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1

76 FR 43698 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FWS-R5-FHC-2011-N135; 53330-1335-0000-J3] Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives...announce a meeting of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives...Designated Federal Officer, Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control...

2011-07-21

2

75 FR 82061 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FWS-R5-FHC-2010-N045; 53330-1335-0000-J3] Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives...announce a meeting of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives...The meeting will be held at the Lake Champlain Basin Program/Vermont Fish...

2010-12-29

3

Variable Marine Reservoir Effect in Bivalves From Champlain Sea Sediments in the Lake Champlain Valley, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Champlain Sea was an inland sea that existed in the St. Lawrence lowlands and Lake Champlain Valley of eastern North America during the last deglaciation. At the beginning of its formation the Champlain Sea was in contact with the retreating Laurentide Ice Sheet, although the ice margin eventually retreated beyond the sea's extent. Its only connection to the open

J. A. Rayburn; T. M. Cronin; P. L. Manley; D. A. Franzi; P. L. Knuepfer

2006-01-01

4

Movement of Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) are a nuisance aquatic species in the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain that have devastated native fish populations and hampered the restoration of sport fisheries. This study examined inter-basin movement of sea lamprey in Lake Champlain to identify tributaries that contribute parasitic-phase sea lamprey and provide information for prioritizing those tributaries for sea lamprey control. A

Eric A. Howe; J. Ellen Marsden; Wayne Bouffard

2006-01-01

5

Sea Lamprey Control in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1990, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and state agencies initiated an 8-year experimental sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program on Lake Champlain to reduce parasitic phase sea lamprey and increase sport fish survival and growth. Twenty-four 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) treatments were conducted on 13 tributary systems, and nine Bayluscide treatments were conducted on five deltas. Most tributaries

J. Ellen Marsden; Brian D. Chipman; Lawrence J. Nashett; Jon K. Anderson; Wayne Bouffard; Lance Durfey; John E. Gersmehl; William F. Schoch; Nicholas R. Staats; Adam Zerrenner

2003-01-01

6

75 FR 54163 - Office of the Secretary: Renewal of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary: Renewal of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives...reestablished the charter for the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives...alternative to lampricides in Lake Champlain. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

2010-09-03

7

Variable Marine Reservoir Effect in Bivalves From Champlain Sea Sediments in the Lake Champlain Valley, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Champlain Sea was an inland sea that existed in the St. Lawrence lowlands and Lake Champlain Valley of eastern North America during the last deglaciation. At the beginning of its formation the Champlain Sea was in contact with the retreating Laurentide Ice Sheet, although the ice margin eventually retreated beyond the sea's extent. Its only connection to the open ocean was through the relatively narrow Gulf of St. Lawrence. The Champlain Sea must have had significant salinity stratification because it received freshwater runoff from the ice margin, Adirondack Mountains of New York State, and the Green Mountains of Vermont, as well as the entire discharge from the Great Lakes in the west. Age estimates for the Champlain Sea have traditionally been based on an abundance of bivalve and other marine fossils collected throughout the region; however, more recent studies based on terrestrial organic radiocarbon ages indicate that the Champlain Sea may be at least 500 - 1000 years younger than suggested by bivalve ages. We will present paired radiocarbon ages on terrestrial organic material and bivalve shells showing that a simple reservoir correction cannot be applied for all Champlain Sea bivalve ages. Hiatella arctica shells deposited in water depths of less than 100 m appear to be 500 - 800 14C years too old. Portlandia arctica shells deposited in water depths of greater than 200 m appear to be 1000 - 1500 14C years too old. The difference may be related to salinity stratification. Macoma balthica shells appear to be 1500 - 2000 14C years too old, possibly because they are filter feeders and were taking up old carbon from carbonate rich sediment.

Rayburn, J. A.; Cronin, T. M.; Manley, P. L.; Franzi, D. A.; Knuepfer, P. L.

2006-12-01

8

76 FR 12129 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...research to advance the state of the science in Lake Champlain and the Great Lakes. Dated: February 17, 2011. James G. Geiger, Acting Assistant Regional Director--Fisheries, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hadley, Massachusetts 01035....

2011-03-04

9

Impacts of post-glacial lake drainage events and revised chronology of the Champlain Sea episode 13–9 ka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithologic, CHIRP (Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse) sonar, paleomagnetic, stable isotopic and micropaleontological analyses of sediment cores from Lake Champlain (New York, Vermont) were used to determine the age of the post-glacial Champlain Sea marine episode, the timing of salinity changes and their relationship to freshwater discharge from mid-continent glacial lakes. Calibrated radiocarbon ages on plant material provide an improved

T. M. Cronin; P. L. Manley; S. Brachfeld; T. O. Manley; D. A. Willard; J.-P. Guilbault; J. A. Rayburn; R. Thunell; M. Berke

2008-01-01

10

Lake Trout Reproduction in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were driven to extirpation in Lake Champlain in the early 1900s. Possible causes include overharvest, predation on adults by sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, and predation on fry by rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax. Efforts to restore a lake trout fishery began in 1972 when a coordinated stocking program was initiated. Attempts to control sea lamprey populations

Brian J. Ellrott; J. Ellen Marsden

2004-01-01

11

Predation on emergent lake trout fry in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rehabilitation of extirpated lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain has been hindered by various biological and physiological impediments. Efforts to restore a lake trout fishery to Lake Champlain include hatchery stocking and sea lamprey control. Despite these management actions, there is little evidence of recruitment of naturally-produced fish in annual fall assessments. Spawning occurs

Jacob W. Riley; J. Ellen Marsden

2009-01-01

12

Evaluation of the Native Status of Sea Lampreys in Lake Champlain Based on Mitochondrial DNA Sequencing Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus parasitize a variety of recreationally, commercially, and ecologically important fishes in the north temperate Atlantic Ocean and some inland waters of North America, including the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain. This has resulted in the development of international, provincial, and state programs to suppress their abundance in some of these waters. This effort, in part,

John R. Waldman; Cheryl Grunwald; Isaac Wirgin

2006-01-01

13

Pollen and stratigraphic evidence for abrupt climate changes in the Northeastern United States: Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Champlain, located between New York and Vermont in the northeastern United States, was formed during the last deglaciation. Sediments deposited in Lake Champlain preserve a detailed record of climate intervals including deposition from pro-glacial Lake Vermont, a marine excursion represented by the Champlain Sea, and Holocene lacustrine sedimentation of Lake Champlain. Short sediment cores (<5 m) from southern Lake

D. A. Willard; T. M. Cronin; P. L. Manley

2005-01-01

14

Lake Champlain Maritime Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in the town of Vergennes, Vermont, the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum offers a lively interpretation of the maritime past and present in and around Lake Champlain. The materials on the site are divided into sections that include "Education", "Our Fleet", Shipwrecks & History", and "Ship's Store". The "Education" area is a good place to start, and it contains links to archived shipwreck webcasts and information for educators. Moving on, the "Shipwrecks & History" area features some of the Museum's Underwater Cultural Resources Survey Report and a brief narrative essay on the history of the Champlain Valley. Visitors with a scholarly bent may wish to check out the "Maritime Research Institute" area. Here they will find information about internships at the Institute and they can also read about the ongoing work at their conservation lab.

15

Exotic species in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lake Champlain basin contains substantially fewer exotic species (N=48) than the Great Lakes (N>180), in part due to its isolation from commercial traffic. Exotic species have been introduced by authorized and unauthorized stocking, bait buckets, use of ornamental plants, and through the Champlain and Chambly canals that link the lake to the Hudson River, Mohawk River, Erie Canal, and

J. Ellen Marsden; Michael Hauser

2009-01-01

16

Impacts of post-glacial lake drainage events and revised chronology of the Champlain Sea episode 13-9??ka  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lithologic, CHIRP (Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse) sonar, paleomagnetic, stable isotopic and micropaleontological analyses of sediment cores from Lake Champlain (New York, Vermont) were used to determine the age of the post-glacial Champlain Sea marine episode, the timing of salinity changes and their relationship to freshwater discharge from mid-continent glacial lakes. Calibrated radiocarbon ages on plant material provide an improved post-glacial chronology overcoming problems from shell ages caused by carbon reservoir effects up to 1500??yr. The final drainage of glacial Lake Vermont and the inception of marine conditions occurred ??? 13.1-12.8??ka (kiloannum, calendar years) and a sharp decrease in Champlain Sea salinity from ??? 25 to 7-8??psu (practical salinity units) occurred approximately 11.4-11.2??ka. Reduced salinity was most likely caused by rapid freshwater inflow eastward from glacial Lake Algonquin into the Champlain Basin. The timing of inferred freshwater event coincides with the widespread climatic cooling called the Preboreal Oscillation.

Cronin, T. M.; Manley, P. L.; Brachfeld, S.; Manley, T. O.; Willard, D. A.; Guilbault, J. -P.; Rayburn, J. A.; Thunell, R.; Berke, M.

2008-01-01

17

Glacial Lake Outflow via the St. Lawrence Pathway Prior to the Champlain Sea Invasion and During the Younger Dryas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the Laurentide Ice Sheet receded north of the Adirondacks, Glacial Lake Frontenac overflowed to Glacial Lake Vermont (Coveville phase)-Albany. The water level of Lake Frontenac fell by about 90 m, as a result of the drawdown, glacio-isostatic rebound and outflow of Lake Vermont-Albany through the Hudson Valley to the North Atlantic Ocean. Lake level stabilized to form the Belleville, Upper Fort-Ann, post-Sherbrooke phase of glacial lakes post-Iroquois, Vermont and Memphremagog, respectively. Initially, the confluent fresh-water body extended from the Lake Ontario basin into the upper St. Lawrence Valley, Lake Champlain basin and along the Appalachian piedmont. The outlet of the lake was the Upper Fort-Ann sill, along the Hudson pathway (Lake Albany). The expansion of the lake was time transgressive and related to the regional ice retreat. As the lake expanded across the lowlands, into the Ottawa and central St. Lawrence valleys, and along the Appalachian piedmont, its level fell by about 20 m, from the Belleville to the Trenton strandlines on the western side of the Adirondacks, and about 26 m (Rayburn, 2004) from the Upper to the Lower Fort-Ann strandlines in the Lake Champlain basin. The extent of the lake during its final stage is estimated at about 30,000 km2. Varves deposited in the deeper parts of the lake are characterized by the ostracode Candona subtriangulata. Varve counts from several reference sections provide an approximate duration for the glaciolacustrine phase in different parts of the lowlands. They range from about 50 to 30 yr in the lower Ottawa Valley, where the estimated depth was 180 to 200 m, about 100 yr along the Appalachian piedmont and, tentatively, to more than 160 yr in the Lake Champlain basin (Rayburn et al., 2005). The lake overflowed/drained suddenly to the east, toward the western arm of the Goldthwait Sea, in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence, and hence into the North Atlantic Ocean. During this event, the water level fell by about 50 to 40 m to the highest strandline of the Champlain Sea. The timing and volume of this fresh-water discharge are quantified to allow assessment of its potential impact on the thermohaline circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean, and whether it could have triggered the cold Younger Dryas episode. The overflow occurred within a one-year span between 11.2 and 10.9 14C ka BP or 13.2 and 12.85 cal ka BP, close to the onset of the Younger Dryas cold interval. The total freshwater outflow through the St. Lawrence pathway comprised the one-year overflow phase (about 1500 km3), an early mixing phase of fresh and marine waters in the Champlain Sea domain (about 400 km3 for several years), a rapid collapse of the ice margin in the lowlands during about 250 yr and, during the Younger Dryas, several outburst floods from glacial Lake Algonquin into the Champlain Sea through the middle Ottawa Valley.

Occhietti, S.; Anderson, T. W.; Karrow, P. F.; Lewis, M. C.; Mott, R. J.; Parent, M.; Richard, P. J.; Rodrigues, C. G.; Stea, R.

2005-12-01

18

Sediment Thicknesses, Eastern Lake Champlain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A sub-bottom profiling study using an air gun has been completed for central, northern and eastern Lake Champlain giving sediment thicknesses and bedrock topography of the Lake basin. Four major depositional basins have been recognized in the central Lake...

A. S. Hunt

1977-01-01

19

33 CFR 117.993 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.993 Section 117...Requirements Vermont § 117.993 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2010-07-01

20

33 CFR 117.797 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.797 Section 117...Requirements New York § 117.797 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2010-07-01

21

33 CFR 117.993 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.993 Section 117...Requirements Vermont § 117.993 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2009-07-01

22

33 CFR 117.797 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.797 Section 117...Requirements New York § 117.797 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2013-07-01

23

33 CFR 117.993 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.993 Section 117...Requirements Vermont § 117.993 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2013-07-01

24

33 CFR 117.797 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.797 Section 117...Requirements New York § 117.797 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2009-07-01

25

Ice Development on Lake Champlain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Only one usable ERTS-1 scene was available for lake ice survey of Lake Champlain. The January 8, 1973, coverage (image no. 1169-11521) revealed the presence of various ice tones, patterns, and a...

A. O. Lind

1973-01-01

26

78 FR 14444 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Champlain, Swanton, VT  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Champlain, Swanton, VT AGENCY: Coast...Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Champlain, Swanton, VT'' in the Federal...reads as follows: Sec. 117.993 Lake Champlain. * * * * * (c) The draw...

2013-03-06

27

Lake Champlain - Lake George Regional Programs Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains an inventory of completed and in-progress studies concerned with all or part of the Lake Champlain-Lake George Region. The reports are listed alphabetically by county, region and adjacent areas within and without the State of New York....

1970-01-01

28

The origin and distribution of subbottom sediments in southern Lake Champlain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three units, correlatable with recent Lake Champlain, late-glacial marine Champlain Sea, and proglacial Lake Vermont sediments, have been identified from about 200 km of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles and eight piston cores collected in southern Lake Champlain. Lake Vermont deposits are nonfossiliferous and range from thin to absent nearshore and on bedrock highs to more than 126 m thick near Split Rock Point. Champlain Sea sediments contain marine foraminifers and ostracodes and are fairly uniform in thickness (20-30 m). Recent Lake Champlain sediments range in thickness from 0 to 25 m. Average sedimentation rates for Lake Vermont are considerably higher (4-8 cm/yr) than those for the Champlain Sea (0.8-1.2 cm/yr) and Lake Champlain (0.14-0.15 cm/yr). Bedrock, till, and deltaic and alluvial deposits were also identified on the acoustic records but were not sampled. An unconformity separating Champlain Sea deposits from Lake Champlain deposits is associated with numerous benches at water depths of 20-30 m. These benches, the alluvial deposits, and the onset of deltaic deposition are probably associated with a low water level stillstand at the close of the Champlain Sea episode.

Freeman-Lynde, R. P.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Folger, D. W.; Wiley, B. H.; Hewett, M. J.

1980-09-01

29

Limnology of Lake Champlain: 1965-1970.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This five year study assembled information on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of Lake Champlain, Vermont, one of the largest and deepest lakes of the USA. The determinations included currents of the lake, water thermal and optical featu...

E. B. Henson M. Potash

1970-01-01

30

The origin and distribution of subbottom sediments in southern Lake Champlain.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

3 units, correlatable with recent Lake Champlain, late-glacial marine Champlain Sea, and proglacial Lake Vermont sediments, have been identified from seismic reflection profiles and 8 piston cores. Lake Vermont deposits are nonfossiliferous and range from thin to absent nearshore and on bedrock highs to more than 126 m thick near Split Rock Point. Champlain Sea sediments contain marine foraminifers and ostracodes and are fairly uniform in thickness (20-30 m). Recent Lake Champlain sediments range in thickness from 0 to 25 m. Average sedimentation rates for Lake Vermont are considerably higher (4-8 cm/yr) than those for the Champlain Sea (0.8-1.2 cm/yr) and Lake Champlain (0.14-0.15 cm/yr). Bedrock, till, and deltaic and alluvial deposits were also identified.- from Authors

Freeman-Lynde, R. P.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Folger, D. W.; Wiley, B. H.; Hewett, M. J.

1980-01-01

31

Pollen and stratigraphic evidence for abrupt climate changes in the Northeastern United States: Lake Champlain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Champlain, located between New York and Vermont in the northeastern United States, was formed during the last deglaciation. Sediments deposited in Lake Champlain preserve a detailed record of climate intervals including deposition from pro-glacial Lake Vermont, a marine excursion represented by the Champlain Sea, and Holocene lacustrine sedimentation of Lake Champlain. Short sediment cores (<5 m) from southern Lake Champlain were recovered in 2004 by the R/V Melosira in a joint USGS-Middlebury College study. These cores include sediments deposited during the Champlain Sea and Lake Champlain phases of deposition, and pollen assemblages are used to a) establish an independent dating tool and b) evaluate timing of plant community responses to post-glacial climate change and centennial-scale climate variability. Pollen records from five sediment cores collected in southern Lake Champlain are compared with well-dated records from other lakes and bogs within the limits of Champlain Sea deposition, and sites bordering the sea, to establish a pollen-based chronology for the area. Radiocarbon dates on shells from the cores are compared to the pollen-based chronology to evaluate local reservoir effects on shell dates and redefine the timing of marine and lacustrine depositional phases. Sequences of radiocarbon dates from these cores suggest that temporal resolution at these sites is sufficient to interpret patterns of successive colonizing forests following ice-margin retreat and centennial-scale climate variability at the end of the deglacial interval.

Willard, D. A.; Cronin, T. M.; Manley, P. L.

2005-12-01

32

Landscape Quality Within the Lake Champlain Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary study objectives is to develop a landscape classification system for the Lake Champlain Basin and to recommend some management guidelines for each landscape character type identified within this system. Criteria to assess the visual or 'landsc...

J. P. Wargo S. Weisman

1978-01-01

33

Shaping the Future of Lake Champlain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with critical Lake Champlain basin issues and emphasizes the need for cooperative resource management programs in Vermont and New York. Some of the issues discussed are: shore erosion, flooding, water quality and land use.

1979-01-01

34

Constraints on Lake Agassiz discharge through the late-glacial Champlain Sea (St. Lawrence Lowlands, Canada) using salinity proxies and an estuarine circulation model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the last deglaciation, abrupt freshwater discharge events from proglacial lakes in North America, such as glacial Lake Agassiz, are believed to have drained into the North Atlantic Ocean, causing large shifts in climate by weakening the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water and decreasing ocean heat transport to high northern latitudes. These discharges were caused by changes in lake drainage outlets, but the duration, magnitude and routing of discharge events, factors which govern the climatic response to freshwater forcing, are poorly known. Abrupt discharges, called floods, are typically assumed to last months to a year, whereas more gradual discharges, called routing events, occur over centuries. Here we use estuarine modeling to evaluate freshwater discharge from Lake Agassiz and other North American proglacial lakes into the North Atlantic Ocean through the St. Lawrence estuary around 11.5 ka BP, the onset of the Preboreal oscillation (PBO). Faunal and isotopic proxy data from the Champlain Sea, a semi-isolated, marine-brackish water body that occupied the St. Lawrence and Champlain Valleys from 13 to 9 ka, indicate salinity fell about 7-8 (range of 4-11) around 11.5 ka. Model results suggest that minimum (1600 km3) and maximum (9500 km3) estimates of plausible flood volumes determined from Lake Agassiz paleoshorelines would produce the proxy-reconstructed salinity decrease if the floods lasted <1 day to 5 months and 1 month to 2 years, respectively. In addition, Champlain Sea salinity responds very quickly to the initiation (within days) and cessation (within weeks) of flooding events. These results support the hypothesis that a glacial lake flood, rather than a sustained routing event, discharged through the St. Lawrence Estuary during the PBO. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Katz, B.; Najjar, R. G.; Cronin, T.; Rayburn, J.; Mann, M. E.

2011-01-01

35

77 FR 67319 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Champlain, Swanton, VT  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Champlain, Swanton, VT AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...paragraph (d) to read as follows: Sec. 117.993 Lake Champlain. * * * * * (c) The draw of the New England...

2012-11-09

36

A Guide to the Zooplankton of Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This key was developed by undergraduate research students working on a project with NYDEC and the Lake Champlain Monitoring program to develop long-term data sets for Lake Champlain plankton. Funding for development of this key was provided by, the Lake Champlain Basin Program through the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYDEC). The

Karen J. Carling; Ian M. Ater; Megan R. Pellam; Adam M. Bouchard; Timothy B. Mihuc

2004-01-01

37

75 FR 21990 - Safety Zone; Extended Debris Removal in the Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone (Between...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Extended Debris Removal in the Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone (Between...waters immediately surrounding the Lake Champlain Bridge construction zone between...Transportation demolished the Lake Champlain Bridge after an inspection...

2010-04-27

38

75 FR 22228 - Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone, NY and VT  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone, NY...around the construction zone of the Lake Champlain Bridge between Crown Point, New...transiting the navigable waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of the...

2010-04-28

39

Vegetation Mapping in Lake Champlain Wetlands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Detailed canopy vegetation maps at a scale of 1:20,000 have been produced for two major wetlands in the Missisquoi and Lamoille River Deltas of the Lake Champlain Basin, based on the interpretation of medium-high altitude color aerial photography. Photo i...

A. O. Lind W. G. Howland

1975-01-01

40

Seismic and Core Stratigraphic Evidence for Abrupt Climate Changes in the Northeast: Lake Champlain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Champlain is the sixth largest freshwater lake in the United States having a mean elevation of 92.5 feet above sea level and a surficial area of 437 square miles. Located between the New York and Vermont it was formed during the last deglaciation. Three periods of sedimentation characterize the post-glacial record: pro-glacial Lake Vermont, a marine excursion, the Champlain Sea, and Holocene lacustrine sedimentation of the present-day Lake Champlain. During 2004 and 2005 high-resolution CHIRP sonar profiles were obtained from several depositional basins with the objective of further defining these three stages of the lake's history and to identify potential long coring sites for high-resolution paleoclimate records. Five short cores strategically sampled key seismic horizons and new 14C dates on shell and plant material allowed us to determine carbon reservoir on shell dates, and to redefine the timing of lacustrine and marine phases of deposition. The thickness of each varies throughout the basins and the new chronology defines sedimentation rates between the deeper basins and shallower regions. Our results show that the Champlain Sea correlates at least in part with the Younger Dryas; Lake Vermont sediments are pre-Younger Dryas in age. Rapid sedimentation rates and high temporal resolution permit detailed analysis of the termination of Younger Dryas event. In particular, three widespread erosional horizons and changes in benthic foraminifera occur during the Champlain Sea that may represent large fresh water discharges during the Younger Dryas.

Manley, P. L.; Cronin, T.; Brachfeld, S.; McGeehin, J.

2005-12-01

41

Climatology of Lake-Effect Precipitation Events over Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides the first long-term climatological analysis of lake-effect precipitation events that de- veloped in relation to a small lake (having a surface area of #1500 km2). The frequency and environmental conditions favorable for Lake Champlain lake-effect precipitation were examined for the nine winters (October-March) from 1997\\/98 through 2005\\/06. Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) data from Burlington, Vermont, were

Neil F. Laird; Jared Desrochers; Melissa Payer

2009-01-01

42

33 CFR 110.136 - Lake Champlain, NY and VT.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Champlain, NY and VT. 110.136 Section 110.136 Navigation...ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.136 Lake Champlain, NY and VT. (a) Burlington Harbor, Vt....

2013-07-01

43

33 CFR 110.136 - Lake Champlain, NY and VT.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Lake Champlain, NY and VT. 110.136 Section 110.136 Navigation...ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.136 Lake Champlain, NY and VT. (a) Burlington Harbor, Vt....

2009-07-01

44

33 CFR 110.136 - Lake Champlain, NY and VT.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Champlain, NY and VT. 110.136 Section 110.136 Navigation...ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.136 Lake Champlain, NY and VT. (a) Burlington Harbor, Vt....

2010-07-01

45

33 CFR 165.T01-0176 - Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point, New York and Chimney...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point... Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point... All navigable waters on Lake Champlain 300 yards to the north and...

2010-07-01

46

Benthonic foraminiferal faunal and isotopic data for the postglacial evolution of the Champlain Sea*1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthonic foraminiferal faunal and isotopic data from Champlain Sea sediments (approximately 12,500 to 10,000 yr B.P. in age) in two piston cores from Lake Champlain provide a detailed, apparently continuous record of the evolution of the Champlain Sea. Cassidulina reniforme and Islandiella helenae are the dominant benthonic foraminifera during the initial phase of the Champlain Sea, and are replaced by Elphidium excavatum forma clavatum and Protelphidium orbiculare as the dominant species during the remainder of the sea's history. The oxygen-isotopic data show a gradual decrease in ?18O between approximately 12,500 and 10,900 yr B.P., followed by a more rapid decrease during the interval 10,900 to 10,000 yr B.P. The ?13C data have a similar trend as ?18O, with generally decreasing values up the section. The isotopic and faunal data suggest that nearly marine conditions were present in the initial plase of the Champlain Sea, followed by gradually decreasing salinities and increasing temperatures as the sea evolved. The beginning of the rapid isotopic decrease at approximately 10,900 yr B.P. marks the onset of the largest environmental change in the history of the Champlain Sea, probably reflecting a major pulse of meltwater from the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

Corliss, Bruce H.; Hunt, Allen S.; Keigwin, Lloyd D.

1982-05-01

47

Evidence from the Lake Champlain Valley for a later onset of the Champlain Sea and implications for late glacial meltwater routing to the North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean circulation models indicate that freshwater runoff from the North American continent during the last deglaciation may have had an effect on North Atlantic Ocean circulation, and thereby have altered regional climate. One such example is a flood from Lake Agassiz, which has been proposed by previous workers to have caused the onset of the Younger Dryas at around 12,850

J. A. Rayburn; D. A. Franzi; P. L. K. Knuepfer

2007-01-01

48

The eutrophication of Lake Champlain's northeastern arm: Insights from paleolimnological analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trophic history of Lake Champlain's northeastern arm was assessed using a multi-proxy paleolimnological approach to provide sub-basin specific information for restoration planning. Sediment cores collected from Missisquoi Bay, St. Albans Bay, and the central Northeast Arm (Inland Sea) were analyzed for nutrients, organic carbon, carbon stable isotopes, biogenic silica, pigments, diatoms and soft algae microfossils. Results indicate that this

Suzanne N. Levine; Andrea Lini; Milton L. Ostrofsky; Lynda Bunting; Heather Burgess; Peter R. Leavitt; Daun Reuter; Andrea Lami; Piero Guilizzoni; Elizabeth Gilles

49

Survey of lake flooding from ERTS-1: Lake Champlain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery showing seasonal lake-level conditions in Lake-Champlain can be used to assess shoreline change and flooding extent. MSS bands 6 and 7 provide maximum land-water contrasts and are the most useful for shoreline location. Shoreline changes observed between ERTS coverages of October 10 (low water) and April 7 and 25 (high water) are readily apparent and enlargement of specific scenes by a factor of four provides data which can be transferred to a map base. The unique synoptic view provided by ERTS-1 will make it possible to map shoreline positions occurring at a specific lake stage. Due to present government concerns over abnormally high lake levels, resource management questions have been raised regarding the extent, nature, and occurrence of inundation magnitude of shoreline change, and lake volume change.

Lind, A. O. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

50

33 CFR 110.8 - Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. 110.8...Anchorage Areas § 110.8 Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. (a) Ticonderoga...small cove at the westerly side of Lake Champlain, shoreward of a line...

2013-07-01

51

33 CFR 110.8 - Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. 110.8...Anchorage Areas § 110.8 Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. (a) Ticonderoga...small cove at the westerly side of Lake Champlain, shoreward of a line...

2010-07-01

52

33 CFR 110.8 - Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. 110.8...Anchorage Areas § 110.8 Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. (a) Ticonderoga...small cove at the westerly side of Lake Champlain, shoreward of a line...

2009-07-01

53

Glacial Lake Outflow via the St. Lawrence Pathway Prior to the Champlain Sea Invasion and During the Younger Dryas  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the Laurentide Ice Sheet receded north of the Adirondacks, Glacial Lake Frontenac overflowed to Glacial Lake Vermont (Coveville phase)-Albany. The water level of Lake Frontenac fell by about 90 m, as a result of the drawdown, glacio-isostatic rebound and outflow of Lake Vermont-Albany through the Hudson Valley to the North Atlantic Ocean. Lake level stabilized to form the Belleville,

S. Occhietti; T. W. Anderson; P. F. Karrow; M. C. Lewis; R. J. Mott; M. Parent; P. J. Richard; C. G. Rodrigues; R. Stea

2005-01-01

54

Lake Champlain Basin Aquatic Nuisance Species Management Plan (Revised 2005).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lake Champlain is one of the largest freshwater lakes in the United States, with 435 square miles of surface water, more than 70 islands, and 587 miles of shoreline. It is 12 miles wide at its broadest point and reaches depths of more than 400 feet. The L...

2005-01-01

55

THE TROPHIC STATUS AND PHOSPHORUS LOADINGS OF LAKE CHAMPLAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Information on the trophic status of the several basins of Lake Champlain is summarized, the amounts and distribution of total phosphorus loading into the lake are evaluated, and recommendations for further study are made. The general objective is to provide basic background info...

56

Lake Champlain Basin Forestland as a Source of Nonpoint Pollutants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a basic discussion of timber harvesting and forest land use in the Lake Champlain Basin. Of principal concern is the impact such activities have on the water quality of basin streams, rivers and the Lake. The major cause of impaired w...

1978-01-01

57

Micropaleontological Record of Post-glacial History in Lake Champlain and Adjacent Regions: Implications for Glacial Lake Drainage and Abrupt Climate Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-glacial lacustrine and marine sediments of the Lake Champlain region range from 20 to >50 meters in thickness presenting an opportunity to assess the timing of North American glacial lake drainage at multidecadal timescales and evaluate its effect on North Atlantic salinity and abrupt climate events 13.5 to 10 kyr B.P. High-resolution analysis of foraminifera and ostracodes from cores taken onshore in the Plattsburgh, N.Y. vicinity and southern Quebec and offshore in southern Lake Champlain reveal complex changes in salinity during and after the transition from pro-glacial Lake Vermont (Lake Candona in Canada) to marine sedimentation in the Champlain Sea. The microfaunal sequence (bottom to top) includes: non-marine ostracodes ( Candona) in lacustrine varves, foraminiferal assemblages (common Cassidulina reniforme), another interval of Candona-bearing sediments (sometimes containing foraminifera), and, finally, sediments from the main phase of the Champlain sea episode containing diverse foraminiferal and marine ostracode assemblages. A decrease in salinity during the Champlain Sea is also in evidence from the shift in dominance of distinct variants of Elphidium in the deep basin. The marine episode ended with a progressive salinity decrease and the formation of Lake Champlain about 10 kyr B.P. Observed salinity changes could be caused by catastrophic fresh-water influx from large glacial lakes west of the Lake Champlain region, meltwater from the retreating Laurentide Ice Sheet margin, diminished influx of marine water from the St. Lawrence due to changes in the position of the ice sheet margin and isostatic adjustment, or a combination of factors. The ages of these events were determined by estimating the reservoir effect on radiocarbon dates on marine shells through comparison with AMS dates on plant material and palynology, and shed light on the hypothesis that glacial lake discharges catalyzed abrupt climate events.

Cronin, T. M.; Manley, P. L.; Guilbault, J.; Berke, M.; Rayburn, J. A.; Franzi, D. A.; Knuepfer, P. L.

2005-12-01

58

The evolution and distribution of methane in Lake Champlain sediments  

SciTech Connect

Regions of Lake Champlain sediments are acoustically impenetrable to the energy emitted from high resolution, low energy sub-bottom seismic profiling apparatus. This anomolous behavior is caused by the presence of interstitial methane gas which absorbs the wave energy and thus prevents the formation of well-defined seismic boundaries. Through gas chromatographic and carbon isotope analyses, the methane gas contained in the recent sediments of Lake Champlain has been demonstrated to be biogenic in origin. The production of biogenic methane occurs as a result of a series of coupled oxidation-reduction reactions occurring within the upper two meters beneath the sediment-water interface.

Thibodeau, P.M. (Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-03-01

59

Mass balance assessment for mercury in Lake Champlain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mass balance model for mercury in Lake Champlain was developed in an effort to understand the sources, inventories, concentrations, and effects of mercury (Hg) contamination in the lake ecosystem. To construct the mass balance model, air, water, and sediment were sampled as a part of this project and other research/monitoring projects in the Lake Champlain Basin. This project produced a STELLA-based computer model and quantitative apportionments of the principal input and output pathways of Hg for each of 13 segments in the lake. The model Hg concentrations in the lake were consistent with measured concentrations. Specifically, the modeling identified surface water inflows as the largest direct contributor of Hg into the lake. Direct wet deposition to the lake was the second largest source of Hg followed by direct dry deposition. Volatilization and sedimentation losses were identified as the two major removal mechanisms. This study significantly improves previous estimates of the relative importance of Hg input pathways and of wet and dry deposition fluxes of Hg into Lake Champlain. It also provides new estimates of volatilization fluxes across different lake segments and sedimentation loss in the lake. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

Gao, N.; Armatas, N. G.; Shanley, J. B.; Kamman, N. C.; Miller, E. K.; Keeler, G. J.; Scherbatskoy, T.; Holsen, T. M.; Young, T.; McIlroy, L.; Drake, S.; Olsen, B.; Cady, C.

2006-01-01

60

Mass balance assessment for mercury in Lake Champlain.  

PubMed

A mass balance model for mercury in Lake Champlain was developed in an effort to understand the sources, inventories, concentrations, and effects of mercury (Hg) contamination in the lake ecosystem. To construct the mass balance model, air, water, and sediment were sampled as a part of this project and other research/monitoring projects in the Lake Champlain Basin. This project produced a STELLA-based computer model and quantitative apportionments of the principal input and output pathways of Hg for each of 13 segments in the lake. The model Hg concentrations in the lake were consistent with measured concentrations. Specifically, the modeling identified surface water inflows as the largest direct contributor of Hg into the lake. Direct wet deposition to the lake was the second largest source of Hg followed by direct dry deposition. Volatilization and sedimentation losses were identified as the two major removal mechanisms. This study significantly improves previous estimates of the relative importance of Hg input pathways and of wet and dry deposition fluxes of Hg into Lake Champlain. It also provides new estimates of volatilization fluxes across different lake segments and sedimentation loss in the lake. PMID:16433336

Gao, Ning; Armatas, N Gabriel; Shanley, James B; Kamman, Neil C; Miller, Eric K; Keeler, Gerald J; Scherbatskoy, Timothy; Holsen, Thomas M; Young, Thomas; McIlroy, Lyn; Drake, Stephen; Olsen, Bill; Cady, Carol

2006-01-01

61

Numerical studies of the 4-day oscillation in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The summer thermocline of Lake Champlain, which is found at depths of 20-30 m, oscillates with typical vertical amplitudes of 20-40 m and periods of ~4 days. Fluctuations at the ends of the lake are opposite in phase and accompanied in the central lake by strong shears across the thermocline. These are basin-wide baroclinic disturbances which are forced by wind.

Kenneth Hunkins; Thomas O. Manley; Patricia Manley; James Saylor

1998-01-01

62

ERTS-1 imagery of the Lake Champlain region: A first look  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. First-look analysis of RBV imagery of Lake Champlain and adjacent areas provided the following information on land and water resources: (1) location and shape of islands over 200 meters at narrowest part; (2) location of manmade structures at least 10 meters across; (3) location of shoreline; (4) identification of algal blooms and major turbidity boundary; (5) identification of lake bottom features in sandy, shallow areas; (6) identification of major lake shore wetland and floodplain wetlands; (7) location of major streams; (8) identification of ice marginal deposits of major proportions and former shorelines of Champlain Sea; (9) identification of wooded areas, open land, and built-up areas.

Lind, A. O. (principal investigator); Henson, E. B.; Olson, J.; Wagner, W. P.

1972-01-01

63

Investigating public preferences for managing Lake Champlain using a choice experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lake Champlain Basin in Vermont and New York, USA and Quebec, Canada includes a large lake and watershed with complex management issues. A transboundary comprehensive management plan prepared for the lake includes 11 goals across many issue areas. We developed a choice experiment to examine public preferences for alternative Lake Champlain management scenarios across these issue areas. Five ecosystem

Robyn L. Smyth; Mary C. Watzin; Robert E. Manning

2009-01-01

64

Effect of Density and Age on Larval Sea Lamprey Growth and Survival in Three Lake Champlain Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-1 and age-3 larval sea lamprey were separately held in circular cages (0.16 m) with 30 cm of optimal habitat for one year. The five treatments for each age class were: 25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 larvae\\/m. Growth of age-1 larvae was significantly higher than age-3 larvae (P<0.006), although survival was not significantly different between ages (P<0.546). Density treatments

Adam Zerrenner

2004-01-01

65

Numerical studies of the 4-day oscillation in Lake Champlain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The summer thermocline of Lake Champlain, which is found at depths of 20-30 m, oscillates with typical vertical amplitudes of 20-40 m and periods of ˜4 days. Fluctuations at the ends of the lake are opposite in phase and accompanied in the central lake by strong shears across the thermocline. These are basin-wide baroclinic disturbances which are forced by wind. A numerical, one-dimensional, two-layer, shallow-water model incorporating nonlinear and frictional effects in a rectangular basin forced by wind was first tested with idealized wind impulses. The results do not resemble the observed thermocline motion. However, when this simple model is forced with wind data from a nearby shore site, there is reasonable agreement between the model results and observed long-period thermocline motions in Lake Champlain. Dispersion effects appear to be negligible here. This contrasts with other long, narrow lakes where dispersion effects are important and internal surges are followed by wave trains resembling the soliton solutions of the Korteweg-deVries equation. A possible explanation for the different regime in Lake Champlain may be found in its unique bathymetry with sloping bottom at the ends and numerous embayments on the sides that provide traps to collect wind-driven warm water and then release it slowly during recovery of equilibrium, preventing the formation of steep fronts and soliton wave trains.

Hunkins, Kenneth; Manley, Thomas O.; Manley, Patricia; Saylor, James

1998-08-01

66

Mercury in the pelagic food web of Lake Champlain.  

PubMed

Lake Champlain continues to experience mercury contamination resulting in public advisories to limit human consumption of top trophic level fish such as walleye. Prior research suggested that mercury levels in biota could be modified by differences in ecosystem productivity as well as mercury loadings. We investigated relationships between mercury in different trophic levels in Lake Champlain. We measured inorganic and methyl mercury in water, seston, and two size fractions of zooplankton from 13 sites representing a range of nutrient loading conditions and productivity. Biomass varied significantly across lake segments in all measured ecosystem compartments in response to significant differences in nutrient levels. Local environmental factors such as alkalinity influenced the partitioning of mercury between water and seston. Mercury incorporation into biota was influenced by the biomass and mercury content of different ecosystem strata. Pelagic fish tissue mercury was a function of fish length and the size of the mercury pool associated with large zooplankton. We used these observations to parameterize a model of mercury transfers in the Lake Champlain food web that accounts for ecosystem productivity effects. Simulations using the mercury trophic transfer model suggest that reductions of 25-75% in summertime dissolved eplimnetic total mercury will likely allow fish tissue mercury concentrations to drop to the target level of 0.3 ?g g(-1) in a 40-cm fish in all lake segments. Changes in nutrient loading and ecosystem productivity in eutrophic segments may delay any response to reduced dissolved mercury and may result in increases in fish tissue mercury. PMID:22193540

Miller, Eric K; Chen, Celia; Kamman, Neil; Shanley, James; Chalmers, Ann; Jackson, Brian; Taylor, Vivien; Smeltzer, Eric; Stangel, Pete; Shambaugh, Angela

2012-04-01

67

Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

2013-01-01

68

Environmental study of ERTS-1 imagery: Lake Champlain and Vermont  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmental concerns of the State of Vermont currently being stressed include water quality in Lake Champlain and a state-wide land use and capability plan. Significant results obtained from ERTS-1 relate directly to the above concerns. Industrial water pollution and turbidity in Lake Champlain have been identified and mapped and the ERTS pollution data will be used in the developing court suit which Vermont has initiated against the polluters. ERTS imagery has also provided a foundation for updating and revising land use inventories. Major classes of land use have been identified and mapped, and substantial progress has been made toward the mapping of such land use divisions as crop and forest type, and wetlands.

Lind, A. O.; Henson, E. B.; Pelton, J. O.

1973-01-01

69

14C chronology for ice retreat and inception of Champlain Sea in the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

AMS radiocarbon cross-dating of plant debris and marine shells trapped in a lake basin on Mount St. Hilaire (Québec, Canada) provides a direct assessment of a reservoir effect totaling ca. 1800 14C years during the early stage of Champlain Sea. Pollen-based extrapolation of bottommost ages on terrestrial plant macrofossils in sediments of this lake, and of another lake nearby support

Pierre J. H. Richard; Serge Occhietti

2005-01-01

70

Long-term patterns in Lake Champlain's zooplankton: 1992–2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined patterns in Lake Champlain zooplankton abundance from 1992 to 2010 using summer data from five study sites. Rotifer abundance (#\\/m3) for many common taxa such as Polyarthra, Kellicottia, and Keratella declined lakewide in the mid-1990s which coincided with the invasion of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) into Lake Champlain. The only rotifer to increase in density following zebra mussel

Timothy B. Mihuc; Fred Dunlap; Casey Binggeli; Luke Myers; Carrianne Pershyn; Amanda Groves; Allison Waring

71

The Age, Growth, and Feeding Habits of the Whitefish, Coregonus Clupeaformis (Mitchell), of Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is based on 120 whitefish collected in northern Lake Champlain (Missisquoi Bay) in 1930 and on 175 whitefish taken in southern Lake Champlain in 1931. Since the whitefish population had not been exploited commercially after 1912 in United States waters and after 1915 in Canadian waters, its study should be of interest in showing the characteristics of a

John Van Oosten; Hilary J. Deason

1939-01-01

72

Wet deposition of mercury and ambient mercury concentrations at a site in the Lake Champlain basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “Great Waters” program, established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, mandated that atmospheric deposition of hazardous air pollutants to Lake Champlain (including Hg) be assessed. An assessment of the magnitude and seasonal variation of atmospheric Hg deposition in the Lake Champlain basin was initiated in December 1992 with one year of event precipitation collection, as well as collection

J. Burke; M. Hoyer; G. Keeler; T. Scherbatskoy

1995-01-01

73

Regional Development Plan, Recommendations for the Lake Champlain-Lake George Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents a development plan for the Growth Center Areas of the Lake Champlain-Lake George region. The plan is presented in three sections. Section I provides a Regional Growth Center Development Plan based on growth impediments, opportunities a...

W. F. Davidson H. Klunder D. Odell

1972-01-01

74

A Comparison of Lake Trout Spawning, Fry Emergence, and Habitat Use in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restoration of self-sustaining populations of lake trout is underway in all of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, but restoration has only been achieved in Lake Superior and in Parry Sound, Lake Huron. We evaluated progress toward restoration by comparing spawning habitat availability, spawner abundance, egg and fry density, and egg survival in Parry Sound in Lake Huron, in Lake

J. Ellen Marsden; Brian J. Ellrott; Randall M. Claramunt; Jory L. Jonas; John D. Fitzsimons

2005-01-01

75

Evidence of Lacustrine Bedforms in Lake Champlain, Vermont  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution CHIRP seismic profiles reveal the presence of two large lacustrine sediment drifts (Drifts A and B) located in Lake Champlain's Juniper Deep. Both drifts are positive features composed of highly laminated sediments overlying trough-filling acoustically-transparent sediment. Both drifts are oriented approximately north-south and are parallel to a steep ridge along the eastern shore of the basin. Drift A, located at the bottom of a structural trough, is classified as a confined, elongate drift that transitions northward to become a system of mudwaves. Drift B is perched atop a structural high to the west of Drift A and is classified as a detached elongate drift. Bottom current depositional control was inferred from the orientations of the bedforms and modern lake circulation patterns. Sediment thicknesses and volume estimates were used to create isopach maps and 3-dimensional images detailing drift evolution. Sediment cores were taken at the crest and at the edges of the drifts. Drift source, deposition, and evolution will be discussed in the context of the regional history of the Lake Champlain Valley.

Manley, P. L.; Hayo, K.

2007-12-01

76

Modeling invasive species spread in Lake Champlain via evolutionary computations.  

PubMed

We use a reaction diffusion equation, together with a genetic algorithm approach for model selection to develop a general modeling framework for biological invasions. The diffusion component of the reaction diffusion model is generalized to include dispersal and advection. The reaction component is generalized to include both linear and non-linear density dependence, and Allee effect. A combination of the reaction diffusion and genetic algorithm is able to evolve the most parsimonious model for invasive species spread. Zebra mussel data obtained from Lake Champlain, which demarcates the states of New York and Vermont, is used to test the appropriateness of the model. We estimate the minimum wave spread rate of Zebra mussels to be 22.5 km/year. In particular, the evolved models predict an average northward advection rate of 60.6 km/year (SD ± 1.9), which compares very well with the rate calculated from the known hydrologic residence time of 60 km/year. A combination of a reaction diffusion model and a genetic algorithm is, therefore, able to adequately describe some of the hydrodynamic features of Lake Champlain and the spread of a typical invasive species--Zebra mussels within the lake. PMID:21293950

Osei, B M; Ellingwood, C D; Hoffmann, J P; Bentil, D E

2011-06-01

77

Pollution detection in Lake Champlain using ERTS-1 imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A major waste water discharge plume generated by a large paper mill along the New York shore of Lake Champlain was visually detected on ERTS-1 imagery. The plume is best displayed in 9.5 inch positive transparencies of MSS bands 4 and 5. Observation of the magnitude and extent of this plume is feasible, under magnification of 4 times. The chemical parameters of this plume have been documented by limnological studies. An enhancement technique useful for documenting the presence of waste water discharge plumes in Lake Champlain utilizes Polaroid MP-3 copy camera equipment and Spectral Data Corporation's multispectral viewer. The 9.5 inch, ERTS-1, positive transparency is enlarged using the Polaroid MP-3 copy camera to produce an enlarged lantern slide size positive transparency. These are projected through the multispectral viewer for enhancement and the scene is viewed directly on the screen or copied by an additional photographic step. The technique is simple and produces rapid results.

Lind, A. O. (principal investigator); Henson, E. B.

1972-01-01

78

Lake Champlain hydrodynamic monitoring program--An overview  

SciTech Connect

The Vermont Waters Research Center (VWRC) sponsored Lake Champlain Hydrodynamic Monitoring Program began in June 1991 through a cooperative program between Middlebury College, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, and the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. This pilot program was designed to lead into a multi-year study of the internal mechanics of lake circulation (such as the variability of internal stratification, forcing and response functions, mixing, transport, and basin-basin exchange), bottom morphological studies relating to longterm flow patterns of the lake as well as sedimentation-rates. The field program incorporated three year-long taught-wire moorings along the thalweg of the central lake from Valcour Island to Thompson's Point in addition to several side-scan and hydrographic surveys. Each mooring consisted of a thermistory chain spanning the summer thermocline, 2 current meters (one above and one below the t-chain), and 3 equally-spaced sediment traps. Subsequent funding through NOAA expanded the field program to five year-long moorings within the central lake as well as the installation of a Passage Exchange Network (PEN) station at the Grand Isle bridge. Presently, a year and a half of data has been obtained from these programs. An overview of the program as well as results specifically relating to the internal seiche and its potential non-linear behavior, the strong bimodal structure of currents, inertial currents, thermal history, temporal and spatial variability, regions believed to have enhanced mixing, and basin-basin exchange.

Manley, T.O.; Manley, P.L. (Middlebury Coll., VT (United States). Geology Dept.); Saylor, J. (GLERL, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Hunkins, K.L. (LDGO, Palisades, NY (United States))

1993-03-01

79

Assessment of the Physical and Biological Characteristics of the Major Lake Champlain Wetlands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the various descriptive data presently available on Lake Champlain wetlands. The United States portion of the wetlands consists of approximately 32,000 acres of swamps, marshes and shallow bays, constituting forty-two separate areas...

G. K. Gruendling D. J. Bogucki

1978-01-01

80

Spatial and temporal variation in mercury bioaccumulation by zooplankton in Lake Champlain (North America)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trophic transfer of Hg across lakes within a region has been related to multiple environmental factors, but the nature of these relationships across distinct basins within individual large lakes is unknown. We investigated Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton in basins of differing trophic status in Lake Champlain (Vermont, USA) to determine the strongest predictors of Hg bioaccumulation. Zooplankton were sampled in

Celia Chen; Neil Kamman; Jason Williams; Deenie Bugge; Vivien Taylor; Brian Jackson; Eric Miller

81

Trace-element composition in wet deposition over Lake Champlain  

SciTech Connect

As part of our research program to characterize trace elements present in atmospheric particulate materials, we have determined the trace elements present in wet deposition events over Lake Champlain at monitoring sites in Willsboro and Moss Lake, New York, from samples collected each week between March 1992 and October 1993. No previous long-term trace-element data are available for weekly deposition events occurring over a 1 1/2-yr period. The concentrations of {approximately}40 elements have been determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), although not from within each sample. The concentrations of environmentally important anions SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} were determined by ion chromatography. Measurements of pH were made on each sample as well. Particular attention was paid to 7 of the 11 toxic elements (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, manganese, and selenium), whose control is mandated in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Of the remaining four, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy will be used to determine nickel, lead, and selenium concentrations, and mercury will be measured by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. These toxic trace elements are emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources and can be removed from the atmoshere by wet and dry deposition mechanisms.

Huang, X.; Olmez, I. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Fink, R.D. [Amherst College, MA (United States); Meier, S.; Galvin, P.

1994-12-31

82

Pollution monitoring in Lake Champlain using ERTS-1 imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Band 4 imagery of April 7 and 25 show contrasting pollution effects due to seasonal and discharge variations. The pollution plume emanating from the International Paper Co. mill just north of Fort Ticonderoga was first detected on October 10 ERTS-1 imagery and now has been documented during spring high lake level conditions. The plume was observed extending further to the north and east than under low water conditions of October 10. This northward extension reflects a stronger northward current flow expected in the turbid southern leg of Lake Champlain. The extensive plume of April 25 represents full plant operation while the April 5 scene shows some plume traces directly over the submerged diffuser, discharge pipe representing minimal discharge during weekend plant operation. The ERTS-1 documentation will be used in developing a model of plume behavior under varying environmental conditions and will hopefully serve to assist in a major resource decision pending at U.S. Supreme Court level.

Lind, A. O. (principal investigator); Henson, E. B.

1973-01-01

83

The Effect of Terrigenous Inputs on Spatial Patterns of Water Quality Indicators in South Lake, Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial patterns of measures of trophic state, optical properties and particle composition are documented for Lake Champlain, with particular emphasis on the southernmost shallow section (< 10 m deep, ? 55 km in length) known as South Lake, to depict the impacts of terrigenous inputs. The analysis is supported by two surveys conducted in 1998 for South Lake (thirteen sites)

Steven W. Effler; Carol M. Brooks; Mary Gail Perkins; Nicholas K. Ohrazda; David A. Matthews; David L. Johnson; Martin T. Auer; Jay A. Bloomfield; Scott O. Quinn

2000-01-01

84

Spatial and temporal comparisons of double-crested cormorant diets following the establishment of alewife in Lake Champlain, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing numbers of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) on Lake Champlain have caused concerns related to potential impacts on the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) population. However, with the establishment of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) in 2003, cormorant foraging may have changed. We examined cormorant diets from four areas of Lake Champlain to assess past, current, and potential future impacts of cormorants on

Robin L. DeBruyne; Travis L. DeVault; Adam E. Duerr; David E. Capen; Fred E. Pogmore; James R. Jackson; Lars G. Rudstam

85

The Institutional Potentials for Implementing the Lake Champlain Level B. Study Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The management of Lake Champlain, the sixth largest lake in the United States, is governed by numerous levels of government. The Basin is divided between New York and Vermont, between the United States and Canada, and is split into parts of over 17 counti...

C. Carlozzi L. Prosnitz

1979-01-01

86

The Effects of Zebra Mussels on the Lower Planktonic Foodweb in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective grazing by zebra mussels has altered phytoplankton communities in many North American lakes, but the specific changes are not the same in each ecosystem. Because of this variation in response, we investigated the impacts of zebra mussels on the plankton community of Lake Champlain with two objectives: first to determine whether zebra mussels increased the dominance of potentially toxic

Emily Brines Miller; Mary C. Watzin

2007-01-01

87

A Phosphorus Budget, Model, and Load Reduction Strategy For Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phosphorus budget and mass balance model were developed for Lake Champlain in order to identify load reductions necessary to attain interim in-lake total phosphorus concentration criteria established in a water quality agreement between New York, Quebec, and Vermont Total phosphorus loadings were measured from 31 tributaries, 88 wastewater discharges, and direct precipitation. Mean annual tributary loadings were estimated using

Eric Smeltzer; Scott Quinn

1996-01-01

88

Paper plant effluent in sediments of southern Lake Champlain  

SciTech Connect

In 1972--73 the authors collected an extensive set of geologic and geochemical data in southern Lake Champlain near the International Paper Company (IPC) plant. Much of the work was carried out in support of a suit filed by the Attorney General of Vermont against IPC for polluting the lake and against the State of New York for failing to enforce its environmental laws. In 1988, the authors were subpoenaed to present their data once again in class-action suit brought by a group of Vermont citizens against IPC for causing their property values to decline due to pollution of the air and of the lake waters. To update the earlier work, they collected nine cores upstream and downstream of the plant's effluent diffuser. They compared the new analyses of samples from the cores with the results obtained in the early 70's. In 1973, 2 years after the plant opened, sediment contaminated with effluent near the diffuser was 4.5 cm thick. In 1988, in the same area, sediment contaminated with effluent was 17 cm thick. In 15 years, water content increased form 72% to 85%, volatile solids from 7% to 20%, and organic carbon from 2% to 12%. Cl/Si and S/Si (not measured in 1972--73) were high only near the diffuser and were zero elsewhere. Contaminated sediment in the area of the diffuser appears to be accumulating at a rate of about 1 cm/yr. Twenty-two km upstream (south) from the plant, at an uncontaminated control location, the top, poorly consolidated layer was only 1 cm or less thick both in 1973 and in 1988. The suit was settled in favor of the plaintiffs for $5 million.

Haupt, R.S. (Vermont Agency of Transportation Materials and Research Div., Montpelier, VT (United States)); Folger, D.W. (Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA (United States))

1993-03-01

89

Small-scale lacustrine drifts in Lake Champlain, Vermont  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High resolution CHIRP (Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse) seismic profiles reveal the presence of two lacustrine sediment drifts located in Lake Champlain's Juniper Deep. Both drifts are positive features composed of highly laminated sediments. Drift B sits on a basement high while Drift A is built on a trough-filling acoustically-transparent sediment unit inferred to be a mass-transport event. These drifts are oriented approximately north–south and are parallel to a steep ridge along the eastern shore of the basin. Drift A, located at the bottom of a structural trough, is classified as a confined, elongate drift that transitions northward to become a system of upslope asymmetric mudwaves. Drift B is perched atop a structural high to the west of Drift A and is classified as a detached elongate drift. Bottom current depositional control was investigated using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) located across Drift A. Sediment cores were taken at the crest and at the edges of the Drift A and were dated. Drift source, deposition, and evolution show that these drifts are formed by a water column shear with the highest deposition occurring along its crest and western flank and began developing circa 8700–8800 year BP.

Manley, Patricia L.; Manley, T.O.; Hayo, Kathryn; Cronin, Thomas

2012-01-01

90

Spatial and temporal variation in mercury bioaccumulation by zooplankton in Lake Champlain (North America)  

PubMed Central

Trophic transfer of Hg across lakes within a region has been related to multiple environmental factors, but the nature of these relationships across distinct basins within individual large lakes is unknown. We investigated Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton in basins of differing trophic status in Lake Champlain (Vermont, USA) to determine the strongest predictors of Hg bioaccumulation. Zooplankton were sampled in Malletts Bay (oligotrophic) and Missisquoi Bay (eutrophic) in 2005–2008. Zooplankton in the eutrophic basin had lower concentrations of total Hg and MeHg than those in the oligotrophic basin in all years but 2007, when no bloom occurred in Missisquoi. In addition, Hg concentrations in seston and small zooplankton, sampled during 2009 at 12 sites spanning the lake, decreased with increasing phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass. Thus, Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton across basins in Lake Champlain is related to trophic status, as observed previously in multiple lake studies.

Kamman, Neil; Williams, Jason; Bugge, Deenie; Taylor, Vivien; Jackson, Brian; Miller, Eric

2012-01-01

91

Spatial and temporal variation in mercury bioaccumulation by zooplankton in Lake Champlain (North America).  

PubMed

Trophic transfer of Hg across lakes within a region has been related to multiple environmental factors, but the nature of these relationships across distinct basins within individual large lakes is unknown. We investigated Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton in basins of differing trophic status in Lake Champlain (Vermont, USA) to determine the strongest predictors of Hg bioaccumulation. Zooplankton were sampled in Malletts Bay (oligotrophic) and Missisquoi Bay (eutrophic) in 2005-2008. Zooplankton in the eutrophic basin had lower concentrations of total Hg and MeHg than those in the oligotrophic basin in all years but 2007, when no bloom occurred in Missisquoi. In addition, Hg concentrations in seston and small zooplankton, sampled during 2009 at 12 sites spanning the lake, decreased with increasing phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass. Thus, Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton across basins in Lake Champlain is related to trophic status, as observed previously in multiple lake studies. PMID:21995871

Chen, Celia; Kamman, Neil; Williams, Jason; Bugge, Deenie; Taylor, Vivien; Jackson, Brian; Miller, Eric

2012-02-01

92

Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners from Lake Champlain sediments by Mysis relicta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Champlain often exceed the F.D.A. tolerance level of 2 [mu]g\\/g (wet weight). Of added concern are recent studies that suggest a relationship between the dioxin-like properties of non-ortho-substituted PCB congeners and impaired lake trout egg hatchability. Dietary accumulation of PCBs is thought to be an important exposure route for

Deborah C. Lester; Alan McIntosh

1994-01-01

93

Astronauts Cooper and Conrad arrive aboard U.S.S. Lake Champlain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A red-carpet welcome was staged for Astronauts L. Gordon Cooper Jr. and Charles Conrad Jr. as they arrive aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Lake Champlain. They had been recovered from the Atlantic after the splashdown of their Gemini 5 spacecraft.

1965-01-01

94

Distribution of pollutants from a new paper plant in southern Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

From November of 1973 to May of 1974, 15 arrays of sediment traps were placed along 33 km of southern Lake Champlain to sample the distribution of effluent from a large paper plant located on the western shore which had commenced operation in 1971. In the arrays located near the effluent diffuser pipeline as much as 2.3 cm of sediment

D. L. Mason; D. W. Folger; R. S. Haupt; R. R. McGirr; W. H. Hoyt

1977-01-01

95

Native rainbow smelt and nonnative alewife distribution related to temperature and light gradients in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) recently became established in Lake Champlain and may compete with native rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) for food or consume larval rainbow smelt. The strength of this effect depends partly on the spatial and temporal overlap of different age groups of the two species; therefore, we need a better understanding of factors affecting alewife and rainbow smelt distributions

Paul W. Simonin; Donna L. Parrish; Lars G. Rudstam; Patrick J. Sullivan; Bernard Pientka

96

Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Phosphates, Nitrates, and Silicates in Lake Champlain, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the limnological characteristics was conducted from January through November, 1970 of Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York, U.S.A. The seasonal and spatial distribution of soluble nitrate, total phosphate and reactive silicate concentrations from 20 stations are presented here.

Gerhard K. Gruendling; John L. Malanchuk

1974-01-01

97

Astronauts Conrad and Cooper slice cake on U.S.S. Lake Champlain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr. (left) and L. Gordon Cooper Jr. prepate to slice into the huge cake prepared for them by the cooks onboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Lake Champlain. They are using ornamental Navy swords for knives.

1965-01-01

98

Management-Induced Reproductive Failure and Breeding Dispersal in Double-Crested Cormorants on Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied breeding dispersal of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) associated with management practices that suppressed their reproduction on Lake Champlain in the northeastern United States. We implemented an experiment on one colony by spraying corn oil on cormorant eggs in portions of the colony and leaving other portions untreated. Gulls (Larus spp.) consumed cormorant eggs during the oiling process, but

ADAM E. DUERR; THERESE M. DONOVAN; DAVID E. CAPEN

2007-01-01

99

Streamflow Regime Sensitivity to Climate Change Impacts within Lake Champlain Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Champlain Basin serves as a major source of ecosystem services and economic inputs to the northeastern United States. Research on northeastern United States climate indicates that historical trends of warmer air temperatures, increased precipitation amounts and changes in the timing and intensity of precipitation are expected to continue in the 21th century. Lake Champlain Basin might then be affected with seasonal weather shifts caused by significant climatic changes driven primarily by human generated greenhouse gases. This expected 21th century climatic changes might then impact flow regime in the Lake Champlain Basin and hence raise concerns about hydrological, ecological as well as political basin conditions. In this work, we examine alternative possibilities that might emerge in the Lake Champlain Basin streamflow regime given the imminent changes anticipated in climate forcing variables. Three streamflow regime classifications that include high flow disturbance, low flow disturbance and flow variability and predictability (Colwell index) will be analyzed in this work to better understand climate change impacts on streamflow regime within the Lake Champlain Basin. The Mad River near Moretown watershed located at Vermont, United States of America and upstream of United States Geological Survey gauge # 04288000 has been selected to be the study watershed for this work (drainage area about 360 km2). The Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys) model will be used to assess how climate changes might impact streamflow regime. The RHESSys model driven by historic precipitation, minimum and maximum air temperature data was first calibrated to daily streamflows at the watershed outlet. Streamflow realizations were then obtained by driving the calibrated RHESSys model with daily scenarios of different climate data to examine streamflow regime changes sensitivity. Our preliminary streamflow realization results at the study watershed outlet suggest that an increase in flood duration periods as well as an increase in base flow index values are likely to occur. Also our results suggest that a decrease in overall flow variability without considering the temporal sequence of flow variation is expected. Streamflow predictability results at the study watershed outlet suggest that a continuation of being due to high constancy (constancy is a measure of temporal invariance) of streamflow which varies little among months and years. In other words, the streamflow discharge at this study gauge is perfectly predictable with all the predictability driven from the constancy component of Colwell index. This work represents a contribution to the conservation community of the Lake Champlain Basin as they begin to plan and respond to the current and future impacts of climate changes on Lake Champlain.

Mohammed, I. N.; Wemple, B. C.; Bomblies, A.

2013-12-01

100

An initial view of subsurface Lagrangian observations in Lake Champlain: General patterns, cross-lake flow and coastal currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface free-drifting floats operating in the Main Lake of Lake Champlain in 2002 and 2004 showed the presence of 1) small circular to elliptical motion away from coastal boundaries, 2) linear to curvilinear motion associated with alongshore currents and 3) subsurface westward cross-lake flow located within the base of the epilimnion and upper metalimnion (10–16m) followed by large displacements up

T. O. Manley; Michael McCormick; Jean Claude Gascard; Pierre Tillier; Kenneth L. Hunkins; Patricia L. Manley

101

Streamwater fluxes of total mercury and methylmercury into and out of Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 2000 to 2004, we sampled for total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in inlet streams to Lake Champlain, targeting high flow periods to capture increases in THg and MeHg concentrations with increasing flow. We used these data to model stream THg and MeHg fluxes for Water Years 2001 through 2009. In this mountainous forested basin with a high watershed-to-lake

James B. Shanley; Ann T. Chalmers

102

Environmental study of ERTS-1 imagery Lake Champlain Basin and Vermont  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has idenfified the following significant results. A first approximation land-type map using three categories of classification was generated for the Burlington area. The identification and mapping of a major turbidity front separating turbid waters of the southern arm of Lake Champlain from the clearer main water mass was reported on RBV 1 and 2 imagery and on subsequent MSS bands 4 and 5. Significant industrial pollution of Lake Champlain has degraded environmental quality in certain sections of the lake. Wetlands were detected and recognized using a combination of RBV bands 2 and 3. Using first-look RBV band 2 imagery, major ice marginal features were identified by using tonal patterns associated with vegetative cover. Major rivers were detected and recognized through the use of RBV band 3 imagery and MSS bands 6 and 7.

Lind, A. O. (principal investigator)

1972-01-01

103

14C chronology for ice retreat and inception of Champlain Sea in the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AMS radiocarbon cross-dating of plant debris and marine shells trapped in a lake basin on Mount St. Hilaire (Québec, Canada) provides a direct assessment of a reservoir effect totaling ca. 1800 14C years during the early stage of Champlain Sea. Pollen-based extrapolation of bottommost ages on terrestrial plant macrofossils in sediments of this lake, and of another lake nearby support an estimate of 11,100 ± 100 14C yr B.P. for marine invasion in the Central St. Lawrence River Lowlands. Results indicate a 400-1000 years younger regional chronology of ice retreat, now congruent with the one inferred from the New England varve chronology. This is a summary of a longer paper to be published in French.

Richard, Pierre J. H.; Occhietti, Serge

2005-05-01

104

Micropaleontological Record of Postglacial History in Lake Champlain and Adjacent Regions: Implications for Glacial Lake Drainage and Abrupt Climate Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-glacial lacustrine and marine sediments of the Lake Champlain region range from 20 to >50 meters in thickness presenting an opportunity to assess the timing of North American glacial lake drainage at multidecadal timescales and evaluate its effect on North Atlantic salinity and abrupt climate events 13.5 to 10 kyr B.P. High-resolution analysis of foraminifera and ostracodes from cores taken

T. M. Cronin; P. L. Manley; J. Guilbault; M. Berke; J. A. Rayburn; D. A. Franzi; P. L. Knuepfer

2005-01-01

105

Groundwater quality in the Lake Champlain Basin, New York, 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water was sampled from 20 production and domestic wells from August through November 2009 to characterize groundwater quality in the Lake Champlain Basin in New York. Of the 20 wells sampled, 8 were completed in sand and gravel, and 12 were completed in bedrock. The samples were collected and processed by standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria. Water quality in the study area is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards; these were color (1 sample), pH (3 samples), sodium (3 samples), total dissolved solids (4 samples), iron (4 samples), manganese (3 samples), gross alpha radioactivity (1 sample), radon-222 (10 samples), and bacteria (5 samples). The pH of all samples was typically neutral or slightly basic (median 7.1); the median water temperature was 9.7°C. The ions with the highest median concentrations were bicarbonate [median 158 milligrams per liter (mg/L)] and calcium (median 45.5 mg/L). Groundwater in the study area is soft to very hard, but more samples were hard or very hard (121 mg/L or more as CaCO3) than were moderately hard or soft (120 mg/L or less as CaCO3); the median hardness was 180 mg/L as CaCO3. The maximum concentration of nitrate plus nitrite was 3.79 mg/L as nitrogen, which did not exceed established drinking-water standards for nitrate plus nitrite (10 mg/L as nitrogen). The trace elements with the highest median concentrations were strontium (median 202 micrograms per liter [?g/L]), and iron (median 55 ?g/L in unfiltered water). Six pesticides and pesticide degradates, including atrazine, fipronil, disulfoton, prometon, and two pesticide degradates, CIAT and desulfinylfipronil, were detected among five samples at concentrations of 0.02 ?g/L or less; they included herbicides, herbicide degradates, insecticides, and insecticide degradates. Six VOCs were detected among six samples; these included a solvent, the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and four trihalomethanes. The highest radon-222 activities were in samples from crystalline bedrock wells (maximum 4,100 picocuries per liter [pCi/L]); half of all samples exceeded a proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking-water standard of 300 pCi/L. Total coliform bacteria were detected in five samples, fecal coliform bacteria were detected in one sample, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were not detected in any sample.

Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

2011-01-01

106

Distribution of pollutants from a new paper plant in southern Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

From November of 1973 to May of 1974, 15 arrays of sediment traps were placed along 33 km of southern Lake Champlain to sample\\u000a the distribution of effluent from a large paper plant located on the western shore which had commenced operation in 1971.\\u000a In the arrays located near the effluent diffuser pipeline as much as 2.3 cm of sediment

D. L. Mason; D. W. Folger; R. S. Haupt; R. R. McGirr; W. H. Hoyt

1977-01-01

107

Using Abiotic and Biotic Factors to Predict the Range Expansion of White Perch in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

White perch (Morone americana) invaded Lake Champlain, New York-Vermont, in the mid-1980s, yet abundance of white perch and those factors controlling their abundance are unknown. To predict the expansion of white perch, we differentiated between the most likely factors affecting white perch abundance; habitat characteristics or an invasion gradient (i.e., abundance is greater near the point of entry). Therefore, we

Ethan J. Hawes; Donna L. Parrish

2003-01-01

108

Sediment Quality in Burlington Harbor, Lake Champlain, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface samples and cores were collected in 1993 fromthe Burlington Harbor region of Lake Champlain. Sediment samples were analyzed for trace metals(cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, silver and zinc),simultaneously extracted metal\\/acid volatile sulfide(SEM-AVS), grain size, nutrients (carbon and nitrogen)and organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatichydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs)). The concentrations of cadmium, copper,silver and zinc from the partial sediment digestion ofthe surface

E. M. Lacey; J. W. King; J. G. Quinn; E. L. Mecray; P. G. Appleby; A. S. Hunt

2001-01-01

109

Mapping cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Champlain's Missisquoi Bay using QuickBird and MERIS satellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

C-phycocyanin (C-PC) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations for the eutrophic waters of Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain (VT–QC) were retrieved from Envisat's MERIS radiance data (300m spatial resolution) and validated against coincident georeferenced transect observations. Pigment concentrations were also predicted from empirically calibrated QuickBird data (2.4m spatial resolution) using selected band ratios and principal components analysis. The QuickBird NIR\\/Red band ratio accounted

Sarah M. Wheeler; Leslie A. Morrissey; Suzanne N. Levine; Gerald P. Livingston; Warwick F. Vincent

110

Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners from Lake Champlain sediments by Mysis relicta  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Champlain often exceed the F.D.A. tolerance level of 2 [mu]g/g (wet weight). Of added concern are recent studies that suggest a relationship between the dioxin-like properties of non-ortho-substituted PCB congeners and impaired lake trout egg hatchability. Dietary accumulation of PCBs is thought to be an important exposure route for fish. The epibenthic freshwater shrimp Mysis relicta is an integral part of the benthic and pelagic food web in lake Champlain and may act as a link between PCBs in sediments and lake trout. Previous investigations have shown that diurnal migrations of mysids enhance the movement and distribution of toxic contaminants, effectively coupling the benthic and pelagic zones. The objective of this research was to examine the role contaminated sediments play in the transfer of PCBs to mysids. Bioaccumulation was assessed by exposing mysids to such sediments in two ways: (a) with organisms screened from sediments; and (b) with organisms in direct contact with sediments. Accumulation of PCBs over the course of the 24-day exposure period was examined on the following days: 0, 3, 6, 12, 21, and 24. Eighty-nine individual PCB congeners were measured in tissue and sediment. Mysids in direct contact with sediments accumulated significantly higher levels of PCBs than did organisms screened from sediments. Mysids accumulated substantial levels of PCBs, suggesting they may play an important part in the transfer of PCBs from sediments into the Lake Champlain food web. It is clear from this research that sediments can play a critical role in the accumulation of PCBs by mysids.

Lester, D.C.; McIntosh, A. (Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States). Vermont Water Resources and Lake Studies Center)

1994-11-01

111

Streamwater fluxes of total mercury and methylmercury into and out of Lake Champlain.  

PubMed

From 2000 to 2004, we sampled for total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in inlet streams to Lake Champlain, targeting high flow periods to capture increases in THg and MeHg concentrations with increasing flow. We used these data to model stream THg and MeHg fluxes for Water Years 2001 through 2009. In this mountainous forested basin with a high watershed-to-lake area ratio of 18, fluvial export from the terrestrial watershed was the dominant source of Hg to the lake. Unfiltered THg and MeHg fluxes were dominated by the particulate fraction; about 40% of stream THg was in the filtered (<0.4 ?m) phase. THg flux from the watershed to the lake averaged 2.37 ?g m(-2) yr(-1), or about 13% of atmospheric Hg wet and dry deposition to the basin. THg export from the lake represented only about 3% of atmospheric Hg input to the basin. PMID:21835521

Shanley, James B; Chalmers, Ann T

2012-02-01

112

An historical assessment of trace metal accumulation in Lake Champlain, Vermont  

SciTech Connect

The Lake Champlain watershed, with its increased land use, shoreline development, and population, is being threatened by pollutants in the water column and bottom sediments. A comprehensive study is currently being conducted to characterize the bottom sediments of the lake for toxicity and to reconstruct the history of pollutant inputs. Surface sediment samples were collected from 30 stations and analyzed for metal (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cd, Al, and Ag) concentrations to determine the contaminated regions of the lake. Once the contaminated regions were determined, a Nemesis corer was used to retrieve sediments cores averaging 1 meter in length from 10 sites within Lake Champlain. Grain size and metal analyses were conducted at one and two cm intervals down the cores. Grain size data, in combination with metal and radiometric stratigraphy, can serve as an indicator of changing land use in the watershed. The grain size in some cores has a fining upward trend indicating increased land use and soil erosion. Downcore variations in metal concentrations reveal two different regimes. The concentration at depth remain consistently low and are inferred to correspond with the natural background levels. In contrast, the upper section of the cores show abrupt increases in metal concentrations which are attributed to increased anthropogenic inputs. Radiometric ([sup 210] and [sup 137]Cs) and pollen chronostratigraphy of these cores indicates that the increased metal concentrations and the changes in grain size recorded in the upper most sediments is related to increased human disturbance beginning in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. This study demonstrates that the historical record of pollution inputs to Lake Champlain can be reconstructed from the sediment sequences.

Mecray, E.L.; King, J.W. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States). Graduate School of Oceanography)

1993-03-01

113

Investigating public preferences for managing Lake Champlain using a choice experiment.  

PubMed

The Lake Champlain Basin in Vermont and New York, USA and Quebec, Canada includes a large lake and watershed with complex management issues. A transboundary comprehensive management plan prepared for the lake includes 11 goals across many issue areas. We developed a choice experiment to examine public preferences for alternative Lake Champlain management scenarios across these issue areas. Five ecosystem attributes (water clarity-algae blooms, public beach closures, land use change, fish consumption advisories and the spread of water chestnut, an invasive plant) were varied across three levels and arrayed into paired comparisons following an orthogonal fractional factorial design. Two thousand questionnaires were distributed to basin residents, each including nine paired comparisons that required trading off two, three or four attributes. Completed surveys yielded 6541 responses which were analyzed using binary logistic regression. The results showed that although water clarity and beach closures were important, safe fish consumption was the strongest predictor of choice. Land use pattern and water chestnut distribution were weaker but also significant predictors, with respondents preferring less land development and preservation of the agricultural landscape. Current management efforts in the Lake Champlain Basin are heavily weighted toward improving water clarity by reducing phosphorus pollution. Our results suggest that safe fish consumption warrants additional management attention. Because choice experiments provide information that is much richer than the simple categorical judgments more commonly used in surveys, they can provide managers with information about tradeoffs that could be used to enhance public support and maximize the social benefits of an ecosystem management program. PMID:18262328

Smyth, Robyn L; Watzin, Mary C; Manning, Robert E

2009-01-01

114

Remote sensing models using Landsat satellite data to monitor algal blooms in Lake Champlain.  

PubMed

Lake Champlain is significantly impaired by excess phosphorus loading, requiring frequent lake-wide monitoring for eutrophic conditions and algal blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides regular, synoptic coverage of algal production over large areas with better spatial and temporal resolution compared with in situ monitoring. This study developed two algal production models using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM(+)) satellite imagery: a single band model and a band ratio model. The models predicted chlorophyll a concentrations to estimate algal cell densities throughout Lake Champlain. Each model was calibrated with in situ data compiled from summer 2006 (July 24 to September 10), and then validated with data for individual days in August 2007 and 2008. Validation results for the final single band and band ratio models produced Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) coefficients of 0.65 and 0.66, respectively, confirming satisfactory model performance for both models. Because these models have been validated over multiple days and years, they can be applied for continuous monitoring of the lake. PMID:23416605

Trescott, A; Park, M-H

2013-01-01

115

Combining scientific data in frameworks for decision-making: examples from two transboundary lakes (Lake Champlain, USA & Canada, and Lake Ohrid, Macedonia & Albania)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful integrated water resources management must be based on a comprehensive scientific data base. When measures of the physical and biological characteristics of the environment are combined with information about human activities and their effects on the ecosystem, an assessment of ecological condition can be linked to the potential causes of environmental change. In the Lake Champlain Basin, we have

Mary Watzin

2004-01-01

116

Application of ERTS imagery to environmental studies of Lake Champlain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERTS Imagery has provided data relating to a number of environmental and limnological concerns such as water quality, lake flooding and lake ice formation. Pollution plume data provided by ERTS was recently used in the Supreme Court case involving the States of Vermont and New York and a paper company. Flooding of lowland tracts has been a major concern due to a repetitive pattern of high lake levels over the past three years, and ERTS imagery is being used to construct the first series of flood maps of the affected areas. Lake ice development and turbidity patterns have also been studied from ERTS, since these have significance for shore erosion studies.

Lind, A. O.

1974-01-01

117

Modeling 200 Years of Changing Trophic Status in Lake Champlain Based on Land Use Change and Commercial Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleolimnological records show that since Europeans began settling in the Lake Champlain Basin almost 250 years ago, the lake has become progressively eutrophic. Eutrophication of freshwater bodies through input of excess nutrients has been a major water quality issue worldwide for the past half century (Codd et al. 2005). While the underlying causes of productivity rise in Lake Champlain, such as deforestation, increasing population, and lake level changes, have been inferred from anecdotal evidence, quantitative inferences based on modeled nutrient fluxes are lacking. Land use changes, such as the switch from subsistence farming to commercial practices focusing on one or two crops or animal types, as well as massive deforestation in 19th century, may explain some of the observed variability in nutrient and algal biomass accumulation rates since settlement began. While increased sampling of the Lake Champlain increases the amount of paleolimnological data, researching the historic information of the area gives a more complete grasp of the past drivers in land use change. In order to manage the historical land use data that are currently available, a simulation model was developed in Simile, a declarative programming software, to simulate algal productivity in response to phosphorous load based on alterations in land use, population, livestock numbers, fertilizer use, waste water treatment effluent, precipitation, and lake level. Data within the Lake Champlain Basin from the past two centuries were gathered from various online sources and individuals who had previously collected data. The output from the model was compared with phosphorus and algal pigment profiles in sediment cores collected from several locations in Lake Champlain. These show phosphorous accumulation rate and algal productivity increasing over the past 200 years, but do not indicate the reasons for change (Levine and Lini, unpublished data). Ongoing research is increasing data availability and improving model calibrations.

Carr, H. E.; Boumans, R.; Levine, S.

2009-12-01

118

Detrital ooids of Holocene age in glaciomarine Champlain Sea sediments, Gatineau, Quebec, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detrital ooids, from 0.1 to 0.5 mm diameter, almost completely dominate two 0.3 m thick layers between one and two metres depth at a site in clay-size-rich, isostatically uplifted, glaciomarine, Champlain Sea sediments north of Gatineau, Quebec. The ooids, composed of layers of tangentially oriented, platy particles, are physical aggregations of glacially ground, rock flour with the identical mineral suite

J. Kenneth Torrance; Reed Kirkpatrick

2004-01-01

119

On the Assessment of Atmospheric Deposition of Sulfur and Nitrogen Species to the Surface of Large Inland Lakes—Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early work indicated that wet deposition of radioactive fallout to the water surface of a lake greatly exceeded dry, when calculated as annual averages. To test whether this result also applies to the deposition rates of soluble trace gases from the lower atmosphere, data collected at land sites near Lake Champlain have been used to estimate deposition rates to the

Bruce B. Hicks

2007-01-01

120

Principal components analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in sediments from Lake Champlain and Lake George, New York, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principal-components analysis (PCA) was used to compare concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) compounds in sediments collected from two interconnected lakes, Lake Champlain and Lake George, New York, USA. Two different PCDD\\/PCDF congener profiles were present in surface sediment samples from Lake George. Samples collected near residential areas and power-boat marinas had elevated hepta- and octa-CDDs (1±0.3

P. O'Keefe; R. Smith; S. Connor; K. Aldous; H. Valente; R. Donnelly

1994-01-01

121

Assessing sediment quality in heterogeneous environments: A case study of a small urban harbor in Lake Champlain, Vermont, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively few case studies have been conducted demonstrating the utility of multiple endpoint approaches to sediment quality assessment in areas with moderate contaminant levels and heterogeneous conditions. Because variability is commonplace in natural systems, assessment approaches must be designed explicitly for these conditions. In an assessment of highly heterogeneous freshwater sediments in Lake Champlain, Vermont, USA, the authors measured multiple

Mary C. Watzin; Alan W. McIntosh; Erik A. Brown; Rebekah Lacey; Deborah C. Lester; Kathleen L. Newbrough; Ann R. Williams

1997-01-01

122

Use of flow-normalization to evaluate nutrient concentration and flux changes in Lake Champlain tributaries, 1990–2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated 20years of total phosphorus (P) and total nitrogen (N) concentration data for 18 Lake Champlain tributaries using a new statistical method based on weighted regressions to estimate daily concentration and flux histories based on discharge, season, and trend as explanatory variables. The use of all the streamflow discharge values for a given date in the

Laura Medalie; Robert M. Hirsch; Stacey A. Archfield

123

The deposition of mercury in throughfall and litterfall in the lake champlain watershed: A short-term study  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an ongoing study of the atmospheric deposition of Hg in the Lake Champlain watershed, event throughfall, event precipitation, ambient, green foliage, and litterfall samples were collected and analyzed for Hg from a mixed hardwood forest in Underhill Center, VT, for six weeks during the months of August and September 1994. During this time period, the volume-weighted mean

Timothy Scherbatskoy

1996-01-01

124

Phosphorus, Nitrogen, and Silica as Controls on Phytoplankton Biomass and Species Composition in Lake Champlain (USA-Canada)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-standing assumption that the phytoplankton in Lake Champlain are phosphorus limited was tested through measurement of physiological indicators of phosphorus status (alkaline phosphatase activity and orthophosphate turnover time) and enrichment experiments conducted four times during the growth season. Phosphorus addition to experimental carboys incubated 4–5 days in situ substantially increased phytoplankton biomass relative to controls in June, but had

Suzanne N. Levine; Angela d. Shambaugh; Staci E. Pomeroy; Moshe Braner

1997-01-01

125

The deposition of mercury in throughfall and litterfall in the lake champlain watershed: A short-term study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an ongoing study of the atmospheric deposition of Hg in the Lake Champlain watershed, event throughfall, event precipitation, ambient, green foliage, and litterfall samples were collected and analyzed for Hg from a mixed hardwood forest in Underhill Center, VT, for six weeks during the months of August and September 1994. During this time period, the volume-weighted mean Hg concentration in throughfall (12.0 ± 8.5 ng ? -1) was higher than in precipitation (6.5 ± 2.8 ng ? -1). In August and September 1994, the total deposition of Hg in throughfall was estimated to be 3.1 ?gm -2 (1.9 ?g m -2 in precipitation) to the deciduous hardwood forests in the Lake Champlain basin. The mean Hg concentration in litterfall (53.2± 11.4 ng g -1) was significantly greater than the mean concentration in green foliage (34.2 +7.2 ng g -1), suggesting uptake of Hg from the atmosphere by foliage. Estimated annual litterfall deposition to the Lake Champlain basin was 13 ?g m -2. This study suggests that throughfall and litterfall play a significant role in the cycling and deposition of Hg in the Lake Champlain watershed.

Rea, Anne W.; Keeler, Gerald J.; Scherbatskoy, Timothy

126

Diet of Invasive Adult White Perch ( Morone americana) and their Effects on the Zooplankton Community in Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

White perch (Morone americana) became established in Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain in the mid 1990s. Since that time, cyanobacteria blooms have become common in summer. Although introduced planktivorous fish often impact plankton communities through a reduction in Daphnia density, such effects can be difficult to predict in an opportunistic species such as white perch. In this study, we examined the

Sam C. Couture; Mary C. Watzin

2008-01-01

127

Movement Patterns, Activity, and Home Range of the Eastern Spiny Softshell Turtle (Apalone spinifera) in Northern Lake Champlain, Québec, Vermont  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied movement patterns, activity, and home range of the eastern spiny softshell turtle (Apalone spinifera) in northern Lake Champlain (Quebec, Canada; Vermont) from 1996 to 1999. This turtle population is at the northern limit of its range and considered threatened. Of the 30 individuals captured and marked, 15 females and eight males were equipped with radio-transmitters and monitored from

Patrick Galois; Martin Léveillé; Lyne Bouthillier; Claude Daigle; Steve Parren

2002-01-01

128

Physical processes driving high-speed currents in Lake Champlain bottom water  

SciTech Connect

The authors have examined current velocity profiles obtained at two sites in Lake Champlain to delineate physical processes causing high-speed currents near the lake bottom. Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP's) were deployed during the interval June--October, 1992 at mid-lake sites near Thompson's Point and Valcour Island. The instruments measured horizontal current velocity at 1 m intervals through the water column. The ADCP measurement range covered 74% of the water depth at the Valcour Island site and 49% at Thompson's Point site. The deepest measurement level at the Valcour Island site was 9 m above the lake floor. Two phenomena causing intense bottom currents at Valcour Island were identified in the data sets. One occurred during the relatively weak density stratification of the early summer period. It was caused by a downwelled thermocline at Valcour which was associated with impulses of northward-directed wind stress. On three occasions the wind stress was large enough to propel essentially all hypolimnion water south of Valcour Island. After these downwellings the lower layer returned as a steeply-faced internal surge with high-speed, turbulent flow at its leading edge. The second process forcing high-speed bottom currents was related to large-amplitude internal seiches that dominated Lake Champlain's main basin during September and October. Amplitudes of the seiches approached several tens of meters; their persistence suggests near-resonant wind forcing as a generating mechanism. Currents at the deepest measurement level exceeded 30 cm/s over duration's of 12 or more hours. Periods of the internal seiches were observed to vary with the intensity of stratification and with seasonal thermocline depth as predicted by first principles governing internal wave propagation.

Saylor, J.; Miller, J. (GLERL, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Manley, T.O.; Manley, P.L. (Middlebury Coll., VT (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-03-01

129

New England from Boston to Lake Champlain and up to southern Main from STS-58  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph includes much of the heart of New England, stretching from Boston and Boston Harbor (lower left) across New Hampshire and Vermont to Lake Champlain (upper left), and up to southern Maine (Portland is just off the photo at right center). North of Boston flows the Merrimack River (which forms part of the state boundary between Massachuesetts and New Hampshire). It is delineated by the small industrial towns (Concord, Manchester, Nashua, Lowell) which grew up on its banks. The White Mountains of New Hampshire are seen near the center, and Mt. Washington (6,288 feet) is capped with snow. Fort Sam Houston is contained within the northeast quadrant of the city, Brooks Air Force Base lies at the southeastern corner, and Lackland and Kelly Air Force Bases are within the suburban fringe to the southwest. San Antonio International Airport can be seen at the foot of the escarpment in the northern part of the city.

1993-01-01

130

Growth rates of rainbow smelt in Lake Champlain: Effects of density and diet  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stritzel Thomson JL, Parrish DL, Parker-Stetter SL, Rudstam LG, Sullivan PJ. Growth rates of rainbow smelt in Lake Champlain: effects of density and diet. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 2010. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract- We estimated the densities of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) using hydroacoustics and obtained specimens for diet analysis and groundtruthed acoustics data from mid-water trawl sampling in four areas of Lake Champlain, USA-Canada. Densities of rainbow smelt cohorts alternated during the 2-year study; age-0 rainbow smelt were very abundant in 2001 (up to 6fish per m2) and age-1 and older were abundant (up to 1.2fish per m2) in 2002. Growth rates and densities varied among areas and years. We used model selection on eight area-year-specific variables to investigate biologically plausible predictors of rainbow smelt growth rates. The best supported model of growth rates of age-0 smelt indicated a negative relationship with age-0 density, likely associated with intraspecific competition for zooplankton. The next best-fit model had age-1 density as a predictor of age-0 growth. The best supported models (N=4) of growth rates of age-1 fish indicated a positive relationship with availability of age-0 smelt and resulting levels of cannibalism. Other plausible models were contained variants of these parameters. Cannibalistic rainbow smelt consumed younger conspecifics that were up to 53% of their length. Prediction of population dynamics for rainbow smelt requires an understanding of the relationship between density and growth as age-0 fish outgrow their main predators (adult smelt) by autumn in years with fast growth rates, but not in years with slow growth rates. ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Stritzel, Thomson, J. L.; Parrish, D. L.; Parker-Stetter, S. L.; Rudstam, L. G.; Sullivan, P. J.

2011-01-01

131

The R/V Folger a Floating Laboratory: Teaching Marine Science Skills on Lake Champlain (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate senior work has been required at Middlebury College as far back as 1960's and hands-on experiential learning was and still is the mode for our geology courses. The history of Middlebury College having a research vessel started in the 1970's when Dave Folger started the marine component of our curriculum and obtained the first Middlebury College's research vessel - a coast guard rescue surf boat (Bruno Schmidt). The second Middlebury College research vessel, the R/V Baldwin was purchased in 1985 and was used exclusively in a river-like setting due to its open cockpit and minimal research equipment. In 1990, Middlebury College received a grant from NSF-MRI to upgrade the vessel, to a then state-of the-art small oceanographic vessel including new equipment (CTD, side-scan sonar, ROV, met station, coring devices, computers and navigation). Middlebury College contributed monies to enclose the wheelhouse, install safer diesel engines, as well as a winch and an A-frame to haul in equipment. Over 600+ students used the Baldwin in a variety of geology courses; mainly Oceanography and Marine Geology. In 2010, Middlebury College received an NSF -ARRA grant (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act) to replace the ailing R/V Baldwin with a floating state-of-the art laboratory with the specific goals of increasing 1) access to lake research for Middlebury faculty and students in the biological, chemical, and environmental sciences, 2) the scope of lake research by reducing transit times over this 100km long lake, 3) stability for broad-lake research, 4) improve and expand research capabilities on Lake Champlain, 5) the carrying capacity (both equipment and people), and 6) instructional capability and overnight capabilities. The newly built R/V Folger is a sophisticated research vessel with advanced capabilities that provides a greater capacity to the research infrastructure on Lake Champlain, enhancing interdisciplinary inquiry not only for Middlebury College, but for other members of the local educational community for the next 30 to 50 years. The R/V Folger hosts significant amount of lab space allowing for on-vessel processing of real time data, enhanced navigational capabilities, smart classroom technology and new instrumentation such as multi-beam and CTD-rosette system. This all aluminum new research vessel, besides providing a new platform for Middlebury College's students, will also be used to enable faculty at other local colleges to provide experiential training in research techniques that would otherwise be unavailable; provide research training to local K-12 teachers; offer outreach to "land-locked" institutions and organizations within our tri-state region (NY, NH and VT); the development of a nautical archaeology program in the Lake Champlain basin; and produce data with environmental benefits to the region.

Manley, P.; Manley, T.

2013-12-01

132

Distribution of pollutants from a new paper plant in southern Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From November of 1973 to May of 1974, 15 arrays of sediment traps were placed along 33 km of southern Lake Champlain to sample the distribution of effluent from a large paper plant located on the western shore which had commenced operation in 1971. In the arrays located near the effluent diffuser pipeline as much as 2.3 cm of sediment accumulated, whereas elsewhere in the lake less than 1 cm accumulated. In the area of accelerated accumulation, sediments contained high concentrations of several components used in or derived from paper manufacturing. Values for kaolinite, expressed as the ratio of kaolinite to chlorite, for example, were as high as 1.4, anatase (TiO2) concentrations were as high as 0.8%, organic carbon 8.7%, and phosphorus 254 ??g/g; all were more abundant than in sediments collected in traps to the south or north. In surficial bottom sediments collected near each array organic carbon and phosphorus were also higher (4.2% and 127 ??g/g respectively) near the diffuser than elsewhere. Thus, the new plant after three years of production measurably affected the composition of suspended sediment and surficial bottom sediment despite the construction and use of extensive facilities to reduce the flow of pollutants to the lake. ?? 1977 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Mason, D. L.; Folger, D. W.; Haupt, R. S.; McGirr, R. R.; Hoyt, W. H.

1977-01-01

133

Historical Trace Metal Accumulation in the Sediments of an Urbanized Region of the Lake Champlain Watershed, Burlington, Vermont  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study documents the history ofpollution inputs in the Burlington region of LakeChamplain, Vermont using measurements of anthropogenicmetals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Ag) in four age-datedsediment cores. Sediments record a history ofcontamination in a region and can be used to assessthe changing threat to biota over time and to evaluatethe effectiveness of discharge regulations onanthropogenic inputs.Grain size, magnetic

Ellen L. Mecray; John W. King; Peter G. Appleby; Allen S. Hunt

2001-01-01

134

Role of wetlands in reducing phosphorus loading to surface water in eight watersheds in the Lake Champlain Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A landscape-level approach was applied to eight rural watersheds to assess the role that wetlands play in reducing phosphorus\\u000a loading to surface waters in the Lake Champlain Basin. Variables summarizing various characteristics of wetlands within a\\u000a watershed were calculated using a geographic information system and then compared to measured phosphorus loading through multiple\\u000a regression analyses. The inclusion of a variable

Christine M. Weller; Mary C. Watzin; Deane Wang

1996-01-01

135

Late Wisconsinan glacial, lacustrine and marine stratigraphy in the Champlain Valley, New York and Vermont  

SciTech Connect

The stratigraphy of late-glacial, and postglacial deposits and landforms in the Champlain Lowland is interpreted from high-resolution (3.5 khz transducer) acoustical profiling and piston core analysis of sediments beneath Lake Champlain in conjunction with detailed morphologic sequence mapping of surficial deposits. The sediments of Lake Champlain have been grouped by acoustic, lithologic, and biostratigraphic criteria into three stratigraphic units that were deposited successively into Lake Vermont, the Champlain Sea, and Lake Champlain. The maximum thickness of unconsolidated sediment is known to exceed 200 meters locally. Biostratigraphic subdivision of these units using pollen, diatoms, ostracodes, and foraminifera provides further definition of late-glacial and postglacial events in the region and indicates that transitional environments occurred as conditions changed from proglacial lake to marine estuary to freshwater lake. The stratigraphy of surficial deposits records proglacial lake sequences in the Champlain Valley and its tributaries. Interbasinal correlation of the tributary proglacial lake sequences and reconstructed ice marginal positions, is consistent with a model of generally synchronous, northward recession controlled primarily by backwasting of active continental ice lobes. Minor asynchroneity of retreat rates may be attributed to local differences in subglacial topography and changes in proglacial lake level, both of which may affect calving rates. Northward ice recession of the Champlain Lobe allowed successive inundation of tributary valleys by Lake Vermont. Elevations of deltaic sandplains reveal at least three distinct lake levels in the northwestern Champlain Valley. The highest level corresponds to the Coveville Stage while the lower two represent levels of the Fort Ann Stage.

Franzi, D.A. (Stat Univ. of New York, Plattsburgh, NY (United States). Center for Earth and Environmental Science); Hunt, A.S. (Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-03-01

136

Application of ERTS-1 imagery in the Vermont-New York dispute over pollution of Lake Champlain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery and a composite map derived from ERTS-1 imagery were presented as evidence in a U.S. Supreme Court case involving the pollution of an interstate water body (Lake Champlain). A pollution problem generated by a large paper mill forms the basis of the suit (Vermont vs. International Paper Co. and State of New York) and ERTS-1 imagery shows the effluent pattern on the lake surface as extending into Vermont during three different times.

Lind, A. O. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

137

Application of PMF in the Investigation of VOCs Emission Sources for Lake Champlain Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) have long been considered hazardous atmospheric pollutants. VOCs account for the majority of the 188 air toxics species listed in the 1990 Clean Air Act (US). The National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) Program established by EPA aims to coordinate national and state level efforts on concentration data collection, emission inventory, and population risk assessment. Like many other states, the State of Vermont established its Air Toxics Program which consists of seven monitoring sites, some of which started sample collection as early as 1993. This presentation focuses on an ongoing project to investigate emission sources of VOCs in the Lake Champlain Basin. Two monitoring sites, Burlington and Underhill sites were selected for their representation of two distinctly different urban and rural environments. Statistical methods including the Positive Matrix Factorization were employed. Identified likely sources, up to fourteen of them for each site, that are either common to both sites or unique to one of the two, as well as the apportionment results, will be discussed. In addition, the presentation will discuss particular challenges arisen in the source-receptor modeling processes due to low concentration levels of many VOCs, the absence of some very volatile species in the Vermont Air Toxics monitoring program, rapid chemical transformations or decompositions occurred during atmospheric transport of the VOCs, and the complexity and uncertainty in the emissions inventory.

Gao, N.; Anderson, K.; Poirot, R.

2009-04-01

138

Application of the WHO alert level framework to cyanobacterial monitoring of Lake Champlain, Vermont.  

PubMed

The increasing incidence of toxic cyanobacteria blooms worldwide has created a need for practical and efficient monitoring in order to protect public health. We developed a monitoring and alert framework based on World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations and applied it on Lake Champlain during the summers of 2002-2004. The protocol began with collection of net samples of phytoplankton in order to maximize the chance of finding potential toxin-producing cyanobacteria. Samples were collected lake-wide in partnership with ongoing monitoring efforts, but because open water sample sites did not capture conditions along the shoreline, we added near-shore and shoreline stations in problem areas. Samples were examined qualitatively until potential toxin-producing taxa were found. Then quantitative analyses began, using a rapid screening method to estimate cell density based on colony size. A final cell density of 4000 cells/mL triggered toxin analyses. Primary analysis was for microcystins using ELISA methods. Cell densities, locations of colonies, and toxin concentrations were reported weekly to public health officials. We found that screening for potential toxin-producing cyanobacteria and then measuring toxin concentrations when cell densities reached critical levels worked well to identify problem locations. Although the WHO recommends using chlorophyll a concentration, it was not a good indicator of problem densities of potential toxin-producing cyanobacteria. Our cell density screening method missed no developing blooms but produced less precise density estimates at high cell counts. Overall, our framework appears to provide an efficient and effective method for monitoring cyanotoxin risks. PMID:16646001

Watzin, Mary C; Miller, Emily Brines; Shambaugh, Angela D; Kreider, Meghan A

2006-06-01

139

Carbon Cycling and the Coupling Between Proton and Electron Transfer Reactions in Aquatic Sediments in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used fine-scale porewater profiles and rate measurements together with a multiple component transport–reaction model to\\u000a investigate carbon degradation pathways and the coupling between electron and proton transfer reactions in Lake Champlain\\u000a sediments. We measured porewater profiles of O2, Mn2+, Fe2+, HS?, pH and pCO2 at mm resolution by microelectrodes, and profiles of NO3\\u000a ?, SO4\\u000a 2?, NH4\\u000a +, total

Wei-Jun CaiGeorge; George W. Luther; Jeffrey C. Cornwell; Anne E. Giblin

2010-01-01

140

Sediment quality in Burlington Harbor, Lake Champlain, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surface samples and cores were collected in 1993 from the Burlington Harbor region of Lake Champlain. Sediment samples were analyzed for trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, silver and zinc), simultaneously extracted metal/acid volatile sulfide (SEM-AVS), grain size, nutrients (carbon and nitrogen) and organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)). The concentrations of cadmium, copper, silver and zinc from the partial sediment digestion of the surface samples correlated well with each other (r2 > 0.60) indicating that either a common process, or group of processes determined the sediment concentrations of these metals. In an analysis of the spatial distribution of the trace metals and PAHs, high surficial concentrations were present in the southern portion of the Harbor. The trace metal trend was strengthened when the concentrations were normalized by grain size. A sewage treatment plant outfall discharge was present in the southeastern portion of the Harbor at the time of this study and is the major source of trace metal and PAH contamination. Evaluation of sediment cores provides a proxy record of historical trace metal and organic inputs. The peak accumulation rate for copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc was in the late 1960s and the peak silver accumulation rate was later. The greatest accumulation of trace metals occurred in the late 1960s after discharges from the STP began. Subsequent declines in trace metal concentrations may be attributed to increased water and air regulations. The potential toxicity of trace metals and organic contaminants was predicted by comparing contaminant concentrations to benchmark concentrations and potential trace metal bioavailability was predicted with SEM-AVS results. Surface sample results indicate lead, silver, ???PAHs and ???PCBs are potentially toxic and/or bioavailable. These predictions were supported by studies of biota in the Burlington Harbor watershed. There is a clear trend of decreasing PAH and trace metal contaminant concentrations with distance from the STP outfall.Surface samples and cores were collected in 1993 from the Burlington Harbor region of Lake Champlain. Sediment samples were analyzed for trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, silver and zinc), simultaneously extracted metal/acid volatile sulfide (SEM-AVS), grain size, nutrients (carbon and nitrogen) and organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)). The concentrations of cadmium, copper, silver and zinc from the partial sediment digestion of the surface samples correlated well with each other (r2>0.60) indicating that either a common process, or group of processes determined the sediment concentrations of these metals. In an analysis of the spatial distribution of the trace metals and PAHs, high surficial concentrations were present in the southern portion of the Harbor. The trace metal trend was strengthened when the concentrations were normalized by grain size. A sewage treatment plant outfall discharge was present in the southeastern portion of the Harbor at the time of this study and is the major source of trace metal and PAH contamination. Evaluation of sediment cores provides a proxy record of historical trace metal and organic inputs. The peak accumulation rate for copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc was in the late 1960s and the peak silver accumulation rate was later. The greatest accumulation of trace metals occurred in the late 1960s after discharges from the STP began. Subsequent declines in trace metal concentrations may be attributed to increased water and air regulations. The potential toxicity of trace metals and organic contaminants was predicted by comparing contaminant concentrations to benchmark concentrations and potential trace metal bioavailability was predicted with SEM-AVS results. Surface sample results indicate lead, silver, ??PAHs and ??PCBs are potentially toxic and/or bi

Lacey, E. M.; King, J. W.; Quinn, J. G.; Mecray, E. L.; Appleby, P. G.; Hunt, A. S.

2001-01-01

141

Great Lakes Region Sea Grant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is dedicated to the Great Lakes Sea Grant program. It provides information on the GLSG's priorities and initiatives. Topics of increased importance to the Great Lakes include fisheries and invasive species. Links to sites featuring publications and photos of Great Lakes storms and wildlife.

2010-12-30

142

Great Lakes Region Sea Grant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Site dedicated to the Great Lakes Sea Grant program. Information on GLSG priorities and initiatives. Topics of increased importance to the Great Lakes include fisheries and invasive species. Links to sites featuring publications and photos of Great Lakes storms and seiches and wildlife.

143

Ground-water quality in the Lake Champlain basin, New York, 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples were collected from 11 public-supply wells and 11 private domestic wells in the Lake Champlain basin in New York during the fall of 2004 to characterize the chemical quality of ground water. Wells were selected for sampling based on location and focused on areas of greatest ground-water use. Samples were analyzed for 219 physical properties and constituents, including inorganic compounds, nutrients, metals, radionuclides, pesticides and pesticide degradates, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. Sixty-eight constituents were detected at concentrations above laboratory reporting levels. The cation and anion with the highest median concentration were calcium (34.8 mg/L) bicarbonate (134 mg/L), respectively. The predominant nutrient was nitrate, which was detected in 14 (64 percent) of the 22 samples. The two metals with the highest median concentrations were iron (175 ?g/L) and strontium (124 ?g/L); concentrations of iron, manganese, aluminum, and zinc exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary drinking-water standards in one or more samples. Radon concentrations were less than 1,000 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) in most samples, but concentrations as high as 6,900 pCi/L were detected and, in eight samples, exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed maximum contaminant level (300 pCi/L) for radon. The most frequently detected pesticides were degradates of the broadleaf herbicides metolachlor, alachlor, and atrazine. Volatile organic compounds were detected in only three samples; those that were detected typically were fuel oxygenates, such as methyl tert-butyl ether. Coliform bacteria were detected in four samples, two of which also tested positive for E. coli.

Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

2006-01-01

144

Paper plant effluent revisited-southern Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used geologic and geochemical techniques to document the change with time of the distribution and concentration of contaminated bottom sediments in southern Lake Champlain near an International Paper Company plant. Our work, initiated in 1972, was expanded on behalf of Vermont citizens in a class-action suit against the International Paper Company. To update our 1972 1973 results, we collected nine cores in 1988 upstream and downstream from the paper plant effluent diffuser. Water content, volatile solids, organic carbon, and three ratios, Al/Si, Cl/Si, and S/Si, in addition to megascopic and microscopic observations, were evaluated to identify and trace the distribution of effluent and to measure the thickness of sediment affected by or containing components of effluent. Analyses were carried out on samples from the cores as well as from effluent collected directly from the plant's waste treatment facility. In 1973, two years after the plant opened, we cored near the diffuser; sediment contaminated with effluent was 4.5 cm thick. In 1988, in the same area, sediment contaminated with effluent was 17 cm thick. In 15 years, water content increased from 72 to 85 percent, volatile solids from 7 to 20 percent, and organic carbon from 2 to 12 percent. Cl/Si and S/Si were high only near the diffuser and were zero elsewhere. In the area of the diffuser, contaminated sediment appears to be accumulating at a rate of about 1 cm/yr. At a control location 22 km upstream (south) from the plant, the top, poorly consoli-dated layer was only 1 cm or less thick both in 1973 and in 1988. The class-action suit was settled in favor of the plaintiffs for 5 million.

Haupt, R. S.; Folger, D. W.

1993-04-01

145

Hydroacoustic separation of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in Lake Champlain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Separate assessment of young-of-year (YOY) and yearling-and-older (YAO) fish is desirable from both ecological and management perspectives. Acoustic assessments provide information on fish population size structure in the target strength (TS) distribution, but interpretation of TS distributions must be done carefully, as single age groups can produce multiple TS modes. We assessed the ability of in situ TS distributions to identify Lake Champlain rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in June, July, and September of 2001 using mobile and stationary surveys, knowledge of vertical distribution preferences, and predicted TS from trawl catches. YAO rainbow smelt (93-179 mm total length) had wide TS distributions between -60 and -35 dB in all 3 months with two modes at approximately -50 and -40 dB. Most stationary survey single-fish tracks attributed to YAO had targets in both TS modes and a wide TS range often over 15 dB. Between June and September, YOY rainbow smelt TS increased, but single-fish tracks were unimodal, and the TS range was smaller (6 dB). Overlap in TS attributed to YOY and YAO increased from no overlap in June (YOY TS -76 to -61 dB, 15-25 mm) to moderate overlap in July (-76 to -50 dB, 25-63 mm) to considerable overlap in September (-68 to -45 dB, 33-80 mm). In June and July, the TS distribution changed abruptly at the thermocline, indicating almost complete separation of the two groups. A more gradual TS transition was evident in September, indicating substantial overlap between YOY and YAO. Separate estimates can be obtained in September by decomposing TS overlap into components attributed to YOY and YAO rainbow smelt. However, this decomposition introduces additional uncertainty and an assessment in July or possibly August is preferable to obtain separate abundance estimates of YOY and YAO. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Parker, Stetter, S. L.; Rudstam, L. G.; Stritzel, Thomson, J. L.; Parrish, D. L.

2006-01-01

146

Paper plant effluent revisited-southern Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used geologic and geochemical techniques to document the change with time of the distribution and concentration of contaminated bottom sediments in southern Lake Champlain near an International Paper Company plant. Our work, initiated in 1972, was expanded on behalf of Vermont citizens in a class-action suit against the International Paper Company. To update our 1972-1973 results, we collected nine cores in 1988 upstream and downstream from the paper plant effluent diffuser. Water content, volatile solids, organic carbon, and three ratios, Al/Si, Cl/Si, and S/Si, in addition to megascopic and microscopic observations, were evaluated to identify and trace the distribution of effluent and to measure the thickness of sediment affected by or containing components of effluent. Analyses were carried out on samples from the cores as well as from effluent collected directly from the plant's waste treatment facility. In 1973, two years after the plant opened, we cored near the diffuser; sediment contaminated with effluent was 4.5 cm thick. In 1988, in the same area, sediment contaminated with effluent was 17 cm thick. In 15 years, water content increased from 72 to 85 percent, volatile solids from 7 to 20 percent, and organic carbon from 2 to 12 percent. Cl/Si and S/Si were high only near the diffuser and were zero elsewhere. In the area of the diffuser, contaminated sediment appears to be accumulating at a rate of about 1 cm/yr. At a control location 22 km upstream (south) from the plant, the top, poorly consoli-dated layer was only 1 cm or less thick both in 1973 and in 1988. The class-action suit was settled in favor of the plaintiffs for $5 million. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

Haupt, R. S.; Folger, D. W.

1993-01-01

147

Wastewater effluent, combined sewer overflows, and other sources of organic compounds to Lake Champlain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some sources of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) to streams, lakes, and estuaries, including wastewater-treatment-plant effluent, have been well documented, but other sources, particularly wet-weather discharges from combined-sewer-overflow (CSO) and urban runoff, may also be major sources of OWCs. Samples of wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) effluent, CSO effluent, urban streams, large rivers, a reference (undeveloped) stream, and Lake Champlain were collected from March to August 2006. The highest concentrations of many OWCs associated with wastewater were in WWTP-effluent samples, but high concentrations of some OWCs in samples of CSO effluent and storm runoff from urban streams subject to leaky sewer pipes or CSOs were also detected. Total concentrations and numbers of compounds detected differed substantially among sampling sites. The highest total OWC concentrations (10-100 ??g/l) were in samples of WWTP and CSO effluent. Total OWC concentrations in samples from urban streams ranged from 0.1 to 10 ??g/l, and urban stream-stormflow samples had higher concentrations than baseflow samples because of contributions of OWCs from CSOs and leaking sewer pipes. The relations between OWC concentrations in WWTP-effluent and those in CSO effluent and urban streams varied with the degree to which the compound is removed through normal wastewater treatment. Concentrations of compounds that are highly removed during normal wastewater treatment [including caffeine, Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, and cholesterol] were generally similar to or higher in CSO effluent than in WWTP effluent (and ranged from around 1 to over 10 ??g/l) because CSO effluent is untreated, and were higher in urban-stream stormflow samples than in baseflow samples as a result of CSO discharge and leakage from near-surface sources during storms. Concentrations of compounds that are poorly removed during treatment, by contrast, are higher in WWTP effluent than in CSO, due to dilution. Results indicate that CSO effluent and urban stormwaters can be a significant major source of OWCs entering large water bodies such as Burlington Bay. ?? 2008 American Water Resources Association.

Phillips, P.; Chalmers, A.

2009-01-01

148

Meltwater discharge and the triggering of Younger Dryas : new data on the chronology of Champlain Sea transgression in the St-Lawrence River Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate chronology of ice retreat is crucial to understand the Ocean-Atmosphere couple at the end of the Pleistocene. The St-Lawrence River Valley is key in this regard, and two sedimentary sequences from Mount Saint-Hilaire, in the middle of the valley, contain a record that sheds new lignt on ice retreat and the penecontemporaneous proglacial marine invasion. Basal AMS-dates on terrestrial plant macrofossils coupled with an extrapolation from the pollen content of underlying postglacial lake sediments at Hemlock Carr (243 m), show that local ice retreat occurred around 11 350 14C yr BP. Cross-dating of such macrofossils (10 510 ± 60 14C yr BP) with shells from marine sediments (~12 200 14C yr BP) catched in the neighbouring Lake Hertel's basin (169 m) show a ca. 1700 14C years difference mainly ascribed to the effect of old, glacially-derived carbon in the upper shallow waters of the Champlain Sea. The pollen-based chronological extrapolation at Lake Hertel indicates that the marine invasion occurred around 11 100 ± 100 14C yr BP. This result supports the chronology based on deep-water invertebrate marine fauna (Rodrigues, 1988). The 14C assessment of the New-England varve chronology (Ridge et al., 1999) is thus confirmed. Deglaciation of the entire Saint-Lawrence River Valley took place within 1000 14C years. The chronology of ice retreat in southern Québec is shortened and made younger. This prompts major revision of all the associated paleohydrological events. Routing of the glacial meltwaters to the North Atlantic was impossible before 11 100 14C yr BP. The abrupt transition from Glacial Lake Candona (ca. 220 m) to the proglacial phase of the Champlain Sea (ca. 190 m) at 11 100 14C yr BP implies an input of glacial meltwater to the ocean estimated at 1500 km3. This may well have affected the thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic and triggered the Younger Dryas oscillation.

Richard, P.; Occhietti, S.

2004-05-01

149

A leaky aquifer below Champlain Sea clay: closed-form solutions for natural seepage.  

PubMed

Closed-form solutions are proposed for natural seepage in semiconfined (leaky) aquifers such as those existing below the massive Champlain Sea clay layers in the Saint-Lawrence River Valley. The solutions are for an ideal horizontal leaky aquifer below an ideal aquitard that may have either a constant thickness and a constant hydraulic head at its surface, or a variable thickness and a variable hydraulic head at its surface. A few simplifying assumptions were needed to obtain the closed-form solutions. These have been verified using a finite element method, which did not make any of the assumptions but gave an excellent agreement for hydraulic heads and groundwater velocities. For example, the difference between the two solutions was smaller than 1 mm for variations in the 5 to 8 m range for the hydraulic head in the semiconfined aquifer. Note that fitting the hydraulic head data of monitoring wells to the theoretical solutions gives only the ratio of the aquifer and aquitard hydraulic conductivities, a clear case of multiple solutions for an inverse problem. Consequently, field permeability tests in the aquitard and the aquifer, and pumping tests in the aquifer, are still needed to determine the hydraulic conductivity values. PMID:23441962

Chapuis, Robert P; Saucier, Antoine

2013-01-01

150

Proceedings. Conference, Pollution of the Interstate Waters of Lake Champlain and its Tributary Basin, New York, Vermont. Held at Burlington, Vt. on 13 Nov 68 and Boston, Mass. on 19-20 Dec 69.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conference in the matter of pollution of the interstate waters of Lake Champlain and its tributary basin, involving the States of Vermont and New York, the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission, and the United States Department of ...

1969-01-01

151

Unraveling associations between cyanobacteria blooms and in-lake environmental conditions in Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain, USA, using a modified self-organizing map.  

PubMed

Exploratory data analysis on physical, chemical, and biological data from sediments and water in Lake Champlain reveals a strong relationship between cyanobacteria, sediment anoxia, and the ratio of dissolved nitrogen to soluble reactive phosphorus. Physical, chemical, and biological parameters of lake sediment and water were measured between 2007 and 2009. Cluster analysis using a self-organizing artificial neural network, expert opinion, and discriminant analysis separated the data set into no-bloom and bloom groups. Clustering was based on similarities in water and sediment chemistry and non-cyanobacteria phytoplankton abundance. Our analysis focused on the contribution of individual parameters to discriminate between no-bloom and bloom groupings. Application to a second, more spatially diverse data set, revealed similar no-bloom and bloom discrimination, yet a few samples possess all the physicochemical characteristics of a bloom without the high cyanobacteria cell counts, suggesting that while specific environmental conditions can support a bloom, another environmental trigger may be required to initiate the bloom. Results highlight the conditions coincident with cyanobacteria blooms in Missisquoi Bay of Lake Champlain and indicate additional data are needed to identify possible ecological contributors to bloom initiation. PMID:24251635

Pearce, Andrea R; Rizzo, Donna M; Watzin, Mary C; Druschel, Gregory K

2013-12-17

152

Historical trace metal accumulation in the sediments of an urbanized region of the Lake Champlain watershed, Burlington, Vermont  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study documents the history of pollution inputs in the Burlington region of Lake Champlain, Vermont using measurements of anthropogenic metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Ag) in four age-dated sediment cores. Sediments record a history of contamination in a region and can be used to assess the changing threat to biota over time and to evaluate the effectiveness of discharge regulations on anthropogenic inputs. Grain size, magnetic susceptibility, radiometric dating and pollen stratigraphy were combined with trace metal data to provide an assessment of the history of contamination over the last 350 yr in the Burlington region of Lake Champlain. Magnetic susceptibility was initially used to identify land-use history for each site because it is a proxy indicator of soil erosion. Historical trends in metal inputs in the Burlington region from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries are reflected in downcore variations in metal concentrations and accumulation rates. Metal concentrations increase above background values in the early to mid nineteenth century. The metal input rate to the sediments increases around 1920 and maximum concentrations and accumulation rates are observed in the late 1960s. Decreases in concentration and accumulation rate between 1970 and the present are observed, for most metals. The observed trends are primarily a function of variations in anthropogenic inputs and not variations in sediment grain size. Grain size data were used to remove texture variations from the metal profiles and results show trends in the anthropogenic metal signals remain. Radiometric dating and pollen stratigraphy provide well-constrained dates for the sediments thereby allowing the metal profiles to be interpreted in terms of land-use history.This study documents the history of pollution inputs in the Burlington region of Lake Champlain, Vermont using measurements of anthropogenic metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Ag) in four age-dated sediment cores. Sediments record a history of contamination in a region and can be used to assess the changing threat to biota over time and to evaluate the effectiveness of discharge regulations on anthropogenic inputs. Grain size, magnetic susceptibility, radiometric dating and pollen stratigraphy were combined with trace metal data to provide an assessment of the history of contamination over the last 350 yr in the Burlington region of Lake Champlain. Magnetic susceptibility was initially used to identify land-use history for each site because it is a proxy indicator of soil erosion. Historical trends in metal inputs in the Burlington region from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries are reflected in downcore variations in metal concentrations and accumulation rates. Metal concentrations increase above background values in the early to mid nineteenth century. The metal input rate to the sediments increases around 1920 and maximum concentrations and accumulation rates are observed in the late 1960s. Decreases in concentration and accumulation rate between 1970 and the present are observed for most metals. The observed trends are primarily a function of variations in anthropogenic inputs and not variations in sediment grain size. Grain size data were used to remove texture variations from the metal profiles and results show trends in the anthropogenic metal signals remain. Radiometric dating and pollen stratigraphy provide well-constrained dates for the sediments thereby allowing the metal profiles to be interpreted in terms of land-use history.

Mecray, E. L.; King, J. W.; Appleby, P. G.; Hunt, A. S.

2001-01-01

153

Use of flow-normalization to evaluate nutrient concentration and flux changes in Lake Champlain tributaries, 1990-2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated 20 years of total phosphorus (P) and total nitrogen (N) concentration data for 18 Lake Champlain tributaries using a new statistical method based on weighted regressions to estimate daily concentration and flux histories based on discharge, season, and trend as explanatory variables. The use of all the streamflow discharge values for a given date in the record, in a process called "flow-normalization," removed the year-to-year variation due to streamflow and generated a smooth time series from which trends were calculated. This approach to data analysis can be of great value to evaluations of the success of restoration efforts because it filters out the large random fluctuations in the flux that are due to the temporal variability in streamflow. Results for the full 20 years of record showed a mixture of upward and downward trends for concentrations and yields of P and N. When the record was broken into two 10-year periods, for many tributaries, the more recent period showed a reversal in N from upward to downward trends and a similar reversal or reduction in magnitude of upward trends for P. Some measures of P and N concentrations and yields appear to be related to intensity of agricultural activities, point-source loads of P, or population density. Total flow-normalized P flux aggregated from the monitored tributaries showed a decrease of 30 metric tons per year from 1991 to 2009, which is about 15% of the targeted reduction established by the operational management plan for the Lake Champlain Basin.

Medalie, Laura; Hirsch, Robert M.; Archfield, Stacey A.

2012-01-01

154

Wetlands in the Lake Champlain region of Vermont: Present and future threats to the resource. Boundary determination and background information for the EPA's proposed advanced identification. Final report  

SciTech Connect

EPA Region 1 Wetlands Protections Section is planning an Advanced Identification Project for the Lake Champlain Region of Vermont. 'Advanced Identification' refers to the two authorities EPA can utilize under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act to protect wetlands in advance of permit applications. In Vermont, a combined activities-based Advanced Identification of Sites (AIS) and Advance 404(c) project is proposed. This study determines the boundaries for the Advanced Identification action. It discusses the criteria developed to evaluate watershed considerations and both present and future threats to the resource. All towns in four counties bordering Lake Champlain were evaluated with regard to location in watershed, wetland acreage, wetland loss, population projections, historical growth trends, tax information, and housing stock estimates. Based on the criteria listed above, the towns selected are experiencing the types of growth pressures that will lead to continued wetland loss. EPA plans to restrict work at especially valuable sites with this area using Advance 404(c).

Borre, M.A.

1988-11-01

155

Contingent rating method for measuring the benefits of water-quality improvements: development and application. [St. Albans Bay, Lake Champlain  

SciTech Connect

A new contigent valuation method was developed and tested for estimating the benefits from improving the water quality of a lake or stream. The need for such a method arises because of the public-goods nature of water quality. The contigent rating method is a technique that uses utility information to indirectly measure the benefits from an improvement in water quality at a recreation site. Indifference curves reflecting an individual's preferences for cleaner water at a site are derived through a rating game. By applying a budget line to the indifference surface, the Hicksian welfare measure of benefits from the provision of improved water quality can be obtained. This method was used to estimate the benefits from improving the water quality in St. Albans Bay, on Lake Champlain in Vermont. The results of the application of the contingent rating method are very encouraging. The technique is easy to administer. Most of the indifference maps were consistent with economic theory. Almost all of the maps implied that a cleaner St. Albans Bay is preferred to the current state, agreeing with verbal statements made by the respondents.

Ribaudo, M.O.

1983-01-01

156

Assessing sediment quality in heterogeneous environments: A case study of a small urban harbor in Lake Champlain, Vermont, USA  

SciTech Connect

Relatively few case studies have been conducted demonstrating the utility of multiple endpoint approaches to sediment quality assessment in areas with moderate contaminant levels and heterogeneous conditions. Because variability is commonplace in natural systems, assessment approaches must be designed explicitly for these conditions. In an assessment of highly heterogeneous freshwater sediments in Lake Champlain, Vermont, USA, the authors measured multiple endpoints, including physical and chemical characteristics of the sediment, acute and chronic toxicity in three tests (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Chironomus tentans, and Pimephales promelas), and benthic community composition, at 19 sites throughout Inner Burlington Harbor. Multiple regression techniques were used to investigate whether significant relationships existed between biological endpoints and the physical and chemical characteristics of the sediments. Although all three laboratory exposures indicated toxicity at some sites, little correspondence was found among the tests. No changes in the benthic community could be attributed to trace contaminants. Multiple regression was useful in showing associations between contaminants, grain size, toxicity, and benthic community composition. Although not demonstrating causal linkages, these statistical analyses suggested which factors might be important in driving measured responses. In heterogeneous sites, an individualized assessment approach based on a preliminary analysis of variability might provide the most useful information.

Watzin, M.C.; McIntosh, A.W.; Brown, E.A.; Lacey, R.; Lester, D.C.; Newbrough, K.L.; Williams, A.R. [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States). School of Natural Resources

1997-10-01

157

Role of wetlands in reducing phosphorus loading to surface water in eight watersheds in the Lake Champlain Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A landscape-level approach was applied to eight rural watersheds to assess the role that wetlands play in reducing phosphorus loading to surface waters in the Lake Champlain Basin. Variables summarizing various characteristics of wetlands within a watershed were calculated using a geographic information system and then compared to measured phosphorus loading through multiple regression analyses. The inclusion of a variable based on the area of riparian wetlands located along low- and medium-order streams in conjunction with the area of agricultural and nonwetland forested lands explained 88% of the variance in phosphorus loading to surface waters. The best fit model coefficients (Pload = 0.86Ag + 0.64For - 30Ripwet + 160) suggest that a hectare of riparian wetland may be many times more important in reducing phosphorus than an agricultural hectare is in producing phosphorus. These results provide additional support for the concept that protection of riparian wetlands is an important management strategy for controlling stream water quality in multiuse landscapes.

Weller, Christine M.; Watzin, Mary C.; Wang, Deane

1996-09-01

158

Role of Wetlands in Reducing Phosphorus Loading to Surface Water in Eight Watersheds in the Lake Champlain Basin  

PubMed

A landscape-level approach was applied to eight rural watersheds to assess the role that wetlands play in reducing phosphorus loading to surface waters in the Lake Champlain Basin. Variables summarizing various characteristics of wetlands within a watershed were calculated using a geographic information system and then compared to measured phosphorus loading through multiple regression analyses. The inclusion of a variable based on the area of riparian wetlands located along low- and medium-order streams in conjunction with the area of agricultural and nonwetland forested lands explained 88% of the variance in phosphorus loading to surface waters. The best fit model coefficients (Pload=0.86Ag+0.64For-30Ripwet+160) suggest that a hectare of riparian wetland may be many times more important in reducing phosphorus than an agricultural hectare is in producing phosphorus. These results provide additional support for the concept that protection of riparian wetlands is an important management strategy for controlling stream water quality in multiuse landscapes.KEY WORDS: Wetlands; Phosphorus; Landscape; Regression model; Riparian; Vermont PMID:8703110

Weller; Watzin; Wang

1996-09-01

159

75 FR 10229 - Application for Presidential Permit; Champlain Hudson Power Express, Inc.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bridgeport, Connecticut. From the U.S.-Canada border, the submarine transmission cables would be routed through Lake Champlain and travel south to the northern entrance of the Champlain Canal, near Whitehall, New York. To the extent...

2010-03-05

160

High-water marks from flooding in Lake Champlain from April through June 2011 and Tropical Storm Irene in August 2011 in Vermont  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, identified high-water marks after two floods in Vermont during 2011. Following a snowy winter, new monthly precipitation records were set in Burlington, Vermont, in April and May 2011, causing extensive flooding from April through June. The spring 2011 flooding resulted in a new record for stage (103.27 feet, referenced to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929) at the Lake Champlain at Burlington, Vt., gaging station (04294500). During August 28 and 29, 2011, tropical storm Irene delivered rainfall totals of 3 to more than 7 inches throughout Vermont, which resulted in extensive flooding and new streamflow records at nine streamgaging stations. Four presidential declarations of disaster were made following the 2011 flood events in Vermont. Thirty-nine high-water marks were identified and flagged to mark the highest levels of Lake Champlain from the May 2011 flooding, and 1,138 high-water marks were identified and flagged along Vermont rivers after flooding from tropical storm Irene in August 2011. Seventy-four percent of the high-water marks that were flagged were later found and surveyed to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988.

Medalie, Laura; Olson, S. A.

2013-01-01

161

RESTORATION OF ATLANTIC SALMON AND THEIR ECOSYSTEM SERVICES TO LAKE CHAMPLAIN BY RESTORING THEIR RIVER IMPRINTING  

EPA Science Inventory

It is expected that each river and hatchery will have a distinct amino acid profile. Also, it is predicted that amino acid concentrations will be highest in the hatcheries, lowest in the lake and at intermediate levels in the rivers. If the hatcheries have a different amino...

162

Ohio Sea Grant and Lake Erie Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ohio Sea Grant and Lake Erie Programs are housed at The Ohio State University, and are responsible for maintaining a number of scientific laboratories and research endeavors that focus primarily on Lake Erie. A number of their most valuable online resources are made available on their homepage, including the Lake Erie Information Discussion Board (where visitors can get answers to Lake Erie-related questions) and the Sea Grant's work in creating artificial reefs in Lake Erie. Moving on from there, the homepage also contains a site index, where visitors can learn about the diverse research projects currently underway and view some of their online publications. One particular publication, "Twine Line", is quite useful, as it is geared towards the general public and includes coverage about Lake Erie and Great Lakes issues and research.

163

Sources of fine particulate species in ambient air over lake Champlain Basin, VT.  

PubMed

This study is a part of an ongoing investigation of the types and locations of emission sources that contribute fine particulate air contaminants to Underhill, VT. The air quality monitoring data used for this study are from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network for the period of 2001-2003 for the Underhill site. The main source-receptor modeling techniques used are the positive matrix factorization (PMF) and potential source contribution function (PSCF). This new study is intended as a comparison to a previous study of the 1988-1995 Underhill data that successfully revealed a total of 11 types of emission sources with significant contributions to this rural site. This new study has identified a total of nine sources: nitrate-rich secondary aerosol, wood smoke, East Coast oil combustion, automobile emission, metal working, soil/dust, sulfur-rich aerosol type I, sulfur-rich aerosol type II, and sea salt/road salt. Furthermore, the mass contributions from the PMF identified sources that correspond with sampling days with either good or poor visibility were analyzed to seek possible correlations. It has been shown that sulfur-rich aerosol type I, nitrate aerosol, and automobile emission are the most important contributors to visibility degradation. Soil/dust and sea salt/road salt also have an added effect. PMID:17117747

Gao, Ning; Gildemeister, Amy E; Krumhansl, Kira; Lafferty, Katherine; Hopke, Philip K; Kim, Eugene; Poirot, Richard L

2006-11-01

164

Sources of fine particulate species in ambient air over Lake Champlain Basin, VT  

SciTech Connect

This study is a part of an ongoing investigation of the types and locations of emission sources that contribute fine particulate air contaminants to Underhill, VT. The air quality monitoring data used for this study are from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network for the period of 2001-2003 for the Underhill site. The main source-receptor modeling techniques used are the positive matrix factorization (PMF) and potential source contribution function (PSCF). This new study is intended as a comparison to a previous study of the 1988-1995 Underhill data that successfully revealed a total of 11 types of emission sources with significant contributions to this rural site. This new study has identified a total of nine sources: nitrate-rich secondary aerosol, wood smoke, East Coast oil combustion, automobile emission, metal working, soil/dust, sulfur-rich aerosol type I, sulfur-rich aerosol type II, and sea salt/road salt. Furthermore, the mass contributions from the PMF identified sources that correspond with sampling days with either good or poor visibility were analyzed to seek possible correlations. It has been shown that sulfur-rich aerosol type I, nitrate aerosol, and automobile emission are the most important contributors to visibility degradation. Soil/dust and sea salt/road salt also have an added effect. 38 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

Ning Gao; Amy E. Gildemeister; Kira Krumhansl; Katherine Lafferty; Philip K. Hopke; Eugene Kim; Richard L. Poirot [St. Lawrence University, Canton, NY (United States)

2006-11-15

165

Erosion and channel change as factors of landslides and valley formation in Champlain Sea Clays: The Chacoura River, Quebec, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Champlain Sea clays of Eastern Canada are incised by numerous rivers. Their slopes have been modified by landslides: on the Chacoura River near Trois-Rivières (Quebec), several large landslide scars, more or less recent, are visible. The role of erosion (channel incision, lateral channel migration and erosion of slopes due to agricultural drainage) as a trigger of these landslides is important. The aim of this study is to understand how erosion and landslides are related to valley development. From a detailed analysis of aerial photographs and DEMs, a map of the phenomena has been drawn by identifying various elements such as landslides, limits of the slope, position of the channel, and the area covered by forest. It is shown that channel change and erosion are strongly linked to landslides by the fact that they change the bank morphology in an unstable way. A slide in itself is a natural way for the slope to achieve stability. But when it occurs in a stream, it creates a disturbance to the stream flow enhancing local erosion which may change the river path and generate more erosion downstream or upstream resulting in more slides. Cross-valley sections and a longitudinal profile show that landslides are a major factor of valley formation. It appears that the upper part of the Chacoura River valley is still unaffected by landslides and has V-shaped sections. The lower part has been subject to intense erosion and many landslide scars can be seen. This shows that the valley morphology is transient, and that future activity is more likely to occur in the upper part of the river. Therefore the identification of areas prone to erosion will help determine the possible location of future large landslides just like the ones that occurred in the lower part.

Lévy, Sébastien; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Locat, Jacques; Demers, Denis

2012-04-01

166

Geology and mineral resources of the Baltimore, Boston, Lake Champlain, and Providence 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS Quadrangles. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program  

SciTech Connect

This document contains 4 geologic and mineral resources reports for the Baltimore, Boston, Lake Champlain, and Providence 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Quadrangles in the northeastern United States. The purpose of these reports is to provide background geologic and mineral resources information to aid in the interpretation of National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) geochemical reconnaissance data. All the reports are accompanied by geologic and mineral locality maps; the Baltimore report contains a map of the geologic provinces and political boundaries, as well as two geologic cross sections. The maps, Plates 1 through 10, are found in the pocket on the inside back cover of this volume in microform. All four papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

Karfunkel, B.S. (comp.)

1983-03-01

167

The Sea Lamprey in Lake Erie: a Case History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus), first reported in Lake Erie in 1921, emigrated from Lake Ontario via the Welland Canal. It was not until the advent of pollution abatement, stream rehabilitation, and salmonid enhancement programs that sea lampreys proliferated. The Great Lakes Fishery Commission (GLFC), in co-operation with state, provincial, and federal fisheries agencies, implemented an integrated sea lamprey management (IMSL)

W. Paul Sullivan; Gavin C. Christie; Floyd C. Cornelius; Michael F. Fodale; David A. Johnson; Joseph F. Koonce; Geraldine L. Larson; Rodney B. McDonald; Katherine M. Mullett; Charles K. Murray; Phillip A. Ryan

2003-01-01

168

Headwater locations of U.S. streams tributary to St. Lawrence River basin between western Ohio and eastern New York, excluding Lake Champlain basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The headwater locations of several thousand U.S. streams tributary to Lakes Ontario and Erie and the St. Lawrence and Niagara Rivers, from the Maumee River in Ohio to the western border of the Lake Champlain basin in New York, including parts of Pennsylvania, are listed by quadrangle. The location of the headwater of each is given with reference to cultural and topographic features. ' Headwater ' in this report is defined as the first site downstream from which the average streamflow is 5 cubic feet per second. The site locations were determined from drainage areas as indicated on topographic maps. The size of the drainage area required to produce an average flow of 5 cubic feet per second was determined from equations, developed separately for each State by regression techniques, that define the relation between streamflow and hydrologic factors of the region. Drainage area and precipitation were factors in the equations for all three States: forest cover was found to be significant in Ohio. (Woodard-USGS)

Eissler, Benjamin B.

1979-01-01

169

New York Landscape Regions in Google Earth: Champlain Lowlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Champlain Lowlands tour is part of the New York Landscape Regions Collection of Google Earth tours, created by a group of New York State science educators. This tour includes views of the gorge of the Ausable River, cut through Late Cambrian Potsdam Sandstone, and the geology of the Champlain Thrust Fault, a low angle thrust fault formed as the proto-Atlantic Ocean closed during the Taconic Oregeny. When it was still connected to the ocean, Lake Champlain was home to whales, whose fossils are now entombed in the lake sediments. The tour also includes classroom activities for students.

170

Lake Champlain 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS Area, New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire: supplemental data report. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance  

SciTech Connect

This data report presents supplemental analytical results for 1328 stream sediment samples that were collected as part of the SRL-NURE reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Lake Champlain 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle. Results are reported for 23 elements (extractable U, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn). Analyses are tabulated and displayed graphically on microfiche. Field data and neutron activation analysis (NAA) were open-filled in DPST-81-146-2 (GJBX-108(81)).

Cook, J.R.

1981-07-01

171

Sea and Lake Breezes: A Review of Numerical Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical studies of sea and lake breezes are reviewed. The modelled dependence of sea-breeze and lake-breeze characteristics\\u000a on the land surface sensible heat flux, ambient geostrophic wind, atmospheric stability and moisture, water body dimensions,\\u000a terrain height and slope, Coriolis parameter, surface roughness length, and shoreline curvature is discussed. Consensus results\\u000a on the influence of these geophysical variables on sea and

Erik T. Crosman; John D. Horel

2010-01-01

172

Ra and Th adsorption coefficients in lakes—Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) “natural experiment”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption rate constants of Ra and Th were estimated from empirical data from a freshwater lake and its feeding saline springs. We utilized the unique setting of Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee, northern Israel) in which most of the Ra and Th nuclides are introduced into the lake by saline springs with high 226Ra activities and a high 224Ra\\/228Ra

Boaz Lazar; Yishai Weinstein; Adina Paytan; Einat Magal; Debbie Bruce; Yehoshua Kolodny

2008-01-01

173

Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Indicates Sea Lampreys Are Indigenous to Lake Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasitic sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus occurs throughout North America's Great Lakes, where it has an immense economic impact on commercially and recreationally important fishes. Sea lampreys indisputably invaded Lake Erie and the upper Great Lakes from Lake Ontario in the mid-1900s, but their official status as a nonnative species in Lake Ontario is based on circumstantial evidence and has

John R. Waldman; Cheryl Grunwald; Nirmal K. Roy; Isaac I. Wirgin

2004-01-01

174

Concentrations and Loads of Nutrients and Suspended Sediments in Englesby Brook and Little Otter Creek, Lake Champlain Basin, Vermont, 2000-2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effectiveness of best-management practices (BMPs) in improving water quality in Lake Champlain tributaries was evaluated from 2000 through 2005 on the basis of analysis of data collected on concentrations of total phosphorus and suspended sediment in Englesby Brook, an urban stream in Burlington, and Little Otter Creek, an agricultural stream in Ferrisburg. Data also were collected on concentrations of total nitrogen in the Englesby Brook watershed. In the winter of 2001-2002, one of three planned structural BMPs was installed in the urban watershed. At approximately the same time, a set of barnyard BMPs was installed in the agricultural watershed; however, the other planned BMPs, which included streambank fencing and nutrient management, were not implemented within the study period. At Englesby Brook, concentrations of phosphorus ranged from 0.024 to 0.3 milligrams per liter (mg/L) during base-flow and from 0.032 to 11.8 mg/L during high-flow conditions. Concentrations of suspended sediment ranged from 3 to 189 mg/L during base-flow and from 5 to 6,880 mg/L during high-flow conditions. An assessment of the effectiveness of an urban BMP was made by comparing concentrations and loads of phosphorus and suspended sediment before and after a golf-course irrigation pond in the Englesby Brook watershed was retrofitted with the objective of reducing sediment transport. Results from a modified paired watershed study design showed that the BMP reduced concentrations of phosphorus and suspended sediment during high-flow events - when average streamflow was greater than 3 cubic feet per second. While construction of the BMP did not reduce storm loads of phosphorus or suspended sediment, an evaluation of changes in slope of double-mass curves showing cumulative monthly streamflow plotted against cumulative monthly loads indicated a possible reduction in cumulative loads of phosphorus and suspended sediment after BMP construction. Results from the Little Otter Creek assessment of agricultural BMPs showed that concentrations of phosphorus ranged from 0.016 to 0.141 mg/L during base-flow and from 0.019 to 0.565 mg/L during high-flow conditions at the upstream monitoring station. Concentrations of suspended sediment ranged from 2 to 13 mg/L during base-flow and from 1 to 473 mg/L during high-flow conditions at the upstream monitoring station. Concentrations of phosphorus ranged from 0.018 to 0.233 mg/L during base-flow and from 0.019 to 1.95 mg/L during high-flow conditions at the downstream monitoring station. Concentrations of suspended sediment ranged from 10 to 132 mg/L during base-flow and from 8 to 1,190 mg/L during high-flow conditions at the downstream monitoring station. Annual loads of phosphorus at the downstream monitoring station were significantly larger than loads at the upstream monitoring station, and annual loads of suspended sediment at the downstream monitoring station were larger than loads at the upstream monitoring station for 4 out of 6 years. On a monthly basis, loads of phosphorus and suspended sediment at the downstream monitoring station were significantly larger than loads at the upstream monitoring station. Pairs of concentrations of phosphorus and monthly loads of phosphorus and suspended sediment from the upstream and downstream monitoring stations were evaluated using the paired watershed study design. The only significant reduction between the calibration and treatment periods was for monthly loads of phosphorus; all other evaluations showed no change between periods.

Medalie, Laura

2007-01-01

175

Concentration, flux, and the analysis of trends of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride in 18 tributaries to Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York, 1990–2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual concentration, flux, and yield for total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride for 18 tributaries to Lake Champlain were estimated for 1990 through 2011 using a weighted regression method based on time, tributary streamflows (discharges), and seasonal factors. The weighted regression method generated two series of daily estimates of flux and concentration during the period of record: one based on observed discharges and a second based on a flow-normalization procedure that removes random variation due to year-to-year climate-driven effects. The flownormalized estimate for a given date is similar to an average estimate of concentration or flux that would be made if all of the observed discharges for that date were equally likely to have occurred. The flux bias statistic showed that 68 of the 72 flux regression models were minimally biased. Temporal trends in the concentrations and fluxes were determined by calculating percent changes in flow-normalized annual fluxes for the full period of analysis (1990 through 2010) and for the decades 1990–2000 and 2000–2010. Basinwide, flow-normalized total phosphorus flux decreased by 42 metric tons per year (t/yr) between 1990 and 2010. This net result reflects a basinwide decrease in flux of 21 metric tons (t) between 1990 and 2000, followed by a decrease of 20 t between 2000 and 2010; both results were largely influenced by flux patterns in the large tributaries on the eastern side of the basin. A comparison of results for total phosphorus for the two separate decades of analysis found that more tributaries had decreasing concentrations and flux rates in the second decade than the first. An overall reduction in dissolved phosphorus flux of 0.7 t/yr was seen in the Lake Champlain Basin during the full period of analysis. That very small net change in flux reflects substantial reductions between 1990 and 2000 from eastern tributaries, especially in Otter Creek and the LaPlatte and Winooski Rivers that largely were offset by increases in the Missisquoi and Saranac Rivers in the second decade (between 2000 and 2010). The number of tributaries that had increases in dissolved phosphorus concentrations stayed constant at 13 or 14 during the period of analysis. Total nitrogen concentration and flux for most of the monitored tributaries in the Lake Champlain Basin have decreased since 1990. Between 1990 and 2010, flow-normalized total nitrogen flux decreased by 386 t/yr, which reflects an increase of 440 t/yr between 1990 and 2000 and a decrease of 826 t/yr between 2000 and 2010. All individual tributaries except the Winooski River had decreases in total nitrogen concentration and flux between 2000 and 2010. The decrease in total nitrogen flux over the period of record could be related to the decrease in nitrogen from atmospheric deposition observed in Vermont or to concurrent benefits realized from the implementation of agricultural best-management practices in the Lake Champlain Basin that were designed primarily to reduce phosphorus runoff. For chloride, large increases in flow-normalized concentrations and flux between 1990 and 2000 for 17 of the 18 tributaries diminished to small increases or decreases between 2000 and 2010. Between 1990 and 2010, flow-normalized flux increased by 32,225 t/yr, 78 percent of which (25,163 t) was realized during the first decade, from 1990 through 2000. The five tributaries that had decreasing concentration and flux of chloride between 2000 and 2010 were all on the eastern side of Lake Champlain, possibly related to reductions since 1999 in winter road salt application in Vermont. Positive correlations of phosphorus flux and changes in phosphorus concentration and flux in tributaries with phosphorus inputs to basins from point sources, suggest that point sources have an effect on stream phosphorus chemistry. Several measures of changes in agricultural statistics, such as agricultural land use, acres of land in farms, acres of cropland, and acres of corn for grain or seed, are positively correlated with changes in phosp

Medalie, Laura

2013-01-01

176

Michigan Sea Grant Great Lakes Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Education programs provide fieldtrips, shipboard experiences, camps and projects focused on the Great Lakes. A science and multidisciplinary Great Lakes curriculum includes fisheries, aquatic food web, exotic species, water quality and weather. Teaching resources range from fact sheets to artifact trunks and CDs. Teacher training and workshops cover current topics and offer grant and fellowship opportunities.

2010-07-13

177

Michigan Sea Grant Great Lakes Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Education programs provide fieldtrips, shipboard experiences, camps and projects focused on the Great Lakes. A science and multidisciplinary Great Lakes curriculum includes fisheries, aquatic food web, exotic species, water quality and weather. Teaching resources range from fact sheets to artifact trunks and CDs. Teacher training and workshops cover current topics and offer grant and fellowship opportunities.

178

Lake-Level, Five-Year Plans for Achieving Sea Lamprey Control Targets in each Great Lake.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sea lampreys are an invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes that impede the restoration and sustainability of Great Lakes fisheries. The Great Lakes Fishery Commission (GLFC) was established in 1955 by the Canada-U.S. Convention on Great Lakes Fish...

J. Slade K. Mullett M. Steeves P. Sullivan

2012-01-01

179

Groundwater-Lake Interaction in the Dead Sea Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dead Sea hypersaline water system is unique in terms of its unusual geochemical composition, rapid lake level changes and water composition of the brines discharging along its shoreline. The Dead Sea can be used as a natural lab for studying groundwater-seawater interaction and saline water hydrological circulation along the aquifer-sea boundary. It provides an opportunity to follow the geochemical processes along a flow path from the lake into the aquifer and back into the lake. The lake level has been dropping since the 1960's due to human interference in its water budget, reaching a rate of 1 m/yr in recent years. Saline water circulation in coastal aquifers may be a major process that governs trace element mass balances in coastal areas. This study uses radium isotopes in order to quantify the lake water circulation in the Dead Sea aquifer. There are four naturally-occurring radium isotopes, with half-lives ranging from 3.7 days to 1600 years which are chain products of uranium and thorium isotopes. Radium isotopes are usually enriched in saline groundwater and therefore are good candidates for estimating seawater or hypersaline lake water circulation in the aquifer. Compared to most natural water bodies, the Dead Sea is extremely enriched in radium and barium, where both 226Ra and 228Ra activities and Ba concentration (145, 1-2 dpm/L and 5 mg/L, respectively) are 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than in ocean water, whereas the salinity of the Dead Sea is only 10 times higher. Circulated Dead Sea water in the aquifer contains decreased concentrations of 226Ra (60 dpm/L), Ba (1.5 mg/L), Sr (300 relative to 340 mg/L in the Dead Sea) and Sulfate (250 relative to 392 mg/L). We suggest that the low 226Ra and Ba concentrations are due to precipitation of barite and celestine from the supersaturated Dead Sea water on entering the aquifer. 228Ra and the shorter-lived 224Ra and 223Ra, which have much lower activities in the Dead Sea (up to 1.8, 3 and 0.8 dpm/L, respectively), are enriched in the circulated Dead Sea water (up to 25, 100 and 30 dpm/L, respectively) due to recoil and desorption. This implies that the circulation of Dead Sea water in the aquifer removes 226Ra and contributes 228Ra, 223Ra and 224Ra to the lake. Therefore, a major source with relatively high 228Ra/226Ra ratios is added to the Dead Sea mass balance. Following a flow path of saline water from the Dead Sea inland, barium and 226Ra decrease gradually and 228Ra increases gradually. This provides a method for calculating the DS mass balance, groundwater age or velocity and the rate of barite and celestine precipitation. 228Ra ages are around 2 and 13 yrs at 10 and 80 m from the shore inland, respectively. With this velocity (5-6 m/yr), the first order precipitation rate constant is 0.23 1/yr. Based on 226Ra and 228Ra mass balances in the Dead Sea, the calculated amount of Dead Sea water circulation is 200-300 million m3/yr, which is of the same order of magnitude as all other known Dead Sea water sources at present (160-340 million m3/yr) and therefore is a significant component in the Dead Sea mass balance.

Kiro, Y.; Weinstein, Y.; Starinsky, A.; Yechieli, Y.

2011-12-01

180

Lake Levels and Sequence Stratigraphy of Lake Lisan, the Late Pleistocene Precursor of the Dead Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Lisan, the late Pleistocene precursor of the Dead Sea, existed from ?70,000 to 15,000 yr B.P. It evolved through frequent water-level fluctuations, which reflected the regional hydrological and climatic conditions. We determined the water level of the lake for the time interval ?55,000–15,000 cal yr B.P. by mapping offshore, nearshore, and fan-delta sediments; by application of sequence stratigraphy methods;

Yuval Bartov; Mordechai Stein; Yehouda Enzel; Amotz Agnon; Ze'ev Reches

2002-01-01

181

Predation by sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in southern Lake Ontario, 1982-19921,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dead lake trout (Salvelinus namuycush) killed by sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) were collected from the bottom of Lake Ontario using bottom trawls. The number of dead lake trout per hectare could be predicted from the number of type A-l sea lamprey marks observed on live fish in September gillnet surveys (r2 = 0.60, P < 0.01) but not from the

C. P. Schneider; R. W. Owens; R. A. Bergstedt; R. O'Gorman

182

Sea Lamprey International Symposium (SLIS II): Advances in the Integrated Management of Sea Lamprey in the Great Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a brief history of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control in the Great Lakes and introduces the second Sea Lamprey International Symposium (SLIS II). SLIS II was held during August 2000 to synthesize advances in sea lamprey management during the two decades since the first Sea Lamprey International Symposium (SLIS I) in 1979. SLIS I was convened by

Gavin C. Christie; Chris I. Goddard

2003-01-01

183

Mercury accumulation in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from Lake Huron.  

PubMed

We determined whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to explore the effects of sex-related differences in activity and resting (standard) metabolic rate (SMR) on mercury accumulation. The grand mean for Hg concentrations was 519 ng/g (standard error of the mean=46 ng/g). On average, males were 16% higher in Hg concentration than females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that 14% higher activity and SMR in males would account for this observed sex difference in Hg concentrations. We concluded that the higher Hg concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and SMR. Our findings have implications for estimating the effects of sea lamprey populations on mercury cycling within ecosystems, as well as for the proposed opening of sea lamprey fisheries. Eventually, our results may prove useful in improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for substantial damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native. PMID:24275530

Madenjian, Charles P; Johnson, Nicholas S; Siefkes, Michael J; Dettmers, John M; Blum, Joel D; Johnson, Marcus W

2014-02-01

184

Frost flower formation on sea ice and lake ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frost flowers are clusters of ice crystals found on freshly formed sea ice and occasionally on frozen lakes. They belong to a class of vapour-related phenomena that includes freezing fog, hoar frost and dew. It has hitherto been supposed that they form by condensation from a supersaturated atmosphere or from water wicked up through porous sea ice. Here we show that they can form on solid, pure ice sublimating into an unsaturated atmosphere. We derive a general regime diagram showing the atmospheric conditions under which the different vapour-related phenomena occur and confirm our predictions of frost-flower formation with a series of laboratory experiments. Our results can be used in climate models to predict occurrence of frost flowers, which significantly enhance albedo and provide the substrate for chemical production of ozone-depleting bromine monoxide, and in paleo-climate reconstructions by relating observations of sea-salt aerosols in ice cores to atmospheric conditions.

Style, Robert W.; Worster, M. Grae

2009-06-01

185

Lake Champlain 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS area New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire: data report (abbreviated). National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance  

SciTech Connect

This abbreviated data report presents results of ground water and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Lake Champlain 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle. Surface sediment samples were collected at 1196 sites. Ground-water samples were collected at 619 sites. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water, and for uranium and 9 other elements in surface water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Data from ground-water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, etc.), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mn, Na, and V). Data from sediment sites include (1) stream water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are also tabulated. A real distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements and for U/Th and U/Hf ratios are included. Key data from stream water sites include (1) water quality measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity) and (2) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mg, Mg, Na, and V). Uranium concentrations in the sediments range from 0.30 to 43.40 ppM with a mean of 3.03 ppM. A cluster of high log (U/Th+Hf) ratios appear in the southeastern portion of the quadrangle. The U x 1000/conductivity ratio in surface water is high in this same area.

Cook, J.R.

1981-03-01

186

Evidence that lake trout served as a buffer against sea lamprey predation on burbot in Lake Erie  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The population of burbot Lota lota in Lake Erie recovered during 1986-2003, mainly because of the control of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, which began in 1986, Burbot populations continued to grow during 1996-1998, when sea lamprey control was substantially reduced. We calculated mortality parameters for burbot in Lake Erie by estimating age at capture for 2,793 burbot caught in annual gill-net surveys of eastern Lake Erie from 1994 to 2003. Based on catch-curve analysis, annual mortality in Lake Erie during 1994-2003 was estimated as 33%. Annual mortality of the 1992 year-class of burbot was estimated as 30%. The mortality of burbot during the years of reduced sea lamprey control was not different from that during the 3 years preceding reduced control and was significantly lower than that during the entire portion of the time series in which full sea lamprey control was conducted. These results suggest that the reduction in sea lamprey control did not lead to increased burbot mortality. The catch per gill-net lift of large burbot (total length > 600 mm), the size preferred by sea lampreys, was lower than that of adult lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (age 5 and older; total length > 700 mm) before lampricide application was reduced. Although adult lake trout populations declined, the abundance of large burbot did not change during the period of reduced lampricide application. These results support a hypothesis that a healthy population of adult lake trout can serve as a buffer species, acting to reduce predation of burbot by sea lampreys when sea lamprey populations increase. Burbot attained sexual maturity at a relatively early age (3 or 4 years) and a total length (approximately 500 mm) that was smaller than the preferred prey size for sea lampreys. These characteristics and the buffering effect of the lake trout population enabled growth of the burbot population during the brief period when lamprey control was reduced.

Stapanian, M. A.; Madenjian, C. P.

2007-01-01

187

Sea lamprey abundance and management in Lake Superior 1957-1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The international sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program successfully laid the foundation for rehabilitation of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior and was well coordinated among management agencies during 1957-1999. The lampricide TFM was the primary control tool, with recurring treatments in 52 larval-producing streams. Barriers and sterile-male-release, as alternative control technologies, were significant elements of the program. Barriers blocked spawning sea lampreys from substantial areas of habitat for sea lamprey larvae during 1966-1999, and the sterile-male-release technique was used to reduce larval production during 1991-1996. Sea lamprey control resulted in the suppression of sea lamprey populations in Lake Superior, as evidenced by the linear decline in spawner abundance during 1962-1999. However, sea lamprey abundance was not as low as the targets specified in the fish community objectives. Most of the parasitic sea lampreys in Lake Superior probably originated from survivors of lampricide treatments. Self-sustaining populations of lake trout were restored in most of the lake by 1996, although many were killed annually by sea lampreys. Economic injury levels for damage to fish populations by sea lampreys are being developed and will be used to distribute sea lamprey control resources among the Great Lakes.

Heinrich, John W.; Mullett, Katherine M.; Hansen, Michael J.; Adams, Jean V.; Klar, Gerald T.; Johnson, David A.; Christie, Gavin C.; Young, Robert J.

2003-01-01

188

Sea lamprey abundance and management in Lake Superior, 1957 to 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The international sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program successfully laid the foundation for rehabilitation of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior and was well coordinated among management agencies during 1957-1999. The lampricide TFM was the primary control tool, with recurring treatments in 52 larval-producing streams. Barriers and sterile-male-release, as alternative control technologies, were significant elements of the program. Barriers blocked spawning sea lampreys from substantial areas of habitat for sea lamprey larvae during 1966-1999, and the sterile-male-release technique was used to reduce larval production during 1991-1996. Sea lamprey control resulted in the suppression of sea lamprey populations in Lake Superior, as evidenced by the linear decline in spawner abundance during 1962-1999. However, sea lamprey abundance was not as low as the targets specified in the fish community objectives. Most of the parasitic sea lampreys in Lake Superior probably originated from survivors of lampricide treatments. Self-sustaining populations of lake trout were restored in most of the lake by 1996, although many were killed annually by sea lampreys. Economic injury levels for damage to fish populations by sea lampreys are being developed and will be used to distribute sea lamprey control resources among the Great Lakes.

Heinrich, J. W.; Mullett, K. M.; Hansen, M. J.; Adams, J. V.; Klar, G. T.; Johnson, D. A.; Christie, G. C.; Young, R. J.

2003-01-01

189

Application of a Dichotomous Key to the Classification of Sea Lamprey Petromyzon Marinus Marks on Lake Sturgeon Acipenser Fulvescens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) mark classification system used for Great Lakes fishes was originally developed based on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) (King 1980). This scheme recognizes two basic types of sea lamprey marks (Types A and B...

H. K. Patrick T. M. Sutton W. D. Swink

2007-01-01

190

Surface Circulation of Lakes and Nearly Land-Locked Seas  

PubMed Central

The pattern of surface circulation has been mapped for more than 40 lakes, marginal seas, estuaries, and lagoons. All are within the northern hemisphere, and all except one are known to have a counterclockwise pattern. This consistent pattern is attributed to the drag of wind blowing across the bodies of water. Warmer surface water is displaced to the right-hand shore zone (facing downwind), where it produces greater surface turbulence and, thus, greater wind drag. This effect leads to counterclockwise water circulation regardless of the direction and, within limits, the duration of the wind.

Emery, K. O.; Csanady, G. T.

1973-01-01

191

Development and validation of a regional coupled atmosphere lake model for the Caspian Sea Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a validation analysis of a regional climate model coupled to a distributed one dimensional (1D) lake model for the Caspian Sea Basin. Two model grid spacings are tested, 50 and 20 km, the simulation period is 1989-2008 and the lateral boundary conditions are from the ERA-Interim reanalysis of observations. The model is validated against atmospheric as well as lake variables. The model performance in reproducing precipitation and temperature mean seasonal climatology, seasonal cycles and interannual variability is generally good, with the model results being mostly within the observational uncertainty range. The model appears to overestimate cloudiness and underestimate surface radiation, although a large observational uncertainty is found in these variables. The 1D distributed lake model (run at each grid point of the lake area) reproduces the observed lake-average sea surface temperature (SST), although differences compared to observations are found in the spatial structure of the SST, most likely as a result of the absence of 3 dimensional lake water circulations. The evolution of lake ice cover and near surface wind over the lake area is also reproduced by the model reasonably well. Improvements resulting from the increase of resolution from 50 to 20 km are most significant in the lake model. Overall the performance of the coupled regional climate—1D lake model system appears to be of sufficient quality for application to climate change scenario simulations over the Caspian Sea Basin.

Turuncoglu, Ufuk Utku; Elguindi, Nellie; Giorgi, Filippo; Fournier, Nicolas; Giuliani, Graziano

2013-10-01

192

75 FR 19358 - Availability of Grant Funds for FY 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutional Programs, the Guam Sea Grant Project, the Lake Champlain Sea Grant Project, and the Sea Grant National Law...Colleges, Sea Grant Institutional Programs, the Lake Champlain Sea Grant Project, the Guam Sea Grant Project,...

2010-04-14

193

The Ancylus Lake stage of the Baltic Sea in Fehmarn Belt: Indications of a new threshold?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Ice Lake, Yoldia Sea, Ancylus Lake and Littorina Sea stages of regression and transgression controlled the history of the Baltic Sea since the last glacial period. Many details regarding their development remain unknown, including the question whether the regression of the Ancylus Lake (between 10,700 and 10,200 cal yr BP) took place west of the Darss Sill, or elsewhere. This study addresses whether a drowned river system in Fehmarn Belt (SW Baltic Sea) can be related to the drainage of the Ancylus Lake. The river channel is cut into glacial till in the western part of Fehmarn Belt. Here, the channel reaches an incision depth of up to 12 m at a base level of 40 m b.s.l. (below sea level). Near Mecklenburg Bay, the buried channel is incised down to 60 m b.s.l. and widens rapidly from several hundred meters to more than 1 km, fading towards east. It was mainly shaped as part of a glacial meltwater system at a maximum water level of 30 m b.s.l., and is therefore not related to the Ancylus Lake drainage. During the lowstand of the Baltic Ice Lake, local shallow water bodies covered the study area. A previously reported westward directed drainage of a lake in the eastern Fehmarn Belt could be restricted to a time interval between the highstand of the Ancylus Lake and prior to the Littorina Transgression. Timing, water level and potential water discharge of this event suggest a connection to a partial drainage of the Ancylus Lake. It is concluded that the threshold separating the Ancylus Lake from the North Sea needs to be located west of Fehmarn Belt.

Feldens, Peter; Schwarzer, Klaus

2012-03-01

194

Diatoms as food of larval sea lampreys in a small tributary of northern Lake Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The food and food preferences of sea lamprey ammocoetes have not been investigated. The food of the larval American brook lamprey, Lampetra lamottei, in the Great Lakes region consisted mainly of diatoms and desmids according to Creaser and Hann. Schroll discussed the biology of feeding of ammocoetes of Lampetra planeri and Eudontomyzon danfordi in Europe. This report presents data on the availability and use of diatoms by sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, ammocoetes in a small tributary of northern Lake Michigan.

Manion, Patrick J.

1967-01-01

195

Investigating the Great Lakes Environment, Unit One: The Sea Lamprey Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are 11 middle school activities dealing with the sea lamprey and its impact upon the Great Lakes. Included are background information, lesson outlines, references, masters for student worksheets, a wall map, game boards, and two filmstrip-tape units. Using these materials students can learn ecological concepts and some Great Lakes

Lin, Leslie; And Others

196

History of and Advances in Barriers as an Alternative Method to Suppress Sea Lampreys in the Great Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Lakes Fishery Commission (GLFC) continues to seek additional methods of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control to reduce reliance on chemical lampricides (pesticides) and increase the efficiency of the program. Barriers to migrating sea lampreys in tributaries can significantly reduce the spawning potential of sea lamprey in the Great Lakes. These barriers can be any natural or man-made structure

Dennis S. Lavis; Andrew Hallett; Ellie M. Koon; Tom C. McAuley

2003-01-01

197

Transient groundwater-lake interactions in a continental rift: Sea of Galilee, Israel  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Sea of Galilee, located in the northern part of the Dead Sea rift, is currently an intermediate fresh-water lake. It is postulated that during a short highstand phase of former Lake Lisan in the late Pleistocene, saline water percolated into the subsurface. Since its recession from the Kinarot basin and the instantaneous formation of the fresh-water lake (the Sea of Galilee), the previously intruded brine has been flushed backward toward the lake. Numerical simulations solving the coupled equations of fluid flow and of solute and heat transport are applied to examine the feasibility of this hypothesis. A sensitivity analysis shows that the major parameters controlling basin hydrodynamics are lake-water salinity, aquifer permeability, and aquifer anisotropy. Results show that a highstand period of 3000 yr in Lake Lisan was sufficient for saline water to percolate deep into the subsurface. Because of different aquifer permeabilities on both sides of the rift, brine percolated into a aquifers on the western margin, whereas percolation was negligible on the eastern side. In the simulation, after the occupation of the basin by the Sea of Galilee, the invading saline water was leached backward by a topography-driven flow. It is suggested that the percolating brine on the western side reacted with limestone at depth to form epigenetic dolomite at elevated temperatures. Therefore, groundwater discharging along the western shores of the Sea of Galilee has a higher calcium to magnesium ratio than groundwater on the eastern side.

Hurwitz, S.; Stanislavsky, E.; Lyakhovsky, V.; Gvirtzman, H.

2000-01-01

198

Effect of size on lake trout survival after a single sea lamprey attack  

USGS Publications Warehouse

When lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were subjected to a single attack by a sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in laboratory tests in 1986, percentage mortality was significantly higher in small fish (64%; 469-557 mm; N = 67) than in medium (44%; 559-643 mm; N = 45) or large fish (43%; 660-799 mm; N = 47). Additional studies conducted in 1987 with 55 medium (559-650 mm) and 52 large (660-825 mm) lake trout confirmed that there was no difference in mortality between the two larger size-groups. Mortality declined in lake trout over 559 mm, but was still greater than 43%. This level of mortality and the sea lampreys' apparently active selection of larger fish indicated that, contrary to previously published opinions, large size in lake trout (up to ?800 mm in length) might not allow better survival from single sea lamprey attacks.

Swink, William D.

1990-01-01

199

Patterns of invasion and colonization of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in North America as revealed by microsatellite genotypes.  

PubMed

Invasions by exotic organisms have had devastating affects on aquatic ecosystems, both ecologically and economically. One striking example of a successful invader that has dramatically affected fish community structure in freshwater lakes of North America is the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). We used eight microsatellite loci and multiple analytical techniques to examine competing hypotheses concerning the origins and colonization history of sea lamprey (n = 741). Analyses were based on replicated invasive populations from Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior, populations of unknown origins from Lakes Ontario, Champlain, and Cayuga, and populations of anadromous putative progenitor populations in North America and Europe. Populations in recently colonized lakes were each established by few colonists through a series of genetic bottlenecks which resulted in lower allelic diversity in more recently established populations. The spatial genetic structure of invasive populations differed from that of native populations on the Atlantic coast, reflecting founder events and connectivity of invaded habitats. Anadromous populations were found to be panmictic (theta(P) = 0.002; 95% CI = -0.003-0.006; P > 0.05). In contrast, there was significant genetic differentiation between populations in the lower and upper Great Lakes (theta(P) = 0.007; P < 0.05; 95% CI = 0.003-0.009). Populations in Lakes Ontario, Champlain, and Cayuga are native. Alternative models that describe different routes and timing of colonization of freshwater habitats were examined using coalescent-based analyses, and demonstrated that populations likely originated from natural migrations via the St Lawrence River. PMID:16202094

Bryan, M B; Zalinski, D; Filcek, K B; Libants, S; Li, W; Scribner, K T

2005-10-01

200

Ostracods of the Paratethys Sea and Lake Pannon — Perspectives for renewal of cooperative projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ideas from a workshop with the title ‘Ostracods of the Paratethys Sea and Lake Pannon‘, organised during the 6th European Ostracodologists’ Meeting (EOM-VI), are briefly presented. The necessity to start a new active communication between\\u000a palaeontologists and neontologists on the evolution and palaeoecology of ostracods of the marine Paratethys and Lake Pannon\\u000a during the Cenozoic in Europe and Asia is

Dan L. Danielopol; Martin Gross; Werner E. Piller; Angel Baltanás

2008-01-01

201

Seasonal Patterns in Growth, Blood Consumption, and Effects on Hosts by Parasitic-Phase Sea Lampreys in the Great Lakes: An Individual-Based Model Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

An individual-based model (IBM) was developed for sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The IBM was then calibrated to observed growth, by season, for sea lampreys in northern Lake Huron under two different water temperature regimes: a regime experienced by Seneca-strain lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and a regime experienced by Marquettestrain lake trout. Modeling results indicated

Charles P. Madenjian; Philip A. Cochran; Roger A. Bergstedt

2003-01-01

202

Effect of water temperature on sea lamprey growth and lake trout survival  

SciTech Connect

Percent mortality of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush subjected to single sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus attacks did not differ significantly between lower-temperature (mortality = 54%; temperature [le] 10[degrees]C; N = 33) and higher-temperature (mortality = 69%; temperature = 12.8-14.4[degrees]C; N = 45) laboratory studies conducted from 1 June to 28 November 1989. However, sea lampreys fed longer and killed fewer fish in colder water (mean attachment 467.0 h; 18 fish killed) than in warmer water (mean attachment 161.7 h; 31 fish killed), probably because food consumption was lower in colder water. These results indicate that the number of fish killed by sea lampreys could be much greater in warmer water and that temperature must be considered when fish losses from sea lamprey attacks are estimated. Previous studies (Swink and Hanson 1989; Swink 1990) of the effects of single sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus attacks on lake trout Salvelinus namaycush showed significantly less lake trout mortality at temperatures of 10[degrees]C and lower than at higher temperatures. The reduced host mortality, however, could not be attributed solely to lower temperature because warmwater and coldwater attacks occurred during different seasons. In those studies, the author was unable to hold water temperature at 10[degrees]C or less in late summer and early fall, when most fish are killed by sea lampreys in the Great Lakes (Christie and Kolenosky 1980; Bergstedt and Schneider 1988). Modifications to the fish holding facilities at the Hammond Bay Biological Station in 1988 allowed maintenance of a limited amount of water at 10[degrees]C or less throughout the year. Hence, the objective of this study was to compare sea lamprey-induced mortality of lake trout at 10[degrees]C or less with that at 12.8-14.4[degrees]C during the normal feeding season (June through November). 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Swink, W.D. (Hammond Bay Biological Station, Millersburg, MI (United States))

1993-11-01

203

Tectonic tilt rates derived from lake-level measurements, Salton Sea, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tectonic tilt at the Salton Sea was calculated by differencing lake-level measurements from two points on the sea. During the past 26 years, tilting was down toward the southeast. By 1970 differential vertical movement amounted to 110 millimeters between two gages situated 38 kilometers apart on the southwest shore. A reversal in tilt direction in late 1972 has diminished the net differential vertical movement to 60 millimeters. Copyright ?? 1980 AAAS.

Wilson, M. E.; Wood, S. H.

1980-01-01

204

Estimating parasitic sea lamprey abundance in Lake Huron from heterogeneous data sources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Great Lakes Fishery Commission uses time series of transformer, parasitic, and spawning population estimates to evaluate the effectiveness of its sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program. This study used an inverse variance weighting method to integrate Lake Huron sea lamprey population estimates derived from two estimation procedures: 1) prediction of the lake-wide spawning population from a regression model based on stream size and, 2) whole-lake mark and recapture estimates. In addition, we used a re-sampling procedure to evaluate the effect of trading off sampling effort between the regression and mark-recapture models. Population estimates derived from the regression model ranged from 132,000 to 377,000 while mark-recapture estimates of marked recently metamorphosed juveniles and parasitic sea lampreys ranged from 536,000 to 634,000 and 484,000 to 1,608,000, respectively. The precision of the estimates varied greatly among estimation procedures and years. The integrated estimate of the mark-recapture and spawner regression procedures ranged from 252,000 to 702,000 transformers. The re-sampling procedure indicated that the regression model is more sensitive to reduction in sampling effort than the mark-re capture model. Reliance on either the regression or mark-recapture model alone could produce misleading estimates of abundance of sea lampreys and the effect of the control program on sea lamprey abundance. These analyses indicate that the precision of the lake-wide population estimate can be maximized by re-allocating sampling effort from marking sea lampreys to trapping additional streams.

Young, R. J.; Jones, M. L.; Bence, J. R.; McDonald, R. B.; Mullett, K. M.; Bergstedt, R. A.

2003-01-01

205

Estimating parasitic sea lamprey abundance in Lake Huron from heterogenous data sources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Great Lakes Fishery Commission uses time series of transformer, parasitic, and spawning population estimates to evaluate the effectiveness of its sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program. This study used an inverse variance weighting method to integrate Lake Huron sea lamprey population estimates derived from two estimation procedures: 1) prediction of the lake-wide spawning population from a regression model based on stream size and, 2) whole-lake mark and recapture estimates. In addition, we used a re-sampling procedure to evaluate the effect of trading off sampling effort between the regression and mark-recapture models. Population estimates derived from the regression model ranged from 132,000 to 377,000 while mark-recapture estimates of marked recently metamorphosed juveniles and parasitic sea lampreys ranged from 536,000 to 634,000 and 484,000 to 1,608,000, respectively. The precision of the estimates varied greatly among estimation procedures and years. The integrated estimate of the mark-recapture and spawner regression procedures ranged from 252,000 to 702,000 transformers. The re-sampling procedure indicated that the regression model is more sensitive to reduction in sampling effort than the mark-recapture model. Reliance on either the regression or mark-recapture model alone could produce misleading estimates of abundance of sea lampreys and the effect of the control program on sea lamprey abundance. These analyses indicate that the precision of the lake-wide population estimate can be maximized by re-allocating sampling effort from marking sea lampreys to trapping additional streams.

Young, Robert J.; Jones, Michael L.; Bence, James R.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Mullett, Katherine M.; Bergstedt, Roger A.

2003-01-01

206

The possibility and timing for a sea waterway via the Lake Iznik (Turkey)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sea of Marmara is connected to the Black Sea through the Bosporus strait. The idea of another waterway existed between these seas during the late Quaternary is much of great interest to scientific community. Taking into account the marine microfaunal composition collected from lake surface sediments some researchers claim that there was an alternative waterway connection via the lakes of Iznik and Sapanca, located at the eastward extensions of the Gulf of Gemlik and Izmit Bay, respectively. In addition a Holocene age is suggested for the latest flooding event. On the contrary, other researchers who have questioned the possibility for a waterway connection through these lakes and the lower course of Sakarya River during the Holocene or the late Pleistocene, claim that a marine connection could not be possible for at least the past 500,000 years. On the basis of the global sea-level change and regional tectonic uplift rates, for example, a connection between the Lake Iznik and the Sea of Marmara may not have been possible after 310,000 years BP. Both of the lakes, representing adjacent E-W-oriented narrow depressions, are controlled by the transpressional effects of the northern and central segments of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) zone since the Late Miocene - Pliocene. On the basis of available seismic reflection data, the deep trough along the southern margin of Lake Iznik has been evolved under the control of a releasing bend system. Similar to the Hersek Pass separating the outer and central sub-basins of the Izmit Bay at present, this system formed the Karsak Pass between the Lake Iznik and the Gulf of Gemlik, and the brackish waters discharged into the Sea of Marmara. At present, the central segment of the NAF cuts this system and extends towards the Gulf of Gemlik, which is separated from the Lake Iznik by the uplifted Karsak sill (+83 m), similar to the pressure ridge on the Hersek Delta. Therefore the main trough of the Lake Iznik existed before the evolution of the NAF, implying that the lake is a superimposed basin. The secondary normal faults observed in the lake and its environs are responsible for the vertical tectonic movements. Depending on these regional changes and those occurred in the east of the Lake Iznik, e.g. a transpressional interruption at Pamukova, the water discharge ceased at the end of middle Pleistocene, even more precise reconstruction of the sea flooding history of the region need other supportive data. The distribution of some dominant benthic foraminifers across the biogeographic barriers can be explained by adaptation of some marine microfaunal composition to their new home. The transition from normal-marine waterway to a brackish lake fauna must be marked by decreases in species diversity about 310,000 years ago. At present the water quality of the Lake Iznik is changing towards mesotrophic stage from brackish stage. Their biogeographic imprints should be looked for in the composition of the entire assemblage, in general, rather than in the presence or absence of a few dominant species.

Alpar, B.

2012-04-01

207

Sea/lake water air conditioning at Naval facilities. Final report, October 1978-December 1979  

SciTech Connect

The sea/lake water air conditioning (AC) work at CEL and related efforts by others are summarized, along with annotated references. Computer models for estimating the capital costs and energy use for sea/lake water air conditioning (AC) systems are introduced, and the output from these models exercised on two Naval facilities are presented. It was found that (1) the computer models produced reasonable estimates of the capital cost and energy use of seawater AC systems; (2) the capital cost and energy use of such systems are sensitive to the pipeline length, which is dependent on the seawater temperature near the seafloor; (3) at a hypothetical typical Naval facility represented by the average of the two trial facilities, seawater AC requires 80% less energy than conventional AC, but the capital cost of seawater AC is 60% greater; and (4) at this typical facility the life cycle cost for seawater AC is 25% less than that of conventional AC. Sea/lake water AC is recommended for consideration as an alternative to conventional AC at Naval facilities that adjoin bodies of water, and it is also recommended that the computer models be used to make estimates of the capital cost and energy use of sea or lake water AC systems.

Ciani, J.B.

1980-05-01

208

Levels of heavy metals in seals of Lake Ladoga and the White Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1990 and 1993 samples of hair, liver, kidney and muscle were collected from 28 ringed seals from Lake Ladoga, Phoca hispida ladogensis, 20 ringed seals, Phoca hispida hispida, and three bearded seals, Erignathus barbatus, from the White Sea for heavy-metal residue analyses in tissues. The concentration of Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn were determined by atomic absorption

N. Medvedev; N. Panichev; H. Hyvärinen

1997-01-01

209

Importance of coastal change variables in determining vulnerability to sea- and lake-level change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey began conducting scientific assessments of coastal vulnerability to potential future sea- and lake-level changes in 22 National Park Service sea- and lakeshore units. Coastal park units chosen for the assessment included a variety of geological and physical settings along the U.S. Atlantic, Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Caribbean, and Great Lakes shorelines. This research is motivated by the need to understand and anticipate coastal changes caused by accelerating sea-level rise, as well as lake-level changes caused by climate change, over the next century. The goal of these assessments is to provide information that can be used to make long-term (decade to century) management decisions. Here we analyze the results of coastal vulnerability assessments for several coastal national park units. Index-based assessments quantify the likelihood that physical changes may occur based on analysis of the following variables: tidal range, ice cover, wave height, coastal slope, historical shoreline change rate, geomorphology, and historical rate of relative sea- or lake-level change. This approach seeks to combine a coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, and it provides a measure of the system's potential vulnerability to the effects of sea- or lake-level change. Assessments for 22 park units are combined to evaluate relationships among the variables used to derive the index. Results indicate that Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico parks have the highest vulnerability rankings relative to other park regions. A principal component analysis reveals that 99% of the index variability can be explained by four variables: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, water-level change rate, and mean significant wave height. Tidal range, ice cover, and historical shoreline change are not as important when the index is evaluated at large spatial scales (thousands of kilometers). ?? 2010 Coastal Education and Research Foundation.

Pendleton, E. A.; Thieler, E. R.; Williams, S. J.

2010-01-01

210

78 FR 76140 - Extension of Public Comment Period for the Champlain Hudson Power Express Transmission Line...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Period for the Champlain Hudson Power Express Transmission Line Project Draft Environmental...period for the Champlain Hudson Power Express Transmission Line Project Draft Environmental...the Applicant, Champlain Hudson Power Express, Inc. (CHPEI), to construct,...

2013-12-16

211

Quantitative assessment of glacial fluctuations in the level of Lake Lisan, Dead Sea rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative understanding of climatic variations in the Levant during the last glacial cycle is needed to support archaeologists in assessing the drivers behind hominin migrations and cultural developments in this key region at the intersection between Africa and Europe. It will also foster a better understanding of the region's natural variability as context to projections of modern climate change. Detailed documentation of variations in the level of Lake Lisan - the lake that occupied the Dead Sea rift during the last glacial cycle - provides crucial climatic information for this region. Existing reconstructions suggest that Lake Lisan highstands during cold intervals of the last glacial cycle represent relatively humid conditions in the region, but these interpretations have remained predominantly qualitative. Here, I evaluate realistic ranges of the key climatological parameters that controlled lake level, based on the observed timing and amplitudes of lake-level variability. I infer that a mean precipitation rate over the wider catchment area of about 500 mm y-1, as proposed in the literature, would be consistent with observed lake levels if there was a concomitant 15-50% increase in wind speed during cold glacial stadials. This lends quantitative support to previous inferences of a notable increase in the intensity of Mediterranean (winter) storms during glacial periods, which tracked eastward into the Levant. In contrast to highstands during 'regular' stadials, lake level dropped during Heinrich Events. I demonstrate that this likely indicates a further intensification of the winds during those times.

Rohling, Eelco J.

2013-06-01

212

[Variability of myxospores in the myxosporidian genus Henneguya depending on host and geography in the transect "Khubsugul Lake (Mongolia)--Baikal Lake--Laptev Sea (Russia)"].  

PubMed

Analysis of variability and estimation of significance of the differences in morphometric parameters of spores have been carried out for three species of the genus Henneguya (Myxosporidia). Representatives of these species collected both in the same water body (but from different host species) and in geographically distant localities were compared. Thus, we compared samples of Henneguya zschokkei from different host species in Chivyrkui Bay of Baical Lake and in Laptev Sea, and also we compared samples of this species from Baikal Lake with those from Laptev Sea. Materials on Henneguya cerebralis from Baikal Lake were compared with those from Khubsugul Lake; samples of H. cutanea from one host species (Siberian dace) but from water bodies of different type (lake or river) were compared. PMID:21874845

Pronin, N M; Batueva, M D

2011-01-01

213

Seasonal patterns in growth, blood consumption, and effects on hosts by parasitic-phase sea lampreys in the Great Lakes: An individual-based model approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An individual-based model (IBM) was developed for sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The IBM was then calibrated to observed growth, by season, for sea lampreys in northern Lake Huron under two different water temperature regimes: a regime experienced by Seneca-strain lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and a regime experienced by Marquette-strain lake trout. Modeling results indicated that seasonal blood consumption under the Seneca regime was very similar to that under the Marquette regime. Simulated mortality of lake trout directly due to blood removal by sea lampreys occurred at nearly twice the rate during August and September under the Marquette regime than under the Seneca regime. However, cumulative sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout over the entire duration of the sea lamprey's parasitic phase was only 7% higher for the Marquette regime compared with the Seneca regime. Thus, these modeling results indicated that the strain composition of the host (lake trout) population was not important in determining total number of lake trout deaths or total blood consumption attributable to the sea lamprey population, given the sea lamprey growth pattern. Regardless of water temperature regime, both blood consumption rate by sea lampreys and rate of sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout peaked in late October. Elevated blood consumption in late October appeared to be unrelated to changes in water temperature. The IBM approach should prove useful in optimizing control of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

Madenjian, C. P.; Cochran, P. A.; Bergstedt, R. A.

2003-01-01

214

Seasonal patterns in growth, blood consumption, and effects on hosts by parasitic-phase sea lampreys in the Great Lakes: an individual-based model approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An individual-based model (IBM) was developed for sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The IBM was then calibrated to observed growth, by season, for sea lampreys in northern Lake Huron under two different water temperature regimes: a regime experienced by Seneca-strain lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and a regime experienced by Marquette-strain lake trout. Modeling results indicated that seasonal blood consumption under the Seneca regime was very similar to that under the Marquette regime. Simulated mortality of lake trout directly due to blood removal by sea lampreys occurred at nearly twice the rate during August and September under the Marquette regime than under the Seneca regime. However, cumulative sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout over the entire duration of the sea lamprey's parasitic phase was only 7% higher for the Marquette regime compared with the Seneca regime. Thus, these modeling results indicated that the strain composition of the host (lake trout) population was not important in determining total number of lake trout deaths or total blood consumption attributable to the sea lamprey population, given the sea lamprey growth pattern. Regardless of water temperature regime, both blood consumption rate by sea lampreys and rate of sea lamprey-inuced mortality on lake trout peaked in late October. Elevated blood consumption in late October appeared to be unrelated to changes in water temperature. The IBM approach should prove useful in optimizing control of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

Madenjian, Charles P.; Cochran, Philip A.; Bergstedt, Roger A.

2003-01-01

215

Regional Housing Study for Lake Champlain-Lake George Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study describes the housing problem confronting the lower income families of the region. In order to identify the particular problems, nine communities were examined in regards to: Housing Inventory and Composition; Cost of Housing and Vacancy Rate; ...

W. F. Davidson

1972-01-01

216

Interannual variation of persistent organic pollutants over the Great Lakes induced by tropical Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linkage between decadal monitored air concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) around the Great Lakes from 1992 to 2002 and the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the tropical Pacific was studied on a year-to-year basis. It is shown that interannual fluctuation of air concentrations of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in the Great Lakes

Jianmin Ma; Yi-Fan Li

2006-01-01

217

Strontium isotopic, chemical, and sedimentological evidence for the evolution of Lake Lisan and the Dead Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise strontium isotope ratios, combined with chemical analyses and sedimentological information, are used to monitor the water sources and the evolution of the Dead Sea and its late Pleistocene precursor, Lake Lisan (70-18 kyr B.P.). The materials analyzed include bulk aragonite, water-leached soluble salts, and residual aragonite and gypsum from the Lisan Formation in the Perazim Valley (near the SW

M. Stein; A. Starinsky; A. Katz; S. L. Goldstein; M. Machlus; A. Schramm

1997-01-01

218

Validation of coastal sea and lake surface temperature measurements derived from NOAA \\/AVHRR data  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interactive validation monitoring system is being used at the NOAA\\/NESDIS to validate the sea surface temperature (SST) derived from the NOAA-12 and NOAA-14 polar orbiting satellite AVHRR sensors for the NOAA CoastWatch program. In 1997, we validated the SST in coastal regions of the Gulf of Mexico, Southeast US and Northeast US and the lake surface temper- atures in

X. LI; W. PICHEL; V. KRASNOPOLSKY; J. SAPPER

219

History of the Sturgeon in the Baltic Sea and Lake Ladoga  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a short review of the information on the history regarding Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus Mitchill in the Baltic Sea and Lake Ladoga. Due to overfishing and habitat alternation, including damming and pollution,\\u000a the Atlantic sturgeon was extirpated from this area. The history of the fisheries exploitation of the Atlantic sturgeon population\\u000a dates back to the Neolithic period.

Ryszard Kolman; Andrzej Kapusta; Jacek Morzuch

220

Evolution of glacial lakes from the Northern Patagonia Icefield and terrestrial water storage in a sea-level rise context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increase of glacial lake area of 66.0 km2 has been measured at the periphery of the Northern Patagonia Icefield (NPI) between 1945 and 2011. Results have been obtained by digitizing the glacial lakes from Lliboutry's topographic map and from various multitemporal Landsat satellite scenes (1976, 1987, 2001 and 2011). This first complete glacial lake inventory of the NPI indicates a total lake area of 167.5 ± 8.4 km2 for 2011, which represents an increase of 64.9% with respect to the total glacial lake area of the NPI in 1945 (101.6 ± 19.1 km2). The highest area increase was experienced by the San Quintín Lake with an expansion of 18.0 km2 in the 1945-2011 period. Using a volume-area scaling model, a total volume increase of 4.8 km3 is estimated for the entire glacial lake population in the 66-year period. Based on the volumetric increase of the glacial lakes we compute a terrestrial water storage factor of 10% of the contribution of NPI to sea-level rise for the last decade (2001-2011), which is considered as a lower bound since lakes that have lost contact with the ice are not considered in the inventory. The increasing risk of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF's) due to the glacial lake enlargement is also discussed.

Loriaux, Thomas; Casassa, Gino

2013-03-01

221

Selecting Great Lakes streams for lampricide treatment based on larval sea lamprey surveys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Empiric Stream Treatment Ranking (ESTR) system is a data-driven, model-based, decision tool for selecting Great Lakes streams for treatment with lampricide, based on estimates from larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) surveys conducted throughout the basin. The 2000 ESTR system was described and applied to larval assessment surveys conducted from 1996 to 1999. A comparative analysis of stream survey and selection data was conducted and improvements to the stream selection process were recommended. Streams were selected for treatment based on treatment cost, predicted treatment effectiveness, and the projected number of juvenile sea lampreys produced. On average, lampricide treatments were applied annually to 49 streams with 1,075 ha of larval habitat, killing 15 million larval and 514,000 juvenile sea lampreys at a total cost of $5.3 million, and marginal and mean costs of $85 and $10 per juvenile killed. The numbers of juvenile sea lampreys killed for given treatment costs showed a pattern of diminishing returns with increasing investment. Of the streams selected for treatment, those with > 14 ha of larval habitat targeted 73% of the juvenile sea lampreys for 60% of the treatment cost. Suggested improvements to the ESTR system were to improve accuracy and precision of model estimates, account for uncertainty in estimates, include all potentially productive streams in the process (not just those surveyed in the current year), consider the value of all larvae killed during treatment (not just those predicted to metamorphose the following year), use lake-specific estimates of damage, and establish formal suppression targets.

Christie, Gavin C.; Adams, Jean V.; Steeves, Todd B.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Fodale, Michael F.; Young, Robert J.; Kuc, Miroslaw; Jones, Michael L.

2003-01-01

222

Microbial life in the Lake Medee, the largest deep-sea salt-saturated formation  

PubMed Central

Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic lakes (DHALs) of the Eastern Mediterranean represent some of the most hostile environments on our planet. We investigated microbial life in the recently discovered Lake Medee, the largest DHAL found to-date. Medee has two unique features: a complex geobiochemical stratification and an absence of chemolithoautotrophic Epsilonproteobacteria, which usually play the primary role in dark bicarbonate assimilation in DHALs interfaces. Presumably because of these features, Medee is less productive and exhibits reduced diversity of autochthonous prokaryotes in its interior. Indeed, the brine community almost exclusively consists of the members of euryarchaeal MSBL1 and bacterial KB1 candidate divisions. Our experiments utilizing cultivation and [14C]-assimilation, showed that these organisms at least partially rely on reductive cleavage of osmoprotectant glycine betaine and are engaged in trophic cooperation. These findings provide novel insights into how prokaryotic communities can adapt to salt-saturated conditions and sustain active metabolism at the thermodynamic edge of life.

Yakimov, Michail M.; La Cono, Violetta; Slepak, Vladlen Z.; La Spada, Gina; Arcadi, Erika; Messina, Enzo; Borghini, Mireno; Monticelli, Luis S.; Rojo, David; Barbas, Coral; Golyshina, Olga V.; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N.; Giuliano, Laura

2013-01-01

223

The sterile-male-release technique in Great Lakes sea lamprey management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The implementation of a sterile-male-release technique from 1991 through 1999 and evaluation of its effectiveness in the Great Lakes sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) management program is reviewed. Male sea lampreys were injected with the chemosterilant bisazir (P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide) using a robotic device. Quality assurance testing indicated the device delivered a consistent and effective dose of bisazir. Viability of embryos in an untreated control group was 64% compared to 1% in a treatment group. A task force developed nine hypotheses to guide implementation and evaluation of the technique. An annual average of 26,000 male sea lampreys was harvested from as many as 17 Great Lakes tributaries for use in the technique. An annual average of 16,100 sterilized males was released into 33 tributaries of Lake Superior to achieve a theoretical 59% reduction in larval production during 1991 to 1996. The average number of sterile males released in the St. Marys River increased from 4,000 during 1991 to 1996 to 20,100 during 1997 to 1999. The theoretical reduction in reproduction when combined with trapping was 57% during 1991 to 1996 and 86% during 1997 to 1999. Evaluation studies demonstrated that sterilized males were competitive and reduced production of larvae in streams. Field studies and simulation models suggest reductions in reproduction will result in fewer recruits, but there is risk of periodic high recruitment events independent of sterile-male release. Strategies to reduce reproduction will be most reliable when low densities of reproducing females are achieved. Expansion of the technique is limited by access to additional males for sterilization. Sterile-male release and other alternative controls are important in delivering integrated pest management and in reducing reliance on pesticides.

Twohey, Michael B.; Heinrich, John W.; Seelye, James G.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Kaye, Cheryl A.; Scholefield, Ron J.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Christie, Gavin C.

2003-01-01

224

Wind Fields over the Great Lakes Measured by the SeaWinds Scatterometer on the QuikSCAT Satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates the utility of satellite scatterometer measurements for wind retrieval over the Great Lakes on a daily basis. We use data acquired by the SeaWinds Scatterometer on the QuikSCAT (QSCAT) satellite launched in June 1999 to derive wind speeds and directions over the lakes at a resolution of 12.5 km, which is two times finer than the QSCAT

Son V. Nghiem; George A. Leshkevich; Bryan W. Stiles

2004-01-01

225

Compensatory mechanisms in Great Lakes sea lamprey populations: Implications for alternative control strategies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Compensatory mechanisms are demographic processes that tend to increase population growth rates at lower population density. These processes will tend to reduce the effectiveness of actions that use controls on reproductive success to suppress sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an economically important pest in the Great Lakes. Historical evidence for compensatory mechanisms in sea lamprey populations was reviewed, and revealed: (1) strong evidence for shifts in sex ratios as sea lamprey abundance was reduced in the early years of the control program; (2) weak and equivocal evidence for increased growth rates of sea lamprey cohorts re-colonizing streams following a lampricide treatment; and (3) suggestions of other compensatory processes, such as earlier ages at metamorphosis, but with little empirical evidence. Larval size distribution data for cohorts in the first and second years following a lampricide treatment (26 pairs of cohorts in 20 streams) was analyzed and did not indicate a consistent pattern of more rapid growth of the first colonizing cohort (only 11 of 33 cases). To test for compensation between spawning and age-1 in sea lamprey populations, data were analyzed for 49 stream-years for which spawning female abundance was known and age-1 abundance was estimated in the following year. A fit of these data to a Ricker stock-recruitment function showed evidence for compensation, measured as reduced survival to age 1 at higher abundance of spawning females. More obvious, however, was a large amount of density-independent variation in survival, which tends to mask evidence for compensatory survival. The results were applied to a simple model that simulates sea lamprey populations and their control in a hypothetical lake. Control strategies that targeted reproductive success performed far less well than comparable strategies that targeted larval populations, because density-independent recruitment variation leads to occasional strong year classes even when spawner abundance is reduced to low levels through alternative control. It is concluded that further study of recruitment variation in lamprey populations is critical to rationalizing alternative controls that target reproductive success, and that recruitment variation needs to be incorporated into models used to evaluate sea lamprey control options.

Jones, M. L.; Bergstedt, R. A.; Twohey, M. B.; Fodale, M. F.; Cuddy, D. W.; Slade, J. W.

2003-01-01

226

Compensatory mechanisms in Great Lakes sea lamprey populations: implications for alternative control strategies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Compensatory mechanisms are demographic processes that tend to increase population growth rates at lower population density. These processes will tend to reduce the effectiveness of actions that use controls on reproductive success to suppress sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an economically important pest in the Great Lakes. Historical evidence for compensatory mechanisms in sea lamprey populations was reviewed, and revealed: (1) strong evidence for shifts in sex ratios as sea lamprey abundance was reduced in the early years of the control program; (2) weak and equivocal evidence for increased growth rates of sea lamprey cohorts re-colonizing streams following a lampricide treatment; and (3) suggestions of other compensatory processes, such as earlier ages at metamorphosis, but with little empirical evidence. Larval size distribution data for cohorts in the first and second years following a lampricide treatment (26 pairs of cohorts in 20 streams) was analyzed and did not indicate a consistent pattern of more rapid growth of the first colonizing cohort (only 11 of 33 cases). To test for compensation between spawning and age-1 in sea lamprey populations, data were analyzed for 49 stream-years for which spawning female abundance was known and age-1 abundance was estimated in the following year. A fit of these data to a Ricker stock-recruitment function showed evidence for compensation, measured as reduced survival to age 1 at higher abundance of spawning females. More obvious, however, was a large amount of density-independent variation in survival, which tends to mask evidence for compensatory survival. The results were applied to a simple model that simulates sea lamprey populations and their control in a hypothetical lake. Control strategies that targeted reproductive success performed far less well than comparable strategies that targeted larval populations, because density-independent recruitment variation leads to occasional strong year classes even when spawner abundance is reduced to low levels through alternative control. It is concluded that further study of recruitment variation in lamprey populations is critical to rationalizing alternative controls that target reproductive success, and that recruitment variation needs to be incorporated into models used to evaluate sea lamprey control options.

Jones, Michael L.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Twohey, Michael B.; Fodale, Michael F.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Slade, Jeffrey W.

2003-01-01

227

Direct and indirect trophic interactions of Aurelia sp. (Scyphozoa) in a stratified marine environment (Mljet Lakes, Adriatic Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern of diel vertical migration and the trophic interactions of moon jelly (Aurelia sp.) were investigated in the sea lakes of Mljet Island (Adriatic Sea) where this scyphomedusa is present throughout the\\u000a year. Water column characteristics, plankton and in situ behaviour of Aurelia were followed over several 24-h cycles (6–8 times during each cycle) from the surface to the

A. Malej; V. Turk; D. Lu?i?; A. Benovi?

2007-01-01

228

Techniques and methods for estimating abundance of larval and metamorphosed sea lampreys in Great Lakes tributaries, 1995 to 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Before 1995, Great Lakes streams were selected for lampricide treatment based primarily on qualitative measures of the relative abundance of larval sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus. New integrated pest management approaches required standardized quantitative measures of sea lamprey. This paper evaluates historical larval assessment techniques and data and describes how new standardized methods for estimating abundance of larval and metamorphosed sea lampreys were developed and implemented. These new methods have been used to estimate larval and metamorphosed sea lamprey abundance in about 100 Great Lakes streams annually and to rank them for lampricide treatment since 1995. Implementation of these methods has provided a quantitative means of selecting streams for treatment based on treatment cost and estimated production of metamorphosed sea lampreys, provided managers with a tool to estimate potential recruitment of sea lampreys to the Great Lakes and the ability to measure the potential consequences of not treating streams, resulting in a more justifiable allocation of resources. The empirical data produced can also be used to simulate the impacts of various control scenarios.

Slade, Jeffrey W.; Adams, Jean V.; Christie, Gavin C.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Fodale, Michael F.; Heinrich, John W.; Quinlan, Henry R.; Weise, Jerry G.; Weisser, John W.; Young, Robert J.

2003-01-01

229

Oxygen isotope composition of water and snow-ice cover of isolated lakes at various stages of separation from the White Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to analyze the oxygen isotope composition of water, ice, and snow in water bodies isolated from the White Sea and to identify the structural peculiarities of these pools during the winter period. The studies were performed during early spring in Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea, in Velikaya Salma Strait and in Rugoserskaya Inlet. The studied water bodies differ in their degree of isolation from the sea. In particular, Ermolinskaya Inlet has normal water exchange with the sea; the Lake on Zelenyi Cape represents the first stage of isolation; i. e., it has permanent water exchange with the sea by the tide. Kislo-Sladkoe Lake receives sea water from time to time. Trekhtsvetnoe Lake is totally isolated from the sea and is a typical meromictic lake. Finally, Nizhnee Ershovskoe Lake exhibits some features of a saline water body. The oxygen isotope profile of the water column in Trekhtsvetnoe Lake allows defining three layers; this lake may be called typically meromictic. The oxygen isotope profile of the water column in Kislo-Sladkoe Lake is even from the surface to the bottom. The variability of ?18O is minor in Lake on Zelenyi Cape. A surface layer (0-1 m) exists in Nizhnee Ershovskoe Lake, and the oxygen isotope variability is well pronounced. Deeper, where the freshwater dominates, the values of ?18Îvary insignificantly disregarding the water depth and temperature. This fresh water lake is not affected by the seawater and is not stratified according to the isotope profile. It is found that applying the values of ?18Î and profiles of temperature and salinity may appear as an effective method in defining the water sources feeding the water bodies isolated from the sea environment.

Lisitzin, A. P.; Vasil'chuk, Yu. K.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Budantseva, N. A.; Krasnova, E. D.; Pantyulin, A. N.; Filippov, A. S.; Chizhova, Ju. N.

2013-04-01

230

Geomorphological evidence for the Late Holocene evolution and the Holocene lake level maximum of the Aral Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Holocene the Aral Sea underwent various transgressive and regressive phases of different magnitudes. However, previous work has not yet fully clarified the evolution and chronology of the individual phases. Research presented here throws light on the evolution of the Aral Sea during the past ˜ 2000 years. It includes field surveys, tachymetric and DGPS-derived altitude measurements, analysis of sediments from two areas of the northern and southern Aral Basin (Tastubek Bay and Karaumbet Bay), and their correlation with GIS-based lake area models. Geomorphological and sedimentological evidence from the study areas shows a transgression of the Aral Sea around 200 AD, ending at a lake level maximum of 54 to 55 m. After a medieval regression, the lake reached this level again between the late 16th and early 19th century AD. The digital elevation model SRTM-3 was used to estimate a lake size of 72,400 km 2 for the lake level maximum. Elevated palaeoshorelines, specifically at 72-73 m, are completely absent in the study areas. Local remains of escarpments at elevations of 66 m and 73 m are due to resistant Miocene caprock and are therefore not interpretable as shoreline features.

Reinhardt, Christian; Wünnemann, Bernd; Krivonogov, Sergey K.

2008-01-01

231

Glacial Geology of the Champlain Valley: 1966-1970.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Detailed study of the distribution of surficial materials in the Champlain Valley, Vermont, established a framework for the glacial history and provided basic information relevant to water supply, waste disposal, and sand and gravel resources. Postglacial...

P. W. Wagner

1971-01-01

232

Hydrogen sulfide production and volatilization in a polymictic eutrophic saline lake, Salton Sea, California.  

PubMed

The Salton Sea is a large shallow saline lake located in southern California that is noted for high sulfate concentrations, substantial algal productivity, and very warm water column temperatures. These conditions are well-suited for sulfide production, and sulfide has been implicated in summer fish kills, although no studies have been conducted to specifically understand hydrogen sulfide production and volatilization there. Despite polymictic mixing patterns and relatively short accumulation periods, the amount of sulfide produced is comparable to meromictic lakes. Sulfide levels in the Salton Sea reached concentrations of 1.2 mmol L(-1) of total free sulfide in the hypolimnion and 5.6 mmol L(-1) in the sediment pore water. Strong winds in late July mixed H2S into the surface water, where it depleted the entire water column of dissolved oxygen and reached a concentration of 0.1 mmol L(-1). Sulfide concentrations exceeded the toxicity threshold of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and combined with strong anoxia throughout the water column, resulted in a massive fish kill. The mixing of sulfide into the surface waters also increased atmospheric H2S concentrations, reaching 1.0 micromol m(-3). The flux of sulfide from the sediment into the water column was estimated to range from 2-3 mmol m(-2) day(-1) during the winter and up to 8 mmol m(-2) day(-1) during the summer. Application of the two-layer model for volatilization indicates that up to 19 mmol m(-2) day(-1) volatilized from the surface during the mixing event. We estimate that as much as 3400 Mg year(-1) or approximately 26% of sulfide that diffused into the water column from the deepest sediments may have been volatilized to the atmosphere. PMID:18760446

Reese, Brandi Kiel; Anderson, Michael A; Amrhein, Christopher

2008-11-15

233

Lake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

Wien, Carol Anne

2008-01-01

234

A new method of quantifying discharge of small rivers into lakes and inland seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental discharge is an important component of the global hydrological cycle, providing the majority of the input part of the ocean water balance. Buoyant inflow usually causes surface density stratification at the large shelf areas, and plays a significant role in physical, chemical, and biological processes there that is especially important for the lakes and inland seas. Although there is a lack of discharge data for most of rivers in a global scale. Regular direct measurements of discharge are performed only for a relatively small number of rivers, generally the biggest ones or ones that flow through densely populated areas. Within this problem an indirect method of assuming a volume of river discharge was developed. The general idea of the method is the following. Firstly, the spatial surface spread of the plume generated by the considered river discharge is identified using high resolution satellite imagery of the coastal zone adjacent to the river estuary. Secondly, a series of numerical simulations of the river runoff spread is performed under various prescribed external forcing conditions which include the discharge rate. Varying forcing conditions we iteratively improve the accordance between simulated and observed river plumes therefore consequentially specifying the value of river discharge. The developed method was applied and validated against in situ date for several rivers feeding the Black Sea. Practical importance of this work consists in the fact, that the suggested method is an alternative for the expensive and laborious direct measurements of the river discharge, which are used nowadays.

Osadchiev, Alexander; Zavialov, Peter

2014-05-01

235

Lithosphere-biosphere interaction at a shallow-sea hydrothermal vent site; Hot Lake, Panarea, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep-Sea hydrothermal systems are unique habitats for microbial life with primary production based on chemosynthesis and are considered to be windows to the subsurface biosphere. It is often overlooked, however, that their far more accessible shallow-sea counterparts are also valuable targets to study the effects of hydrothermal activity on geology, seawater chemistry and finally, on microbial life. Such an area of shallow marine hydrothermal venting is observed approximately 2.5 km east of Panarea Island (Sicily, Italy). This system is characterized by fluid temperatures of up to 135° C, gas emissions dominated by CO2 and precipitation of elemental sulfur on the seafloor. In an interdisciplinary project to investigate the influence of geofuels on marine microbiota, sediment cores and pore fluids were sampled for geological and geochemical analyses. An attempt was made to link these geochemical data with a characterization of the microbial community. One of the investigated sites (Lago Caldo, Hot Lake) is an oval-shaped (~10 by 6 meters) shallow (~2.5 m deep) depression covered by elemental sulfur. The sediments in this depression are strongly affected by hydrothermal activity: the pH of pore fluids is in a range between 5 and 6; the salinity is approximately two times higher than seawater. In situ temperatures of 36° C and 74° C (10 cm sediment depth) at two different locations within Hot Lake indicate variability in hydrothermal flux. The sediment surface layer is anoxic, and with increasing depth from the sediment-water interface, sulfate concentrations decrease from ~30 mM to less than 10 mM, whereas sulfide concentrations increase from less than 50 ?m to ~1000 ?m at 25 cm sediment depth, thus suggesting a higher potential for energy gain based on sulfur disequilibrium. As indicated by the variability in the sediment temperatures at 10 cm, fluid fluxes and mixing with seawater is not found to be uniform at Hot Lake. This is reflected in variability of the pore fluids geochemistry (anions, cations and stable isotope composition of water and sulfate) of depth profiles. DNA-fingerprinting techniques (DGGE, ARISA) revealed distinctly different bacterial 16S rRNA gene patterns for three separate sediment cores taken at Hot Lake. Intact polar lipid (IPL) biomarker analysis revealed a dominance of bacterial over archaeal biomass. The bacterial IPLs were mainly comprised of diether and diester phospholipids and ornithine lipids, indicative of viable thermophilic sulfate-reducing and acidophilic sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. Bacterial IPL abundance was highest in the sediment surface layer. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that with increasing depth and temperature, the abundance of archaea increased relative to that of bacteria. Comparative 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed a moderate diversity of bacteria, and a dominance of epsilonproteobacterial sequences. Cultured representatives of the detected epsilonproteobacterial classes are known to catalyze elemental sulfur reduction and oxidation reactions and to mediate the formation of iron-sulfides, including framboidal pyrite, which was found in sediment samples. We conclude that mixing between hydrothermal fluids and seawater leads to distinctly different temperature gradients and ecological niches in Hot Lake sediments. From the geochemical profiles and a preliminary characterization of the microbiological community, we found strong evidence of sulfur-related metabolism. Further investigation of certain clusters of bacteria and archaea as well as gene expression analysis will give us a deeper understanding of the interaction between geosphere and biosphere at this site in the future.

Huang, Chia-I.; Amann, Rudolf; Amend, Jan P.; Bach, Wolfgang; Brunner, Benjamin; Meyerdierks, Anke; Price, Roy E.; Schubotz, Florence; Summons, Roger; Wenzhöfer, Frank

2010-05-01

236

Discussion: a critique of Possible waterways between the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea in the late Quaternary: evidence from ostracod and foraminifer assemblages in lakes ?znik and Sapanca, Turkey, Geo-Marine Letters, 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The identification of past connection routes between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara, other than the traditional one through to the Bosphorus Strait, would be of considerable interest to the international scientific community. Nazik et al. (Geo-Mar Lett 31:75-86 (2011) doi:10.1007/s00367-010-0216-9) suggest the possibility of two alternative waterway connections via lakes Sapanca and ?znik. Their Black Sea to Sea of Marmara multi-connection hypothesis, which is based on undated marine fossils collected in both lakes from surficial grab samples, conflicts with many earlier studies. In this contribution, the hypothesis and the underlying data are discussed in the light of previous tectonic, sedimentological and limnological findings showing that it is impossible to have had marine connections through lakes Sapanca and ?znik during the last 11.5 ka. Global sea-level trends and tectonic uplift rates would accommodate a connection between the Sea of Marmara and Lake ?znik in the middle Pleistocene. Uplift rates for the northern block of the North Anatolian Fault, when compared with the global sea-level curve, clearly indicate that there cannot have been a connection through the ?zmit Gulf-Lake Sapanca-Sakarya Valley for at least the past 500 ka. Moreover, borehole sediments along the western shores of Lake Sapanca, which reach down to the bedrock, do not contain any marine fossils.

Yalt?rak, Cenk; Ülgen, Umut B.; Zabc?, Cengiz; Franz, Sven Oliver; Ön, Sena Akçer; Sak?nç, Mehmet; Ça?atay, M. Nam?k; Alpar, Bedri; Öztürk, Kurultay; Tuno?lu, Cemal; Ünlü, Selma

2012-06-01

237

Groundwater-saline lakes interaction - The contribution of saline groundwater circulation to solute budget of saline lakes: a lesson from the Dead Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saline lakes act as base level for both surface water and groundwater. Thus, a change in lake levels is expected to result in changes in the hydrogeological system in its vicinity, exhibited in groundwater levels, location of the fresh-saline water interface, sub-lacustrine groundwater discharge (SGD) and saline water circulation. All these processes were observed in the declining Dead Sea system, whose water level dropped by ~35 meters in the last 50 years. This work focuses mainly on the effect of circulation of Dead Sea water in the aquifer, which continues even in this very rapid base level drop. In general, seawater circulation in coastal aquifers is now recognized as a major process affecting trace element mass balances in coastal areas. Estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) vary over several orders of magnitude (1-1000000 m3/yr per meter shoreline). These estimates are sensitive to fresh-saline SGD ratios and to the temporal and spatial scales of the circulation. The Dead Sea system is an excellent natural field lab for studying seawater-groundwater interaction and large-scale circulation due to the absence of tides and to the minor role played by waves. During Dead Sea water circulation in the aquifer several geochemical reactions occur, ranging from short-term adsorption-desorption reactions and up to long-term precipitation and dissolution reactions. These processes affect the trace element distribution in the saline groundwater. Barite and celestine, which are supersaturated in the lake water, precipitate during circulation in the aquifer, reducing barium (from 5 to 1.5 mg/L), strontium (from 350 to 300 mg/L) and the long-lived 226Ra (from 145 to 60 dpm/L) in the saline groundwater. Redox-controlled reactions cause a decrease in uranium from 2.4 to 0.1 ?g/L, and an increase in iron from 1 to 13 mg/L. 228Ra (t1/2=5.75 yr) activity in the Dead Sea is ~1 dpm/L and increase gradually as the saline water flows further inland until reaching steady-state activities (~27 dpm/L) with the aquifer sediments. The decrease in 226Ra and increase in 228Ra in the circulation process provide a robust method for calculating the amount of Dead Sea water circulating in the aquifer. This process can affect trace element concentrations in the Dead Sea and emphasize the potential of long-term seawater circulation in mass balances of saline water bodies.

Kiro, Yael; Weinstein, Yishai; Starinsky, Abraham; Yechieli, Yoseph

2013-04-01

238

Palaeomagnetism and rock-magnetism results from Lake Albano and the central Adriatic Sea (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic measurements have included whole core susceptibility scans, detailed rock magnetic characterisation of catchment materials and lake sediments, and palaeomagnetic measurements. The susceptibility scans on cores from Lake Albano and Lake Nemi have pro- vided an essential part of the initial stratigraphic information upon which core selection for subsequent detailed studies of the lake sediments were made. They also shed

Tim C. ROLPH; Frank OLDFIELD; Kuno D. VAN DER POST

239

Chemical tracing of salinity sources in Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Kinneret is a freshwater lake in northern Israel that receives a major part of its salt input from unmonitored springs that discharge through the lake's bottom. We attempt to characterize the nature of these springs by estimating their chemical composition. While the springs around Lake Kinneret are subject to wide spatial and temporal variations in their ionic concentrations, specific

Yehoshua Kolodny; Amitai Katz; Abraham Starinsky; Tamar Moise; Ehud Simon

1999-01-01

240

Numerical simulations of tsunamis generated by underwater volcanic explosions at Karymskoye lake (Kamchatka, Russia) and Kolumbo volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing human activities along the coasts of the world provoke the necessity to assess tsunami hazard from different sources (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity). In this paper, we simulate tsunamis generated by underwater volcanic explosions from (1) a submerged vent in a shallow water lake (Karymskoye Lake, Kamchatka), and (2) from Kolumbo submarine volcano (7 km NE of Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece). The 1996 tsunami in Karymskoye lake is a well-documented example and thus serves as a case study for validating the calculations. The numerical model reproduces realistically the tsunami run-ups measured onshore. Systematic numerical study of tsunamis generated by explosions of the Kolumbo volcano is then conducted for a wide range of energies. Results show that in case of reawakening, the Kolumbo volcano might represent a significant tsunami hazard for the northern, eastern and southern coasts of Santorini, even for small-power explosions.

Ulvrová, M.; Paris, R.; Kelfoun, K.; Nomikou, P.

2014-02-01

241

Using Wind Setdown and Storm Surge on Lake Erie to Calibrate the Air-Sea Drag Coefficient  

PubMed Central

The air-sea drag coefficient controls the transfer of momentum from wind to water. In modeling storm surge, this coefficient is a crucial parameter for estimating the surge height. This study uses two strong wind events on Lake Erie to calibrate the drag coefficient using the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Wave Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system and the the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Simulated waves are generated on the lake with Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN). Wind setdown provides the opportunity to eliminate wave setup as a contributing factor, since waves are minimal at the upwind shore. The study finds that model results significantly underestimate wind setdown and storm surge when a typical open-ocean formulation without waves is used for the drag coefficient. The contribution of waves to wind setdown and storm surge is 34.7%. Scattered lake ice also increases the effective drag coefficient by a factor of 1.1.

Drews, Carl

2013-01-01

242

Interannual variation of persistent organic pollutants over the Great Lakes induced by tropical Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The linkage between decadal monitored air concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) around the Great Lakes from 1992 to 2002 and the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the tropical Pacific was studied on a year-to-year basis. It is shown that interannual fluctuation of air concentrations of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in the Great Lakes basin in spring and summer are highly correlated with the tropical Pacific SSTA. Spatial correlation patterns between the air concentrations of POPs over the Great Lakes and SSTA exhibit a feature of the characteristic SST signature associated with the occurrence of an El Niño event and SSTA forcing in atmospheric circulation teleconnections. The relations between air concentration of these POPs and the tropical Pacific SSTA are consistent with the response of midlatitude atmospheric circulation to the Pacific SSTA, showing that air concentration of the POPs in spring and summer seasons is related to tropical Pacific SSTA in preceding winter and spring months. The up to 6 month lag response of the POP air concentration to the SSTA provides a basis for forecasting the temporal trend of POPs in the atmosphere over the Great Lakes basin. The connection of the SSTA and the changes in the POP air concentration with the atmospheric circulation suggests that the atmospheric circulation associated with the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) forcing plays a major role in the reemission of POPs from sources and long-range transport of POPs in the atmosphere.

Ma, Jianmin; Li, Yi-Fan

2006-02-01

243

Beryllium isotopes as tracers of Lake Lisan (last Glacial Dead Sea) hydrology and the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The content of the cosmogenic isotope 10Be (t1/2=1.39 Ma) in lacustrine sediments that deposit in lakes with a large watershed is susceptible to both climate and cosmogenic production rate variations. In order to distinguish between these two controls, we measured 10Be and major elements in several sections of the annually laminated sediments of the Lake Lisan (the last Glacial precursor of the Dead Sea) that are composed of detrital sediments and primary (evaporitic) aragonites. The sections were selected to represent regional hydrology and climate as reflected by different lake configurations (level rise, drop and high-stands) and rapid change in the 10Be production rate during the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion. Since the short-lived cosmogenic “sister” of 10Be, 7Be (t1/2=53.3 d) has virtually no recycled component, the recycled 10Be in Lake Lisan detrital sediments was evaluated by measuring 7Be in their modern equivalents: modern flood suspended matter, dust and mud cracks. Our results demonstrate that although the recycled 10Be component is significant, secular variations in the 10Be concentration in Lake Lisan sediments correlate with hydrological variations and geomagnetic excursions. During periods of moderate variations in 10Be production rate, the 10Be concentration in the Lisan detrital sediments positively correlates with lake level, Al + Fe content and the (Al + Fe)/(Ca + Mg) ratio. These correlations suggest that the 10Be is adsorbed on the fine silicate component (probably clays) of the detrital laminae. The fine silicates together with carbonates were transported to Dead Sea drainage basin mainly as airborne dust that after a short residence time was washed into Lake Lisan as flood suspended matter. We suggest that preferential dissolution of carbonates in the flood suspended matter concentrated the residual fine component leading to the positive correlation between 10Be and the (Al + Fe)/(Ca + Mg) ratio. During periods of increased water discharge more carbonates were dissolved and hence the 10Be concentration in the detrital laminae increased. During periods of rapid increase in the 10Be production rate (e.g. the Laschamp excursion), 10Be showed a ?2 fold increase, beyond the above-mentioned correlations (lake levels and Al + Fe contents). This observation suggests that Lake Lisan can serve as a potential high-resolution archive of 10Be production rate variations during periods of geomagnetic excursions.

Belmaker, Reuven; Stein, Mordechai; Beer, Jürg; Christl, Marcus; Fink, David; Lazar, Boaz

2014-08-01

244

Lands in Transition: Lake Champlain Shoreland Changes, 1960-1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this report is to provide a summary of the developmental changes in New York and Vermont shoreland communities. Socioeconomic relationships, land use trends, and population characteristics are examined. Land use in the New York and Vermon...

E. Humstone

1978-01-01

245

The Effects of Sewage on a Lake Champlain Wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stevens Brook wetland is presently receiving partially treated sewage from the City of St. Albans, Vermont. The water quality in St. Albans Bay is deteriorating. There is conflicting evidence for the theory that wetlands act as a nutrient sink or as a biotic nutrient filter. This research is an investigation into the productivity and trophic food chain relationships of Stevens

Larry N. Schwartz; Gerhard K. Gruendling

1985-01-01

246

Modeling invasive species spread in Lake Champlain via evolutionary computations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a reaction diffusion equation, together with a genetic algorithm approach for model selection to develop a general\\u000a modeling framework for biological invasions. The diffusion component of the reaction diffusion model is generalized to include\\u000a dispersal and advection. The reaction component is generalized to include both linear and non-linear density dependence, and\\u000a Allee effect. A combination of the reaction

B. M. Osei; C. D. Ellingwood; J. P. Hoffmann; D. E. Bentil

2011-01-01

247

Climate-induced variations in lake levels: A mechanism for short-term sea level change during non-glacial times  

SciTech Connect

Variations in insolation due to periodic orbital parameters can cause climatic changes and associated variations in the intensity of monsoonal circulation. This can lead to significant variations in the levels of internally draining lakes on timescales of 10,000 to 100,000 years in regions affected by the monsoon (20,000 years for orbital precession). These variations may be responsible for small scale (few meters) eustatic sea level changes in an ice-free Earth, and may contribute to sea level changes in the presence of ice as well. The authors have estimated the volume of empty present lake basins in the regions of Asia and North Africa influenced by the monsoon. The surface water volume alone of these basins is equivalent to a two meter difference in sea level, but is considerably augmented by groundwater associated with an increase in lake level. The lake variation mechanism for sea level change has its basis in the Quaternary record of climate change and associated explanatory models. However, the argument also applies to earlier, non-glacial periods of geologic time. Clear evidence for the presence of ice in the Triassic is lacking. However, there is evidence for short-term periodic fluctuations of lake levels as well as sea level during that time. These sea level changes, as well as those in the Devonian, Jurassic, and Cretaceous, may be driven by periodic fluctuation in lacustrine and groundwater storage resulting from orbitally forced changes in monsoon intensity, even in the absence of significant glacial ice.

Jacobs, D. (American Museum of Natural History, N.Y. (United States)); Sahagian, D. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept of Geological Sciences)

1992-01-01

248

Pollution records from sediments of three lakes in New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment core segments from Sylvan Lake, Lake Champlain and Lake Canadarago were dated radiometrically with 210 Pb and 137 Cs. Their respective sedimentation rates were determined to be 0.11, 0.14 and 0.52 g cm -2 yr -1 . For the two lakes of lower sedimentation the variations of selected elemental abundances as function of depth were analyzed. Two groupings were

M. Wahlen; R. C. Thompson

1980-01-01

249

Lake Trout Rehabilitation in Lake Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in

Joseph H. Elrod; Robert O’Gorman; Clifford P. Schneider; Thomas H. Eckert; Ted Schaner; James N. Bowlby; Larry P. Schleen

1995-01-01

250

Lake and sea populations of Mysis relicta (Crustacea, Mysida) with different visual-pigment absorbance spectra use the same A1 chromophore.  

PubMed

Glacial-relict species of the genus Mysis (opossum shrimps) inhabiting both fresh-water lakes and brackish sea waters in northern Europe show a consistent lake/sea dichotomy in eye spectral sensitivity. The absorbance peak (?max) recorded by microspectrophotometry in isolated rhabdoms is invariably 20-30 nm red-shifted in "lake" compared with "sea" populations. The dichotomy holds across species, major opsin lineages and light environments. Chromophore exchange from A1 to A2 (retinal ? 3,4-didehydroretinal) is a well-known mechanism for red-shifting visual pigments depending on environmental conditions or stages of life history, present not only in fishes and amphibians, but in some crustaceans as well. We tested the hypothesis that the lake/sea dichotomy in Mysis is due to the use of different chromophores, focussing on two populations of M. relicta from, respectively, a Finnish lake and the Baltic Sea. They are genetically very similar, having been separated for less than 10 kyr, and their rhabdoms show a typical lake/sea difference in ?max (554 nm vs. 529 nm). Gene sequencing has revealed no differences translating into amino acid substitutions in the transmembrane parts of their opsins. We determined the chromophore identity (A1 or A2) in the eyes of these two populations by HPLC, using as standards pure chromophores A1 and A2 as well as extracts from bovine (A1) and goldfish (A2) retinas. We found that the visual-pigment chromophore in both populations is A1 exclusively. Thus the spectral difference between these two populations of M. relicta is not due to the use of different chromophores. We argue that this conclusion is likely to hold for all populations of M. relicta as well as its European sibling species. PMID:24516590

Belikov, Nikolai; Yakovleva, Marina; Feldman, Tatiana; Demina, Olga; Khodonov, Andrei; Lindström, Magnus; Donner, Kristian; Ostrovsky, Mikhail

2014-01-01

251

Unveiling microbial life in the new deep-sea hypersaline Lake Thetis. Part II: a metagenomic study.  

PubMed

So far only little is known about the microbial ecology of Mediterranean deep-sea hypersaline anoxic lakes (DHALs). These brine lakes were formed by evaporite dissolution/brine seeps and are important model environments to provide insights into possible metabolisms and distributions of microorganisms on the early Earth. Our study on the Lake Thetis, a new thalassohaline DHAL located South-East of the Medriff Corridor, has revealed microbial communities of contrasting compositions with a high number of novel prokaryotic candidate divisions. The major finding of our present work is co-occurrence of at least three autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation pathways in the brine-seawater interface that are likely fuelled by an active ramified sulphur cycle. Genes for the reductive acetyl-CoA and reductive TCA pathways were also found in the brine suggesting that these pathways are operational even at extremely elevated salinities and that autotrophy is more important in hypersaline environments than previously assumed. Surprisingly, genes coding for RuBisCo were found in the highly reduced brine. Three types of sulphide oxidation pathways were found in the interface. The first involves a multienzyme Sox complex catalysing the complete oxidation of reduced sulphur compounds to sulphate, the second type recruits SQR sulphide:quinone reductase for oxidation of sulphide to elemental sulphur, which, in the presence of sulphide, could further be reduced by polysulphide reductases in the third pathway. The presence of the latter two allows a maximal energy yield from the oxidation of sulphide and at the same time prevents the acidification and the accumulation of S(0) deposits. Amino acid composition analysis of deduced proteins revealed a significant overrepresentation of acidic residues in the brine compared with the interface. This trait is typical for halophilic organisms as an adaptation to the brine's extreme hypersalinity. This work presents the first metagenomic survey of the microbial communities of the recently discovered Lake Thetis whose brine constitutes one of saltiest water bodies ever reported. PMID:22040283

Ferrer, Manuel; Werner, Johannes; Chernikova, Tatyana N; Bargiela, Rafael; Fernández, Lucía; La Cono, Violetta; Waldmann, Jost; Teeling, Hanno; Golyshina, Olga V; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Yakimov, Michail M; Golyshin, Peter N

2012-01-01

252

Quantification of a male sea lamprey pheromone in tributaries of Laurentian Great Lakes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed an assay for measuring 7?,12?,24-trihydroxy-5a-cholan-3-one-24-sulfate (3kPZS), a mating pheromone released by male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus), at low picomolar concentrations in natural waters to assess the presence of invasive populations. 3kPZS was extracted from streamwater at a rate of recovery up to 90% using a single cation-exchange and reversed-phase mixed-mode cartridge, along with [2H5]3kPZS as an internal standard, and quantified using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of detection was below 0.1 ng L–1 (210 fM), which was the lowest concentration tested. Intra- and interday coefficients of variation were between 0.3–11.6% and 4.8–9.8%, respectively, at 1 ng 3kPZS L–1 and 5 ng 3kPZS L–1. This assay was validated by repeat measurements of water samples from a stream spiked with synthesized 3kPZS to reach 4.74 ng L–1 or 0.24 ng L–1. We further verified the utility of this assay to detect spawning populations of lampreys; in the seven tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes sampled, 3kPZS concentrations were found to range between 0.15 and 2.85 ng L–1 during the spawning season in known sea lamprey infested segments and were not detectable in uninfested segments. The 3kPZS assay may be useful for the integrated management of sea lamprey, an invasive species in the Great Lakes where pheromone-based control and assessment techniques are desired.

Xi, X.; Johnson, N. S.; Brant, C. O.; Yun, S. -S.; Chambers, K. L.; Jones, A. D.; Li, W.

2011-01-01

253

Abrupt environmental changes within a late Holocene lacustrine sequence south of the Marmara Sea (Lake Manyas, NW Turkey): possible links with seismic events  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coring campaign in Lake Manyas (Ku? Gölü) on the southern coast of the Sea of Marmara (Turkey) has provided insights into basin infilling processes during the upper 11 metres of the sedimentary record. Combined sedimentary features between 5 and 4 m depth have been explained by a seismite. A brittle mixed layer (uniquely rich in seeds and ostracod valves)

S Leroy; N Kazanc?; Ö ?leri; M Kibar; O Emre; E McGee; H. I Griffiths

2002-01-01

254

Molecular and isotopic characterization of lipids in cultured halophilic microorganisms from the Dead Sea and comparison with the sediment record of this hypersaline lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultures of the only photosynthetic green alga (Dunaliella parva) in the surface waters of the Dead Sea and three halophilic archaea (Haloarcula marismortui; Haloferax volcanii; Halorubrum sodomense) from the same location were analyzed for their lipid content to investigate the contribution of these organisms to the organic matter in the sediments of this hypersaline lake. Based on distribution patterns and

Thorsten Stiehl; Jürgen Rullkötter; Arie Nissenbaum

2005-01-01

255

Progress Toward Lake Trout Restoration in Lake Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress toward lake trout restoration in Lake Michigan is described through 1993. Extinction of the native lake trout fishery by sea lamprey predation, augmented by exploitation and habitat destruction, resulted in an extensive stocking program of hatchery-reared lake trout that began in 1965. Sea lamprey abundance was effectively controlled using selective chemical toxicants. The initial stocking produced a measurable wild

Mark E. Holey; Ronald W. Rybicki; Gary W. Eck; Edward H. Brown Jr.; J. Ellen Marsden; Dennis S. Lavis; Michael L. Toneys; Tom N. Trudeau; Ross M. Horrall

1995-01-01

256

The share of a glacial feeding in water balance of Aral Sea and Karakul Lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lakes of Central Asia without outflow can be divided into two groups: The zone of runoff formation covers a large territory. In the runoff zone, the snow-rain components prevail; in the nival zone of Central Asia, important precipitation has been observed. Summer runoff decrease for the period 20-30 years, caused by glacier reduction, is insignificant in comparison with other water balance components. The zone of runoff formation is rather small; the rainfall is smaller than in other regions; glacial melting, which forms river runoff, becomes essential. Thus, glacial decrease in the Karakul Lake basin for 1925-1980, equal to 13.6 km 2, resulted in a lake area decrease equal to 8.3 km 2.

Ni, A.; Nurtayev, B.; Petrov, M.; Tikhanovskaya, A.; Tomashevskaya, I.

2004-06-01

257

Distribution of Atmospheric Pressure at Sea Level in the Lake Baikal Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The distribution of the average long-term atmospheric pressure over Lake Baikal, and the territory of eastern Siberia and northern Mongolia contiguous thereto, is reviewed. Use was made of average long-term pressure values from 217 stations located betwee...

V. A. Krotova L. I. Lut

1968-01-01

258

Acoustic evidence of a Baltic Ice lake drainage debrite in the northern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sudden drainage of the Baltic Ice Lake (BIL) at the end of the Younger Dryas Chron was one of the major events within the Pleistocene\\/Holocene boundary in Scandinavia. Thus far the effects it might have had on sedimentary environments have been inadequately recorded outside of central and southern Sweden. In the present study, high-quality acoustic sounding data was used

Outi Hyttinen; Aarno Kotilainen; Veli-Pekka Salonen

2011-01-01

259

Manifestation of the geomagnetic Mono Lake excursion in sediments of the northern part of the Barents Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palaeomagnetic characteristics of cores from three boreholes (AK-56, AK-87, AK-98) collected in the northern part of the Barents sea (79-80 N) during the expedition of the Research Vessel "Academician Karpinsky" in 1998 have been studied. The cores were taken from depths of 329, 377, and 473 m, respectively. In all three cores, changes in inclination from -80 to -150 degrees were observed at a depth of 110-130 cm (in 6-8 core samples), which suggests that this phenomenon can be attributed to a geomagnetic field excursion. Basing on dating of the lithologic Holocene-Pleistocene boundary, the sedimentation rate in this part of the Barents Sea can be estimated to be 5-7 cm/1000 years. In this case the age of the excursion is about 24 000 BP, i.e., it corresponds to the Mono Lake excursion. In the Barents Sea sediments, the manifestation of this excursion was revealed for the first time in the ACB-2 core taken in the central part of the sea. At a depth of 150-180 cm, all three cores (in 8-10 samples) were found to have a layer with abnormally high natural remanent magnetization (up to 6-11 nT with a mean value of 1.5 nT) and magnetic susceptibility (up to 1.0-1.7 x 10-3 SI with a mean value of 0.4 x 10-3 SI). Basing on lithological data, the time of formation of this layer can be estimated as approximately 30 000 - 35 000 BP. A reference layer at the depth corresponding to the Holocene-Pleistocene boundary with similar changes in magnetic susceptibility attributed to climate change was found in the cores taken from the central part of the Barents sea earlier. It is likely that sharp changes in magnetic properties of sediments in the northern part of the Barents Sea about 30 000 - 35 000 BP are also attributable to a sharp climate change (warming) during that period of time. This work was supported by INTAS, Grant 97-31008 and PFBR, Grant 00-05-64921.

Goos'kova, E.; Volkova, Y.; Piskarev, A.; Morner, N.-A.; Abrahamsen, N.; Dergachev, V.; Raspopov, O.

2003-04-01

260

Impact of Lake Okeechobee Sea Surface Temperatures on Numerical Predictions of Summertime Convective Systems over South Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, the Florida Institute of Technology, and the NOAA/NWS Weather Forecast Office at Miami, FL (MFL) are collaborating on a project to investigate the impact of using high-resolution, 2-km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sea surface temperature (SST) composites within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) prediction system. The NWS MFL is currently running WRF in real-time to support daily forecast operations, using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model dynamical core within the NWS Science and Training Resource Center's Environmental Modeling System (EMS) software. Twenty-seven hour forecasts are run daily initialized at 0300, 0900, 1500, and 2100 UTC on a domain with 4-km grid spacing covering the southern half of Florida and adjacent waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. The SSTs are initialized with the NCEP Real-Time Global (RTG) analyses at 1/12deg resolution. The project objective is to determine whether more accurate specification of the lower-boundary forcing over water using the MODIS SST composites within the 4-km WRF runs will result in improved sea fluxes and hence, more accurate e\\olutiono f coastal mesoscale circulations and the associated sensible weather elements. SPoRT conducted parallel WRF EMS runs from February to August 2007 identical to the operational runs at NWS MFL except for the use of MODIS SST composites in place of the RTG product as the initial and boundary conditions over water. During the course of this evaluation, an intriguing case was examined from 6 May 2007, in which lake breezes and convection around Lake Okeechobee evolved quite differently when using the high-resolution SPoRT MODIS SST composites versus the lower-resolution RTG SSTs. This paper will analyze the differences in the 6 May simulations, as well as examine other cases from the summer 2007 in which the WRF-simulated Lake Okeechobee breezes evolved differently due to the SST initialization. The effects on wind fields and precipitation systems will be emphasized, including validation against surface mesonet observations and Stage IV precipitation grids.

Case, Jonathan L.; Splitt, Michael E.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Santos, Pablo; Lazarus, Steven M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

2009-01-01

261

New insights into North America-Pacific Plate boundary deformation from Lake Tahoe, Salton Sea and southern Baja California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five studies along the Pacific-North America (PA-NA) plate boundary offer new insights into continental margin processes, the development of the PA-NA tectonic margin and regional earthquake hazards. This research is based on the collection and analysis of several new marine geophysical and geological datasets. Two studies used seismic CHIRP surveys and sediment coring in Fallen Leaf Lake (FLL) and Lake Tahoe to constrain tectonic and geomorphic processes in the lakes, but also the slip-rate and earthquake history along the West Tahoe-Dollar Point Fault. CHIRP profiles image vertically offset and folded strata that record deformation associated with the most recent event (MRE). Radiocarbon dating of organic material extracted from piston cores constrain the age of the MRE to be between 4.1--4.5 k.y. B.P. Offset of Tioga aged glacial deposits yield a slip rate of 0.4--0.8 mm/yr. An ancillary study in FLL determined that submerged, in situ pine trees that date to between 900-1250 AD are related to a medieval megadrought in the Lake Tahoe Basin. The timing and severity of this event match medieval megadroughts observed in the western United States and in Europe. CHIRP profiles acquired in the Salton Sea, California provide new insights into the processes that control pull-apart basin development and earthquake hazards along the southernmost San Andreas Fault. Differential subsidence (>10 mm/yr) in the southern sea suggests the existence of northwest-dipping basin-bounding faults near the southern shoreline. In contrast to previous models, the rapid subsidence and fault architecture observed in the southern part of the sea are consistent with experimental models for pull-apart basins. Geophysical surveys imaged more than 15 ˜N15°E oriented faults, some of which have produced up to 10 events in the last 2-3 kyr. Potentially 2 of the last 5 events on the southern San Andreas Fault (SAF) were synchronous with rupture on offshore faults, but it appears that ruptures on three offshore faults are synchronous with Colorado River diversions into the basin. The final study was used coincident wide-angle seismic refraction and multichannel seismic reflection surveys that spanned the width of the of the southern Baja California (BC) Peninsula. The data provide insight into the spatial and temporal evolution of the BC microplate capture by the Pacific Plate. Seismic reflection profiles constrain the upper crustal structure and deformation history along fault zone on the western Baja margin and in the Gulf of California. Stratal divergence in two transtensional basins along the Magdalena Shelf records the onset of extension across the Tosco-Abreojos and Santa Margarita faults. We define an upper bound of 12 Ma on the age of the pre-rift sediments and an age of ˜8 Ma for the onset of extension. Tomographic imaging reveals a very heterogeneous upper crust and a narrow, high velocity zone that extends ˜40 km east of the paleotrench and is interpreted to be remnant oceanic crust.

Brothers, Daniel Stephen

262

The share of a glacial feeding in water balance of Aral Sea and Karakul Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lakes of Central Asia without outflow can be divided into two groups:(1)The zone of runoff formation covers a large territory. In the runoff zone, the snow-rain components prevail; in the nival zone of Central Asia, important precipitation has been observed. Summer runoff decrease for the period 20–30 years, caused by glacier reduction, is insignificant in comparison with other water

A. Ni; B. Nurtayev; M. Petrov; A. Tikhanovskaya; I. Tomashevskaya

2004-01-01

263

Optimizing larval assessment to support sea lamprey control in the Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Elements of the larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) assessment program that most strongly influence the chemical treatment program were analyzed, including selection of streams for larval surveys, allocation of sampling effort among stream reaches, allocation of sampling effort among habitat types, estimation of daily growth rates, and estimation of metamorphosis rates, to determine how uncertainty in each element influenced the stream selection program. First, the stream selection model based on current larval assessment sampling protocol significantly underestimated transforming sea lamprey abundance, transforming sea lampreys killed, and marginal costs per sea lamprey killed, compared to a protocol that included more years of data (especially for large streams). Second, larval density in streams varied significantly with Type-I habitat area, but not with total area or reach length. Third, the ratio of larval density between Type-I and Type-II habitat varied significantly among streams, and that the optimal allocation of sampling effort varied with the proportion of habitat types and variability of larval density within each habitat. Fourth, mean length varied significantly among streams and years. Last, size at metamorphosis varied more among years than within or among regions and that metamorphosis varied significantly among streams within regions. Study results indicate that: (1) the stream selection model should be used to identify streams with potentially high residual populations of larval sea lampreys; (2) larval sampling in Type-II habitat should be initiated in all streams by increasing sampling in Type-II habitat to 50% of the sampling effort in Type-I habitat; and (3) methods should be investigated to reduce uncertainty in estimates of sea lamprey production, with emphasis on those that reduce the uncertainty associated with larval length at the end of the growing season and those used to predict metamorphosis.

Hansen, M. J.; Adams, J. V.; Cuddy, D. W.; Richards, J. M.; Fodale, M. F.; Larson, G. L.; Ollila, D. J.; Slade, J. W.; Steeves, T. B.; Young, R. J.; Zerrenner, A.

2003-01-01

264

Approximation methods for the solution of inverse problems in lake and sea sediment core analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical model employing one-dimensional (depth) transport equations to describe vertical redistribution of ocean-floor and lake-floor sediment (particulates, volcanic ash, microtektites, or radioactive tracers) by episodic and nonepisodic events including bioturbation is developed analytically and demonstrated. The principles underlying the model are explained; the model equations are derived; the inverse problem of identifying the depth-dependent bioturbation coefficient is addressed; two approximation theorems are presented; and numerical results for two sample problems are presented graphically. It is suggested that compatification, porosity effects, and depth-dependent sedimentation be taken into account when formulating future models.

Banks, H. T.; Rosen, I. G.

1985-01-01

265

Distribution of denitrifying bacterial communities in the stratified water column and sediment–water interface in two freshwater lakes and the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the distribution and community composition of denitrifying bacteria in the stratified water column and at\\u000a the sediment–water interface in lakes Plußsee and Schöhsee, and a near-shore site in the Baltic Sea in Germany. Although environmental\\u000a changes induced by the stratification of the water column in marine environments are known to affect specific populations\\u000a of denitrifying bacteria, little

Ok-Sun Kim; Johannes F. Imhoff; Karl-Paul Witzel; Pilar Junier

2011-01-01

266

Variability in ice phenology on Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada, from SeaWinds\\/QuikSCAT: 2000–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal evolution of the backscatter coefficient, sigma-nought (?°) from QuikSCAT was evaluated for monitoring ice phenology on Great Bear Lake (66°N, 121°W) and Great Slave Lake (61°40?N, 114°W), Northwest Territories, Canada. Results indicated that ?° from QuikSCAT can be used to detect melt onset, water clear of ice and freeze onset dates on both lakes. An ice phenology algorithm

Stephen E. L. Howell; Laura C. Brown; Kyung-Kuk Kang; Claude R. Duguay

2009-01-01

267

Analysis of Lake Baikal's phytoplankton and fluvial input dynamics using SeaWiFS satellite data within the Scope of the Paleoclimate Project CONTINENT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multispectral ocean colour satellite data provide a new tool for spatial and temporal limnological data overview. The Ulaan Baatar (Mongolia) HRPT (high resolution picture transmission) station provides the paleoclimate EC-Project CONTINENT "High Resolution CONTINENTal Paleoclimate Record in Lake Baikal (Siberia, Russia)" with daily SeaWiFS data covering the area of south-eastern Siberia. After a SeaWiFS data processing chain with radiometric and atmospheric correction, we use the water leaving reflectances to gain information on phytoplankton and suspended sediment whose dynamics are a response to the present climate forcing. During the CONTINENT Summer cruises in 2001 and 2002, we were able to verify the spectral analysis of SeaWiFS satellite data with a high quality calibration/validation ground truth data set (field spectrometer and fluorometer measurement activities simultaneously to water sampling activities for pigment and suspended matter SPM and DOC analysis and algae counting). The fluviatil input into Lake Baikal is visible in the SeaWiFS data due to its higher loads of suspended matter, further particularly due to the presence of coloured dissolved organic matter (cDOM). These coloured fraction of DOM (mainly humic acids) originate from the bog areas and swampy basins within the Lake Baikal watershed. The so called yellow substances react optically with a strong absorption in the blue spectral bands of SeaWiFS and are therefore ideal tracers for the river input even over long distances from the river inflow. The phytoplankton main pigment chlorophyll-a is made visible by its absorption band in the blue which results in a green reflectance peak. Additional pigment groups (carotinoids, phycobilins) differentiate the spectral shape of the water leaving reflectance depending on the respective main phytoplankton composition. On satellite images obtained in late Summer, we can differentiate between diatom and cyanobacteria-picoplankton dominated surface water areas. This first step of classifying and monitoring the optically visible climate proxies within the lake's surface water layer is followed by semi-analytical bio-optical modelling for quantifying the phytoplankton biomass and the terrigenous input. In summary, the monitoring results from the SeaWiFS time series 2001 to 2003 will then be linked to the mooring data (South Basin and North Basin) and will be incorporated into the CONTINENT water column transfer model for Lake Baikal.

Heim, B.; Oberhaensli, H.; Kaufmann, H.

2003-04-01

268

Great Lakes and Lake Effect Snow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Great Lakes and Lake Effect Snow. This animation is a dissolve between 2 different SeaWiFS images taken in 1999. One image is taken in the spring,April, and the second image is taken in the winter, December. The December 1999 image shows a traditional lake effect snow storm. This animation shows the difference between the seasons in the Great Lakes region.

Perkins, Lori; Feldman, Gene

1999-12-03

269

Examining Dual Frequency X- and Ku-band Backscatter of Snow on Lake Ice and First-Year Sea Ice in the Sub-Arctic Hudson Bay Lowlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fully polarimetric dual frequency ground-based scatterometer observations were collected at X- and Ku-band (9.6 and 17.2 GHz, respectively) near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada in the winter of 2010-11 as part of the Canadian Snow and Ice Experiment (CASIX). Backscatter measurements were collected for five landcover types: lake ice, sea ice, dry tundra, open forest and wetland tundra (sedge fen); the combination of which comprises a unique dataset of dual-frequency backscatter signatures. Correlative data collected, including snow and ice properties, are utilized to characterize active microwave interactions and contribute to the development of snow/ice retrieval algorithms. This study presents backscatter signatures for lake and sea ice obtained during winter 2010-11. The seasonal backscatter evolution is compared to changes in snow and ice properties, including depth, density, snow water equivalent (SWE), ice thickness, ice type, and bubble concentration within the ice. Results over lake ice suggest that increases in backscatter at both X- and Ku-band frequencies correspond to increases in SWE, but are confounded by changes in the sub-nivian ice composition. Surface ice types (snow ice, rafted ice), high bubble concentrations at the ice/water interface and pressure/deformation cracks in the ice serve to confound backscatter at several monitoring sites. Over sea ice, preliminary results indicate that increased salinity levels near the ice/snow interface is the predominate factor influencing backscatter signatures. Physical phenomena encountered at sea ice sites are further explored to assess potential influences on scattering signatures. Preliminary findings presented here document the first ground-based dual frequency X- and Ku-band backscatter signatures collected over first year sea ice, and contribute to the scientific objectives of the proposed Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory (CoReH2O), a candidate Earth Explorer mission of the European Space Agency.

Gunn, G. E.; Duguay, C. R.; Howell, S.; Kelly, R. E.; Silis, A.

2011-12-01

270

Multilevel Empirical Bayes Modeling for Improved Estimation of Toxicant Formulations to Suppress Parasitic Sea Lamprey in the Upper Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estimation of extreme quantal-response statistics, such as the concentration required to kill 99.9% of test subjects (LC99.9), remains a challenge in the presence of multiple covariates and complex study designs. Accurate and precise estimates of the LC99.9 for mixtures of toxicants are critical to ongoing control of a parasitic invasive species, the sea lamprey, in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. The toxicity of those chemicals is affected by local and temporal variations in water chemistry, which must be incorporated into the modeling. We develop multilevel empirical Bayes models for data from multiple laboratory studies. Our approach yields more accurate and precise estimation of the LC99.9 compared to alternative models considered. This study demonstrates that properly incorporating hierarchical structure in laboratory data yields better estimates of LC99.9 stream treatment values that are critical to larvae control in the field. In addition, out-of-sample prediction of the results of in situ tests reveals the presence of a latent seasonal effect not manifest in the laboratory studies, suggesting avenues for future study and illustrating the importance of dual consideration of both experimental and observational data. ?? 2011, The International Biometric Society.

Hatfield, L. A.; Gutreuter, S.; Boogaard, M. A.; Carlin, B. P.

2011-01-01

271

Heavy metal pollution status in surface sediments of Swan Lake lagoon and Rongcheng Bay in the northern Yellow Sea.  

PubMed

The national 'Shandong Peninsula Blue Economic Zone Development Plan' compels the further understanding of the distribution and potential risk of metals pollution in the east coast of China, where the rapid economic and urban development have been taken off and metal pollution has become a noticeable problem. Surface sediments collected from the largest swan habitat in Asia, the Swan Lake lagoon and the surrounding coastal area in Rongcheng Bay in northern Yellow Sea, were analyzed for the total metal concentrations and chemical phase partitioning of five heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, and Cr). Metal contents in the studied region have increased significantly in the past decade. The speciation analyzed by the sequential extraction showed that Zn and Cr were present dominantly in the residual fraction and thus of low bioavailability, while Cd, Pb and Cu were found mostly in the non-residual fraction thus of high potential availability, indicating significant anthropogenic sources. Among the five metals, Cd is the most outstanding pollutant and presents high risk, and half of the surface sediments in the studied region had a 21% probability of toxicity based on the mean Effect Range-Median Quotient. At some stations with comparable total metal contents, remarkably different non-residual fraction portions were determined, pointing out that site-specific risk assessment integrating speciation is crucial for better management practices of coastal sediments. PMID:23880240

Huang, Lili; Pu, Xinming; Pan, Jin-Fen; Wang, Bo

2013-11-01

272

Lake classification in Vermont  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to comply with the Federal Clean Water Act and, in so doing, develop a procedure to periodically update the classification, the State of Vermont evaluated the ability of LANDSAT to detect general water quality and specific water quality parameters in Vermont lakes. Unsupervised and supervised classifications as well as regression analyses were used to examine LANDSAT data from Lake Champlain and from four small nearby lakes. Unsupervised and supervised classifications were found to be of somewhat limited value. Regression analyses revealed a good correlation between depth-integrated total phosphorus concentrations and LANDSAT band 4 data (r2= 0.92) and between Secchi disk transparencies and LANDSAT band 4 data (r2 - 0.85). No correlation was found between depth-integrated chlorophyll-a samples and LANDSAT data. Vermont is expanding this LANDSAT evaluation to include the remaining lakes in the state greater than twenty acres and steps are being taken to incorporate LANDSAT into the state's ongoing water quality monitoring programs.

Garrison, V.; Bryant, N.

1981-01-01

273

Lakes of the Huron basin: their record of runoff from the laurentide ice sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 189,000 km2 Huron basin is central in the catchment area of the present Laurentian Great Lakes that now drain via the St. Lawrence River to the North Atlantic Ocean. During deglaciation from 21-7.5 ka BP, and owing to the interactions of ice margin positions, crustal rebound and regional topography, this basin was much more widely connected hydrologically, draining by various routes to the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean, and receiving overflows from lakes impounded north and west of the Great Lakes-Hudson Bay drainage divide. Early ice-marginal lakes formed by impoundment between the Laurentide Ice Sheet and the southern margin of the basin during recessions to interstadial positions at 15.5 and 13.2 ka BP. In each of these recessions, lake drainage was initially southward to the Mississippi River and Gulf of Mexico. In the first recession, drainage subsequently switched eastward along the ice margin to the North Atlantic Ocean. In the second recession, drainage continued southward through the Michigan basin, and later, eastward via the Ontario basin and Mohawk River valley to the North Atlantic Ocean. During the final retreat of ice in the Huron basin from 13 to 10 ka BP, proglacial lake drainage switched twice from the Michigan basin and the Mississippi River system to the North Atlantic via the Ontario basin and Mohawk River valley, finally diverting to the Champlain Sea in the St. Lawrence River valley at about 11.6 ka BP. New seismo- and litho-stratigraphic information with ostracode data from the offshore lacustrine sediments were integrated with the traditional data of shorelines, uplift histories of outlets, and radio-carbon-dated shallow-water evidence of transgressions and regressions to reconstruct the water level history and paleolimnological record for the northern Huron basin for the 11-7 ka BP period. Negative excursions in the ?18O isotopic composition of ostracodes and bivalves in southern Lake Michigan, southwestern Lake Huron and eastern Lake Erie indicate an influx of water from ice-marginal Lake Agassiz in central North America about 11 ka BP. A major decline in water levels of the Huron basin after 10.5 ka BP followed the high-level Main Lake Algonquin phase as ice receded and drainage was established through the North Bay area to Ottawa River valley. During the subsequent Mattawa-Stanley phase, the lake level history was dominated by fluctuations of tens of meters. Highstands of the earliest oscillations, whose origin is not clear, might be related to some of the well known Post Algonquin shorelines. After 9.6 ka BP, it is suggested that large inflows from Lake Agassiz and hydraulic damming in downstream outlets were the likely cause of the Lake Mattawa highstands. A lowstand at 9.3-9.1 ka BP occurred when these inflows were diverted, or impeded by an ice advance in the Nipigon basin area, while undiluted meltwater continued to enter the Huron basin. Assemblages and isotopic composition of the ostracode fauna indicate very dilute meltwater during the lowstands as late as 7.5 ka BP, and precipitation runoff with comparatively higher dissolved solids during the highstands. We speculate that the water composition of the Lake Mattawa highstands was dominated by the Agassiz inflows; by that time, much of Lake Agassiz was remote from ice-marginal environments, and the inflows were drawn from surface water of the southern sector of the lake, which was largely supplied by runoff and dissolved solids from the exposed land area of western Canada. Major inflows apparently ended about 8 ka BP, but northern proglacial lakes apparently continued as meltwater persisted in the Huron basin until about 7.5 ka BP. The cessation of major inflows initiated the final lowstand in the Huron basin and the present hydrological regime of local runoff.

Michael Lewis, C. F.; Moore, Theodore C.; Rea, David K.; Dettman, David L.; Smith, Alison M.; Mayer, Larry A.

274

Linear, one-dimensional models of the surface and internal standing waves for a long and narrow lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear, one-dimensional, analytical, and numerical models for seiches (standing waves) existing at the surface and on the internal interface between the upper warm and bottom cold layers for a long, narrow lake are developed. Using the specific bathymetric and thermal structures of a lake, Lake Champlain, these models predict the periods, nodal locations, vertical displacements, and current velocities associated with the fundamental and higher-order modes. Modeled results are compared with historical limnological data obtained from Lake Champlain. Agreement is good for the periods of the first few modes of the surface and internal seiches; however, predicted current velocities associated with the internal seiche are about half as large as those actually observed.

Prigo, Robert B.; Manley, T. O.; Connell, Benjamin S. H.

1996-03-01

275

Low-head sea lamprey barrier effects on stream habitat and fish communities in the Great Lakes basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Low-head barriers are used to block adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from upstream spawning habitat. However, these barriers may impact stream fish communities through restriction of fish movement and habitat alteration. During the summer of 1996, the fish community and habitat conditions in twenty-four stream pairs were sampled across the Great Lakes basin. Seven of these stream pairs were re-sampled in 1997. Each pair consisted of a barrier stream with a low-head barrier and a reference stream without a low-head barrier. On average, barrier streams were significantly deeper (df = 179, P = 0.0018) and wider (df = 179, P = 0.0236) than reference streams, but temperature and substrate were similar (df = 183, P = 0.9027; df = 179, P = 0.999). Barrier streams contained approximately four more fish species on average than reference streams. However, streams with low-head barriers showed a greater upstream decline in species richness compared to reference streams with a net loss of 2.4 species. Barrier streams also showed a peak in richness directly downstream of the barriers, indicating that these barriers block fish movement upstream. Using S??renson's similarity index (based on presence/absence), a comparison of fish community assemblages above and below low-head barriers was not significantly different than upstream and downstream sites on reference streams (n = 96, P > 0.05), implying they have relatively little effect on overall fish assemblage composition. Differences in the frequency of occurrence and abundance between barrier and reference streams was apparent for some species, suggesting their sensitivity to barriers.

Dodd, H. R.; Hayes, D. B.; Baylis, J. R.; Carl, L. M.; Goldstein, J. D.; McLaughlin, R. L.; Noakes, D. L. G.; Porto, L. M.; Jones, M. L.

2003-01-01

276

Effects of a rainstorm high in sea-salts on labile inorganic aluminium in drainage from the acidified catchments of Lake Terjevann, southernmost Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acidification of many streams and lakes that has occurred in southern Norway during several decades is to a large extent caused by acid deposition. However, in coastal areas deposition events with high loading of sea-salts may result in increased acidity and aluminium concentration in the discharge. Since such episodes are difficult to predict and usually of short duration, the aluminium chemistry during such episodes has so far not been evaluated in detail. In January 1993, during monitoring of streams in the Lake Terjevann catchment, the area was exposed to an extraordinary high sea-salt loading. The Cl - concentration in the stream water more than doubled (reaching about 900 ?eq/l), the labile inorganic aluminium (Al i) concentration almost quadrupled (reaching about 33 and 18 ?M in the two streams), and the relative increase in the Al 3+ concentration was even higher. It took 3-4 months until the Al i concentration and almost a year until the Cl - concentration returned to pre-event levels. Simple equilibria with minerals such as gibbsite, jurbanite, kaolinite/halloysite or imogolite do not control aluminium concentration in the discharge from these catchments. Retention of Na + more than compensated for the desorption of Al 3+. The results strongly indicate that cation exchange in the organic soil layers was essential in controlling the aluminium chemistry in the stream waters especially during high flow. Similar, but less pronounced, effects of the sea-salt episode were seen at the Birkenes catchment about 37 km inland from Lake Terjevann.

Andersen, D. O.; Seip, H. M.

1999-10-01

277

Pollution records from sediments of three lakes in New York State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment core segments from Sylvan Lake, Lake Champlain and Lake Canadarago were dated radiometrically with 210Pb and 137Cs. Their respective sedimentation rates were determined to be 0.11, 0.14 and 0.52 g cm -2 yr -1. For the two lakes of lower sedimentation the variations of selected elemental abundances as function of depth were analyzed. Two groupings were found: Al, K, Ti, Rb and Zr were correlated among themselves but reflected different variations in the input of terrigenous erosion material to the lakes. The Cu, Zn and Pb correlated among themselves showed similar depth dependence with increasing concentrations toward the top which can be attributed to cultural pollution. Recent 'excess' fluxes to the sediments above the natural contribution by clastic material were derived for the location of the cores, which for Cu, Zn and Pb amounted to 3.8, 24 and 16 ?g cm -2 yr -1 respectively for Sylvan Lake and 4.9, 20 and 16 ?g cm -2 yr -1 for Lake Champlain. The corresponding 210Pb flux was 3.3 and 2.3 dpm cm -2 yr -1, respectively for the two lakes. Approximate residence times in the water column were obtained for trace metals at the Lake Champlain location. Short residence times estimated for Pb (< 0.15 yr) and Cu (< 0.4 yr) indicate fast removal, whereas those for Zn (1.0 ± 0.3 yr) and Cr (2.0 ± 0.5 yr) appeared to be dominated by the water residence time.

Wahlen, M.; Thompson, R. C.

1980-02-01

278

75 FR 29757 - New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Final Affirmative Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Whitehall, NY. The Champlain Canal leads north to Lake Champlain. Lake Champlain is a large waterbody that is already designated...demand from transient traffic. The NYS side of Lake Champlain has an additional 1,014 slips available and...

2010-05-27

279

Threshold of wave generation on Titan’s lakes and seas: Effect of viscosity and implications for Cassini observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by radar and near-infrared data indicating that Titan's polar lakes are extremely smooth, we consider the conditions under which a lake surface will be ruffled by wind to form capillary waves. We evaluate laboratory data on wind generation and derive, without scaling for surface tension effects, a threshold for pure methane/ethane of ˜0.5-1 m/s. However, we compute the physical properties of predicted Titan lake compositions using the National Institute for Standards Technology (NIST) code and note that dissolved amounts of C3 and C4 compounds are likely to make Titan lakes much more viscous than pure ethane or methane, even without allowing for suspended particulates which would increase the viscosity further. Wind tunnel experiments show a strong dependence of capillary wave growth on liquid viscosity, and this effect may explain the apparent absence so far of waves, contrary to prior expectations that generation of gravity waves by wind should be easy on Titan. On the other hand, we note that winds over Titan lakes predicted with the TitanWRF Global Circulation Model indicate radar observations so far have in any case been when winds have been low (˜0.5-0.7 m/s), possibly below the wave generation threshold, while peak winds during summer may reach 1-2 m/s. Thus observations of Titan's northern lakes during the coming years by the Cassini Solstice mission offer the highest probability of observing wind-roughening of lake surfaces, while observations of Ontario Lacus in the south will likely continue to show it to be flat and smooth.

Lorenz, Ralph D.; Newman, Claire; Lunine, Jonathan I.

2010-06-01

280

Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985-1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = -0.91, P < 0.01, N = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the state of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977-1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35-0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985-1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 Times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978-1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the lake, may be achieved.

Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

1995-01-01

281

Phylogenetic status of brown trout Salmo trutta populations in five rivers from the southern Caspian Sea and two inland lake basins, Iran: a morphogenetic approach.  

PubMed

Interrelationships, origin and phylogenetic affinities of brown trout Salmo trutta populations from the southern Caspian Sea basin, Orumieh and Namak Lake basins in Iran were analysed from complete mtDNA control region sequences, 12 microsatellite loci and morphological characters. Among 129 specimens from six populations, seven haplotypes were observed. Based on mtDNA haplotype data, the Orumieh and southern Caspian populations did not differ significantly, but the Namak basin-Karaj population presented a unique haplotype closely related to the haplotypes of the other populations (0·1% Kimura two-parameter, K2P divergence). All Iranian haplotypes clustered as a distinct group within the Danube phylogenetic grouping, with an average K2P distance of 0·41% relative to other Danubian haplotypes. The Karaj haplotype in the Namak basin was related to a haplotype (Da26) formerly identified in the Tigris basin in Turkey, to a Salmo trutta oxianus haplotype from the Aral Sea basin, and to haplotype Da1a with two mutational steps, as well as to other Iranian haplotypes with one to two mutational steps, which may indicate a centre of origin in the Caspian basin. In contrast to results of the mtDNA analysis, more pronounced differentiation was observed among the populations studied in the morphological and microsatellite DNA data, except for the two populations from the Orumieh basin, which were similar, possibly due to anthropogenic causes. PMID:23020557

Hashemzadeh Segherloo, I; Farahmand, H; Abdoli, A; Bernatchez, L; Primmer, C R; Swatdipong, A; Karami, M; Khalili, B

2012-10-01

282

Great Lakes Fieldscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly interactive mapping tool features rivers and streams, watershed boundaries, water depth, political boundaries, elevation and land cover of the Great Lakes region. Students, volunteers and others can upload quantitative measurements and field notes, and share this with others around the globe. This type of learning provides a rich geographic context that allows participants to gain a better understanding of how they are connected to the Great Lakes. National Geographic partnered with Michigan Sea Grant to develop Great Lakes FieldScope to encourage the exploration and investigation of Great Lakes science and education.

283

Hydroxylated PCBs and other chlorinated phenolic compounds in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) blood plasma from the Great Lakes region.  

PubMed

Recently, there has been an increase in studies focusing on an emerging class of organic contaminants, hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and chlorinated phenolic compounds (CPCs) in the environment, particularly in northern regions of Europe and Canada. Since information for fish from the Great Lakes are scarce, we determined the blood plasma concentrations of OH-PCB congeners, pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol (TCP), and 4-hydroxyheptachlorostyrene (4-OH-HpCS) for lake trout (Savelinus namaycush) collected from two of the Great Lakes, Lake Ontario and Lake Superior, and two regional lakes, Lake Champlain and Lake Opeongo. PCP was the dominant CPC in lake trout (105-658 pg/g of plasma). Detectable concentrations of 2,3,4,5-TCP and 4-OH-HpCS were found in all lake trout (2.6-101 and 0.4-27 pg/g, respectively). Highest concentrations were found in trout from Lake Ontario and Lake Superior. Sixteen OH-PCBs were quantified, with 4-OH-CB187 having the highest concentration in all samples (10-173 pg/g of plasma). Unexpectedly, highly chlorinated OH-PCBs such as 4'-OH-CB199 (mean 21.4 and 74.4 pg/g), 4,4'-diOH-CB202 (18.3 and 27.7 pg/g), and 4'-OH-CB208 (24.5 and 34.7 pg/g) were found in lake trout from Lake Ontario and Lake Superior, respectively. Future studies to delineate the sources and impacts of CPCs in the Great Lakes catchment are needed. PMID:12775040

Campbell, Linda M; Muir, Derek C G; Whittle, D Mike; Backus, Sean; Norstrom, Ross J; Fisk, Aaron T

2003-05-01

284

Effectiveness of Using Backpack Electrofishing Gear for Collecting Sea Lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus) Larvae in Great Lakes Tributaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of water depth, larval density, stream conductance, temperature, lamprey length, and larval escapement were examined to determine the efficiency of sampling sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) larvae using direct current (DC) backpack electrofishing gear. A higher proportion of larvae of all sizes were collected per unit sampling effort when sample sites were shallower, contained fewer larvae, or were in

Todd B. Steeves; Jeffrey W. Slade; Michael F. Fodale; Douglas W. Cuddy; Michael L. Jones

2003-01-01

285

INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE CAUSES OF AMPHIBIAN MALFORMATIONS IN THE LAKE CHAMPLAIN BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

The goals of this project were 1) to gather field and laboratory information that will further our knowledge regarding the role of biologically active agents (including current use agricultural pesticides) on the occurrence of northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) abnormalities in...

286

Sources of Fine Particulate Species in Ambient Air over Lake Champlain Basin, VT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a part of an ongoing investigation of the types and locations of emission sources that contribute fine particulate air contaminants to Underhill, VT. The air quality monitoring data used for this study are from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network for the period of 2001–2003 for the Underhill site. The main source-receptor modeling techniques used

Ning Gao; Amy E. Gildemeister; Kira Krumhansl; Katherine Lafferty; Philip K. Hopke; Eugene Kim; Richard L. Poirot

2006-01-01

287

A riverscape perspective on habitat associations among riverine bird assemblages in the Lake Champlain Basin, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The riverscape perspective recognizes the heterogeneous habitat types within the stream corridor as a single, integrated ecological\\u000a unit operating across spatial scales. Although there is ample evidence that the riverscape notion is appropriate in understanding\\u000a the physical phenomena of stream corridors, significantly less attention has focused on its ecological ramifications. To this\\u000a end, we surveyed riverscape habitat variables and bird

S. Mažeika P. Sullivan; Mary C. Watzin; William S. Keeton

2007-01-01

288

Effects of Environmental Mercury on Gonadal Function in Lake Champlain Northern Pike ( Esox lucius )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of mercury in the environment have increased steadily over the past two centuries, primarily because of human activity. Common point sources of this heavy metal include industrial waste discharge from chloralkali and paper pulp plants. More diffuse emissions, which become widely distributed by global wind currents, result from the combustion of fossil fuels and incineration of municipal wastes. Stricter

A. S. Friedmann; M. C. Watzin; J. C. Leiter; T. Brinck-Johnsen

1996-01-01

289

LANDOWNER VALUES, WATER QUALITY, AND RECREATION IN THE LAKE CHAMPLAIN BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes landowner values about water quality among resident landowners in the LaFlatte River watershed, tests whether suburbanization is producing a new mix of social values, analyzes the relationship between values and behaviors, and explores the link between recreation and water quality advocacy. Results showed that residents hold pro-environmental values, although the region is not a stronghold of environmentalism.

Walter F. Kuentzel; Donald F. Dennis

290

Hydroacoustic separation of rainbow smelt ( Osmerus mordax) age groups in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separate assessment of young-of-year (YOY) and yearling-and-older (YAO) fish is desirable from both ecological and management perspectives. Acoustic assessments provide information on fish population size structure in the target strength (TS) distribution, but interpretation of TS distributions must be done carefully, as single age groups can produce multiple TS modes. We assessed the ability of in situ TS distributions to

S. L. Parker Stetter; L. G. Rudstam; J. L. Stritzel Thomson; D. L. Parrish

2006-01-01

291

A riverscape perspective on habitat associations among riverine bird assemblages in the Lake Champlain Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The riverscape perspective recognizes the heterogeneous habitat types within the stream corri- dor as a single, integrated ecological unit operating across spatial scales. Although there is ample evidence that the riverscape notion is appropriate in understanding the physical phenomena of stream corridors, significantly less attention has focused on its ecological ramifications. To this end, we surveyed riverscape habitat variables and

S. Mazeika; P. Sullivan; Mary C. Watzin; William S. Keeton

2007-01-01

292

Effects of environmental mercury on gonadal function in Lake Champlain northern pike (Esox lucius)  

SciTech Connect

Levels of mercury in the environment have increased steadily over the past two centuries, primarily because of human activity. Common point sources of this heavy metal include industrial waste discharge from chloralkali and paper pulp plants. More diffuse emissions, which become widely distributed by global wind currents, result from the combustion of fossil fuels and incineration of municipal wastes. Stricter laws in the United States have decreased the amount of pollution from point sources. In contrast, mercury from diffuse atmospheric origins has been increasing, causing a rise in rainwater concentrations and aquatic environments frequently distant from the source of pollution. Once in aquatic systems, mercury is readily converted to the more toxic methylated form and is the only heavy metal that indisputably biomagnifies through the food web. Acid rain compounds the environmental impact of anthropogenic mercury because aquatic organisms concentrate more mercury when living in waters with lower alkalinity. The persistence of this heavy metal in teleosts is illustrated by the finding that mercury, unlike cadmium, arsenic, and lead, did not decrease in North American freshwater fish between 1976 and 1984.

Friedmann, A.S.; Leiter, J.C. [Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH (United States)] [Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH (United States); Watzin, M.C. [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); and others

1996-03-01

293

Deep-Sea Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students will learn about special vehicles used in recent Black Sea research and the theory that the Black Sea during the Ice Age was an isolated freshwater lake surrounded by farmland that was eventually flooded. Students will describe the purpose of the research vehicles by writing newspaper articles pretending they have just returned from the Black Sea expedition.

294

Reproductive isolation, evolutionary distinctiveness and setting conservation priorities: The case of European lake whitefish and the endangered North Sea houting (Coregonus spp.)  

PubMed Central

Background Adaptive radiation within fishes of the Coregonus lavaretus complex has created numerous morphs, posing significant challenges for taxonomy and conservation priorities. The highly endangered North Sea houting (C. oxyrhynchus; abbreviated NSH) has been considered a separate species from European lake whitefish (C. lavaretus; abbreviated ELW) due to morphological divergence and adaptation to oceanic salinities. However, its evolutionary and taxonomic status is controversial. We analysed microsatellite DNA polymorphism in nine populations from the Jutland Peninsula and the Baltic Sea, representing NSH (three populations, two of which are reintroduced) and ELW (six populations). The objectives were to: 1) analyse postglacial recolonization of whitefish in the region; 2) assess the evolutionary distinctiveness of NSH, and 3) apply several approaches for defining conservation units towards setting conservation priorities for NSH. Results Bayesian cluster analyses of genetic differentiation identified four major groups, corresponding to NSH and three groups of ELW (Western Jutland, Central Jutland, Baltic Sea). Estimates of historical migration rates indicated recolonization in a north-eastern direction, suggesting that all except the Baltic Sea population predominantly represent postglacial recolonization via the ancient Elbe River. Contemporary gene flow has not occurred between NSH and ELW, with a divergence time within the last 4,000 years suggested from coalescence methods. NSH showed interbreeding with ELW when brought into contact by stocking. Thus, reproductive isolation of NSH was not absolute, although possible interbreeding beyond the F1 level could not be resolved. Conclusion Fishes of the C. lavaretus complex in the Jutland Peninsula originate from the same recolonization event. NSH has evolved recently and its species status may be questioned due to incomplete reproductive isolation from ELW, but it was shown to merit consideration as an independent conservation unit. Yet, application of several approaches for defining conservation units generated mixed outcomes regarding its conservation priority. Within the total species complex, it remains one among many recently evolved unique forms. Its uniqueness and high conservation priority is more evident at a local geographical scale, where conservation efforts will also benefit populations of a number of other endangered species.

2008-01-01

295

Whiting in Lake Michigan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

296

Experimental control of sea lampreys with electricity on the south shore of Lake Superior, 1953-60  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Electric devices of the type and design used are capable of blocking entire runs of adult sea lampreys. An accurate appraisal of the effectiveness of the barrier system is impossible, however. Most of the barriers were not operated long enough to reduce the contribution of parasites from the streams. Furthermore, a complete system of efficient electric barriers was never realized. The greatest weakness of this method of control lies in maintenance of the units in continuous, uninterrupted operation through consecutive migratory seasons.

McLain, Alberton L.; Smith, Bernard R.; Moore, Harry H.

1965-01-01

297

Mercury contamination in the Laurentian Great Lakes region: introduction and overview.  

PubMed

The Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America contains substantial aquatic resources and mercury-contaminated landscapes, fish, and wildlife. This special issue emanated from a bi-national synthesis of data from monitoring programs and case studies of mercury in the region, here defined as including the Great Lakes, the eight U.S. states bordering the Great Lakes, the province of Ontario, and Lake Champlain. We provide a retrospective overview of the regional mercury problem and summarize new findings from the synthesis papers and case studies that follow. Papers in this issue examine the chronology of mercury accumulation in lakes, the importance of wet and dry atmospheric deposition and evasion to regional mercury budgets, the influence of land-water linkages on mercury contamination of surface waters, the bioaccumulation of methylmercury in aquatic foods webs; and ecological and health risks associated with methylmercury in a regionally important prey fish. PMID:22000118

Wiener, James G; Evers, David C; Gay, David A; Morrison, Heather A; Williams, Kathryn A

2012-02-01

298

Downstream migration of recently transformed sea lampreys before and after treatment of a Lake Michigan tributary with a lampricide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

After the Pere Marquette River was treated with a lampricide in May 1964, the number of recently transformed sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) collected in the water-intake structure of a chemical plant near the mouth of the stream dropped 99.5%, from 13,913 (average for 1962-63 and 1963-64) to 76 (average for the next four migration seasons). Average length of the lampreys caught increased markedly after the treatment. In five of the six migration seasons, the catch of downstream migrants was higher in the fall than in the spring.

Hodges, John W.

1972-01-01

299

Assessment of Trace Element Levels in Muscle Tissues of Fish Species Collected from a River, Stream, Lake, and Sea in Sakarya, Turkey  

PubMed Central

Levels of some trace and essential elements, including Al, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn, were determined in 17 different fish species from Sakarya River, Çark Stream, Sapanca Lake, and Western Black Sea using ICP-OES after microwave (MW) digestion procedure. During preparation of samples for analysis, wet and MW digestion methods were also compared. Accuracy of the digestion methods was checked by the analysis of DORM-3 reference material (Fish Protein Certified Reference Material for Trace Metals). Concentrations of trace elements were found as Al: 6.5–48.5, B: 0.06–3.30, Ba: 0.09–2.92, Cr: 0.02–1.64, Cu: 0.13–2.28, Fe: 7.28–39.9, Mn: 0.08–11.4, Ni: 0.01–26.1, Sr: 0.17–13.5, and Zn: 11.5–52.9?µg?g?1. The obtained results were compared with other studies published in the literature. Trace element levels in various fish species collected from waters in Sakarya region were found to be below limit values provided by Turkish Food Codex (TFC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and World Health Organization (WHO).

Kupeli, Tulay; Altundag, Huseyin; Imamoglu, Mustafa

2014-01-01

300

Assessment of trace element levels in muscle tissues of fish species collected from a river, stream, lake, and sea in Sakarya, Turkey.  

PubMed

Levels of some trace and essential elements, including Al, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn, were determined in 17 different fish species from Sakarya River, Çark Stream, Sapanca Lake, and Western Black Sea using ICP-OES after microwave (MW) digestion procedure. During preparation of samples for analysis, wet and MW digestion methods were also compared. Accuracy of the digestion methods was checked by the analysis of DORM-3 reference material (Fish Protein Certified Reference Material for Trace Metals). Concentrations of trace elements were found as Al: 6.5-48.5, B: 0.06-3.30, Ba: 0.09-2.92, Cr: 0.02-1.64, Cu: 0.13-2.28, Fe: 7.28-39.9, Mn: 0.08-11.4, Ni: 0.01-26.1, Sr: 0.17-13.5, and Zn: 11.5-52.9?µg?g(-1). The obtained results were compared with other studies published in the literature. Trace element levels in various fish species collected from waters in Sakarya region were found to be below limit values provided by Turkish Food Codex (TFC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and World Health Organization (WHO). PMID:24790570

Küpeli, Tülay; Altunda?, Hüseyin; Imamo?lu, Mustafa

2014-01-01

301

Lake Trout Surveillance in Michigan's Waters of Lake Michigan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The completion report consists of progress reports for 1966, 1967, 1968, and for 1969. Programs to control sea lamprey and reestablish lake trout are reported. The lake trout restoration program started in 1965 with the planting of 1.2 million fin-clipped...

M. Keller

1969-01-01

302

Archaeal and bacterial communities respond differently to environmental gradients in anoxic sediments of a California hypersaline lake, the Salton Sea.  

PubMed

Sulfidic, anoxic sediments of the moderately hypersaline Salton Sea contain gradients in salinity and carbon that potentially structure the sedimentary microbial community. We investigated the abundance, community structure, and diversity of Bacteria and Archaea along these gradients to further distinguish the ecologies of these domains outside their established physiological range. Quantitative PCR was used to enumerate 16S rRNA gene abundances of Bacteria, Archaea, and Crenarchaeota. Community structure and diversity were evaluated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), quantitative analysis of gene (16S rRNA) frequencies of dominant microorganisms, and cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA. Archaea were numerically dominant at all depths and exhibited a lesser response to environmental gradients than that of Bacteria. The relative abundance of Crenarchaeota was low (0.4 to 22%) at all depths but increased with decreased carbon content and increased salinity. Salinity structured the bacterial community but exerted no significant control on archaeal community structure, which was weakly correlated with total carbon. Partial sequencing of archaeal 16S rRNA genes retrieved from three sediment depths revealed diverse communities of Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota, many of which were affiliated with groups previously described from marine sediments. The abundance of these groups across all depths suggests that many putative marine archaeal groups can tolerate elevated salinity (5.0 to 11.8% [wt/vol]) and persist under the anaerobic conditions present in Salton Sea sediments. The differential response of archaeal and bacterial communities to salinity and carbon patterns is consistent with the hypothesis that adaptations to energy stress and availability distinguish the ecologies of these domains. PMID:19948847

Swan, Brandon K; Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Reifel, Kristen M; Moreno, Lilliana I; Valentine, David L

2010-02-01

303

Earthwatch Radio: Sea Lamprey Resurgence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast describes efforts to control the population of sea lampreys in the Great Lakes. Sea lampreys, an invasive species from the Atlantic Ocean, have populated the lakes for years, but have recently increased in numbers despite efforts to control them. A hole in a dam on the Manistique River on the northern edge of Lake Michigan is thought to have caused the problem. The clip is 2 minutes in length and may be downloaded in MP3 format.

Kalinowski, Laura

2012-09-17

304

Lake Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4) "Spirit Lake"; (5) "Lake Manawa"; (6)…

Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

1993-01-01

305

3D visualization of derived hydrophysical parameters in Lakes and Inland Seas. New approach to applied hydrodynamics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on numerical simulation results, derived parameters computed from output variables and represented in 3D are used to have a clearer approach to the hydrodynamics of real systems. More precisely, a 3D dynamic visualization of the Shannon entropy of the velocity direction field is shown to illustrate the horizontal mixing related to the flow dynamics in the case of the Aral and Black sea applications. Previous to that some video test cases are presented in order to have a close view of what is highlighted with this approach. Complementarily, the physical meaning of the Shannon entropy of velocity directions is discussed in comparison with more standard derived variables such as the Obuko-Weiss parameter. The Shannon entropy of other scalar fields is also represented and used for the discussion. The utility of these tools for science as well as for management and more popular applications is discussed. Acknowledgments: This research was developed within the framework of the CLIMSEAS project FP7-IRSES-2009 (ref. 247512).

Barcaru, A.; Roget, E.; Sbert, M.; Zavialov, P.; Korontenko, K.; Feixas, M.

2012-04-01

306

Sea-Floor Images and Data from Multibeam Surveys in San Francisco Bay, Southern California, Hawaii, the Gulf of Mexico, and Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accurate base maps are a prerequisite for any geologic study, regardless of the objectives. Land-based studies commonly utilize aerial photographs, USGS 7.5-minute quadrangle maps, and satellite images as base maps. Until now, studies that involve the ocean floor have been at a disadvantage due to an almost complete lack of accurate marine base maps. Many base maps of the sea floor have been constructed over the past century but with a wide range in navigational and depth accuracies. Only in the past few years has marine surveying technology advanced far enough to produce navigational accuracy of 1 meter and depth resolutions of 50 centimeters. The Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project of the U.S. Geological Survey's, Western Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Menlo Park, California, U.S.A., in cooperation with the Ocean Mapping Group, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Canada, is using this new technology to systematically map the ocean floor and lakes. This type of marine surveying, called multibeam surveying, collects high-resolution bathymetric and backscatter data that can be used for various base maps, GIS coverages, and scientific visualization methods. This is an interactive CD-ROM that contains images, movies, and data of all the surveys the Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project has completed up to January 1999. The images and movies on this CD-ROM, such as shaded relief of the bathymetry, backscatter, oblique views, 3-D views, and QuickTime movies help the viewer to visualize the multibeam data. This CD-ROM also contains ARC/INFO export (.e00) files and full-resolution TIFF images of all the survey sites that can be downloaded and used in many GIS packages.

Dartnell, Peter; Gardiner, James V.

1999-01-01

307

Lateglacial of Lake Onega — Contribution to the history of the eastern Baltic basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

New stratigraphy data especially diatom analyses are presented from the area north of Lake Onega relevant to the discussion on possible Lateglacial connection between the Baltic Sea and White Sea. Following the deglaciation 12,000–11,000 years ago Lake Onega basin was occupied by a system of ice dammed lakes which drained to the Lake Ladoga basin. When the ice retreated from

Matti Saarnisto; Tuulikki Grönlund; Ilpo Ekman

1995-01-01

308

Application of the inundation area—lake level rating curves constructed from the SRTM DEM to retrieving lake levels from satellite measured inundation areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing technology has great potential for measuring lake inundation areas and lake levels, and providing important lake water quantity and quality information which can be used for improving our understanding of climate change impacts on the global water cycle, and assessing the influence of the projected future climate change on the global water resources. One remote sensing approach is to estimate lake level from satellite measured inundation area based on the inundation area—lake level rating (IALLR) curves. However, this approach is not easy to implement because of a lack of data for constructing the IALLR curves. In this study, an innovative and robust approach to construct the IALLR curves from the digital elevation model (DEM) data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was developed and tested. It was shown that the IALLR curves derived from the SRTM DEM data could be used to retrieve lake level from satellite measured inundation area. Applying the constructed IALLR curve to the estimated inundation areas from 16 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images, 16 lake levels of Lake Champlain in Vermont were obtained. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the estimated lake levels compared to the observed water levels at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gauging station (04294500) at Burlington, Vermont is about 0.12 m.

Pan, Feifei; Liao, Jingjuan; Li, Xinwu; Guo, Huadong

2013-03-01

309

The Effect of Lamprey Attacks upon Lake Trout in Seneca Lake, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an investigation of the spawning habits of the lake trout in Seneca Lake, New York, in October, 1941, it was obvious that an abundant population of sea lampreys was attacking the lake trout. It seemed probable that the attacked fish would be affected by loss of weight. Length-weight data and counts of all lamprey scars were obtained on a

William F. Royce

1950-01-01

310

Lake Trout Population Dynamics at Drummond Island Refuge in Lake Huron: Implications for Future Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Drummond Island Refuge (DIR) was established in 1985 as part of the rehabilitation effort for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since then, several strains of hatchery-reared lake trout have been stocked annually at the DIR. An intensive lampricide treatment of the St. Marys River during 1998–2001 was expected to lower the abundance of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus

Charles P. Madenjian; Mark P. Ebener; Timothy J. Desorcie

2008-01-01

311

Lakes, Lagerstaetten, and Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity of terrestrial systems is estimated to be greater than in the marine realm. However no hard data yet exists to substantiate this claim. Ancient lacustrine deposits may preserve an exceptionally diverse fossil fauna and aid in determining continental faunal diversities. Fossils preserved in lake deposits, especially those with exceptional preservation (i.e. Konservat Lagerstaetten), may represent a dependable method for determining species diversity changes in the terrestrial environment because of their faunal completeness. Important Konservat Lagerstaetten, such as the Green River Formation (US) and Messel (Germany), both Eocene in age, are found in lake sediments and show a remarkable faunal diversity for both vertebrates and invertebrates. To date information from nearly 25 lake lagerstaetten derived from different types of lake basins from the Carboniferous to the Miocene have been collected and described. Carboniferous sites derive from the cyclothems of Midcontinent of the US while many Cenozoic sites have been described from North and South America as well as Europe and Australia. Asian sites contain fossils from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. With this data, insight into the evolutionary processes associated with lake systems can be examined. Do lakes act as unique evolutionary crucibles in contrast to marine systems? The speciation of cichlid fishes in present-day African lakes appears to be very high and is attributed to the diversity of environments found in large rift lakes. Is this true of all ancient lakes or just large rift lakes? The longevity of a lake system may be an important factor in allowing speciation and evolutionary processes to occur; marine systems are limited only in the existence of environments as controlled by tectonics and sea level changes, on the order of tens of millions of years. Rift lakes are normally the longest lived in the millions of years. Perhaps there are only certain types of lakes in which speciation of nonmarine organisms, and thus the evolution of freshwater organisms, can occur in a short geologic timespan. Because of their unique and varied conditions, the evolution of nonmarine organisms may be linked to lake basin type as well as lake longevity.

Kordesch, E. G.; Park, L. E.

2001-12-01

312

75 FR 58249 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...daily bag limit is 15 coots. Lake Champlain Zone, New York: The waterfowl...same as those selected for the Lake Champlain Zone of Vermont. Connecticut...October 23), except in the Lake Champlain Area where the opening date...

2010-09-23

313

78 FR 35135 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...all waters of Cumberland Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Plattsburgh...Paddling Boat Race. Sponsor: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. Date: July...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Button...

2013-06-12

314

76 FR 53535 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...daily bag limit is 15 coots. Lake Champlain Zone, New York: The waterfowl...same as those selected for the Lake Champlain Zone of Vermont. Connecticut...October 22), except in the Lake Champlain Area where the opening date...

2011-08-26

315

76 FR 30255 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Saint Albans...all waters of Cumberland Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Plattsburgh...Paddling Boat Race. Sponsor: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. Date:...

2011-05-25

316

76 FR 58681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...daily bag limit is 15 coots. Lake Champlain Zone, New York: The waterfowl...same as those selected for the Lake Champlain Zone of Vermont. Connecticut...October 22), except in the Lake Champlain Area where the opening date...

2011-09-21

317

76 FR 17530 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Saint Albans...all waters of Cumberland Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Plattsburgh...Paddling Boat Race. Sponsor: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. Date: A...

2011-03-30

318

76 FR 1568 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Saint Albans...all waters of Cumberland Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Plattsburgh...Paddling Boat Race. Sponsor: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. Date: A...

2011-01-11

319

78 FR 52337 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...daily bag limit is 15 coots. Lake Champlain Zone, New York: The waterfowl...same as those selected for the Lake Champlain Zone of Vermont. Connecticut...October 26), except in the Lake Champlain Area where the opening date...

2013-08-22

320

33 CFR 165.171 - Safety Zones for fireworks displays and swim events held in Coast Guard Sector Northern New...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...includes all waters of Malletts Bay on Lake Champlain, Vermont within the following...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain between Thompson's Point...all waters of Treadwell Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Point...

2013-07-01

321

78 FR 77385 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Saint Albans...all waters of Cumberland Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Plattsburgh...Paddling Boat Race. Sponsor: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. Date: A...

2013-12-23

322

75 FR 52397 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...daily bag limit is 15 coots. Lake Champlain Zone, New York: The waterfowl...same as those selected for the Lake Champlain Zone of Vermont. Connecticut...October 23), except in the Lake Champlain Area where the opening date...

2010-08-25

323

77 FR 49867 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10 (from October 20) in the Lake Champlain Zone and other AP...daily bag limit is 15 coots. Lake Champlain Zone, New York: The waterfowl...same as those selected for the Lake Champlain Zone of Vermont....

2012-08-17

324

77 FR 25472 - Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the Environmental Impact Statement for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Harlem and East Rivers, Lake Champlain, and their tributaries. A copy...NY and extend south through Lake Champlain for approximately 101 miles...of exiting the southern end of Lake Champlain at the Village of...

2012-04-30

325

78 FR 58123 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...daily bag limit is 15 coots. Lake Champlain Zone, New York: The waterfowl...same as those selected for the Lake Champlain Zone of Vermont. Connecticut...October 26), except in the Lake Champlain Area where the opening date...

2013-09-20

326

77 FR 30891 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Saint Albans...all waters of Cumberland Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Plattsburgh...Paddling Boat Race. Sponsor: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. Date:...

2012-05-24

327

77 FR 58443 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10 (from October 20) in the Lake Champlain Zone and other AP harvest zones...daily bag limit is 15 coots. Lake Champlain Zone, New York: The waterfowl...same as those selected for the Lake Champlain Zone of Vermont....

2012-09-20

328

Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Erie: a case history  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.

Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger

1995-01-01

329

Predicting minimum habitat characteristics for the Indiana bat in the Champlain Valley  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Predicting potential habitat across a landscape for rare species is extremely challenging. However, partitioned Mahalanobis D2 methods avoid pitfalls commonly encountered when surveying rare species by using data collected only at known species locations. Minimum habitat requirements are then determined by examining a principal components analysis to find consistent habitat characteristics across known locations. We used partitioned D 2 methods to examine minimum habitat requirements of Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) in the Champlain Valley of Vermont and New York, USA, across 7 spatial scales and map potential habitat for the species throughout the same area. We radiotracked 24 female Indiana bats to their roost trees and across their nighttime foraging areas to collect habitat characteristics at 7 spatial scales: 1) roost trees, 2) 0.1-ha circular plots surrounding the roost trees, 3) home ranges, and 4-7) 0.5-km, 1-km, 2-km, and 3-km buffers surrounding the roost tree. Roost trees (n = 50) typically were tall, dead, large-diameter trees with exfoliating bark, located at low elevations and close to water. Trees surrounding roosts typically were smaller in diameter and shorter in height, but they had greater soundness than the roost trees. We documented 14 home ranges in areas of diverse, patchy land cover types that were close to water with east-facing aspects. Across all landscape extents, area of forest within roost-tree buffers and the aspect across those buffers were the most consistent features. Predictive maps indicated that suitable habitat ranged from 4.7-8.1% of the area examined within the Champlain Valley. These habitat models further understanding of Indiana bat summer habitat by indicating minimum habitat characteristics at multiple scales and can be used to aid management decisions by highlighting potential habitat. Nonetheless, information on juvenile production and recruitment is lacking; therefore, assessments of Indiana bat habitat quality in the region are still incomplete.

Watrous, K. S.; Donovan, T. M.; Mickey, R. M.; Darling, S. R.; Hicks, A. C.; Von Oettingen, S. L.

2006-01-01

330

Hydrology of Lake Butler, Orange County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lake Butler is one of the lakes that collectively make up the Butler chain of lakes in the headwaters of the Kissimmee River, Florida. The bottom configuration of the lake is typical of relict karst features formed during lower stages in sea level. The top of the Floridan aquifer is 50 to 100 feet below the land surface. The drainage area of Lake Butler is approximately 14.5 sq mi and is comprised of sub-basins of other lakes in the vicinity. Surface outflow from Lake Butler is generally southward to Cypress Creek, a tributary of the Kissimmee River. The extremes in lake stage for the period 1933-81 are 94.67 ft on June 23, 1981 and 101.78 ft on September 13, 1960. The median lake stage for this period was 99.28 ft above sea level. The quality of water in Lake Butler is excellent, based on studies of physical, chemical, and biological conditions by the Orange County Pollution Control Department. The lake water is slightly acidic and soft (48 mg/L hardness as calcium carbonate). Pesticides in water were below detection levels at two sites sampled in the lake, but were detected in the bottom sediments. (USGS)

Smoot, James L.; Schiffer, Donna M.

1984-01-01

331

Salt Lake City, Utah  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

2002-01-01

332

Status of lake trout rehabilitation on Six Fathom Bank and Yankee Reef in Lake Huron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six Fathom Bank, an offshore reef in the central region of Lake Huron's main basin, was stocked annually with hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush during 1985-1998, and nearby Yankee Reef was stocked with hatchery-reared lake trout in 1992, 1997, and annually during 1999-2001. We conducted gill-net surveys during spring and fall to evaluate performances of each of the various strains of lake trout, as well as the performance of the entire lake trout population (all strains pooled), on these two offshore reefs during 1992-2000. Criteria to evaluate performance included the proportion of 'wild' fish within the population, spawner density, adult survival, growth, maturity, and wounding rate by sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Although naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout fry were caught on Six Fathom Bank and Yankee Reef, wild lake trout did not recruit to the adult population to any detectable degree. The density of spawning lake trout on Six Fathom Bank (>100 fish/305 m of gill net) during 1995-1998 appeared to be sufficiently high to initiate a self-sustaining population. However, annual mortality estimates for all lake trout strains pooled from catch curve analyses ranged from 0.48 to 0.62, well exceeding the target level of 0.40 suggested for lake trout rehabilitation. Annual mortality rate for the Seneca Lake strain (0.34) was significantly lower than that for the Superior-Marquette (0.69) and Lewis Lake (0.69) strains. This disparity in survival among strains was probably attributable to the lower sea-lamprey-induced mortality experienced by the Seneca Lake strain. The relatively high mortality experienced by adult lake trout partly contributed to the lack of successful natural recruitment to the adult population on these offshore reefs, but other factors were probably also involved. We recommend that both stocking of the Seneca Lake strain and enhanced efforts to reduce sea lamprey abundance in Lake Huron be continued.

Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; McClain, Jerry R.; Woldt, Aaron P.; Holuszko, Jeffrey D.; Bowen, Charles A., II

2004-01-01

333

Attenuation Research: A Case for Lake Tanganyika.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of the recent Lake Superior experiment indicate that the anomalous low frequency attenuation observed in sea water also exists in freshwater. Although this would tend to eliminate some possible explanations such as dissolved salts, it does not...

D. G. Browning E. N. Jones R. H. Mellen W. H. Thorp

1968-01-01

334

Biogeochemical phosphorus mass balance for Lake Baikal, southeastern Siberia, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extensive data for Lake Baikal have been synthesized into a geochemical mass balance for phosphorus (P). Some of the P budget and internal cycling terms for Baikal have been compared to similar terms for oligotrophic Lake Superior, mesotrophic Lake Michigan and the Baltic Sea, and the Ocean. Lake Baikal has a large external source of fluvial P compared to the Laurentian upper Great Lakes and the Ocean. The major tributary to Lake Baikal has experienced substantial increases in organic P loading during the past 25 years. This, coupled with potential P inputs from possible phosphorite mining, may threaten Baikal's oligotrophic status in the future. Water-column remineralization of particulate organic P is substantially greater in Lake Baikal than in the Laurentian Great Lakes. This is probably due to the great water depths of Lake Baikal. There is a gradient in P burial efficiency, with very high values (80%) for Lake Baikal and Lake Superior, lower values (50%) for Lake Michigan and the Baltic Sea, and a low value (13%) for the Ocean. The accumulation rate of P in Lake Baikal sediments is somewhat greater than that in the Laurentian upper Great Lakes and the Baltic Sea, and much greater than in the Ocean. Benthic regeneration rates are surprisingly similar for large lacustrine and marine environments and supply less than 10% of the P utilized for primary production in these aquatic environments.

Callender, E.; Granina, L.

1997-01-01

335

In situ determination of the annual thermal habitat use by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Huron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Records of the temperatures occupied by 33 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) at large in Lake Huron were obtained for up to 14 months per fish, at 75-minute intervals, from surgically implanted archival temperature tags. The dataset covered nearly three years, from October 1998 to June 2001, and included 160,000 observations. The objectives of the tagging were to obtain temperature data to refine bioenergetics models of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation on lake trout, and compare the temperatures occupied by strains of lake trout stocked in Lake Huron. The seasonal, thermal-use profiles of lake trout followed the general warming and cooling pattern of Lake Huron. During periods when the zone of surface water mixing extended below the depth range occupied by lake trout, variability among individual fish and strains was low and followed surface temperature. However, during the period of summer stratification, the average temperatures occupied varied substantially among individual fish and strains. Strains originating from the upper Great Lakes (Lake Superior and Lewis Lake, WY) occupied similar temperatures. Between June and mid August, upper Great Lakes lake trout typically occupied water several degrees warmer than that occupied by lake trout of Finger Lakes, New York origin. Most of the lake trout occupied summer temperatures lower than the preferred temperatures suggested by laboratory studies. In October, all strains occupied water as warm or warmer than that occupied in summer, which may partially explain the higher lethality of sea lamprey attacks during October.

Bergstedt, Roger A.; Argyle, Ray L.; Seelye, James G.; Scribner, Kim T.; Curtis, Gary L.

2003-01-01

336

Dynamics of the Lake Michigan food web, 1970?2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herein, we document changes in the Lake Michigan food web between 1970 and 2000 and identify the fac- tors responsible for these changes. Control of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) populations in Lake Michigan, beginning in the 1950s and 1960s, had profound effects on the food web. Recoveries of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and burbot (Lota lota)

Charles P. Madenjian; Gary L. Fahnenstiel; Thomas H. Johengen; Thomas F. Nalepa; Henry A. Vanderploeg; Guy W. Fleischer; Philip J. Schneeberger; Darren M. Benjamin; Emily B. Smith; James R. Bence; Edward S. Rutherford; Dennis S. Lavis; Dale M. Robertson; David J. Jude; Mark P. Ebener

2002-01-01

337

Genetic strategies for lake trout rehabilitation: a synthesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The goal of lake trout rehabilitation efforts in the Great Lakes has been to reestablish inshore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations to self-sustaining levels. A combination of sea lamprey control, stocking of hatchery-reared lake trout, and catch restrictions were used to enhance remnant lake trout stocks in Lake Superior and reestablish lake trout in Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Genetic diversity is important for the evolution and maintenance of successful adaptive strategies critical to population restoration. The loss of genetic diversity among wild lake trout stocks in the Great Lakes imposes a severe constraint on lake trout rehabilitation. The objective of this synthesis is to address whether the particular strain used for stocking combined with the choice of stocking location affects the success or failure of lake trout rehabilitation. Poor survival, low juvenile recruitment, and inefficient habitat use are three biological impediments to lake trout rehabilitation that can be influenced by genetic traits. Evidence supports the hypothesis that the choices of appropriate lake trout strain and stocking locations enhance the survival of lake trout stocked into the Great Lakes. Genetic strategies proposed for lake trout rehabilitation include conservation of genetic diversity in remnant stocks, matching of strains with target environments, stocking a greater variety of lake trout phenotypes, and rehabilitation of diversity at all trophic levels.

Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.; Krueger, Charles C.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Johnson, James E.; Stewart, Thomas J.; Horrall, Ross M.; Maccallum, Wayne R; Kenyon, Roger; Lange, Robert E.

1995-01-01

338

Rehabilitation of lake trout in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Marked success of rehabilitation of lake trout in Lake Superior has been due principally to the control of the sea lamprey and closure of the lake trout fishery in 1962 and large-scale plantings of yearling lake trout in 1959-66. After the sea lamprey became established in the late 1940s, spawning stocks of lake trout began to decrease and were almost nonexistent by 1960-61. After control of the sea lamprey and closure of the commercial fishery for lake trout in 1962, the abundance of spawning stocks began to rise and reached the highest levels on record in 1964-66. Successful spawning in 1964 and 1965 was demonstrated by catches of age-0 lake trout in 1965 and 1966, the first evidence of natural reproduction since 1959. Plantings of hatchery-reared lake trout in Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior began in 1952. The percentage of hatchery-reared fish in catches of juvenile lake trout increased almost steadily from 1953 to 1965 (when nearly all were of hatchery origin). The abundance of juvenile fish increased from 1959 to 1962 and remained nearly constant in 1962-66. The success of lake trout plantings was highest in 1959-61 but generally declined after 1961; the success of the plantings was inversely related to the abundance of older lake trout. Annual increments of growth of hatchery-reared lake trout varied from 1.1 to 5.0 inches after planting. The average lengths of fish of identical age-groups varied according to gear of capture, depth of water, and season. More than 65% of the season's growth of age-III lake trout took place after September. The findings indicate that the present rate of stocking lake trout may be higher than necessary to maintain optimum abundance.

Dryer, William R.; King, George R.

1968-01-01

339

Reproductive Potential and Fecundity of Lake Trout Strains in Southern and Eastern Waters of Lake Ontario, 1977–1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the reproductive potential of various genetic strains of hatchery lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in southern and eastern Lake Ontario from indices of fecundity and indices of male abundance. Indices were constructed from catches of mature lake trout in gill nets during September 1980 to 1994 after correcting for mortality from sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) which occurred between September

Robert O’Gorman; Joseph H. Elrod; Clifford P. Schneider

1998-01-01

340

Lake Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists studying large lakes in northern and tropical latitudes are finding that rising water temperatures are affecting the ecosystems of these lakes. "Changing Planet " is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

341

Lake Sarez, Tajikistan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lake Sarez (top), deep in the Pamir mountains of Tajikistan, was created 90 years ago when a strong earthquake triggered a massive landslide that, in turn, became a huge dam along the Murghob River, now called the Usoi Dam. The resulting lake is perched above surrounding drainages at an elevation greater than 3000m, and is part of the watershed that drains the towering Akademi Nauk Range (see the regional image, lower). The lake is 61 km long and as deep as 500 m, and holds an estimated 17 cubic km of water. The area experiences considerable seismic activity, and scientists fear that part of the right bank may slump into the lake, creating a huge wave that will top over and possibly breach the natural dam. Such a wave would create a catastrophic flood downstream along the Bartang, Panj and Amu Darya Rivers, perhaps reaching all the way to the Aral Sea. Currently, central Asian governments, as well as the World Bank and the UN are monitoring the dam closely, and have proposed gradually lowering the lake level as a preventive measure. More information about the lake is available at the following web sites: Lake Sarez Study group, UN Report, Reliefweb Digital photograph numbers ISS002-E-7771 and ISS002-E-7479 were taken in the spring of 2001 from Space Station Alpha and are provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

342

The Wandering Lake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the area at the very far eastern corner of China's Taklimakan Desert, Lop Nor Lake was located up until some years ago. Lop Nor, also called the 'the heart of the heart' of Asia, was the place where the waters of the largest inner basin (i.e., not flowing into the sea) of the world-including the Tarim and Kum-daria Rivers-were collected. Depending on the balance between rainfall water yield and evaporation, both position and size of the lake were strongly variable, thus giving rise to the legend of the Wandering Lake. 'Lop City' was the place where Marco Polo took his last rest before facing the one-year long crossing of the Gobi Desert. Starting from the end of the 19th century, several explorers tried to find the legendary place. One such explorer was Sven Hedin, who was commissioned by the Governor of Nanjing to lead an expedition to find the lake. In 1937, the Swedish explorer published his book entitled The Wandering Lake. Comparing this very precise map from Sven Hedin's book with the above Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) false-color image (acquired on October 28, 2001), one can find a faint sign on the soil where the Lop Nor was located. This image, derived using a combination of MODIS' near-infrared and red channels (vegetation in red), shows where the Tarim River waters currently end their flow. The Wandering Lake does not exist anymore. The combination of climate change and human exploitation of water resources for agriculture caused the disappearance of the lake. This image was processed by Telespazio, Earth Observation division, new products development facility in Rome, Italy. The MODIS sensor flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft, launched in December 1999. Caption and image courtesy Luca Pietranera, Telespazio, Rome, Italy, based on data from the MODIS Science Team

2002-01-01

343

Salton: A Sea of Controversy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Salton Sea is an accidental lake that receives used irrigation water from the Colorado River. Humans have profoundly altered the area's ecosystems. The sea is important for wildlife and recreation but is now saltier than the ocean. How might it be sav

Vessey, Kristin B.

2000-09-01

344

EVOLUTION IN LAKE TAI ECOSYSTEMS AS A RESULT OF GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Large lakes evolve continuously through interaction with the physical, chemical, and biological environments of the surrounding watershed and lakes. ecent evidence from Lake Tai shows global climate and sea level changes led to a major change in Lake Tai from brackish to a freshw...

345

Aral Sea Evaporation (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Aral Sea is actually not a sea at all, but an immense fresh water lake. In the last thirty years, more than sixty percent of the lake has disappeared because much of the river flow feeding the lake was diverted to irrigate cotton fields and rice paddies. Concentrations of salts and minerals began to rise in the shrinking body of water, leading to staggering alterations in the lakes ecology and precipitous drops in the Arals fish population. Powerful winds that blow across this part of Asia routinely pick up and deposit the now exposed lake bed soil. This has contributed to a significant reduction in breathable air quality, and crop yields have been appreciably affected due to heavily salt laden particles falling on arable land. This series of Landsat images taken in 1973, 1987 and 2000 show the profound reduction in overall area at the north end of the Aral, and a commensurate increase in land area as the floor of the sea now lies exposed.

Thomson, Joycelyn; Mitchell, Horace; Williams, Darrel

2005-02-15

346

Sea Grant: Enhancing K-12 Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sea Grant is a major contributor to marine and aquatic education in K-12 classrooms through curriculum development, teacher education, school programs at field sites, and educational research. Describes Sea Grant's efforts in these areas. Specific programs outlined include Operation Pathfinder, Ohio Sea Grant Partnerships for Great Lakes

Fortner, Rosanne W.

1998-01-01

347

Taconic foreland basin evolution: Sedimentology and cement stratigraphy of the Black River Group limestones in the Champlain Basin  

SciTech Connect

The Black River Group (Middle Ordovician, Mohawkian Series) limestones in the Champlain Basin record the transition between the shallow deposits of the underlying Chazy Group limestones and the shale-limestone couplets of the overlying Trenton Group which record rapid deepening of the foreland basin. The Black River Group was deposited in a subsiding foreland basin during the early stages of the Taconic Orogeny. Syn-depositional block faulting as a result of thrust loading has been demonstrated to affect Chazy and Trenton Group deposition. Abrupt lithofacies changes within the Black River Group record the dynamic bathymetry present in the Champlain Basin during its deposition. The Black River Group helps refine the timing of extensional block faulting during the Taconic Orogeny. The Black River Group in the Champlain Basin is a relatively thin unit, approximately 80 feet thick at Crown Point, New York. Exposures between Crown Point, NY and South Hero Island, VT record deposition of the Black River Group limestones in a protected lagoonal environment, with an evolving fringing pellet shoal barrier complex. Eight lithofacies are defined, grading from a basal sandstone and/or a sandy dolomite, to a micrite to biomicrite, to an intra-pelsparite of a shoal environment. Intraclast horizons and broken, rounded marine allochems suggest the influence of storm activity as a modifier of depositional history. Rapid deepenings into the normal marine subtidal environment, as well as micro-karst textures and fossil beach rock exposures are interpreted to represent sudden bas level changes, possibly from syndepositional block fault movement. Although dynamic bathymetry influences the stratigraphy within the Black River Group, a macro-scale deepening upwards on a formation scale is present, representing subsidence of the foreland basin.

Bechtel, S.C.; Mehrtens, C.J. (Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-03-01

348

Sediment-current interactions at Valcour Island, Lake Champlain--A case of helical flow in the bottom boundary layer  

SciTech Connect

Sediment furrows have been documented in diverse environments. In all cases they are morphologically similar exhibiting long, linear parallel troughs oriented with the dominant bottom current direction. The similar nature of their morphology suggests that they form as a result of a long-term interaction between the sediment surface and bottom current flow. Thus furrows are maintained in regions where bottom currents are sufficiently stable in direction and of high flow rates. Previous studies suggest that furrow formation is controlled by secondary circulation within the bottom boundary layer which localize erosion at flow convergence on the bed. Once established, the furrow field and flow reinforce this secondary circulation pattern. Thus the trough continues to exist by the resuspension of finer grained sediment and abrasion by coarser debris concentrated within the trough. Sediment furrows were documented by side-scan sonar surveys near the long-term current meter mooring east of Valcour Island. The furrows are located in 63 m of water. Their widths range from 4 to 8 m while inter-furrow spacing varies from 10 to 30 m. Grain size of surface bottom sediments ranged from silty mud (5.48[phi]) near the mooring site to very fine sand (3.4[phi]) in the south end of the survey area. The furrow orientations are consistent with the typical north-south flow observed within this region. Although still under investigation, it appears that the bottom moored current meter at Valcour Island (during the summer months of 1991) documented the secondary flow pattern within the bottom boundary layer.

Manley, P.L.; Manley, T.O. (Middlebury College, VT (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-03-01

349

INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE CAUSES OF AMPHIBIAN MALFORMATIONS IN THE LAKE CHAMPLAIN BASIN OF NEW ENGLAND (AWARDED PROJECT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The concurrent geographic extent and rate of amphibian malformations appear to have markedly increased above background levels in recent years in many states and Canadian provinces as documented by the North American Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations (www.npwrc.usgs.go...

350

Hydrologic considerations in dewatering and refilling Lake Carlton : Orange and Lake Counties, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lake Carlton straddles the line between Lake and Orange Counties in central Florida. The 382-acre lake is highly eutrophic and subject to virtually perpetual algal blooms. The Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission has proposed to restore the lake to a less eutrophic state by dewatering the lake long enough to allow the muck on its bottom to dry and compact. Lake Carlton would be permanently sealed off from Lake Carlton. On the assumption that the seasonal rainfall would be normal, and that the dewatering phase would begin on March 1, the predicted time required to dewater the lake at a pumping rate of 50,000 gpm (gallons per minute) is 21 days. The average rate of pumping required to maintain the lake in a dewatered condition is computed to be 2,400 gpm. If pumping is ended May 31, the predicted altitude to which the lake would recover by October 31 as a result of net natural input is 56.2 feet above sea level. Raising the lake level to 63 feet above sea level by October 31 would require that the net natural input be supplemented at an average rate of about 4,860 gpm between May 31 and October 31. (Woodard-USGS)

Anderson, Warren; Hughes, G. H.

1977-01-01

351

Population Dynamics of Lake Ontario Lake Trout during 1985–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were extirpated from Lake Ontario circa 1950 owing to commercial and recreational fishing, predation by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus, and habitat degradation. Since the 1970s, substantial efforts have been devoted to reestablishing a self-sustaining population through stocking, sea lamprey control, and harvest reduction. Although a stocking-supported population has been established, only limited natural reproduction has been

Travis O. Brenden; James R. Bence; Brian F. Lantry; Jana R. Lantry; Ted Schaner

2011-01-01

352

Performance of Two Strains of Lake Trout Stocked in the Midlake Refuge of Lake Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the performance of Seneca and Marquette strains of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush for restoring stocks in southern Lake Michigan, we compared relative abundance (fish per lift of 305 m of gill net), survival (slope of the decline in natural logarithms of relative abundance), growth (von Bertalanffy growth curves), and wounding rates by sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus of the

Patrick C. McKee; Michael L. Toneys; Michael J. Hansen; Mark E. Holey

2004-01-01

353

Lake trout population dynamics in the Northern Refuge of Lake Michigan: implications for future rehabilitation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Northern Refuge was established in 1985 as part of the lake trout Salvelinus namaycush rehabilitation effort for Lake Michigan. To evaluate progress toward lake trout rehabilitation in the Northern Refuge, we conducted annual (1991–2008) gill-net surveys in the fall to assess the adult population and beam trawl surveys in the spring to assess naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout. Our criteria for evaluating progress included the density of “wild” age-0 fish within the Northern Refuge, the proportion of wild fish within the adult population, density of spawners, adult survival, growth, and wounding rate by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. No wild age-0 lake trout were caught in the Northern Refuge during 1991–2008. Overall, wild lake trout did not recruit to the adult population to any detectable degree. The mean density of spawning lake trout decreased from 45 fish·305 m of gill net?1·d?1 during 1991–1999 to only 4 fish·305 m?1·d?1 during 2000–2008. Although the sea lamprey wounding rate more than doubled between these two time periods, catch curve analysis revealed that mortality of adult lake trout actually decreased between the two periods. Therefore, the 90% decrease in abundance of spawning lake trout between the two periods could not be attributed to increased sea lamprey predation but instead was probably due in part to the reduced lake trout stocking rate during 1995–2005. The paucity of natural reproduction in the Northern Refuge during 1991–2008 most likely resulted from alewife Alosa pseudoharengus interference with lake trout reproduction and from the relatively low lake trout spawner density during 2000–2008. Our results suggest that the annual stocking rate of lake trout yearlings should be increased to at least 250,000 fish/reef to achieve greater densities of spawners.

Madenjiana, Charles P.; Desorcie, Timothy J.

2010-01-01

354

Simple lake breeze front position technique for off-site dose assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a lake\\/sea breeze an airflow trajectory reversal generally occurs at the leading edge (lake\\/sea breeze front) of the landward advancing marine air and can significantly affect the use of an off-site dose assessment procedure. Knowledge of the location of the lake\\/sea breeze front in real time is vital in interpreting the results from a conventional straightline Gaussian off-site dose

T. J. Burda; C. A. Mazzola

1983-01-01

355

Lake trout population dynamics at Drummond Island Refuge in Lake Huron: Implications for future rehabilitation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Drummond Island Refuge (DIR) was established in 1985 as part of the rehabilitation effort for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since then, several strains of hatchery-reared lake trout have been stocked annually at the DIR. An intensive lampricide treatment of the St. Marys River during 1998-2001 was expected to lower the abundance of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus within the DIR by 2000. We conducted annual gill-net surveys during spring and fall to evaluate the performance of each of the strains of lake trout as well as that of the entire lake trout population (all strains pooled) in the DIR during 1991-2005. The criteria to evaluate performance included the proportion of "wild" fish within the population, spawner density, adult survival, growth, maturity, and wounding rate by sea lampreys. Wild lake trout did not recruit to the adult population to any detectable degree. During 1991-2005, the average density of spawning lake trout appeared to be marginally sufficient to initiate a self-sustaining population. Survival of the Seneca Lake (SEN) strain of lake trout was significantly higher than that of the Superior-Marquette (SUP) strain, in part because of the higher sea-lamprey-induced mortality suffered by the SUP strain. However, other factors were also involved. Apparently SUP fish were more vulnerable to fishing conducted in waters near the refuge boundaries than SEN fish. The St. Marys River treatment appeared to be effective in reducing the sea lamprey wounding rate on SEN fish. We recommend that the stocking of SEN lake trout in the DIR, control of sea lampreys in the St. Marys River, and reduction of commercial fishery effort in waters near the DIR be maintained. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

Madenjian, C. P.; Ebener, M. P.; Desorcie, T. J.

2008-01-01

356

Wisconsin's Great Lakes Shipwrecks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What better way to beat the heat than to imagine diving into the deep, cool waters of Lake Superior (average temp: Ten degrees above freezing) without having to leave your desk. This exceptional shipwreck site, produced by the Wisconsin Historical Society and the UW Madison Sea Grant Institute, allows the visitor to pick her or his lake, Superior or Michigan, and explore the many shipwrecks that are chronicled there. The exhibits include photo galleries and video, taking the visitor up-close with these fascinating underwater artifacts. Deeper in the site is a section called Notes in the Field, where scientists involved in this summer's exploration of the Kate Kelly, a schooner that reefed between Milwaukee and Chicago in 1895, provide a daily log of their activities. Also off of this link is another link to the Kids' Corner, which provides all sorts of good information for kids and teachers about underwater archaeology and shipwrecks. This is definitely a site worth diving into.

357

Mormon Lake.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is recommended that Mormon Lake be established as a scenic and recreation natural area. The area has a long history of disturbance and is heavily used by humans at present. The area is dominated by intermittant Mormon Lake itself and typical Transition...

E. L. Smith G. L. Bender

1973-01-01

358

Supplemental Curriculum Activities for use with Holling Clancy Holling's "Paddle-to-the-Sea."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that middle school students in the Great Lakes region do not have a great deal of knowledge about the lakes. This has important implications when it comes to resources such as the Great Lakes. The story of "Paddle-to-the-Sea" offers an opportunity to learn about the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem in a meaningful and memorable way.…

Seager, Marcia L.; And Others

359

Variation of Great Lakes Water Levels Derived from Geosat Altimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for using satellite radar altimetry data to estimate the temporal variation of the water level in moderate to large lakes and enclosed seas is described. Great Lakes data from the first 2 years of the U.S. Navy's Geosat Exact Repeat Mission (November 1986 to November 1988), for which there is an improved orbit, are used to demonstrate the technique. The Geosat results are compared to the lake level data collected by the Great Lakes Section, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and are found to reproduce the temporal variations of the five major lakes with Root-Mean-Square error (RMS) ranging from 9.4 to 13.8 cm and a combined average of 11.1 cm. Geosat data are also analyzed for Lake St. Clair, representing a moderate-sized lake, with a resulting rms of 17.0 cm. During this study period, the water level in the Great Lakes varied in a typical annual cycle of about 0.2 m (0.5 in for Lake Ontario) superimposed on a general decline of approximately 0.5 m. The altimeter data reproduced the general decline reasonably well for all the lakes, but the annual cycle was obscured in some lakes due to systematic errors in the altimeter data. Current and future altimetry missions will have markedly improved accuracy which will permit many moderate (25 km diameter) or larger lakes or enclosed seas to be routinely monitored.

Morris, Charles S.; Gill, Stephen K.

1994-01-01

360

Lake Nipigon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These recent postings from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing's (CCRS) "Images of Canada" series provide an interesting introduction to remote sensing techniques and the history of landforms, both natural and human-made. The Landsat image of Ontario's Lake Nipigon, a name meaning "deep, clear lake," is viewable in two sizes and is accompanied by text and other remote images on the structural geology, rock types, recent forest fires, and forestry research around the lake. The CCRS was last mentioned in the May 24, 2000 Scout Report for Science and engineering.

2001-01-01

361

Characterizing groundwater-lake interactions and its impact on lake water quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemical tracers were used to investigate groundwater-lake interactions and to map nutrient concentrations within Georgetown Lake, a 1219 ha lake situated at 1960 m above sea level between two mountain ranges in western Montana. Radon-222 was used to identify locations and relative amounts of groundwater inflow to the lake, and nutrients were sampled to investigate the role of groundwater on nutrient dynamics occurring within the lake. Sampling primarily took place during late winter and early spring when the lake was frozen, stratified and relatively anoxic, and all lake samples were collected near the bottom of the lake. Radon concentrations in the lake varied spatially from less than 3.5-194.0 pCi/L. Radon results show that groundwater enters the lake through fractured Paleozoic karst limestone situated near a major thrust fault. No groundwater flows were noted on the western side of the lake, which is underlain by west-dipping Precambrian metasedimentary rocks. The western two-thirds of the lake is anoxic near the bottom of the water column with H2S and NH4+ concentrations as high as 1.99 mg/L and 4.0 mg/L respectively. Along the eastern side of the lake, H2S was absent and NH4+ was generally low, suggesting that groundwater inflows improve water quality. Pore water diffusion samplers show that there is an internal source of NH4+, H2S, and PO43- to the lake originating from decay of organic carbon in the lake sediments.

Shaw, Glenn D.; White, Elizabeth S.; Gammons, Christopher H.

2013-06-01

362

Satellite Altimetry for Monitoring Lake Level Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate and continuous monitoring of lakes and inland seas is possible since 1991 thanks to the recent missions of satellite altimetry (Topex-Poseidon, ERS-1, ERS-2, Jason-1 and Envisat). Global processing of the data of these satellites could provide temporal and spatial times series of lakes water level from 1991 to 2003 on the whole Earth with a decimeter precision. The response

J.-F. Cretaux; A. Kouraev; M. Berge-Nguyen; A. Cazenave; F. Papa

363

75 FR 12233 - New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Receipt of Petition and Tentative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Champlain Canal, which leads north to Lake Champlain, a large waterbody that is a...transient traffic. The NYS side of Lake Champlain (a waterbody that has already...located on the New York side of Lake Champlain which is already...

2010-03-15

364

75 FR 34720 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement and To Conduct Public Scoping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States and Canada, crossing in Lake Champlain to the east of the Town of Champlain...bipoles) would extend south under Lake Champlain for approximately 111 miles entirely...State. At the southern end of Lake Champlain, the cables would exit...

2010-06-18

365

The Discovery of Stromatolites Developing at 3570 m above Sea Level in a High-Altitude Volcanic Lake Socompa, Argentinean Andes  

PubMed Central

We describe stromatolites forming at an altitude of 3570 m at the shore of a volcanic lake Socompa, Argentinean Andes. The water at the site of stromatolites formation is alkaline, hypersaline, rich in inorganic nutrients, very rich in arsenic, and warm (20–24°C) due to a hydrothermal input. The stromatolites do not lithify, but form broad, rounded and low-domed bioherms dominated by diatom frustules and aragonite micro-crystals agglutinated by extracellular substances. In comparison to other modern stromatolites, they harbour an atypical microbial community characterized by highly abundant representatives of Deinococcus-Thermus, Rhodobacteraceae, Desulfobacterales and Spirochaetes. Additionally, a high proportion of the sequences that could not be classified at phylum level showed less than 80% identity to the best hit in the NCBI database, suggesting the presence of novel distant lineages. The primary production in the stromatolites is generally high and likely dominated by Microcoleus sp. Through negative phototaxis, the location of these cyanobacteria in the stromatolites is controlled by UV light, which greatly influences their photosynthetic activity. Diatoms, dominated by Amphora sp., are abundant in the anoxic, sulfidic and essentially dark parts of the stromatolites. Although their origin in the stromatolites is unclear, they are possibly an important source of anaerobically degraded organic matter that induces in situ aragonite precipitation. To the best of our knowledge, this is so far the highest altitude with documented actively forming stromatolites. Their generally rich, diverse and to a large extent novel microbial community likely harbours valuable genetic and proteomic reserves, and thus deserves active protection. Furthermore, since the stromatolites flourish in an environment characterized by a multitude of extremes, including high exposure to UV radiation, they can be an excellent model system for studying microbial adaptations under conditions that, at least in part, resemble those during the early phase of life evolution on Earth.

Farias, Maria E.; Rascovan, Nicolas; Toneatti, Diego M.; Albarracin, Virginia H.; Flores, Maria R.; Poire, Daniel G.; Collavino, Monica M.; Aguilar, O. Mario; Vazquez, Martin P.; Polerecky, Lubos

2013-01-01

366

Introduction to the Great Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reference information on this site discusses one of the youngest natural features on the North American continent, the Great Lakes. Covering more than 94,000 square miles and draining more than twice as much land, these freshwater seas hold an estimated 6 quadrillion gallons of water, about one-fifth of the world's fresh surface water supply and nine-tenths of the U.S. supply. Students will discover that the Great Lakes watershed includes part or all of eight U.S. states (Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York) and the Canadian province of Ontario. The site offers a page of information on each lake, including descriptions and statistics.

367

Hydrology, water quality, and nutrient loads to Lake Catherine and Channel Lake, near Antioch, Lake County, Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From April 21, 1998, through April 30, 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Fox Waterway Agency, conducted an investigation designed to characterize the hydrology, water quality, hydrologic budget, sediment budget, and nutrient budget of Lake Catherine and Channel Lake, Lake County, Illinois. These lakes are the northernmost lakes of the Fox Chain of Lakes. Lake Catherine and Channel Lake are divided into two basins by a submerged ridge but are continuous at the surface. The lakes are marginally to moderately eutrophic. Lake Catherine and Channel Lake have a combined volume of 7,098 acre-feet at a stage of about 736.5 feet above sea level. Lake Catherine and Channel Lake are subject to thermal stratification. Although most of the water in the lakes is well oxidized, nearly anoxic conditions were present at the bottom of Lake Catherine and Channel Lake during part of the summer in 1998. Water enters Lake Catherine and Channel Lake as inflow from surface water in the watershed (61.9 percent), inflow through the State Highway 173 bridge openings (20.7 percent), direct precipitation (8.2 percent), inflow from storm drains (7.2 percent), and inflow of ground water (2.0 percent). Water exits Lake Catherine and Channel Lake as outflow through the State Highway 173 bridge openings (87.8 percent), evaporation (7.2 percent), and as outflow to ground water (5.0 percent). About 5,200 pounds of phosphorus and 107,200 pounds of nitrogen compounds were added to the lakes during the period of investigation. Phosphorus compounds were derived from primarily internal regeneration (40.2 percent), inflow from surface water in the watershed (30.9 percent), inflow from storm drains (12.5 percent), and inflow through the State Highway 173 bridge openings (9.8 percent). Inflowing ground water, waterfowl excrement, precipitation, and atmospheric deposition of particulate matter account for 6.6 percent of the phosphorus load. Nitrogen was derived from inflow of surface water from within the watershed (52.9 percent), internal regeneration (19.5 percent), inflow through the State Highway 173 bridge openings (10.7 percent), precipitation (7 percent), and inflow from storm drains (6.5 percent). Inflowing ground water, waterfowl excrement, and atmospheric deposition of particulate matter account for about 3.4 percent of the nitrogen load. About 2,220 pounds of phosphorus and 52,300 pounds of nitrogen compounds are removed from the lakes, primarily through the openings at State Highway 173. Nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and dissolved phosphorus are utilized by algae and aquatic macrophytes. Uptake of these nutrients by aquatic macrophytes and algae temporarily removes them from the water column but not from the lake basin. Because the amount of nutrients entering the lake greatly exceeds the amount leaving, the nutrients are concentrated in the sediments at the lake bottom, where the nutrients can be used by the rooted aquatic macrophytes (rooted aquatic plant large enough to be visible to the unaided eye) and released to the water column during reducing conditions. The buildup of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in the lakes has the potential over time to stimulate algal and plant growth to nuisance levels that have the potential to affect the fishery and detract from the aesthetic quality of these lakes.

Kay, Robert T.; Johnson, Gary P.; Schrader, David L.

2000-01-01

368

Lake Ontario Atlas: Lake Temperatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Lake Temperatures Monograph provides a composite of measurements taken by surface craft, aircraft and intakes. Also included are detailed analyses of surface temperatures by months vs. air temperatures, by cumulative frequencies vs. distance offshore ...

E. Chermak

1977-01-01

369

Principles of lake sedimentology  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index.

Janasson, L.

1983-01-01

370

Lake Biwa and the ocean: geochemical similarity and difference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average composition of water, bottom sediments, manganese (Mn) crusts, and Mn concretions from Lake Biwa (the largest\\u000a freshwater lake in Japan) are re-examined, in conjunction with those of seawater, oceanic pelagic clay, and deep-sea Mn nodules.\\u000a The purpose is to gain additional insights into the geochemical behaviors of elements in Lake Biwa and the ocean, which are\\u000a quite different

Yuan-Hui Li; Yoshiki Sohrin; Takejiro Takamatsu

2011-01-01

371

Aquatic bird populations as possible indicators of seasonal nutrient flow at Ichkeul Lake, Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Ichkeul is fed in autumn and winter by 7 main freshwater oueds (rivers) which create an overflow towards the mediterranean sea. Conversely, seawater enters the lake after the end of the rainy season. Thus, strong inverse variations occur twice a year both in water depth and salinity level, with a major hydraulic flow to the sea between October and

Alain Tamisier; Charles Boudouresque

1994-01-01

372

Biology of penaeid prawns in the Suez Canal lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made from January 1988 to March 1989 of the penaid prawns in the Great Bitter Lake and Lake Timsah located in the central part of the Suez Canal. Two species of Red Sea origin were investigated,Metapenaeus stebbingi andTrachypenaeus curvirostris; the former is by far the commoner. Both species displayed seasonal breeding over the period April to October,

A. A.-F. A. Gab-Alla; R. G. Hartnoll; A.-F. Ghobashy; S. Z. Mohammed

1990-01-01

373

Nannoplankton of Marine Origin from Great Bear Lake in the Northwest Territories of Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

GREAT Bear Lake is situated on the Arctic Circle at a point where the Pre-Cambrian Shield emerges from the adjoining Cretaceous formations. The present lake surface is 143 m above sea level, and because the maximum depth is 542 m there is a cryptodepression of 309 m. The shape of the lake could be described as amoeboid with five arms

A. S. Bursa; L. Johnson

1967-01-01

374

Traces Of Oil Products And Naturally Occurring Hydrocarbons In The Lake Koumoundourou Of Aspropirgos, Attiki, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present work an investigation is made about the existence of petroleum and natural hydrocarbons in water samples of Lake Koumoundourou. The samples were collected from different points of the lake, inside the two barriers that were constructed by ELDA, as well as from the outlet of the lake to the sea. The analyses were made using gas chromatography.

T. Mimides; M. Psychoyou; A. Sgoumpopoulou; S. Rizos

375

Strategic Science Plan: Salton Sea Restoration Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Salton Sea is an ecosystem in peril. Its prehistory consists of a series of intermittent lakes dependent on infrequent flooding of the Colorado River, while the modern Salton Sea originated from the desire to harness the flow of the Colorado River for...

2000-01-01

376

Metagenomic sequencing of two salton sea microbiomes.  

PubMed

The Salton Sea is the largest inland body of water in California, with salinities ranging from brackish freshwater to hypersaline. The lake experiences high nutrient input, and its surface water is exposed to temperatures up to 40°C. Here, we report the community profiles associated with surface water from the Salton Sea. PMID:24459270

Hawley, Erik R; Schackwitz, Wendy; Hess, Matthias

2014-01-01

377

The Biology of Arctic Charr, Salvelinus Alpinus , of Gander Lake, A Large, Deep, Oligotrophic Lake in Newfoundland, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resident Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus, are widespread throughout the island of Newfoundland. This study examines aspects of the biology and spatial and temporal distributions of the charr of Gander Lake, the third largest in Newfoundland (surface area = 11320ha, maximum depth = 288m, mean depth = 105.4m). The deepest part of the lake is approximately 258m below sea level. The

Michael F. O'Connell; J. Brian Dempson

2002-01-01

378

Great Lakes Climate and Water Movement. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The theme of this book is Great Lakes climate and water movement. Students learn about land-sea

Miller, Heidi, Ed.; Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

379

Recovery and decline of lake whitefish in U.S. waters of eastern Lake Ontario, 1980-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) was an important member of the native fish community and a valued commercial species in Lake Ontario. Lake whitefish were common in U.S. waters of the lake until 1965 and very abundant in Canadian waters through the early 1970s, although their numbers declined shortly thereafter. During 1975-1985, lake whitefish stocks remained depressed throughout the lake as a result of the combined effects of degraded water quality, overfishing, and predation. Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) probably preyed on whitefish fry, and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) preyed on adults. During 1985-1987, lake whitefish stocks began to recover in eastern Lake Ontario, and their buildup continued into the mid-1990s. Reasons for the recovery likely included control of the sea lamprey population and a reduction in the number of piscivorous rainbow smelt. By 1997, lake whitefish abundance had declined severely again; some fish appeared to have dispersed from the northeastern to the southeastern regions of the lake, and the depth of capture increased. We believe that the collapse of Diporeia spp. populations during 1992-1999 was responsible for the decline in the lake whitefish populations and the shifts in geographic and bathymetric distribution because lake whitefish fed primarily on Diporeia spp. After the collapse of Diporeia spp. populations, lake whitefish in southeastern Lake Ontario fed on Mysis relicta and quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis). Changing from a diet of high-lipid Diporeia spp to low-lipid dreissenids and foraging on Mysis relicta at lower temperatures are apparently hampering the rebuilding of lake whitefish stocks.

Owens, Randall W.; O'Gorman, Robert; Eckert, Thomas H.; Lantry, Brian F.; Dittman, Dawn E.

2005-01-01

380

Hg Deposition to Lakes in Northern New England Inferred at Multiple Scales From 210Pb-Dated Sediment Cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury (Hg) contamination of aquatic systems is recognized to be a problem of global consequence, and Hg bioaccumulation poses significant risks to piscivorous animals and humans who consume gamefish. In order to quantify historical and current Hg deposition to the northern New England landscape, we dated and performed Hg analyses on sediments cores from various lakes at local and regional scales. In this presentation, we contrast results of three studies: a regional assessment of Hg deposition to the VT-NH landscape (10 lakes); a localized study of deposition to the Lye Brook Wilderness of southern VT (four lakes); and the first-ever dated assessment of sediment Hg deposition history for Lake Champlain (three sites + one adjacent inland lake). At the VT-NH scale, total Hg (HgT) fluxes to sediments ranged from 5 to 17 ? g.m-2.yr-1 during pre-industrial times, and from 21 to 83 ? g.m-2.yr-1 presently. Present-day HgT fluxes are between 2.1 to 6.9 times greater than pre-1850 fluxes, and atmospheric Hg deposition to the VT-NH region was estimated at 21 ? g.m-2.yr-1. This agrees well with measured HgT deposition, when re-evasion of Hg is accounted for. Hg fluxes to lake sediments have declined in recent decades, owing to reductions in atmospheric Hg deposition to the lake surfaces. In the high-elevation Lye Brook Wilderness landscape, baseline, peak, and present accumulations were higher than those estimated from the VT-NH dataset, a finding that highlights the roles of elevation, watershed size, and dissolved organic carbon export in mediating Hg transport. Available data from the Lake Champlain Basin show the influence of historical and current watershed sediment delivery due to land cultivation, and more recently to land-use conversion. These studies jointly indicate that watershed export of legacy Hg continues despite declines in present-day deposition rates, contributing to the impression that Hg retention by watershed soils has declined.

Kamman, N. C.; Engstrom, D.

2004-05-01

381

Investigating sedimentary rock deposition and weathering in Mawikwe Bay Sea Caves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A field investigation to the Mawikwe Bay Sea Caves of northern Wisconsin along Lake Superior in the winter. Students will investigate deposition of sedimentary rocks and weathering of the rocks to produce sea caves.

382

CATASTROPHIC FLOODING OF THE BLACK SEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Decades of seabed mapping, reflection profiling, and seabed sampling reveal that throughout,the past two million years the Black Sea was predominantly,a freshwater lake interrupted only briefly by saltwater invasions coincident with global sea level highstand. When,the exterior ocean lay below,the relatively shallow sill of the Bosporus outlet, the Black Sea operated in two modes. As in the neighboring

William B. F. Ryan; Candace O. Major; Gilles Lericolais; Steven L. Goldstein

2003-01-01

383

Salton, A Sea of Controversy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Salton Sea is an “accidental” lake that receives used irrigation water from the Colorado River. Humans have profoundly altered the area’s ecosystems. The Salton Sea is important for wildlife and recreation, but is now saltier than the ocean. How might it be saved? This case examines the Salton Sea’s problems and uncertain future. The case would be suitable for introductory environmental, biology, geography and geology classes, and courses dealing with land use, water resources, agriculture, birds or fish, ecosystems, and government policy.

Vessey, Kristin B.

1999-01-01

384

The birth and death of lakes on young landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ongoing land uplift caused by postglacial isostatic rebound creates strong landscape-age gradients alongside the Gulf of Bothnia, northern Scandinavia. Lakes are continuously generated on this dynamic landscape as the uplift isolates bays from sea inundation. However, concomitant with this process older lakes are lost as the basins are filled with sediments, creating a continuum of lake ages on the landscape. We studied the lake size and depth distributions and lake densities, along an age gradient covering 0-4500 years. Map data on the density, area, and elevation of lakes were combined with field-based measurements of maximum basin depth. We find that young lake populations are densely distributed and dominated by small and shallow lakes. Over time, small and shallow lakes are lost by complete sediment filling, resulting in lower lake density and a shift in size and depth distributions towards larger, deeper lakes. Since lake filling is a universal process, we propose that these findings can be generalized to other gradients in landscape age.

Englund, GöRan; Eriksson, HâKan; Nilsson, Mats B.

2013-04-01

385

Sea Education Association (SEA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sea Education Association (SEA) in Woods Hole, MA provides undergraduates with an opportunity to participate in an academic study-abroad program called the SEA Semester. The program combines intensive research in the areas of oceanography, maritime studies, and nautical science with hands-on experience aboard a traditional sailing ship. Piloting, celestial navigation, and practical seamanship are learned together with oceanographic sampling techniques and marine laboratory procedures. Critical thinking, problem-solving, team-building and leadership skills are emphasized throughout the program. SEA Semester is appropriate for students in marine biology, geology and physical science, environmental studies, American studies, and most other areas within the liberal arts and sciences. Academic credit for SEA Semester is obtained through Boston University.

386

Differential Growth Response of Colony-Forming  - and  -Proteobacteria in Dilution Culture and Nutrient Addition Experiments from Lake Kinneret (Israel), the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and the Gulf of Eilat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though it is widely accepted that bacterioplankton growth in lakes and marine ecosystems is deter- mined by the trophic status of the systems, knowledge of the relationship between nutrient concentrations and growth of particular bacterial species is almost nonexistent. To address this question, we performed a series of culture experiments with water from Lake Kinneret (Israel), the eastern Mediterranean

Jarone Pinhassi; Tom Berman

2003-01-01

387

Lake Victoria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from "The Biodiversity Crisis: Losing What Counts", provides insight into how human behavior has put one of the world's largest ecosystems close to death. It covers the astonishingly diverse cichlid species that live only in Lake Victoria and changes to the ecosystem brought about by the introduction of a non-native species.

388

Modern hydrology and late Holocene history of Lake Karakul, eastern Pamirs (Tajikistan): A reconnaissance study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Karakul in the Pamirs (Tajikistan) is a deep brackish-water lake in a closed basin at almost 4000m above sea level. Water samples from the catchment area and Lake Karakul, and a 104-cm sediment core from its shallow eastern sub-basin, were investigated and provide a first lake record from the region spanning the last 4200cal yr BP. Multi-proxy analyses revealed

Steffen Mischke; Ilhomjon Rajabov; Nailya Mustaeva; Chengjun Zhang; Ulrike Herzschuh; Ian Boomer; Erik T. Brown; Nils Andersen; Amy Myrbo; Emi Ito; Michael E. Schudack

2010-01-01

389

Global Change in the Great Lakes: Scenarios.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ohio Sea Grant Education Program has produced this series of publications designed to help people understand how global change may affect the Great Lakes region. The possible implications of global change for this region of the world are explained in the hope that policymakers and individuals will be more inclined to make responsible decisions…

Garrison, Barbara K., Ed.; Rosser, Arrye R., Ed.

390

Lake Sihwa tidal power plant project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Tidal Power Plant (TPP) is being constructed in the middle section of the existing Lake Sihwa dike located near the southern Incheon Port in Korea. The project, which will be completed in 2010, is to harness the largest tidal energy in the Kyeonggi Bay in the eastern Yellow Sea. While noting the current progress in terms of plant construction,

Young Ho Bae; Kyeong Ok Kim; Byung Ho Choi

2010-01-01

391

Land-lake breezes at low latitudes: The case of Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tonle Sap Lake is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. During the postmonsoon season, a small linear cloud system has been observed over this lake in early morning, while the sky above the surrounding land is clear. Although this cloud system is apparently generated by land breezes, previous studies on land-lake (sea) circulation have suggested that environmental factors at low latitudes inhibit development of nocturnal land breezes. In this study, we investigate the mechanism of these early morning clouds through numerical simulation. The simulations show a linear updraft system over the lake, forming along the southwest lakeshore around 22:00 and moving northeast to the middle of the lake. The heavier air mass from the land meets the extraordinarily warm and humid air mass over the lake, triggering updrafts under the conditionally convective instability. The characteristic high surface water temperature was favorable for generation of the land breeze and updraft systems. That high surface water temperature of the lake is produced by the tropical climate along with efficient energy absorption because of the shallowness of the water body. This unique feature can generate a clear nocturnal land breeze circulation accompanying a migrating updraft system over the lake despite its low latitude.

Tsujimoto, Kumiko; Koike, Toshio

2013-07-01

392

Density-independent survival of wild lake trout in the Apostle Islands area of Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) stock at Gull Island Shoal in western Lake Superior was one of only a few stocks of lean lake trout in the Great Lakes that survived overfishing and predation by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Since the mid 1960s, the abundance of wild recruits measured at age 0 and the number of age-7 to -11 wild fish recruited to the fishable stock have increased. We used the Varley-Gradwell method to test for density-dependent survival between these life stages. Survival from age-0 to ages 7-11 was not affected by increasing density, which suggests that further increases in recruitment and stock size are still possible. We suggest that testing for the existence of density-dependent survival can be used to indicate when lake trout populations are rehabilitated.

Bronte, Charles R.; Schram, Stephen T.; Selgeby, James H.; Swanson, Bruce L.

1995-01-01

393

GREAT LAKES LIMNOLOGY PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The limnology program provides information on key environmental factors that influence the food chain and fish of the Great Lakes. The annual monitoring of the Great Lakes began in 1983 for Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie; in 1986 in Lake Ontario; and in 1992 for Lake Superior. T...

394

Changing Planet: Warming Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The video addresses impact of warming temperatures on major lakes of the world with specific focus on Lake Superior and Lake Tanganyika. It discusses the science of water stratification and its impact on lake ecosystems and on human populations whose livelihoods depend on the lakes.

Learn, Windows T.; National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA)

395

Great Lakes Information Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Great Lakes Information Network (GLIN) is a partnership that has compiled information relating to the binational Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region of North America. Sections of the site include an overview of the Great Lakes, the environment of the Great Lakes, the economy of the Great Lakes, education, maps and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and tourism.

2007-10-26

396

Great Lakes Information Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Great Lakes Information Network (GLIN) is a partnership that has compiled information relating to the binational Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region of North America. Sections of the site include an overview of the Great Lakes, the environment of the Great Lakes, the economy of the Great Lakes, education, maps and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and tourism.

397

Lake Effect Snow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This MPEG shows lake effect precipitation resulting when cold air masses pass over the relatively warm Great Lakes, pick up moisture, and then precipitate when again encountering the cold land surface. Note the bands of lake effect snow apparent over Lake Superior and the lack of snow on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The animation can be replayed to stress important points.

Nasa

398

The High-Lakes Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Lakes Project is a multidisciplinary astrobiological investigation studying high-altitude lakes between 4200 m and 6000 m elevation in the Central Andes of Bolivia and Chile. Its primary objective is to understand the impact of increased environmental stress on the modification of lake habitability potential during rapid climate change as an analogy to early Mars. Their unique geophysical environment and mostly uncharted ecosystems have added new objectives to the project, including the assessment of the impact of low-ozone/high solar irradiance in nonpolar aquatic environments, the documentation of poorly known ecosystems, and the quantification of the impact of climate change on lake environment and ecosystem. Data from 2003 to 2007 show that UV flux is 165% that of sea level with maximum averaged UVB reaching 4 W/m2. Short UV wavelengths (260-270 nm) were recorded and peaked at 14.6 mW/m2. High solar irradiance occurs in an atmosphere permanently depleted in ozone falling below ozone hole definition for 33-36 days and between 30 and 35% depletion the rest of the year. The impact of strong UVB and UV erythemally weighted daily dose on life is compounded by broad daily temperature variations with sudden and sharp fluctuations. Lake habitat chemistry is highly dynamical with notable changes in yearly ion concentrations and pH resulting from low and variable yearly precipitation. The year-round combination of environmental variables define these lakes as end-members. In such an environment, they host ecosystems that include a significant fraction of previously undescribed species of zooplankton, cyanobacterial, and bacterial populations.

Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Grin, Edmond A.; Chong, Guillermo; Minkley, Edwin; Hock, Andrew N.; Yu, Youngseob; Bebout, Leslie; Fleming, Erich; Häder, Donat P.; Demergasso, Cecilia; Gibson, John; Escudero, Lorena; Dorador, Cristina; Lim, Darlene; Woosley, Clayton; Morris, Robert L.; Tambley, Cristian; Gaete, Victor; Galvez, Matthieu E.; Smith, Eric; Uskin-Peate, Ingrid; Salazar, Carlos; Dawidowicz, G.; Majerowicz, J.

2009-06-01

399

Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The wild plants and animals and the natural systems that support them in the Great Lakes region are valuable resources of considerable local, regional, and national interest. They are also, in part, transboundary resources that the U.S. shares with its Canadian neighbors to the north. The way these resources are changing over time is inadequately known and is a concern for resource users and for those charged with managing and protecting these unique and valuable resources. This chapter describes the wild plants and animals and the systems that support them in the Great Lakes region; addresses their condition; and points out the gaps in our knowledge about them that, if filled, would aid in their conservation and appropriate use.

Edsall, Thomas A.

1998-01-01

400

The large lake ecosystems of northern Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Lakes of northern Canada are relatively understudied ecosystems in comparison to the better-investigated Laurentian Great Lakes. This chain of lakes extends north from Lake Winnipeg (a shallow prairie lake) to Wollaston Lake and Lake Athabasca (moderately deep arboreal lakes) to Great Slave Lake (a deep subarctic lake) to Great Bear Lake (a deep lake located in the Arctic

M. S. Evans

2000-01-01

401

Sea Turtles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea World informational resource on all eight species of sea turtles. Excellent introduction to sea turtles including information on their classification, habitat, diet, reproduction, and much more. Includes photographs and illustrations throughout. Features two teaching activities for grades K-2.

402

Cartier, Champlain, and the fruits of the New World: botanical exchange in the 16th and 17th centuries.  

PubMed

Much has been written of the Columbian exchange, the transfer between New World and Old of people, pathogens, flora and fauna. The biota of two hemispheres, once seemingly irredeemably separated, were interpenetrated, both through accident and through human agency. Part of this exchange involved medicinal and food plants, discovered in the New World and adopted into the Old. This paper examines the translation of a number of New World plants that were part of the 'Cartierian' or 'Champlinian' exchange that followed the voyages to North America by Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) between 1534 and 1541, and the explorations and settlements undertaken by Samuel de Champlain (1580?-1635) from 1603 to his death at Quebec in 1635. During this period, a number of North American plants were propagated in European nurseries and even found their way into everyday use in gardens or kitchens. How were these new plants viewed on their introduction and how were they incorporated into Europe's "vegetable" consciousness? Where did these new plants fit in the classification of the edible and the exotic? PMID:19569386

Dickenson, Victoria

2008-01-01

403

Seiche oscillations in Lake Baikal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variations in the free surface of Lake Baikal at three stations (Bol'shie Koty, Listvyanka, and Baikal'sk) are measured. A modern recording method and an advanced technique of record processing are used. Based on 1-year-long observation data, the amplitudes of seiche oscillations and their seasonal changes are analyzed. It is found, in particular, that 67-min seiches are manifested in different seasons. Numerical calculations of seiches in Lake Baikal are made with the use of up-to-date bathymetric data on one-dimensional, plan, and spherical models. Spatial structures of oscillations with periods of 277, 152, 84, 67, and 59 min, corresponding to the well-expressed peaks of power spectral density, are studied. It is shown that the first four periods correspond to uninodal, binodal, trinodal, and quadrinodal longitudinal seiche modes of Lake Baikal. The periods of three solutions can correspond to the value of 59 min. The first of them is the seiche of the lake's South Basin, and two others are characterized by significant amplitude growth in the Small Sea and Chivyrkui Bay.

Smirnov, S. V.; Kucher, K. M.; Granin, N. G.; Sturova, I. V.

2014-01-01

404

Historic and modern abundance of wild lean lake trout in Michigan waters of Lake Superior: Implications for restoration goals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Populations of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Superior collapsed in the late 1950s due to overfishing and predation by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. A binational effort to restore the lean morphotype of lake trout began with the stocking of hatchery-reared fish followed by the chemical control of sea lampreys and closure of the commercial fishery. Previous comparisons of the contemporary abundance of wild lean lake trout with that from historic commercial fishery statistics indicate that abundance was higher historically. However, this conclusion may be biased because several factors- the inclusion of siscowet (the 'fat' morphotype of lake trout) in the catch statistics, the soak time of nets, seasonal effects on catch per effort, and the confounding effects of effort targeted at lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis- were not accounted for. We developed new indices of historic lean lake trout abundance that correct for these biases and compared them with the assessment data from 1984 to 1998 in Michigan waters of Lake Superior. The modern (1984-1998) abundance of wild lean lake trout is at least as high as that during 1929-1943 in six of eight management areas but lower in one area. Measures to promote and protect naturally reproducing populations have been more successful than previously realized.

Wilberg, Michael J.; Hansen, Michael J.; Bronte, Charles R.

2003-01-01

405

Towards Limnological Modeling of the Dead Sea: Mass and Heat Balances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dead Sea (DS), the lowest place on Earth, is a hypersaline terminal lake with a unique composition. During the 20th century, the DS level has dropped by more than 20 meters, and presently it is about 417 meters below mean sea level. The decline in the DS level is a manifestation of the negative water balance of the lake,

406

Thermal, mixing, and oxygen regimes of the Salton Sea, California, 1997–1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Salton Sea is a shallow (mean depth = 8 m; maximum depth = 15 m), saline (41–45 g l-1), intermittently mixing, 57 km long, 980 km2 lake located in the arid southwestern United States. The Sea is a wind driven system, with predominant winds paralleling the long axis of the lake, being strongest in spring and weakest in summer

James M. Watts; Brandon K. Swan; MaryAnn Tiffany; Stuart H. Hurlbert

2001-01-01

407

Karst system developed in salt layers of the Lisan Peninsula, Dead Sea, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lisan Peninsula, Jordan, is a massive salt layer accumulated in the inner part of the Dead Sea's precursory lakes. This tongue-shaped, emergent land results in a salt diapir uplifted in the Dead Sea strike-slip regional stress field and modified by the water level fluctuations of the last lake during the Holocene. These two elements, associated with dissolution caused by

Damien Closson; Philip E. Lamoreaux; Najib Abou Karaki; Hassan Al-Fugha

2007-01-01

408

Research to Guide Use of Barriers, Traps, and Fishways to Control Sea Lamprey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a rigorous and directed research framework for fostering innovations in the design, implementation, and operation of barriers, traps, and fishways used to control the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. It was developed to support the Great Lakes Fishery Commission's milestone pledging to decrease reliance on chemical lampricides and achieve 50% of sea lamprey

Robert L. McLaughlin; Andrew Hallett; Thomas C. Pratt; Lisa M. O’Connor; D. Gordon McDonald

2007-01-01

409

Mono Lake, California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Sierra Webpage is dedicated to Mono Lake, CA. It offers a brief description of Mono Lake, including photos and sightseeing tips, and features numerous writings by Mono Lake Park Ranger David Carle. Subjects include the Mono Lake environment, visiting the lake, and the water issue. An entry of particular interest is Strange Water- Mono Lake Gourmet: An Unusual Recipe. It includes 'Mock Mono Lake Soup' and 'Tufa Porridge Extraordinaire'- two recipes designed to illustrate the composition of Mono Lake and the chemical processes involved in tufa formation.

Webpage, Sierra

410

Authigenic carbonate precipitation in Lake Acigöl, a hypersaline lake in southwestern Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Acigöl (Bitter Lake) is a hypersaline lake in southwestern Turkey at an elevation of 836 m above sea level showing authigenic precipitation of several different carbonate mineral phases. It is a perennial lake and closed drainage basin where a semiarid continental climate dominates. Due to the extreme water chemistry (salinity 8-200 mg/l; SO4 112-15232 mg/l; Cl 290-35320 mg/l; Mg, 82-3425 mg/l; Ca 102-745 mg/l) unique microorganisms flourish in the lake. We studied microbial diversity from enrichment cultures and performed precipitation experiments using similar water chemistry and adding bacterial enrichment cultures from lake sediments in order to elucidate whether the mineral assemblages found in the lake can be reproduced. Experiments using moderately halophilic bacteria obtained from the lake sediments demonstrate the formation of various calcium-/magnesium-carbonates: hydromagnesite, dypingite, huntite, monohydrocalcite and aragonite. The relative amounts of different mineral phases, particularly monohydrocalcite, hydromagnesite and dypingite, could be controlled by varying the sulphate concentration in the media from 0 to 56 mM. The similar mineral assemblages identified in the sediments of Lake Acigöl and in the experiments point to similar thermodynamic conditions and kinetics of crystal growth. In particular, the similar spherical morphology points to a rapid crystal growth under strong kinetic inhibition, possibly by organic polymers that are commonly produced by microbial communities. Our results demonstrate that the authigenic carbonate paragenesis of hypersaline lakes as Lake Acigöl can be reproduced in halophilic bacterial cultures. The exact thermodynamic conditions and precipitation kinetics under seasonally changing water chemistry or in batch experiment, however, still have to be constrained in order to establish a microbial model for carbonate precipitation in such environments.

Balci, Nurgul; Menekse, Meryem; Gül Karagüler, Nevin; Seref Sönmez, M.; Meister, Patrick

2014-05-01

411

TEACH Great Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Education And Curriculum Home site (TEACH) is a new component of the Great Lakes Information Network, with a focus on advancing Great Lakes-related educational materials for the broad audience of educators and students in the Great Lakes region and beyond. TEACH features mini-lessons on Great Lakes topics: environment, history and culture, geography, pollution, careers, and business. Geared for elementary through high school students, the modules are continually expanded and updated and include links to a glossary to help explain scientific terms and acronyms. Also included is a section for questions and answers, and education links. Specific topics within the site include: Great Lakes native flora, water levels on the Great Lakes, native peoples of the Great Lakes region, Great Lakes law and policy, introduction to the Great Lakes, how the lakes were formed, Great Lakes shoreline geology, non-native species, and urban sprawl.

412

Evolution and paleohydrology of glacial Lakes Barlow and Ojibway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of Lakes Barlow and Ojibway, two large ice-contact glacial lakes that covered parts of northern Ontario and western Québec from about 10.1-8.0 ka BP, during the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, was reconstructed using deglaciation landforms, ice-flow indicators inscribed on bedrock, 14C dates of early postglacial vegetation accumulated in lake basins, the distribution of Mysis relicta (a biological indicator of lacustrine submergence), varve chronology, and a detailed photogrammetric survey of the lake limit. Although the rate of ice retreat varied greatly throughout the basin, the average rate in Lake Barlow-Ojibway was 450 m/year. Rates of ice retreat deduced from varve chronology were assessed using predictable relationships between the lake limit, the shoreline gradient, and the rate of relative uplift. Over a 590 km long profile, the gradient on the maximum elevation of the lake defines a parabola that is attributed to restrained rebound, although in part it could be due to the position of the profile with respect to the overall uplift pattern generated by the ice sheet. The life span of the lake determined from varve chronology (2110 years) shows excellent agreement with the age difference obtained between that of marine shells overlying Lake Ojibway sediments at its northern end in Hudson Bay, and the oldest radiocarbon ages on basal organics in lakes in the southern part of the Barlow-Ojibway basin. Both lakes drained eastward through the Ottawa River between 10.1 and 8.0 ka BP, and the average yearly discharge to the North Atlantic Ocean during the last 1000-1500 years is estimated at about 946 km3. At break-up of the ice sheet in southern Hudson Bay at about 8.0 ka BP, Lake Ojibway drained abruptly, releasing an estimated 114,396 km3 of freshwater into the Tyrrell Sea and raising sea level by about 30 cm.

Veillette, J. J.

413

Aral Sea, North End, Kazakhstan, CIS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This detailed scene of the Aral Sea, Kazakhstan, CIS (46.5N, 60.5E) shows a surrealistic view of the fractured frozen shallow waters at the north end of this salt lake. Fed mainly from waters of the Amu Darya River, mostly with snowmelt runoff from the distant Tyan-Shan Mountains near the Afghanistan- China border, the lake has been slowly disappearing as more and more of the river water has been diverted to support agriculture in the region.

1990-01-01

414

Aral Sea Basin Evolution: Geodynamic Aspect  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Aral Sea lies in the Aral-Sarykamysh depression, which is bordered by the low plains of Central Asia. The climate is continental\\u000a and extremely dry, and surface runoff is virtually zero. Since direct precipitation over the lake comprises only 10% of the\\u000a water budget, lake-level fluctuations are largely determined by changes in inflow from the Amu Darya and Syr Darya

Bakhtiar Nurtaev

415

Lake Trout Rehabilitation in Lake Huron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to restore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Huron after their collapse in the 1940s were underway in the early 1970s with completion of the first round oflampricide applications in tributary streams and the stocking of several genotypes. We assess results of rehabilitation and establish a historical basis for comparison by quantifying the catch of spawning lake trout from

Randy L. Eshenroder; N. Robert Payne; James E. Johnson; Charles Bowen II; Mark P. Ebener

1995-01-01

416

Lake Effects: The Lake Superior Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide was launched in response to a need for Lake Superior-specific educational materials and contains lessons and activities that can be used to teach about Lake Superior. The lessons in this book are divided into four sections. Each of the first three sections has a background section that provides basic information about Lake

Beery, Tom; And Others

417

Sensitivity of the East African rift lakes to climate variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lakes in the East African Rift have provided excellent proxies to reconstruct past climate changes in the low latitudes. The lakes occupy volcano-tectonic depressions with highly variable climate and hydrological setting, that present a good opportunity to study the climatic and hydrogeological influences on the lake water budget. Previous studies have used lake floor sediments to establish the sensitivity of the East African rift lakes. This study focuses on geomorphology and climate to offer additional or alternative record of lake history that are key to quantifying sensitivity of these lakes as archives to external and internal climatic forcings. By using the published Holocene lake areas and levels, we analyze twelve lakes on the eastern arm of the East African rift; Ziway, Awassa, Turkana, Suguta, Baringo, Nakuru, Elmenteita, Naivasha, Natron, Manyara and compare with Lake Victoria, that occupies the plateau between the east and the western arms of the rift. Using the SRTM data, Hypsometric (area-altitude) analysis has been used to compare the lake basins between latitude 80 North and 30 South. The mean elevation for the lakes, is between 524 and 2262 meters above sea level, the lakes' hypsometric integrals (HI), a measure of landmass volume above the reference plane, vary from 0.31 to 0.76. The aridity index (Ai), defined as Precipitation/ Evapotranspiration, quantifies the water available to a lake, it encompasses land cover and climatic effects. It is lowest (arid) in the basin between the Ethiopian rift and the Kenyan rift and at the southern termination of the Kenyan Rift in the catchments of lake Turkana, Suguta, Baringo and Manyara with values of 0.55, 0.43, 0.43 and 0.5 respectively. And it is highest (wet) in the catchments of, Ziway, Awassa, Nakuru and Naivasha as 1.33,1.03 and 1.2 respectively, which occupy the highest points of the rift. Lake Victoria has an index of 1.42 the highest of these lakes and receives a high precipitation. We use a simple model written on a Matlab code to illustrate the lake volume and area response to climate of surficialy closed, graben shaped and panshaped lake basins. From preliminary results, lake basins that are sensitive to climate variability have a high HI and high aridity index, which will be presented in this conference

Olaka, L.; Trauth, M. H.

2009-04-01

418

Restoration of Hyland Lake.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hyland Lake Restoration Project improved the quality of the lake water for recreation and improved the lake's scenic qualities and waterfowl habitat. Specifically, it was hoped that the restored lake would support a fish population and would be an att...

1981-01-01

419

Salton sea project, phase 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feasibility study was made for a salt gradient solar pond power plant in or near the Salton Sea of California. The conclusions support continuance 5-MWe proof-of-concept experiment, and ultimate construction by an electric utility company of a 600-MWe plant. The Solar Pond concept would be an environmental benefit to the Salton Sea by reversing the increasing salinity trend. The greatest cost drivers are the lake dike construction and pond sealing. Problems to be resolved include method of brine production from Salton Sea water for the first unit (which requires evaporation pond area and time), the high turbidity and color content of the Salton Sea water (which requires pretreatment), and other questions related to pond permeability, bio-activity and soil/brine chemical reactions. All technical and environmental problems appear solvable and/or manageable if care is taken in mitigating impacts.

Peelgren, M. L.

1982-01-01

420

Holocene Lake Records on Kamchatka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availibility of terrestrial records of Holocene palaeoenvironmental changes in eastern Siberia still is quite limited, compared to other regions on the northern hemisphere. In particular, the Kamchatka Peninsula as an important climate-sensitive region is very underrepresented. Situated at the border of northeastern Eurasia, the maritime-influenced terrestrial setting of Kamchatka offers the potential to pinpoint connections of environmental changes between the periglacial and highly continental landmasses of eastern Siberia and the sub-Arctic Pacific Ocean and Sea of Okhotsk. The study region lies at the eastern end-loop of the global thermohaline ocean conveyor belt and is strongly affected by atmospheric teleconnections. Volcanic, tectonic, and glacial processes overprint palaeoenvironmental changes in addition to primary climate forcing. In order to widen our understanding of plaeoclimate dynamics on Kamchatka, sediment cores from different lake systems and peat sections were recovered and analysed by a multi-proxy approach, using sedimentological and geochemical data as well as fossil bioindicators, such as diatoms, pollen, and chironomids. Chronostratigraphy of the studied records was achieved through radiocarbon dating and tephrostratigraphy. Sediment cores with complete Holocene sedimentary sequences were retrieved from Lake Sokoch, an up to six metre deep lake of proglacial origin, situated at the treeline in the Ganalsky Ridge of southern central Kamchatka (53°15,13'N, 157°45.49' E, 495 m a.s.l.). Lacustrine sediment records of mid- to late Holocene age were also recovered from the up to 30 m deep Two-Yurts Lake, which occupies a former proglacial basin at the eastern flank of the Central Kamchatka Mountain Chain, the Sredinny Ridge (56°49.6'N, 160°06.9'E, 275 m a.s.l.). In addition to sediment coring in the open and deep Two-Yurts Lake, sediment records were also recovered from peat sections and small isolated forest lakes to compare palaeoecologocal responses in different lake systems under same climatic boundary conditions. Our findings give evidence of longterm climate changes that suggest the existence of a warm and humid early Holocene climate optimum between roughly 9.0 and 4.5 ka BP, followed by climate deterioration of the neoglacial epoch in concert with summer cooling, glacial advances, and enhanced continentality. Two strong cooling episodes punctuated late Holocene climate development between 4.5 and 3.5 ka BP and during the last millennium, marking the prelude of neoglacial cooling and the Little Ice Age. This general development of Holocene climate on Kamchatka is in line with environmental changes in the neighbouring Sea of Okhotsk, where the pattern of sea-ice dynamics is consistent with early Holocene warmth and Neoglacial climate cooling. While the marine records from the Sea of Okhotsk mainly reflect winter conditions, our findings show that summer climate on Kamchatka shows a similar trend of temporal change. Holocene climate variability on Kamchatka was mainly driven by external insolation forcing, changes in solar activity, and internal climate forcing. The latter is dictated by by the relative position of the Aleutan Low in response to the prevailing modes of Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation that both control the influence of maritime or continental air masses and the intensity of rain- or snow-bringing cyclones.

Diekmann, Bernhard; Biskaborn, Boris; Chapligin, Bernhard; Dirksen, Oleg; Dirksen, Veronika; Hoff, Ulrike; Meyer, Hanno; Nazarova, Larisa

2014-05-01

421

Forecasting Lake-Effect Precipitation in the Great Lakes Region Using NASA Enhanced-Satellite Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lake-effect precipitation is common in the Great Lakes region, particularly during the late fall and winter. The synoptic processes of lake-effect precipitation are well understood by operational forecasters, but individual forecast events still present a challenge. Locally run, high resolution models can assist the forecaster in identifying the onset and duration of precipitation, but model results are sensitive to initial conditions, particularly the assumed surface temperature of the Great Lakes. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has created a Great Lakes Surface Temperature (GLST) composite, which uses infrared estimates of water temperatures obtained from the MODIS instrument aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites, other coarser resolution infrared data when MODIS is not available, and ice cover maps produced by the NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab (GLERL). This product has been implemented into the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model Environmental Modeling System (WRF-EMS), used within forecast offices to run local, high resolution forecasts. The sensitivity of the model forecast to the GLST product was analyzed with a case study of the Lake Effect Storm Echinacea, which produced 10 to 12 inches of snowfall downwind of Lake Erie, and 8 to 18 inches downwind of Lake Ontario from 27-29 January 2010. This research compares a forecast using the default Great Lakes surface temperatures from the Real Time Global sea surface temperature (RTG SST), in the WRF-EMS model to the enhanced NASA SPoRT GLST product to study forecast impacts. Results from this case study show that the SPoRT GLST contained less ice cover over Lake Erie and generally cooler water temperatures over Lakes Erie and Ontario. Latent and sensible heat fluxes over Lake Ontario were decreased in the GLST product. The GLST product decreased the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF), which can be correlated to the decrease in temperatures and heat fluxes. A slight increase in precipitation coverage was noted over Lake Erie due to a decrease in ice cover. Both the RTG SST and the GLST products predicted the precipitation south of the actual location of precipitation. This single case study is the first part of an examination to determine how MODIS data can be applied to improve model forecasts in the Great Lakes region.

Cipullo, Michelle; Molthan, Andrew; Shafer, Jackie; Case, Jonathan; Jedlovec, Gary

2011-01-01

422

Longevity of Lake Superior lake trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The age structure of mature lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from the Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior increased following a population recovery that has taken place since the 1960s. As the population aged, it became apparent that scales were unreliable aging structures. Beginning in 1986, we examined both scale and sagittal otolith ages from tagged fish with a known period at liberty. We found large discrepancies in scale and sagittal otolith ages of mature fish, such that scale ages were biased low. We estimated lake trout living up to 42 years, which is greater than previously reported from Lake Superior. Investigators studying lake trout population dynamics in the Great Lakes should be aware that lake trout can live longer than previously thought.

Schram, Stephen T.; Fabrizio, Mary C.

1998-01-01

423

Population biology of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of Lake Superior before 1950  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Scale samples collected in 1948 were used to estimate the instantaneous total mortality rate (0.70) and growth for lake trou