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Sample records for lagrangian-eulerian containment code

  1. Recent developments of the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian containment code ALICE-II. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.; Zeuch, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    The ANL arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian containment code ALICE was developed for use in fast reactor containment studies and is particularly suited for problems involving complex fluid-structure interactions. Many improvements have been made which has resulted in a second version of the code, ALICE-II. A selection of some important improvements are given in this paper. To realistically analyze the above-core hydrodynamics containing a movable upper internal structure (UIS), a 3-D pipe element has been adopted to calculate the response of the UIS columns that connect the UIS to the vessel head. A corotational coordinate scheme for large displacement, small strain, elastic-plastic structural-dynamic analysis is utilized in the formulation. Both geometric and material nonlinearities are considered. The governing equations are integrated explicitly using a central difference procedure. Many sample problems are presented, including comparisons of ALICE-II and ICECO-CEL results on the APRICOT Phase 3 problems.

  2. Fluid-structure-interaction analyses of reactor vessel using improved hybrid Lagrangian Eulerian code ALICE-II

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.

    1993-06-01

    This paper describes fluid-structure-interaction and structure response analyses of a reactor vessel subjected to loadings associated with postulated accidents, using the hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian code ALICE-II. This code has been improved recently to accommodate many features associated with innovative designs of reactor vessels. Calculational capabilities have been developed to treat water in the reactor cavity outside the vessel, internal shield structures and internal thin shells. The objective of the present analyses is to study the cover response and potential for missile generation in response to a fuel-coolant interaction in the core region. Three calculations were performed using the cover weight as a parameter. To study the effect of the cavity water, vessel response calculations for both wet- and dry-cavity designs are compared. Results indicate that for all cases studied and for the design parameters assumed, the calculated cover displacements are all smaller than the bolts` ultimate displacement and no missile generation of the closure head is predicted. Also, solutions reveal that the cavity water of the wet-cavity design plays an important role of restraining the downward displacement of the bottom head. Based on these studies, the analyses predict that the structure integrity is maintained throughout the postulated accident for the wet-cavity design.

  3. Fluid-structure-interaction analyses of reactor vessel using improved hybrid Lagrangian Eulerian code ALICE-II

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes fluid-structure-interaction and structure response analyses of a reactor vessel subjected to loadings associated with postulated accidents, using the hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian code ALICE-II. This code has been improved recently to accommodate many features associated with innovative designs of reactor vessels. Calculational capabilities have been developed to treat water in the reactor cavity outside the vessel, internal shield structures and internal thin shells. The objective of the present analyses is to study the cover response and potential for missile generation in response to a fuel-coolant interaction in the core region. Three calculations were performed using the cover weight as a parameter. To study the effect of the cavity water, vessel response calculations for both wet- and dry-cavity designs are compared. Results indicate that for all cases studied and for the design parameters assumed, the calculated cover displacements are all smaller than the bolts' ultimate displacement and no missile generation of the closure head is predicted. Also, solutions reveal that the cavity water of the wet-cavity design plays an important role of restraining the downward displacement of the bottom head. Based on these studies, the analyses predict that the structure integrity is maintained throughout the postulated accident for the wet-cavity design.

  4. Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Koniges, A.; Eder, D.; Masters, N.; Fisher, A.; Anderson, R.; Gunney, B.; Wang, P.; Benson, D.; Dixit, P.

    2009-09-29

    This is a simulation code involving an ALE (arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) hydrocode with AMR (adaptive mesh refinement) and pluggable physics packages for material strength, heat conduction, radiation diffusion, and laser ray tracing developed a LLNL, UCSD, and Berkeley Lab. The code is an extension of the open source SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Interface) code/library. The code can be used in laser facilities such as the National Ignition Facility. The code is alsi being applied to slurry flow (landslides).

  5. Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-09-29

    This is a simulation code involving an ALE (arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) hydrocode with AMR (adaptive mesh refinement) and pluggable physics packages for material strength, heat conduction, radiation diffusion, and laser ray tracing developed a LLNL, UCSD, and Berkeley Lab. The code is an extension of the open source SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Interface) code/library. The code can be used in laser facilities such as the National Ignition Facility. The code is alsi being appliedmore » to slurry flow (landslides).« less

  6. A comparison of Lagrangian/Eulerian approaches for tracking the kinematics of high deformation solid motion.

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, Thomas L.; Farnsworth, Grant V.; Ketcheson, David Isaac; Robinson, Allen Conrad

    2009-09-01

    The modeling of solids is most naturally placed within a Lagrangian framework because it requires constitutive models which depend on knowledge of the original material orientations and subsequent deformations. Detailed kinematic information is needed to ensure material frame indifference which is captured through the deformation gradient F. Such information can be tracked easily in a Lagrangian code. Unfortunately, not all problems can be easily modeled using Lagrangian concepts due to severe distortions in the underlying motion. Either a Lagrangian/Eulerian or a pure Eulerian modeling framework must be introduced. We discuss and contrast several Lagrangian/Eulerian approaches for keeping track of the details of material kinematics.

  7. Multi-dimensional arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method for dynamic fluid-structure interaction. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.; Zeuch, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method for analyzing fluid-structure interactions in fast-reactor containment with complex internal structures. The fluid transient can be calculated either implicitly or explicitly, using a finite-difference mesh with vertices that may be moved with the fluid (Lagrangian), held fixed (Eulerian), or moved in any other prescribed manner (hybrid Lagrangian Eulerian). The structural response is computed explicitly by two nonlinear, elastic-plastic finite-element modules formulated in corotational coordinates. Interaction between fluid and structure is accounted for by enforcing the interface boundary conditions. The method has convincing advantages in treating complicated phenomena such as flow through perforated structures, large material distortions, flow around corners and irregularities, and highly contorted fluid boundaries. Several sample problems are given to illustrate the effectiveness of this arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method.

  8. A Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element method with adaptive gridding for advection-dispersion problems

    SciTech Connect

    Ijiri, Y.; Karasaki, K.

    1994-02-01

    In the present paper, a Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element method with adaptive gridding for solving advection-dispersion equations is described. The code creates new grid points in the vicinity of sharp fronts at every time step in order to reduce numerical dispersion. The code yields quite accurate solutions for a wide range of mesh Peclet numbers and for mesh Courant numbers well in excess of 1.

  9. Lagrangian and arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian simulations of complex roll-forming processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutzen, Yanick; Boman, Romain; Papeleux, Luc; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formalism is a breakthrough technique in the numerical simulation of the continuous-type roll-forming process. In contrast to the classical Lagrangian approach, the ALE formalism can compute the hopefully stationary state for the entire mill length with definitely effortless set-up tasks thanks to a nearly-stationary mesh. In this paper, advantages of ALE and Lagrangian formalisms are extensively discussed for simulating such continuous-type processes. Through a highly complex industrial application, the ease of use of ALE modelling is illustrated with the in-house code METAFOR. ALE and Lagrangian results are in good agreement with each other.

  10. A Dynamically Adaptive Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Method for Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R W; Pember, R B; Elliott, N S

    2004-01-28

    A new method that combines staggered grid Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) techniques with structured local adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) has been developed for solution of the Euler equations. The novel components of the combined ALE-AMR method hinge upon the integration of traditional AMR techniques with both staggered grid Lagrangian operators as well as elliptic relaxation operators on moving, deforming mesh hierarchies. Numerical examples demonstrate the utility of the method in performing detailed three-dimensional shock-driven instability calculations.

  11. A Dynamically Adaptive Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Method for Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R W; Pember, R B; Elliott, N S

    2002-10-19

    A new method that combines staggered grid Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) techniques with structured local adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) has been developed for solution of the Euler equations. The novel components of the combined ALE-AMR method hinge upon the integration of traditional AMR techniques with both staggered grid Lagrangian operators as well as elliptic relaxation operators on moving, deforming mesh hierarchies. Numerical examples demonstrate the utility of the method in performing detailed three-dimensional shock-driven instability calculations.

  12. A new Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element method for modeling contaminant transport in fractured porous formations

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, J.; Karasaki, K.

    1996-09-01

    Fracture network simulators have been extensively used in the past for obtaining a better understanding of flow and transport processes in fractured rock. However, most of these models do not account for fluid or solute exchange between the fractures and the porous matrix, although diffusion into the matrix pores can have a major impact on the spreading of contaminants. In the present paper a new finite element code TRIPOLY is introduced which combines a powerful Lagrangian-Eulerian approach for solving flow and transport in networks of discrete fractures with an efficient method to account for the diffusive interaction between the fractures and the adjacent matrix blocks. The code is capable of handling large-scale fracture-matrix systems comprising individual fractures and matrix blocks of arbitrary size, shape, and dimension.

  13. Adaptive reconnection-based arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian method

    SciTech Connect

    Bo, Wurigen; Shashkov, Mikhail

    2015-07-21

    We present a new adaptive Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method. This method is based on the reconnection-based ALE (ReALE) methodology of Refs. [35], [34] and [6]. The main elements in a standard ReALE method are: an explicit Lagrangian phase on an arbitrary polygonal (in 2D) mesh in which the solution and positions of grid nodes are updated; a rezoning phase in which a new grid is defined by changing the connectivity (using Voronoi tessellation) but not the number of cells; and a remapping phase in which the Lagrangian solution is transferred onto the new grid. Furthermore, in the standard ReALE method, the rezoned mesh is smoothed by using one or several steps toward centroidal Voronoi tessellation, but it is not adapted to the solution in any way.

  14. Adaptive reconnection-based arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian method

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bo, Wurigen; Shashkov, Mikhail

    2015-07-21

    We present a new adaptive Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method. This method is based on the reconnection-based ALE (ReALE) methodology of Refs. [35], [34] and [6]. The main elements in a standard ReALE method are: an explicit Lagrangian phase on an arbitrary polygonal (in 2D) mesh in which the solution and positions of grid nodes are updated; a rezoning phase in which a new grid is defined by changing the connectivity (using Voronoi tessellation) but not the number of cells; and a remapping phase in which the Lagrangian solution is transferred onto the new grid. Furthermore, in the standard ReALEmore » method, the rezoned mesh is smoothed by using one or several steps toward centroidal Voronoi tessellation, but it is not adapted to the solution in any way.« less

  15. Finite Element Simulation of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Aft Skirt Splashdown Using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-eulerian Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.

    2003-01-01

    Explicit finite element techniques employing an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) methodology, within the transient dynamic code LS-DYNA, are used to predict splashdown loads on a proposed replacement/upgrade of the hydrazine tanks on the thrust vector control system housed within the aft skirt of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. Two preliminary studies are performed prior to the full aft skirt analysis: An analysis of the proposed tank impacting water without supporting aft skirt structure, and an analysis of space capsule water drop tests conducted at NASA's Langley Research Center. Results from the preliminary studies provide confidence that useful predictions can be made by applying the ALE methodology to a detailed analysis of a 26-degree section of the skirt with proposed tank attached. Results for all three studies are presented and compared to limited experimental data. The challenges of using the LS-DYNA ALE capability for this type of analysis are discussed.

  16. Finite Element Simulation of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Aft Skirt Splashdown Using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Matthew E.

    2003-01-01

    Explicit finite element techniques employing an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) methodology, within the transient dynamic code LS-DYNA, are used to predict splashdown loads on a proposed replacement/upgrade of the hydrazine tanks on the thrust vector control system housed within the aft skirt of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. Two preliminary studies are performed prior to the full aft skirt analysis: An analysis of the proposed tank impacting water without supporting aft skirt structure, and an analysis of space capsule water drop tests conducted at NASA's Langley Research Center. Results from the preliminary studies provide confidence that useful predictions can be made by applying the ALE methodology to a detailed analysis of a 26-degree section of the skirt with proposed tank attached. Results for all three studies are presented and compared to limited experimental data. The challenges of using the LS-DYNA ALE capability for this type of analysis are discussed.

  17. Direct Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian ADER-MOOD finite volume schemes for multidimensional hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscheri, Walter; Loubère, Raphaël; Dumbser, Michael

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we present a new family of efficient high order accurate direct Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) one-step ADER-MOOD finite volume schemes for the solution of nonlinear hyperbolic systems of conservation laws for moving unstructured triangular and tetrahedral meshes. This family is the next generation of the ALE ADER-WENO schemes presented in [16,20]. Here, we use again an element-local space-time Galerkin finite element predictor method to achieve a high order accurate one-step time discretization, while the somewhat expensive WENO approach on moving meshes, used to obtain high order of accuracy in space, is replaced by an a posteriori MOOD loop which is shown to be less expensive but still as accurate. This a posteriori MOOD loop ensures the numerical solution in each cell at any discrete time level to fulfill a set of user-defined detection criteria. If a cell average does not satisfy the detection criteria, then the solution is locally re-computed by progressively decrementing the order of the polynomial reconstruction, following a so-called cascade of predefined schemes with decreasing approximation order. A so-called parachute scheme, typically a very robust first order Godunov-type finite volume method, is employed as a last resort for highly problematic cells. The cascade of schemes defines how the decrementing process is carried out, i.e. how many schemes are tried and which orders are adopted for the polynomial reconstructions. The cascade and the parachute scheme are choices of the user or the code developer. Consequently the iterative MOOD loop allows the numerical solution to maintain some interesting properties such as positivity, mesh validity, etc., which are otherwise difficult to ensure. We have applied our new high order unstructured direct ALE ADER-MOOD schemes to the multi-dimensional Euler equations of compressible gas dynamics. A large set of test problems has been simulated and analyzed to assess the validity of our approach

  18. Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach in reduced order modeling of a flow with a moving boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankiewicz, W.; Roszak, R.; Morzyński, M.

    2013-06-01

    Flow-induced deflections of aircraft structures result in oscillations that might turn into such a dangerous phenomena like flutter or buffeting. In this paper the design of an aeroelastic system consisting of Reduced Order Model (ROM) of the flow with a moving boundary is presented. The model is based on Galerkin projection of governing equation onto space spanned by modes obtained from high-fidelity computations. The motion of the boundary and mesh is defined in Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) approach and results in additional convective term in Galerkin system. The developed system is demonstrated on the example of a flow around an oscillating wing.

  19. Large eddy simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method

    SciTech Connect

    Darlington, R

    1999-12-01

    This research addresses the application of a large eddy simulation (LES) to Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. First, ALE simulations of simplified Rayleigh-Taylor instability are studied. The advantages of ALE over Eulerian simulations are shown. Next, the behavior of the LES is examined in a more complicated ALE simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The effects of eddy viscosity and stochastic backscatter are examined. The LES is also coupled with ALE to increase grid resolution in areas where it is needed. Finally, the methods studied above are applied to two sets of experimental simulations. In these simulations, ALE allows the mesh to follow expanding experimental targets, while LES can be used to mimic the effect of unresolved instability modes.

  20. A Dynamically Adaptive Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Method for Solution of the Euler Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R W; Elliott, N S; Pember, R B

    2003-02-14

    A new method that combines staggered grid arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) techniques with structured local adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) has been developed for solution of the Euler equations. The novel components of the methods are driven by the need to reconcile traditional AMR techniques with the staggered variables and moving, deforming meshes associated with Lagrange based ALE schemes. We develop interlevel solution transfer operators and interlevel boundary conditions first in the case of purely Lagrangian hydrodynamics, and then extend these ideas into an ALE method by developing adaptive extensions of elliptic mesh relaxation techniques. Conservation properties of the method are analyzed, and a series of test problem calculations are presented which demonstrate the utility and efficiency of the method.

  1. Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Method with Local Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Modeling Shock Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R W; Pember, R B; Elliott, N S

    2001-10-22

    A new method that combines staggered grid Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) techniques with structured local adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) has been developed for solution of the Euler equations. This method facilitates the solution of problems currently at and beyond the boundary of soluble problems by traditional ALE methods by focusing computational resources where they are required through dynamic adaption. Many of the core issues involved in the development of the combined ALEAMR method hinge upon the integration of AMR with a staggered grid Lagrangian integration method. The novel components of the method are mainly driven by the need to reconcile traditional AMR techniques, which are typically employed on stationary meshes with cell-centered quantities, with the staggered grids and grid motion employed by Lagrangian methods. Numerical examples are presented which demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method.

  2. Erratum: “Hamiltonian magnetohydrodynamics: Lagrangian, Eulerian, and dynamically accessible stability—Theory” [Phys. Plasmas 20, 092104 (2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Andreussi, T.; Morrison, P. J.; Pegoraro, F.

    2015-03-15

    An algebraic mistake in the rendering of the Energy Casimir stability condition for a symmetric magnetohydrodynamics plasma configuration with flows made in the article Andreussi et al. “Hamiltonian magnetohydrodynamics: Lagrangian, Eulerian, and dynamically accessible stability—Theory,” Phys. Plasmas 20, 092104 (2013) is corrected.

  3. Users` manual for LEHGC: A Lagrangian-Eulerian Finite-Element Model of Hydrogeochemical Transport Through Saturated-Unsaturated Media. Version 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Gour-Tsyh; Carpenter, S.L.; Hopkins, P.L.; Siegel, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    The computer program LEHGC is a Hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian Finite-Element Model of HydroGeo-Chemical (LEHGC) Transport Through Saturated-Unsaturated Media. LEHGC iteratively solves two-dimensional transport and geochemical equilibrium equations and is a descendant of HYDROGEOCHEM, a strictly Eulerian finite-element reactive transport code. The hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian scheme improves on the Eulerian scheme by allowing larger time steps to be used in the advection-dominant transport calculations. This causes less numerical dispersion and alleviates the problem of calculated negative concentrations at sharp concentration fronts. The code also is more computationally efficient than the strictly Eulerian version. LEHGC is designed for generic application to reactive transport problems associated with contaminant transport in subsurface media. Input to the program includes the geometry of the system, the spatial distribution of finite elements and nodes, the properties of the media, the potential chemical reactions, and the initial and boundary conditions. Output includes the spatial distribution of chemical element concentrations as a function of time and space and the chemical speciation at user-specified nodes. LEHGC Version 1.1 is a modification of LEHGC Version 1.0. The modification includes: (1) devising a tracking algorithm with the computational effort proportional to N where N is the number of computational grid nodes rather than N{sup 2} as in LEHGC Version 1.0, (2) including multiple adsorbing sites and multiple ion-exchange sites, (3) using four preconditioned conjugate gradient methods for the solution of matrix equations, and (4) providing a model for some features of solute transport by colloids.

  4. A point-centered arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian hydrodynamic approach for tetrahedral meshes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Morgan, Nathaniel R.; Waltz, Jacob I.; Burton, Donald E.; Charest, Marc R.; Canfield, Thomas R.; Wohlbier, John G.

    2015-02-24

    We present a three dimensional (3D) arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamic scheme suitable for modeling complex compressible flows on tetrahedral meshes. The new approach stores the conserved variables (mass, momentum, and total energy) at the nodes of the mesh and solves the conservation equations on a control volume surrounding the point. This type of an approach is termed a point-centered hydrodynamic (PCH) method. The conservation equations are discretized using an edge-based finite element (FE) approach with linear basis functions. All fluxes in the new approach are calculated at the center of each tetrahedron. A multidirectional Riemann-like problem is solved atmore » the center of the tetrahedron. The advective fluxes are calculated by solving a 1D Riemann problem on each face of the nodal control volume. A 2-stage Runge–Kutta method is used to evolve the solution forward in time, where the advective fluxes are part of the temporal integration. The mesh velocity is smoothed by solving a Laplacian equation. The details of the new ALE hydrodynamic scheme are discussed. Results from a range of numerical test problems are presented.« less

  5. Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian simulations of stationary and non-stationary metal forming processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boman, R.; Ponthot, J.-P.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate modelling of sheet metal forming processes, such as cold roll forming, by the finite element method using the classical Lagrangian formulation usually requires a very large mesh leading to huge CPU times. In order to model industrial roll forming lines including many tools in a reasonable time, the sheet has to be shortened or the element size has to be increased leading to inaccurate results. An alternative method is given by the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formalism which consists in decoupling the motion of the material and the mesh, the nodes of which are fixed in the rolling direction but are free to move on perpendicular plane, following the geometrical boundary of the sheet. The whole forming line can then be modelled using a limited number of brick and contact elements because the mesh is only refined near the tools where bending and contact occur. In this paper, ALE results are compared to previous Lagrangian simulations and experimental measurement on a U-channel, including springback. Advantages of the ALE method are finally demonstrated by the simulation of a tubular rocker panel on a 16-stands forming mill.

  6. A point-centered arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian hydrodynamic approach for tetrahedral meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Nathaniel R.; Waltz, Jacob I.; Burton, Donald E.; Charest, Marc R.; Canfield, Thomas R.; Wohlbier, John G.

    2015-02-24

    We present a three dimensional (3D) arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamic scheme suitable for modeling complex compressible flows on tetrahedral meshes. The new approach stores the conserved variables (mass, momentum, and total energy) at the nodes of the mesh and solves the conservation equations on a control volume surrounding the point. This type of an approach is termed a point-centered hydrodynamic (PCH) method. The conservation equations are discretized using an edge-based finite element (FE) approach with linear basis functions. All fluxes in the new approach are calculated at the center of each tetrahedron. A multidirectional Riemann-like problem is solved at the center of the tetrahedron. The advective fluxes are calculated by solving a 1D Riemann problem on each face of the nodal control volume. A 2-stage Runge–Kutta method is used to evolve the solution forward in time, where the advective fluxes are part of the temporal integration. The mesh velocity is smoothed by solving a Laplacian equation. The details of the new ALE hydrodynamic scheme are discussed. Results from a range of numerical test problems are presented.

  7. Numerical flow Simulation around a flat plate during heavy rainfall using Lagrangian Eulerian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhir, Gaurav; Suman, Sawan

    2015-11-01

    Experimental evidence shows that aircrafts operating under heavy rainfall conditions face deterioration of lift and increase in drag. This scenario can be a critical design challenge especially for slow moving vehicles such as airships. Effective roughening of airfoil surface caused by an uneven water film, loss of flow momentum and the loss of vehicle momentum due to its collision with the raindrops are the primary reasons causing the drag to increase. Our work focuses primarily on the numerical quantification of boundary layer momentum loss caused due to raindrops. The collision of raindrops with a solid surface leads to formation of an ejecta fog of splashed back droplets with their sizes being of the order of micrometers and their acceleration leads to boundary layer momentum loss. We model the airflow within a flat plate boundary layer using a Lagrangian-Eulerian approach with the raindrops being considered as non-deformable, non-spinning and non-interacting droplets. We employ an inter-phase coupling term to account for the interaction between the boundary layer flow and the droplets. Our presentation will focus on several comparisons (velocity field, lift and drag at various angles of attack) with the results of the standard (rain-free) Prandtl boundary layer flow. Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi.

  8. A subcell remapping method on staggered polygonal grids for arbitrary-Lagrangian Eulerian methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loubère, Raphaël; Shashkov, Mikhail J.

    2005-10-01

    We describe a new remapping algorithm for use in arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations. The new features of this remapper are designed to complement a staggered-mesh Lagrangian phase in which the cells may be general polygons (in two dimensions), and which uses subcell discretizations to control unphysical mesh distortion and hourglassing. Our new remapping algorithm consists of three stages. A gathering stage, in which we interpolate momentum, internal energy, and kinetic energy to the subcells in a conservative way. A subcell remapping stage, in which we conservatively remap mass, momentum, internal, and kinetic energy from the subcells of the Lagrangian mesh to the subcells of the new rezoned mesh. A scattering stage, in which we conservatively recover the primary variables: subcell density, nodal velocity, and cell-centered specific internal energy on the new rezoned mesh. We prove that our new remapping algorithm is conservative, reversible, and satisfies the DeBar consistency condition. We also demonstrate computationally that our new remapping method is robust and accurate for a series of test problems in one and two dimensions.

  9. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation for solving moving boundary problems with large displacements and rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erzincanli, Belkis; Sahin, Mehmet

    2013-12-01

    An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation based on the unstructured finite volume method is proposed for solving moving boundary problems with large displacements and rotations. The numerical method is based on the side-centered arrangement of the primitive variables that does not require any ad-hoc modifications in order to enhance pressure coupling. The continuity equation is satisfied within each element at machine precision and the summation of the continuity equations can be exactly reduced to the domain boundary, which is important for the global mass conservation. A special attention is given to construct an ALE algorithm obeying the discrete geometric conservation law (DGCL). The mesh deformation algorithm is based on the indirect Radial Basis Function (RBF) algorithm at each time level while avoiding remeshing in order to enhance numerical robustness. For the parallel solution of resulting large-scale algebraic equations in a fully coupled form, a matrix factorization is introduced similar to that of the projection method for the whole system and the parallel algebraic multigrid solver BoomerAMG is used for the scaled discrete Laplacian provided by the HYPRE library which we access through the PETSc library. The present numerical algorithm is initially validated for the decaying Taylor-Green vortex flow, the flow past an oscillating circular cylinder in a channel and the flow induced by an oscillating sphere in a cubic cavity. Then the numerical algorithm is applied to the numerical simulation of flow field around a pair of flapping Drosophila wings in hover flight. The time variation of the Eulerian coherent structures in the near wake is shown along with the aerodynamic loads.

  10. An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Discretization of MHD on 3D Unstructured Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Rieben, R N; White, D A; Wallin, B K; Solberg, J M

    2006-06-12

    We present an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) discretization of the equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) on unstructured hexahedral grids. The method is formulated using an operator-split approach with three distinct phases: electromagnetic diffusion, Lagrangian motion, and Eulerian advection. The resistive magnetic dynamo equation is discretized using a compatible mixed finite element method with a 2nd order accurate implicit time differencing scheme which preserves the divergence-free nature of the magnetic field. At each discrete time step, electromagnetic force and heat terms are calculated and coupled to the hydrodynamic equations to compute the Lagrangian motion of the conducting materials. By virtue of the compatible discretization method used, the invariants of Lagrangian MHD motion are preserved in a discrete sense. When the Lagrangian motion of the mesh causes significant distortion, that distortion is corrected with a relaxation of the mesh, followed by a 2nd order monotonic remap of the electromagnetic state variables. The remap is equivalent to Eulerian advection of the magnetic flux density with a fictitious mesh relaxation velocity. The magnetic advection is performed using a novel variant of constrained transport (CT) that is valid for unstructured hexahedral grids with arbitrary mesh velocities. The advection method maintains the divergence free nature of the magnetic field and is second order accurate in regions where the solution is sufficiently smooth. For regions in which the magnetic field is discontinuous (e.g. MHD shocks) the method is limited using a novel variant of algebraic flux correction (AFC) which is local extremum diminishing (LED) and divergence preserving. Finally, we verify each stage of the discretization via a set of numerical experiments.

  11. A geometrically-conservative, synchronized, flux-corrected remap for arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian computations with nodal finite elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Ortega, A.; Scovazzi, G.

    2011-07-01

    This article describes a conservative synchronized remap algorithm applicable to arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian computations with nodal finite elements. In the proposed approach, ideas derived from flux-corrected transport (FCT) methods are extended to conservative remap. Unique to the proposed method is the direct incorporation of the geometric conservation law (GCL) in the resulting numerical scheme. It is shown here that the geometric conservation law allows the method to inherit the positivity preserving and local extrema diminishing (LED) properties typical of FCT schemes. The proposed framework is extended to the systems of equations that typically arise in meteorological and compressible flow computations. The proposed algorithm remaps the vector fields associated with these problems by means of a synchronized strategy. The present paper also complements and extends the work of the second author on nodal-based methods for shock hydrodynamics, delivering a fully integrated suite of Lagrangian/remap algorithms for computations of compressible materials under extreme load conditions. Extensive testing in one, two, and three dimensions shows that the method is robust and accurate under typical computational scenarios.

  12. An unstructured mesh arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian unsteady incompressible flow solver and its application to insect flight aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xiaohui; Cao, Yuanwei; Zhao, Yong

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an unstructured mesh Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) incompressible flow solver is developed to investigate the aerodynamics of insect hovering flight. The proposed finite-volume ALE Navier-Stokes solver is based on the artificial compressibility method (ACM) with a high-resolution method of characteristics-based scheme on unstructured grids. The present ALE model is validated and assessed through flow passing over an oscillating cylinder. Good agreements with experimental results and other numerical solutions are obtained, which demonstrates the accuracy and the capability of the present model. The lift generation mechanisms of 2D wing in hovering motion, including wake capture, delayed stall, rapid pitch, as well as clap and fling are then studied and illustrated using the current ALE model. Moreover, the optimized angular amplitude in symmetry model, 45°, is firstly reported in details using averaged lift and the energy power method. Besides, the lift generation of complete cyclic clap and fling motion, which is simulated by few researchers using the ALE method due to large deformation, is studied and clarified for the first time. The present ALE model is found to be a useful tool to investigate lift force generation mechanism for insect wing flight.

  13. Laser Ray Tracing in a Parallel Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Adaptive Mesh Refinement Hydrocode

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, N D; Kaiser, T B; Anderson, R W; Eder, D C; Fisher, A C; Koniges, A E

    2009-09-28

    ALE-AMR is a new hydrocode that we are developing as a predictive modeling tool for debris and shrapnel formation in high-energy laser experiments. In this paper we present our approach to implementing laser ray-tracing in ALE-AMR. We present the equations of laser ray tracing, our approach to efficient traversal of the adaptive mesh hierarchy in which we propagate computational rays through a virtual composite mesh consisting of the finest resolution representation of the modeled space, and anticipate simulations that will be compared to experiments for code validation.

  14. A Lagrangian-Eulerian Mapping Solver for Direct Numerical Simulation of Bubble-Laden Turbulent Shear Flows Using the Two-Fluid Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druzhinin, O. A.; Elghobashi, S. E.

    1999-09-01

    In a recent study we showed that the two-fluid (TF) formulation can be used in the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of bubble- (or particle-) laden decaying isotropic turbulence with considerable saving in CPU-time and memory as compared to the trajectory approach employed by many researchers. In the present paper, we develop a Lagrangian-Eulerian mapping (LEM) solver for DNS of bubble-laden turbulent shear flows using TF. The purpose of LEM is to resolve the large gradients of bubble velocity and concentration which result from the absence of the diffusion terms in the equations of bubble-phase motion and the preferential accumulation of bubbles. A standard finite-difference scheme (FDS) fails to resolve these gradients. We examine the performance of the new method in DNS of a bubble-laden Taylor-Green vortex, spatially developing plane mixing layer, and homogeneous shear turbulent flow.

  15. Constrained optimization framework for interface-aware sub-scale dynamics closure model for multimaterial cells in Lagrangian and arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Andrew; Hill, Ryan; Shashkov, Mikhail

    2014-11-01

    A systematic description of the new interface-aware sub-scale-dynamics (IA-SSD) closure model for the Lagrangian stage of multimaterial arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian methods is presented. The IA-SSD closure model consists of two stages. During the first, bulk, stage, the well known equal compressibility model is used. During the second stage, sub-scale interactions of the materials inside the multimaterial cell are taken into account. At this stage, information about the topology of the materials inside the multimaterial cell is utilized, allowing the orientations of internal interfaces to be included in the model. Each material interacts in a pair-wise fashion with the materials with which it has a common boundary. The interactions are based on the solution of the acoustic Riemann problem between each pair of materials and is limited using physically justified constraints: positivity of volume, positivity of internal energy and controlled rate of pressure relaxation. To determine the values of the limiter coefficients, a constrained-optimization framework is employed using a quadratic objective function with linear constraints. The algorithm guarantees the positivity of the material volume and internal energy as well as the smooth relaxation of the pressure - this allows a significant increase in the robustness of the overall algorithm. The results of comprehensive testing of the new model have been presented for one- and two-dimensional multimaterial Lagrangian hydrodynamics along with representative results for 2D multimaterial arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) calculations. The numerical tests have shown that in most cases the new IA-SSD closure model produces better results compared to the well known Tipton's closure model.

  16. Simulation of wave-structure interaction by hybrid Cartesian/immersed boundary and arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian finite-element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. S.; Young, D. L.; Chiu, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    This article aims to develop a Cartesian-grid-based numerical model to study the interaction between free-surface flow and stationary or oscillating immersed obstacle in a viscous fluid. To incorporate the effect of the free surface motion, an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) scheme is employed to accurately capture the configuration of free surface. To deal with the complex submerged obstacle in the fluid, a hybrid Cartesian/immersed boundary (HCIB) method is adopted, which allows easy implementation of the solid boundary conditions for a fixed structured grid. The two numerical techniques are combined to study the wave-structure interaction problems. The major merit of the proposed model is that the fluid grid is fixed throughout the computations during the transients, while the immersed body can move arbitrarily through the Cartesian grid. The meshes deform smoothly over the solid and free-surface boundaries, especially for representing sharp interface. There is no re-meshing process needed since this scheme only depends on the simple mesh generation to promote the efficiency of calculation. Some numerical examples are displayed respectively to validate the robustness and accuracy of the HCIB method, the ALE based finite-element scheme and their combinations. In addition, the other two numerical applications are carried out to simulate the wave-structure interaction with stationary and moving immersed body. In case studies some physical characteristics are also discussed for a range of amplitude of free-surface wave, Reynolds numbers and the proximity of structure under the liquid surface. The feasibility of the developed novel numerical model is shown through five numerical experiments.

  17. Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation of Prosthetic Aortic Valves: Comparison between Immersed Boundary and Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Techniques for the Mesh Representation

    PubMed Central

    Iannaccone, Francesco; Degroote, Joris; Vierendeels, Jan; Segers, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the role of FSI (fluid-structure interaction) simulations in the analysis of the fluid-mechanics of heart valves is becoming more and more important, being able to capture the interaction between the blood and both the surrounding biological tissues and the valve itself. When setting up an FSI simulation, several choices have to be made to select the most suitable approach for the case of interest: in particular, to simulate flexible leaflet cardiac valves, the type of discretization of the fluid domain is crucial, which can be described with an ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) or an Eulerian formulation. The majority of the reported 3D heart valve FSI simulations are performed with the Eulerian formulation, allowing for large deformations of the domains without compromising the quality of the fluid grid. Nevertheless, it is known that the ALE-FSI approach guarantees more accurate results at the interface between the solid and the fluid. The goal of this paper is to describe the same aortic valve model in the two cases, comparing the performances of an ALE-based FSI solution and an Eulerian-based FSI approach. After a first simplified 2D case, the aortic geometry was considered in a full 3D set-up. The model was kept as similar as possible in the two settings, to better compare the simulations’ outcomes. Although for the 2D case the differences were unsubstantial, in our experience the performance of a full 3D ALE-FSI simulation was significantly limited by the technical problems and requirements inherent to the ALE formulation, mainly related to the mesh motion and deformation of the fluid domain. As a secondary outcome of this work, it is important to point out that the choice of the solver also influenced the reliability of the final results. PMID:27128798

  18. Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation of Prosthetic Aortic Valves: Comparison between Immersed Boundary and Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Techniques for the Mesh Representation.

    PubMed

    Bavo, Alessandra M; Rocatello, Giorgia; Iannaccone, Francesco; Degroote, Joris; Vierendeels, Jan; Segers, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the role of FSI (fluid-structure interaction) simulations in the analysis of the fluid-mechanics of heart valves is becoming more and more important, being able to capture the interaction between the blood and both the surrounding biological tissues and the valve itself. When setting up an FSI simulation, several choices have to be made to select the most suitable approach for the case of interest: in particular, to simulate flexible leaflet cardiac valves, the type of discretization of the fluid domain is crucial, which can be described with an ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) or an Eulerian formulation. The majority of the reported 3D heart valve FSI simulations are performed with the Eulerian formulation, allowing for large deformations of the domains without compromising the quality of the fluid grid. Nevertheless, it is known that the ALE-FSI approach guarantees more accurate results at the interface between the solid and the fluid. The goal of this paper is to describe the same aortic valve model in the two cases, comparing the performances of an ALE-based FSI solution and an Eulerian-based FSI approach. After a first simplified 2D case, the aortic geometry was considered in a full 3D set-up. The model was kept as similar as possible in the two settings, to better compare the simulations' outcomes. Although for the 2D case the differences were unsubstantial, in our experience the performance of a full 3D ALE-FSI simulation was significantly limited by the technical problems and requirements inherent to the ALE formulation, mainly related to the mesh motion and deformation of the fluid domain. As a secondary outcome of this work, it is important to point out that the choice of the solver also influenced the reliability of the final results. PMID:27128798

  19. A combined Lagrangian-Eulerian approach to understand the kinematic and dynamic properties of coherent flow structures over a gravel bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, R. J.; Best, J.; Parsons, D. R.; Keevil, G.; Rosser, N.

    2009-12-01

    Turbulence in gravel-bed rivers (GBR’s) is not a simple random field: visualisation and multipoint measurements show it is possible to decompose complex, multi-scaled, quasi-random flow fields into elementary organized structures which posses both spatial and temporal coherence. These coherent flow structures (CFS’s) are generated through topographic forcing of the typically shallow flow over the detailed micro-topography of the gravel bed. However, we currently have little understanding of the kinematic (size, scaling, shape, vorticity & energy) & dynamic (origin, stability, growth, genesis & contribution to averages) characteristics of theses CFS’s, which are central to improving our understanding of turbulent flow, the contribution of CFS’s to fluid mixing, bed shear stress and hence sediment transport. This lack of process understanding of turbulence in GBR’s stems from two fundamental shortcomings: i) previous studies have used Eulerian time series to quantitatively determine processes, which may be interpolated to examine the whole flow field, rather than studying the complete instantaneous holistic flow field; and ii) whole flow field visualization provides a qualitative Lagrangian viewpoint but very little quantitative information. Here, we demonstrate a novel turbulence mapping technique using a combined digital Particle Image Velocimetry and planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence technique to allow a combined Lagrangian-Eulerian approach to understand both the kinematic and dynamic properties coherent flow structures over a gravel bed in a flume. The results demonstrate the dynamic interplay between fluid within individual identifiable coherent flow structures and the structure themselves as the fluid advects over the bed.

  20. Testing of the CONTAIN code

    SciTech Connect

    Sciacca, F.W.; Bergeron, K.D.; Murata, K.K.; Rexroth, P.E.

    1984-04-01

    CONTAIN is a large computer code intended for use in the analysis of severe nuclear power plant accidents. Many tests have been conducted on CONTAIN to assess its adequacy for dealing with nuclear-accident problems. This report describes the CONTAIN test program and summarizes the results obtained to date. These results are presented so that users may be aware of the features of CONTAIN that have been checked and of the areas where problems have been identified. In addition, this report provides information needed by users to repeat tests of interest in their specific work areas. The test efforts have identified a substantial number of problems in the coding or logic of the CONTAIN code. Most of these problems have been corrected. These corrections have been included in the most recent versions of the code. CONTAIN can accurately treat most of the phenomena expected to occur in containment atmospheres. Some problems identified by the test program, involving pool-related phenomena, have prompted the development of a substantially new system of models for pool phenomena. When completed, this new system will be subjected to intense testing of the type described here.

  1. A direct Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian ADER-WENO finite volume scheme on unstructured tetrahedral meshes for conservative and non-conservative hyperbolic systems in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscheri, Walter; Dumbser, Michael

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we present a new family of high order accurate Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) one-step ADER-WENO finite volume schemes for the solution of nonlinear systems of conservative and non-conservative hyperbolic partial differential equations with stiff source terms on moving tetrahedral meshes in three space dimensions. A WENO reconstruction technique is used to achieve high order of accuracy in space, while an element-local space-time Discontinuous Galerkin finite element predictor on moving curved meshes is used to obtain a high order accurate one-step time discretization. Within the space-time predictor the physical element is mapped onto a reference element using a high order isoparametric approach, where the space-time basis and test functions are given by the Lagrange interpolation polynomials passing through a predefined set of space-time nodes. Since our algorithm is cell-centered, the final mesh motion is computed by using a suitable node solver algorithm. A rezoning step as well as a flattener strategy are used in some of the test problems to avoid mesh tangling or excessive element deformations that may occur when the computation involves strong shocks or shear waves. The ALE algorithm presented in this article belongs to the so-called direct ALE methods because the final Lagrangian finite volume scheme is based directly on a space-time conservation formulation of the governing PDE system, with the rezoned geometry taken already into account during the computation of the fluxes. We apply our new high order unstructured ALE schemes to the 3D Euler equations of compressible gas dynamics, for which a set of classical numerical test problems has been solved and for which convergence rates up to sixth order of accuracy in space and time have been obtained. We furthermore consider the equations of classical ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) as well as the non-conservative seven-equation Baer-Nunziato model of compressible multi-phase flows with

  2. Direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, K.E.; Williams, D.C.

    1995-08-01

    The potential exists in a nuclear reactor core melt severe accident for molten core debris to be dispersed under high pressure into the containment building. If this occurs, the set of phenomena that result in the transfer of energy to the containment atmosphere and its surroundings is referred to as direct containment heating (DCH). Because of the potential for DCH to lead to early containment failure, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has sponsored an extensive research program consisting of experimental, analytical, and risk integration components. An important element of the analytical research has been the development and assessment of direct containment heating models in the CONTAIN code. This report documents the DCH models in the CONTAIN code. DCH models in CONTAIN for representing debris transport, trapping, chemical reactions, and heat transfer from debris to the containment atmosphere and surroundings are described. The descriptions include the governing equations and input instructions in CONTAIN unique to performing DCH calculations. Modifications made to the combustion models in CONTAIN for representing the combustion of DCH-produced and pre-existing hydrogen under DCH conditions are also described. Input table options for representing the discharge of debris from the RPV and the entrainment phase of the DCH process are also described. A sample calculation is presented to demonstrate the functionality of the models. The results show that reasonable behavior is obtained when the models are used to predict the sixth Zion geometry integral effects test at 1/10th scale.

  3. Code manual for CONTAIN 2.0: A computer code for nuclear reactor containment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, K.K.; Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.; Gido, R.G.; Tadios, E.L.; Davis, F.J.; Martinez, G.M.; Washington, K.E.; Tills, J.

    1997-12-01

    The CONTAIN 2.0 computer code is an integrated analysis tool used for predicting the physical conditions, chemical compositions, and distributions of radiological materials inside a containment building following the release of material from the primary system in a light-water reactor accident. It can also predict the source term to the environment. CONTAIN 2.0 is intended to replace the earlier CONTAIN 1.12, which was released in 1991. The purpose of this Code Manual is to provide full documentation of the features and models in CONTAIN 2.0. Besides complete descriptions of the models, this Code Manual provides a complete description of the input and output from the code. CONTAIN 2.0 is a highly flexible and modular code that can run problems that are either quite simple or highly complex. An important aspect of CONTAIN is that the interactions among thermal-hydraulic phenomena, aerosol behavior, and fission product behavior are taken into account. The code includes atmospheric models for steam/air thermodynamics, intercell flows, condensation/evaporation on structures and aerosols, aerosol behavior, and gas combustion. It also includes models for reactor cavity phenomena such as core-concrete interactions and coolant pool boiling. Heat conduction in structures, fission product decay and transport, radioactive decay heating, and the thermal-hydraulic and fission product decontamination effects of engineered safety features are also modeled. To the extent possible, the best available models for severe accident phenomena have been incorporated into CONTAIN, but it is intrinsic to the nature of accident analysis that significant uncertainty exists regarding numerous phenomena. In those cases, sensitivity studies can be performed with CONTAIN by means of user-specified input parameters. Thus, the code can be viewed as a tool designed to assist the knowledge reactor safety analyst in evaluating the consequences of specific modeling assumptions.

  4. 49 CFR 178.1005 - Flexible Bulk Container identification code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flexible Bulk Container identification code. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Flexible Bulk Container Standards § 178.1005 Flexible Bulk Container identification code. The Flexible Bulk Container code designation is BK3....

  5. 49 CFR 178.1005 - Flexible Bulk Container identification code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flexible Bulk Container identification code. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Flexible Bulk Container Standards § 178.1005 Flexible Bulk Container identification code. The Flexible Bulk Container code designation is BK3....

  6. Periodic Boundary Conditions in the ALEGRA Finite Element Code

    SciTech Connect

    AIDUN,JOHN B.; ROBINSON,ALLEN C.; WEATHERBY,JOE R.

    1999-11-01

    This document describes the implementation of periodic boundary conditions in the ALEGRA finite element code. ALEGRA is an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian multi-physics code with both explicit and implicit numerical algorithms. The periodic boundary implementation requires a consistent set of boundary input sets which are used to describe virtual periodic regions. The implementation is noninvasive to the majority of the ALEGRA coding and is based on the distributed memory parallel framework in ALEGRA. The technique involves extending the ghost element concept for interprocessor boundary communications in ALEGRA to additionally support on- and off-processor periodic boundary communications. The user interface, algorithmic details and sample computations are given.

  7. Hydrogen Event Containment Response Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-11-23

    Version: 00 Distribution is restricted to the United States Only. HECTR1.5 (Hydrogen Event-Containment Transient Response) is a lumped-volume containment analysis program that is most useful for performing parametric studies. Its main purpose is to analyze nuclear reactor accidents involving the transport and combustion of hydrogen, but HECTR can also function as an experiment analysis tool and can solve a limited set of other containment problems. Six gases; steam, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbonmore » dioxide are modified along with sumps containing liquid water. HECTR can model virtually all the containment systems of importance in ice condenser, large dry and Mark III containments. A postprocessor, ACHILES1.5, is included. It processes the time-dependent variable output (compartment pressures, flow junction velocities, surface temperatures, etc.) produced by HECTR. ACHILES can produce tables and graphs of these data.« less

  8. Containment Fire Simulation by a CFD Code

    SciTech Connect

    Heitsch, Matthias

    2002-07-01

    In the frame of an international collaborative project to evaluate fire models a code benchmark was initiated to better quantify the strengths and weaknesses of the codes involved. CFX has been applied to simulate selected cases of both parts of the benchmark. These simulations are presented and discussed in this paper. In the first part of the benchmark a pool fire just represented by a heat release table is considered. Consequently, the physical fire model within CFX is simple. Radiative heat exchange together with turbulent mixing are involved. Two cases with and without venting of the fire room are compared. The second part of the benchmark requires a more detailed fire model in order to inspect the availability of oxygen locally and to control the fire intensity. Under unvented conditions oxygen starvation is encountered and the fire oscillates. Mechanical ventilation changes this behavior and provides enough oxygen all over the simulation time. The predefined damage criteria to characterize, if a target cable in the fire room would be damaged, are not met. However, surface temperatures predicted are well above the assumed threshold temperatures. A continuation of the work presented is foreseen and will address a more complex physical modeling of relevant fire scenarios. (author)

  9. Digital system detects binary code patterns containing errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, R. M.; Tharpe, H. M., Jr.

    1966-01-01

    System of square loop magnetic cores associated with code input registers to react to input code patterns by reference to a group of control cores in such a manner that errors are canceled and patterns containing errors are accepted for amplification and processing. This technique improves reception capabilities in PCM telemetry systems.

  10. Interface requirements for coupling a containment code to a reactor system thermal hydraulic codes

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, A.J.

    1997-07-01

    To perform a complete analysis of a reactor transient, not only the primary system response but the containment response must also be accounted for. Such transients and accidents as a loss of coolant accident in both pressurized water and boiling water reactors and inadvertent operation of safety relief valves all challenge the containment and may influence flows because of containment feedback. More recently, the advanced reactor designs put forth by General Electric and Westinghouse in the US and by Framatome and Seimens in Europe rely on the containment to act as the ultimate heat sink. Techniques used by analysts and engineers to analyze the interaction of the containment and the primary system were usually iterative in nature. Codes such as RELAP or RETRAN were used to analyze the primary system response and CONTAIN or CONTEMPT the containment response. The analysis was performed by first running the system code and representing the containment as a fixed pressure boundary condition. The flows were usually from the primary system to the containment initially and generally under choked conditions. Once the mass flows and timing are determined from the system codes, these conditions were input into the containment code. The resulting pressures and temperatures were then calculated and the containment performance analyzed. The disadvantage of this approach becomes evident when one performs an analysis of a rapid depressurization or a long term accident sequence in which feedback from the containment can occur. For example, in a BWR main steam line break transient, the containment heats up and becomes a source of energy for the primary system. Recent advances in programming and computer technology are available to provide an alternative approach. The author and other researchers have developed linkage codes capable of transferring data between codes at each time step allowing discrete codes to be coupled together.

  11. RHALE: A 3-D MMALE code for unstructured grids

    SciTech Connect

    Peery, J.S.; Budge, K.G.; Wong, M.K.W.; Trucano, T.G.

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes RHALE, a multi-material arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (MMALE) shock physics code. RHALE is the successor to CTH, Sandia`s 3-D Eulerian shock physics code, and will be capable of solving problems that CTH cannot adequately address. We discuss the Lagrangian solid mechanics capabilities of RHALE, which include arbitrary mesh connectivity, superior artificial viscosity, and improved material models. We discuss the MMALE algorithms that have been extended for arbitrary grids in both two- and three-dimensions. The MMALE addition to RHALE provides the accuracy of a Lagrangian code while allowing a calculation to proceed under very large material distortions. Coupling an arbitrary quadrilateral or hexahedral grid to the MMALE solution facilitates modeling of complex shapes with a greatly reduced number of computational cells. RHALE allows regions of a problem to be modeled with Lagrangian, Eulerian or ALE meshes. In addition, regions can switch from Lagrangian to ALE to Eulerian based on user input or mesh distortion. For ALE meshes, new node locations are determined with a variety of element based equipotential schemes. Element quantities are advected with donor, van Leer, or Super-B algorithms. Nodal quantities are advected with the second order SHALE or HIS algorithms. Material interfaces are determined with a modified Young`s high resolution interface tracker or the SLIC algorithm. RHALE has been used to model many problems of interest to the mechanics, hypervelocity impact, and shock physics communities. Results of a sampling of these problems are presented in this paper.

  12. Development of a fan model for the CONTAIN code

    SciTech Connect

    Pevey, R.E.

    1987-01-08

    A fan model has been added to the CONTAIN code with a minimum of disruption of the standard CONTAIN calculation sequence. The user is required to supply a simple pressure vs. flow rate curve for each fan in his model configuration. Inclusion of the fan model required modification to two CONTAIN subroutines, IFLOW and EXEQNX. The two modified routines and the resulting executable module are located on the LANL mass storage system as /560007/iflow, /560007/exeqnx, and /560007/cont01, respectively. The model has been initially validated using a very simple sample problem and is ready for a more complete workout using the SRP reactor models from the RSRD probabilistic risk analysis.

  13. 17 CFR 232.106 - Prohibition against electronic submissions containing executable code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... executable code will be suspended, unless the executable code is contained only in one or more PDF documents, in which case the submission will be accepted but the PDF document(s) containing executable code...

  14. 17 CFR 232.106 - Prohibition against electronic submissions containing executable code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... executable code will be suspended, unless the executable code is contained only in one or more PDF documents, in which case the submission will be accepted but the PDF document(s) containing executable code...

  15. Hamiltonian magnetohydrodynamics: Lagrangian, Eulerian, and dynamically accessible stability—Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Andreussi, T.; Morrison, P. J.; Pegoraro, F.

    2013-09-15

    Stability conditions of magnetized plasma flows are obtained by exploiting the Hamiltonian structure of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations and, in particular, by using three kinds of energy principles. First, the Lagrangian variable energy principle is described and sufficient stability conditions are presented. Next, plasma flows are described in terms of Eulerian variables and the noncanonical Hamiltonian formulation of MHD is exploited. For symmetric equilibria, the energy-Casimir principle is expanded to second order and sufficient conditions for stability to symmetric perturbation are obtained. Then, dynamically accessible variations, i.e., variations that explicitly preserve invariants of the system, are introduced and the respective energy principle is considered. General criteria for stability are obtained, along with comparisons between the three different approaches.

  16. Lagrangian, Eulerian, and Dynamically Accessible Stability of MHD flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreussi, Tommaso; Morrison, Philip; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    Stability conditions of magnetized plasma flows are obtained by exploiting the Hamiltonian structure of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations and, in particular, by using three kinds of energy principles. First, the Lagrangian energy principle of Ref. [1] is introduced and sufficient stability conditions are presented. Next, plasma flows are described in terms of Eulerian variables and the noncanonical Hamiltonian formulation of MHD [2] is exploited. For symmetric equilibria, the energy-Casimir principle of Ref. [3] is expanded to second order and sufficient conditions for stability to symmetric perturbation are obtained. Then, dynamically accessible variations, i.e. variations that explicitly preserve the invariants of the system, are introduced and the respective energy principle is considered. As in Ref. [4], general criteria for stability are obtained. A comparison between the three different approaches is finally presented. [4pt] [1] E.A. Frieman and M. Rotenberg, Rev. Mod. Phys., 32 898 (1960).[0pt] [2] P.J. Morrison, J.M. Greene, Phys. Rev. Lett., 45 790 (1980).[0pt] [3] T. Andreussi, P.J. Morrison, F. Pegoraro, Phys. Plasmas, 19 052102 (2012).[0pt] [4] E. Hameiri, Phys. Plasmas, 10 2643 (2003).

  17. Unsteady Cascade Aerodynamic Response Using a Multiphysics Simulation Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, C.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Spyropoulos, E.

    2000-01-01

    The multiphysics code Spectrum(TM) is applied to calculate the unsteady aerodynamic pressures of oscillating cascade of airfoils representing a blade row of a turbomachinery component. Multiphysics simulation is based on a single computational framework for the modeling of multiple interacting physical phenomena, in the present case being between fluids and structures. Interaction constraints are enforced in a fully coupled manner using the augmented-Lagrangian method. The arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method is utilized to account for deformable fluid domains resulting from blade motions. Unsteady pressures are calculated for a cascade designated as the tenth standard, and undergoing plunging and pitching oscillations. The predicted unsteady pressures are compared with those obtained from an unsteady Euler co-de refer-red in the literature. The Spectrum(TM) code predictions showed good correlation for the cases considered.

  18. CONTAIN code analyses of direct containment heating (DCH) experiments: Model assessment and phenomenological interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.; Tadios, E.L.; Washington, K.E.

    1995-05-12

    Models for direct containment heating (DCH) in the CONTAIN code for severe accident analysis have been reviewed and a standard input prescription for their use has been defined. The code has been exercised against a large subset of the available DCH data base. Generally good agreement with the experimental results for containment pressurization ({Delta}P) and hydrogen generation has been obtained. Extensive sensitivity studies have been performed which permit assessment of many of the strengths and weaknesses of specific model features. These include models for debris transport and trapping, DCH heat transfer and chemistry, atmosphere-structure heat transfer, interactions between nonairborne debris and blowdown steam, potential effects of debris-water interactions, and hydrogen combustion under DCH conditions. Containment compartmentalization is an important DCH mitigator in the calculations, in agreement with experimental results. The CONTAIN model includes partially parametric treatments for some processes that are not well understood. The importance of the associated uncertainties depends upon the details of the DCH scenario being analyzed. Recommended sensitivity studies are summarized that allow the user to obtain a reasonable estimate of the uncertainties in the calculated results.

  19. KIVA-4: An unstructured ALE code for compressible gas flow with sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, David J.; Trujillo, Mario F.

    2006-12-01

    The KIVA family of codes was developed to simulate the thermal and fluid processes taking place inside an internal combustion engine. In this latest version of this open source code, KIVA-4, the numerics have been generalized to unstructrured meshes. This change required modifications to the Lagrangian phase of the computations, the pressure solution and fundamental changes in the fluxing schemes of the rezoning phase. This newest version of the code inherits all the droplet phase capabilities and physical sub-models of previous versions. The integration of the gas phase equations with moving solid boundaries continues to employ the successful arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) methodology. Its new unstructured capability facilitates grid construction in complicated geometries and affords a higher degree of flexibility. The numerics of the code, emphasizing the new additions, are described. Various computational examples are performed demonstrating the new capabilities of the code.

  20. Validation of CONTAIN-LMR code for accident analysis of sodium-cooled fast reactor containments

    SciTech Connect

    Gordeev, S.; Hering, W.; Schikorr, M.; Stieglitz, R.

    2012-07-01

    CONTAIN-LMR 1 is an analytical tool for the containment performance of sodium cooled fast reactors. In this code, the modelling for the sodium fire is included: the oxygen diffusion model for the sodium pool fire, and the liquid droplet model for the sodium spray fire. CONTAIN-LMR is also able to model the interaction of liquid sodium with concrete structure. It may be applicable to different concrete compositions. Testing and validation of these models will help to qualify the simulation results. Three experiments with sodium performed in the FAUNA facility at FZK have been used for the validation of CONTAIN-LMR. For pool fire tests, calculations have been performed with two models. The first model consists of one gas cell representing the volume of the burn compartment. The volume of the second model is subdivided into 32 coupled gas cells. The agreement between calculations and experimental data is acceptable. The detailed pool fire model shows less deviation from experiments. In the spray fire, the direct heating from the sodium burning in the media is dominant. Therefore, single cell modeling is enough to describe the phenomena. Calculation results have reasonable agreement with experimental data. Limitations of the implemented spray model can cause the overestimation of predicted pressure and temperature in the cell atmosphere. The ability of the CONTAIN-LMR to simulate the sodium pool fire accompanied by sodium-concrete reactions was tested using the experimental study of sodium-concrete interactions for construction concrete as well as for shielding concrete. The model provides a reasonably good representation of chemical processes during sodium-concrete interaction. The comparison of time-temperature profiles of sodium and concrete shows, that the model requires modifications for predictions of the test results. (authors)

  1. Application of the MELCOR code to design basis PWR large dry containment analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Jesse; Notafrancesco, Allen; Tills, Jack Lee

    2009-05-01

    The MELCOR computer code has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories under USNRC sponsorship to provide capability for independently auditing analyses submitted by reactor manufactures and utilities. MELCOR is a fully integrated code (encompassing the reactor coolant system and the containment building) that models the progression of postulated accidents in light water reactor power plants. To assess the adequacy of containment thermal-hydraulic modeling incorporated in the MELCOR code for application to PWR large dry containments, several selected demonstration designs were analyzed. This report documents MELCOR code demonstration calculations performed for postulated design basis accident (DBA) analysis (LOCA and MSLB) inside containment, which are compared to other code results. The key processes when analyzing the containment loads inside PWR large dry containments are (1) expansion and transport of high mass/energy releases, (2) heat and mass transfer to structural passive heat sinks, and (3) containment pressure reduction due to engineered safety features. A code-to-code benchmarking for DBA events showed that MELCOR predictions of maximum containment loads were equivalent to similar predictions using a qualified containment code known as CONTAIN. This equivalency was found to apply for both single- and multi-cell containment models.

  2. CONTAIN 2.0 code release and the transition to licensing

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, K.K.; Griffith, R.O.; Bergeron, K.D.; Tills, J.

    1997-10-01

    CONTAIN is a reactor accident simulation code developed by Sandia National Laboratories under US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to provide integrated analysis of containment phenomena, including those related to nuclear reactor containment loads and radiological source terms. The recently released CONTAIN 2.0 code version represents a significant advance in CONTAIN modeling capabilities over the last major code release (CONTAIN 1.12V). The new modeling capabilities are discussed here. The principal motivation for many of the recent model improvements has been to allow CONTAIN to model the special features in advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs. The work done in this area is also summarized. In addition to the ALWR work, the USNRC is currently engaged in an effort to qualify CONTAIN for more general use in licensing, with the intent of supplementing or possibly replacing traditional licensing codes. To qualify the CONTAIN code for licensing applications, studies utilizing CONTAIN 2.0 are in progress. A number of results from this effort are presented in this paper to illustrate the code capabilities. In particular, CONTAIN calculations of the NUPEC M-8-1 and ISP-23 experiments and CVTR test {number_sign}3 are presented to illustrate (1) the ability of CONTAIN to model non-uniform gas density and/or temperature distributions, and (2) the relationship between such gas distributions and containment loads. CONTAIN and CONTEMPT predictions for a large break loss of coolant accident scenario in the San Onofre plant are also compared.

  3. ALEGRA -- code validation: Experiments and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Konrad, C.H.; Mosher, D.A.; Reinhart, W.D; Duggins, B.D.; Rodeman, R.; Trucano, T.G.; Summers, R.M.; Peery, J.S.

    1998-03-16

    In this study, the authors are providing an experimental test bed for validating features of the ALEGRA code over a broad range of strain rates with overlapping diagnostics that encompass the multiple responses. A unique feature of the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Grid for Research Applications (ALEGRA) code is that it allows simultaneous computational treatment, within one code, of a wide range of strain-rates varying from hydrodynamic to structural conditions. This range encompasses strain rates characteristic of shock-wave propagation (10{sup 7}/s) and those characteristic of structural response (10{sup 2}/s). Most previous code validation experimental studies, however, have been restricted to simulating or investigating a single strain-rate regime. What is new and different in this investigation is that the authors have performed well-instrumented experiments which capture features relevant to both hydrodynamic and structural response in a single experiment. Aluminum was chosen for use in this study because it is a well characterized material--its EOS and constitutive material properties are well defined over a wide range of loading rates. The current experiments span strain rate regimes of over 10{sup 7}/s to less than 10{sup 2}/s in a single experiment. The input conditions are extremely well defined. Velocity interferometers are used to record the high strain-rate response, while low strain rate data were collected using strain gauges.

  4. The Use of Data-Containing Codes for Prediction of Yields of Radioactive Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chechenin, N. G.; Chuvilskaya, T. V.; Kadmenskii, A. G.; Shirokova, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    The capability of modern nuclear reaction codes to predict the yields of exotic nuclei in various reactions is discussed. Advanced data-containing codes EMPIRE and TALYS are considered. The yields of radioactive isotopes in high-energy p + 27Al and p + 183W collisions are calculated to illustrate the properties of the codes, their common elements and particular features. The calculations confirm a potentiality of the codes for estimation of yields of various isotopes in reactions induced by high-energy protons.

  5. TEMPEST code simulations of hydrogen distribution in reactor containment structures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, D.S.; Eyler, L.L.

    1985-03-01

    The mass transport version of the TEMPEST computer code was used to simulate hydrogen distribution in geometric configurations relevant to reactor containment structures. Predicted results of Battelle-Frankfurt hydrogen distribution tests 1 to 6, and 12 are presented. Agreement between predictions and experimental data is good. Best agreement is obtained using the k-epsilon turbulence model in TEMPEST in flow cases where turbulent diffusion and stable stratification are dominant mechanisms affecting transport. The code's general analysis capabilities are summarized.

  6. 17 CFR 232.106 - Prohibition against electronic submissions containing executable code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prohibition against electronic submissions containing executable code. 232.106 Section 232.106 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION REGULATION S-T-GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC FILINGS Electronic Filing Requirements §...

  7. The modelling of wall condensation with noncondensable gases for the containment codes

    SciTech Connect

    Leduc, C.; Coste, P.; Barthel, V.; Deslandes, H.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents several approaches in the modelling of wall condensation in the presence of noncondensable gases for containment codes. The lumped-parameter modelling and the local modelling by 3-D codes are discussed. Containment analysis codes should be able to predict the spatial distributions of steam, air, and hydrogen as well as the efficiency of cooling by wall condensation in both natural convection and forced convection situations. 3-D calculations with a turbulent diffusion modelling are necessary since the diffusion controls the local condensation whereas the wall condensation may redistribute the air and hydrogen mass in the containment. A fine mesh modelling of film condensation in forced convection has been in the developed taking into account the influence of the suction velocity at the liquid-gas interface. It is associated with the 3-D model of the TRIO code for the gas mixture where a k-{xi} turbulence model is used. The predictions are compared to the Huhtiniemi`s experimental data. The modelling of condensation in natural convection or mixed convection is more complex. As no universal velocity and temperature profile exist for such boundary layers, a very fine nodalization is necessary. More simple models integrate equations over the boundary layer thickness, using the heat and mass transfer analogy. The model predictions are compared with a MIT experiment. For the containment compartments a two node model is proposed using the lumped parameter approach. Heat and mass transfer coefficients are tested on separate effect tests and containment experiments. The CATHARE code has been adapted to perform such calculations and shows a reasonable agreement with data.

  8. Application of the ASME code in designing containment vessels for packages used to transport radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.; Wang, Z.

    1992-07-01

    The primary concern governing the design of shipping packages containing radioactive materials is public safety during transport. When these shipments are within the regulatory jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy, the recommended design criterion for the primary containment vessel is either Section III or Section VIII, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, depending on the activity of the contents. The objective of this paper is to discuss the design of a prototypic containment vessel representative of a packaging for the transport of high-level radioactive material.

  9. The chemical coding of 5-hydroxytryptamine containing enteroendocrine cells in the mouse gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Yohan; Fakhry, Josiane; Fothergill, Linda; Callaghan, Brid; Ringuet, Mitchell; Hunne, Billie; Bravo, David M; Furness, John B

    2016-06-01

    The majority of 5-HT (serotonin) in the body is contained in enteroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa. From the time of their discovery over 80 years ago, the 5-HT-containing cells have been regarded as a class of cell that is distinct from enteroendocrine cells that contain peptide hormones. However, recent studies have cast doubt on the concept of there being distinct classes of enteroendocrine cells, each containing a single hormone or occasionally more than one hormone. Instead, data are rapidly accumulating that there are complex patterns of colocalisation of hormones that identify multiple subclasses of enteroendocrine cells. In the present work, multiple labelling immunohistochemistry is used to investigate patterns of colocalisation of 5-HT with enteric peptide hormones. Over 95 % of 5-HT cells in the duodenum also contained cholecystokinin and about 40 % of them also contained secretin. In the jejunum, about 75 % of 5-HT cells contained cholecystokinin but not secretin and 25 % contained 5-HT plus both cholecystokinin and secretin. Small proportions of 5-HT cells contained gastrin or somatostatin in the stomach, PYY or GLP-1 in the small intestine and GLP-1 or somatostatin in the large intestine. Rare or very rare 5-HT cells contained ghrelin (stomach), neurotensin (small and large intestines), somatostatin (small intestine) and PYY (in the large intestine). It is concluded that 5-HT-containing enteroendocrine cells are heterogeneous in their chemical coding and by implication in their functions. PMID:26803512

  10. Application of the TEMPEST computer code for simulating hydrogen distribution in model containment structures. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, D.S.; Eyler, L.L.

    1982-09-01

    In this study several aspects of simulating hydrogen distribution in geometric configurations relevant to reactor containment structures were investigated using the TEMPEST computer code. Of particular interest was the performance of the TEMPEST turbulence model in a density-stratified environment. Computed results illustrated that the TEMPEST numerical procedures predicted the measured phenomena with good accuracy under a variety of conditions and that the turbulence model used is a viable approach in complex turbulent flow simulation.

  11. Modeling of MHD edge containment in strip casting with ELEKTRA and CaPS-EM codes

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, F. C.

    2000-01-12

    This paper presents modeling studies of magnetohydrodynamics analysis in twin-roll casting. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and ISPAT Inland Inc. (Inland), formerly Inland Steel Co., have worked together to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) computer model that can predict eddy currents, fluid flows, and liquid metal containment of an electromagnetic (EM) edge containment device. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid metal containment and fluid flow in EM edge dams (EMDs) that were designed at Inland for twin-roll casting. This mathematical model can significantly shorten casting research on the use of EM fields for liquid metal containment and control. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a 3-D finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA can predict the eddy-current distribution and the EM forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM can model fluid flows with free surfaces. The computed 3-D magnetic fields and induced eddy currents in ELEKTRA are used as input to temperature- and flow-field computations in CaPS-EM. Results of the numerical simulation compared well with measurements obtained from both static and dynamic tests.

  12. Diversity, Function and Evolution of Genes Coding for Putative Ni-Containing Superoxide Dismutases

    SciTech Connect

    Dupont,C.; Neupane, K.; Shearer, J.; Palenik, B.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the phylogenetic distribution, functionality and evolution of the sodN gene family, which has been shown to code for a unique Ni-containing isoform of superoxide dismutase (Ni-SOD) in Streptomyces. Many of the putative sodN sequences retrieved from public domain genomic and metagenomic databases are quite divergent from structurally and functionally characterized Ni-SOD. Structural bioinformatics studies verified that the divergent members of the sodN protein family code for similar three-dimensional structures and identified evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues. Structural and biochemical studies of the N-terminus 'Ni-hook' motif coded for by the putative sodN sequences confirmed both Ni (II) ligating and superoxide dismutase activity. Both environmental and organismal genomes expanded the previously noted phylogenetic distribution of sodN, and the sequences form four well-separated clusters, with multiple subclusters. The phylogenetic distribution of sodN suggests that the gene has been acquired via horizontal gene transfer by numerous organisms of diverse phylogenetic background, including both Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes. The presence of sodN correlates with the genomic absence of the gene coding for Fe-SOD, a structurally and evolutionarily distinct isoform of SOD. Given the low levels of Fe found in the marine environment from where many sequences were attained, we suggest that the replacement of Fe-SOD with Ni-SOD may be an evolutionary adaptation to reduce iron requirements.

  13. Development and Application of a Parallel MHD code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterkin, , Jr.

    1997-08-01

    Over the past few years, we (In collaboration with S. Colella, M. H. Frese, D. E. Lileikis and U. Shumlak.) have built a general purpose, portable, scalable three-dimensional finite volume magnetohydrodynamic code, called uc(mach3,) based on an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian fluid algorithm to simulate time-dependent MHD phenomena for real materials. The physical domain of integration on which uc(mach3) works is decomposed into a patchwork of rectangular logical blocks that represent hexadedral physical subdomains. This block domain decomposition technique gives us a natural framework in which to implement coarse parallelization via message passing with the single program, multiple data (SPMD) model. Portability is achieved by using a parallel library that is separate from the physics code. At present, we are using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) because it is one of the industry standards, and because its Derived Data Type supports the sending and receiving of data with an arbitrary stride in memory. This feature is consistent with the manner in which boundary data is exchanged between connected block domains via ghost cells in the serial version of uc(mach3.) In this talk, we discuss the details of the uc(mach3) algorithm. In addition, we present results from some simple test problems as well as from complex 3-D time-dependent simulations including magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters, fast z-pinches, and magnetic flux compression generators.

  14. Application of the implicit TENSOR code to studies of containment of undergound nuclear tests

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D. E.; Bryan, J. B.; Lettis, Jr., L. A.; Rambo, J. T.

    1982-02-01

    The TENSOR code, a two-dimensional finite-difference code, has been used extensively for the solution of stress wave propagation problems in materials, particularly those associated with the containment of underground nuclear test. These problems are typically characterized by shock waves at early times and by nearly incompressible flow at later times. To address this type of problem more economically, an implicit Newmark time integration has been implemented. Implicit differencing requires the solution of a coupled system of equations, by either direct or interative methods. An iterative technique has been selected to reduce the impact of the algorithm on the code structure and because it is the more economical method when only modest increases in timestep are desired. Although the algorithm is similar in some respects to the ICE method of Harlow and Amsden, substantial differences are required by the involvement of a complete stress tensor (instead of a scalar pressure) and by the highly nonlinear nature of the earth material constitutive relations.

  15. CODE ACCEPTANCE OF A NEW JOINING TECHNOLOGY FOR STORAGE CONTAINMENTS [REISSUE

    SciTech Connect

    CANNELL GR; GRANT GJ; HILL BE

    2009-03-10

    One of the activities associated with cleanup throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex is packaging radioactive materials into storage containers. Much of this work will be performed in high-radiation environments requiring fully remote operations, for which existing, proven systems do not currently exist. These conditions require a process that is capable of producing acceptable (defect-free) welds on a consistent basis; the need to perform weld repair, under fully-remote operations, can be extremely costly and time consuming. Current closure-welding technologies (fusion welding) are not well suited for this application and will present risk to cleanup cost and schedule. To address this risk, Fluor and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are proposing that a new and emerging joining technology, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), be considered for this work. FSW technology has been demonstrated in other industries (aerospace and marine) to produce near flaw-free welds on a consistent basis. FSW is judged capable of providing the needed performance for fully-remote closure welding of containers for radioactive materials for the following reasons: FSW is a solid-state process; material is not melted. FSW does not produce the type of defects associated with fusion welding, e.g., solidification-induced porosity, cracking, and distortion due to weld shrinkage. In addition, because FSW is a low-heat input process, material properties (mechanical, corrosion and environmental) experience less degradation in the heat affected zones than do fusion welds. When compared to fusion processes, FSW produces extremely high weld quality. FSW is performed using machine-tool technology. The equipment is simple and robust and well-suited for high radiation, fully-remote operations compared to the relatively complex equipment associated with fusion-welding processes. Additionally, for standard wall thicknesses of radioactive materials containers, the FSW process can

  16. Sodium spray and jet fire model development within the CONTAIN-LMR code

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtyssek, W.; Murata, K.K.

    1993-12-31

    An assessment was made of the sodium spray fire model implemented in the CONTAIN code. The original droplet burn model, which was based on the NACOM code, was improved in several aspects, especially concerning evaluation of the droplet burning rate, reaction chemistry and heat balance, spray geometry and droplet motion, and consistency with CONTAIN standards of gas property evaluation. An additional droplet burning model based on a proposal by Krolikowski was made available to include the effect of the chemical equilibrium conditions at the flame temperature. The models were validated against single-droplet burn experiments as well as spray and jet fire experiments. Reasonable agreement was found between the two burn models and experimental data. When the gas temperature in the burning compartment reaches high values, the Krolikowski model seems to be preferable. Critical parameters for spray fire evaluation were found to be the spray characterization, especially the droplet size, which largely determines the burning efficiency, and heat transfer conditions at the interface between the atmosphere and structures, which controls the thermal hydraulic behavior in the burn compartment.

  17. A guide for the ASME code for austenitic stainless steel containment vessels for high-level radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.

    1995-06-01

    The design and fabrication criteria recommended by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for high-level radioactive materials containment vessels used in packaging is found in Section III, Division 1, Subsection NB of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This Code provides material, design, fabrication, examination, and testing specifications for nuclear power plant components. However, many of the requirements listed in the Code are not applicable to containment vessels made from austenitic stainless steel with austenitic or ferritic steel bolting. Most packaging designers, engineers, and fabricators are intimidated by the sheer volume of requirements contained in the Code; consequently, the Code is not always followed and many requirements that do apply are often overlooked during preparation of the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) that constitutes the basis to evaluate the packaging for certification.

  18. ALEGRA -- A massively parallel h-adaptive code for solid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, R.M.; Wong, M.K.; Boucheron, E.A.; Weatherby, J.R.

    1997-12-31

    ALEGRA is a multi-material, arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) code for solid dynamics designed to run on massively parallel (MP) computers. It combines the features of modern Eulerian shock codes, such as CTH, with modern Lagrangian structural analysis codes using an unstructured grid. ALEGRA is being developed for use on the teraflop supercomputers to conduct advanced three-dimensional (3D) simulations of shock phenomena important to a variety of systems. ALEGRA was designed with the Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) paradigm, in which the mesh is decomposed into sub-meshes so that each processor gets a single sub-mesh with approximately the same number of elements. Using this approach the authors have been able to produce a single code that can scale from one processor to thousands of processors. A current major effort is to develop efficient, high precision simulation capabilities for ALEGRA, without the computational cost of using a global highly resolved mesh, through flexible, robust h-adaptivity of finite elements. H-adaptivity is the dynamic refinement of the mesh by subdividing elements, thus changing the characteristic element size and reducing numerical error. The authors are working on several major technical challenges that must be met to make effective use of HAMMER on MP computers.

  19. Experimental Bench Mark Data for ALEGRA Code Validations

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Kipp, M.E.; Konrad, C.H.; Mann, G.A.; Mosher, D.A.; Peery, J.S.; Reinhart, W.D.; Summers, R.M.; Trucano, T.G.

    1999-06-23

    In this study experiments of increasing complexity have been conducted to provide a data base for validating features of the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Grid for Research Applications (ALEGRA) code over a broad range of strain rates with overlapping diagnostics that encompass multiple responses. This range encompasses strain rates characteristic of shock-wave propagation (107/s) and those chameteristics of structural response (102/s). The tests matrix consists of two experimental series; the first being a simple system test with diagnostics that capture features relevant to both the high strain-rate hydrodynamic response and the low strain-rate structural response of the target. The second series of experiments increased the complexity of tests with the addition of foam to the original simple series. The input conditions are extremely well defined. Velocity interferometers are used to record the high strain-rate response, while the low strain-rate data were collected using strain, carbon and PVDF gauges.

  20. Discrimination of retinal images containing bright lesions using sparse coded features and SVM.

    PubMed

    Sidibé, Désiré; Sadek, Ibrahim; Mériaudeau, Fabrice

    2015-07-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a chronic progressive disease of the retinal microvasculature which is among the major causes of vision loss in the world. The diagnosis of DR is based on the detection of retinal lesions such as microaneurysms, exudates and drusen in retinal images acquired by a fundus camera. However, bright lesions such as exudates and drusen share similar appearances while being signs of different diseases. Therefore, discriminating between different types of lesions is of interest for improving screening performances. In this paper, we propose to use sparse coding techniques for retinal images classification. In particular, we are interested in discriminating between retinal images containing either exudates or drusen, and normal images free of lesions. Extensive experiments show that dictionary learning techniques can capture strong structures of retinal images and produce discriminant descriptors for classification. In particular, using a linear SVM with the obtained sparse coded features, the proposed method achieves superior performance as compared with the popular Bag-of-Visual-Word approach for image classification. Experiments with a dataset of 828 retinal images collected from various sources show that the proposed approach provides excellent discrimination results for normal, drusen and exudates images. It achieves a sensitivity and a specificity of 96.50% and 97.70% for the normal class; 99.10% and 100% for the drusen class; and 97.40% and 98.20% for the exudates class with a medium size dictionary of 100 atoms. PMID:25935125

  1. Noniterative implicit method for tracking particles in mixed Lagrangian-Eulerian formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Dasgupta, A.

    1993-01-01

    The existing implicit methods for the current initial value problems (IVPs) concerning particle-laden flows are complicated and iterative in nature. This paper presents a noniterative implicit method which can be used with pressure-based as well as with density-based algorithms. The method is illustrated by analyzing a dilute dispersion of noninteracting solid particles in an isothermal flow in a passage bounded by one straight wall and one wavy wall, in which all particles are spherical and have a finite velociy relative to the continuum phase at the inflow boundary.

  2. A lagrangian-eulerian description of debris transport by a tsunami in the Lisbon waterfront

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, Daniel; Canelas, Ricardo; Baptista, Maria Ana; João Telhado, Maria; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2013-04-01

    Several major tsunamis are known to have struck the Portuguese coast over the past millennia (Baptista and Miranda, 2009). The Tagus estuary has great exposure to tsunami occurrences and, being bordered by the largest metropolitan area in the country, is a particularly worrisome location in what concerns safety of populations and economic losses due to disruption of built infrastructures. The last major earthquake and tsunami combination known to have critically affected the Tagus estuary dates back to November 1st 1755. This catastrophe critically damaged Lisbon's infrastructures, led to numerous casualties and priceless heritage losses. The urban tissue of the present city still bears visible the effects of the catastrophe and of the ensuing protection measures. The objective of this work is to simulate the propagation of debris carried by a 1755-like tsunami along the present-day bathimetric and altimetric conditions of Lisbon waterfront. Particular emphasis was directed to the modeling of vehicles since the tsunami is likely to affect areas that are major traffic nodes such as Alcântara, with more than 1500 vehicles in road network of about 3 km. The simulation tool employed is based on a 2DH spatial (eulerian) shallow-flow approach suited to complex and dynamic bottom boundaries. The discretization technique relies on a finite-volume scheme, based on a flux-splitting technique incorporating a reviewed version of the Roe Riemann solver (Canelas et al. 2013). Two formulations were employed to model the advection of debris: a fully coupled continuum approach, where solid bodies are described by the concentration only and an uncoupled material (lagrangian) formulation where solid bodies are tracked between two time-steps once the flow field is determined by the eulerian solver. In the latter case, concentrations are updated after tracking the solid bodies thus correcting the mass and momentum balance to be used for the next time-step. The urban tissue was thoroughly discretized with a mesh finer than street width so that the buildings would act as obstacles and the streets would bind the incoming flow. To simplify the plan-view geometry, it was assumed that buildings would retain its original shape after the earthquake. The results of the eulerian-continuum and of the lagrangian-discrete solutions are presented, compared and discussed. It was found that the patterns of deposition of the eulerian-continuum model can be considerably different to those obtained by the lagrangian-discrete solution if the latter assumes that vehicles have a small equivalent density and if momentum losses due to inter-particle collisions are neglected. Results become more similar if vehicles are considered much denser than water and that the mixture of water and solid bodies loses momentum due to particle collisions. Acknowledgements: Project PTDC/ECM/117660/2010, funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) has partially supported this work. References Canelas, R.; Murillo, J. & Ferreira, R.M.L. (2013) 2DH modelling of discontinuous flows over mobile beds. Accepted, Journal of Hydraulic Research, December 2012 Baptista M.A. Miranda, J.M. (2009). Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 25-42.

  3. Laser ray tracing in a parallel arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement hydrocode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, N. D.; Kaiser, T. B.; Anderson, R. W.; Eder, D. C.; Fisher, A. C.; Koniges, A. E.

    2010-08-01

    ALE-AMR is a new hydrocode that we are developing as a predictive modeling tool for debris and shrapnel formation in high-energy laser experiments. In this paper we present our approach to implementing laser ray tracing in ALE-AMR. We present the basic concepts of laser ray tracing and our approach to efficiently traverse the adaptive mesh hierarchy.

  4. Assessment of cavity dispersal correlations for possible implementation in the CONTAIN code

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.

    1996-02-01

    Candidate models and correlations describing entrainment and dispersal of core debris from reactor cavities in direct containment heating (DCH) event, are assessed against a data base of approximately 600 experiments performed previously at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories reactor cavities was studied. Cavity geometries studied are those of the Surry and Zion nuclear power plants and scale factors of 1/42 and 1/10 were studied for both geometries. Other parameters varied in the experiments include gas pressure driving the dispersal, identities of the driving gas and of the simulant fluid, orifice diameter in the pressure vessel, and volume of the gas pressure vessel. Correlations were assessed in terms of their ability to reproduce the observed trends in the fractions dispersed as the experimental parameters were varied. For the fraction of the debris dispersed, the correlations recommended for inclusion in the CONTAIN code are the Tutu-Ginsberg correlations, the integral form of the correlation proposed by Levy and a modified form of the Whalley-Hewitt correlation. For entrainment rates, the recommended correlations are the time-dependent forms of the Levy correlation, a correlation suggested by Tutu, and the modified Whalley-Hewitt correlation.

  5. ELEFANT: a user-friendly multipurpose geodynamics code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieulot, C.

    2014-07-01

    A new finite element code for the solution of the Stokes and heat transport equations is presented. It has purposely been designed to address geological flow problems in two and three dimensions at crustal and lithospheric scales. The code relies on the Marker-in-Cell technique and Lagrangian markers are used to track materials in the simulation domain which allows recording of the integrated history of deformation; their (number) density is variable and dynamically adapted. A variety of rheologies has been implemented including nonlinear thermally activated dislocation and diffusion creep and brittle (or plastic) frictional models. The code is built on the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian kinematic description: the computational grid deforms vertically and allows for a true free surface while the computational domain remains of constant width in the horizontal direction. The solution to the large system of algebraic equations resulting from the finite element discretisation and linearisation of the set of coupled partial differential equations to be solved is obtained by means of the efficient parallel direct solver MUMPS whose performance is thoroughly tested, or by means of the WISMP and AGMG iterative solvers. The code accuracy is assessed by means of many geodynamically relevant benchmark experiments which highlight specific features or algorithms, e.g., the implementation of the free surface stabilisation algorithm, the (visco-)plastic rheology implementation, the temperature advection, the capacity of the code to handle large viscosity contrasts. A two-dimensional application to salt tectonics presented as case study illustrates the potential of the code to model large scale high resolution thermo-mechanically coupled free surface flows.

  6. 9 CFR 355.25 - Canning with heat processing and hermetically sealed containers; closures; code marking; heat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canning with heat processing and hermetically sealed containers; closures; code marking; heat processing; incubation. 355.25 Section 355.25 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT...

  7. 9 CFR 355.25 - Canning with heat processing and hermetically sealed containers; closures; code marking; heat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canning with heat processing and hermetically sealed containers; closures; code marking; heat processing; incubation. 355.25 Section 355.25 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  8. What Information is Stored in DNA: Does it Contain Digital Error Correcting Codes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebovitch, Larry

    1998-03-01

    The longest term correlations in living systems are the information stored in DNA which reflects the evolutionary history of an organism. The 4 bases (A,T,G,C) encode sequences of amino acids as well as locations of binding sites for proteins that regulate DNA. The fidelity of this important information is maintained by ANALOG error check mechanisms. When a single strand of DNA is replicated the complementary base is inserted in the new strand. Sometimes the wrong base is inserted that sticks out disrupting the phosphate backbone. The new base is not yet methylated, so repair enzymes, that slide along the DNA, can tear out the wrong base and replace it with the right one. The bases in DNA form a sequence of 4 different symbols and so the information is encoded in a DIGITAL form. All the digital codes in our society (ISBN book numbers, UPC product codes, bank account numbers, airline ticket numbers) use error checking code, where some digits are functions of other digits to maintain the fidelity of transmitted informaiton. Does DNA also utitlize a DIGITAL error chekcing code to maintain the fidelity of its information and increase the accuracy of replication? That is, are some bases in DNA functions of other bases upstream or downstream? This raises the interesting mathematical problem: How does one determine whether some symbols in a sequence of symbols are a function of other symbols. It also bears on the issue of determining algorithmic complexity: What is the function that generates the shortest algorithm for reproducing the symbol sequence. The error checking codes most used in our technology are linear block codes. We developed an efficient method to test for the presence of such codes in DNA. We coded the 4 bases as (0,1,2,3) and used Gaussian elimination, modified for modulus 4, to test if some bases are linear combinations of other bases. We used this method to analyze the base sequence in the genes from the lac operon and cytochrome C. We did not find

  9. Flow and Containment Transport Code for Modeling Variably Saturated Porous Media

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-05-14

    FACT is a finite element based code designed to model subsurface flow and contaminant transport. It was designed to perform transient three-dimensional calculations that simulate isothermal groundwater flow, moisture movement, and solute transport in variably saturated and fully saturated subsurface porous media. The code is designed specifically to handle complex multi-layer and/or heterogenous aquifer systems in an efficient manner and accommodates a wide range of boundary conditions. Additionally 1-D and 2-D (in Cartesian coordinates) problemsmore » are handled in FACT by simply limiting the number of elements in a particular direction(s) to one. The governing equations in FACT are formulated only in Cartesian coordinates. FACT writes out both ascii and graphical binary files that are TECPLOT-ready. Special features are also available within FACT for handling the typical groundwater modeling needs for remediation efforts at the Savannah River Site.« less

  10. Loss of plasmids containing cloned inserts coding for novobiocin resistance or novobiocin sensitivity in Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Setlow, J K; Spikes, D; Ledbetter, M

    1984-01-01

    Plasmids pNov1 and pNov1s , coding for resistance and sensitivity to novobiocin, respectively, were readily lost from wild-type Haemophilus influenzae but retained in a strain lacking an inducible defective prophage. The plasmid loss could be partly or wholly eliminated by a low-copy-number mutation in the plasmid or by the presence of certain antibiotic resistance markers in the host chromosome. Release of both phage HP1c1 , measured by plaque assay, and defective phage, measured by electron microscopy, was increased when the plasmids were present. The frequency of recombination between pNov1 and the chromosome, causing the plasmid to be converted to pNov1s , could under some circumstances be decreased from the normal 60 to 70% to below 10% by the presence of a kanamycin resistance marker in the chromosome. This suggested that a gene product coded for by the plasmid, the expression of which was affected by the kanamycin resistance marker, was responsible for the high recombination frequency. Evidence was obtained from in vitro experiments that the gene product was a gyrase. Images PMID:6327644

  11. Code System for PWR & BWR Multicompartment Containment Analysis, Versions MOD5

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-06-02

    CONTEMPT4/MOD6 describes the response of multicompartment containment systems subjected to postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. The program can accommodate both pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) containment systems. Also, both design basis accident (DBA) and degraded core type LOCA conditions can be analyzed. The program calculates the time variation of compartment pressures, temperatures, and mass and energy inventories due to inter-compartment mass and energy exchange taking into account user-supplied descriptions of compartments,more » inter-compartment junction flow areas, LOCA source terms, and user-selected problem features. Analytical models available to describe containment systems include models for containment fans and pumps, cooling sprays, heat conducting structures, sump drains, PWR ice condensers, and BWR pressure suppression systems. CONTEMPT4/MOD6 also provides analytical models for hydrogen and carbon monoxide combustion within compartments and energy transfer due to gas radiation to accommodate degraded core type accidents.« less

  12. Long non-coding RNA containing ultraconserved genomic region 8 promotes bladder cancer tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Michele; Ferro, Matteo; Terreri, Sara; Durso, Montano; Romanelli, Alessandra; Avitabile, Concetta; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Messere, Anna; Bruzzese, Dario; Vannini, Ivan; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore; Zhang, Wei; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Ilardi, Gennaro; Staibano, Stefania; Marra, Laura; Franco, Renato; Perdonà, Sisto; Terracciano, Daniela; Czerniak, Bogdan; Liguori, Giovanna L; Colonna, Vincenza; Fabbri, Muller; Febbraio, Ferdinando; Calin, George A; Cimmino, Amelia

    2016-04-12

    Ultraconserved regions (UCRs) have been shown to originate non-coding RNA transcripts (T-UCRs) that have different expression profiles and play functional roles in the pathophysiology of multiple cancers. The relevance of these functions to the pathogenesis of bladder cancer (BlCa) is speculative. To elucidate this relevance, we first used genome-wide profiling to evaluate the expression of T-UCRs in BlCa tissues. Analysis of two datasets comprising normal bladder tissues and BlCa specimens with a custom T-UCR microarray identified ultraconserved RNA (uc.) 8+ as the most upregulated T-UCR in BlCa tissues, although its expression was lower than in pericancerous bladder tissues. These results were confirmed on BlCa tissues by real-time PCR and by in situ hybridization. Although uc.8+ is located within intron 1 of CASZ1, a zinc-finger transcription factor, the transcribed non-coding RNA encoding uc.8+ is expressed independently of CASZ1. In vitro experiments evaluating the effects of uc.8+ silencing, showed significantly decreased capacities for cancer cell invasion, migration, and proliferation. From this, we proposed and validated a model of interaction in which uc.8+ shuttles from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of BlCa cells, interacts with microRNA (miR)-596, and cooperates in the promotion and development of BlCa. Using computational analysis, we investigated the miR-binding domain accessibility, as determined by base-pairing interactions within the uc.8+ predicted secondary structure, RNA binding affinity, and RNA species abundance in bladder tissues and showed that uc.8+ is a natural decoy for miR-596. Thus uc.8+ upregulation results in increased expression of MMP9, increasing the invasive potential of BlCa cells. These interactions between evolutionarily conserved regions of DNA suggest that natural selection has preserved this potentially regulatory layer that uses RNA to modulate miR levels, opening up the possibility for development of useful markers for

  13. Long non-coding RNA containing ultraconserved genomic region 8 promotes bladder cancer tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Durso, Montano; Romanelli, Alessandra; Avitabile, Concetta; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Messere, Anna; Bruzzese, Dario; Vannini, Ivan; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore; Zhang, Wei; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Ilardi, Gennaro; Staibano, Stefania; Marra, Laura; Franco, Renato; Perdonà, Sisto; Terracciano, Daniela; Czerniak, Bogdan; Liguori, Giovanna L.; Colonna, Vincenza; Fabbri, Muller; Febbraio, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    Ultraconserved regions (UCRs) have been shown to originate non-coding RNA transcripts (T-UCRs) that have different expression profiles and play functional roles in the pathophysiology of multiple cancers. The relevance of these functions to the pathogenesis of bladder cancer (BlCa) is speculative. To elucidate this relevance, we first used genome-wide profiling to evaluate the expression of T-UCRs in BlCa tissues. Analysis of two datasets comprising normal bladder tissues and BlCa specimens with a custom T-UCR microarray identified ultraconserved RNA (uc.) 8+ as the most upregulated T-UCR in BlCa tissues, although its expression was lower than in pericancerous bladder tissues. These results were confirmed on BlCa tissues by real-time PCR and by in situ hybridization. Although uc.8+ is located within intron 1 of CASZ1, a zinc-finger transcription factor, the transcribed non-coding RNA encoding uc.8+ is expressed independently of CASZ1. In vitro experiments evaluating the effects of uc.8+ silencing, showed significantly decreased capacities for cancer cell invasion, migration, and proliferation. From this, we proposed and validated a model of interaction in which uc.8+ shuttles from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of BlCa cells, interacts with microRNA (miR)-596, and cooperates in the promotion and development of BlCa. Using computational analysis, we investigated the miR-binding domain accessibility, as determined by base-pairing interactions within the uc.8+ predicted secondary structure, RNA binding affinity, and RNA species abundance in bladder tissues and showed that uc.8+ is a natural decoy for miR-596. Thus uc.8+ upregulation results in increased expression of MMP9, increasing the invasive potential of BlCa cells. These interactions between evolutionarily conserved regions of DNA suggest that natural selection has preserved this potentially regulatory layer that uses RNA to modulate miR levels, opening up the possibility for development of useful markers for

  14. The peripheral olfactory code in Drosophila larvae contains temporal information and is robust over multiple timescales.

    PubMed

    Grillet, Micheline; Campagner, Dario; Petersen, Rasmus; McCrohan, Catherine; Cobb, Matthew

    2016-05-25

    We studied the electrophysiological activity of two classes of Drosophila melanogaster larval olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), Or24a and Or74a, in response to 1 s stimulation with butanol, octanol, 2-heptanone, and propyl acetate. Each odour/OSN combination produced unique responses in terms of spike count and temporal profile. We used a classifier algorithm to explore the information content of OSN activity, and showed that as well as spike count, the activity of these OSNs included temporal information that enabled the classifier to accurately identify odours. The responses of OSNs during continuous odour exposure (5 and 20 min) showed that both types of neuron continued to respond, with no complete adaptation, and with no change to their ability to encode temporal information. Finally, we exposed larvae to octanol for 3 days and found only minor quantitative changes in OSN response to odours, indicating that the larval peripheral code is robust when faced with long-term exposure to odours, such as would be found in a natural context. PMID:27194701

  15. The peripheral olfactory code in Drosophila larvae contains temporal information and is robust over multiple timescales

    PubMed Central

    Grillet, Micheline; Campagner, Dario; Petersen, Rasmus; McCrohan, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    We studied the electrophysiological activity of two classes of Drosophila melanogaster larval olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), Or24a and Or74a, in response to 1 s stimulation with butanol, octanol, 2-heptanone, and propyl acetate. Each odour/OSN combination produced unique responses in terms of spike count and temporal profile. We used a classifier algorithm to explore the information content of OSN activity, and showed that as well as spike count, the activity of these OSNs included temporal information that enabled the classifier to accurately identify odours. The responses of OSNs during continuous odour exposure (5 and 20 min) showed that both types of neuron continued to respond, with no complete adaptation, and with no change to their ability to encode temporal information. Finally, we exposed larvae to octanol for 3 days and found only minor quantitative changes in OSN response to odours, indicating that the larval peripheral code is robust when faced with long-term exposure to odours, such as would be found in a natural context. PMID:27194701

  16. Parallelization of a multiregion flow and transport code using software emulated global shared memory and high performance FORTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Gwo, Jin-Ping

    1997-02-01

    The objectives of this research are (1) to parallelize a suite of multiregion groundwater flow and solute transport codes that use Galerkin and Lagrangian- Eulerian finite element methods, (2) to test the compatibility of a global shared memory emulation software with a High Performance FORTRAN (HPF) compiler, and (3) to obtain performance characteristics and scalability of the parallel codes. The suite of multiregion flow and transport codes, 3DMURF and 3DMURT, were parallelized using the DOLIB shared memory emulation, in conjunction with the PGI HPF compiler, to run on the Intel Paragons at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and a network of workstations. The novelty of this effort is first in the use of HPF and global shared memory emulation concurrently to facilitate the conversion of a serial code to a parallel code, and secondly the shared memory library enables efficient implementation of Lagrangian particle tracking along flow characteristics. The latter allows long-time-step-size simulation with particle tracking and dynamic particle redistribution for load balancing, thereby reducing the number of time steps needed for most transient problems. The parallel codes were applied to a pumping well problem to test the efficiency of the domain decomposition and particle tracking algorithms. The full problem domain consists of over 200,000 degrees of freedom with highly nonlinear soil property functions. Relatively good scalability was obtained for a preliminary test run on the Intel Paragons at the Center for Computational Sciences (CCS), ORNL. However, due to the difficulties we encountered in the PGI HPF compiler, as of the writing of this manuscript we are able to report results from 3DMURF only.

  17. Assessment of Ultimate Load Capacity for Pre-Stressed Concrete Containment Vessel Model of PWR Design With BARC Code ULCA

    SciTech Connect

    Basha, S.M.; Singh, R.K.; Patnaik, R.; Ramanujam, S.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2002-07-01

    Ultimate load capacity assessment of nuclear containments has been a thrust research area for Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) power programme. For containment safety assessment of Indian PHWRs a finite element code ULCA was developed at BARC, Trombay. This code has been extensively benchmarked with experimental results. The present paper highlights the analysis results for Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel (PCCV) tested at Sandia National Labs, USA in a Round Robin analysis activity co-sponsored by Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC), Japan and the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Three levels of failure pressure predictions namely the upper bound, the most probable and the lower bound (all with 90% confidence) were made as per the requirements of the round robin analysis activity. The most likely failure pressure is predicted to be in the range of 2.95 Pd to 3.15 Pd (Pd= design pressure of 0.39 MPa for the PCCV model) depending on the type of liners used in the construction of the PCCV model. The lower bound value of the ultimate pressure of 2.80 Pd and the upper bound of the ultimate pressure of 3.45 Pd are also predicted from the analysis. These limiting values depend on the assumptions of the analysis for simulating the concrete-tendon interaction and the strain hardening characteristics of the steel members. The experimental test has been recently concluded at Sandia Laboratory and the peak pressure reached during the test is 3.3 Pd that is enveloped by our upper bound prediction of 3.45 Pd and is close to the predicted most likely pressure of 3.15 Pd. (authors)

  18. ALEGRA : version 4.6.

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Michael K. W.; Summers, Randall M.; Petney, Sharon Joy Victor; Luchini, Christopher Bernard; Drake, Richard Roy; Carroll, Susan K.; Hensinger, David M.; Garasi, Christopher Joseph; Robinson, Allen Conrad; Voth, Thomas Eugene; Haill, Thomas A.; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Robbins, Joshua H.; Brunner, Thomas A.

    2005-01-01

    ALEGRA is an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian multi-material finite element code used for modeling solid dynamics problems involving large distortion and shock propagation. This document describes the basic user input language and instructions for using the software.

  19. ALEGRA-MHD : version 4.6

    SciTech Connect

    Garasi, Christopher Joseph; Cochrane, Kyle Robert; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Haill, Thomas A.; Summers, Randall M.; Robinson, Allen Conrad

    2005-01-01

    ALEGRA is an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element code that emphasizes large distortion and shock propagation in inviscid fluids and solids. This document describes user options for modeling resistive magnetohydrodynamic, thermal conduction, and radiation emission effects.

  20. A Kelch Domain-Containing F-Box Coding Gene Negatively Regulates Flavonoid Accumulation in Muskmelon1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Feder, Ari; Burger, Joseph; Gao, Shan; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Katzir, Nurit; Schaffer, Arthur A.; Meir, Ayala; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Portnoy, Vitaly; Gal-On, Amit; Fei, Zhangjun; Kashi, Yechezkel; Tadmor, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    The flavonoids are phenylpropanoid-derived metabolites that are ubiquitous in plants, playing many roles in growth and development. Recently, we observed that fruit rinds of yellow casaba muskmelons (Cucumis melo ‘Inodorous Group’) accumulate naringenin chalcone, a yellow flavonoid pigment. With RNA-sequencing analysis of bulked segregants representing the tails of a population segregating for naringenin chalcone accumulation followed by fine mapping and genetic transformation, we identified a Kelch domain-containing F-box protein coding (CmKFB) gene that, when expressed, negatively regulates naringenin chalcone accumulation. Additional metabolite analysis indicated that downstream flavonoids are accumulated together with naringenin chalcone, whereas CmKFB expression diverts the biochemical flux toward coumarins and general phenylpropanoids. These results show that CmKFB functions as a posttranscriptional regulator that diverts flavonoid metabolic flux. PMID:26358418

  1. Three-dimensional local ALE-FEM method for fluid flow in domains containing moving boundaries/objects interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Carrington, David Bradley; Monayem, A. K. M.; Mazumder, H.; Heinrich, Juan C.

    2015-03-05

    A three-dimensional finite element method for the numerical simulations of fluid flow in domains containing moving rigid objects or boundaries is developed. The method falls into the general category of Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian methods; it is based on a fixed mesh that is locally adapted in the immediate vicinity of the moving interfaces and reverts to its original shape once the moving interfaces go past the elements. The moving interfaces are defined by separate sets of marker points so that the global mesh is independent of interface movement and the possibility of mesh entanglement is eliminated. The results is a fully robust formulation capable of calculating on domains of complex geometry with moving boundaries or devises that can also have a complex geometry without danger of the mesh becoming unsuitable due to its continuous deformation thus eliminating the need for repeated re-meshing and interpolation. Moreover, the boundary conditions on the interfaces are imposed exactly. This work is intended to support the internal combustion engines simulator KIVA developed at Los Alamos National Laboratories. The model's capabilities are illustrated through application to incompressible flows in different geometrical settings that show the robustness and flexibility of the technique to perform simulations involving moving boundaries in a three-dimensional domain.

  2. Modeling Warm Dense Matter Experiments using the 3D ALE-AMR Code and the Move Toward Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Koniges, A; Eder, E; Liu, W; Barnard, J; Friedman, A; Logan, G; Fisher, A; Masers, N; Bertozzi, A

    2011-11-04

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment II (NDCX II) is an induction accelerator planned for initial commissioning in 2012. The final design calls for a 3 MeV, Li+ ion beam, delivered in a bunch with characteristic pulse duration of 1 ns, and transverse dimension of order 1 mm. The NDCX II will be used in studies of material in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime, and ion beam/hydrodynamic coupling experiments relevant to heavy ion based inertial fusion energy. We discuss recent efforts to adapt the 3D ALE-AMR code to model WDM experiments on NDCX II. The code, which combines Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamics with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), has physics models that include ion deposition, radiation hydrodynamics, thermal diffusion, anisotropic material strength with material time history, and advanced models for fragmentation. Experiments at NDCX-II will explore the process of bubble and droplet formation (two-phase expansion) of superheated metal solids using ion beams. Experiments at higher temperatures will explore equation of state and heavy ion fusion beam-to-target energy coupling efficiency. Ion beams allow precise control of local beam energy deposition providing uniform volumetric heating on a timescale shorter than that of hydrodynamic expansion. The ALE-AMR code does not have any export control restrictions and is currently running at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at LBNL and has been shown to scale well to thousands of CPUs. New surface tension models that are being implemented and applied to WDM experiments. Some of the approaches use a diffuse interface surface tension model that is based on the advective Cahn-Hilliard equations, which allows for droplet breakup in divergent velocity fields without the need for imposed perturbations. Other methods require seeding or other methods for droplet breakup. We also briefly discuss the effects of the move to exascale computing and related

  3. Estimating scalar sources, sinks, and fluxes in a forest canopy using Lagrangian, Eulerian, and hybrid inverse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, Mario; Lai, Chun-Ta; Katul, Gabriel

    2000-12-01

    A new method was developed to estimate canopy sources and sinks from measured mean concentration profiles within the canopy (referred to as the ``inverse'' problem). The proposed method combined many of the practical advantages of the Lagrangian localized near-field (LNF) theory and higher-order Eulerian (EUL) closure principles. Particularly, this ``hybrid'' method successfully combined the essential conservation equations of closure modeling and the robustness of the regression source inversion developed for LNF theory. The proposed method along with LNF and EUL were tested using measurements from two field experiments collected in a pine forest and published measurements from a wind tunnel experiment. The field experiments were conducted to investigate the vertical distribution of the scalar fluxes within the canopy and the temporal patterns of the scalar fluxes above the canopy. This comparison constitutes the first ``inverse method'' comparison performed using the same data sets on all three models. For the wind tunnel data, all three models well reproduced the measured flux distribution. For the field experiments, all three models recovered the measured spatial and temporal flux distribution in an ensemble sense. The agreement between these three models is desirable to the inverse problem because it adds the necessary confidence in the computed flux distributions. However, the agreement among all three models with the field measurements, on a 30-min time step, was less than satisfactory. Additionally, the divergence between models and measurements increased with departure from a near-neutral atmospheric state. Despite fundamental differences in these model approximations, this similarity in model performance suggests that the source information recovered from a measured one-dimensional mean concentration profile will not be further enhanced by a one-dimensional steady state, planar homogeneous model of neutral flows.

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic MACH Code Used to Simulate Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Pavlos G.; LaPointe, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    The On-Board Propulsion program at the NASA Glenn Research Center is utilizing a state of-the-art numerical simulation to model the performance of high-power electromagnetic plasma thrusters. Such thrusters are envisioned for use in lunar and Mars cargo transport, piloted interplanetary expeditions, and deep-space robotic exploration of the solar system. The experimental portion of this program is described in reference 1. This article describes the numerical modeling program used to guide the experimental research. The synergistic use of numerical simulations and experimental research has spurred the rapid advancement of high-power thruster technologies for a variety of bold new NASA missions. From its inception as a U.S. Department of Defense code in the mid-1980's, the Multiblock Arbitrary Coordinate Hydromagnetic (MACH) simulation tool has been used by the plasma physics community to model a diverse range of plasma problems--including plasma opening switches, inertial confinement fusion concepts, compact toroid formation and acceleration, z-pinch implosion physics, laser-target interactions, and a variety of plasma thrusters. The MACH2 code used at Glenn is a time-dependent, two-dimensional, axisymmetric, multimaterial code with a multiblock structure. MACH3, a more recent three-dimensional version of the code, is currently undergoing beta tests. The MACH computational mesh moves in an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) fashion that allows the simulation of diffusive-dominated and dispersive-dominated problems, and the mesh can be refined via a variety of adaptive schemes to capture regions of varying characteristic scale. The mass continuity and momentum equations model a compressible viscous fluid, and three energy equations are used to simulate nonthermal equilibrium between electrons, ions, and the radiation field. Magnetic fields are modeled by an induction equation that includes resistive diffusion, the Hall effect, and a thermal source for magnetic

  5. BAR-CODE BASED WEIGHT MEASUREMENT STATION FOR PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTAINERS AT THE MINING AND CHEMICAL COMBINE RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING PLANT NEAR KRASNOYARSK, SIBERIA.

    SciTech Connect

    SUDA,S.

    1999-09-20

    This paper describes the technical tasks being implemented to computerize the physical inventory taking (PIT) at the Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK) radiochemical plant under the US/Russian cooperative nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) program. Under the MPC and A program, Lab-to-Lab task agreements with GKhK were negotiated that involved computerized equipment for item verification and confirmatory measurement of the Pu containers. Tasks under Phase I cover the work for demonstrating the plan and procedures for carrying out the comparison of the Pu container identification on the container with the computerized inventory records. In addition to the records validation, the verification procedures include the application of bar codes and bar coded TIDs to the Pu containers. Phase II involves the verification of the Pu content. A plan and procedures are being written for carrying out confirmatory measurements on the Pu containers.

  6. PACER -- A fast running computer code for the calculation of short-term containment/confinement loads following coolant boundary failure. Volume 2: User information

    SciTech Connect

    Sienicki, J.J.

    1997-06-01

    A fast running and simple computer code has been developed to calculate pressure loadings inside light water reactor containments/confinements under loss-of-coolant accident conditions. PACER was originally developed to calculate containment/confinement pressure and temperature time histories for loss-of-coolant accidents in Soviet-designed VVER reactors and is relevant to the activities of the US International Nuclear Safety Center. The code employs a multicompartment representation of the containment volume and is focused upon application to early time containment phenomena during and immediately following blowdown. PACER has been developed for FORTRAN 77 and earlier versions of FORTRAN. The code has been successfully compiled and executed on SUN SPARC and Hewlett-Packard HP-735 workstations provided that appropriate compiler options are specified. The code incorporates both capabilities built around a hardwired default generic VVER-440 Model V230 design as well as fairly general user-defined input. However, array dimensions are hardwired and must be changed by modifying the source code if the number of compartments/cells differs from the default number of nine. Detailed input instructions are provided as well as a description of outputs. Input files and selected output are presented for two sample problems run on both HP-735 and SUN SPARC workstations.

  7. CAVEAT-GT: A general topology version of the CAVEAT code

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, M. C.; Dukowicz, J. K.; Addessio, F. L.

    1990-06-01

    We describe a numerical technique for solving two-dimensional, compressible, multimaterial problems using a general topology mesh. Multimaterial problems are characterized by the presence of interfaces whose shapes may become arbitrarily complex in the course of dynamic evolution. Computational methods based on more conventional fixed-connectivity quadrilateral meshes do not have adequate flexibility to follow convoluted interface shapes and frequently fail due to excessive mesh distortion. The present method is based on a mesh of arbitrary polygonal cells. Because this mesh is dual to a triangulation, its topology is unrestricted and it is able to accommodate arbitrary boundary shapes. Additionally, this mesh is able to quickly and smoothly change local mesh resolution, thus economizing on the number of mesh cells, and it is able to improve mesh isotropy because in a region of uniform mesh the cells tend to become regular hexagons. The underlying algorithms are based on those of the CAVEAT code. These consist of an explicit, finite-volume, cell-centered, arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian technique, coupled with the Godunov method, which together are readily adaptable to a general topology mesh. Several special techniques have been developed for this extension to a more general mesh. They include an interface propagation scheme based on Huygens' construction, a near-Lagrangian'' mesh rezoning algorithm that minimizes advection while enhancing mesh regularity, an efficient global remapping algorithm that is capable of conservatively transferring quantities from one general mesh to another and various mesh restructuring algorithms, such as mesh reconnection, smoothing, and point addition and deletion. 18 refs., 39 figs.

  8. 9 CFR 355.25 - Canning with heat processing and hermetically sealed containers; closures; code marking; heat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... soiling the inner surfaces subsequently. (b) The inside surfaces of containers of metal, glass, or other... sealing of the containers or completion of the heat processing, as the case may be, except that (1) if...

  9. 9 CFR 355.25 - Canning with heat processing and hermetically sealed containers; closures; code marking; heat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... soiling the inner surfaces subsequently. (b) The inside surfaces of containers of metal, glass, or other... sealing of the containers or completion of the heat processing, as the case may be, except that (1) if...

  10. 9 CFR 355.25 - Canning with heat processing and hermetically sealed containers; closures; code marking; heat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... until the defect has been corrected. The containers shall again be inspected by plant employees when... containers shall be condemned unless correction of the defect is accomplished within six hours following the... following day when the defect may be corrected; and (2) short vacuum or overstuffed cans of products...

  11. Cerebrospinal Fluid Extracellular Vesicles Undergo Age Dependent Declines and Contain Known and Novel Non-coding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Tietje, Ashlee; Maron, Kourtney N.; Wei, Yanzhang; Feliciano, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Brain development requires precise orchestration of cellular events through the coordinate exchange of information between distally located cells. One mechanism by which intercellular communication is achieved is through the transfer of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Exosomes are EVs that carry lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins and are detectable in most biological fluids including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Here we report that CSF EV concentrations undergo age dependent fluctuations. We characterized EV RNA content by next generation small RNA sequencing and miRNA microarray analysis and identified a temporal shift in CSF EV content. CSF EVs encapsulated miRNAs that contain a conserved hnRNPA2/B1 recognition sequence. We found that hnRNPA2/B1-containing EVs were produced by choroid plexus epithelial cells and that hnRNPA2/B1 containing EVs decreased with age. These results provide insight into EV exchange of miRNAs within the central nervous system and a framework to understand how changes in EVs may have an important impact on brain development. PMID:25420022

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid extracellular vesicles undergo age dependent declines and contain known and novel non-coding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Tietje, Ashlee; Maron, Kourtney N; Wei, Yanzhang; Feliciano, David M

    2014-01-01

    Brain development requires precise orchestration of cellular events through the coordinate exchange of information between distally located cells. One mechanism by which intercellular communication is achieved is through the transfer of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Exosomes are EVs that carry lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins and are detectable in most biological fluids including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Here we report that CSF EV concentrations undergo age dependent fluctuations. We characterized EV RNA content by next generation small RNA sequencing and miRNA microarray analysis and identified a temporal shift in CSF EV content. CSF EVs encapsulated miRNAs that contain a conserved hnRNPA2/B1 recognition sequence. We found that hnRNPA2/B1-containing EVs were produced by choroid plexus epithelial cells and that hnRNPA2/B1 containing EVs decreased with age. These results provide insight into EV exchange of miRNAs within the central nervous system and a framework to understand how changes in EVs may have an important impact on brain development. PMID:25420022

  13. The human gene (CSNK2A1) coding for the casein kinase II subunit [alpha] is located on chromosome 20 and contains tandemly arranged Alu repeats

    SciTech Connect

    Wirkner, U.; Lichter, P.; Pyerin, W. ); Voss, H.; Ansorge, W. )

    1994-01-15

    The authors have isolated and characterized an 18.9-kb genomic clone representing a central portion of the human casein kinase II (CKII) subunit [alpha] gene (CSNK2A1). Using the whole clone as a probe, the gene was localized on chromosome 20p13. The clone contains eight exons whose sequences comprise bases 102 to 824 of the coding region of the human CKII[alpha]. The exon/intron splice junctions conform to the gt/ag rule. Three of the nine introns are located at positions corresponding to those in the CKII[alpha] gene of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The introns contain eight complete and eight incomplete Alu repeats. Some of the Alu sequences are arranged in tandems of two or three, which seem to originate from insertions of younger Alu sequences into the poly(A) region of previously integrated Alu sequences, as indicated by flanking direct repeats. 50 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Hypothesis of Lithocoding: Origin of the Genetic Code as a "Double Jigsaw Puzzle" of Nucleobase-Containing Molecules and Amino Acids Assembled by Sequential Filling of Apatite Mineral Cellules.

    PubMed

    Skoblikow, Nikolai E; Zimin, Andrei A

    2016-05-01

    The hypothesis of direct coding, assuming the direct contact of pairs of coding molecules with amino acid side chains in hollow unit cells (cellules) of a regular crystal-structure mineral is proposed. The coding nucleobase-containing molecules in each cellule (named "lithocodon") partially shield each other; the remaining free space determines the stereochemical character of the filling side chain. Apatite-group minerals are considered as the most preferable for this type of coding (named "lithocoding"). A scheme of the cellule with certain stereometric parameters, providing for the isomeric selection of contacting molecules is proposed. We modelled the filling of cellules with molecules involved in direct coding, with the possibility of coding by their single combination for a group of stereochemically similar amino acids. The regular ordered arrangement of cellules enables the polymerization of amino acids and nucleobase-containing molecules in the same direction (named "lithotranslation") preventing the shift of coding. A table of the presumed "LithoCode" (possible and optimal lithocodon assignments for abiogenically synthesized α-amino acids involved in lithocoding and lithotranslation) is proposed. The magmatic nature of the mineral, abiogenic synthesis of organic molecules and polymerization events are considered within the framework of the proposed "volcanic scenario". PMID:27048216

  15. The lac operon of Lactobacillus casei contains lacT, a gene coding for a protein of the Bg1G family of transcriptional antiterminators.

    PubMed Central

    Alpert, C A; Siebers, U

    1997-01-01

    The 5' region of the lac operon of Lactobacillus casei has been investigated. An open reading frame of 293 codons, designated lacT, was identified upstream of lacE. The gene product encoded by lacT is related to the family of transcriptional antiterminator proteins, which includes BglG from Escherichia coli, ArbG from Erwinia chrysanthemi, SacT, SacY, and LicT from Bacillus subtilis, and BglR from Lactococcus lactis. Amino acid sequence identities range from 35 to 24%, while similarities range from 56 to 47%. The transcriptional start site of the lac operon was identified upstream of lacT. The corresponding mRNA would contain in the 5' region a sequence with high similarity to the consensus RNA binding site of transcriptional antiterminators overlapping a sequence capable of folding into a structure that resembles a rho-independent terminator. LacT was shown to be active as an antiterminator in a B. subtilis test system using the sacB target sequence. lacT directly precedes lacEGF, the genes coding for enzyme IICB, phospho-beta-galactosidase, and enzyme IIA, and these genes are followed by a sequence that appears to encode a second rho-independent transcription terminator-like structure. Northern hybridizations with probes against lacT, lacE, and lacF revealed transcripts of similar sizes for the lac mRNAs of several L. casei strains. Since the length of the lac mRNA is just sufficient to contain lacTEGF, we conclude that the lac operon of L. casei does not contain the genes of the accessory tagatose-6-phosphate pathway as occurs in the lac operons of Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus mutans, or Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:9045813

  16. QUES, a new Phaseolus vulgaris genotype resistant to common bean weevils, contains the Arcelin-8 allele coding for new lectin-related variants.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, Isabelle; Magni, Chiara; Panzeri, Dario; Daminati, Maria Gloria; Bollini, Roberto; Benrey, Betty; Bacher, Sven; Sparvoli, Francesca

    2013-03-01

    In common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), the most abundant seed proteins are the storage protein phaseolin and the family of closely related APA proteins (arcelin, phytohemagglutinin and α-amylase inhibitor). High variation in APA protein composition has been described and the presence of arcelin (Arc) has been associated with bean resistance against two bruchid beetles, the bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) and the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus Bohemian). So far, seven Arc variants have been identified, all in wild accessions, however, only those containing Arc-4 were reported to be resistant to both species. Although many efforts have been made, a successful breeding of this genetic trait into cultivated genotypes has not yet been achieved. Here, we describe a newly collected wild accession (named QUES) and demonstrate its resistance to both A. obtectus and Z. subfasciatus. Immunological and proteomic analyses of QUES seed protein composition indicated the presence of new Arc and arcelin-like (ARL) polypeptides of about 30 and 27 kDa, respectively. Sequencing of cDNAs coding for QUES APA proteins confirmed that this accession contains new APA variants, here referred to as Arc-8 and ARL-8. Moreover, bioinformatic analysis showed the two proteins are closely related to APA components present in the G12949 wild bean accession, which contains the Arc-4 variant. The presence of these new APA components, combined with the observations that they are poorly digested and remain very abundant in A. obtectus feces, so-called frass, suggest that the QUES APA locus is involved in the bruchid resistance. Moreover, molecular analysis indicated a lower complexity of the locus compared to that of G12949, suggesting that QUES should be considered a valuable source of resistance for further breeding purposes. PMID:23117719

  17. RMC_POT: a computer code for reverse Monte Carlo modeling the structure of disordered systems containing molecules of arbitrary complexity.

    PubMed

    Gereben, Orsolya; Pusztai, László

    2012-11-01

    An approach has been devised and tested for preserving the molecular dynamics molecular geometry taking into account energetic considerations during Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling. Instead of the commonly used fixed neighbor constraints, where molecules are held together by constraining distance ranges available for the specified atom pairs, here molecules are kept together via bond, angle, and dihedral potential energies. The scaled total potential energy contributes to the measure of the goodness-of-fit, thus, the atoms can be prevented from drifting apart. In some of the calculations (Lennard-Jones and Coulombic) nonbonding potentials were also applied. The algorithm was successfully tested for the X-ray structure factor-based structure study of liquid dimethyl trisulfide, for which material now significantly more sensible results have been obtained than during previous attempts via any earlier version of RMC modeling. It is envisaged that structural modeling of a large class of materials, primarily liquids and amorphous solids containing molecules of up to about 100 atoms, will make use of the new code in the near future. PMID:22782785

  18. QR Codes 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  19. Expression of the Long Non-Coding RNA HOTAIR Correlates with Disease Progression in Bladder Cancer and Is Contained in Bladder Cancer Patient Urinary Exosomes.

    PubMed

    Berrondo, Claudia; Flax, Jonathan; Kucherov, Victor; Siebert, Aisha; Osinski, Thomas; Rosenberg, Alex; Fucile, Christopher; Richheimer, Samuel; Beckham, Carla J

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are 30-150nM membrane-bound secreted vesicles that are readily isolated from biological fluids such as urine (UEs). Exosomes contain proteins, micro RNA (miRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) from their cells of origin. Although miRNA, protein and lncRNA have been isolated from serum as potential biomarkers for benign and malignant disease, it is unknown if lncRNAs in UEs from urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) patients can serve as biomarkers. lncRNAs are > 200 nucleotide long transcripts that do not encode protein and play critical roles in tumor biology. As the number of recognized tumor-associated lncRNAs continues to increase, there is a parallel need to include lncRNAs into biomarker discovery and therapeutic target algorithms. The lncRNA HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) has been shown to facilitate tumor initiation and progression and is associated with poor prognosis in several cancers. The importance of HOTAIR in cancer biology has sparked interest in using HOTAIR as a biomarker and potential therapeutic target. Here we show HOTAIR and several tumor-associated lncRNAs are enriched in UEs from UBC patients with high-grade muscle-invasive disease (HGMI pT2-pT4). Knockdown of HOTAIR in UBC cell lines reduces in vitro migration and invasion. Importantly, loss of HOTAIR expression in UBC cell lines alters expression of epithelial-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) genes including SNAI1, TWIST1, ZEB1, ZO1, MMP1 LAMB3, and LAMC2. Finally, we used RNA-sequencing to identify four additional lncRNAs enriched in UBC patient UEs. These data, suggest that UE-derived lncRNA may potentially serve as biomarkers and therapeutic targets. PMID:26800519

  20. Analysis and mapping of a family of 3'-coterminal transcripts containing coding sequences for human cytomegalovirus open reading frames UL93 through UL99.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, B A; Huang, E S

    1995-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) open reading frames (ORFs) UL93 through UL99 are contained within a region of viral genome that is well conserved in all herpesviruses. Previous reports detailing the expression of ORF UL99 (also referred to as the 28-kDa virion phosphoprotein or pp28) indicated that the pattern of transcription proximal to pp28 is extremely complex and involves a number of large overlapping transcripts, none of which have been characterized. We have used an RNA-mapping approach consisting of Northern (RNA) hybridization, RNase protection, and primer extensions to determine the coding capacity of several large-molecular-weight transcripts which overlap the 1.3- and 1.6-kb UL99-specific transcripts. Our results suggest that six differentially regulated transcripts with sizes of 2.6, 4.7, 5.6, 7.3, 9.1, and 10.5 kb, and derived from the same strand of the viral genome overlap, are 3'-coterminal with the smaller UL99-specific transcripts. On the basis of 5'-end mapping via primer extension and RNase protection, we have determined that the 2.6- to 10.5-kb messages initiate upstream of each of the potential ORFs in this region, UL98, UL97, UL96, UL95, UL94, and UL93. By using cycloheximide and ganciclovir [9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine] to block de novo viral protein synthesis and viral DNA replication, respectively, we have determined that the 2.6-, 4.7-, 5.6-, and 7.3-kb messages have characteristics of early or early-late transcripts, whereas the 9.1- and 10.5-kb messages appear to be true late transcripts. The evolutionary conservation of ORFs UL93 through UL99 and their transcriptional regulation in other herpesviruses are discussed. PMID:7853485

  1. Expression of the Long Non-Coding RNA HOTAIR Correlates with Disease Progression in Bladder Cancer and Is Contained in Bladder Cancer Patient Urinary Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Berrondo, Claudia; Flax, Jonathan; Kucherov, Victor; Siebert, Aisha; Osinski, Thomas; Rosenberg, Alex; Fucile, Christopher; Richheimer, Samuel; Beckham, Carla J.

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are 30-150nM membrane-bound secreted vesicles that are readily isolated from biological fluids such as urine (UEs). Exosomes contain proteins, micro RNA (miRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) from their cells of origin. Although miRNA, protein and lncRNA have been isolated from serum as potential biomarkers for benign and malignant disease, it is unknown if lncRNAs in UEs from urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) patients can serve as biomarkers. lncRNAs are > 200 nucleotide long transcripts that do not encode protein and play critical roles in tumor biology. As the number of recognized tumor-associated lncRNAs continues to increase, there is a parallel need to include lncRNAs into biomarker discovery and therapeutic target algorithms. The lncRNA HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) has been shown to facilitate tumor initiation and progression and is associated with poor prognosis in several cancers. The importance of HOTAIR in cancer biology has sparked interest in using HOTAIR as a biomarker and potential therapeutic target. Here we show HOTAIR and several tumor-associated lncRNAs are enriched in UEs from UBC patients with high-grade muscle-invasive disease (HGMI pT2-pT4). Knockdown of HOTAIR in UBC cell lines reduces in vitro migration and invasion. Importantly, loss of HOTAIR expression in UBC cell lines alters expression of epithelial-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) genes including SNAI1, TWIST1, ZEB1, ZO1, MMP1 LAMB3, and LAMC2. Finally, we used RNA-sequencing to identify four additional lncRNAs enriched in UBC patient UEs. These data, suggest that UE-derived lncRNA may potentially serve as biomarkers and therapeutic targets. PMID:26800519

  2. Methods for simulation-based analysis of fluid-structure interaction.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; Payne, Jeffrey L.

    2005-10-01

    Methods for analysis of fluid-structure interaction using high fidelity simulations are critically reviewed. First, a literature review of modern numerical techniques for simulation of aeroelastic phenomena is presented. The review focuses on methods contained within the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) framework for coupling computational fluid dynamics codes to computational structural mechanics codes. The review treats mesh movement algorithms, the role of the geometric conservation law, time advancement schemes, wetted surface interface strategies, and some representative applications. The complexity and computational expense of coupled Navier-Stokes/structural dynamics simulations points to the need for reduced order modeling to facilitate parametric analysis. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)/Galerkin projection approach for building a reduced order model (ROM) is presented, along with ideas for extension of the methodology to allow construction of ROMs based on data generated from ALE simulations.

  3. Experiments and simulations of a shocked right-cylinder perturbation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, K. T.; Logory, L.; Smith, D. E.

    1998-09-04

    We have conducted a series of experiments using the Nova laser facility at LLNL and corresponding simulations using the two-dimensional, Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian hydrodynamics code CALE. The purpose of this work was to study the shock-driven, hydrodynamic behavior of a right-cylinder perturbation. The accuracy of our simulations is examined by comparison with the experiments.

  4. ALEGRA-HEDP : version 4.6.

    SciTech Connect

    Garasi, Christopher Joseph; Cochrane, Kyle Robert; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Haill, Thomas A.; Brunner, Thomas A.; Summers, Randall M.; Robinson, Allen Conrad

    2005-02-01

    ALEGRA is an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element code that emphasizes large distortion and shock propagation in inviscid fluids and solids. This document describes user options for modeling resistive magnetohydrodynamics, thermal conduction, and radiation transport effects, and two material temperature physics.

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of the cDNA coding for the biotin-containing subunit of 3-methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase: identification of the biotin carboxylase and biotin-carrier domains.

    PubMed Central

    Song, J; Wurtele, E S; Nikolau, B J

    1994-01-01

    Soybean genomic clones were isolated based on hybridization to probes that code for the conserved biotinylation domain of biotin-containing enzymes. The corresponding cDNA was isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli through fusion to the bacterial trpE gene. The resulting chimeric protein was biotinylated in E. coli. Antibodies raised against the chimeric protein reacted specifically with an 85-kDa biotin-containing polypeptide from soybean and inhibited 3-methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.4) activity in cell-free extracts of soybean leaves. Thus, the isolated soybean gene and corresponding cDNA code for the 85-kDa biotin-containing subunit of 3-methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA and portions of the genomic clones was determined. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the biotin-containing subunit of 3-methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase with sequences of other biotin enzymes suggests that this subunit contains the functional domains for the first half-reaction catalyzed by all biotin-dependent carboxylases--namely, the carboxylation of biotin. These domains are arranged serially on the polypeptide, with the biotin carboxylase domain at the amino terminus and the biotin-carboxyl carrier domain at the carboxyl terminus. Images PMID:8016064

  6. Salamander Hox clusters contain repetitive DNA and expanded non-coding regions: a typical Hox structure for non-mammalian tetrapod vertebrates?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Hox genes encode transcription factors that regulate embryonic and post-embryonic developmental processes. The expression of Hox genes is regulated in part by the tight, spatial arrangement of conserved coding and non-coding sequences. The potential for evolutionary changes in Hox cluster structure is thought to be low among vertebrates; however, recent studies of a few non-mammalian taxa suggest greater variation than originally thought. Using next generation sequencing of large genomic fragments (>100 kb) from the red spotted newt (Notophthalamus viridescens), we found that the arrangement of Hox cluster genes was conserved relative to orthologous regions from other vertebrates, but the length of introns and intergenic regions varied. In particular, the distance between hoxd13 and hoxd11 is longer in newt than orthologous regions from vertebrate species with expanded Hox clusters and is predicted to exceed the length of the entire HoxD clusters (hoxd13–hoxd4) of humans, mice, and frogs. Many repetitive DNA sequences were identified for newt Hox clusters, including an enrichment of DNA transposon-like sequences relative to non-coding genomic fragments. Our results suggest that Hox cluster expansion and transposon accumulation are common features of non-mammalian tetrapod vertebrates. PMID:23561734

  7. Possession, use, and transfer of select agents and toxins--reconstructed replication competent forms of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus containing any portion of the coding regions of all eight gene segments. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2005-10-20

    We are adding reconstructed replication competent forms of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus containing any portion of the coding regions of all eight gene segments to the list of HHS select agents and toxins. We are taking this action for several reasons. First the pandemic influenza virus of 1918-19 killed up to 50 million people worldwide, including an estimated 675,000 deaths in the United States. Also, the complete coding sequence for the 1918 pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus was recently identified, which will make it possible for those with knowledge of reverse genetics to reconstruct this virus. In addition, the first published study on a reconstructed 1918 pandemic influenza virus demonstrated the high virulence of this virus in cell culture, embryonated eggs, and in mice relative to other human influenza viruses. Therefore, we have determined that the reconstructed replication competent forms of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus containing any portion of the coding regions of all eight gene segments have the potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. PMID:16237858

  8. The miniature genome of a carnivorous plant Genlisea aurea contains a low number of genes and short non-coding sequences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genlisea aurea (Lentibulariaceae) is a carnivorous plant with unusually small genome size - 63.6 Mb – one of the smallest known among higher plants. Data on the genome sizes and the phylogeny of Genlisea suggest that this is a derived state within the genus. Thus, G. aurea is an excellent model organism for studying evolutionary mechanisms of genome contraction. Results Here we report sequencing and de novo draft assembly of G. aurea genome. The assembly consists of 10,687 contigs of the total length of 43.4 Mb and includes 17,755 complete and partial protein-coding genes. Its comparison with the genome of Mimulus guttatus, another representative of higher core Lamiales clade, reveals striking differences in gene content and length of non-coding regions. Conclusions Genome contraction was a complex process, which involved gene loss and reduction of lengths of introns and intergenic regions, but not intron loss. The gene loss is more frequent for the genes that belong to multigenic families indicating that genetic redundancy is an important prerequisite for genome size reduction. PMID:23855885

  9. The Coronary Artery Disease-associated Coding Variant in Zinc Finger C3HC-type Containing 1 (ZC3HC1) Affects Cell Cycle Regulation*

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Michael A.; Ghaderi Najafabadi, Maryam; McVey, David G.; Beveridge, Allan J.; Schofield, Christine L.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Webb, Tom R.

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have to date identified multiple coronary artery disease (CAD)-associated loci; however, for most of these loci the mechanism by which they affect CAD risk is unclear. The CAD-associated locus 7q32.2 is unusual in that the lead variant, rs11556924, is not in strong linkage disequilibrium with any other variant and introduces a coding change in ZC3HC1, which encodes NIPA. In this study, we show that rs11556924 polymorphism is associated with lower regulatory phosphorylation of NIPA in the risk variant, resulting in NIPA with higher activity. Using a genome-editing approach we show that this causes an effective decrease in cyclin-B1 stability in the nucleus, thereby slowing its nuclear accumulation. By perturbing the rate of nuclear cyclin-B1 accumulation, rs11556924 alters the regulation of mitotic progression resulting in an extended mitosis. This study shows that the CAD-associated coding polymorphism in ZC3HC1 alters the dynamics of cell-cycle regulation by NIPA. PMID:27226629

  10. The Coronary Artery Disease-associated Coding Variant in Zinc Finger C3HC-type Containing 1 (ZC3HC1) Affects Cell Cycle Regulation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter D; Kaiser, Michael A; Ghaderi Najafabadi, Maryam; McVey, David G; Beveridge, Allan J; Schofield, Christine L; Samani, Nilesh J; Webb, Tom R

    2016-07-29

    Genome-wide association studies have to date identified multiple coronary artery disease (CAD)-associated loci; however, for most of these loci the mechanism by which they affect CAD risk is unclear. The CAD-associated locus 7q32.2 is unusual in that the lead variant, rs11556924, is not in strong linkage disequilibrium with any other variant and introduces a coding change in ZC3HC1, which encodes NIPA. In this study, we show that rs11556924 polymorphism is associated with lower regulatory phosphorylation of NIPA in the risk variant, resulting in NIPA with higher activity. Using a genome-editing approach we show that this causes an effective decrease in cyclin-B1 stability in the nucleus, thereby slowing its nuclear accumulation. By perturbing the rate of nuclear cyclin-B1 accumulation, rs11556924 alters the regulation of mitotic progression resulting in an extended mitosis. This study shows that the CAD-associated coding polymorphism in ZC3HC1 alters the dynamics of cell-cycle regulation by NIPA. PMID:27226629

  11. Clinical coding. Code breakers.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Steve

    2005-02-24

    --The advent of payment by results has seen the role of the clinical coder pushed to the fore in England. --Examinations for a clinical coding qualification began in 1999. In 2004, approximately 200 people took the qualification. --Trusts are attracting people to the role by offering training from scratch or through modern apprenticeships. PMID:15768716

  12. CONTAIN independent peer review

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.; Corradini, M.L.; Denning, R.S.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Loyalka, S.K.; Smith, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

  13. DLLExternalCode

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Flach, Frank Smith

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.

  14. DLLExternalCode

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read frommore » files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.« less

  15. The gene for the TATA binding protein (TBP) that contains a highly polymorphic protein coding CAG repeat maps to 6q27

    SciTech Connect

    Imbert, G.; Trottier, Y.; Mandel, J.L.

    1994-06-01

    The gene for TATA binding protein (TBP, an important general transcription initiation factor) was shown to contain a long polymorphic imperfect CAG repeat in the form (CAG){sub 3} (CAA){sub 3} (CAG){sub 7-11} CAA CAG CAA (CAG){sub 9-21} CAA CAG. The gene was tentatively assigned to chromosome 6 using a somatic cell hybrid panel.

  16. Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Archaeal Intron-Containing Genes Coding for rRNA Obtained from a Deep-Subsurface Geothermal Water Pool

    PubMed Central

    Takai, Ken; Horikoshi, Koki

    1999-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analysis of a naturally occurring microbial community in a deep-subsurface geothermal environment indicated that the phylogenetic diversity of the microbial population in the environment was extremely limited and that only hyperthermophilic archaeal members closely related to Pyrobaculum were present. All archaeal ribosomal DNA sequences contained intron-like sequences, some of which had open reading frames with repeated homing-endonuclease motifs. The sequence similarity analysis and the phylogenetic analysis of these homing endonucleases suggested the possible phylogenetic relationship among archaeal rRNA-encoded homing endonucleases. PMID:10584021

  17. Modeling of local steam condensation on walls in presence of non-condensable gases. Application to a loca calculation in reactor containment using the multidimensional geyser/tonus code

    SciTech Connect

    Benet, L.V.; Caroli, C.; Cornet, P.

    1995-09-01

    This paper reports part of a study of possible severe pressurized water reactor (PWR) accidents. The need for containment modeling, and in particular for a hydrogen risk study, was reinforced in France after 1990, with the requirement that severe accidents must be taken into account in the design of future plants. This new need of assessing the transient local hydrogen concentration led to the development, in the Mechanical Engineering and Technology Department of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA/DMT), of the multidimensional code GEYSER/TONUS for containment analysis. A detailed example of the use of this code is presented. The mixture consisted of noncondensable gases (air or air plus hydrogen) and water vapor and liquid water. This is described by a compressible homogeneous two-phase flow model and wall condensation is based on the Chilton-Colburn formula and the analogy between heat and mass transfer. Results are given for a transient two-dimensional axially-symmetric computation for the first hour of a simplified accident sequence. In this there was an initial injection of a large amount of water vapor followed by a smaller amount and by hydrogen injection.

  18. FAA Smoke Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Domino, Stefan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay; Gallegos, Carlos

    2006-10-27

    FAA Smoke Transport Code, a physics-based Computational Fluid Dynamics tool, which couples heat, mass, and momentum transfer, has been developed to provide information on smoke transport in cargo compartments with various geometries and flight conditions. The software package contains a graphical user interface for specification of geometry and boundary conditions, analysis module for solving the governing equations, and a post-processing tool. The current code was produced by making substantial improvements and additions to a code obtained from a university. The original code was able to compute steady, uniform, isothermal turbulent pressurization. In addition, a preprocessor and postprocessor were added to arrive at the current software package.

  19. In silico comparison of genomic regions containing genes coding for enzymes and transcription factors for the phenylpropanoid pathway in Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Glycine max L. Merr

    PubMed Central

    Reinprecht, Yarmilla; Yadegari, Zeinab; Perry, Gregory E.; Siddiqua, Mahbuba; Wright, Lori C.; McClean, Phillip E.; Pauls, K. Peter

    2013-01-01

    Legumes contain a variety of phytochemicals derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway that have important effects on human health as well as seed coat color, plant disease resistance and nodulation. However, the information about the genes involved in this important pathway is fragmentary in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The objectives of this research were to isolate genes that function in and control the phenylpropanoid pathway in common bean, determine their genomic locations in silico in common bean and soybean, and analyze sequences of the 4CL gene family in two common bean genotypes. Sequences of phenylpropanoid pathway genes available for common bean or other plant species were aligned, and the conserved regions were used to design sequence-specific primers. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced and the gene sequences along with common bean gene-based (g) markers were BLASTed against the Glycine max v.1.0 genome and the P. vulgaris v.1.0 (Andean) early release genome. In addition, gene sequences were BLASTed against the OAC Rex (Mesoamerican) genome sequence assembly. In total, fragments of 46 structural and regulatory phenylpropanoid pathway genes were characterized in this way and placed in silico on common bean and soybean sequence maps. The maps contain over 250 common bean g and SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers and identify the positions of more than 60 additional phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences, plus the putative locations of seed coat color genes. The majority of cloned phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences were mapped to one location in the common bean genome but had two positions in soybean. The comparison of the genomic maps confirmed previous studies, which show that common bean and soybean share genomic regions, including those containing phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences, with conserved synteny. Indels identified in the comparison of Andean and Mesoamerican common bean 4CL gene sequences might be used to develop inter

  20. Speech coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersho, Allen

    1990-05-01

    Recent advances in algorithms and techniques for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The advent of powerful single-ship signal processors has made it cost effective to implement these new and sophisticated speech coding algorithms for many important applications in voice communication and storage. Some of the main ideas underlying the algorithms of major interest today are reviewed. The concept of removing redundancy by linear prediction is reviewed, first in the context of predictive quantization or DPCM. Then linear predictive coding, adaptive predictive coding, and vector quantization are discussed. The concepts of excitation coding via analysis-by-synthesis, vector sum excitation codebooks, and adaptive postfiltering are explained. The main idea of vector excitation coding (VXC) or code excited linear prediction (CELP) are presented. Finally low-delay VXC coding and phonetic segmentation for VXC are described.

  1. Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, Fabrizio; Hamkins, Jon; Dolinar, Sam; Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews uplink coding. The purpose and goals of the briefing are (1) Show a plan for using uplink coding and describe benefits (2) Define possible solutions and their applicability to different types of uplink, including emergency uplink (3) Concur with our conclusions so we can embark on a plan to use proposed uplink system (4) Identify the need for the development of appropriate technology and infusion in the DSN (5) Gain advocacy to implement uplink coding in flight projects Action Item EMB04-1-14 -- Show a plan for using uplink coding, including showing where it is useful or not (include discussion of emergency uplink coding).

  2. Report on task assignment No. 3 for the Waste Package Project; Parts A & B, ASME pressure vessel codes review for waste package application; Part C, Library search for reliability/failure rates data on low temperature low pressure piping, containers, and casks with long design lives

    SciTech Connect

    Trabia, M.B.; Kiley, M.; Cardle, J.; Joseph, M.

    1991-07-01

    The Waste Package Project Research Team, at UNLV, has four general required tasks. Task one is the management, quality assurance, and overview of the research that is performed under the cooperative agreement. Task two is the structural analysis of spent fuel and high level waste. Task three is an American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Pressure Vessel Code review for waste package application. Finally, task four is waste package labeling. This report includes preliminary information about task three (ASME Pressure Vessel Code review for Waste package Application). The first objective is to compile a list of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code that can be applied to waste package containers design and manufacturing processes. The second objective is to explore the use of these applicable codes to the preliminary waste package container designs. The final objective is to perform a library search for reliability and/or failure rates data on low pressure, low temperature, containers and casks with long design lives.

  3. User's manual for Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct (ADD) code. Volume 1: General ADD code description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.; Hankins, G. B., Jr.; Edwards, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    This User's Manual contains a complete description of the computer codes known as the AXISYMMETRIC DIFFUSER DUCT code or ADD code. It includes a list of references which describe the formulation of the ADD code and comparisons of calculation with experimental flows. The input/output and general use of the code is described in the first volume. The second volume contains a detailed description of the code including the global structure of the code, list of FORTRAN variables, and descriptions of the subroutines. The third volume contains a detailed description of the CODUCT code which generates coordinate systems for arbitrary axisymmetric ducts.

  4. Synthesizing Certified Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach to demonstrate software quality on a formal level. Its basic idea is to require producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it also requires many detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding theses annotations to the code is time-consuming and error-prone. We address this problem by combining code certification with automatic program synthesis. We propose an approach to generate simultaneously, from a high-level specification, code and all annotations required to certify generated code. Here, we describe a certification extension of AUTOBAYES, a synthesis tool which automatically generates complex data analysis programs from compact specifications. AUTOBAYES contains sufficient high-level domain knowledge to generate detailed annotations. This allows us to use a general-purpose verification condition generator to produce a set of proof obligations in first-order logic. The obligations are then discharged using the automated theorem E-SETHEO. We demonstrate our approach by certifying operator safety for a generated iterative data classification program without manual annotation of the code.

  5. Computer Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    COSMIC MINIVER, a computer code developed by NASA for analyzing aerodynamic heating and heat transfer on the Space Shuttle, has been used by Marquardt Company to analyze heat transfer on Navy/Air Force missile bodies. The code analyzes heat transfer by four different methods which can be compared for accuracy. MINIVER saved Marquardt three months in computer time and $15,000.

  6. DNA codes

    SciTech Connect

    Torney, D. C.

    2001-01-01

    We have begun to characterize a variety of codes, motivated by potential implementation as (quaternary) DNA n-sequences, with letters denoted A, C The first codes we studied are the most reminiscent of conventional group codes. For these codes, Hamming similarity was generalized so that the score for matched letters takes more than one value, depending upon which letters are matched [2]. These codes consist of n-sequences satisfying an upper bound on the similarities, summed over the letter positions, of distinct codewords. We chose similarity 2 for matches of letters A and T and 3 for matches of the letters C and G, providing a rough approximation to double-strand bond energies in DNA. An inherent novelty of DNA codes is 'reverse complementation'. The latter may be defined, as follows, not only for alphabets of size four, but, more generally, for any even-size alphabet. All that is required is a matching of the letters of the alphabet: a partition into pairs. Then, the reverse complement of a codeword is obtained by reversing the order of its letters and replacing each letter by its match. For DNA, the matching is AT/CG because these are the Watson-Crick bonding pairs. Reversal arises because two DNA sequences form a double strand with opposite relative orientations. Thus, as will be described in detail, because in vitro decoding involves the formation of double-stranded DNA from two codewords, it is reasonable to assume - for universal applicability - that the reverse complement of any codeword is also a codeword. In particular, self-reverse complementary codewords are expressly forbidden in reverse-complement codes. Thus, an appropriate distance between all pairs of codewords must, when large, effectively prohibit binding between the respective codewords: to form a double strand. Only reverse-complement pairs of codewords should be able to bind. For most applications, a DNA code is to be bi-partitioned, such that the reverse-complementary pairs are separated

  7. User's manual for Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct (ADD) code. Volume 3: ADD code coordinate generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.; Hankins, G. B., Jr.; Edwards, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    This User's Manual contains a complete description of the computer codes known as the Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct (ADD) code. It includes a list of references which describe the formulation of the ADD code and comparisons of calculation with experimental flows. The input/output and general use of the code is described in the first volume. The second volume contains a detailed description of the code including the global structure of the code, list of FORTRAN variables, and descriptions of the subroutines. The third volume contains a detailed description of the CODUCT code which generates coordinate systems for arbitrary axisymmetric ducts.

  8. The general theory of convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Stanley, R. P.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a self-contained introduction to the algebraic theory of convolutional codes. This introduction is partly a tutorial, but at the same time contains a number of new results which will prove useful for designers of advanced telecommunication systems. Among the new concepts introduced here are the Hilbert series for a convolutional code and the class of compact codes.

  9. Electrical Circuit Simulation Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-08-09

    Massively-Parallel Electrical Circuit Simulation Code. CHILESPICE is a massively-arallel distributed-memory electrical circuit simulation tool that contains many enhanced radiation, time-based, and thermal features and models. Large scale electronic circuit simulation. Shared memory, parallel processing, enhance convergence. Sandia specific device models.

  10. New quantum codes constructed from quaternary BCH codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Ma, Yuena

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we firstly study construction of new quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) from three classes of quaternary imprimitive BCH codes. As a result, the improved maximal designed distance of these narrow-sense imprimitive Hermitian dual-containing quaternary BCH codes are determined to be much larger than the result given according to Aly et al. (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 53:1183-1188, 2007) for each different code length. Thus, families of new QECCs are newly obtained, and the constructed QECCs have larger distance than those in the previous literature. Secondly, we apply a combinatorial construction to the imprimitive BCH codes with their corresponding primitive counterpart and construct many new linear quantum codes with good parameters, some of which have parameters exceeding the finite Gilbert-Varshamov bound for linear quantum codes.

  11. Entanglement-assisted codeword stabilized quantum codes

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Jeonghwan; Heo, Jun; Brun, Todd A.

    2011-12-15

    Entangled qubits can increase the capacity of quantum error-correcting codes based on stabilizer codes. In addition, by using entanglement quantum stabilizer codes can be construct from classical linear codes that do not satisfy the dual-containing constraint. We show that it is possible to construct both additive and nonadditive quantum codes using the codeword stabilized quantum code framework. Nonadditive codes may offer improved performance over the more common stabilizer codes. Like other entanglement-assisted codes, the encoding procedure acts only on the qubits on Alice's side, and only these qubits are assumed to pass through the channel. However, errors in the codeword stabilized quantum code framework give rise to effective Z errors on Bob's side. We use this scheme to construct entanglement-assisted nonadditive quantum codes, in particular, ((5,16,2;1)) and ((7,4,5;4)) codes.

  12. Permutation-invariant quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Yingkai

    2014-12-01

    A quantum code is a subspace of a Hilbert space of a physical system chosen to be correctable against a given class of errors, where information can be encoded. Ideally, the quantum code lies within the ground space of the physical system. When the physical model is the Heisenberg ferromagnet in the absence of an external magnetic field, the corresponding ground space contains all permutation-invariant states. We use techniques from combinatorics and operator theory to construct families of permutation-invariant quantum codes. These codes have length proportional to t2; one family of codes perfectly corrects arbitrary weight t errors, while the other family of codes approximately correct t spontaneous decay errors. The analysis of our codes' performance with respect to spontaneous decay errors utilizes elementary matrix analysis, where we revisit and extend the quantum error correction criterion of Knill and Laflamme, and Leung, Chuang, Nielsen and Yamamoto.

  13. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  14. MELCOR computer code manuals

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L.; Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  15. Astrophysics Source Code Library Enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Allen, A.; Berriman, G. B.; DuPrie, K.; Mink, J.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Schmidt, J.; Shamir, L.; Shortridge, K.; Taylor, M.; Teuben, P. J.; Wallin, J.

    2015-09-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL)1 is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research; it currently contains over 900 codes and is indexed by ADS. The ASCL has recently moved a new infrastructure into production. The new site provides a true database for the code entries and integrates the WordPress news and information pages and the discussion forum into one site. Previous capabilities are retained and permalinks to ascl.net continue to work. This improvement offers more functionality and flexibility than the previous site, is easier to maintain, and offers new possibilities for collaboration. This paper covers these recent changes to the ASCL.

  16. QR Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  17. FAA Smoke Transport Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-10-27

    FAA Smoke Transport Code, a physics-based Computational Fluid Dynamics tool, which couples heat, mass, and momentum transfer, has been developed to provide information on smoke transport in cargo compartments with various geometries and flight conditions. The software package contains a graphical user interface for specification of geometry and boundary conditions, analysis module for solving the governing equations, and a post-processing tool. The current code was produced by making substantial improvements and additions to a codemore » obtained from a university. The original code was able to compute steady, uniform, isothermal turbulent pressurization. In addition, a preprocessor and postprocessor were added to arrive at the current software package.« less

  18. User Instructions for the Systems Assessment Capability, Rev. 1, Computer Codes Volume 3: Utility Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Miley, Terri B.; Nichols, William E.; Strenge, Dennis L.

    2004-09-14

    This document contains detailed user instructions for a suite of utility codes developed for Rev. 1 of the Systems Assessment Capability. The suite of computer codes for Rev. 1 of Systems Assessment Capability performs many functions.

  19. Graphical Quantum Low-Density Parity-Check Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Xu, Mantao; Meng, Yinkuo; Guo, Ying

    2012-08-01

    Graphical approach provides a direct way to construct error correction codes. Motivated by its good properties, associating low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, in this paper we present families of graphical quantum LDPC codes which contain no girth of four. Because of the fast algorithm of constructing for graphical codes, the proposed quantum codes have lower encoding complexity.

  20. 49 CFR 178.702 - IBC codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false IBC codes. 178.702 Section 178.702 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS IBC Performance-Oriented Standards § 178.702 IBC codes. (a) Intermediate bulk container code designations consist of:...

  1. 49 CFR 178.702 - IBC codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false IBC codes. 178.702 Section 178.702 Transportation... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS IBC Performance-Oriented Standards § 178.702 IBC codes. (a) Intermediate bulk container code designations consist of: two...

  2. Containment response to a main steam-line break using CONTAIN, RIS, and TRAC/BF1

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.; Baratta, A. ); Talens, H. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes containment analyses performed using the CONTAIN, RIS, and TRAC/BF1 computer codes. Although each of these codes is a containment response code, they differ in their approaches to modeling the various phenomena that occur in the containment. The work was initiated to evaluate the ability of these codes to predict containment response during a main steam-line break (MSLB). This project expands on previous analysis performed by KEMA using the RIS and TRAC/BF1 codes to include CONTAIN results. In the course of this project, all three codes demonstrated their usefulness. Although all three codes predicted satisfactory results, the RIS and CONTAIN codes seem best suited for this type of transient. The TRAC/BF1 code should be used for transients where the interactions between the primary and containment system are though to be large.

  3. Assess the key physics that underpins high-hydro coupling-efficiency in NDCX-II experiments and high-gain heavy ion direct drive target designs using proven hydro codes like HYDRA

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J. J.; Hay, M. J.; Logan, B. G.; Ng, S. F.; Perkins, L. J.; Veitzer, S.; Yu, S. S.

    2010-07-01

    The simulations provided in this milestone have solidified the theoretical underpinning of direct drive targets and also the ability to design experiments on NDCX II that will enhance our understanding of ion-beam hydrodynamic coupling, and thus be relevant to IFE. For the case of the IFE targets, we have studied hydro and implosion efficiency using HYDRA in ID, a starting point towards the goal of polar direct drive in geometry compatible with liquid wall chambers. Recent analysis of direct drive fusion energy targets using heavy ion beams has found high coupling efficiency of ion beam energy into implosion energy. However, to obtain optimal coupling, the ion energy must increase during the pulse in order to penetrate the outflowing ablated material, and deposit the energy close enough to the fuel so that the fuel achieves sufficient implosion velocity. We have computationally explored ID (radial) time dependent models of ion driven direct drive capsule implosions using the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) code HYDRA, to help validate the theoretical analysis done so far, particularly exploring the effects of varying the ion energy and ion current over the course of the pulse. On NDCX II, experiments have been proposed to explore issues of ion penetration of the outflowing plasma over the course of the ion pulse. One possibility is to create a first pulse of ions that heats a planar target, and produces an outflow of material. A second pulse, {approx}10 ns after the first, of higher ion energy (and hence larger projected range) will interact with this outflow before reaching and further heating the target. We have investigated whether the change in range can be tailored to match the evolution of the ablation front. We have carried out simulations using the one-dimensional hydrodynamic code DISH and HYDRA to set parameters for this class of experiments. DISH was upgraded with an ion deposition algorithm, and we have carried out ID (planar) simulations. HYDRA was

  4. State building energy codes status

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This document contains the State Building Energy Codes Status prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 and dated September 1996. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards has developed this document to provide an information resource for individuals interested in energy efficiency of buildings and the relevant building energy codes in each state and U.S. territory. This is considered to be an evolving document and will be updated twice a year. In addition, special state updates will be issued as warranted.

  5. Codes with special correlation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumert, L. D.

    1964-01-01

    Uniform binary codes with special correlation including transorthogonality and simplex code, Hadamard matrices and difference sets uniform binary codes with special correlation including transorthogonality and simplex code, Hadamard matrices and difference sets

  6. LFSC - Linac Feedback Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Valentin; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    The computer program LFSC (Code>) is a numerical tool for simulation beam based feedback in high performance linacs. The code LFSC is based on the earlier version developed by a collective of authors at SLAC (L.Hendrickson, R. McEwen, T. Himel, H. Shoaee, S. Shah, P. Emma, P. Schultz) during 1990-2005. That code was successively used in simulation of SLC, TESLA, CLIC and NLC projects. It can simulate as pulse-to-pulse feedback on timescale corresponding to 5-100 Hz, as slower feedbacks, operating in the 0.1-1 Hz range in the Main Linac and Beam Delivery System. The code LFSC is running under Matlab for MS Windows operating system. It contains about 30,000 lines of source code in more than 260 subroutines. The code uses the LIAR ('Linear Accelerator Research code') for particle tracking under ground motion and technical noise perturbations. It uses the Guinea Pig code to simulate the luminosity performance. A set of input files includes the lattice description (XSIF format), and plane text files with numerical parameters, wake fields, ground motion data etc. The Matlab environment provides a flexible system for graphical output.

  7. Error-correction coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  8. Homological stabilizer codes

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Jonas T.

    2013-03-15

    In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Kitaev's toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

  9. Coding of Neuroinfectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue. PMID:26633789

  10. Model Children's Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  11. [Bioethics in the new Argentinian Civil and Commercial Code].

    PubMed

    Bergel, Salvador Darío

    2015-01-01

    Argentine has a new Civil and Commercial Code that will enter into force in August. This Code contains a series of rules relating to bioethics that have served to illustrate a brief comment on its contents. PMID:26665351

  12. Sharps container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Angelene M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for use in disposing of potentially hazardous items and more particularly a Sharps receptacle for used hypodermic needles and the like. A Sharps container is constructed from lightweight alodined nonmagnetic metal material with a cup member having an elongated tapered shape and length greater than its transverse dimensions. A magnet in the cup member provides for metal retention in the container. A nonmagnetic lid member has an opening and spring biased closure flap member. The flap member is constructed from stainless steel. A Velcro patch on the container permits selective attachment at desired locations.

  13. New asymmetric quantum codes over Fq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuena; Feng, Xiaoyi; Xu, Gen

    2016-07-01

    Two families of new asymmetric quantum codes are constructed in this paper. The first family is the asymmetric quantum codes with length n=qm-1 over Fq, where qge 5 is a prime power. The second one is the asymmetric quantum codes with length n=3m-1. These asymmetric quantum codes are derived from the CSS construction and pairs of nested BCH codes. Moreover, let the defining set T1=T2^{-q}, then the real Z-distance of our asymmetric quantum codes are much larger than δ _max+1, where δ _max is the maximal designed distance of dual-containing narrow-sense BCH code, and the parameters presented here have better than the ones available in the literature.

  14. Evaluation of help model replacement codes

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteside, Tad; Hang, Thong; Flach, Gregory

    2009-07-01

    This work evaluates the computer codes that are proposed to be used to predict percolation of water through the closure-cap and into the waste containment zone at the Department of Energy closure sites. This work compares the currently used water-balance code (HELP) with newly developed computer codes that use unsaturated flow (Richards’ equation). It provides a literature review of the HELP model and the proposed codes, which result in two recommended codes for further evaluation: HYDRUS-2D3D and VADOSE/W. This further evaluation involved performing actual simulations on a simple model and comparing the results of those simulations to those obtained with the HELP code and the field data. From the results of this work, we conclude that the new codes perform nearly the same, although moving forward, we recommend HYDRUS-2D3D.

  15. From Verified Models to Verifiable Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lensink, Leonard; Munoz, Cesar A.; Goodloe, Alwyn E.

    2009-01-01

    Declarative specifications of digital systems often contain parts that can be automatically translated into executable code. Automated code generation may reduce or eliminate the kinds of errors typically introduced through manual code writing. For this approach to be effective, the generated code should be reasonably efficient and, more importantly, verifiable. This paper presents a prototype code generator for the Prototype Verification System (PVS) that translates a subset of PVS functional specifications into an intermediate language and subsequently to multiple target programming languages. Several case studies are presented to illustrate the tool's functionality. The generated code can be analyzed by software verification tools such as verification condition generators, static analyzers, and software model-checkers to increase the confidence that the generated code is correct.

  16. New asymmetric quantum codes over Fq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuena; Feng, Xiaoyi; Xu, Gen

    2016-04-01

    Two families of new asymmetric quantum codes are constructed in this paper. The first family is the asymmetric quantum codes with length n=qm-1 over Fq , where q≥ 5 is a prime power. The second one is the asymmetric quantum codes with length n=3m-1 . These asymmetric quantum codes are derived from the CSS construction and pairs of nested BCH codes. Moreover, let the defining set T1=T2^{-q} , then the real Z-distance of our asymmetric quantum codes are much larger than δ _max+1 , where δ _max is the maximal designed distance of dual-containing narrow-sense BCH code, and the parameters presented here have better than the ones available in the literature.

  17. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  18. Low-Complexity, High-Performance Bandwidth Efficient Coding and Coded Modulation Techniques for Satellite and Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, Daniel J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The semi-annual progress report for NASA grant NAG5-557 is presented. The report contains three papers concerning bandwidth efficient coding and coded modulation techniques for satellite and space communications.

  19. Rotating-Pump Design Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James F.; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Scheer, Dean D.

    2006-01-01

    Pump Design (PUMPDES) is a computer program for designing a rotating pump for liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen, water, methane, or ethane. Using realistic properties of these fluids provided by another program called GASPAK, this code performs a station-by-station, mean-line analysis along the pump flow path, obtaining thermodynamic properties of the pumped fluid at each station and evaluating hydraulic losses along the flow path. The variables at each station are obtained under constraints that are consistent with the underlying physical principles. The code evaluates the performance of each stage and the overall pump. In addition, by judiciously choosing the givens and the unknowns, the code can perform a geometric inverse design function: that is, it can compute a pump geometry that yields a closest approximation of given design point. The code contains two major parts: one for an axial-rotor/inducer and one for a multistage centrifugal pump. The inducer and the centrifugal pump are functionally integrated. The code can be used in designing and/or evaluating the inducer/centrifugal-pump combination or the centrifugal pump alone. The code is written in standard Fortran 77.

  20. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  1. Concatenated Coding Using Trellis-Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Michael W.

    1997-01-01

    In the late seventies and early eighties a technique known as Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) was developed for providing spectrally efficient error correction coding. Instead of adding redundant information in the form of parity bits, redundancy is added at the modulation stage thereby increasing bandwidth efficiency. A digital communications system can be designed to use bandwidth-efficient multilevel/phase modulation such as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) or Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Performance gain can be achieved by increasing the number of signals over the corresponding uncoded system to compensate for the redundancy introduced by the code. A considerable amount of research and development has been devoted toward developing good TCM codes for severely bandlimited applications. More recently, the use of TCM for satellite and deep space communications applications has received increased attention. This report describes the general approach of using a concatenated coding scheme that features TCM and RS coding. Results have indicated that substantial (6-10 dB) performance gains can be achieved with this approach with comparatively little bandwidth expansion. Since all of the bandwidth expansion is due to the RS code we see that TCM based concatenated coding results in roughly 10-50% bandwidth expansion compared to 70-150% expansion for similar concatenated scheme which use convolution code. We stress that combined coding and modulation optimization is important for achieving performance gains while maintaining spectral efficiency.

  2. Coset Codes Viewed as Terminated Convolutional Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossorier, Marc P. C.; Lin, Shu

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, coset codes are considered as terminated convolutional codes. Based on this approach, three new general results are presented. First, it is shown that the iterative squaring construction can equivalently be defined from a convolutional code whose trellis terminates. This convolutional code determines a simple encoder for the coset code considered, and the state and branch labelings of the associated trellis diagram become straightforward. Also, from the generator matrix of the code in its convolutional code form, much information about the trade-off between the state connectivity and complexity at each section, and the parallel structure of the trellis, is directly available. Based on this generator matrix, it is shown that the parallel branches in the trellis diagram of the convolutional code represent the same coset code C(sub 1), of smaller dimension and shorter length. Utilizing this fact, a two-stage optimum trellis decoding method is devised. The first stage decodes C(sub 1), while the second stage decodes the associated convolutional code, using the branch metrics delivered by stage 1. Finally, a bidirectional decoding of each received block starting at both ends is presented. If about the same number of computations is required, this approach remains very attractive from a practical point of view as it roughly doubles the decoding speed. This fact is particularly interesting whenever the second half of the trellis is the mirror image of the first half, since the same decoder can be implemented for both parts.

  3. The Integrated TIGER Series Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-01-15

    ITS is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of linear time-independent coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Our goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects one of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with anmore » input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and intemal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 5.0, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 3.0 continuous-energy codes, (2) multigroup codes with adjoint transport capabilities, (3) parallel implementations of all ITS codes, (4) a general purpose geometry engine for linking with CAD or other geometry formats, and (5) the Cholla facet geometry library. Moreover, the general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through increased internal error checking and improved code portability.« less

  4. Training course on code implementation.

    PubMed

    Allain, A; De Arango, R

    1992-01-01

    The International Baby Food Action Network (IBFAN) is a coalition of over 40 citizen groups in 70 countries. IBFAN monitors the progress worldwide of the implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. The Code is intended to regulate the advertising and promotional techniques used to sell infant formula. The 1991 IBFAN report shows that 75 countries have taken some action to implement the International Code. During 1992, the IBFAN Code Documentation Center in Malaysia conducted 2 training courses to help countries draft legislation to implement and monitor compliance with the International Code. In April, government officials from 19 Asian and African countries attended the first course in Malaysia; the second course was conducted in Spanish in Guatemala and attended by officials from 15 Latin American and Caribbean countries. The resource people included representatives from NGOs in Africa, Asia, Latin America, Europe and North America with experience in Code implementation and monitoring at the national level. The main purpose of each course was to train government officials to use the International Code as a starting point for national legislation to protect breastfeeding. Participants reviewed recent information on lactation management, the advantages of breastfeeding, current trends in breastfeeding and the marketing practices of infant formula manufacturers. The participants studied the terminology contained in the International Code and terminology used by infant formula manufacturers to include breastmilk supplements such as follow-on formulas and cereal-based baby foods. Relevant World Health Assembly resolutions such as the one adopted in 1986 on the need to ban free and low-cost supplies to hospitals were examined. The legal aspects of the current Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) and the progress in the 12 BFHI test countries concerning the elimination of supplies were also examined. International Labor

  5. The Integrated TIGER Series Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Kensek, Ronald P.; Franke, Brian C.; Laub, Thomas W.

    2006-01-15

    ITS is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of linear time-independent coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Our goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects one of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with an input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and intemal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 5.0, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 3.0 continuous-energy codes, (2) multigroup codes with adjoint transport capabilities, (3) parallel implementations of all ITS codes, (4) a general purpose geometry engine for linking with CAD or other geometry formats, and (5) the Cholla facet geometry library. Moreover, the general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through increased internal error checking and improved code portability.

  6. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  7. Manually operated coded switch

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Jon H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made.

  8. Binary primitive alternant codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helgert, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    In this note we investigate the properties of two classes of binary primitive alternant codes that are generalizations of the primitive BCH codes. For these codes we establish certain equivalence and invariance relations and obtain values of d and d*, the minimum distances of the prime and dual codes.

  9. Autopsy pathology storage and coding by microcomputer.

    PubMed

    Talamo, T S; Losos, F J; Kessler, G F

    1982-02-01

    Storage and coding of anatomic pathology data usually is accomplished by expensive main frame systems. The authors of this article have developed a microcomputer based program package for autopsy pathology which stores patient demographic data, provisional or final anatomic diagnoses, and coded diagnoses obtained from an on-line Systematized Nomenclature of Pathology (SNOP) code lexicon. The system includes limited text editor functions as well as rapid data retrieval with the generation of final reports. Data files containing SNOP codes and diagnoses are searched easily by a variety of parameters, making data retrieval of autopsy material simple and efficient. PMID:10254292

  10. THE PYTHON SHELL FOR THE ORBIT CODE

    SciTech Connect

    Shishlo, Andrei P; Gorlov, Timofey V; Holmes, Jeffrey A

    2009-01-01

    A development of a Python driver shell for the ORBIT simulation code is presented. The original ORBIT code uses the SuperCode shell to organize accelerator-related simulations. It is outdated, unsupported, and it is an obstacle to future code development. The necessity and consequences of replacing the old shell language are discussed. A set of core modules and extensions that are currently in PyORBIT are presented. They include particle containers, parsers for MAD and SAD lattice files, a Python wrapper for MPI libraries, space charge calculators, TEAPOT trackers, and a laser stripping extension module.

  11. Algebraic geometric codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahshahani, M.

    1991-01-01

    The performance characteristics are discussed of certain algebraic geometric codes. Algebraic geometric codes have good minimum distance properties. On many channels they outperform other comparable block codes; therefore, one would expect them eventually to replace some of the block codes used in communications systems. It is suggested that it is unlikely that they will become useful substitutes for the Reed-Solomon codes used by the Deep Space Network in the near future. However, they may be applicable to systems where the signal to noise ratio is sufficiently high so that block codes would be more suitable than convolutional or concatenated codes.

  12. Collapsing Containers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin

    1994-01-01

    Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers…

  13. CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous waste containment's primary objective is to isolate wastes deemed as hazardous from man and environmental systems of air, soil, and water. Hazardous wastes differ from other waste classifications due to their increased potential to cause human health effects or environ...

  14. ARA type protograph codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus and method for encoding low-density parity check codes. Together with a repeater, an interleaver and an accumulator, the apparatus comprises a precoder, thus forming accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA codes). Protographs representing various types of ARA codes, including AR3A, AR4A and ARJA codes, are described. High performance is obtained when compared to the performance of current repeat-accumulate (RA) or irregular-repeat-accumulate (IRA) codes.

  15. Rubrivivax gelatinosus acsF (previously orf358) codes for a conserved, putative binuclear-iron-cluster-containing protein involved in aerobic oxidative cyclization of Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethylester.

    PubMed

    Pinta, Violaine; Picaud, Martine; Reiss-Husson, Françoise; Astier, Chantal

    2002-02-01

    This study describes the characterization of orf358, an open reading frame of previously unidentified function, in the purple bacterium Rubrivivax gelatinosus. A strain in which orf358 was disrupted exhibited a phenotype similar to the wild type under photosynthesis or low-aeration respiratory growth conditions. In contrast, under highly aerated respiratory growth conditions, the wild type still produced bacteriochlorophyll a (Bchl a), while the disrupted strain accumulated a compound that had the same absorption and fluorescence emission spectra as Mg-protoporphyrin but was less polar, suggesting that it was Mg-protoporphyrin monomethylester (MgPMe). These data indicated a blockage in Bchl a synthesis at the oxidative cyclization stage and implied the coexistence of two different mechanisms for MgPMe cyclization in R. gelatinosus, an anaerobic mechanism active under photosynthesis or low oxygenation and an aerobic mechanism active under high-oxygenation growth conditions. Based on these results as well as on sequence analysis indicating the presence of conserved putative binuclear-iron-cluster binding motifs, the designation of orf358 as acsF (for aerobic cyclization system Fe-containing subunit) is proposed. Several homologs of AcsF were found in a wide range of photosynthetic organisms, including Chlamydonomas reinhardtii Crd1 and Pharbitis nil PNZIP, suggesting that this aerobic oxidative cyclization mechanism is conserved from bacteria to plants. PMID:11790744

  16. Rubrivivax gelatinosus acsF (Previously orf358) Codes for a Conserved, Putative Binuclear-Iron-Cluster-Containing Protein Involved in Aerobic Oxidative Cyclization of Mg-Protoporphyrin IX Monomethylester

    PubMed Central

    Pinta, Violaine; Picaud, Martine; Reiss-Husson, Françoise; Astier, Chantal

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the characterization of orf358, an open reading frame of previously unidentified function, in the purple bacterium Rubrivivax gelatinosus. A strain in which orf358 was disrupted exhibited a phenotype similar to the wild type under photosynthesis or low-aeration respiratory growth conditions. In contrast, under highly aerated respiratory growth conditions, the wild type still produced bacteriochlorophyll a (Bchl a), while the disrupted strain accumulated a compound that had the same absorption and fluorescence emission spectra as Mg-protoporphyrin but was less polar, suggesting that it was Mg-protoporphyrin monomethylester (MgPMe). These data indicated a blockage in Bchl a synthesis at the oxidative cyclization stage and implied the coexistence of two different mechanisms for MgPMe cyclization in R. gelatinosus, an anaerobic mechanism active under photosynthesis or low oxygenation and an aerobic mechanism active under high-oxygenation growth conditions. Based on these results as well as on sequence analysis indicating the presence of conserved putative binuclear-iron-cluster binding motifs, the designation of orf358 as acsF (for aerobic cyclization system Fe-containing subunit) is proposed. Several homologs of AcsF were found in a wide range of photosynthetic organisms, including Chlamydonomas reinhardtii Crd1 and Pharbitis nil PNZIP, suggesting that this aerobic oxidative cyclization mechanism is conserved from bacteria to plants. PMID:11790744

  17. Logical operator tradeoff for local quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haah, Jeongwan; Preskill, John

    2011-03-01

    We study the structure of logical operators in local D -dimensional quantum codes, considering both subsystem codes with geometrically local gauge generators and codes defined by geometrically local commuting projectors. We show that if the code distance is d , then any logical operator can be supported on a set of specified geometry containing d~ qubits, where d~d 1 / (D - 1) = O (n) and n is the code length. Our results place limitations on partially self-correcting quantum memories, in which at least some logical operators are protected by energy barriers that grow with system size. We also show that two-dimensional codes defined by local commuting projectors admit logical ``string'' operators and are not self correcting. NSF PHY-0803371, DOE DE-FG03-92-ER40701, NSA/ARO W911NF-09-1-0442, and KFAS.

  18. Simulating Space Capsule Water Landing with Explicit Finite Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2007-01-01

    A study of using an explicit nonlinear dynamic finite element code for simulating the water landing of a space capsule was performed. The finite element model contains Lagrangian shell elements for the space capsule and Eulerian solid elements for the water and air. An Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) solver and a penalty coupling method were used for predicting the fluid and structure interaction forces. The space capsule was first assumed to be rigid, so the numerical results could be correlated with closed form solutions. The water and air meshes were continuously refined until the solution was converged. The converged maximum deceleration predicted is bounded by the classical von Karman and Wagner solutions and is considered to be an adequate solution. The refined water and air meshes were then used in the models for simulating the water landing of a capsule model that has a flexible bottom. For small pitch angle cases, the maximum deceleration from the flexible capsule model was found to be significantly greater than the maximum deceleration obtained from the corresponding rigid model. For large pitch angle cases, the difference between the maximum deceleration of the flexible model and that of its corresponding rigid model is smaller. Test data of Apollo space capsules with a flexible heat shield qualitatively support the findings presented in this paper.

  19. Asymmetric quantum convolutional codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Guardia, Giuliano G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we construct the first families of asymmetric quantum convolutional codes (AQCCs). These new AQCCs are constructed by means of the CSS-type construction applied to suitable families of classical convolutional codes, which are also constructed here. The new codes have non-catastrophic generator matrices, and they have great asymmetry. Since our constructions are performed algebraically, i.e. we develop general algebraic methods and properties to perform the constructions, it is possible to derive several families of such codes and not only codes with specific parameters. Additionally, several different types of such codes are obtained.

  20. Description of ground motion data processing codes: Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, M.L.

    1988-02-01

    Data processing codes developed to process ground motion at the Nevada Test Site for the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations Project are used today as part of the program to process ground motion records for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project. The work contained in this report documents and lists codes and verifies the ``PSRV`` code. 39 figs.

  1. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  2. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-02-20

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  3. Multiple Turbo Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Pollara, F.

    1995-01-01

    A description is given of multiple turbo codes and a suitable decoder structure derived from an approximation to the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decision rule, which is substantially different from the decoder for two-code-based encoders.

  4. QR Code Mania!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumack, Kellie A.; Reilly, Erin; Chamberlain, Nik

    2013-01-01

    space, has error-correction capacity, and can be read from any direction. These codes are used in manufacturing, shipping, and marketing, as well as in education. QR codes can be created to produce…

  5. STEEP32 computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goerke, W. S.

    1972-01-01

    A manual is presented as an aid in using the STEEP32 code. The code is the EXEC 8 version of the STEEP code (STEEP is an acronym for shock two-dimensional Eulerian elastic plastic). The major steps in a STEEP32 run are illustrated in a sample problem. There is a detailed discussion of the internal organization of the code, including a description of each subroutine.

  6. Color code identification in coded structured light.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Youfu; Zhu, Limin

    2012-08-01

    Color code is widely employed in coded structured light to reconstruct the three-dimensional shape of objects. Before determining the correspondence, a very important step is to identify the color code. Until now, the lack of an effective evaluation standard has hindered the progress in this unsupervised classification. In this paper, we propose a framework based on the benchmark to explore the new frontier. Two basic facets of the color code identification are discussed, including color feature selection and clustering algorithm design. First, we adopt analysis methods to evaluate the performance of different color features, and the order of these color features in the discriminating power is concluded after a large number of experiments. Second, in order to overcome the drawback of K-means, a decision-directed method is introduced to find the initial centroids. Quantitative comparisons affirm that our method is robust with high accuracy, and it can find or closely approach the global peak. PMID:22859022

  7. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  8. Utilizing GPUs to Accelerate Turbomachinery CFD Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacCalla, Weylin; Kulkarni, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    GPU computing has established itself as a way to accelerate parallel codes in the high performance computing world. This work focuses on speeding up APNASA, a legacy CFD code used at NASA Glenn Research Center, while also drawing conclusions about the nature of GPU computing and the requirements to make GPGPU worthwhile on legacy codes. Rewriting and restructuring of the source code was avoided to limit the introduction of new bugs. The code was profiled and investigated for parallelization potential, then OpenACC directives were used to indicate parallel parts of the code. The use of OpenACC directives was not able to reduce the runtime of APNASA on either the NVIDIA Tesla discrete graphics card, or the AMD accelerated processing unit. Additionally, it was found that in order to justify the use of GPGPU, the amount of parallel work being done within a kernel would have to greatly exceed the work being done by any one portion of the APNASA code. It was determined that in order for an application like APNASA to be accelerated on the GPU, it should not be modular in nature, and the parallel portions of the code must contain a large portion of the code's computation time.

  9. XSOR codes users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ``XSOR``. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms.

  10. The NESSUS finite element code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, J. B.; Nagiegaal, J. C.; Nakazawa, S.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this development is to provide a new analysis tool which integrates the structural modeling versatility of a modern finite element code with the latest advances in the area of probabilistic modeling and structural reliability. Version 2.0 of the NESSUS finite element code was released last February, and is currently being exercised on a set of problems which are representative of typical Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) applications. NESSUS 2.0 allows linear elastostatic and eigenvalue analysis of structures with uncertain geometry, material properties and boundary conditions, which are subjected to a random mechanical and thermal loading environment. The NESSUS finite element code is a key component in a broader software system consisting of five major modules. NESSUS/EXPERT is an expert system under development at Southwest Research Institute, with the objective of centralizing all component-specific knowledge useful for conducting probabilistic analysis of typical Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) components. NESSUS/FEM contains the finite element code used for the structural analysis and parameter sensitivity evaluation of these components. The task of parametrizing a finite element mesh in terms of the random variables present is facilitated with the use of the probabilistic data preprocessor in NESSUS/PRE. An external database file is used for managing the bulk of the data generated by NESSUS/FEM.

  11. Systems Improved Numerical Fluids Analysis Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, F. A.

    1990-01-01

    Systems Improved Numerical Fluids Analysis Code, SINFAC, consists of additional routines added to April, 1983, version of SINDA. Additional routines provide for mathematical modeling of active heat-transfer loops. Simulates steady-state and pseudo-transient operations of 16 different components of heat-transfer loops, including radiators, evaporators, condensers, mechanical pumps, reservoirs, and many types of valves and fittings. Program contains property-analysis routine used to compute thermodynamic properties of 20 different refrigerants. Source code written in FORTRAN 77.

  12. Astrophysics Source Code Library -- Now even better!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alice; Schmidt, Judy; Berriman, Bruce; DuPrie, Kimberly; Hanisch, Robert J.; Mink, Jessica D.; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Shamir, Lior; Shortridge, Keith; Taylor, Mark B.; Teuben, Peter J.; Wallin, John F.

    2015-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL, ascl.net) is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research. Indexed by ADS, it now contains nearly 1,000 codes and with recent major changes, is better than ever! The resource has a new infrastructure that offers greater flexibility and functionality for users, including an easier submission process, better browsing, one-click author search, and an RSS feeder for news. The new database structure is easier to maintain and offers new possibilities for collaboration. Come see what we've done!

  13. In-facility transport code review

    SciTech Connect

    Spore, J.W.; Boyack, B.E.; Bohl, W.R.

    1996-07-01

    The following computer codes were reviewed by the In-Facility Transport Working Group for application to the in-facility transport of radioactive aerosols, flammable gases, and/or toxic gases: (1) CONTAIN, (2) FIRAC, (3) GASFLOW, (4) KBERT, and (5) MELCOR. Based on the review criteria as described in this report and the versions of each code available at the time of the review, MELCOR is the best code for the analysis of in-facility transport when multidimensional effects are not significant. When multi-dimensional effects are significant, GASFLOW should be used.

  14. Multidimensional Fuel Performance Code: BISON

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-09-03

    BISON is a finite element based nuclear fuel performance code applicable to a variety of fuel forms including light water reactor fuel rods, TRISO fuel particles, and metallic rod and plate fuel (Refs. [a, b, c]). It solves the fully-coupled equations of thermomechanics and species diffusion and includes important fuel physics such as fission gas release and material property degradation with burnup. BISON is based on the MOOSE framework (Ref. [d]) and can therefore efficientlymore » solve problems on 1-, 2- or 3-D meshes using standard workstations or large high performance computers. BISON is also coupled to a MOOSE-based mesoscale phase field material property simulation capability (Refs. [e, f]). As described here, BISON includes the code library named FOX, which was developed concurrent with BISON. FOX contains material and behavioral models that are specific to oxide fuels.« less

  15. Multidimensional Fuel Performance Code: BISON

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-03

    BISON is a finite element based nuclear fuel performance code applicable to a variety of fuel forms including light water reactor fuel rods, TRISO fuel particles, and metallic rod and plate fuel (Refs. [a, b, c]). It solves the fully-coupled equations of thermomechanics and species diffusion and includes important fuel physics such as fission gas release and material property degradation with burnup. BISON is based on the MOOSE framework (Ref. [d]) and can therefore efficiently solve problems on 1-, 2- or 3-D meshes using standard workstations or large high performance computers. BISON is also coupled to a MOOSE-based mesoscale phase field material property simulation capability (Refs. [e, f]). As described here, BISON includes the code library named FOX, which was developed concurrent with BISON. FOX contains material and behavioral models that are specific to oxide fuels.

  16. Results and code predictions for ABCOVE aerosol code validation - Test AB5

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, R K; McCormack, J D; Postma, A K

    1983-11-01

    A program for aerosol behavior code validation and evaluation (ABCOVE) has been developed in accordance with the LMFBR Safety Program Plan. The ABCOVE program is a cooperative effort between the USDOE, the USNRC, and their contractor organizations currently involved in aerosol code development, testing or application. The first large-scale test in the ABCOVE program, AB5, was performed in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF vessel using a sodium spray as the aerosol source. Seven organizations made pretest predictions of aerosol behavior using seven different computer codes (HAA-3, HAA-4, HAARM-3, QUICK, MSPEC, MAEROS and CONTAIN). Three of the codes were used by more than one user so that the effect of user input could be assessed, as well as the codes themselves. Detailed test results are presented and compared with the code predictions for eight key parameters.

  17. Adaptive entropy coded subband coding of images.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y H; Modestino, J W

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe a design approach, called 2-D entropy-constrained subband coding (ECSBC), based upon recently developed 2-D entropy-constrained vector quantization (ECVQ) schemes. The output indexes of the embedded quantizers are further compressed by use of noiseless entropy coding schemes, such as Huffman or arithmetic codes, resulting in variable-rate outputs. Depending upon the specific configurations of the ECVQ and the ECPVQ over the subbands, many different types of SBC schemes can be derived within the generic 2-D ECSBC framework. Among these, the authors concentrate on three representative types of 2-D ECSBC schemes and provide relative performance evaluations. They also describe an adaptive buffer instrumented version of 2-D ECSBC, called 2-D ECSBC/AEC, for use with fixed-rate channels which completely eliminates buffer overflow/underflow problems. This adaptive scheme achieves performance quite close to the corresponding ideal 2-D ECSBC system. PMID:18296138

  18. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  19. Mechanical code comparator

    DOEpatents

    Peter, Frank J.; Dalton, Larry J.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

  20. Theory of epigenetic coding.

    PubMed

    Elder, D

    1984-06-01

    The logic of genetic control of development may be based on a binary epigenetic code. This paper revises the author's previous scheme dealing with the numerology of annelid metamerism in these terms. Certain features of the code had been deduced to be combinatorial, others not. This paradoxical contrast is resolved here by the interpretation that these features relate to different operations of the code; the combinatiorial to coding identity of units, the non-combinatorial to coding production of units. Consideration of a second paradox in the theory of epigenetic coding leads to a new solution which further provides a basis for epimorphic regeneration, and may in particular throw light on the "regeneration-duplication" phenomenon. A possible test of the model is also put forward. PMID:6748695

  1. Updating the Read Codes

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, David; Comp, Dip; Schulz, Erich; Brown, Philip; Price, Colin

    1997-01-01

    Abstract The Read Codes are a hierarchically-arranged controlled clinical vocabulary introduced in the early 1980s and now consisting of three maintained versions of differing complexity. The code sets are dynamic, and are updated quarterly in response to requests from users including clinicians in both primary and secondary care, software suppliers, and advice from a network of specialist healthcare professionals. The codes' continual evolution of content, both across and within versions, highlights tensions between different users and uses of coded clinical data. Internal processes, external interactions and new structural features implemented by the NHS Centre for Coding and Classification (NHSCCC) for user interactive maintenance of the Read Codes are described, and over 2000 items of user feedback episodes received over a 15-month period are analysed. PMID:9391934

  2. Fluid Film Bearing Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The next generation of rocket engine turbopumps is being developed by industry through Government-directed contracts. These turbopumps will use fluid film bearings because they eliminate the life and shaft-speed limitations of rolling-element bearings, increase turbopump design flexibility, and reduce the need for turbopump overhauls and maintenance. The design of the fluid film bearings for these turbopumps, however, requires sophisticated analysis tools to model the complex physical behavior characteristic of fluid film bearings operating at high speeds with low viscosity fluids. State-of-the-art analysis and design tools are being developed at the Texas A&M University under a grant guided by the NASA Lewis Research Center. The latest version of the code, HYDROFLEXT, is a thermohydrodynamic bulk flow analysis with fluid compressibility, full inertia, and fully developed turbulence models. It can predict the static and dynamic force response of rigid and flexible pad hydrodynamic bearings and of rigid and tilting pad hydrostatic bearings. The Texas A&M code is a comprehensive analysis tool, incorporating key fluid phenomenon pertinent to bearings that operate at high speeds with low-viscosity fluids typical of those used in rocket engine turbopumps. Specifically, the energy equation was implemented into the code to enable fluid properties to vary with temperature and pressure. This is particularly important for cryogenic fluids because their properties are sensitive to temperature as well as pressure. As shown in the figure, predicted bearing mass flow rates vary significantly depending on the fluid model used. Because cryogens are semicompressible fluids and the bearing dynamic characteristics are highly sensitive to fluid compressibility, fluid compressibility effects are also modeled. The code contains fluid properties for liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, and liquid nitrogen as well as for water and air. Other fluids can be handled by the code provided that the

  3. Doubled Color Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravyi, Sergey

    Combining protection from noise and computational universality is one of the biggest challenges in the fault-tolerant quantum computing. Topological stabilizer codes such as the 2D surface code can tolerate a high level of noise but implementing logical gates, especially non-Clifford ones, requires a prohibitively large overhead due to the need of state distillation. In this talk I will describe a new family of 2D quantum error correcting codes that enable a transversal implementation of all logical gates required for the universal quantum computing. Transversal logical gates (TLG) are encoded operations that can be realized by applying some single-qubit rotation to each physical qubit. TLG are highly desirable since they introduce no overhead and do not spread errors. It has been known before that a quantum code can have only a finite number of TLGs which rules out computational universality. Our scheme circumvents this no-go result by combining TLGs of two different quantum codes using the gauge-fixing method pioneered by Paetznick and Reichardt. The first code, closely related to the 2D color code, enables a transversal implementation of all single-qubit Clifford gates such as the Hadamard gate and the π / 2 phase shift. The second code that we call a doubled color code provides a transversal T-gate, where T is the π / 4 phase shift. The Clifford+T gate set is known to be computationally universal. The two codes can be laid out on the honeycomb lattice with two qubits per site such that the code conversion requires parity measurements for six-qubit Pauli operators supported on faces of the lattice. I will also describe numerical simulations of logical Clifford+T circuits encoded by the distance-3 doubled color code. Based on a joint work with Andrew Cross.

  4. Phonological coding during reading

    PubMed Central

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  5. Phonological coding during reading.

    PubMed

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-11-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  6. Bar Code Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

  7. MORSE Monte Carlo code

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described.

  8. Tokamak Systems Code

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.; Gorker, G.E.; Hooper, R.J.; Kalsi, S.S.; Metzler, D.H.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Roth, K.E.; Spampinato, P.T.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged.

  9. Expander chunked codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bin; Yang, Shenghao; Ye, Baoliu; Yin, Yitong; Lu, Sanglu

    2015-12-01

    Chunked codes are efficient random linear network coding (RLNC) schemes with low computational cost, where the input packets are encoded into small chunks (i.e., subsets of the coded packets). During the network transmission, RLNC is performed within each chunk. In this paper, we first introduce a simple transfer matrix model to characterize the transmission of chunks and derive some basic properties of the model to facilitate the performance analysis. We then focus on the design of overlapped chunked codes, a class of chunked codes whose chunks are non-disjoint subsets of input packets, which are of special interest since they can be encoded with negligible computational cost and in a causal fashion. We propose expander chunked (EC) codes, the first class of overlapped chunked codes that have an analyzable performance, where the construction of the chunks makes use of regular graphs. Numerical and simulation results show that in some practical settings, EC codes can achieve rates within 91 to 97 % of the optimum and outperform the state-of-the-art overlapped chunked codes significantly.

  10. 77 FR 34020 - National Fire Codes: Request for Public Input for Revision of Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...This notice contains the list of National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) documents opening for Public Input, and it also contains information on the NFPA Revision Process. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is publishing this notice on behalf of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) to announce the NFPA's proposal to revise some of its fire safety codes and......

  11. Mosaic of coded aperture arrays

    DOEpatents

    Fenimore, Edward E.; Cannon, Thomas M.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention pertains to a mosaic of coded aperture arrays which is capable of imaging off-axis sources with minimum detector size. Mosaics of the basic array pattern create a circular on periodic correlation of the object on a section of the picture plane. This section consists of elements of the central basic pattern as well as elements from neighboring patterns and is a cyclic version of the basic pattern. Since all object points contribute a complete cyclic version of the basic pattern, a section of the picture, which is the size of the basic aperture pattern, contains all the information necessary to image the object with no artifacts.

  12. Research on Universal Combinatorial Coding

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Mo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The conception of universal combinatorial coding is proposed. Relations exist more or less in many coding methods. It means that a kind of universal coding method is objectively existent. It can be a bridge connecting many coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding is lossless and it is based on the combinatorics theory. The combinational and exhaustive property make it closely related with the existing code methods. Universal combinatorial coding does not depend on the probability statistic characteristic of information source, and it has the characteristics across three coding branches. It has analyzed the relationship between the universal combinatorial coding and the variety of coding method and has researched many applications technologies of this coding method. In addition, the efficiency of universal combinatorial coding is analyzed theoretically. The multicharacteristic and multiapplication of universal combinatorial coding are unique in the existing coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding has theoretical research and practical application value. PMID:24772019

  13. Research on universal combinatorial coding.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Mo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The conception of universal combinatorial coding is proposed. Relations exist more or less in many coding methods. It means that a kind of universal coding method is objectively existent. It can be a bridge connecting many coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding is lossless and it is based on the combinatorics theory. The combinational and exhaustive property make it closely related with the existing code methods. Universal combinatorial coding does not depend on the probability statistic characteristic of information source, and it has the characteristics across three coding branches. It has analyzed the relationship between the universal combinatorial coding and the variety of coding method and has researched many applications technologies of this coding method. In addition, the efficiency of universal combinatorial coding is analyzed theoretically. The multicharacteristic and multiapplication of universal combinatorial coding are unique in the existing coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding has theoretical research and practical application value. PMID:24772019

  14. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content change (CC). Secondly, a CU coding tree probability model is proposed for modeling and predicting CU distribution. Eventually, a CU coding tree probability update is proposed, aiming to address probabilistic model distortion problems caused by CC. Experimental results show that the proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism significantly reduces encoding time by 27% for lossy coding and 42% for visually lossless coding and lossless coding. The proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism devotes to improving coding performance under various application conditions. PMID:26999741

  15. Measurement and ALE3D Simulation of Violence in a Deflagration Experiment With LX-10 and Aermet-100 Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Knap, J; McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Howard, W M; Nichols, A L; deHaven, M R; Strand, O T

    2006-06-22

    We describe the results of a Scaled-Thermal-Explosion-eXperiment (STEX) for LX-10 (94.7 % HMX, 5.3 % Viton A) confined in an AerMet 100 (iron-cobalt-nickel alloy) tube with reinforced end caps. The experimental measurements are compared with predictions of an Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE3D) computer model. ALE3D is a three-dimensional multi-physics computer code capable of solving coupled equations describing thermal, mechanical and chemical behavior of materials. In particular, we focus on the processes linked to fracture and fragmentation of the AerMet tube driven by the LX-10 deflagration.

  16. Development and Evaluation of a Hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Czader, B.; Percell, P.; Byun, D.

    2014-12-01

    A hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian modeling tool has been developed using the CMAQ code. It is a moving nest domain that resides in a base Eulerian model with the same vertical CMAQ structure and physical and chemical interactions. It may follow the trajectory defined by the mean mixed-layer wind or any other user defined trajectory. It was developed as a computationally efficient 3-D grid sub-model for the purpose of evaluations of the source-receptor relationship. The correctness of the algorithms and the overall performance was evaluated against CMAQ simulation results.

  17. Lagrangian continuum dynamics in ALEGRA.

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Michael K. W.; Love, Edward

    2007-12-01

    Alegra is an ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) multi-material finite element code that emphasizes large deformations and strong shock physics. The Lagrangian continuum dynamics package in Alegra uses a Galerkin finite element spatial discretization and an explicit central-difference stepping method in time. The goal of this report is to describe in detail the characteristics of this algorithm, including the conservation and stability properties. The details provided should help both researchers and analysts understand the underlying theory and numerical implementation of the Alegra continuum hydrodynamics algorithm.

  18. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2007-07-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR

  19. Lichenase and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2000-08-15

    The present invention provides a fungal lichenase, i.e., an endo-1,3-1,4-.beta.-D-glucanohydrolase, its coding sequence, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the lichenase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present lichenase is from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  20. Codes of Conduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    Most schools have a code of conduct, pledge, or behavioral standards, set by the district or school board with the school community. In this article, the author features some schools that created a new vision of instilling code of conducts to students based on work quality, respect, safety and courtesy. She suggests that communicating the code…

  1. Code of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…

  2. Legacy Code Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

  3. Modified JPEG Huffman coding.

    PubMed

    Lakhani, Gopal

    2003-01-01

    It is a well observed characteristic that when a DCT block is traversed in the zigzag order, the AC coefficients generally decrease in size and the run-length of zero coefficients increase in number. This article presents a minor modification to the Huffman coding of the JPEG baseline compression algorithm to exploit this redundancy. For this purpose, DCT blocks are divided into bands so that each band can be coded using a separate code table. Three implementations are presented, which all move the end-of-block marker up in the middle of DCT block and use it to indicate the band boundaries. Experimental results are presented to compare reduction in the code size obtained by our methods with the JPEG sequential-mode Huffman coding and arithmetic coding methods. The average code reduction to the total image code size of one of our methods is 4%. Our methods can also be used for progressive image transmission and hence, experimental results are also given to compare them with two-, three-, and four-band implementations of the JPEG spectral selection method. PMID:18237897

  4. Binary concatenated coding system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, L. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Coding, using 3-bit binary words, is applicable to any measurement having integer scale up to 100. System using 6-bit data words can be expanded to read from 1 to 10,000, and 9-bit data words can increase range to 1,000,000. Code may be ''read'' directly by observation after memorizing simple listing of 9's and 10's.

  5. Computerized mega code recording.

    PubMed

    Burt, T W; Bock, H C

    1988-04-01

    A system has been developed to facilitate recording of advanced cardiac life support mega code testing scenarios. By scanning a paper "keyboard" using a bar code wand attached to a portable microcomputer, the person assigned to record the scenario can easily generate an accurate, complete, timed, and typewritten record of the given situations and the obtained responses. PMID:3354937

  6. Coding for optical channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumert, L. D.; Mceliece, R. J.; Rumsey, H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    In a previous paper Pierce considered the problem of optical communication from a novel viewpoint, and concluded that performance will likely be limited by issues of coding complexity rather than by thermal noise. This paper reviews the model proposed by Pierce and presents some results on the analysis and design of codes for this application.

  7. Combustion chamber analysis code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekwas, A. J.; Lai, Y. G.; Krishnan, A.; Avva, R. K.; Giridharan, M. G.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional, time dependent, Favre averaged, finite volume Navier-Stokes code has been developed to model compressible and incompressible flows (with and without chemical reactions) in liquid rocket engines. The code has a non-staggered formulation with generalized body-fitted-coordinates (BFC) capability. Higher order differencing methodologies such as MUSCL and Osher-Chakravarthy schemes are available. Turbulent flows can be modeled using any of the five turbulent models present in the code. A two-phase, two-liquid, Lagrangian spray model has been incorporated into the code. Chemical equilibrium and finite rate reaction models are available to model chemically reacting flows. The discrete ordinate method is used to model effects of thermal radiation. The code has been validated extensively against benchmark experimental data and has been applied to model flows in several propulsion system components of the SSME and the STME.

  8. Energy Conservation Code Decoded

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Pam C.; Taylor, Zachary T.

    2006-09-01

    Designing an energy-efficient, affordable, and comfortable home is a lot easier thanks to a slime, easier to read booklet, the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), published in March 2006. States, counties, and cities have begun reviewing the new code as a potential upgrade to their existing codes. Maintained under the public consensus process of the International Code Council, the IECC is designed to do just what its title says: promote the design and construction of energy-efficient homes and commercial buildings. Homes in this case means traditional single-family homes, duplexes, condominiums, and apartment buildings having three or fewer stories. The U.S. Department of Energy, which played a key role in proposing the changes that resulted in the new code, is offering a free training course that covers the residential provisions of the 2006 IECC.

  9. Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A.; DuPrie, K.; Berriman, B.; Hanisch, R. J.; Mink, J.; Teuben, P. J.

    2013-10-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), founded in 1999, is a free on-line registry for source codes of interest to astronomers and astrophysicists. The library is housed on the discussion forum for Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) and can be accessed at http://ascl.net. The ASCL has a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used to generate results published in or submitted to refereed journals and continues to grow. The ASCL currently has entries for over 500 codes; its records are citable and are indexed by ADS. The editors of the ASCL and members of its Advisory Committee were on hand at a demonstration table in the ADASS poster room to present the ASCL, accept code submissions, show how the ASCL is starting to be used by the astrophysics community, and take questions on and suggestions for improving the resource.

  10. The analysis of convolutional codes via the extended Smith algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Onyszchuk, I.

    1993-01-01

    Convolutional codes have been the central part of most error-control systems in deep-space communication for many years. Almost all such applications, however, have used the restricted class of (n,1), also known as 'rate 1/n,' convolutional codes. The more general class of (n,k) convolutional codes contains many potentially useful codes, but their algebraic theory is difficult and has proved to be a stumbling block in the evolution of convolutional coding systems. In this article, the situation is improved by describing a set of practical algorithms for computing certain basic things about a convolutional code (among them the degree, the Forney indices, a minimal generator matrix, and a parity-check matrix), which are usually needed before a system using the code can be built. The approach is based on the classic Forney theory for convolutional codes, together with the extended Smith algorithm for polynomial matrices, which is introduced in this article.

  11. Model documentation: Electricity Market Module, Load and Demand-Side Management submodule. Volume 2, Model code listing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-07

    Volume II of the documentation contains the actual source code of the LDSM submodule, and the cross reference table of its variables. The code is divided into two parts. The first part contains the main part of the source code. The second part lists the INCLUDE files referenced inside the main part of the code.

  12. Certifying Auto-Generated Flight Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen

    2008-01-01

    Model-based design and automated code generation are being used increasingly at NASA. Many NASA projects now use MathWorks Simulink and Real-Time Workshop for at least some of their modeling and code development. However, there are substantial obstacles to more widespread adoption of code generators in safety-critical domains. Since code generators are typically not qualified, there is no guarantee that their output is correct, and consequently the generated code still needs to be fully tested and certified. Moreover, the regeneration of code can require complete recertification, which offsets many of the advantages of using a generator. Indeed, manual review of autocode can be more challenging than for hand-written code. Since the direct V&V of code generators is too laborious and complicated due to their complex (and often proprietary) nature, we have developed a generator plug-in to support the certification of the auto-generated code. Specifically, the AutoCert tool supports certification by formally verifying that the generated code is free of different safety violations, by constructing an independently verifiable certificate, and by explaining its analysis in a textual form suitable for code reviews. The generated documentation also contains substantial tracing information, allowing users to trace between model, code, documentation, and V&V artifacts. This enables missions to obtain assurance about the safety and reliability of the code without excessive manual V&V effort and, as a consequence, eases the acceptance of code generators in safety-critical contexts. The generation of explicit certificates and textual reports is particularly well-suited to supporting independent V&V. The primary contribution of this approach is the combination of human-friendly documentation with formal analysis. The key technical idea is to exploit the idiomatic nature of auto-generated code in order to automatically infer logical annotations. The annotation inference algorithm

  13. Results and code predictions for ABCOVE (aerosol behavior code validation and evaluation) aerosol code validation: Test AB6 with two aerosol species. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, R K; McCormack, J C; Muhlestein, L D

    1984-12-01

    A program for aerosol behavior code validation and evaluation (ABCOVE) has been developed in accordance with the LMFBR Safety Program Plan. The ABCOVE program is a cooperative effort between the USDOE, the USNRC, and their contractor organizations currently involved in aerosol code development, testing or application. The second large-scale test in the ABCOVE program, AB6, was performed in the 850-m/sup 3/ CSTF vessel with a two-species test aerosol. The test conditions simulated the release of a fission product aerosol, NaI, in the presence of a sodium spray fire. Five organizations made pretest predictions of aerosol behavior using seven computer codes. Three of the codes (QUICKM, MAEROS and CONTAIN) were discrete, multiple species codes, while four (HAA-3, HAA-4, HAARM-3 and SOFIA) were log-normal codes which assume uniform coagglomeration of different aerosol species. Detailed test results are presented and compared with the code predictions for seven key aerosol behavior parameters.

  14. DNA as a Binary Code: How the Physical Structure of Nucleotide Bases Carries Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallister, Gary

    2005-01-01

    The DNA triplet code also functions as a binary code. Because double-ring compounds cannot bind to double-ring compounds in the DNA code, the sequence of bases classified simply as purines or pyrimidines can encode for smaller groups of possible amino acids. This is an intuitive approach to teaching the DNA code. (Contains 6 figures.)

  15. Quantum convolutional codes derived from constacyclic codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Tingsu; Huang, Xinmei; Tang, Yuansheng

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, three families of quantum convolutional codes are constructed. The first one and the second one can be regarded as a generalization of Theorems 3, 4, 7 and 8 [J. Chen, J. Li, F. Yang and Y. Huang, Int. J. Theor. Phys., doi:10.1007/s10773-014-2214-6 (2014)], in the sense that we drop the constraint q ≡ 1 (mod 4). Furthermore, the second one and the third one attain the quantum generalized Singleton bound.

  16. Huffman coding in advanced audio coding standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzuchalski, Grzegorz

    2012-05-01

    This article presents several hardware architectures of Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) Huffman noiseless encoder, its optimisations and working implementation. Much attention has been paid to optimise the demand of hardware resources especially memory size. The aim of design was to get as short binary stream as possible in this standard. The Huffman encoder with whole audio-video system has been implemented in FPGA devices.

  17. Coded Modulation in C and MATLAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon; Andrews, Kenneth S.

    2011-01-01

    This software, written separately in C and MATLAB as stand-alone packages with equivalent functionality, implements encoders and decoders for a set of nine error-correcting codes and modulators and demodulators for five modulation types. The software can be used as a single program to simulate the performance of such coded modulation. The error-correcting codes implemented are the nine accumulate repeat-4 jagged accumulate (AR4JA) low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, which have been approved for international standardization by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, and which are scheduled to fly on a series of NASA missions in the Constellation Program. The software implements the encoder and decoder functions, and contains compressed versions of generator and parity-check matrices used in these operations.

  18. Documentation of the GLAS fourth order general circulation model. Volume 2: Scalar code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalnay, E.; Balgovind, R.; Chao, W.; Edelmann, D.; Pfaendtner, J.; Takacs, L.; Takano, K.

    1983-01-01

    Volume 2, of a 3 volume technical memoranda contains a detailed documentation of the GLAS fourth order general circulation model. Volume 2 contains the CYBER 205 scalar and vector codes of the model, list of variables, and cross references. A variable name dictionary for the scalar code, and code listings are outlined.

  19. Coded aperture computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kerkil; Brady, David J.

    2009-08-01

    Diverse physical measurements can be modeled by X-ray transforms. While X-ray tomography is the canonical example, reference structure tomography (RST) and coded aperture snapshot spectral imaging (CASSI) are examples of physically unrelated but mathematically equivalent sensor systems. Historically, most x-ray transform based systems sample continuous distributions and apply analytical inversion processes. On the other hand, RST and CASSI generate discrete multiplexed measurements implemented with coded apertures. This multiplexing of coded measurements allows for compression of measurements from a compressed sensing perspective. Compressed sensing (CS) is a revelation that if the object has a sparse representation in some basis, then a certain number, but typically much less than what is prescribed by Shannon's sampling rate, of random projections captures enough information for a highly accurate reconstruction of the object. This paper investigates the role of coded apertures in x-ray transform measurement systems (XTMs) in terms of data efficiency and reconstruction fidelity from a CS perspective. To conduct this, we construct a unified analysis using RST and CASSI measurement models. Also, we propose a novel compressive x-ray tomography measurement scheme which also exploits coding and multiplexing, and hence shares the analysis of the other two XTMs. Using this analysis, we perform a qualitative study on how coded apertures can be exploited to implement physical random projections by "regularizing" the measurement systems. Numerical studies and simulation results demonstrate several examples of the impact of coding.

  20. Report number codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  1. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs.

  2. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    PubMed Central

    Dandurand, Frédéric; Grainger, Jonathan; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Granier, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations) and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity. PMID:21734901

  3. Hanford Meteorological Station computer codes: Volume 1, The GEN computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, J.W.; Andrews, G.L.

    1987-07-01

    The Hanford Meteorological Station, operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, issues general weather forecasts twice a day. The GEN computer code is used to archive the 24-hour forecasts and apply quality assurance checks to the forecast data. This code accesses an input file, which contains the date and hour of the previous forecast, and an output file, which contains 24-hour forecasts for the current month. As part of the program, a data entry form consisting of 14 fields that describe various weather conditions must be filled in. The information on the form is appended to the current 24-hour monthly forecast file, which provides an archive for the 24-hour general weather forecasts. This report consists of several volumes documenting the various computer codes used at the Hanford Meteorological Station. This volume describes the implementation and operation of the GEN computer code at the station.

  4. Remote-Handled Transuranic Content Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2006-12-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR

  5. TRANSF code user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, H.J.

    1981-11-01

    The TRANSF code is a semi-interactive FORTRAN IV program which is designed to calculate the model parameters of a (structural) system by performing a least square parameter fit to measured transfer function data. The code is available at LLNL on both the 7600 and the Cray machines. The transfer function data to be fit is read into the code via a disk file. The primary mode of output is FR80 graphics, although, it is also possible to have results written to either the TTY or to a disk file.

  6. FLUKA: A Multi-Particle Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, A.; Sala, P.R.; Fasso, A.; Ranft, J.; /Siegen U.

    2005-12-14

    This report describes the 2005 version of the Fluka particle transport code. The first part introduces the basic notions, describes the modular structure of the system, and contains an installation and beginner's guide. The second part complements this initial information with details about the various components of Fluka and how to use them. It concludes with a detailed history and bibliography.

  7. ASME Code Calculations for the CC Cryostat

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, R.D.; /Fermilab

    1987-11-04

    This engineering note contains the ASHE Code calculations for the CC Cryostat prepared by the manufacturer, Richmond-Lox Equipment Company. Most of these were taken from calculations initially prepared by Fermilab personne1and pub1ished in Eng. Note 68.

  8. Identification coding schemes for modulated reflectance systems

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Don M.; Briles, Scott D.; Neagley, Daniel L.; Platts, David; Clark, David D.

    2006-08-22

    An identifying coding apparatus employing modulated reflectance technology involving a base station emitting a RF signal, with a tag, located remotely from the base station, and containing at least one antenna and predetermined other passive circuit components, receiving the RF signal and reflecting back to the base station a modulated signal indicative of characteristics related to the tag.

  9. Large-scale sodium spray fire code validation (SOFICOV) test

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    A large-scale, sodium, spray fire code validation test was performed in the HEDL 850-m/sup 3/ Containment System Test Facility (CSTF) as part of the Sodium Spray Fire Code Validation (SOFICOV) program. Six hundred fifty eight kilograms of sodium spray was sprayed in an air atmosphere for a period of 2400 s. The sodium spray droplet sizes and spray pattern distribution were estimated. The containment atmosphere temperature and pressure response, containment wall temperature response and sodium reaction rate with oxygen were measured. These results are compared to post-test predictions using SPRAY and NACOM computer codes.

  10. FORTRAN code-evaluation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capps, J. D.; Kleir, R.

    1977-01-01

    Automated code evaluation system can be used to detect coding errors and unsound coding practices in any ANSI FORTRAN IV source code before they can cause execution-time malfunctions. System concentrates on acceptable FORTRAN code features which are likely to produce undesirable results.

  11. FAST2 Code validation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.E.; Freeman, L.N.; Walker, S.N.

    1995-09-01

    The FAST2 Code which is capable of determining structural loads of a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data at two wind speeds for the ESI-80 are given. The FAST2 Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade flap, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffness, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST2 Code and test results is good.

  12. Compressible Astrophysics Simulation Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-07-18

    This is an astrophysics simulation code involving a radiation diffusion module developed at LLNL coupled to compressible hydrodynamics and adaptive mesh infrastructure developed at LBNL. One intended application is to neutrino diffusion in core collapse supernovae.

  13. VIPAR - Vortex Inflation PARachute Code Ver. 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, James; Homicz, Greg; Porter, Vicki; Burns, Shawn; Gassler, Albert

    2001-11-01

    VIPAR is a 3-D fluid mechanics code for predicting flow past bluff bodies whose surfaces can be assumed to be made up of shell elements that are simply connected. Version 1.0 of the code contains several first order algorithms, which we are already in the process of replacing with higher order ones. These enhancements will appear in the next version of VIPAR. The present code contains a motion generator, which can be used to produce large class of rigid body motions. The present code has also been fully coupled to a structural dynamics code in which the geometry undergoes large time dependent deformations. Initial surface geometry is generated from triangular shell elements using a code such as Patran and is written into an Exodusll data base file for subsequent input into VIPAR. Surface and wake variable information is output into two Exodusll files which can be processed and viewed using software such as EnSight.

  14. Seals Flow Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In recognition of a deficiency in the current modeling capability for seals, an effort was established by NASA to develop verified computational fluid dynamic concepts, codes, and analyses for seals. The objectives were to develop advanced concepts for the design and analysis of seals, to effectively disseminate the information to potential users by way of annual workshops, and to provide experimental verification for the models and codes under a wide range of operating conditions.

  15. Robust Nonlinear Neural Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qianli; Pitkow, Xaq

    2015-03-01

    Most interesting natural sensory stimuli are encoded in the brain in a form that can only be decoded nonlinearly. But despite being a core function of the brain, nonlinear population codes are rarely studied and poorly understood. Interestingly, the few existing models of nonlinear codes are inconsistent with known architectural features of the brain. In particular, these codes have information content that scales with the size of the cortical population, even if that violates the data processing inequality by exceeding the amount of information entering the sensory system. Here we provide a valid theory of nonlinear population codes by generalizing recent work on information-limiting correlations in linear population codes. Although these generalized, nonlinear information-limiting correlations bound the performance of any decoder, they also make decoding more robust to suboptimal computation, allowing many suboptimal decoders to achieve nearly the same efficiency as an optimal decoder. Although these correlations are extremely difficult to measure directly, particularly for nonlinear codes, we provide a simple, practical test by which one can use choice-related activity in small populations of neurons to determine whether decoding is suboptimal or optimal and limited by correlated noise. We conclude by describing an example computation in the vestibular system where this theory applies. QY and XP was supported by a grant from the McNair foundation.

  16. Oil and gas field code master list, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-16

    This document contains data collected through October 1993 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  17. CBP PHASE I CODE INTEGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.; Brown, K.; Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is to develop a reasonable and credible set of software tools to predict the structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cement barriers used in nuclear applications over extended time frames (greater than 100 years for operating facilities and greater than 1000 years for waste management). The simulation tools will be used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near surface engineered waste disposal systems including waste forms, containment structures, entombments, and environmental remediation. These cementitious materials are exposed to dynamic environmental conditions that cause changes in material properties via (i) aging, (ii) chloride attack, (iii) sulfate attack, (iv) carbonation, (v) oxidation, and (vi) primary constituent leaching. A set of state-of-the-art software tools has been selected as a starting point to capture these important aging and degradation phenomena. Integration of existing software developed by the CBP partner organizations was determined to be the quickest method of meeting the CBP goal of providing a computational tool that improves the prediction of the long-term behavior of cementitious materials. These partner codes were selected based on their maturity and ability to address the problems outlined above. The GoldSim Monte Carlo simulation program (GTG 2010a, GTG 2010b) was chosen as the code integration platform (Brown & Flach 2009b). GoldSim (current Version 10.5) is a Windows based graphical object-oriented computer program that provides a flexible environment for model development (Brown & Flach 2009b). The linking of GoldSim to external codes has previously been successfully demonstrated (Eary 2007, Mattie et al. 2007). GoldSim is capable of performing deterministic and probabilistic simulations and of modeling radioactive decay and constituent transport. As part of the CBP project, a general Dynamic Link Library (DLL) interface was

  18. The EGS5 Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Hirayama, Hideo; Namito, Yoshihito; Bielajew, Alex F.; Wilderman, Scott J.; U., Michigan; Nelson, Walter R.; /SLAC

    2005-12-20

    , a deliberate attempt was made to present example problems in order to help the user ''get started'', and we follow that spirit in this report. A series of elementary tutorial user codes are presented in Chapter 3, with more sophisticated sample user codes described in Chapter 4. Novice EGS users will find it helpful to read through the initial sections of the EGS5 User Manual (provided in Appendix B of this report), proceeding then to work through the tutorials in Chapter 3. The User Manuals and other materials found in the appendices contain detailed flow charts, variable lists, and subprogram descriptions of EGS5 and PEGS. Included are step-by-step instructions for developing basic EGS5 user codes and for accessing all of the physics options available in EGS5 and PEGS. Once acquainted with the basic structure of EGS5, users should find the appendices the most frequently consulted sections of this report.

  19. Explosive parcel containment and blast mitigation container

    DOEpatents

    Sparks, Michael H.

    2001-06-12

    The present invention relates to a containment structure for containing and mitigating explosions. The containment structure is installed in the wall of the building and has interior and exterior doors for placing suspicious packages into the containment structure and retrieving them from the exterior of the building. The containment structure has a blast deflection chute and a blowout panel to direct over pressure from explosions away from the building, surrounding structures and people.

  20. Codes with Parity Conditions on Subsets of Coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C.; Reichstein, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Binary codes with the constraint that the codes restricted to certain subsets of columns must be contained in particular codes of the shorter lengths are considered. In particular, codes of even length 2k, and of minimum distance approximately greater than d, where in the code obtained by restricting to the first k positions has even weight and at the same time the code obtained by restricting to the last k positions also has even weight are considered. If k = 2n, n odd, and d = 2n, it is proved that the code has at most 8n - 4 codewords, and 8n - 4 is attainable for n = 3. This permits a file-transfer protocol control function assignment for personal computers to be chosen for 20 control functions using essentially just pairs of upper-case alphabetic ASCII characters where the Hamming distance between the binary forms of every two different control functions is at least six.

  1. Preliminary design studies for the DESCARTES and CIDER codes

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, P.W.; Miley, T.B.; Ouderkirk, S.J.; Nichols, W.E.

    1992-12-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) project is developing several computer codes to model the release and transport of radionuclides into the environment. This preliminary design addresses two of these codes: Dynamic Estimates of Concentrations and Radionuclides in Terrestrial Environments (DESCARTES) and Calculation of Individual Doses from Environmental Radionuclides (CIDER). The DESCARTES code will be used to estimate the concentration of radionuclides in environmental pathways, given the output of the air transport code HATCHET. The CIDER code will use information provided by DESCARTES to estimate the dose received by an individual. This document reports on preliminary design work performed by the code development team to determine if the requirements could be met for Descartes and CIDER. The document contains three major sections: (i) a data flow diagram and discussion for DESCARTES, (ii) a data flow diagram and discussion for CIDER, and (iii) a series of brief statements regarding the design approach required to address each code requirement.

  2. Development of a CFD code for casting simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murph, Jesse E.

    1992-01-01

    The task of developing a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to accurately model the mold filling phase of a casting operation was accomplished in a systematic manner. First the state-of-the-art was determined through a literature search, a code search, and participation with casting industry personnel involved in consortium startups. From this material and inputs from industry personnel, an evaluation of the currently available codes was made. It was determined that a few of the codes already contained sophisticated CFD algorithms and further validation of one of these codes could preclude the development of a new CFD code for this purpose. With industry concurrence, ProCAST was chosen for further evaluation. Two benchmark cases were used to evaluate the code's performance using a Silicon Graphics Personal Iris system. The results of these limited evaluations (because of machine and time constraints) are presented along with discussions of possible improvements and recommendations for further evaluation.

  3. High-speed Viterbi decoding with overlapping code sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Michael D.; Osborne, William P.

    1993-01-01

    The Viterbi Algorithm for decoding convolutional codes and Trellis Coded Modulation is suited to VLSI implementation but contains a feedback loop which limits the speed of pipelined architecture. The feedback loop is circumvented by decoding independent sequences simultaneously, resulting in a 5-9 fold speed-up with a two-fold hardware expansion.

  4. Rationale for Student Dress Codes: A Review of School Handbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeburg, Elizabeth W.; Workman, Jane E.; Lentz-Hees, Elizabeth S.

    2004-01-01

    Through dress codes, schools establish rules governing student appearance. This study examined stated rationales for dress and appearance codes in secondary school handbooks; 182 handbooks were received. Of 150 handbooks containing a rationale, 117 related dress and appearance regulations to students' right to a non-disruptive educational…

  5. IGB grid: User's manual (A turbomachinery grid generation code)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, T. A.; Hoffman, G.

    1992-01-01

    A grid generation code called IGB is presented for use in computational investigations of turbomachinery flowfields. It contains a combination of algebraic and elliptic techniques coded for use on an interactive graphics workstation. The instructions for use and a test case are included.

  6. Software quality and process improvement in scientific simulation codes

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosiano, J.; Webster, R.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the quest to develope better simulation code quality through process modeling and improvement. This study is based on the experience of the authors and interviews with ten subjects chosen from simulation code development teams at LANL. This study is descriptive rather than scientific.

  7. 48 CFR 1801.105-1 - Publication and code arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... title 48, CFR. (iii) The single official NASA-maintained version of the NFS is on the Internet (http... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Publication and code....105-1 Publication and code arrangement. (b)(i) The NFS is an integrated document that contains...

  8. Prioritized LT Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Simon S.; Cheng, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    The original Luby Transform (LT) coding scheme is extended to account for data transmissions where some information symbols in a message block are more important than others. Prioritized LT codes provide unequal error protection (UEP) of data on an erasure channel by modifying the original LT encoder. The prioritized algorithm improves high-priority data protection without penalizing low-priority data recovery. Moreover, low-latency decoding is also obtained for high-priority data due to fast encoding. Prioritized LT codes only require a slight change in the original encoding algorithm, and no changes at all at the decoder. Hence, with a small complexity increase in the LT encoder, an improved UEP and low-decoding latency performance for high-priority data can be achieved. LT encoding partitions a data stream into fixed-sized message blocks each with a constant number of information symbols. To generate a code symbol from the information symbols in a message, the Robust-Soliton probability distribution is first applied in order to determine the number of information symbols to be used to compute the code symbol. Then, the specific information symbols are chosen uniform randomly from the message block. Finally, the selected information symbols are XORed to form the code symbol. The Prioritized LT code construction includes an additional restriction that code symbols formed by a relatively small number of XORed information symbols select some of these information symbols from the pool of high-priority data. Once high-priority data are fully covered, encoding continues with the conventional LT approach where code symbols are generated by selecting information symbols from the entire message block including all different priorities. Therefore, if code symbols derived from high-priority data experience an unusual high number of erasures, Prioritized LT codes can still reliably recover both high- and low-priority data. This hybrid approach decides not only "how to encode

  9. Coded source neutron imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2011-01-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100 m) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100um and 10um aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  10. Error coding simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1993-01-01

    There are various elements such as radio frequency interference (RFI) which may induce errors in data being transmitted via a satellite communication link. When a transmission is affected by interference or other error-causing elements, the transmitted data becomes indecipherable. It becomes necessary to implement techniques to recover from these disturbances. The objective of this research is to develop software which simulates error control circuits and evaluate the performance of these modules in various bit error rate environments. The results of the evaluation provide the engineer with information which helps determine the optimal error control scheme. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommends the use of Reed-Solomon (RS) and convolutional encoders and Viterbi and RS decoders for error correction. The use of forward error correction techniques greatly reduces the received signal to noise needed for a certain desired bit error rate. The use of concatenated coding, e.g. inner convolutional code and outer RS code, provides even greater coding gain. The 16-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code is recommended by CCSDS for error detection.

  11. Error coding simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1993-11-01

    There are various elements such as radio frequency interference (RFI) which may induce errors in data being transmitted via a satellite communication link. When a transmission is affected by interference or other error-causing elements, the transmitted data becomes indecipherable. It becomes necessary to implement techniques to recover from these disturbances. The objective of this research is to develop software which simulates error control circuits and evaluate the performance of these modules in various bit error rate environments. The results of the evaluation provide the engineer with information which helps determine the optimal error control scheme. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommends the use of Reed-Solomon (RS) and convolutional encoders and Viterbi and RS decoders for error correction. The use of forward error correction techniques greatly reduces the received signal to noise needed for a certain desired bit error rate. The use of concatenated coding, e.g. inner convolutional code and outer RS code, provides even greater coding gain. The 16-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code is recommended by CCSDS for error detection.

  12. Shadowfax: Moving mesh hydrodynamical integration code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbroucke, Bert

    2016-05-01

    Shadowfax simulates galaxy evolution. Written in object-oriented modular C++, it evolves a mixture of gas, subject to the laws of hydrodynamics and gravity, and any collisionless fluid only subject to gravity, such as cold dark matter or stars. For the hydrodynamical integration, it makes use of a (co-) moving Lagrangian mesh. The code has a 2D and 3D version, contains utility programs to generate initial conditions and visualize simulation snapshots, and its input/output is compatible with a number of other simulation codes, e.g. Gadget2 (ascl:0003.001) and GIZMO (ascl:1410.003).

  13. Health Code Number (HCN) Development Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Petrocchi, Rocky; Craig, Douglas K.; Bond, Jayne-Anne; Trott, Donna M.; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2013-09-01

    This report provides the detailed description of health code numbers (HCNs) and the procedure of how each HCN is assigned. It contains many guidelines and rationales of HCNs. HCNs are used in the chemical mixture methodology (CMM), a method recommended by the department of energy (DOE) for assessing health effects as a result of exposures to airborne aerosols in an emergency. The procedure is a useful tool for proficient HCN code developers. Intense training and quality assurance with qualified HCN developers are required before an individual comprehends the procedure to develop HCNs for DOE.

  14. The non-coding RNAs as riboregulators

    PubMed Central

    Erdmann, Volker A.; Barciszewska, Miroslawa Z.; Szymanski, Maciej; Hochberg, Abraham; Groot, Nathan de; Barciszewski, Jan

    2001-01-01

    The non-coding RNAs database (http://biobases.ibch.poznan.pl/ncRNA/) contains currently available data on RNAs, which do not have long open reading frames and act as riboregulators. Non-coding RNAs are involved in the specific recognition of cellular nucleic acid targets through complementary base pairing to control cell growth and differentiation. Some of them are connected with several well known developmental and neuro­behavioral disorders. We have divided them into four groups. This paper is a short introduction to the database and presents its latest, updated edition. PMID:11125087

  15. Phase-coded pulse aperiodic transmitter coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, I. I.; Vierinen, J.; Lehtinen, M. S.

    2009-07-01

    Both ionospheric and weather radar communities have already adopted the method of transmitting radar pulses in an aperiodic manner when measuring moderately overspread targets. Among the users of the ionospheric radars, this method is called Aperiodic Transmitter Coding (ATC), whereas the weather radar users have adopted the term Simultaneous Multiple Pulse-Repetition Frequency (SMPRF). When probing the ionosphere at the carrier frequencies of the EISCAT Incoherent Scatter Radar facilities, the range extent of the detectable target is typically of the order of one thousand kilometers - about seven milliseconds - whereas the characteristic correlation time of the scattered signal varies from a few milliseconds in the D-region to only tens of microseconds in the F-region. If one is interested in estimating the scattering autocorrelation function (ACF) at time lags shorter than the F-region correlation time, the D-region must be considered as a moderately overspread target, whereas the F-region is a severely overspread one. Given the technical restrictions of the radar hardware, a combination of ATC and phase-coded long pulses is advantageous for this kind of target. We evaluate such an experiment under infinitely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions using lag profile inversion. In addition, a qualitative evaluation under high-SNR conditions is performed by analysing simulated data. The results show that an acceptable estimation accuracy and a very good lag resolution in the D-region can be achieved with a pulse length long enough for simultaneous E- and F-region measurements with a reasonable lag extent. The new experiment design is tested with the EISCAT Tromsø VHF (224 MHz) radar. An example of a full D/E/F-region ACF from the test run is shown at the end of the paper.

  16. Seals Code Development Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler); Liang, Anita D. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    Seals Workshop of 1995 industrial code (INDSEAL) release include ICYL, GCYLT, IFACE, GFACE, SPIRALG, SPIRALI, DYSEAL, and KTK. The scientific code (SCISEAL) release includes conjugate heat transfer and multidomain with rotordynamic capability. Several seals and bearings codes (e.g., HYDROFLEX, HYDROTRAN, HYDROB3D, FLOWCON1, FLOWCON2) are presented and results compared. Current computational and experimental emphasis includes multiple connected cavity flows with goals of reducing parasitic losses and gas ingestion. Labyrinth seals continue to play a significant role in sealing with face, honeycomb, and new sealing concepts under investigation for advanced engine concepts in view of strict environmental constraints. The clean sheet approach to engine design is advocated with program directions and anticipated percentage SFC reductions cited. Future activities center on engine applications with coupled seal/power/secondary flow streams.

  17. Code query by example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  18. Code inspection instructional validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Kay; Stancil, Shirley

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Data Systems Branch (SDSB) of the Flight Data Systems Division (FDSD) at Johnson Space Center contracted with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to validate the effectiveness of an interactive video course on the code inspection process. The purpose of this project was to determine if this course could be effective for teaching NASA analysts the process of code inspection. In addition, NASA was interested in the effectiveness of this unique type of instruction (Digital Video Interactive), for providing training on software processes. This study found the Carnegie Mellon course, 'A Cure for the Common Code', effective for teaching the process of code inspection. In addition, analysts prefer learning with this method of instruction, or this method in combination with other methods. As is, the course is definitely better than no course at all; however, findings indicate changes are needed. Following are conclusions of this study. (1) The course is instructionally effective. (2) The simulation has a positive effect on student's confidence in his ability to apply new knowledge. (3) Analysts like the course and prefer this method of training, or this method in combination with current methods of training in code inspection, over the way training is currently being conducted. (4) Analysts responded favorably to information presented through scenarios incorporating full motion video. (5) Some course content needs to be changed. (6) Some content needs to be added to the course. SwRI believes this study indicates interactive video instruction combined with simulation is effective for teaching software processes. Based on the conclusions of this study, SwRI has outlined seven options for NASA to consider. SwRI recommends the option which involves creation of new source code and data files, but uses much of the existing content and design from the current course. Although this option involves a significant software development effort, SwRI believes this option

  19. Aeroacoustic Prediction Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P; Mani, R.; Shin, H.; Mitchell, B.; Ashford, G.; Salamah, S.; Connell, S.; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes work performed on Contract NAS3-27720AoI 13 as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction Technology effort. Computer codes were developed to provide quantitative prediction, design, and analysis capability for several aircraft engine noise sources. The objective was to provide improved, physics-based tools for exploration of noise-reduction concepts and understanding of experimental results. Methods and codes focused on fan broadband and 'buzz saw' noise and on low-emissions combustor noise and compliment work done by other contractors under the NASA AST program to develop methods and codes for fan harmonic tone noise and jet noise. The methods and codes developed and reported herein employ a wide range of approaches, from the strictly empirical to the completely computational, with some being semiempirical analytical, and/or analytical/computational. Emphasis was on capturing the essential physics while still considering method or code utility as a practical design and analysis tool for everyday engineering use. Codes and prediction models were developed for: (1) an improved empirical correlation model for fan rotor exit flow mean and turbulence properties, for use in predicting broadband noise generated by rotor exit flow turbulence interaction with downstream stator vanes: (2) fan broadband noise models for rotor and stator/turbulence interaction sources including 3D effects, noncompact-source effects. directivity modeling, and extensions to the rotor supersonic tip-speed regime; (3) fan multiple-pure-tone in-duct sound pressure prediction methodology based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis; and (4) low-emissions combustor prediction methodology and computer code based on CFD and actuator disk theory. In addition. the relative importance of dipole and quadrupole source mechanisms was studied using direct CFD source computation for a simple cascadeigust interaction problem, and an empirical combustor

  20. Securing mobile code.

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called 'white-boxing'. We put forth some new attacks and improvements

  1. Analyses of containment structures with corrosion damage

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Corrosion damage to a nuclear power plant containment structure can degrade the pressure capacity of the vessel. For the low-carbon, low- strength steels used in containments, the effect of corrosion on material properties is discussed. Strain-to-failure tests, in uniaxial tension, have been performed on corroded material samples. Results were used to select strain-based failure criteria for corroded steel. Using the ABAQUS finite element analysis code, the capacity of a typical PWR Ice Condenser containment with corrosion damage has been studied. Multiple analyses were performed with the locations of the corrosion the containment, and the amount of corrosion varied in each analysis.

  2. Marriage Code, 14 May 1987.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The Marriage Code of Sweden was adopted on 14 May 1987. Part 1 contains general provisions regarding marriage. Part 2 deals with issues concerning entry into and dissolution of marriage, including impediments to marriage, age requirements, situations which require the consent of a guardian, situations which require governmental permission (the marriage of half brothers and sisters), procedures for inquiries into impediments to marriage, and conditions governing divorce. Part 3 covers the financial relations of spouses and deals with issues such as spousal support, support following a divorce, the property of spouses, provisions on the division of property upon dissolution of a marriage, the scope of property division, determination of spouses' shares and portions in the case of division, adjustment of property division, and the effects of property division. Part 4 sets out the procedures to be followed in cases of divorce and cases concerning maintenance. PMID:12344479

  3. 7 CFR 42.110 - Sampling plans for tightened condition of container inspection; Tables II and II-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF... Container Inspection Code Lot size ranges—Number of containers in lot Type of Plan Acceptable quality...

  4. Automatic Certification of Kalman Filters for Reliable Code Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd; Schumann, Johann; Richardson, Julian

    2005-01-01

    AUTOFILTER is a tool for automatically deriving Kalman filter code from high-level declarative specifications of state estimation problems. It can generate code with a range of algorithmic characteristics and for several target platforms. The tool has been designed with reliability of the generated code in mind and is able to automatically certify that the code it generates is free from various error classes. Since documentation is an important part of software assurance, AUTOFILTER can also automatically generate various human-readable documents, containing both design and safety related information. We discuss how these features address software assurance standards such as DO-178B.

  5. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  6. Multiple trellis coded modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A technique for designing trellis codes to minimize bit error performance for a fading channel. The invention provides a criteria which may be used in the design of such codes which is significantly different from that used for average white Gaussian noise channels. The method of multiple trellis coded modulation of the present invention comprises the steps of: (a) coding b bits of input data into s intermediate outputs; (b) grouping said s intermediate outputs into k groups of s.sub.i intermediate outputs each where the summation of all s.sub.i,s is equal to s and k is equal to at least 2; (c) mapping each of said k groups of intermediate outputs into one of a plurality of symbols in accordance with a plurality of modulation schemes, one for each group such that the first group is mapped in accordance with a first modulation scheme and the second group is mapped in accordance with a second modulation scheme; and (d) outputting each of said symbols to provide k output symbols for each b bits of input data.

  7. Code of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Sociological Association, Washington, DC.

    The American Sociological Association's code of ethics for sociologists is presented. For sociological research and practice, 10 requirements for ethical behavior are identified, including: maintaining objectivity and integrity; fully reporting findings and research methods, without omission of significant data; reporting fully all sources of…

  8. Sharing the Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Florence

    2003-01-01

    Colleges and universities are beginning to consider collaborating on open-source-code projects as a way to meet critical software and computing needs. Points out the attractive features of noncommercial open-source software and describes some examples in use now, especially for the creation of Web infrastructure. (SLD)

  9. The Redox Code

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dean P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The redox code is a set of principles that defines the positioning of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, NADP) and thiol/disulfide and other redox systems as well as the thiol redox proteome in space and time in biological systems. The code is richly elaborated in an oxygen-dependent life, where activation/deactivation cycles involving O2 and H2O2 contribute to spatiotemporal organization for differentiation, development, and adaptation to the environment. Disruption of this organizational structure during oxidative stress represents a fundamental mechanism in system failure and disease. Recent Advances: Methodology in assessing components of the redox code under physiological conditions has progressed, permitting insight into spatiotemporal organization and allowing for identification of redox partners in redox proteomics and redox metabolomics. Critical Issues: Complexity of redox networks and redox regulation is being revealed step by step, yet much still needs to be learned. Future Directions: Detailed knowledge of the molecular patterns generated from the principles of the redox code under defined physiological or pathological conditions in cells and organs will contribute to understanding the redox component in health and disease. Ultimately, there will be a scientific basis to a modern redox medicine. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 734–746. PMID:25891126

  10. Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC)is a state-of-the-art hydrodynamic model that can be used to simulate aquatic systems in one, two, and three dimensions. It has evolved over the past two decades to become one of the most widely used and technically defensible hydrodyn...

  11. Heuristic dynamic complexity coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škorupa, Jozef; Slowack, Jürgen; Mys, Stefaan; Lambert, Peter; Van de Walle, Rik

    2008-04-01

    Distributed video coding is a new video coding paradigm that shifts the computational intensive motion estimation from encoder to decoder. This results in a lightweight encoder and a complex decoder, as opposed to the predictive video coding scheme (e.g., MPEG-X and H.26X) with a complex encoder and a lightweight decoder. Both schemas, however, do not have the ability to adapt to varying complexity constraints imposed by encoder and decoder, which is an essential ability for applications targeting a wide range of devices with different complexity constraints or applications with temporary variable complexity constraints. Moreover, the effect of complexity adaptation on the overall compression performance is of great importance and has not yet been investigated. To address this need, we have developed a video coding system with the possibility to adapt itself to complexity constraints by dynamically sharing the motion estimation computations between both components. On this system we have studied the effect of the complexity distribution on the compression performance. This paper describes how motion estimation can be shared using heuristic dynamic complexity and how distribution of complexity affects the overall compression performance of the system. The results show that the complexity can indeed be shared between encoder and decoder in an efficient way at acceptable rate-distortion performance.

  12. Code of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of College Unions-International, Bloomington, IN.

    The code of ethics for the college union and student activities professional is presented by the Association of College Unions-International. The preamble identifies the objectives of the college union as providing campus community centers and social programs that enhance the quality of life for members of the academic community. Ethics for…

  13. Dual Coding in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, John K.; Wildman, Terry M.

    The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the dual coding hypothesis to children's recall performance. The hypothesis predicts that visual interference will have a small effect on the recall of visually presented words or pictures, but that acoustic interference will cause a decline in recall of visually presented words and…

  14. The revised genetic code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninio, Jacques

    1990-03-01

    Recent findings on the genetic code are reviewed, including selenocysteine usage, deviations in the assignments of sense and nonsense codons, RNA editing, natural ribosomal frameshifts and non-orthodox codon-anticodon pairings. A multi-stage codon reading process is presented.

  15. Dress Codes and Uniforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda; Miller, Gabriel

    2002-01-01

    Students do not always make choices that adults agree with in their choice of school dress. Dress-code issues are explored in this Research Roundup, and guidance is offered to principals seeking to maintain a positive school climate. In "Do School Uniforms Fit?" Kerry White discusses arguments for and against school uniforms and summarizes the…

  16. Code Optimization Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    MAGEE,GLEN I.

    2000-08-03

    Computers transfer data in a number of different ways. Whether through a serial port, a parallel port, over a modem, over an ethernet cable, or internally from a hard disk to memory, some data will be lost. To compensate for that loss, numerous error detection and correction algorithms have been developed. One of the most common error correction codes is the Reed-Solomon code, which is a special subset of BCH (Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem) linear cyclic block codes. In the AURA project, an unmanned aircraft sends the data it collects back to earth so it can be analyzed during flight and possible flight modifications made. To counter possible data corruption during transmission, the data is encoded using a multi-block Reed-Solomon implementation with a possibly shortened final block. In order to maximize the amount of data transmitted, it was necessary to reduce the computation time of a Reed-Solomon encoding to three percent of the processor's time. To achieve such a reduction, many code optimization techniques were employed. This paper outlines the steps taken to reduce the processing time of a Reed-Solomon encoding and the insight into modern optimization techniques gained from the experience.

  17. Codes of practice and related issues in biomedical waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Moy, D.; Watt, C.

    1996-12-31

    This paper outlines the development of a National Code of Practice for biomedical waste management in Australia. The 10 key areas addressed by the code are industry mission statement; uniform terms and definitions; community relations - public perceptions and right to know; generation, source separation, and handling; storage requirements; transportation; treatment and disposal; disposal of solid and liquid residues and air emissions; occupational health and safety; staff awareness and education. A comparison with other industry codes in Australia is made. A list of outstanding issues is also provided; these include the development of standard containers, treatment effectiveness, and reusable sharps containers.

  18. OncodriveFML: a general framework to identify coding and non-coding regions with cancer driver mutations.

    PubMed

    Mularoni, Loris; Sabarinathan, Radhakrishnan; Deu-Pons, Jordi; Gonzalez-Perez, Abel; López-Bigas, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Distinguishing the driver mutations from somatic mutations in a tumor genome is one of the major challenges of cancer research. This challenge is more acute and far from solved for non-coding mutations. Here we present OncodriveFML, a method designed to analyze the pattern of somatic mutations across tumors in both coding and non-coding genomic regions to identify signals of positive selection, and therefore, their involvement in tumorigenesis. We describe the method and illustrate its usefulness to identify protein-coding genes, promoters, untranslated regions, intronic splice regions, and lncRNAs-containing driver mutations in several malignancies. PMID:27311963

  19. 78 FR 24725 - National Fire Codes: Request for Public Input for Revision of Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Codes: Request for Public Input for Revision...: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice contains the list of National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) documents... Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is publishing this notice on behalf of the National...

  20. 77 FR 67628 - National Fire Codes: Request for Public Input for Revision of Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Codes: Request for Public Input for Revision...: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice contains the list of National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) documents... Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is publishing this notice on behalf of the National...

  1. Propagation of Reactions in Thermally-damaged PBX-9501

    SciTech Connect

    Tringe, J W; Glascoe, E A; Kercher, J R; Willey, T M; Springer, H K; Greenwood, D W; Molitoris, J D; Smilowitz, L; Henson, B F; Maienschein, J L

    2010-03-05

    A thermally-initiated explosion in PBX-9501 (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) is observed in situ by flash x-ray imaging, and modeled with the LLNL multi-physics arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian code ALE3D. The containment vessel deformation provides a useful estimate of the reaction pressure at the time of the explosion, which we calculate to be in the range 0.8-1.4 GPa. Closely-coupled ALE3D simulations of these experiments, utilizing the multi-phase convective burn model, provide detailed predictions of the reacted mass fraction and deflagration front acceleration. During the preinitiation heating phase of these experiments, the solid HMX portion of the PBX-9501 undergoes a {beta}-phase to {delta}-phase transition which damages the explosive and induces porosity. The multi-phase convective burn model results demonstrate that damaged particle size and pressure are critical for predicting reaction speed and violence. In the model, energetic parameters are taken from LLNL's thermochemical-kinetics code Cheetah and burn rate parameters from Son et al. (2000). Model predictions of an accelerating deflagration front are in qualitative agreement with the experimental images assuming a mode particle diameter in the range 300-400 {micro}m. There is uncertainty in the initial porosity caused by thermal damage of PBX-9501 and, thus, the effective surface area for burning. To better understand these structures, we employ x-ray computed tomography (XRCT) to examine the microstructure of PBX-9501 before and after thermal damage. Although lack of contrast between grains and binder prevents the determination of full grain size distribution in this material, there are many domains visible in thermally damaged PBX-9501 with diameters in the 300-400 {micro}m range.

  2. Aluminum Rayleigh Taylor Strength Measurements and Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Lindquist, M J; Cavallo, R M; Lorenz, K T; Pollaine, S M; Remington, B A; Raevsky, V A

    2007-01-10

    A traditional approach to the study of material strength has been revitalized at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center (VNIIEF). Rayleigh Taylor strength experiments have long been utilized to measure the material response of metals at high pressure and strain rates. A modulated (sinusoidal or sawtooth perturbation) surface is shocklessly (quasi-isentropically) accelerated by a high explosive (HE) driver, and radiography is used to measure the perturbation amplitude as a function of time. The Aluminum T-6061 targets are designed with several sets of two-dimensional sawtooth perturbations machined on the loading surface. The HE driver was designed to reach peak pressures in the range of 200 to 300 kbar and strain rates in the range of 10{sup 4} - 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. The standard constitutive strength models, Steinberg-Guinan (SG) [1], Steinberg-Lund (SL) [2], Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) [3], Johnson-Cooke (JC) [4], and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) [5], have been calibrated by traditional techniques: (Hopkinson-Bar, Taylor impact, flyer plate/shock-driven experiments). The VNIIEF experimental series accesses a strain rate regime not attainable using traditional methods. We have performed a detailed numerical study with a two-dimensional Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian hydrodynamics computer code containing several constitutive strength models to predict the perturbation growth. Results show that the capabilities of the computational methodology predict the amplitude growth to within 5 percent of the measured data, thus validating both the code and the strength models under the given conditions and setting the stage for credible future design work using different materials.

  3. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.; Almenas, K.

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  4. Binary coding for hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Chang, Chein-I.; Chang, Chein-Chi; Lin, Chinsu

    2004-10-01

    Binary coding is one of simplest ways to characterize spectral features. One commonly used method is a binary coding-based image software system, called Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) for remotely sensed imagery developed by Mazer et al. For a given spectral signature, the SPAM calculates its spectral mean and inter-band spectral difference and uses them as thresholds to generate a binary code word for this particular spectral signature. Such coding scheme is generally effective and also very simple to implement. This paper revisits the SPAM and further develops three new SPAM-based binary coding methods, called equal probability partition (EPP) binary coding, halfway partition (HP) binary coding and median partition (MP) binary coding. These three binary coding methods along with the SPAM well be evaluated for spectral discrimination and identification. In doing so, a new criterion, called a posteriori discrimination probability (APDP) is also introduced for performance measure.

  5. Implementation and Validation of the BHR Turbulence Model in the FLAG Hydrocode

    SciTech Connect

    Denissen, Nicholas A.; Fung, Jimmy; Reisner, Jon M.; Andrews, Malcolm J.

    2012-08-29

    The BHR-2 turbulence model, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for variable density and compressible flows, is implemented in an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian hydrocode, FLAG. The BHR-2 formulation is discussed, with emphasis on its connection to multi-component flow formulations that underlie FLAG's treatment of multi-species flow. One-dimensional and two-dimensional validation tests are performed and compared to experiment and Eulerian simulations. Turbulence is an often studied and ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, and modeling its effects is essential in many practical applications. Specifically the behavior of turbulence in the presence of strong density gradients and compressibility is of fundamental importance in applications ranging from Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) [1], supernovae [2], and atmospheric flows. The BHR closure approach [3] seeks to model the physical processes at work in variable density turbulence including Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) [4], Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) [5], and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) [6], driven turbulence. The effectiveness of the BHR-2 implementation has been demonstrated for variable density mixing in the KH, RT, and RM cases in an Eulerian framework [7]. The primary motivation of the present work is to implement the BHR-2 turbulence model in the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamics code FLAG. The goal is not only to demonstrate results in agreement with previous Eulerian calculations, but also document behavior that arises from the underlying differences in code philosophy.

  6. H/sup 0/ precessor computer code

    SciTech Connect

    van Dyck, O.B.; Floyd, R.A.

    1981-05-01

    A spin precessor using H/sup -/ to H/sup 0/ stripping, followed by small precession magnets, has been developed for the LAMPF 800-MeV polarized H/sup -/ beam. The performance of the system was studied with the computer code documented in this report. The report starts from the fundamental physics of a system of spins with hyperfine coupling in a magnetic field and contains many examples of beam behavior as calculated by the program.

  7. Sinusoidal transform coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaulay, Robert J.; Quatieri, Thomas F.

    1988-01-01

    It has been shown that an analysis/synthesis system based on a sinusoidal representation of speech leads to synthetic speech that is essentially perceptually indistinguishable from the original. Strategies for coding the amplitudes, frequencies and phases of the sine waves have been developed that have led to a multirate coder operating at rates from 2400 to 9600 bps. The encoded speech is highly intelligible at all rates with a uniformly improving quality as the data rate is increased. A real-time fixed-point implementation has been developed using two ADSP2100 DSP chips. The methods used for coding and quantizing the sine-wave parameters for operation at the various frame rates are described.

  8. Finite Element Analysis Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-03-08

    MAPVAR-KD is designed to transfer solution results from one finite element mesh to another. MAPVAR-KD draws heavily from the structure and coding of MERLIN II, but it employs a new finite element data base, EXODUS II, and offers enhanced speed and new capabilities not available in MERLIN II. In keeping with the MERLIN II documentation, the computational algorithms used in MAPVAR-KD are described. User instructions are presented. Example problems are included to demonstrate the operationmore » of the code and the effects of various input options. MAPVAR-KD is a modification of MAPVAR in which the search algorithm was replaced by a kd-tree-based search for better performance on large problems.« less

  9. Confocal coded aperture imaging

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2001-01-01

    A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

  10. CTI Correction Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Richard; Stoughton, Chris; Leauthaud, Alexie; Rhodes, Jason; Koekemoer, Anton; Ellis, Richard; Shaghoulian, Edgar

    2013-07-01

    Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI) due to radiation damage above the Earth's atmosphere creates spurious trailing in images from Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) imaging detectors. Radiation damage also creates unrelated warm pixels, which can be used to measure CTI. This code provides pixel-based correction for CTI and has proven effective in Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys raw images, successfully reducing the CTI trails by a factor of ~30 everywhere in the CCD and at all flux levels. The core is written in java for speed, and a front-end user interface is provided in IDL. The code operates on raw data by returning individual electrons to pixels from which they were unintentionally dragged during readout. Correction takes about 25 minutes per ACS exposure, but is trivially parallelisable to multiple processors.

  11. Status of MARS Code

    SciTech Connect

    N.V. Mokhov

    2003-04-09

    Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

  12. VAC: Versatile Advection Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Gábor; Keppens, Rony

    2012-07-01

    The Versatile Advection Code (VAC) is a freely available general hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulation software that works in 1, 2 or 3 dimensions on Cartesian and logically Cartesian grids. VAC runs on any Unix/Linux system with a Fortran 90 (or 77) compiler and Perl interpreter. VAC can run on parallel machines using either the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library or a High Performance Fortran (HPF) compiler.

  13. Reeds computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjork, C.

    1981-01-01

    The REEDS (rocket exhaust effluent diffusion single layer) computer code is used for the estimation of certain rocket exhaust effluent concentrations and dosages and their distributions near the Earth's surface following a rocket launch event. Output from REEDS is used in producing near real time air quality and environmental assessments of the effects of certain potentially harmful effluents, namely HCl, Al2O3, CO, and NO.

  14. Bar coded retroreflective target

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  15. Suboptimum decoding of block codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Kasami, Tadao

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates a class of decomposable codes, their distance and structural properties. it is shown that this class includes several classes of well known and efficient codes as subclasses. Several methods for constructing decomposable codes or decomposing codes are presented. A two-stage soft decision decoding scheme for decomposable codes, their translates or unions of translates is devised. This two-stage soft-decision decoding is suboptimum, and provides an excellent trade-off between the error performance and decoding complexity for codes of moderate and long block length.

  16. Preliminary Assessment of Turbomachinery Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumder, Quamrul H.

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses different CFD codes developed and currently being used at Glenn Research Center to predict turbomachinery fluid flow and heat transfer behavior. This report will consider the following codes: APNASA, TURBO, GlennHT, H3D, and SWIFT. Each code will be described separately in the following section with their current modeling capabilities, level of validation, pre/post processing, and future development and validation requirements. This report addresses only previously published and validations of the codes. However, the codes have been further developed to extend the capabilities of the codes.

  17. Structural coding versus free-energy predictive coding.

    PubMed

    van der Helm, Peter A

    2016-06-01

    Focusing on visual perceptual organization, this article contrasts the free-energy (FE) version of predictive coding (a recent Bayesian approach) to structural coding (a long-standing representational approach). Both use free-energy minimization as metaphor for processing in the brain, but their formal elaborations of this metaphor are fundamentally different. FE predictive coding formalizes it by minimization of prediction errors, whereas structural coding formalizes it by minimization of the descriptive complexity of predictions. Here, both sides are evaluated. A conclusion regarding competence is that FE predictive coding uses a powerful modeling technique, but that structural coding has more explanatory power. A conclusion regarding performance is that FE predictive coding-though more detailed in its account of neurophysiological data-provides a less compelling cognitive architecture than that of structural coding, which, for instance, supplies formal support for the computationally powerful role it attributes to neuronal synchronization. PMID:26407895

  18. Convolutional coding techniques for data protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of research on the use of convolutional codes in data communications are presented. Convolutional coding fundamentals are discussed along with modulation and coding interaction. Concatenated coding systems and data compression with convolutional codes are described.

  19. Combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Curto, Carina; Itskov, Vladimir; Morrison, Katherine; Roth, Zachary; Walker, Judy L

    2013-07-01

    Shannon's seminal 1948 work gave rise to two distinct areas of research: information theory and mathematical coding theory. While information theory has had a strong influence on theoretical neuroscience, ideas from mathematical coding theory have received considerably less attention. Here we take a new look at combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective, examining the error correction capabilities of familiar receptive field codes (RF codes). We find, perhaps surprisingly, that the high levels of redundancy present in these codes do not support accurate error correction, although the error-correcting performance of receptive field codes catches up to that of random comparison codes when a small tolerance to error is introduced. However, receptive field codes are good at reflecting distances between represented stimuli, while the random comparison codes are not. We suggest that a compromise in error-correcting capability may be a necessary price to pay for a neural code whose structure serves not only error correction, but must also reflect relationships between stimuli. PMID:23724797

  20. Reliability of ICD-10 external cause of death codes in the National Coroners Information System.

    PubMed

    Bugeja, Lyndal; Clapperton, Angela J; Killian, Jessica J; Stephan, Karen L; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Availability of ICD-10 cause of death codes in the National Coroners Information System (NCIS) strengthens its value as a public health surveillance tool. This study quantified the completeness of external cause ICD-10 codes in the NCIS for Victorian deaths (as assigned by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) in the yearly Cause of Death data). It also examined the concordance between external cause ICD-10 codes contained in the NCIS and a re-code of the same deaths conducted by an independent coder. Of 7,400 NCIS external cause deaths included in this study, 961 (13.0%) did not contain an ABS assigned ICD-10 code and 225 (3.0%) contained only a natural cause code. Where an ABS assigned external cause ICD-10 code was present (n=6,214), 4,397 (70.8%) matched exactly with the independently assigned ICD-10 code. Coding disparity primarily related to differences in assignment of intent and specificity. However, in a small number of deaths (n=49, 0.8%) there was coding disparity for both intent and external cause category. NCIS users should be aware of the limitations of relying only on ICD-10 codes contained within the NCIS for deaths prior to 2007 and consider using these in combination with the other NCIS data fields and code sets to ensure optimum case identification. PMID:21041843

  1. 41 CFR 102-36.355 - What are the FSCAP Criticality Codes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Criticality Codes? 102-36.355 Section 102-36.355 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Parts § 102-36.355 What are the FSCAP Criticality Codes? The FSCAP Criticality Codes are contained in... nuclear hardened. F Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Part....

  2. 41 CFR 102-36.355 - What are the FSCAP Criticality Codes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Criticality Codes? 102-36.355 Section 102-36.355 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Parts § 102-36.355 What are the FSCAP Criticality Codes? The FSCAP Criticality Codes are contained in... nuclear hardened. F Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Part....

  3. 41 CFR 102-36.355 - What are the FSCAP Criticality Codes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Criticality Codes? 102-36.355 Section 102-36.355 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Parts § 102-36.355 What are the FSCAP Criticality Codes? The FSCAP Criticality Codes are contained in... nuclear hardened. F Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Part....

  4. 41 CFR 102-36.355 - What are the FSCAP Criticality Codes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Criticality Codes? 102-36.355 Section 102-36.355 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Parts § 102-36.355 What are the FSCAP Criticality Codes? The FSCAP Criticality Codes are contained in... nuclear hardened. F Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Part....

  5. DNA: Polymer and molecular code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivashankar, G. V.

    1999-10-01

    gene expression a prime example of a biological code. We developed a novel method of making DNA micro- arrays, the so-called DNA chip. Using the optical tweezer concept, we were able to pattern biomolecules on a solid substrate, developing a new type of sub-micron laser lithography. A laser beam is focused onto a thin gold film on a glass substrate. Laser ablation of gold results in local aggregation of nanometer scale beads conjugated with small DNA oligonucleotides, with sub-micron resolution. This leads to specific detection of cDNA and RNA molecules. We built a simple micro-array fabrication and detection in the laboratory, based on this method, to probe addressable pools (genes, proteins or antibodies). We have lately used molecular beacons (single stranded DNA with a stem-loop structure containing a fluorophore and quencher), for the direct detection of unlabelled mRNA. As a first step towards a study of the dynamics of the biological code, we have begun to examine the patterns of gene expression during virus (T7 phage) infection of E-coli bacteria.

  6. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 520 - Standard Terminology and Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Measure M Thousand Board Feet MBF Per Container PC Weight W Weight/Measure WM G. Container Size Codes: Not... HH Hardtop HT Insulated IN Open Top OT Dry PC Platform PL Reefer RE Tank TC Top Loader TL Trailer...

  7. On lossless coding for HEVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wen; Jiang, Minqiang; Yu, Haoping

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we first review the lossless coding mode in the version 1 of the HEVC standard that has recently finalized. We then provide a performance comparison between the lossless coding mode in the HEVC and MPEG-AVC/H.264 standards and show that the HEVC lossless coding has limited coding efficiency. To improve the performance of the lossless coding mode, several new coding tools that were contributed to JCT-VC but not adopted in version 1 of HEVC standard are introduced. In particular, we discuss sample based intra prediction and coding of residual coefficients in more detail. At the end, we briefly address a new class of coding tools, i.e., a dictionary-based coder, that is efficient in encoding screen content including graphics and text.

  8. Hanford meteorological station computer codes: Volume 9, The quality assurance computer codes

    SciTech Connect

    Burk, K.W.; Andrews, G.L.

    1989-02-01

    The Hanford Meteorological Station (HMS) was established in 1944 on the Hanford Site to collect and archive meteorological data and provide weather forecasts and related services for Hanford Site approximately 1/2 mile east of the 200 West Area and is operated by PNL for the US Department of Energy. Meteorological data are collected from various sensors and equipment located on and off the Hanford Site. These data are stored in data bases on the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAX 11/750 at the HMS (hereafter referred to as the HMS computer). Files from those data bases are routinely transferred to the Emergency Management System (EMS) computer at the Unified Dose Assessment Center (UDAC). To ensure the quality and integrity of the HMS data, a set of Quality Assurance (QA) computer codes has been written. The codes will be routinely used by the HMS system manager or the data base custodian. The QA codes provide detailed output files that will be used in correcting erroneous data. The following sections in this volume describe the implementation and operation of QA computer codes. The appendices contain detailed descriptions, flow charts, and source code listings of each computer code. 2 refs.

  9. Noiseless Coding Of Magnetometer Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Robert F.; Lee, Jun-Ji

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses application of noiseless data-compression coding to digitized readings of spaceborne magnetometers for transmission back to Earth. Objective of such coding to increase efficiency by decreasing rate of transmission without sacrificing integrity of data. Adaptive coding compresses data by factors ranging from 2 to 6.

  10. Energy Codes and Standards: Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Shankle, Diana L.

    2007-01-01

    Energy codes and standards play a vital role in the marketplace by setting minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction. They outline uniform requirements for new buildings as well as additions and renovations. This article covers basic knowledge of codes and standards; development processes of each; adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy codes and standards; and voluntary energy efficiency programs.

  11. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  12. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  13. Ethical Codes in the Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeiser, Cynthia B.

    1992-01-01

    Whether the measurement profession should consider developing and adopting a code of professional conduct is explored after a brief review of existing references to standards of conduct and a review of other professional codes. Issues include the need for a code of ethics, its usefulness, and its enforcement. (SLD)

  14. Finite Element Analysis Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-05-07

    CONEX is a code for joining sequentially in time multiple exodusll database files which all represent the same base mesh topology and geometry. It is used to create a single results or restart file from multiple results or restart files which typically arise as the result of multiple restarted analyses. CONEX is used to postprocess the results from a series of finite element analyses. It can join sequentially the data from multiple results databases intomore » a single database which makes it easier to postprocess the results data.« less

  15. Finite Element Analysis Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-06-26

    Exotxt is an analysis code that reads finite element results data stored in an exodusII file and generates a file in a structured text format. The text file can be edited or modified via a number of text formatting tools. Exotxt is used by analysis to translate data from the binary exodusII format into a structured text format which can then be edited or modified and then either translated back to exodusII format or tomore » another format.« less

  16. Low Density Parity Check Codes: Bandwidth Efficient Channel Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Wai; Lin, Shu; Maki, Gary; Yeh, Pen-Shu

    2003-01-01

    Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Codes provide near-Shannon Capacity performance for NASA Missions. These codes have high coding rates R=0.82 and 0.875 with moderate code lengths, n=4096 and 8176. Their decoders have inherently parallel structures which allows for high-speed implementation. Two codes based on Euclidean Geometry (EG) were selected for flight ASIC implementation. These codes are cyclic and quasi-cyclic in nature and therefore have a simple encoder structure. This results in power and size benefits. These codes also have a large minimum distance as much as d,,, = 65 giving them powerful error correcting capabilities and error floors less than lo- BER. This paper will present development of the LDPC flight encoder and decoder, its applications and status.

  17. Structured error recovery for code-word-stabilized quantum codes

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yunfan; Dumer, Ilya; Grassl, Markus; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2010-05-15

    Code-word-stabilized (CWS) codes are, in general, nonadditive quantum codes that can correct errors by an exhaustive search of different error patterns, similar to the way that we decode classical nonlinear codes. For an n-qubit quantum code correcting errors on up to t qubits, this brute-force approach consecutively tests different errors of weight t or less and employs a separate n-qubit measurement in each test. In this article, we suggest an error grouping technique that allows one to simultaneously test large groups of errors in a single measurement. This structured error recovery technique exponentially reduces the number of measurements by about 3{sup t} times. While it still leaves exponentially many measurements for a generic CWS code, the technique is equivalent to syndrome-based recovery for the special case of additive CWS codes.

  18. Measuring Diagnoses: ICD Code Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Kimberly J; Cook, Karon F; Price, Matt D; Wildes, Kimberly Raiford; Hurdle, John F; Ashton, Carol M

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine potential sources of errors at each step of the described inpatient International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding process. Data Sources/Study Setting The use of disease codes from the ICD has expanded from classifying morbidity and mortality information for statistical purposes to diverse sets of applications in research, health care policy, and health care finance. By describing a brief history of ICD coding, detailing the process for assigning codes, identifying where errors can be introduced into the process, and reviewing methods for examining code accuracy, we help code users more systematically evaluate code accuracy for their particular applications. Study Design/Methods We summarize the inpatient ICD diagnostic coding process from patient admission to diagnostic code assignment. We examine potential sources of errors at each step and offer code users a tool for systematically evaluating code accuracy. Principle Findings Main error sources along the “patient trajectory” include amount and quality of information at admission, communication among patients and providers, the clinician's knowledge and experience with the illness, and the clinician's attention to detail. Main error sources along the “paper trail” include variance in the electronic and written records, coder training and experience, facility quality-control efforts, and unintentional and intentional coder errors, such as misspecification, unbundling, and upcoding. Conclusions By clearly specifying the code assignment process and heightening their awareness of potential error sources, code users can better evaluate the applicability and limitations of codes for their particular situations. ICD codes can then be used in the most appropriate ways. PMID:16178999

  19. Genetic code for sine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Alyasa Gan; Wah, Yap Bee

    2015-02-01

    The computation of the approximate values of the trigonometric sines was discovered by Bhaskara I (c. 600-c.680), a seventh century Indian mathematician and is known as the Bjaskara's I's sine approximation formula. The formula is given in his treatise titled Mahabhaskariya. In the 14th century, Madhava of Sangamagrama, a Kerala mathematician astronomer constructed the table of trigonometric sines of various angles. Madhava's table gives the measure of angles in arcminutes, arcseconds and sixtieths of an arcsecond. The search for more accurate formulas led to the discovery of the power series expansion by Madhava of Sangamagrama (c.1350-c. 1425), the founder of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. In 1715, the Taylor series was introduced by Brook Taylor an English mathematician. If the Taylor series is centered at zero, it is called a Maclaurin series, named after the Scottish mathematician Colin Maclaurin. Some of the important Maclaurin series expansions include trigonometric functions. This paper introduces the genetic code of the sine of an angle without using power series expansion. The genetic code using square root approach reveals the pattern in the signs (plus, minus) and sequence of numbers in the sine of an angle. The square root approach complements the Pythagoras method, provides a better understanding of calculating an angle and will be useful for teaching the concepts of angles in trigonometry.

  20. Determinate-state convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, O.; Hizlan, M.

    1991-01-01

    A determinate state convolutional code is formed from a conventional convolutional code by pruning away some of the possible state transitions in the decoding trellis. The type of staged power transfer used in determinate state convolutional codes proves to be an extremely efficient way of enhancing the performance of a concatenated coding system. The decoder complexity is analyzed along with free distances of these new codes and extensive simulation results is provided of their performance at the low signal to noise ratios where a real communication system would operate. Concise, practical examples are provided.

  1. Coding for reliable satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaarder, N. T.; Lin, S.

    1986-01-01

    This research project was set up to study various kinds of coding techniques for error control in satellite and space communications for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. During the project period, researchers investigated the following areas: (1) decoding of Reed-Solomon codes in terms of dual basis; (2) concatenated and cascaded error control coding schemes for satellite and space communications; (3) use of hybrid coding schemes (error correction and detection incorporated with retransmission) to improve system reliability and throughput in satellite communications; (4) good codes for simultaneous error correction and error detection, and (5) error control techniques for ring and star networks.

  2. Coding of object location in the vibrissal thalamocortical system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunxiu; Horev, Guy; Rubin, Naama; Derdikman, Dori; Haidarliu, Sebastian; Ahissar, Ehud

    2015-03-01

    In whisking rodents, object location is encoded at the receptor level by a combination of motor and sensory related signals. Recoding of the encoded signals can result in various forms of internal representations. Here, we examined the coding schemes occurring at the first forebrain level that receives inputs necessary for generating such internal representations--the thalamocortical network. Single units were recorded in 8 thalamic and cortical stations in artificially whisking anesthetized rats. Neuronal representations of object location generated across these stations and expressed in response latency and magnitude were classified based on graded and binary coding schemes. Both graded and binary coding schemes occurred across the entire thalamocortical network, with a general tendency of graded-to-binary transformation from thalamus to cortex. Overall, 63% of the neurons of the thalamocortical network coded object position in their firing. Thalamocortical responses exhibited a slow dynamics during which the amount of coded information increased across 4-5 whisking cycles and then stabilized. Taken together, the results indicate that the thalamocortical network contains dynamic mechanisms that can converge over time on multiple coding schemes of object location, schemes which essentially transform temporal coding to rate coding and gradual to labeled-line coding. PMID:24062318

  3. Entanglement-assisted operator codeword stabilized quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jeonghwan; Heo, Jun; Brun, Todd A.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce a unified framework to construct entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs), including additive and nonadditive codes, based on the codeword stabilized (CWS) framework on subsystems. The CWS framework is a scheme to construct QECCs, including both additive and nonadditive codes, and gives a method to construct a QECC from a classical error-correcting code in standard form. Entangled pairs of qubits (ebits) can be used to improve capacity of quantum error correction. In addition, it gives a method to overcome the dual-containing constraint. Operator quantum error correction (OQEC) gives a general framework to construct QECCs. We construct OQEC codes with ebits based on the CWS framework. This new scheme, entanglement-assisted operator codeword stabilized (EAOCWS) quantum codes, is the most general framework we know of to construct both additive and nonadditive codes from classical error-correcting codes. We describe the formalism of our scheme, demonstrate the construction with examples, and give several EAOCWS codes

  4. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Drilleau, Margery O.

    1976-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), and National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Josefson, Beverly M.

    1982-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (USGS)

  6. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Myers, Beverly M.

    1979-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Drilleau, Margery O.

    1978-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Myers, Beverly M.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (USGS)

  9. Continuation of research into language concepts for the mission support environment: Source code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Timothy J.; Ratner, Jeremiah M.

    1991-01-01

    Research into language concepts for the Mission Control Center is presented. A computer code for source codes is presented. The file contains the routines which allow source code files to be created and compiled. The build process assumes that all elements and the COMP exist in the current directory. The build process places as much code generation as possible on the preprocessor as possible. A summary is given of the source files as used and/or manipulated by the build routine.

  10. Circular codes, symmetries and transformations.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Giannerini, Simone; Gonzalez, Diego Luis; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    Circular codes, putative remnants of primeval comma-free codes, have gained considerable attention in the last years. In fact they represent a second kind of genetic code potentially involved in detecting and maintaining the normal reading frame in protein coding sequences. The discovering of an universal code across species suggested many theoretical and experimental questions. However, there is a key aspect that relates circular codes to symmetries and transformations that remains to a large extent unexplored. In this article we aim at addressing the issue by studying the symmetries and transformations that connect different circular codes. The main result is that the class of 216 C3 maximal self-complementary codes can be partitioned into 27 equivalence classes defined by a particular set of transformations. We show that such transformations can be put in a group theoretic framework with an intuitive geometric interpretation. More general mathematical results about symmetry transformations which are valid for any kind of circular codes are also presented. Our results pave the way to the study of the biological consequences of the mathematical structure behind circular codes and contribute to shed light on the evolutionary steps that led to the observed symmetries of present codes. PMID:25008961

  11. dc-free coset codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Robert H.; Herro, Mark A.

    1988-01-01

    A class of block coset codes with disparity and run-length constraints are studied. They are particularly well suited for high-speed optical fiber links and similar channels, where dc-free pulse formats, channel error control, and low-complexity encoder-decoder implementations are required. The codes are derived by partitioning linear block codes. The encoder and decoder structures are the same as those of linear block codes with only slight modifications. A special class of dc-free coset block codes are derived from BCH codes with specified bounds on minimum distance, disparity, and run length. The codes have low disparity levels (a small running digital sum) and good error-correcting capabilities.

  12. Making your code citable with the Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alice; DuPrie, Kimberly; Schmidt, Judy; Berriman, G. Bruce; Hanisch, Robert J.; Mink, Jessica D.; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Shamir, Lior; Shortridge, Keith; Taylor, Mark B.; Teuben, Peter J.; Wallin, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL, ascl.net) is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research. With nearly 1,200 codes, it is the largest indexed resource for astronomy codes in existence. Established in 1999, it offers software authors a path to citation of their research codes even without publication of a paper describing the software, and offers scientists a way to find codes used in refereed publications, thus improving the transparency of the research. It also provides a method to quantify the impact of source codes in a fashion similar to the science metrics of journal articles. Citations using ASCL IDs are accepted by major astronomy journals and if formatted properly are tracked by ADS and other indexing services. The number of citations to ASCL entries increased sharply from 110 citations in January 2014 to 456 citations in September 2015. The percentage of code entries in ASCL that were cited at least once rose from 7.5% in January 2014 to 17.4% in September 2015. The ASCL's mid-2014 infrastructure upgrade added an easy entry submission form, more flexible browsing, search capabilities, and an RSS feeder for updates. A Changes/Additions form added this past fall lets authors submit links for papers that use their codes for addition to the ASCL entry even if those papers don't formally cite the codes, thus increasing the transparency of that research and capturing the value of their software to the community.

  13. Practices in Code Discoverability: Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A.; Teuben, P.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Shamir, L.

    2012-09-01

    Here we describe the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), which takes an active approach to sharing astrophysics source code. ASCL's editor seeks out both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and adds entries for the found codes to the library. This approach ensures that source codes are added without requiring authors to actively submit them, resulting in a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL now has over 340 codes in it and continues to grow. In 2011, the ASCL has on average added 19 codes per month. An advisory committee has been established to provide input and guide the development and expansion of the new site, and a marketing plan has been developed and is being executed. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are freely available either via a download site or from an identified source. This paper provides the history and description of the ASCL. It lists the requirements for including codes, examines the advantages of the ASCL, and outlines some of its future plans.

  14. Method for coding low entrophy data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Pen-Shu (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method of lossless data compression for efficient coding of an electronic signal of information sources of very low information rate is disclosed. In this method, S represents a non-negative source symbol set, (s(sub 0), s(sub 1), s(sub 2), ..., s(sub N-1)) of N symbols with s(sub i) = i. The difference between binary digital data is mapped into symbol set S. Consecutive symbols in symbol set S are then paired into a new symbol set Gamma which defines a non-negative symbol set containing the symbols (gamma(sub m)) obtained as the extension of the original symbol set S. These pairs are then mapped into a comma code which is defined as a coding scheme in which every codeword is terminated with the same comma pattern, such as a 1. This allows a direct coding and decoding of the n-bit positive integer digital data differences without the use of codebooks.

  15. THE MCNPX MONTE CARLO RADIATION TRANSPORT CODE

    SciTech Connect

    WATERS, LAURIE S.; MCKINNEY, GREGG W.; DURKEE, JOE W.; FENSIN, MICHAEL L.; JAMES, MICHAEL R.; JOHNS, RUSSELL C.; PELOWITZ, DENISE B.

    2007-01-10

    MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) is a general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code with three-dimensional geometry and continuous-energy transport of 34 particles and light ions. It contains flexible source and tally options, interactive graphics, and support for both sequential and multi-processing computer platforms. MCNPX is based on MCNP4B, and has been upgraded to most MCNP5 capabilities. MCNP is a highly stable code tracking neutrons, photons and electrons, and using evaluated nuclear data libraries for low-energy interaction probabilities. MCNPX has extended this base to a comprehensive set of particles and light ions, with heavy ion transport in development. Models have been included to calculate interaction probabilities when libraries are not available. Recent additions focus on the time evolution of residual nuclei decay, allowing calculation of transmutation and delayed particle emission. MCNPX is now a code of great dynamic range, and the excellent neutronics capabilities allow new opportunities to simulate devices of interest to experimental particle physics; particularly calorimetry. This paper describes the capabilities of the current MCNPX version 2.6.C, and also discusses ongoing code development.

  16. A-to-I editing of coding and non-coding RNAs by ADARs

    PubMed Central

    Nishikura, Kazuko

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) convert adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA. This A-to-I editing occurs not only in protein-coding regions of mRNAs, but also frequently in non-coding regions that contain inverted Alu repeats. Editing of coding sequences can result in the expression of functionally altered proteins that are not encoded in the genome, whereas the significance of Alu editing remains largely unknown. Certain microRNA (miRNA) precursors are also edited, leading to reduced expression or altered function of mature miRNAs. Conversely, recent studies indicate that ADAR1 forms a complex with Dicer to promote miRNA processing, revealing a new function of ADAR1 in the regulation of RNA interference. PMID:26648264

  17. The Arcetri Spectral Code for optically thin plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, E.; Landini, M.

    2002-03-01

    The Arcetri Spectral Code allows one to evaluate the spectrum of the radiation emitted by hot and optically thin plasmas in the spectral range 1-2000 Å. The Arcetri Code consists of a series of files that contain the emissivity of the plasma as a function of electron temperature and density. Both line and continuum emission are considered. These quantities are calculated using a database of atomic data and transition probabilities, mostly taken from the CHIANTI database. In the present work we describe the updates to the spectrum and present the new results. A comparison with the previous version of the code allows us to assess the improvements to the spectrum; comparison with other spectral codes allows us to assess the completeness of the Arcetri Code and of the CHIANTI database.

  18. SCDAP/RELAP5 code development and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, C.M.; Hohorst, J.K.

    1996-03-01

    The SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code is designed to describe the overall reactor coolant system thermal-hydraulic response, core damage progression, and fission product release during severe accidents. The code is being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the primary sponsorship of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The current version of the code is SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.1e. Although MOD3.1e contains a number of significant improvements since the initial version of MOD3.1 was released, new models to treat the behavior of the fuel and cladding during reflood have had the most dramatic impact on the code`s calculations. This paper provides a brief description of the new reflood models, presents highlights of the assessment of the current version of MOD3.1, and discusses future SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.2 model development activities.

  19. ParaDiS-FEM dislocation dynamics simulation code primer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M; Hommes, G; Aubry, S; Arsenlis, A

    2011-09-27

    The ParaDiS code is developed to study bulk systems with periodic boundary conditions. When we try to perform discrete dislocation dynamics simulations for finite systems such as thin films or cylinders, the ParaDiS code must be extended. First, dislocations need to be contained inside the finite simulation box; Second, dislocations inside the finite box experience image stresses due to the free surfaces. We have developed in-house FEM subroutines to couple with the ParaDiS code to deal with free surface related issues in the dislocation dynamics simulations. This primer explains how the coupled code was developed, the main changes from the ParaDiS code, and the functions of the new FEM subroutines.

  20. On the IPP Properties of Reed-Solomon Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Marcel; Cotrina, Josep; Soriano, Miguel; Domingo, Neus

    Codes with traceability properties are used in schemes where the identification of users that illegally redistribute content is required. For any code with traceability properties, the Identifiable Parent Property (c-IPP) seems to be less restrictive than the Traceability (c-TA) property. In this paper, we show that for Reed-Solomon codes both properties are in many cases equivalent. More precisely, we show that for an [n,k,d] Reed-Solomon code, defined over a field that contains the n - d roots of unity, both properties are equivalent. This answers a question posted by Silverberg et al. in [10,11], for a large family of Reed-Solomon codes.

  1. NP-hardness of decoding quantum error-correction codes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Min-Hsiu; Le Gall, Francois

    2011-05-15

    Although the theory of quantum error correction is intimately related to classical coding theory and, in particular, one can construct quantum error-correction codes (QECCs) from classical codes with the dual-containing property, this does not necessarily imply that the computational complexity of decoding QECCs is the same as their classical counterparts. Instead, decoding QECCs can be very much different from decoding classical codes due to the degeneracy property. Intuitively, one expects degeneracy would simplify the decoding since two different errors might not and need not be distinguished in order to correct them. However, we show that general quantum decoding problem is NP-hard regardless of the quantum codes being degenerate or nondegenerate. This finding implies that no considerably fast decoding algorithm exists for the general quantum decoding problems and suggests the existence of a quantum cryptosystem based on the hardness of decoding QECCs.

  2. International code of nomenclature of prokaryotes

    SciTech Connect

    Garrity, George M.; Parker, Charles T.; Tindall, Brian J.

    2015-11-20

    Here, this volume contains the edition of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes that was presented in draft form and available for comment at the Plenary Session of the Fourteenth International Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology (BAM), Montréal, 2014, together with updated lists of conserved and rejected bacterial names and of Opinions issued by the Judicial Commission. As in the past it brings together those changes accepted, published and documented by the ICSP and the Judicial Commission since the last revision was published. Several new appendices have been added to this edition. Appendix 11 addresses the appropriate application of the Candidatus concept, Appendix 12 contains the history of the van Niel Prize, and Appendix 13 contains the summaries of Congresses.

  3. International code of nomenclature of prokaryotes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Garrity, George M.; Parker, Charles T.; Tindall, Brian J.

    2015-11-20

    Here, this volume contains the edition of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes that was presented in draft form and available for comment at the Plenary Session of the Fourteenth International Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology (BAM), Montréal, 2014, together with updated lists of conserved and rejected bacterial names and of Opinions issued by the Judicial Commission. As in the past it brings together those changes accepted, published and documented by the ICSP and the Judicial Commission since the last revision was published. Several new appendices have been added to this edition. Appendix 11 addresses the appropriate applicationmore » of the Candidatus concept, Appendix 12 contains the history of the van Niel Prize, and Appendix 13 contains the summaries of Congresses.« less

  4. The Fireball integrated code package

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, D.; Powers, D.A.; Harper, F.T.

    1997-07-01

    Many deep-space satellites contain a plutonium heat source. An explosion, during launch, of a rocket carrying such a satellite offers the potential for the release of some of the plutonium. The fireball following such an explosion exposes any released plutonium to a high-temperature chemically-reactive environment. Vaporization, condensation, and agglomeration processes can alter the distribution of plutonium-bearing particles. The Fireball code package simulates the integrated response of the physical and chemical processes occurring in a fireball and the effect these processes have on the plutonium-bearing particle distribution. This integrated treatment of multiple phenomena represents a significant improvement in the state of the art for fireball simulations. Preliminary simulations of launch-second scenarios indicate: (1) most plutonium vaporization occurs within the first second of the fireball; (2) large non-aerosol-sized particles contribute very little to plutonium vapor production; (3) vaporization and both homogeneous and heterogeneous condensation occur simultaneously; (4) homogeneous condensation transports plutonium down to the smallest-particle sizes; (5) heterogeneous condensation precludes homogeneous condensation if sufficient condensation sites are available; and (6) agglomeration produces larger-sized particles but slows rapidly as the fireball grows.

  5. Internal Dosimetry Code System Using Biokinetics Models

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-11-12

    Version 00 InDose is an internal dosimetry code to calculate dose estimations using biokinetic models (presented in ICRP-56 to ICRP71) as well as older ones. The code uses the ICRP-66 respiratory tract model and the ICRP-30 gastrointestinal tract model as well as the new and old biokinetic models. The code was written in such a way that the user can change any parameters of any one of the models without recompiling the code. All parametersmore » are given in well annotated parameters files that the user may change. As default, these files contain the values listed in ICRP publications. The full InDose code was planned to have three parts: 1) the main part includes the uptake and systemic models and is used to calculate the activities in the body tissues and excretion as a function of time for a given intake. 2) An optimization module for automatic estimation of the intake for a specific exposure case. 3) A module to calculate the dose due to the estimated intake. Currently, the code is able to perform only it`s main task (part 1) while the other two have to be done externally using other tools. In the future, developers would like to add these modules in order to provide a complete solution. The code was tested extensively to verify accuracy of its results. The verification procedure was divided into three parts: 1) verification of the implementation of each model, 2) verification of the integrity of the whole code, and 3) usability test. The first two parts consisted of comparing results obtained with InDose to published results for the same cases. For example ICRP-78 monitoring data. The last part consisted of participating in the 3rd EIE-IDA and assessing some of the scenarios provided in this exercise. These tests where presented in a few publications. Good agreement was found between the results of InDose and published data.« less

  6. Surface acoustic wave coding for orthogonal frequency coded devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Kozlovski, Nikolai (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods and systems for coding SAW OFC devices to mitigate code collisions in a wireless multi-tag system. Each device producing plural stepped frequencies as an OFC signal with a chip offset delay to increase code diversity. A method for assigning a different OCF to each device includes using a matrix based on the number of OFCs needed and the number chips per code, populating each matrix cell with OFC chip, and assigning the codes from the matrix to the devices. The asynchronous passive multi-tag system includes plural surface acoustic wave devices each producing a different OFC signal having the same number of chips and including a chip offset time delay, an algorithm for assigning OFCs to each device, and a transceiver to transmit an interrogation signal and receive OFC signals in response with minimal code collisions during transmission.

  7. Peripheral coding of taste

    PubMed Central

    Liman, Emily R.; Zhang, Yali V.; Montell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Five canonical tastes, bitter, sweet, umami (amino acid), salty and sour (acid) are detected by animals as diverse as fruit flies and humans, consistent with a near universal drive to consume fundamental nutrients and to avoid toxins or other harmful compounds. Surprisingly, despite this strong conservation of basic taste qualities between vertebrates and invertebrates, the receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate taste in each are highly divergent. The identification over the last two decades of receptors and other molecules that mediate taste has led to stunning advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of transduction and coding of information by the gustatory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this review, we discuss recent advances in taste research, mainly from the fly and mammalian systems, and we highlight principles that are common across species, despite stark differences in receptor types. PMID:24607224

  8. IMP: A performance code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauro, Vincent A., Sr.

    IMP (Integrated Mission Program) is a simulation language and code used to model present and future Earth, Moon, or Mars missions. The profile is user controlled through selection from a large menu of events and maneuvers. A Fehlberg 7/13 Runge-Kutta integrator with error and step size control is used to numerically integrate the differential equations of motion (DEQ) of three spacecraft, a main, a target, and an observer. Through selection, the DEQ's include guided thrust, oblate gravity, atmosphere drag, solar pressure, and Moon gravity effects. Guide parameters for thrust events and performance parameters of velocity changes (Delta-V) and propellant usage (maximum of five systems) are developed as needed. Print, plot, summary, and debug files are output.

  9. Electromagnetic particle simulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Electromagnetic particle simulations solve the full set of Maxwell's equations. They thus include the effects of self-consistent electric and magnetic fields, magnetic induction, and electromagnetic radiation. The algorithms for an electromagnetic code which works directly with the electric and magnetic fields are described. The fields and current are separated into transverse and longitudinal components. The transverse E and B fields are integrated in time using a leapfrog scheme applied to the Fourier components. The particle pushing is performed via the relativistic Lorentz force equation for the particle momentum. As an example, simulation results are presented for the electron cyclotron maser instability which illustrate the importance of relativistic effects on the wave-particle resonance condition and on wave dispersion.

  10. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D.

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The default parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST

  11. Transionospheric Propagation Code (TIPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Kelley, T.A.

    1990-10-01

    The Transionospheric Propagation Code is a computer program developed at Los Alamos National Lab to perform certain tasks related to the detection of vhf signals following propagation through the ionosphere. The code is written in Fortran 77, runs interactively and was designed to be as machine independent as possible. A menu format in which the user is prompted to supply appropriate parameters for a given task has been adopted for the input while the output is primarily in the form of graphics. The user has the option of selecting from five basic tasks, namely transionospheric propagation, signal filtering, signal processing, DTOA study, and DTOA uncertainty study. For the first task a specified signal is convolved against the impulse response function of the ionosphere to obtain the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of four analytic forms for the input pulse or of supplying a tabular form. The option of adding Gaussian-distributed white noise of spectral noise to the input signal is also provided. The deterministic ionosphere is characterized to first order in terms of a total electron content (TEC) along the propagation path. In addition, a scattering model parameterized in terms of a frequency coherence bandwidth is also available. In the second task, detection is simulated by convolving a given filter response against the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of a wideband filter or a narrowband Gaussian filter. It is also possible to input a filter response. The third task provides for quadrature detection, envelope detection, and three different techniques for time-tagging the arrival of the transionospheric signal at specified receivers. The latter algorithms can be used to determine a TEC and thus take out the effects of the ionosphere to first order. Task four allows the user to construct a table of delta-times-of-arrival (DTOAs) vs TECs for a specified pair of receivers.

  12. Transionospheric Propagation Code (TIPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussel-Dupre, Robert; Kelley, Thomas A.

    1990-10-01

    The Transionospheric Propagation Code is a computer program developed at Los Alamos National Lab to perform certain tasks related to the detection of VHF signals following propagation through the ionosphere. The code is written in FORTRAN 77, runs interactively and was designed to be as machine independent as possible. A menu format in which the user is prompted to supply appropriate parameters for a given task has been adopted for the input while the output is primarily in the form of graphics. The user has the option of selecting from five basic tasks, namely transionospheric propagation, signal filtering, signal processing, delta times of arrival (DTOA) study, and DTOA uncertainty study. For the first task a specified signal is convolved against the impulse response function of the ionosphere to obtain the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of four analytic forms for the input pulse or of supplying a tabular form. The option of adding Gaussian-distributed white noise of spectral noise to the input signal is also provided. The deterministic ionosphere is characterized to first order in terms of a total electron content (TEC) along the propagation path. In addition, a scattering model parameterized in terms of a frequency coherence bandwidth is also available. In the second task, detection is simulated by convolving a given filter response against the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of a wideband filter or a narrowband Gaussian filter. It is also possible to input a filter response. The third task provides for quadrature detection, envelope detection, and three different techniques for time-tagging the arrival of the transionospheric signal at specified receivers. The latter algorithms can be used to determine a TEC and thus take out the effects of the ionosphere to first order. Task four allows the user to construct a table of DTOAs vs TECs for a specified pair of receivers.

  13. MELCOR/CONTAIN LMR Implementation Report. FY14 Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, Larry L; Louie, David L.Y.

    2014-10-01

    This report describes the preliminary implementation of the sodium thermophysical properties and the design documentation for the sodium models of CONTAIN-LMR to be implemented into MELCOR 2.1. In the past year, the implementation included two separate sodium properties from two different sources. The first source is based on the previous work done by Idaho National Laboratory by modifying MELCOR to include liquid lithium equation of state as a working fluid to model the nuclear fusion safety research. To minimize the impact to MELCOR, the implementation of the fusion safety database (FSD) was done by utilizing the detection of the data input file as a way to invoking the FSD. The FSD methodology has been adapted currently for this work, but it may subject modification as the project continues. The second source uses properties generated for the SIMMER code. Preliminary testing and results from this implementation of sodium properties are given. In this year, the design document for the CONTAIN-LMR sodium models, such as the two condensable option, sodium spray fire, and sodium pool fire is being developed. This design document is intended to serve as a guide for the MELCOR implementation. In addition, CONTAIN-LMR code used was based on the earlier version of CONTAIN code. Many physical models that were developed since this early version of CONTAIN may not be captured by the code. Although CONTAIN 2, which represents the latest development of CONTAIN, contains some sodium specific models, which are not complete, the utilizing CONTAIN 2 with all sodium models implemented from CONTAIN-LMR as a comparison code for MELCOR should be done. This implementation should be completed in early next year, while sodium models from CONTAIN-LMR are being integrated into MELCOR. For testing, CONTAIN decks have been developed for verification and validation use.

  14. Diagonal Eigenvalue Unity (DEU) code for spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Hassan Yousif; Nisar, K. S.

    2013-08-01

    Code with ideal in-phase cross correlation (CC) and practical code length to support high number of users are required in spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. SAC systems are getting more attractive in the field of OCDMA because of its ability to eliminate the influence of multiple access interference (MAI) and also suppress the effect of phase induced intensity noise (PIIN). In this paper, we have proposed new Diagonal Eigenvalue Unity (DEU) code families with ideal in-phase CC based on Jordan block matrix with simple algebraic ways. Four sets of DEU code families based on the code weight W and number of users N for the combination (even, even), (even, odd), (odd, odd) and (odd, even) are constructed. This combination gives DEU code more flexibility in selection of code weight and number of users. These features made this code a compelling candidate for future optical communication systems. Numerical results show that the proposed DEU system outperforms reported codes. In addition, simulation results taken from a commercial optical systems simulator, Virtual Photonic Instrument (VPI™) shown that, using point to multipoint transmission in passive optical network (PON), DEU has better performance and could support long span with high data rate.

  15. Accident resistant transport container

    DOEpatents

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  16. Accident resistant transport container

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  17. FEFF5: An ab initio multiple scattering XAFS code

    SciTech Connect

    Rehr, J.J.; Zabinsky, S.I.

    1992-12-31

    FEFF5 is an efficient automated code which calculates multiple scattering (MS) curved wave XAFS spectra for molecules and solids. The theoretical ingredients and approximations contained in the code are revised, with the aim of describing the how XAFS spectra are efficiently simulated. The FEFF5 code consists of 4 independent modules: a scattering potential and phase shift module, a path finder module, a scattering amplitude module and an XAFS module. Multiple scattering Debye-Waller factors are built in using a correlated Debye model.

  18. Some easily analyzable convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R.; Dolinar, S.; Pollara, F.; Vantilborg, H.

    1989-01-01

    Convolutional codes have played and will play a key role in the downlink telemetry systems on many NASA deep-space probes, including Voyager, Magellan, and Galileo. One of the chief difficulties associated with the use of convolutional codes, however, is the notorious difficulty of analyzing them. Given a convolutional code as specified, say, by its generator polynomials, it is no easy matter to say how well that code will perform on a given noisy channel. The usual first step in such an analysis is to computer the code's free distance; this can be done with an algorithm whose complexity is exponential in the code's constraint length. The second step is often to calculate the transfer function in one, two, or three variables, or at least a few terms in its power series expansion. This step is quite hard, and for many codes of relatively short constraint lengths, it can be intractable. However, a large class of convolutional codes were discovered for which the free distance can be computed by inspection, and for which there is a closed-form expression for the three-variable transfer function. Although for large constraint lengths, these codes have relatively low rates, they are nevertheless interesting and potentially useful. Furthermore, the ideas developed here to analyze these specialized codes may well extend to a much larger class.

  19. Fluid transport container

    DOEpatents

    DeRoos, Bradley G.; Downing, Jr., John P.; Neal, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitment for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container.

  20. Fluid transport container

    DOEpatents

    DeRoos, B.G.; Downing, J.P. Jr.; Neal, M.P.

    1995-11-14

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitting for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container. 13 figs.

  1. An operational RNA code for amino acids and possible relationship to genetic code.

    PubMed Central

    Schimmel, P; Giegé, R; Moras, D; Yokoyama, S

    1993-01-01

    RNA helical oligonucleotides that recapitulate the acceptor stems of transfer RNAs, and that are devoid of the anticodon trinucleotides of the genetic code, are aminoacylated by aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. The specificity of aminoacylation is sequence dependent, and both specificity and efficiency are generally determined by only a few nucleotides proximal to the amino acid attachment site. This sequence/structure-dependent aminoacylation of RNA oligonucleotides constitutes an operational RNA code for amino acids. To a rough approximation, members of the two different classes of tRNA synthetases are, like tRNAs, organized into two major domains. The class-defining conserved domain containing the active site incorporates determinants for recognition of RNA mini-helix substrates. This domain may reflect the primordial synthetase, which was needed for expression of the operational RNA code. The second synthetase domain, which generally is less or not conserved, provides for interactions with the second domain of tRNA, which incorporates the anticodon. The emergence of the genetic from the operational RNA code could occur when the second domain of synthetases was added with the anticodon-containing domain of tRNAs. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7692438

  2. An integrated radiation physics computer code system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steyn, J. J.; Harris, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    An integrated computer code system for the semi-automatic and rapid analysis of experimental and analytic problems in gamma photon and fast neutron radiation physics is presented. Such problems as the design of optimum radiation shields and radioisotope power source configurations may be studied. The system codes allow for the unfolding of complex neutron and gamma photon experimental spectra. Monte Carlo and analytic techniques are used for the theoretical prediction of radiation transport. The system includes a multichannel pulse-height analyzer scintillation and semiconductor spectrometer coupled to an on-line digital computer with appropriate peripheral equipment. The system is geometry generalized as well as self-contained with respect to material nuclear cross sections and the determination of the spectrometer response functions. Input data may be either analytic or experimental.

  3. Ethical codes for attorneys: a brief introduction.

    PubMed

    Zarkowski, P

    1997-01-01

    Ethical standards for lawyers are contained in the Model Rules of Professional Conduct (which lays out both "shall/shall not" rules and "may" suggestions in nine broad areas) and the Model Code of Professional Responsibility (which covers essentially the same topic areas but offers more detailed commentary). Topics included in the Rules are the client-lawyer relationship, the attorney's role as an advocate and counselor, law firms and associations, public service, transactions with individuals other than clients and information about legal services including advertising, firm names, and letterhead. The American Dental Association's Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct is organized around the five ethical principles of patient autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity. There are substantial similarities in intent between the ethical standards of dentists and lawyers; there are also differences. PMID:9270220

  4. Point-Kernel Shielding Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1982-02-17

    Version 00 QAD-BSA is a three-dimensional, point-kernel shielding code system based upon the CCC-48/QAD series. It is designed to calculate photon dose rates and heating rates using exponential attenuation and infinite medium buildup factors. Calculational provisions include estimates of fast neutron penetration using data computed by the moments method. Included geometry routines can describe complicated source and shield geometries. An internal library contains data for many frequently used structural and shielding materials, enabling the codemore » to solve most problems with only source strengths and problem geometry required as input. This code system adapts especially well to problems requiring multiple sources and sources with asymmetrical geometry. In addition to being edited separately, the total interaction rates from many sources may be edited at each detector point. Calculated photon interaction rates agree closely with those obtained using QAD-P5A.« less

  5. C++ Coding Standards and Style Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steven; Jun, Linda; Shoan, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    This document is based on the "C Style Guide" (SEL-94-003). It contains recommendations for C++ implementations that build on, or in some cases replace, the style described in the C style guide. Style guidelines on any topics that are not covered in this document can be found in the "C Style Guide." An attempt has been made to indicate when these recommendations are just guidelines or suggestions versus when they are more strongly encouraged. Using coding standards makes code easier to read and maintain. General principles that maximize the readability and maintainability of C++ are: (1) Organize classes using encapsulation and information hiding techniques. (2) Enhance readability through the use of indentation and blank lines. (3) Add comments to header files to help users of classes. (4) Add comments to implementation files to help maintainers of classes. (5) Create names that are meaningful and readable.

  6. LEGO: A modular accelerator design code

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Donald, M.; Irwin, J.; Yan, Y.

    1997-08-01

    An object-oriented accelerator design code has been designed and implemented in a simple and modular fashion. It contains all major features of its predecessors: TRACY and DESPOT. All physics of single-particle dynamics is implemented based on the Hamiltonian in the local frame of the component. Components can be moved arbitrarily in the three dimensional space. Several symplectic integrators are used to approximate the integration of the Hamiltonian. A differential algebra class is introduced to extract a Taylor map up to arbitrary order. Analysis of optics is done in the same way both for the linear and nonlinear case. Currently, the code is used to design and simulate the lattices of the PEP-II. It will also be used for the commissioning.

  7. 49 CFR 173.52 - Classification codes and compatibility groups of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... article to be classified Compatibility group Classification code Primary explosive substance A 1.1A Article containing a primary explosive substance and not containing two or more effective protective... propelling charge, or article containing a primary explosive substance and containing two or more...

  8. 49 CFR 173.52 - Classification codes and compatibility groups of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... article to be classified Compatibility group Classification code Primary explosive substance A 1.1A Article containing a primary explosive substance and not containing two or more effective protective... propelling charge, or article containing a primary explosive substance and containing two or more...

  9. Personal Container Artists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the study of personal containers and their uses in art creation for children. States that children are fascinated by boxes and containers. Provides examples of personal containers, such as lunch boxes, pencil cases, purses and valets, and school bags. (CMK)

  10. Hanford Meteorological Station computer codes: Volume 6, The SFC computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, G.L.; Buck, J.W.

    1987-11-01

    Each hour the Hanford Meteorological Station (HMS), operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, records and archives weather observations. Hourly surface weather observations consist of weather phenomena such as cloud type and coverage; dry bulb, wet bulb, and dew point temperatures; relative humidity; atmospheric pressure; and wind speed and direction. The SFC computer code is used to archive those weather observations and apply quality assurance checks to the data. This code accesses an input file, which contains the previous archive's date and hour and an output file, which contains surface observations for the current day. As part of the program, a data entry form consisting of 24 fields must be filled in. The information on the form is appended to the daily file, which provides an archive for the hourly surface observations.

  11. Nonlinear, nonbinary cyclic group codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    New cyclic group codes of length 2(exp m) - 1 over (m - j)-bit symbols are introduced. These codes can be systematically encoded and decoded algebraically. The code rates are very close to Reed-Solomon (RS) codes and are much better than Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes (a former alternative). The binary (m - j)-tuples are identified with a subgroup of the binary m-tuples which represents the field GF(2 exp m). Encoding is systematic and involves a two-stage procedure consisting of the usual linear feedback register (using the division or check polynomial) and a small table lookup. For low rates, a second shift-register encoding operation may be invoked. Decoding uses the RS error-correcting procedures for the m-tuple codes for m = 4, 5, and 6.

  12. CONTAIN assessment of the NUPEC mixing experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Stamps, D.W.

    1995-08-01

    The ability of the CONTAIN code to predict the thermal hydraulics of five experiments performed in the NUPEC 1/4-scale model containment was assessed. These experiments simulated severe accident conditions in a nuclear power plant in which helium (as a nonflammable substitute for hydrogen) and steam were coinjected at different locations in the facility with and without the concurrent injection of water sprays in the dome. Helium concentrations, gas temperatures and pressures, and wall temperatures were predicted and compared with the data. The use of different flow solvers, nodalization schemes, and analysis methods for the treatment of water sprays was emphasized. As a result, a general procedure was suggested for lumped-parameter code analyses of problems in which the thermal hydraulics are dominated by water sprays.

  13. QR code for medical information uses.

    PubMed

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Ducut, Erick G

    2008-01-01

    We developed QR code online tools, simulated and tested QR code applications for medical information uses including scanning QR code labels, URLs and authentication. Our results show possible applications for QR code in medicine. PMID:18998785

  14. Fault-Tolerant Coding for State Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naegle, Stephanie Taft; Burke, Gary; Newell, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Two reliable fault-tolerant coding schemes have been proposed for state machines that are used in field-programmable gate arrays and application-specific integrated circuits to implement sequential logic functions. The schemes apply to strings of bits in state registers, which are typically implemented in practice as assemblies of flip-flop circuits. If a single-event upset (SEU, a radiation-induced change in the bit in one flip-flop) occurs in a state register, the state machine that contains the register could go into an erroneous state or could hang, by which is meant that the machine could remain in undefined states indefinitely. The proposed fault-tolerant coding schemes are intended to prevent the state machine from going into an erroneous or hang state when an SEU occurs. To ensure reliability of the state machine, the coding scheme for bits in the state register must satisfy the following criteria: 1. All possible states are defined. 2. An SEU brings the state machine to a known state. 3. There is no possibility of a hang state. 4. No false state is entered. 5. An SEU exerts no effect on the state machine. Fault-tolerant coding schemes that have been commonly used include binary encoding and "one-hot" encoding. Binary encoding is the simplest state machine encoding and satisfies criteria 1 through 3 if all possible states are defined. Binary encoding is a binary count of the state machine number in sequence; the table represents an eight-state example. In one-hot encoding, N bits are used to represent N states: All except one of the bits in a string are 0, and the position of the 1 in the string represents the state. With proper circuit design, one-hot encoding can satisfy criteria 1 through 4. Unfortunately, the requirement to use N bits to represent N states makes one-hot coding inefficient.

  15. On the use of ZIP codes and ZIP code tabulation areas (ZCTAs) for the spatial analysis of epidemiological data

    PubMed Central

    Grubesic, Tony H; Matisziw, Timothy C

    2006-01-01

    Background While the use of spatially referenced data for the analysis of epidemiological data is growing, issues associated with selecting the appropriate geographic unit of analysis are also emerging. A particularly problematic unit is the ZIP code. Lacking standardization and highly dynamic in structure, the use of ZIP codes and ZIP code tabulation areas (ZCTA) for the spatial analysis of disease present a unique challenge to researchers. Problems associated with these units for detecting spatial patterns of disease are explored. Results A brief review of ZIP codes and their spatial representation is conducted. Though frequently represented as polygons to facilitate analysis, ZIP codes are actually defined at a narrower spatial resolution reflecting the street addresses they serve. This research shows that their generalization as continuous regions is an imposed structure that can have serious implications in the interpretation of research results. ZIP codes areas and Census defined ZCTAs, two commonly used polygonal representations of ZIP code address ranges, are examined in an effort to identify the spatial statistical sensitivities that emerge given differences in how these representations are defined. Here, comparative analysis focuses on the detection of patterns of prostate cancer in New York State. Of particular interest for studies utilizing local, spatial statistical tests, is that differences in the topological structures of ZIP code areas and ZCTAs give rise to different spatial patterns of disease. These differences are related to the different methodologies used in the generalization of ZIP code information. Given the difficulty associated with generating ZIP code boundaries, both ZIP code areas and ZCTAs contain numerous representational errors which can have a significant impact on spatial analysis. While the use of ZIP code polygons for spatial analysis is relatively straightforward, ZCTA representations contain additional topological features (e

  16. Explosive Formulation Code Naming SOP

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H. E.

    2014-09-19

    The purpose of this SOP is to provide a procedure for giving individual HME formulations code names. A code name for an individual HME formulation consists of an explosive family code, given by the classified guide, followed by a dash, -, and a number. If the formulation requires preparation such as packing or aging, these add additional groups of symbols to the X-ray specimen name.

  17. Bar-Code-Scribing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badinger, Michael A.; Drouant, George J.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed hand-held tool applies indelible bar code to small parts. Possible to identify parts for management of inventory without tags or labels. Microprocessor supplies bar-code data to impact-printer-like device. Device drives replaceable scribe, which cuts bar code on surface of part. Used to mark serially controlled parts for military and aerospace equipment. Also adapts for discrete marking of bulk items used in food and pharmaceutical processing.

  18. Turbo Codes for PCS Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Pollara, F.

    1995-01-01

    A number of the claims for turbo codes as a great advance in coding theory are confirmed, and a complete description is presented of an encoder/decoder pair that could be suitable for PCS applications. A new simple method for trellis termination is described, the effect of interleaver choice on the weight distribution of the code is analyzed, and unequal rate components (which yield better performance) are introduced.

  19. DROP: Detecting Return-Oriented Programming Malicious Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping; Xiao, Hai; Shen, Xiaobin; Yin, Xinchun; Mao, Bing; Xie, Li

    Return-Oriented Programming (ROP) is a new technique that helps the attacker construct malicious code mounted on x86/SPARC executables without any function call at all. Such technique makes the ROP malicious code contain no instruction, which is different from existing attacks. Moreover, it hides the malicious code in benign code. Thus, it circumvents the approaches that prevent control flow diversion outside legitimate regions (such as W ⊕ X ) and most malicious code scanning techniques (such as anti-virus scanners). However, ROP has its own intrinsic feature which is different from normal program design: (1) uses short instruction sequence ending in "ret", which is called gadget, and (2) executes the gadgets contiguously in specific memory space, such as standard GNU libc. Based on the features of the ROP malicious code, in this paper, we present a tool DROP, which is focused on dynamically detecting ROP malicious code. Preliminary experimental results show that DROP can efficiently detect ROP malicious code, and have no false positives and negatives.

  20. The FLUKA Code: an Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Empl, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M.V.; Lantz, M.; Liotta, M.; Mairani, A.; Mostacci, A.; Muraro, S.; Ottolenghi, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P.R.; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /CERN /Siegen U. /Houston U. /SLAC /Frascati /NASA, Houston /ENEA, Frascati

    2005-11-09

    FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code which can transport a variety of particles over a wide energy range in complex geometries. The code is a joint project of INFN and CERN: part of its development is also supported by the University of Houston and NASA. FLUKA is successfully applied in several fields, including but not only, particle physics, cosmic ray physics, dosimetry, radioprotection, hadron therapy, space radiation, accelerator design and neutronics. The code is the standard tool used at CERN for dosimetry, radioprotection and beam-machine interaction studies. Here we give a glimpse into the code physics models with a particular emphasis to the hadronic and nuclear sector.

  1. Implementation issues in source coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid; Chen, Yun-Chung; Hadenfeldt, A. C.

    1989-01-01

    An edge preserving image coding scheme which can be operated in both a lossy and a lossless manner was developed. The technique is an extension of the lossless encoding algorithm developed for the Mars observer spectral data. It can also be viewed as a modification of the DPCM algorithm. A packet video simulator was also developed from an existing modified packet network simulator. The coding scheme for this system is a modification of the mixture block coding (MBC) scheme described in the last report. Coding algorithms for packet video were also investigated.

  2. The FLUKA Code: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Empl, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M. V.; Lantz, M.; Liotta, M.; Mairani, A.; Mostacci, A.; Muraro, S.; Ottolenghi, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P. R.; Scannicchio, D.; Trovati, S.; Villari, R.; Wilson, T.

    2006-01-01

    FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code which can transport a variety of particles over a wide energy range in complex geometries. The code is a joint project of INFN and CERN: part of its development is also supported by the University of Houston and NASA. FLUKA is successfully applied in several fields, including but not only, particle physics, cosmic ray physics, dosimetry, radioprotection, hadron therapy, space radiation, accelerator design and neutronics. The code is the standard tool used at CERN for dosimetry, radioprotection and beam-machine interaction studies. Here we give a glimpse into the code physics models with a particular emphasis to the hadronic and nuclear sector.

  3. Multilevel codes and multistage decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderbank, A. R.

    1989-03-01

    Imai and Hirakawa have proposed (1977) a multilevel coding method based on binary block codes that admits a staged decoding procedure. Here the coding method is extended to coset codes and it is shown how to calculate minimum squared distance and path multiplicity in terms of the norms and multiplicities of the different cosets. The multilevel structure allows the redundancy in the coset selection procedure to be allocated efficiently among the different levels. It also allows the use of suboptimal multistage decoding procedures that have performance/complexity advantages over maximum-likelihood decoding.

  4. Golay and other box codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    The (24,12;8) extended Golay Code can be generated as a 6x4 binary matrix from the (15,11;3) BCH-Hamming Code, represented as a 5 x 3 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity. The odd-parity case provides the additional 12th dimension. Furthermore, any three columns and five rows of the 6 x 4 Golay form a BCH-Hamming (15,11;3) Code. Similarly a (80,58;8) code can be generated as a 10 x 8 binary matrix from the (63,57;3) BCH-Hamming Code represented as a 9 x 7 matrix by adding a row and a column both of odd and even parity. Furthermore, any seven columns along with the top nine rows is a BCH-Hamming (63,57;3) Code. A (80,40;16) 10 x 8 matrix binary code with weight structure identical to the extended (80,40;16) Quadratic Residue Code is generated from a (63,39;7) binary cyclic code represented as a 9 x 7 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity.

  5. Golay and other box codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    The (24,12;8) extended Golay Code can be generated as a 6 x 4 binary matrix from the (15,11;3) BCH-Hamming Code, represented as a 5 x 3 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity. The odd-parity case provides the additional 12th dimension. Furthermore, any three columns and five rows of the 6 x 4 Golay form a BCH-Hamming (15,11;3) Code. Similarly a (80,58;8) code can be generated as a 10 x 8 binary matrix from the (63,57;3) BCH-Hamming Code represented as a 9 x 7 matrix by adding a row and a column both of odd and even parity. Furthermore, any seven columns along with the top nine rows is a BCH-Hamming (53,57;3) Code. A (80,40;16) 10 x 8 matrix binary code with weight structure identical to the extended (80,40;16) Quadratic Residue Code is generated from a (63,39;7) binary cyclic code represented as a 9 x 7 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity.

  6. High Order Modulation Protograph Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods for designing protograph-based bit-interleaved code modulation that is general and applies to any modulation. The general coding framework can support not only multiple rates but also adaptive modulation. The method is a two stage lifting approach. In the first stage, an original protograph is lifted to a slightly larger intermediate protograph. The intermediate protograph is then lifted via a circulant matrix to the expected codeword length to form a protograph-based low-density parity-check code.

  7. Parallelization of the SIR code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thonhofer, S.; Bellot Rubio, L. R.; Utz, D.; Jurčak, J.; Hanslmeier, A.; Piantschitsch, I.; Pauritsch, J.; Lemmerer, B.; Guttenbrunner, S.

    A high-resolution 3-dimensional model of the photospheric magnetic field is essential for the investigation of small-scale solar magnetic phenomena. The SIR code is an advanced Stokes-inversion code that deduces physical quantities, e.g. magnetic field vector, temperature, and LOS velocity, from spectropolarimetric data. We extended this code by the capability of directly using large data sets and inverting the pixels in parallel. Due to this parallelization it is now feasible to apply the code directly on extensive data sets. Besides, we included the possibility to use different initial model atmospheres for the inversion, which enhances the quality of the results.

  8. On complexity of trellis structure of linear block codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu

    1990-01-01

    The trellis structure of linear block codes (LBCs) is discussed. The state and branch complexities of a trellis diagram (TD) for a LBC is investigated. The TD with the minimum number of states is said to be minimal. The branch complexity of a minimal TD for a LBC is expressed in terms of the dimensions of specific subcodes of the given code. Then upper and lower bounds are derived on the number of states of a minimal TD for a LBC, and it is shown that a cyclic (or shortened cyclic) code is the worst in terms of the state complexity among the LBCs of the same length and dimension. Furthermore, it is shown that the structural complexity of a minimal TD for a LBC depends on the order of its bit positions. This fact suggests that an appropriate permutation of the bit positions of a code may result in an equivalent code with a much simpler minimal TD. Boolean polynomial representation of codewords of a LBC is also considered. This representation helps in study of the trellis structure of the code. Boolean polynomial representation of a code is applied to construct its minimal TD. Particularly, the construction of minimal trellises for Reed-Muller codes and the extended and permuted binary primitive BCH codes which contain Reed-Muller as subcodes is emphasized. Finally, the structural complexity of minimal trellises for the extended and permuted, and double-error-correcting BCH codes is analyzed and presented. It is shown that these codes have relatively simple trellis structure and hence can be decoded with the Viterbi decoding algorithm.

  9. RADTRAN 5: A computer code for transportation risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K. S.; Kanipe, F. L.

    1991-01-01

    RADTRAN 5 is a computer code developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM, to estimate radiological and nonradiological risks of radioactive materials transportation. RADTRAN 5 is written in ANSI Standard FORTRAN 77 and contains significant advances in the methodology for route-specific analysis first developed by SNL for RADTRAN 4 (Neuhauser and Kanipe, 1992). Like the previous RADTRAN codes, RADTRAN 5 contains two major modules for incident-free and accident risk amlysis, respectively. All commercially important transportation modes may be analyzed with RADTRAN 5: highway by combination truck; highway by light-duty vehicle; rail; barge; ocean-going ship; cargo air; and passenger air.

  10. Beam and plasma physics research. Final report, August 1986-March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Stellingwerf, R.F.; Peterkin, R.E.; Sullivan, D.J.

    1990-06-01

    Analysis was performed in high power microwave computations and theory and high energy plasma computations and theory. The HPM computations concentrated on generation, sources and propagation. Major codes used were the particle-in-cell codes SOS and ISIS. Topics studies were sources and antennas, propagation, relativistic klystron amplifiers, virtual cathode oscillators, magnetically insulated transmission lines, transvertrons and vircator phase/frequency locking. High energy plasmas were analyzed with MACH2, an implicit continuous Eulerian, arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian nonideal magnetohydrodynamic code. MACH2 modelled a variety of high energy plasmas including plasma flow switches, imploding liners and plasmas, compact toroids, magnetic reconnection and plasma guns. A smooth particle hydrodynamics code was developed to model various conditions, including shock heating, explosions and implosions. An optical multichannel analyzer was also provided to analyze plasma emission line spectra.

  11. Recent progress in ALEGRA development and application to ballistic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, R.M.; Peery, J.S.; Wong, M.W.; Hertel, E.S. Jr.; Trucano, T.G.; Chhabildas, L.C.

    1996-12-01

    ALEGRA is a multi-material, arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) code for solid dynamics being developed by the Computational Physics Research and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories. It combines the features of modem Eulerian shock codes, such as CTH, with modem Lagrangian structural analysis codes. With the ALE algorithm , the mesh can be stationary (Eulerian) with the material flowing through the mesh, the mesh ran move with the material (Lagrangian) so there is no flow between elements, or the mesh motion can be entirely independent of the material motion (Arbitrary). All three mesh types can coexist in the same problem and any mesh may change its type during the calculation. In this paper we summarize several key capabilities that have recently been added to the code or are currently being implemented. As a demonstration of the capabilities of ALEGRA, we have applied it to the experimental data taken by Silsby.

  12. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-16

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  13. Patched Conic Trajectory Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brooke Anderson; Wright, Henry

    2012-01-01

    PatCon code was developed to help mission designers run trade studies on launch and arrival times for any given planet. Initially developed in Fortran, the required inputs included launch date, arrival date, and other orbital parameters of the launch planet and arrival planets at the given dates. These parameters include the position of the planets, the eccentricity, semi-major axes, argument of periapsis, ascending node, and inclination of the planets. With these inputs, a patched conic approximation is used to determine the trajectory. The patched conic approximation divides the planetary mission into three parts: (1) the departure phase, in which the two relevant bodies are Earth and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a departure hyperbola with Earth at the focus; (2) the cruise phase, in which the two bodies are the Sun and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a transfer ellipse with the Sun at the focus; and (3) the arrival phase, in which the two bodies are the target planet and the spacecraft, where the trajectory is an arrival hyperbola with the planet as the focus.

  14. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The defaultmore » parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST« less

  15. [Opening medicine containers].

    PubMed

    Glerup, E; Dengsø, H

    1990-07-01

    In connection with self-administration of medicine for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, patients with weak hands and elderly patients in general, the design of many medicine containers makes them awkward to handle for the patients. In this investigation 12 different medicine containers were tested. The 12 containers represent the antirheumatic medicine containers available on the market in Denmark in 1988. Sixty patients participated in the investigation. Thirty had rheumatoid arthritis and 30 had normal hand function. The age range was 40-85 years The patients had the choice between five possible answers concerning each container. In all patients, grip strength was measured. The patients with rheumatoid arthritis were classified in four functional classes, and pulpa-vola distance end thumb--5th MCP point distance were measured. The opening mechanisms of 29% of the antirheumatic medicine containers are unacceptable; these are plastic containers with a "push-off" top and suppository packs. 46%--(containers with screw cap or pressure dispensing) are considered acceptable. For 25% (tablet and capsule blister packs) the patients' estimate varied. It is important that medicine containers can be opened by the patients without difficulty, so that they do not present a hindrance to a correct intake of medicine or result in an unnecessary admission to hospital. The results of this investigation show that it is of continuous importance to encourage the production of medicine containers that comply with the requirements of the patients. PMID:2142351

  16. Error coding simulations in C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1994-01-01

    When data is transmitted through a noisy channel, errors are produced within the data rendering it indecipherable. Through the use of error control coding techniques, the bit error rate can be reduced to any desired level without sacrificing the transmission data rate. The Astrionics Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center has decided to use a modular, end-to-end telemetry data simulator to simulate the transmission of data from flight to ground and various methods of error control. The simulator includes modules for random data generation, data compression, Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) transfer frame formation, error correction/detection, error generation and error statistics. The simulator utilizes a concatenated coding scheme which includes CCSDS standard (255,223) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF(2(exp 8)) with interleave depth of 5 as the outermost code, (7, 1/2) convolutional code as an inner code and CCSDS recommended (n, n-16) cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code as the innermost code, where n is the number of information bits plus 16 parity bits. The received signal-to-noise for a desired bit error rate is greatly reduced through the use of forward error correction techniques. Even greater coding gain is provided through the use of a concatenated coding scheme. Interleaving/deinterleaving is necessary to randomize burst errors which may appear at the input of the RS decoder. The burst correction capability length is increased in proportion to the interleave depth. The modular nature of the simulator allows for inclusion or exclusion of modules as needed. This paper describes the development and operation of the simulator, the verification of a C-language Reed-Solomon code, and the possibility of using Comdisco SPW(tm) as a tool for determining optimal error control schemes.

  17. Error coding simulations in C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1994-10-01

    When data is transmitted through a noisy channel, errors are produced within the data rendering it indecipherable. Through the use of error control coding techniques, the bit error rate can be reduced to any desired level without sacrificing the transmission data rate. The Astrionics Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center has decided to use a modular, end-to-end telemetry data simulator to simulate the transmission of data from flight to ground and various methods of error control. The simulator includes modules for random data generation, data compression, Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) transfer frame formation, error correction/detection, error generation and error statistics. The simulator utilizes a concatenated coding scheme which includes CCSDS standard (255,223) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF(2(exp 8)) with interleave depth of 5 as the outermost code, (7, 1/2) convolutional code as an inner code and CCSDS recommended (n, n-16) cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code as the innermost code, where n is the number of information bits plus 16 parity bits. The received signal-to-noise for a desired bit error rate is greatly reduced through the use of forward error correction techniques. Even greater coding gain is provided through the use of a concatenated coding scheme. Interleaving/deinterleaving is necessary to randomize burst errors which may appear at the input of the RS decoder. The burst correction capability length is increased in proportion to the interleave depth. The modular nature of the simulator allows for inclusion or exclusion of modules as needed. This paper describes the development and operation of the simulator, the verification of a C-language Reed-Solomon code, and the possibility of using Comdisco SPW(tm) as a tool for determining optimal error control schemes.

  18. Methodology, status and plans for development and assessment of Cathare code

    SciTech Connect

    Bestion, D.; Barre, F.; Faydide, B.

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology, status and plans for the development, assessment and uncertainty evaluation of the Cathare code. Cathare is a thermalhydraulic code developed by CEA (DRN), IPSN, EDF and FRAMATOME for PWR safety analysis. First, the status of the code development and assessment is presented. The general strategy used for the development and the assessment of the code is presented. Analytical experiments with separate effect tests, and component tests are used for the development and the validation of closure laws. Successive Revisions of constitutive laws are implemented in successive Versions of the code and assessed. System tests or integral tests are used to validate the general consistency of the Revision. Each delivery of a code Version + Revision is fully assessed and documented. A methodology is being developed to determine the uncertainty on all constitutive laws of the code using calculations of many analytical tests and applying the Discrete Adjoint Sensitivity Method (DASM). At last, the plans for the future developments of the code are presented. They concern the optimization of the code performance through parallel computing - the code will be used for real time full scope plant simulators - the coupling with many other codes (neutronic codes, severe accident codes), the application of the code for containment thermalhydraulics. Also, physical improvements are required in the field of low pressure transients and in the modeling for the 3-D model.

  19. Selective encryption for H.264/AVC video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Tuo; King, Brian; Salama, Paul

    2006-02-01

    Due to the ease with which digital data can be manipulated and due to the ongoing advancements that have brought us closer to pervasive computing, the secure delivery of video and images has become a challenging problem. Despite the advantages and opportunities that digital video provide, illegal copying and distribution as well as plagiarism of digital audio, images, and video is still ongoing. In this paper we describe two techniques for securing H.264 coded video streams. The first technique, SEH264Algorithm1, groups the data into the following blocks of data: (1) a block that contains the sequence parameter set and the picture parameter set, (2) a block containing a compressed intra coded frame, (3) a block containing the slice header of a P slice, all the headers of the macroblock within the same P slice, and all the luma and chroma DC coefficients belonging to the all the macroblocks within the same slice, (4) a block containing all the ac coefficients, and (5) a block containing all the motion vectors. The first three are encrypted whereas the last two are not. The second method, SEH264Algorithm2, relies on the use of multiple slices per coded frame. The algorithm searches the compressed video sequence for start codes (0x000001) and then encrypts the next N bits of data.

  20. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

  1. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Townsend, Harold E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

  2. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

  3. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, Paul F.; Cooke, Franklin E.; Fitch, James R.

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

  4. Coding in pigeons: Multiple-coding versus single-code/default strategies.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Carlos; Machado, Armando

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the coding strategies that pigeons may use in a temporal discrimination tasks, pigeons were trained on a matching-to-sample procedure with three sample durations (2s, 6s and 18s) and two comparisons (red and green hues). One comparison was correct following 2-s samples and the other was correct following both 6-s and 18-s samples. Tests were then run to contrast the predictions of two hypotheses concerning the pigeons' coding strategies, the multiple-coding and the single-code/default. According to the multiple-coding hypothesis, three response rules are acquired, one for each sample. According to the single-code/default hypothesis, only two response rules are acquired, one for the 2-s sample and a "default" rule for any other duration. In retention interval tests, pigeons preferred the "default" key, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. In no-sample tests, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 2-s sample, a result predicted by multiple-coding. Finally, in generalization tests, when the sample duration equaled 3.5s, the geometric mean of 2s and 6s, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 6-s and 18-s samples, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. The pattern of results suggests the need for models that take into account multiple sources of stimulus control. PMID:25894105

  5. Container for radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Fields, Stanley R.

    1985-01-01

    A container for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material and disposed in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload package concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and a sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path.

  6. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Stewart, William A.

    1991-01-01

    A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

  7. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes (RH-TRUCON)

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-08-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR

  8. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes (RH-TRUCON)

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2007-05-30

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR

  9. Indices for Testing Neural Codes

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Jonathan D.; Nirenberg, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    One of the most critical challenges in systems neuroscience is determining the neural code. A principled framework for addressing this can be found in information theory. With this approach, one can determine whether a proposed code can account for the stimulus-response relationship. Specifically, one can compare the transmitted information between the stimulus and the hypothesized neural code with the transmitted information between the stimulus and the behavioral response. If the former is smaller than the latter (i.e., if the code cannot account for the behavior), the code can be ruled out. The information-theoretic index most widely used in this context is Shannon’s mutual information. The Shannon test, however, is not ideal for this purpose: while the codes it will rule out are truly nonviable, there will be some nonviable codes that it will fail to rule out. Here we describe a wide range of alternative indices that can be used for ruling codes out. The range includes a continuum from Shannon information to measures of the performance of a Bayesian decoder. We analyze the relationship of these indices to each other and their complementary strengths and weaknesses for addressing this problem. PMID:18533812

  10. Accelerator Physics Code Web Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, F.; Basset, R.; Bellodi, G.; Benedetto, E.; Dorda, U.; Giovannozzi, M.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pieloni, T.; Ruggiero, F.; Rumolo, G.; Schmidt, F.; Todesco, E.; Zotter, B.W.; Payet, J.; Bartolini, R.; Farvacque, L.; Sen, T.; Chin, Y.H.; Ohmi, K.; Oide, K.; Furman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley /Oak Ridge /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /SLAC /TRIUMF /Tech-X, Boulder /UC, San Diego /Darmstadt, GSI /Rutherford /Brookhaven

    2006-10-24

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  11. ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  12. Video coding with dynamic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Manoranjan; Lin, Weisi; Lau, Chiew Tong; Lee, Bu-Sung

    2013-12-01

    Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) using variable block size, sub-pixel search, and multiple reference frames (MRFs) are the major reasons for improved coding performance of the H.264 video coding standard over other contemporary coding standards. The concept of MRFs is suitable for repetitive motion, uncovered background, non-integer pixel displacement, lighting change, etc. The requirement of index codes of the reference frames, computational time in ME & MC, and memory buffer for coded frames limits the number of reference frames used in practical applications. In typical video sequences, the previous frame is used as a reference frame with 68-92% of cases. In this article, we propose a new video coding method using a reference frame [i.e., the most common frame in scene (McFIS)] generated by dynamic background modeling. McFIS is more effective in terms of rate-distortion and computational time performance compared to the MRFs techniques. It has also inherent capability of scene change detection (SCD) for adaptive group of picture (GOP) size determination. As a result, we integrate SCD (for GOP determination) with reference frame generation. The experimental results show that the proposed coding scheme outperforms the H.264 video coding with five reference frames and the two relevant state-of-the-art algorithms by 0.5-2.0 dB with less computational time.

  13. Computer algorithm for coding gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, E. E.

    1974-01-01

    Development of a computer algorithm for coding gain for use in an automated communications link design system. Using an empirical formula which defines coding gain as used in space communications engineering, an algorithm is constructed on the basis of available performance data for nonsystematic convolutional encoding with soft-decision (eight-level) Viterbi decoding.

  14. Strongly Secure Linear Network Coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Kunihiko; Yamamoto, Hirosuke

    In a network with capacity h for multicast, information Xh=(X1, X2, …, Xh) can be transmitted from a source node to sink nodes without error by a linear network code. Furthermore, secret information Sr=(S1, S2, …, Sr) can be transmitted securely against wiretappers by k-secure network coding for k≤h-r. In this case, no information of the secret leaks out even if an adversary wiretaps k edges, i. e. channels. However, if an adversary wiretaps k+1 edges, some Si may leak out explicitly. In this paper, we propose strongly k-secure network coding based on strongly secure ramp secret sharing schemes. In this coding, no information leaks out for every (Si1, Si2, …,Sir-j) even if an adversary wiretaps k+j channels. We also give an algorithm to construct a strongly k-secure network code directly and a transform to convert a nonsecure network code to a strongly k-secure network code. Furthermore, some sufficient conditions of alphabet size to realize the strongly k-secure network coding are derived for the case of k

  15. QPhiX Code Generator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-09-16

    A simple code-generator to generate the low level code kernels used by the QPhiX Library for Lattice QCD. Generates Kernels for Wilson-Dslash, and Wilson-Clover kernels. Can be reused to write other optimized kernels for Intel Xeon Phi(tm), Intel Xeon(tm) and potentially other architectures.

  16. Using NAEYC's Code of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young Children, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Considers how to deal with an ethical dilemma concerning a caregiver's dislike for a child. Recognizes that no statement in NAEYC's Code of Ethical Conduct requires that a professional must like each child, and presents some ideals and principles from the code that may guide professionals through similar situations. (BAC)

  17. Cracking the bioelectric code

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, AiSun; Levin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of resting potential in non-excitable cells of living tissue are now known to be instructive signals for pattern formation during embryogenesis, regeneration and cancer suppression. The development of molecular-level techniques for tracking ion flows and functionally manipulating the activity of ion channels and pumps has begun to reveal the mechanisms by which voltage gradients regulate cell behaviors and the assembly of complex large-scale structures. A recent paper demonstrated that a specific voltage range is necessary for demarcation of eye fields in the frog embryo. Remarkably, artificially setting other somatic cells to the eye-specific voltage range resulted in formation of eyes in aberrant locations, including tissues that are not in the normal anterior ectoderm lineage: eyes could be formed in the gut, on the tail, or in the lateral plate mesoderm. These data challenge the existing models of eye fate restriction and tissue competence maps, and suggest the presence of a bioelectric code—a mapping of physiological properties to anatomical outcomes. This Addendum summarizes the current state of knowledge in developmental bioelectricity, proposes three possible interpretations of the bioelectric code that functionally maps physiological states to anatomical outcomes, and highlights the biggest open questions in this field. We also suggest a speculative hypothesis at the intersection of cognitive science and developmental biology: that bioelectrical signaling among non-excitable cells coupled by gap junctions simulates neural network-like dynamics, and underlies the information processing functions required by complex pattern formation in vivo. Understanding and learning to control the information stored in physiological networks will have transformative implications for developmental biology, regenerative medicine and synthetic bioengineering. PMID:23802040

  18. Coding polymorphism for phylogeny reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kornet, D J; Turner, H

    1999-06-01

    The methodology of coding polymorphic taxa has received limited attention to date. A search of the taxonomic literature revealed seven types of coding methods. Apart from ignoring polymorphic characters (sometimes called the fixed-only method), two main categories can be distinguished: methods that identify the start of a new character state with the origin of an evolutionary novelty, and methods that identify the new state with the fixation of a novelty. The methods of the first category introduce soft reversals, yielding signals that support cladograms incompatible with true phylogenies. We conclude that coding the plesiomorphy is the method to be preferred, unless the ancestral state is unknown, in which case coding as ambiguous is recommended. This holds for coding polymorphism in species as well as in supraspecific taxa. In this light we remark on methods proposed by previous authors. PMID:12066713

  19. Portable code development in C

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.A.

    1990-11-06

    With a new generation of high performance computers appearing around us on a time scale of months, a new challenge for developers of simulation codes is to write and maintain production codes that are both highly portable and maximally efficient. My contention is that C is the language that is both best suited to that goal and is widely available today. GLF is a new code written mainly in C which is intended to have all of the XRASER physics and run on any platform of interest. It demonstrates the power of the C paradigm for code developers and flexibility and ease of use for the users. Three fundamental problems are discussed: the C/UNIX development environment; the supporting tools and libraries which handle data and graphics portability issues; and the advantages of C in numerical simulation code development.

  20. Best practices for code release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    In this talk, I want to describe what I think are the best practices for releasing code and having it adopted by end users. Make sure your code is licensed, so users will know how the software can be used and modified, and place your code in a public repository that (and make sure that you follow institutional policies in doing this). Yet licensing and releasing code are not enough: the code must be organized and documented so users can understand what it does, what its limitations are, and how to build and use it. I will describe what I think are best practices in developing the content to support release, including tutorials, design documents, specifications of interfaces and so on. Much of what I have learned on based on ten years of experience in supporting releases of the Montage Image Mosaic Engine.

  1. STEALTH: a Lagrange explicit finite difference code for solids, structural, and thermohydraulic analysis. Volume 6: piping systems manual. Computer code manual

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, L.M.

    1982-03-01

    This volume documents the STEALTH piping numerical code, which can simulate the time-dependent flow phenomena that occur in piping systems. This volume also contains the input instructions for the STEALTH piping code, and a sample problem of a pipe flow simulation.

  2. VIPAR - Vortex Inflation PARachute Code Ver. 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-11-01

    VIPAR is a 3-D fluid mechanics code for predicting flow past bluff bodies whose surfaces can be assumed to be made up of shell elements that are simply connected. Version 1.0 of the code contains several first order algorithms, which we are already in the process of replacing with higher order ones. These enhancements will appear in the next version of VIPAR. The present code contains a motion generator, which can be used to producemore » large class of rigid body motions. The present code has also been fully coupled to a structural dynamics code in which the geometry undergoes large time dependent deformations. Initial surface geometry is generated from triangular shell elements using a code such as Patran and is written into an Exodusll data base file for subsequent input into VIPAR. Surface and wake variable information is output into two Exodusll files which can be processed and viewed using software such as EnSight.« less

  3. Federal Act amending the Penal Code and the Code of Penal Procedure (Penal Code Amendments 1989), 27 April 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Austria's Federal act amending the Penal Code and the Code of Penal Procedure (Penal Code Amendments 1989), April 27, 1989, rewrites sections of the Penal Code relating to sexual crimes. Among other things, it makes these sections sex-neutral and criminalizes rape within marriage and cohabitation. Section 201 states that 1) whoever, by means of serious force or threat of actual serious danger to life or limb, compels a person to engage in sexual intercourse or an equivalent sexual act will be punished with imprisonment from 1 to 10 years. Rendering a person unconscious will be considered using serious force; 2) apart from the above subsection 1, whoever, by means of force or deprivation or personal freedom, or threat of actual danger to life or limb, compels a person to engage in sexual intercourse or an equivalent sexual act will be punished with imprisonment from 6 months to 5 years; and 3) specified circumstances will result in enhanced punishments. Section 202 states that 1) apart from the above Section 201, whoever by means of force or serious threat, compels a sexual act shall be punished with imprisonment for up to 3 years and 2) there will be enhanced punishments for special circumstances. Section 203 deals with perpetration of the crime in marriage or cohabitation, and states: 1) whoever perpetrates one of the acts described in Section 201 and Section 202 against a spouse or cohabiting partner will be prosecuted only upon the complaint of the injured party in so far as none of the results described in sections 201 or 202 occurs, and the criminal act contains none of the circumstances specified in those sections. Special commutation provisions are available when the injured party declares their wish to continue to live with the perpetrator. PMID:12344063

  4. Transform coding of stereo image residuals.

    PubMed

    Moellenhoff, M S; Maier, M W

    1998-01-01

    Stereo image compression is of growing interest because of new display technologies and the needs of telepresence systems. Compared to monoscopic image compression, stereo image compression has received much less attention. A variety of algorithms have appeared in the literature that make use of the cross-view redundancy in the stereo pair. Many of these use the framework of disparity-compensated residual coding, but concentrate on the disparity compensation process rather than the post compensation coding process. This paper studies specialized coding methods for the residual image produced by disparity compensation. The algorithms make use of theoretically expected and experimentally observed characteristics of the disparity-compensated stereo residual to select transforms and quantization methods. Performance is evaluated on mean squared error (MSE) and a stereo-unique metric based on image registration. Exploiting the directional characteristics in a discrete cosine transform (DCT) framework provides its best performance below 0.75 b/pixel for 8-b gray-scale imagery and below 2 b/pixel for 24-b color imagery, In the wavelet algorithm, roughly a 50% reduction in bit rate is possible by encoding only the vertical channel, where much of the stereo information is contained. The proposed algorithms do not incur substantial computational burden beyond that needed for any disparity-compensated residual algorithm. PMID:18276294

  5. RYLLA. [X-ray transport code

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.

    1983-06-08

    This paper describes a computer code, RYLLA, which models the deposition of x-rays into thin metal slabs, and transports the resulting photoelectrons, finding the distribution of electrons leaving the slab from both the front and back surfaces. The slab must be homogeneous, but can contain a mixture of up to 5 different elements. Due to the short electron mean free path at low electron energies, RYLLA should be used only for studying thin slabs, roughly < 100 mg/cm/sup 2/ for low Z metals, and < 10 mg/cm/sup 2/ for high Z metals. X-ray energies should be in the range of 1 to 150 keV, as they are deposited only via photoionization and Compton scattering processes. Following photoionization, a hole exists in the electron cloud of the absorbing atom. This fills either by Auger or fluoresence, resulting in lower energy holes which are also filled. Fluoresence photons are transported and absorbed in the same manner as the primary photons, except that they are isotropically produced. Once all photons have been transported and absorbed, and all holes have been filled, a space- and energy-dependent electron source spectrum has been obtained. This is used in a discrete ordinate expansion solution of the 1-D transport equation, which gives the output electron spectra at the two slab surfaces. This paper discusses both the physics and coding of RYLLA. Examples of user input are given, as are some comparisons with other codes.

  6. MORSE Monte Carlo radiation transport code system

    SciTech Connect

    Emmett, M.B.

    1983-02-01

    This report is an addendum to the MORSE report, ORNL-4972, originally published in 1975. This addendum contains descriptions of several modifications to the MORSE Monte Carlo Code, replacement pages containing corrections, Part II of the report which was previously unpublished, and a new Table of Contents. The modifications include a Klein Nishina estimator for gamma rays. Use of such an estimator required changing the cross section routines to process pair production and Compton scattering cross sections directly from ENDF tapes and writing a new version of subroutine RELCOL. Another modification is the use of free form input for the SAMBO analysis data. This required changing subroutines SCORIN and adding new subroutine RFRE. References are updated, and errors in the original report have been corrected. (WHK)

  7. Code enhancements and validation of GASP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Robert W.; Cinnella, P.; Slack, D. C.

    1990-03-01

    Enhancements to GASP and the validation test cases that were investigated to date are described. GASP is a computational fluid dynamics computer code that solves the integral form of the governing equations, which includes the full Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (NS) equations, the Thin Layer NS equations, the Parabolized NS equations, and the Euler equations. GASP contains a generalized chemistry model and both equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermodynamics models for simulating a wide range of conditions. GASP is highly vectorized and contains a variety of time integration schemes for both steady-state and time-accurate calculations. Additional capabilities including boundary condition options, chemistry models incorporated, and memory management techniques are reviewed in outline format.

  8. [Management, a containment tool].

    PubMed

    Chazalet, Nathalie; Perrin-Niquet, Annick

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare managers, in partnership with a doctor, are responsible for the care project, the coherence of the care activities and the cohesion of the team. Their managerial role means they need to be receptive to and contain the feelings of the team, as well as take an active part in the psychological containment approach used with the patient. PMID:25562917

  9. 7 CFR 42.110 - Sampling plans for tightened condition of container inspection; Tables II and II-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF... Inspection Code Lot size ranges—Number of containers in lot Type of plan AQL 0.15 Sample size Ac Re Sample... Condition of Container Inspection Code Lot size ranges—No. of containers in lot Type of plan Sample...

  10. 7 CFR 42.110 - Sampling plans for tightened condition of container inspection; Tables II and II-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF... Inspection Code Lot size ranges—Number of containers in lot Type of plan AQL 0.15 Sample size Ac Re Sample... Condition of Container Inspection Code Lot size ranges—No. of containers in lot Type of plan Sample...

  11. 7 CFR 42.110 - Sampling plans for tightened condition of container inspection; Tables II and II-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF... Inspection Code Lot size ranges—Number of containers in lot Type of plan AQL 0.15 Sample size Ac Re Sample... Condition of Container Inspection Code Lot size ranges—No. of containers in lot Type of plan Sample...

  12. Fission Product Migration in Primary System and Containment

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-04-01

    Version 00 ART MOD2 aims at a comprehensive analysis for the FP behaviour in primary system and in containment during severe accidents and therefore the code considers the removal of radio-nuclides of up to 60 materials including chemical compounds by natural deposition and by the engineered safety features (ESF) such as spray systems. As for the natural deposition of radio-nuclides, the code can consider the phenomena such as gravitational settling, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, Brownian diffusion, diffusionmore » under laminar or turbulent flows, resuspension, condensation, chemisorption and revaporization. The code also models the aerosol growth by agglomeration of aerosols and condensation/evaporation of volatile material at the aerosol surface. Recently, the models for iodine chemistry in containment sump water was incorporated into ART MOD2 ART MOD2 was modified in January 2015 to correct coding errors and improve the vibration of the calculation result of water (H2O) vapor.« less

  13. Fission Product Migration in Primary System and Containment

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-01

    Version 00 ART MOD2 aims at a comprehensive analysis for the FP behaviour in primary system and in containment during severe accidents and therefore the code considers the removal of radio-nuclides of up to 60 materials including chemical compounds by natural deposition and by the engineered safety features (ESF) such as spray systems. As for the natural deposition of radio-nuclides, the code can consider the phenomena such as gravitational settling, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, Brownian diffusion, diffusion under laminar or turbulent flows, resuspension, condensation, chemisorption and revaporization. The code also models the aerosol growth by agglomeration of aerosols and condensation/evaporation of volatile material at the aerosol surface. Recently, the models for iodine chemistry in containment sump water was incorporated into ART MOD2 ART MOD2 was modified in January 2015 to correct coding errors and improve the vibration of the calculation result of water (H2O) vapor.

  14. BASS Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, Scott

    2004-01-01

    The BASS computational aeroacoustic code solves the fully nonlinear Euler equations in the time domain in two-dimensions. The acoustic response of the stator is determined simultaneously for the first three harmonics of the convected vortical gust of the rotor. The spatial mode generation, propagation and decay characteristics are predicted by assuming the acoustic field away from the stator can be represented as a uniform flow with small harmonic perturbations superimposed. The computed field is then decomposed using a joint temporal-spatial transform to determine the wave amplitudes as a function of rotor harmonic and spatial mode order. This report details the following technical aspects of the computations and analysis. 1) the BASS computational technique; 2) the application of periodic time shifted boundary conditions; 3) the linear theory aspects unique to rotor-stator interactions; and 4) the joint spatial-temporal transform. The computational results presented herein are twofold. In each case, the acoustic response of the stator is determined simultaneously for the first three harmonics of the convected vortical gust of the rotor. The fan under consideration here like modern fans is cut-off at +, and propagating acoustic waves are only expected at 2BPF and 3BPF. In the first case, the computations showed excellent agreement with linear theory predictions. The frequency and spatial mode order of acoustic field was computed and found consistent with linear theory. Further, the propagation of the generated modes was also correctly predicted. The upstream going waves propagated from the domain without reflection from the in ow boundary. However, reflections from the out ow boundary were noticed. The amplitude of the reflected wave was approximately 5% of the incident wave. The second set of computations were used to determine the influence of steady loading on the generated noise. Toward this end, the acoustic response was determined with three steady loading

  15. NASA Lewis Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mi, Ye; Tower, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed the LERCHP code. The PC-based LERCHP code can be used to predict the steady-state performance of heat pipes, including the determination of operating temperature and operating limits which might be encountered under specified conditions. The code contains a vapor flow algorithm which incorporates vapor compressibility and axially varying heat input. For the liquid flow in the wick, Darcy s formula is employed. Thermal boundary conditions and geometric structures can be defined through an interactive input interface. A variety of fluid and material options as well as user defined options can be chosen for the working fluid, wick, and pipe materials. This report documents the current effort at GRC to update the LERCHP code for operating in a Microsoft Windows (Microsoft Corporation) environment. A detailed analysis of the model is presented. The programming architecture for the numerical calculations is explained and flowcharts of the key subroutines are given

  16. RBMK-LOCA-Analyses with the ATHLET-Code

    SciTech Connect

    Petry, A.; Domoradov, A.; Finjakin, A.

    1995-09-01

    The scientific technical cooperation between Germany and Russia includes the area of adaptation of several German codes for the Russian-designed RBMK-reactor. One point of this cooperation is the adaptation of the Thermal-Hydraulic code ATHLET (Analyses of the Thermal-Hydraulics of LEaks and Transients), for RBMK-specific safety problems. This paper contains a short description of a RBMK-1000 reactor circuit. Furthermore, the main features of the thermal-hydraulic code ATHLET are presented. The main assumptions for the ATHLET-RBMK model are discussed. As an example for the application, the results of test calculations concerning a guillotine type rupture of a distribution group header are presented and discussed, and the general analysis conditions are described. A comparison with corresponding RELAP-calculations is given. This paper gives an overview on some problems posed and experience by application of Western best-estimate codes for RBMK-calculations.

  17. OM Code Requirements For MOVs -- OMN-1 and Appendix III

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin G. DeWall

    2011-08-01

    The purpose or scope of the ASME OM Code is to establish the requirements for pre-service and in-service testing of nuclear power plant components to assess their operational readiness. For MOVs this includes those that perform a specific function in shutting down a reactor to the safe shutdown condition, maintaining the safe shutdown condition, and mitigating the consequences of an accident. This paper will present a brief history of industry and regulatory activities related to MOVs and the development of Code requirements to address weaknesses in earlier versions of the OM Code. The paper will discuss the MOV requirements contained in the 2009 version of ASME OM Code, specifically Mandatory Appendix III and OMN-1, Revision 1.

  18. User's manual for the GABAS spectrum computer code. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, D.D.; Lurie, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Gamma and Beta Spectrum computer code (GABAS) was developed at IRT Corporation for calculating time-dependent beta and/or gamma spectra from decaying fission products. GABAS calculates composite fission product spectra based on the technique used by England, et al., in conjunction with the CINDER family of fission product codes. Multigroup beta and gamma spectra for individual nuclides are folded with their corresponding time-dependent activities (usually generated by a fission product inventory code) to produce a composite time-dependent fission product spectrum. This manual contains the methodology employed by GABAS, input requirements for proper execution, a sample problem and a FORTRAN listing compatible with a UNIVAC machine. The code is available in a UNIVAC 1100/81 version and a VAX 11/780 version. The former may be obtained from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC); the latter may be obtained directly from IRT Corporation.

  19. LEWICE/E: An Euler based ice accretion code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark G.

    1992-01-01

    A new version of the LEWICE ice accretion computer code was developed which calculates the ice growth on two dimensional surfaces, incorporating the effects of compressibility through the solution of the Euler equations. The code is modular and contains separate stand-alone program elements that create a grid, calculate the flow field parameters, calculate the droplet trajectory paths, determine the amount of ice growth, and plot results. This code increases the applicability of ice accretion predictions by allowing calculations at higher Mach numbers. The new elements of the code are described. Calculated results are compared to experiment for several cases, including a LEWICE example case and a thin airfoil section at a Mach number of 0.58.

  20. LEWICE/E - An Euler based ice accretion code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark G.

    1992-01-01

    A new version of the LEWICE ice accretion computer code was developed which calculates the ice growth on two dimensional surfaces, incorporating the effects of compressibility through the solution of the Euler equations. The code is modular and contains separate stand-alone program elements that create a grid, calculate the flow field parameters, calculate the droplet trajectory paths, determine the amount of ice growth, and plot results. This code increases the applicability of ice accretion predictions by allowing calculations at higher Mach numbers. The new elements of the code are described. Calculated results are compared to experiment for several cases, including a LEWICE example case and a thin airfoil section at a Mach number of 0.58.

  1. Coded communications with nonideal interleaving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laufer, Shaul

    1991-02-01

    Burst error channels - a type of block interference channels - feature increasing capacity but decreasing cutoff rate as the memory rate increases. Despite the large capacity, there is degradation in the performance of practical coding schemes when the memory length is excessive. A short-coding error parameter (SCEP) was introduced, which expresses a bound on the average decoding-error probability for codes shorter than the block interference length. The performance of a coded slow frequency-hopping communication channel is analyzed for worst-case partial band jamming and nonideal interleaving, by deriving expressions for the capacity and cutoff rate. The capacity and cutoff rate, respectively, are shown to approach and depart from those of a memoryless channel corresponding to the transmission of a single code letter per hop. For multiaccess communications over a slot-synchronized collision channel without feedback, the channel was considered as a block interference channel with memory length equal to the number of letters transmitted in each slot. The effects of an asymmetrical background noise and a reduced collision error rate were studied, as aspects of real communications. The performance of specific convolutional and Reed-Solomon codes was examined for slow frequency-hopping systems with nonideal interleaving. An upper bound is presented for the performance of a Viterbi decoder for a convolutional code with nonideal interleaving, and a soft decision diversity combining technique is introduced.

  2. ETR/ITER systems code

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, W.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Brooks, J.N.; Bulmer, R.H.; Busigin, A.; DuBois, P.F.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Fink, J.; Finn, P.A.; Galambos, J.D.; Gohar, Y.; Gorker, G.E.; Haines, J.R.; Hassanein, A.M.; Hicks, D.R.; Ho, S.K.; Kalsi, S.S.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Kerns, J.A.; Lee, J.D.; Miller, J.R.; Miller, R.L.; Myall, J.O.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Perkins, L.J.; Spampinato, P.T.; Strickler, D.J.; Thomson, S.L.; Wagner, C.E.; Willms, R.S.; Reid, R.L.

    1988-04-01

    A tokamak systems code capable of modeling experimental test reactors has been developed and is described in this document. The code, named TETRA (for Tokamak Engineering Test Reactor Analysis), consists of a series of modules, each describing a tokamak system or component, controlled by an optimizer/driver. This code development was a national effort in that the modules were contributed by members of the fusion community and integrated into a code by the Fusion Engineering Design Center. The code has been checked out on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center and has satisfactorily simulated the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor II (TIBER) design. A feature of this code is the ability to perform optimization studies through the use of a numerical software package, which iterates prescribed variables to satisfy a set of prescribed equations or constraints. This code will be used to perform sensitivity studies for the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). 22 figs., 29 tabs.

  3. An extended genetic scale of reading frame coding.

    PubMed

    Michel, Christian J

    2015-01-21

    The reading frame coding (RFC) of codes (sets) of trinucleotides is a genetic concept which has been largely ignored during the last 50 years. An extended definition of the statistical parameter PrRFC (Michel, 2014) is proposed here for analysing the probability (efficiency) of reading frame coding of usage of any trinucleotide code. It is applied to the analysis of the RFC efficiency of usage of the C(3) self-complementary trinucleotide circular code X identified in prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes (Arquès and Michel, 1996). The usage of X is called usage XU. The highest RFC probabilities of usage XU are identified in bacterial plasmids and bacteria (about 49.0%). Then, by decreasing values, the RFC probabilities of usage XU are observed in archaea (47.5%), viruses (45.4%) and nuclear eukaryotes (42.8%). The lowest RFC probabilities of usage XU are found in mitochondria and chloroplasts (about 36.5%). Thus, genes contain information for reading frame coding. Such a genetic property which to our knowledge has never been identified, may bring new insights in the origin and evolution of the genetic code. PMID:25311909

  4. Experimental QR code optical encryption: noise-free data recovering.

    PubMed

    Barrera, John Fredy; Mira-Agudelo, Alejandro; Torroba, Roberto

    2014-05-15

    We report, to our knowledge for the first time, the experimental implementation of a quick response (QR) code as a "container" in an optical encryption system. A joint transform correlator architecture in an interferometric configuration is chosen as the experimental scheme. As the implementation is not possible in a single step, a multiplexing procedure to encrypt the QR code of the original information is applied. Once the QR code is correctly decrypted, the speckle noise present in the recovered QR code is eliminated by a simple digital procedure. Finally, the original information is retrieved completely free of any kind of degradation after reading the QR code. Additionally, we propose and implement a new protocol in which the reception of the encrypted QR code and its decryption, the digital block processing, and the reading of the decrypted QR code are performed employing only one device (smartphone, tablet, or computer). The overall method probes to produce an outcome far more attractive to make the adoption of the technique a plausible option. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the practicality of the proposed security system. PMID:24978277

  5. Benchmarking studies for the DESCARTES and CIDER codes

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, P.W.; Ouderkirk, S.J.; Nichols, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Envirorunental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) project is developing several computer codes to model the airborne release, transport, and envirormental accumulation of radionuclides resulting from Hanford operations from 1944 through 1972. In order to calculate the dose of radiation a person may have received in any given location, the geographic area addressed by the HEDR Project will be divided into a grid. The grid size suggested by the draft requirements contains 2091 units called nodes. Two of the codes being developed are DESCARTES and CIDER. The DESCARTES code will be used to estimate the concentration of radionuclides in environmental pathways from the output of the air transport code RATCHET. The CIDER code will use information provided by DESCARTES to estimate the dose received by an individual. The requirements that Battelle (BNW) set for these two codes were released to the HEDR Technical Steering Panel (TSP) in a draft document on November 10, 1992. This document reports on the preliminary work performed by the code development team to determine if the requirements could be met.

  6. Overview of the ArbiTER edge plasma eigenvalue code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baver, Derek; Myra, James; Umansky, Maxim

    2011-10-01

    The Arbitrary Topology Equation Reader, or ArbiTER, is a flexible eigenvalue solver that is currently under development for plasma physics applications. The ArbiTER code builds on the equation parser framework of the existing 2DX code, extending it to include a topology parser. This will give the code the capability to model problems with complicated geometries (such as multiple X-points and scrape-off layers) or model equations with arbitrary numbers of dimensions (e.g. for kinetic analysis). In the equation parser framework, model equations are not included in the program's source code. Instead, an input file contains instructions for building a matrix from profile functions and elementary differential operators. The program then executes these instructions in a sequential manner. These instructions may also be translated into analytic form, thus giving the code transparency as well as flexibility. We will present an overview of how the ArbiTER code is to work, as well as preliminary results from early versions of this code. Work supported by the U.S. DOE.

  7. Coding design for error correcting output codes based on perceptron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jin-Deng; Wang, Xiao-Dan; Zhou, Hong-Jian; Cui, Yong-Hua; Jing, Sun

    2012-05-01

    It is known that error-correcting output codes (ECOC) is a common way to model multiclass classification problems, in which the research of encoding based on data is attracting more and more attention. We propose a method for learning ECOC with the help of a single-layered perception neural network. To achieve this goal, the code elements of ECOC are mapped to the weights of network for the given decoding strategy, and an object function with the constrained weights is used as a cost function of network. After the training, we can obtain a coding matrix including lots of subgroups of class. Experimental results on artificial data and University of California Irvine with logistic linear classifier and support vector machine as the binary learner show that our scheme provides better performance of classification with shorter length of coding matrix than other state-of-the-art encoding strategies.

  8. Velocity gradient induced line splitting in x-ray emission accompanying plasma-wall interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šmíd, M.; Renner, O.; Liska, R.

    2013-08-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy was applied to study the ion back-scattering in plasma-wall interaction. In experiments carried out on the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS), the energetic ions produced at thin laser burnt-through Al foil impacted the secondary C target where they were decelerated, trapped and scattered in radial and backward directions. The environmental conditions in near-wall plasmas were analyzed using the high-dispersion x-ray spectroscopy and temporally-resolved x-ray imaging. The radial expansion of ions back-scattered in the near-wall region was directly observed via the Doppler effect induced splitting of the Al Heα intercombination line. The experimentally observed line splitting was modeled using a combination of the 2D arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian hydrodynamics code PALE with the multifluid code MULTIF and spectrally postprocessed using HULLAC atomic model builder and CRETIN collisional-radiative code.

  9. Modeling Heat Conduction and Radiation Transport with the Diffusion Equation in NIF ALE-AMR

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, A C; Bailey, D S; Kaiser, T B; Gunney, B N; Masters, N D; Koniges, A E; Eder, D C; Anderson, R W

    2009-10-06

    The ALE-AMR code developed for NIF is a multi-material hydro-code that models target assembly fragmentation in the aftermath of a shot. The combination of ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian) hydro with AMR (Adaptive Mesh Refinement) allows the code to model a wide range of physical conditions and spatial scales. The large range of temperatures encountered in the NIF target chamber can lead to significant fluxes of energy due to thermal conduction and radiative transport. These physical effects can be modeled approximately with the aid of the diffusion equation. We present a novel method for the solution of the diffusion equation on a composite mesh in order to capture these physical effects.

  10. PANEL CODE FOR PLANAR CASCADES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, E. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Panel Code for Planar Cascades was developed as an aid for the designer of turbomachinery blade rows. The effective design of turbomachinery blade rows relies on the use of computer codes to model the flow on blade-to-blade surfaces. Most of the currently used codes model the flow as inviscid, irrotational, and compressible with solutions being obtained by finite difference or finite element numerical techniques. While these codes can yield very accurate solutions, they usually require an experienced user to manipulate input data and control parameters. Also, they often limit a designer in the types of blade geometries, cascade configurations, and flow conditions that can be considered. The Panel Code for Planar Cascades accelerates the design process and gives the designer more freedom in developing blade shapes by offering a simple blade-to-blade flow code. Panel, or integral equation, solution techniques have been used for several years by external aerodynamicists who have developed and refined them into a primary design tool of the aircraft industry. The Panel Code for Planar Cascades adapts these same techniques to provide a versatile, stable, and efficient calculation scheme for internal flow. The code calculates the compressible, inviscid, irrotational flow through a planar cascade of arbitrary blade shapes. Since the panel solution technique is for incompressible flow, a compressibility correction is introduced to account for compressible flow effects. The analysis is limited to flow conditions in the subsonic and shock-free transonic range. Input to the code consists of inlet flow conditions, blade geometry data, and simple control parameters. Output includes flow parameters at selected control points. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 590K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1982.

  11. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes (RH TRUCON)

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2007-05-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR

  12. Flywheel containment technology assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppa, A. P.; Zweben, C. H.; Mirandy, L.

    1980-07-01

    The important effect of containment weight on the density of a flywheel was examined for a selection of flywheel designs incorporating metallic and composite construction as contained by steel housings. Three different flywheel constructions are presented, namely laminated rotor, shaped disk, and multirim. Materials are steel for the first two types and E glass, S glass and Kevlar composites for the third type. All of the flywheels were comparable in that their stress levels were based on long term high cycle operation. All of the specific energy values were penalized heavily by the containment weight, the least being the laminated rotor (-29 percent) and the greatest being the shaped disk (-72 percent). The penalties for the multirim designs are -45 percent (E glass), -55 percent (S glass), and -60 percent (Kevlar). The low penalty of the laminated steel rotor was due to the fact that the containment weight was based on withstanding the rupture of only one of the constituent disks. The high penalty of the shaped steel disk, on the other hand, reflects the severe containment action that resulted from its bursting into large, hard, and axially narrow fragments. The intermediate but nevertheless substantial containment penalty of the multidrum composite rotors resulted from their relatively mild containment behavior.

  13. Portable containment sleever apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rea, Michael J.; Brown, Roger A.

    2000-01-01

    A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

  14. Hanford Meteorological Station computer codes: Volume 3, The TANK computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, J.W.; Andrews, G.L.

    1987-09-01

    At the end of each graveyard shift the Hanford Meteorological Station (HMS), operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, issues a forecast of eight hourly average wind speeds and wind gusts for the 50-ft level. The Hanford Waste Management crew uses this forecast, called the tank farm forecast, to schedule daily work loads. The forecast covers an 8-hour period (0800 to 1600 during Pacific Standard Time (PST) or 0700 to 1500 during Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)) and the day-shift forecaster may modify the tank farm forecast to reflect changing wind conditions. The TANK computer code is used to archive these forecasts and apply quality assurance checks to the forecast data. The code accesses an input file, which contains the date of the previous forecast, and an output file, which contains tank farm forecasts for the current month. The program includes a data entry form consisting of 12 fields that must be filled in by the user. The information entered on the form is appended to the monthly forecast file, which provides an archive for the tank farm forecasts. This volume describes the implementation and operation of the TANK computer code at the HMS.

  15. Hanford Meteorological Station computer codes: Volume 4, The SUM computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, G.L.; Buck, J.W.

    1987-09-01

    At the end of each swing shift, the Hanford Meteorological Station (HMS), operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, archives a set of daily weather observations. These weather observations are a summary of the maximum and minimum temperature, total precipitation, maximum and minimum relative humidity, total snowfall, total snow depth at 1200 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), and maximum wind speed plus the direction from which the wind occurred and the time it occurred. This summary also indicates the occurrence of rain, snow, and other weather phenomena. The SUM computer code is used to archive the summary and apply quality assurance checks to the data. This code accesses an input file that contains the date of the previous archive and an output file that contains a daily weather summary for the current month. As part of the program, a data entry form consisting of 21 fields must be filled in by the user. The information on the form is appended to the monthly file, which provides an archive for the daily weather summary. This volume describes the implementation and operation of the SUM computer code at the HMS.

  16. Understanding the Code: upholding dignity.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The Nursing and Midwifery Council, the statutory professional regulator for registered district nurses, has introduced a revised code of standards that came into effect on 31 March 2015. The Code makes clear that while district nurses can interpret the values and principles for use in community settings, the standards are not negotiable or discretionary. They must be applied, otherwise the district nurse's fitness to practice will be called into question. In the second of a series of articles analysing the legal implications of the Code on district nurse practice, the author considers the first standard, which requires district nurses to treat people as individuals and to uphold their dignity. PMID:25839879

  17. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION (REVISION 3): SOURCE CODE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This tape contains the source code (FORTRAN) for Revision 3 of the Mathematical Model of Electrostatic Precipitation. Improvements found in Revision 3 of the model include a new method of calculating the solutions to the electric field equations, a dynamic method for calculating ...

  18. Container for radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Fields, S.R.

    1984-05-30

    A container is claimed for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material. The several canister assemblies are stacked in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path. 7 figures.

  19. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2005-02-08

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. The advanced containment system comprises a plurality of casing sections with each casing section interlocked to an adjacent casing section. Each casing section includes a complementary interlocking structure that interlocks with the complementary interlocking structure on an adjacent casing section. A barrier filler substantially fills the casing sections and may substantially fill the spaces of the complementary interlocking structure to form a substantially impermeable barrier. Some of the casing sections may include sensors so that the casing sections and the zone of interest may be remotely monitored after the casing sections are emplaced in the ground.

  20. OBOE containment prospectus

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhard, N R

    1999-11-19

    The OBOE series of experiments presents a new fielding concept for LLNL subcritical experiments. An experimental alcove will be reused for many different experiments. Each individual experiment will be conducted within a steel experimental vessel. After each experiment, the vessel will be moved to the back of the alcove and entombed in grout. The alcove is designed with sufficient space to entomb 12 experiment vessels. Each experiment in the OBOE series of experiments is composed of one experimental package. Each experimental package will have high explosive (HE) and special nuclear material (SNM) in a subcritical assembly. Each experimental package will be placed in a steel experimental vessel within the OBOE zero-room. Each experiment will be detonated inside its experimental vessel in the OBOE zero-room that is formed by a steel and concrete barrier at the entrance to the U1a.102C drift. The containment plan for the OBOE series of experiments utilizes a two containment vessel concept. The first containment vessel is formed by the primary containment barrier that seals the U1a.102C drift. The second containment vessel is formed by the secondary containment barrier in the U1a.100 drift. While it is likely that the experiment vessel will contain the SNM from an experiment, the containment plan for the OBOE series only assumes that the steel experiment vessel provides shock mitigation and is a heat sink for the heat produced by the detonation of the HE. It is possible that one or more of the experimental vessels may seep SNM in the zero-room from a failure of a seal on the vessel. We are presenting a containment plan for the entire series of OBOE experiments. At this time, we do not know exactly how many experiments will actually be conducted in the OBOE series. However, we do know that the maximum number of experiments in the OBOE series is 12. After the final experiment in the OBOE series, a larger experiment will be conducted in the U1a.102C alcove. This