double field theory. Consequently, the standard model can couple to an arbitrary stringy gravitational background in an O(4,4) T-duality covariant manner and manifest two independent local Lorentz symmetries, Spin(1,3)×Spin(3,1). While the diagonal gauge fixing of the twofold spin groups leads to the conventional formulation on the flat Minkowskian background, the enhanced symmetry makes the standard model more rigid, and also stringy, than it appeared. The CP violating ? term may no longer be allowed by the symmetry, and hence the strong CP problem can be solved. There are now stronger constraints imposed on the possible higher order corrections. We speculate that the quarks and the leptons may belong to the two different spin classes. PMID:26551099
Machine Learning for Dynamical Mean Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arsenault, Louis-Francois; Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole; Littlewood, P. B.; Millis, Andy
2014-03-01
Machine Learning (ML), an approach that infers new results from accumulated knowledge, is in use for a variety of tasks ranging from face and voice recognition to internet searching and has recently been gaining increasing importance in chemistry and physics. In this talk, we investigate the possibility of using ML to solve the equations of dynamical mean field theory which otherwise requires the (numerically very expensive) solution of a quantum impurity model. Our ML scheme requires the relation between two functions: the hybridization function describing the bare (local) electronic structure of a material and the self-energy describing the many body physics. We discuss the parameterization of the two functions for the exact diagonalization solver and present examples, beginning with the Anderson Impurity model with a fixed bath density of states, demonstrating the advantages and the pitfalls of the method. DOE contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.
Gravitational descendants in symplectic field theory
Oliver Fabert
2010-03-25
It was pointed out by Y. Eliashberg in his ICM 2006 plenary talk that the rich algebraic formalism of symplectic field theory leads to a natural appearance of quantum and classical integrable systems, at least in the case when the contact manifold is the prequantization space of a symplectic manifold. In this paper we generalize the definition of gravitational descendants in SFT from circle bundles in the Morse-Bott case to general contact manifolds. After we have shown that for the basic examples of holomorphic curves in SFT, that is, branched covers of cylinders over closed Reeb orbits, the gravitational descendants have a geometric interpretation in terms of branching conditions, we compute the corresponding sequences of Poisson-commuting functions when the contact manifold is the unit cotangent bundle of a Riemannian manifold.
Takiff superalgebras and conformal field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babichenko, Andrei; Ridout, David
2013-03-01
A class of non-semisimple extensions of Lie superalgebras is studied. They are obtained by adjoining to the superalgebra its adjoint representation as an Abelian ideal. When the superalgebra is of affine Kac-Moody type, a generalization of Sugawara’s construction is shown to give rise to a copy of the Virasoro algebra and so, presumably, to a conformal field theory. Evidence for this is detailed for the extension of the affinization of the superalgebra \\mathfrak {gl} ( 1 \\vert 1): its highest weight irreducible modules are classified using spectral flow, the irreducible supercharacters are computed and a continuum version of the Verlinde formula is verified to give non-negative integer structure coefficients. Interpreting these coefficients as those of the Grothendieck ring of fusion, partial results on the true fusion ring and its indecomposable structures are deduced.
Standard Model as a Double Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Kang-Sin; Park, Jeong-Hyuck
2015-10-01
We show that, without any extra physical degree introduced, the standard model can be readily reformulated as a double field theory. Consequently, the standard model can couple to an arbitrary stringy gravitational background in an O (4 ,4 ) T -duality covariant manner and manifest two independent local Lorentz symmetries, Spin(1 ,3 )×Spin(3 ,1 ) . While the diagonal gauge fixing of the twofold spin groups leads to the conventional formulation on the flat Minkowskian background, the enhanced symmetry makes the standard model more rigid, and also stringy, than it appeared. The C P violating ? term may no longer be allowed by the symmetry, and hence the strong C P problem can be solved. There are now stronger constraints imposed on the possible higher order corrections. We speculate that the quarks and the leptons may belong to the two different spin classes.
Nonpolynomial closed-string field theory
Kaku, M. )
1990-06-15
Recently, we announced the construction of a new nonpolynomial closed-string field theory which successfully reproduced all {ital N}-point tree amplitudes, thus solving a long-standing problem. This action generalized the four-string tetrahedron interaction that we introduced earlier, which was required to derive the Shapiro-Virasoro model. However, we gave no derivation of the nonpolynomial action. In this paper we present the detailed analysis of its derivation. We calculate all nonpolynomial graphs up to eighth order and their coefficients, and even the coefficients of several infinite series of polyhedra. We use gauge invariance to calculate all coefficients. Because of an enormous redundancy created by a web of overconstrained equations, we have multiple checks that our coefficients are correctly calculated.
Triton Photodisintegration with Effective Field Theory
H. Sadeghi; S. Bayegan
2010-04-09
Effective field theory (EFT) has been recently used for the calculation of neutron-deuteron radiative capture at very low energies.We present here the use of EFT to calculate the two-body photodisintegration of the triton, considering the three-body force. The calculated cross section shows sharp rising from threshold to maximum about 0.88 mb at 13 MeV and decreasing slightly to about 0.81 mb at 19 MeV, in agreement with the experimental data. Our results are in good agreement with the experimental data and the other calculations using modern realistic two- and three-nucleon forces, like AV18/UrbanaIX potential.
Group Theoretical Approach to the Construction of Conformal Field Theories
Benjamin Horowitz
2013-12-21
A conformal field theory (CFT) is a quantum field theory which is invariant under conformal transformations; a group action that preserve angles but not necessarily lengths. There are two traditional approaches to the construction of CFTs: analyzing a statistical system near a critical point as a euclidean field theory, and in holographic duality within the context of string theory. This pedagogical paper presents a construction of CFTs using purely group theoretic techniques. Starting with the basic definition of a Lie algebra and quantum field theory, we generalize to affine Lie algebras and form a energy momentum tensor via the Sugawara construction.
Symmetries and defects in three-dimensional topological field theory
Fuchs, Jurgen
2015-01-01
Boundary conditions and defects of any codimension are natural parts of any quantum field theory. Surface defects in three-dimensional topological field theories of Turaev-Reshetikhin type have applications to two-dimensional conformal field theories, in solid state physics and in quantum computing. We explain an obstruction to the existence of surface defects that takes values in a Witt group. We then turn to surface defects in Dijkgraaf-Witten theories and their construction in terms of relative bundles; this allows one to exhibit Brauer-Picard groups as symmetry groups of three-dimensional topological field theories.
Mean field theory of charged dendrimer molecules.
Lewis, Thomas; Pryamitsyn, Victor; Ganesan, Venkat
2011-11-28
Using self-consistent field theory (SCFT), we study the conformational properties of polyelectrolyte dendrimers. We compare results for three different models of charge distributions on the polyelectrolytes: (1) a smeared, quenched charge distribution characteristic of strong polyelectrolytes; (2) a smeared, annealed charge distribution characteristic of weak polyelectrolytes; and (3) an implicit counterion model with Debye-Huckel interactions between the charged groups. Our results indicate that an explicit treatment of counterions is crucial for the accurate characterization of the conformations of polyelectrolyte dendrimers. In comparing the quenched and annealed models of charge distributions, annealed dendrimers were observed to modulate their charges in response to the density of polymer monomers, counterions, and salt ions. Such phenomena is not accommodated within the quenched model of dendrimers and is shown to lead to significant differences between the predictions of quenched and annealed model of dendrimers. In this regard, our results indicate that the average dissociated charge ? inside the dendrimer serves as a useful parameter to map the effects of different parametric conditions and models onto each other. We also present comparisons to the scaling results proposed to explain the behavior of polyelectrolyte dendrimers. Inspired by the trends indicated by our results, we develop a strong segregation theory model whose predictions are shown to be in very good agreement with the numerical SCFT calculations. PMID:22128954
Multidimensional wave field signal theory: Mathematical foundations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baddour, Natalie
2011-06-01
Many important physical phenomena are described by wave or diffusion-wave type equations. Since these equations are linear, it would be useful to be able to use tools from the theory of linear signals and systems in solving related forward or inverse problems. In particular, the transform domain signal description from linear system theory has shown concrete promise for the solution of problems that are governed by a multidimensional wave field. The aim is to develop a unified framework for the description of wavefields via multidimensional signals. However, certain preliminary mathematical results are crucial for the development of this framework. This first paper on this topic thus introduces the mathematical foundations and proves some important mathematical results. The foundation of the framework starts with the inhomogeneous Helmholtz or pseudo-Helmholtz equation, which is the mathematical basis of a large class of wavefields. Application of the appropriate multi-dimensional Fourier transform leads to a transfer function description. To return to the physical spatial domain, certain mathematical results are necessary and these are presented and proved here as six fundamental theorems. These theorems are crucial for the evaluation of a certain class of improper integrals which arise in the evaluation of inverse multi-dimensional Fourier and Hankel transforms, upon which the framework is based. Subsequently, applications of these theorems are demonstrated, in particular for the derivation of Green's functions in different coordinate systems.
Quantum spectral dimension in quantum field theory
Gianluca Calcagni; Leonardo Modesto; Giuseppe Nardelli
2015-09-13
We reinterpret the spectral dimension of spacetimes as the scaling of an effective self-energy transition amplitude in quantum field theory, when the system is probed at a given resolution. This picture has four main advantages: (a) it dispenses with the usual interpretation (unsatisfactory in covariant approaches) where instead of a transition amplitude one has a probability density solving a non-relativistic diffusion equation in an abstract diffusion time; (b) it solves the problem of negative probabilities known for higher-order and non-local dispersion relations in classical and quantum gravity; (c) it clarifies the role of the mass term in the derivation of the spectral dimension; (d) it clarifies the concept of quantum spectral dimension as opposed to the classical one. We then consider a class of logarithmic dispersion relations associated with quantum particles and show that the spectral dimension $d_s$ of spacetime as felt by these quantum probes can deviate from its classical value, equal to the topological dimension $D$. In particular, in the presence of higher momentum powers it changes with the scale, dropping from $D$ in the infrared (IR) to a value $d_s^{\\rm UV}\\leq D$ in the ultraviolet (UV). We apply this general result to Stelle theory of renormalizable gravity, which attains the universal value $d_s^{\\rm UV}=2$ for any dimension $D$.
The Electrostatics of Einstein's Unified Field Theory
S. Antoci; D. -E. Liebscher; L. Mihich
2005-06-09
When sources are added at their right-hand sides, and g_{(ik)} is a priori assumed to be the metric, the equations of Einstein's Hermitian theory of relativity were shown to allow for an exact solution that describes the general electrostatic field of n point charges. Moreover, the injunction of spherical symmetry of g_{(ik)} in the infinitesimal neighbourhood of each of the charges was proved to yield the equilibrium conditions of the n charges in keeping with ordinary electrostatics. The tensor g_{(ik)}, however, cannot be the metric of the theory, since it enters neither the eikonal equation nor the equation of motion of uncharged test particles. A physically correct metric that rules both the behaviour of wave fronts and of uncharged matter is the one indicated by H\\'ely. In the present paper it is shown how the electrostatic solution predicts the structure of the n charged particles and their mutual positions of electrostatic equilibrium when H\\'ely's physically correct metric is adopted.
Hamiltonian constraint in polymer parametrized field theory
Laddha, Alok; Varadarajan, Madhavan
2011-01-15
Recently, a generally covariant reformulation of two-dimensional flat spacetime free scalar field theory known as parametrized field theory was quantized using loop quantum gravity (LQG) type ''polymer'' representations. Physical states were constructed, without intermediate regularization structures, by averaging over the group of gauge transformations generated by the constraints, the constraint algebra being a Lie algebra. We consider classically equivalent combinations of these constraints corresponding to a diffeomorphism and a Hamiltonian constraint, which, as in gravity, define a Dirac algebra. Our treatment of the quantum constraints parallels that of LQG and obtains the following results, expected to be of use in the construction of the quantum dynamics of LQG: (i) the (triangulated) Hamiltonian constraint acts only on vertices, its construction involves some of the same ambiguities as in LQG and its action on diffeomorphism invariant states admits a continuum limit, (ii) if the regulating holonomies are in representations tailored to the edge labels of the state, all previously obtained physical states lie in the kernel of the Hamiltonian constraint, (iii) the commutator of two (density weight 1) Hamiltonian constraints as well as the operator correspondent of their classical Poisson bracket converge to zero in the continuum limit defined by diffeomorphism invariant states, and vanish on the Lewandowski-Marolf habitat, (iv) the rescaled density 2 Hamiltonian constraints and their commutator are ill-defined on the Lewandowski-Marolf habitat despite the well-definedness of the operator correspondent of their classical Poisson bracket there, (v) there is a new habitat which supports a nontrivial representation of the Poisson-Lie algebra of density 2 constraints.
UV/IR duality in noncommutative quantum field theory
Andre Fischer; Richard J. Szabo
2010-06-16
We review the construction of renormalizable noncommutative euclidean phi(4)-theories based on the UV/IR duality covariant modification of the standard field theory, and how the formalism can be extended to scalar field theories defined on noncommutative Minkowski space.
Kurt Hinterbichler; Austin Joyce; Justin Khoury
2012-06-28
The pseudo-conformal scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the early universe is described by an approximate conformal field theory on flat, Minkowski space. Some fields acquire a time-dependent expectation value, which breaks the flat space so(4,2) conformal algebra to its so(4,1) de Sitter subalgebra. As a result, weight-0 fields acquire a scale invariant spectrum of perturbations. The scenario is very general, and its essential features are determined by the symmetry breaking pattern, irrespective of the details of the underlying microphysics. In this paper, we apply the well-known coset technique to derive the most general effective lagrangian describing the Goldstone field and matter fields, consistent with the assumed symmetries. The resulting action captures the low energy dynamics of any pseudo-conformal realization, including the U(1)-invariant quartic model and the Galilean Genesis scenario. We also derive this lagrangian using an alternative method of curvature invariants, consisting of writing down geometric scalars in terms of the conformal mode. Using this general effective action, we compute the two-point function for the Goldstone and a fiducial weight-0 field, as well as some sample three-point functions involving these fields.
Hinterbichler, Kurt; Joyce, Austin; Khoury, Justin E-mail: joyceau@sas.upenn.edu
2012-06-01
The pseudo-conformal scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the early universe is described by an approximate conformal field theory on flat, Minkowski space. Some fields acquire a time-dependent expectation value, which breaks the flat space so(4,2) conformal algebra to its so(4,1) de Sitter subalgebra. As a result, weight-0 fields acquire a scale invariant spectrum of perturbations. The scenario is very general, and its essential features are determined by the symmetry breaking pattern, irrespective of the details of the underlying microphysics. In this paper, we apply the well-known coset technique to derive the most general effective lagrangian describing the Goldstone field and matter fields, consistent with the assumed symmetries. The resulting action captures the low energy dynamics of any pseudo-conformal realization, including the U(1)-invariant quartic model and the Galilean Genesis scenario. We also derive this lagrangian using an alternative method of curvature invariants, consisting of writing down geometric scalars in terms of the conformal mode. Using this general effective action, we compute the two-point function for the Goldstone and a fiducial weight-0 field, as well as some sample three-point functions involving these fields.
Numerical Method for Quantum Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lawson, John Walter, Jr.
A numerical scheme for quantum field theory is formulated. This approach is based on QFT in the presence of a source. Functional equations can be derived for the vacuum persistence amplitude Z. On a lattice, the result is a set of coupled linear differential equations for Z in the discretized sources. Differentiation with respect to the sources produces the lattice Green's functions equations. Z is approximated by a truncated power series. The truncated recursion relations are inconsistent due to the approximation. One way to deal with this problem requires that weighted averages of the truncated relations vanish. This is equivalent to certain spectral techniques for solving differential equations called Galerkin methods. This thesis begins with a general overview of the bosonic formulation of the "Source Galerkin method". Conceptual issues related to this approach are examined. In particular, the role of lattice symmetries is critical in reducing the number of unknowns to solve. The lattice symmetry groups are discussed and a method for construction of lattice invariant polynomials is given. Calculations for lattice boson theories are tested against Monte Carlo simulations using the Metropolis algorithm. Results are presented for lattice phi^4 field theory in D = 1,2,3,4. In addition, an alternative to the Galerkin method is proposed. It bypasses the partition function and the functional formulation, attempting to solve the lattice Schwinger-Dyson equations directly. Fermionic lattice functional equations are derived. For small lattices, exact solutions are possible due to the self-terminating nature of Grassmann polynomials. For more realistic systems, the series must be truncated and a Galerkin procedure devised. A Galerkin method for fermions is proposed and calculations on 1D self-interacting fermion systems are performed. The fermionic method is used to study the 2D lattice Gross-Neveu model. For reasonably sized lattices, expansion of Z in a power series becomes impractical. In this case, the GN model is examine by calculating the leading order behavior of Z as J to 0. The behavior of the chiral condensate as a function of the coupling is calculated. A method to determine corrections is outlined.
of December 2012 Strongly-interacting Field Theories II
Maas, Axel
Axel Maas 1st of December 2012 Strongly-interacting Field Theories II Jena Germany G2 gauge theories #12;Overview Why G2? Introduction G2 Yang-Mills Theory G2 QCD Summary Slides left: 28 (In this section: 0) #12;Overview Why G2? G2 Yang-Mills theory Running coupling and gluonic correlation
Topological field theory of dynamical systems
Ovchinnikov, Igor V.
2012-09-15
Here, it is shown that the path-integral representation of any stochastic or deterministic continuous-time dynamical model is a cohomological or Witten-type topological field theory, i.e., a model with global topological supersymmetry (Q-symmetry). As many other supersymmetries, Q-symmetry must be perturbatively stable due to what is generically known as non-renormalization theorems. As a result, all (equilibrium) dynamical models are divided into three major categories: Markovian models with unbroken Q-symmetry, chaotic models with Q-symmetry spontaneously broken on the mean-field level by, e.g., fractal invariant sets (e.g., strange attractors), and intermittent or self-organized critical (SOC) models with Q-symmetry dynamically broken by the condensation of instanton-antiinstanton configurations (earthquakes, avalanches, etc.) SOC is a full-dimensional phase separating chaos and Markovian dynamics. In the deterministic limit, however, antiinstantons disappear and SOC collapses into the 'edge of chaos.' Goldstone theorem stands behind spatio-temporal self-similarity of Q-broken phases known under such names as algebraic statistics of avalanches, 1/f noise, sensitivity to initial conditions, etc. Other fundamental differences of Q-broken phases is that they can be effectively viewed as quantum dynamics and that they must also have time-reversal symmetry spontaneously broken. Q-symmetry breaking in non-equilibrium situations (quenches, Barkhausen effect, etc.) is also briefly discussed.
Topological field theory of dynamical systems.
Ovchinnikov, Igor V
2012-09-01
Here, it is shown that the path-integral representation of any stochastic or deterministic continuous-time dynamical model is a cohomological or Witten-type topological field theory, i.e., a model with global topological supersymmetry (Q-symmetry). As many other supersymmetries, Q-symmetry must be perturbatively stable due to what is generically known as non-renormalization theorems. As a result, all (equilibrium) dynamical models are divided into three major categories: Markovian models with unbroken Q-symmetry, chaotic models with Q-symmetry spontaneously broken on the mean-field level by, e.g., fractal invariant sets (e.g., strange attractors), and intermittent or self-organized critical (SOC) models with Q-symmetry dynamically broken by the condensation of instanton-antiinstanton configurations (earthquakes, avalanches, etc.) SOC is a full-dimensional phase separating chaos and Markovian dynamics. In the deterministic limit, however, antiinstantons disappear and SOC collapses into the "edge of chaos." Goldstone theorem stands behind spatio-temporal self-similarity of Q-broken phases known under such names as algebraic statistics of avalanches, 1/f noise, sensitivity to initial conditions, etc. Other fundamental differences of Q-broken phases is that they can be effectively viewed as quantum dynamics and that they must also have time-reversal symmetry spontaneously broken. Q-symmetry breaking in non-equilibrium situations (quenches, Barkhausen effect, etc.) is also briefly discussed. PMID:23020473
The IR-resummed Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Senatore, Leonardo; Zaldarriaga, Matias
2015-02-01
We present a new method to resum the effect of large scale motions in the Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures. Because the linear power spectrum in ?CDM is not scale free the effects of the large scale flows are enhanced. Although previous EFT calculations of the equal-time density power spectrum at one and two loops showed a remarkable agreement with numerical results, they also showed a 2% residual which appeared related to the BAO oscillations. We show that this was indeed the case, explain the physical origin and show how a Lagrangian based calculation removes this differences. We propose a simple method to upgrade existing Eulerian calculations to effectively make them Lagrangian and compare the new results with existing fits to numerical simulations. Our new two-loop results agrees with numerical results up to k~ 0.6 h Mpc?1 to within 1% with no oscillatory residuals. We also compute power spectra involving momentum which is significantly more affected by the large scale flows. We show how keeping track of these velocities significantly enhances the UV reach of the momentum power spectrum in addition to removing the BAO related residuals. We compute predictions for the real space correlation function around the BAO scale and investigate its sensitivity to the EFT parameters and the details of the resummation technique.
Aspects of Four Dimensional N = 2 Field Theory
Xie, Dan
2011-07-11
New four dimensional N = 2 field theories can be engineered from compactifying six dimensional (2, 0) superconformal field theory on a punctured Riemann surface. Hitchin’s equation is defined on this Riemann surface and the fields in Hitchin’s...
Research Article Fractional Quantum Field Theory: From Lattice to Continuum
Tarasov, Vasily E.
a fractional field theory for the continuum 4-dimensional space-time. The fractional field equations, which to formulate fractional field theories on unbounded lattice space-time is suggested. A fractional-order analog are derived from equations for lattice space-time with long-range properties of power-law type, contain
Twist Field as Three String Interaction Vertex in Light Cone String Field Theory
Isao Kishimoto; Sanefumi Moriyama; Shunsuke Teraguchi
2007-03-22
It has been suggested that matrix string theory and light-cone string field theory are closely related. In this paper, we investigate the relation between the twist field, which represents string interactions in matrix string theory, and the three-string interaction vertex in light-cone string field theory carefully. We find that the three-string interaction vertex can reproduce some of the most important OPEs satisfied by the twist field.
Graph Grammars, Insertion Lie Algebras, and Quantum Field Theory
Matilde Marcolli; Alexander Port
2015-02-27
Graph grammars extend the theory of formal languages in order to model distributed parallelism in theoretical computer science. We show here that to certain classes of context-free and context-sensitive graph grammars one can associate a Lie algebra, whose structure is reminiscent of the insertion Lie algebras of quantum field theory. We also show that the Feynman graphs of quantum field theories are graph languages generated by a theory dependent graph grammar.
Effective Field Theory in Nuclear Many-Body Physics
Brian D. Serot; John Dirk Walecka
2000-10-10
Recent progress in Lorentz-covariant quantum field theories of the nuclear many-body problem (quantum hadrodynamics, or QHD) is discussed. The importance of modern perspectives in effective field theory and density functional theory for understanding the successes of QHD is emphasized. To appear in: 150 Years of Quantum Many-Body Theory: A conference in honour of the 65th birthdays of John W. Clark, Alpo J. Kallio, Manfred L. Ristig, and Sergio Rosati.
Quantum Open-Closed Homotopy Algebra and String Field Theory
Korbinian Muenster; Ivo Sachs
2011-10-19
We reformulate the algebraic structure of Zwiebach's quantum open-closed string field theory in terms of homotopy algebras. We call it the quantum open-closed homotopy algebra (QOCHA) which is the generalization of the open-closed homotopy algebra (OCHA) of Kajiura and Stasheff. The homotopy formulation reveals new insights about deformations of open string field theory by closed string backgrounds. In particular, deformations by Maurer Cartan elements of the quantum closed homotopy algebra define consistent quantum open string field theories.
An exact integration of a ?^4 quantum field theory
Timothy D. Andersen
2013-06-27
Most quantum field theories are not exactly solvable. In this paper show the statistical equivalence of the standard exponential path integral to products of Heaviside functions, i.e. a product of specially tuned uniform distributions. This allows exact integrations of certain quantum field theories. I apply the equivalence to calculate the exact, non-perturbative path integral for a 3+1-D scalar (real) phi-4 field theory.
The Physical Renormalization of Quantum Field Theories
Binger, Michael William.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2007-02-20
The profound revolutions in particle physics likely to emerge from current and future experiments motivates an improved understanding of the precise predictions of the Standard Model and new physics models. Higher order predictions in quantum field theories inevitably requires the renormalization procedure, which makes sensible predictions out of the naively divergent results of perturbation theory. Thus, a robust understanding of renormalization is crucial for identifying and interpreting the possible discovery of new physics. The results of this thesis represent a broad set of investigations in to the nature of renormalization. The author begins by motivating a more physical approach to renormalization based on gauge-invariant Green's functions. The resulting effective charges are first applied to gauge coupling unification. This approach provides an elegant formalism for understanding all threshold corrections, and the gauge couplings unify in a more physical manner compared to the usual methods. Next, the gauge-invariant three-gluon vertex is studied in detail, revealing an interesting and rich structure. The effective coupling for the three-gluon vertex, {alpha}(k{sub 1}{sup 2}, k{sub 2}{sup 2}, k{sub 3}{sup 2}), depends on three momentum scales and gives rise to an effective scale Q{sub eff}{sup 2}(k{sub 1}{sup 2}, k{sub 2}{sup 2}, k{sub 3}{sup 2}) which governs the (sometimes surprising) behavior of the vertex. The effects of nonzero internal masses are important and have a complicated threshold and pseudo-threshold structure. The pinch-technique effective charge is also calculated to two-loops and several applications are discussed. The Higgs boson mass in Split Supersymmetry is calculated to two-loops, including all one-loop threshold effects, leading to a downward shift in the Higgs mass of a few GeV. Finally, the author discusses some ideas regarding the overall structure of perturbation theory. This thesis lays the foundation for a comprehensive multi-scale analytic renormalization scheme based on gauge-invariant Green's functions, in which the scale ambiguity problem is reduced since physical kinematic invariants determine the arguments of the couplings.
Concept of unified local field theory and nonlocality of matter
Alexander A. Chernitskii
2002-11-11
The concept of unified local field theory is considered. According to this concept the quantum description and the classical one must be the levels for investigation of some world solution of the unified field model. It is shown that in the framework of the unified local field theory there are nonlocal correlations between space separate events. Thus the experiments of Aspect type for testing of the Bell inequalities and for showing of the nonlocal correlations do not reject a possibility for description of matter with the unified local field theory. Advantages of such theory for new technologies are considered.
Quantum Field Theory: Where We Are
Klaus Fredenhagen; Karl-Henning Rehren; Erhard Seiler
2006-03-20
We comment on the present status, the concepts and their limitations, and the successes and open problems of the various approaches to a relativistic quantum theory of elementary particles, with a hindsight to questions concerning quantum gravity and string theory.
Effective field theories for rooted staggered fermions
Claude Bernard; Maarten Golterman; Yigal Shamir
2007-09-13
We extend the construction of the Symanzik effective action to include rooted staggered fermions, starting from a generalization of the renormalization-group approach to rooted staggered fermions. The Symanzik action, together with the usual construction of a partially quenched chiral effective theory from a local, partially quenched, fundamental theory, can then be used to derive the chiral effective theory. The latter reproduces rooted staggered chiral perturbation theory.
Quantization Failure in Unified Field Theories
Daniel C. Galehouse
1995-01-01
Studies of geometrical theories suggest that fundmental problems of quantization arise from the disparate usage of displacement operators. These may be the source of a concealed inconsistency in the accepted formalism of quantum physics. General relativity and related theories cannot be quantized by the classical procedure. It is necessary to avoid the construction of differential equations by operators applied algebraically. For such theories, Von Neumann's theorem concerning hidden variables is avoided. A specified alternative class of gravitational-quantum-electrodynamic theories is possible.
Effective field theory analysis of Higgs naturalness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bar-Shalom, Shaouly; Soni, Amarjit; Wudka, Jose
2015-07-01
Assuming the presence of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) with a characteristic scale M ˜O (10 ) TeV , we investigate the naturalness of the Higgs sector at scales below M using an effective field theory (EFT) approach. We obtain the complete set of higher-dimensional effective operators (at any dimension n ?5 ) that give the leading one-loop EFT contributions to the Higgs mass with a Wilsonian-like hard cutoff and discuss the (fine-) tuning between these terms and the SM one-loop contribution, which is required in order to alleviate the little hierarchy problem. We then show that this tuning can be translated into a condition for naturalness in the underlying new physics, a condition we denote by "EFT naturalness" and which we express as constraints on the corresponding higher-dimensional operator coefficients up to the scale of the effective action ?
Gravitational Descendants in Symplectic Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabert, Oliver
2011-02-01
It was pointed out by Y. Eliashberg in his ICM 2006 plenary talk that the rich algebraic formalism of symplectic field theory leads to a natural appearance of quantum and classical integrable systems, at least in the case when the contact manifold is the prequantization space of a symplectic manifold. In this paper we generalize the definition of gravitational descendants in SFT from circle bundles in the Morse-Bott case to general contact manifolds. After we have shown using the ideas in Okounkov and Pandharipande (Ann Math 163(2):517-560, 2006) that for the basic examples of holomorphic curves in SFT, that is, branched covers of cylinders over closed Reeb orbits, the gravitational descendants have a geometric interpretation in terms of branching conditions, we follow the ideas in Cieliebak and Latschev (
Quantifying truncation errors in effective field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furnstahl, R. J.; Klco, N.; Phillips, D. R.; Wesolowski, S.
2015-08-01
Bayesian procedures designed to quantify truncation errors in perturbative calculations of quantum chromodynamics observables are adapted to expansions in effective field theory (EFT). In the Bayesian approach, such truncation errors are derived from degree-of-belief (DOB) intervals for EFT predictions. Computation of these intervals requires specification of prior probability distributions ("priors") for the expansion coefficients. By encoding expectations about the naturalness of these coefficients, this framework provides a statistical interpretation of the standard EFT procedure where truncation errors are estimated using the order-by-order convergence of the expansion. It also permits exploration of the ways in which such error bars are, and are not, sensitive to assumptions about EFT-coefficient naturalness. We first demonstrate the calculation of Bayesian probability distributions for the EFT truncation error in some representative examples and then focus on the application of chiral EFT to neutron-proton scattering. Epelbaum, Krebs, and Meißner recently articulated explicit rules for estimating truncation errors in such EFT calculations of few-nucleon-system properties. We find that their basic procedure emerges generically from one class of naturalness priors considered and that all such priors result in consistent quantitative predictions for 68% DOB intervals. We then explore several methods by which the convergence properties of the EFT for a set of observables may be used to check the statistical consistency of the EFT expansion parameter.
Gravitational consequences of modern field theories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horowitz, Gary T.
1989-01-01
Some gravitational consequences of certain extensions of Einstein's general theory of relativity are discussed. These theories are not alternative theories of gravity in the usual sense. It is assumed that general relativity is the appropriate description of all gravitational phenomena which were observed to date.
Gravity Field and Electromagnetic Field-Finite Geometrical Field Theory of Matter Motion Part Two
Xiao Jianhua
2005-12-15
Gravity field theory and electromagnetic field theory are well established and confirmed by experiments. The Schwarzschild metric and Kerr Metric of Einstein field equation shows that the spatial differential of time gauge is the gravity field. For pure time displacement field, when its spatial differentials are commutative, conservative fields can be established. When its spatial differentials are non-commutative, Maxwell electromagnetic field equations can be established. When the contra-covariant is required for the non-commutative field, both Lorentz gauge and Coulomb gauge are derived in this research. The paper shows that the light is a special matter in that the addition of its Newtonian mass and its Coulomb electric charge is zero. In fact, this conclusion is true for the electromagnetic wave in vacuum. For the conservative field, the research shows that once the mass density and the Coulom charge dendity are given, the macro spacetime feature is completely determined. Both of them are intrisinc features of macro matter in cosimic background. However, for the cosmic ages old events, the spatial curvature may be cannot be ignored. On this sense, the oldest gravity field has the largest curvature of space. This point is very intrinsic for astronomy matters.
Entanglement and mutual information in 2d nonrelativistic field theories
Seyed Morteza Hosseini; Alvaro Veliz-Osorio
2015-10-13
We carry out a systematic study of entanglement entropy in nonrelativistic conformal field theories via holographic techniques. After a discussion of recent results concerning Galilean conformal field theories, we deduce a novel expression for the entanglement entropy of (1+1)-dimensional Lifshitz field theories --- this is done both at zero and finite temperature. Based on these results, we pose a conjecture for the anomaly coefficient of a Lifshitz field theory dual to new massive gravity. It is found that the Lifshitz entanglement entropy at finite temperature displays a striking similarity with that corresponding to a flat space cosmology in three dimensions. We claim that this structure is an inherent feature of the entanglement entropy for nonrelativistic conformal field theories. We finish by exploring the behavior of the mutual information for such theories.
Entanglement and mutual information in 2d nonrelativistic field theories
Hosseini, Seyed Morteza
2015-01-01
We carry out a systematic study of entanglement entropy in nonrelativistic conformal field theories via holographic techniques. After a discussion of recent results concerning Galilean conformal field theories, we deduce a novel expression for the entanglement entropy of (1+1)-dimensional Lifshitz field theories --- this is done both at zero and finite temperature. Based on these results, we pose a conjecture for the anomaly coefficient of a Lifshitz field theory dual to new massive gravity. It is found that the Lifshitz entanglement entropy at finite temperature displays a striking similarity with that corresponding to a flat space cosmology in three dimensions. We claim that this structure is an inherent feature of the entanglement entropy for nonrelativistic conformal field theories. We finish by exploring the behavior of the mutual information for such theories.
Conformal field theory of critical Casimir interactions in 2D
Bimonte, Giuseppe
Thermal fluctuations of a critical system induce long-ranged Casimir forces between objects that couple to the underlying field. For two-dimensional (2D) conformal field theories (CFT) we derive an exact result for the ...
String field theory, non-commutative Chern-Simons theory and Lie algebra cohomology
David J. Gross; Vipul Periwal
2001-06-26
Motivated by noncommutative Chern-Simons theory, we construct an infinite class of field theories that satisfy the axioms of Witten's string field theory. These constructions have no propagating open string degrees of freedom. We demonstrate the existence of non-trivial classical solutions. We find Wilson loop-like observables in these examples.
The S-Matrix of superstring field theory
Sebastian Konopka
2015-07-29
We show that the classical S-matrix calculated from the recently proposed superstring field theories give the correct perturbative S-matrix. In the proof we exploit the fact that the vertices are obtained by a field redefinition in the large Hilbert space. The result extends to include the NS-NS subsector of type II superstring field theory and the recently found equations of motions for the Ramond fields. In addition, our proof implies that the S-matrix obtained from Berkovits' WZW-like string field theory then agrees with the perturbative S-matrix to all orders.
Gauge field theory for the Poincare-Weyl group
Babourova, O. V.; Frolov, B. N.; Zhukovsky, V. Ch.
2006-09-15
On the basis of the general principles of a gauge field theory, the gauge theory for the Poincare-Weyl group is constructed. It is shown that tetrads are not true gauge fields, but represent functions of true gauge fields: Lorentzian, translational, and dilatational ones. The equations for gauge fields are obtained. Geometrical interpretation of the theory is developed demonstrating that as a result of localization of the Poincare-Weyl group the space-time becomes a Weyl-Cartan space. The geometrical interpretation of a dilaton field as a component of the metric tensor of a tangent space in Weyl-Cartan geometry is also proposed.
Diffusion of Brownian particles and Liouville field theory
Franco Ferrari; Jaroslaw Paturej
2009-05-22
In this work we review a recently proposed transformation which is useful in order to simplify non-polynomial potentials given in the form of an exponential. As an application, it is shown that the Liouville field theory may be mapped into a field theory with a polynomial interaction between two scalar fields and a massive vector field. The used methodology is illustrated with the help of the simple case of a particle performing a random walk in a delta function potentials.
Field theory on R× S 3 topology. VI: Gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmeli, M.; Malin, S.
1987-04-01
We extend to curved space-time the field theory on R×S3 topology in which field equations were obtained for scalar particles, spin one-half particles, the electromagnetic field of magnetic moments, an SU2 gauge theory, and a Schrödinger-type equation, as compared to ordinary field equations that are formulated on a Minkowskian metric. The theory obtained is an angular-momentum representation of gravitation. Gravitational field equations are presented and compared to the Einstein field equations, and the mathematical and physical similarity and differences between them are pointed out. The problem of motion is discussed, and the equations of motion of a rigid body are developed and given explicitly. One result which is worth emphazing is that while general relativity theory yields Newton's law of motion in the lowest approximation, our theory gives Euler's equations of motion for a rigid body in its lowest approximation.
Extended gyrokinetic field theory for time-dependent magnetic confinement fields
Sugama, H.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Nunami, M.
2014-01-15
A gyrokinetic system of equations for turbulent toroidal plasmas in time-dependent axisymmetric background magnetic fields is derived from the variational principle. Besides governing equations for gyrocenter distribution functions and turbulent electromagnetic fields, the conditions which self-consistently determine the background magnetic fields varying on a transport time scale are obtained by using the Lagrangian, which includes the constraint on the background fields. Conservation laws for energy and toroidal angular momentum of the whole system in the time-dependent background magnetic fields are naturally derived by applying Noether's theorem. It is shown that the ensemble-averaged transport equations of particles, energy, and toroidal momentum given in the present work agree with the results from the conventional recursive formulation with the WKB representation except that collisional effects are disregarded here.
Next-to-simplest quantum field theories
Lal, Shailesh; Raju, Suvrat
2010-05-15
We describe new on-shell recursion relations for tree amplitudes in N=1 and N=2 gauge theories and use these to show that the structure of the one-loop S-matrix in pure (i.e. without any matter) N=1 and N=2 gauge theories resembles that of pure Yang-Mills theory. We proceed to study gluon scattering in gauge theories coupled to matter in arbitrary representations. The contribution of matter to individual bubble and triangle coefficients can depend on the fourth- and sixth-order indices of the matter representation, respectively. So, the condition that one-loop amplitudes be free of bubbles and triangles can be written as a set of linear Diophantine equations involving these higher-order indices. These equations simplify for supersymmetric theories. We present new examples of supersymmetric theories that have only boxes (and no triangles or bubbles at one-loop) and nonsupersymmetric theories that are free of bubbles. These theories see simplifications in their S-matrices that cannot be deduced just from naive power-counting. In particular, our results indicate that one-loop scattering amplitudes in the N=2, SU(N) theory with a symmetric tensor hypermultiplet and an antisymmetric tensor hypermultiplet are simple like those in the N=4 theory.
Mean-field theory for Bose-Hubbard model under a magnetic field
Oktel, M. Oe.; Tanatar, B.; Nita, M.
2007-01-15
We consider the superfluid-insulator transition for cold bosons under an effective magnetic field. We investigate how the applied magnetic field affects the Mott transition within mean-field theory and find that the critical hopping strength (t/U){sub c} increases with the applied field. The increase in the critical hopping follows the bandwidth of the Hofstadter butterfly at the given value of the magnetic field. We also calculate the magnetization and superfluid density within mean-field theory.
Dynamics of polymers: A mean-field theory
Fredrickson, Glenn H.; Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106; Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 ; Orland, Henri
2014-02-28
We derive a general mean-field theory of inhomogeneous polymer dynamics; a theory whose form has been speculated and widely applied, but not heretofore derived. Our approach involves a functional integral representation of a Martin-Siggia-Rose (MSR) type description of the exact many-chain dynamics. A saddle point approximation to the generating functional, involving conditions where the MSR action is stationary with respect to a collective density field ? and a conjugate MSR response field ?, produces the desired dynamical mean-field theory. Besides clarifying the proper structure of mean-field theory out of equilibrium, our results have implications for numerical studies of polymer dynamics involving hybrid particle-field simulation techniques such as the single-chain in mean-field method.
On ramification theory in the imperfect residue field case
Zhukov, I B
2003-12-31
This paper is devoted to the ramification theory of complete discrete valuation fields such that the residue field has prime characteristic p and the cardinality of a p-base is 1. This class contains two-dimensional local and local-global fields. A new definition of ramification filtration for such fields is given. It turns out that Hasse-Herbrand type functions can be defined with all the usual properties. Thanks to this, a theory of upper ramification groups and the ramification theory of infinite extensions can be developed. The case of two-dimensional local fields of equal characteristic is studied in detail. A filtration on the second K-group of the field in question is introduced that is different from the one induced by the standard filtration on the multiplicative group. The reciprocity map of two-dimensional local class field theory is proved to identify this filtration with the ramification filtration.
Lattice p-Form Electromagnetism and Chain Field Theory
Derek K. Wise
2005-10-08
Since Wilson's work on lattice gauge theory in the 1970s, discrete versions of field theories have played a vital role in fundamental physics. But there is recent interest in certain higher dimensional analogues of gauge theory, such as p-form electromagnetism, including the Kalb-Ramond field in string theory, and its nonabelian generalizations. It is desirable to discretize such `higher gauge theories' in a way analogous to lattice gauge theory, but with the fundamental geometric structures in the discretization boosted in dimension. As a step toward studying discrete versions of more general higher gauge theories, we consider the case of p-form electromagnetism. We show that discrete p-form electromagnetism admits a simple algebraic description in terms of chain complexes of abelian groups. Moreover, the model allows discrete spacetimes with quite general geometry, in contrast to the regular cubical lattices usually associated with lattice gauge theory. After constructing a suitable model of discrete spacetime for p-form electromagnetism, we quantize the theory using the Euclidean path integral formalism. The main result is a description of p-form electromagnetism as a `chain field theory' -- a theory analogous to topological quantum field theory, but with chain complexes replacing manifolds. This, in particular, gives a notion of time evolution from one `spacelike slice' of discrete spacetime to another.
Mean field theory for long chain molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pereira, Gerald G.
1996-06-01
We provide a mathematical formalism for a self-consistent mean field treatment of long chain molecules. The formalism is applied to the case of a neutral polymer under the excluded volume interaction. Upon scaling the problem in the N?? limit we find the natural scaling length RN, of the polymer, which is made up of (N+1) monomers or beads, is RN˜N3/5, the well known Flory result. The asymptotics of the problem is dominated by the neighborhood of the turning point, so that a uniformly valid Green's function solution of the differential equations is necessary. In the neighborhood of a point y* the scaled polymer density fN(x), is found to decay sharply. If we let x denote the scaled distance from one end of the chain to a point in space we obtain, for y*-x?O(N-2/15), a closed form expression for the polymer density viz., fN(x)˜{1/2x2[fN(x)-fN(y*)]1/2} while for x-y*?O(N-2/15) the density is shown to be, to leading order, zero. Although our results imply the rate of decay of the density at y* is O(N1/5) we are unable to verify this explicitly by calculating fN'(y*). We believe this is due to the inability of the WKB theory to correctly approximate solutions in regions of rapid variation. We suggest remedies for this, so that a complete self-consistent solution may be obtained.
Multiscale quantum simulation of quantum field theory using wavelets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brennen, Gavin K.; Rohde, Peter; Sanders, Barry C.; Singh, Sukhwinder
2015-09-01
A successful approach to understand field theories is to resolve the physics into different length or energy scales using the renormalization group framework. We propose a quantum simulation of quantum field theory which encodes field degrees of freedom in a wavelet basis—a multiscale description of the theory. Since wavelet families can be constructed to have compact support at all resolutions, this encoding allows for quantum simulations to create particle excitations which are local at some chosen scale and provides a natural way to associate observables in the theory to finite-resolution detectors.
Is quantum field theory a generalization of quantum mechanics?
A. V. Stoyanovsky
2009-09-10
We construct a mathematical model analogous to quantum field theory, but without the notion of vacuum and without measurable physical quantities. This model is a direct mathematical generalization of scattering theory in quantum mechanics to path integrals with multidimensional trajectories (whose mathematical interpretation has been given in a previous paper). In this model the normal ordering of operators in the Fock space is replaced by the Weyl-Moyal algebra. This model shows to be useful in proof of various results in quantum field theory: one first proves these results in the mathematical model and then "translates" them into the usual language of quantum field theory by more or less "ugly" procedures.
On The Correspondence Between Noncommuative Field Theory And Gravity
Hyun Seok Yang
2007-01-08
In this brief review, I summarize the new development on the correspondence between noncommuative (NC) field theory and gravity, shortly referred to as the NCFT/Gravity correspondence. I elucidate why a gauge theory in NC spacetime should be a theory of gravity. A basic reason for the NCFT/Gravity correspondence is that the $\\Lambda$-symmetry (or B-field transformations) in NC spacetime can be considered as a par with diffeomorphisms, which results from the Darboux theorem. This fact leads to a striking picture about gravity: Gravity can emerge from a gauge theory in NC spacetime. Gravity is then a collective phenomenon emerging from gauge fields living in fuzzy spacetime.
On the introduction of a boundary in topological field theories
Andrea Amoretti; Alessandro Braggio; Giacomo Caruso; Nicola Maggiore; Nicodemo Magnoli
2014-11-18
We study the consequences of the presence of a boundary in topological field theories in various dimensions. We characterize, univocally and on very general grounds, the field content and the symmetries of the actions which live on the boundary. We then show that these actions are covariant, despite appearances. We show also that physically relevant theories like the 2D Luttinger liquid model, or the 4D Maxwell theory, can be seen as boundary reductions of higher dimensional topological field theories, which do not display local observables.