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1

76 FR 43698 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FWS-R5-FHC-2011-N135; 53330-1335-0000-J3] Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives...announce a meeting of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives...Designated Federal Officer, Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control...

2011-07-21

2

75 FR 82061 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FWS-R5-FHC-2010-N045; 53330-1335-0000-J3] Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives...announce a meeting of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives...The meeting will be held at the Lake Champlain Basin Program/Vermont Fish...

2010-12-29

3

Movement of Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) are a nuisance aquatic species in the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain that have devastated native fish populations and hampered the restoration of sport fisheries. This study examined inter-basin movement of sea lamprey in Lake Champlain to identify tributaries that contribute parasitic-phase sea lamprey and provide information for prioritizing those tributaries for sea lamprey control. A

Eric A. Howe; J. Ellen Marsden; Wayne Bouffard

2006-01-01

4

Sea Lamprey Control in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1990, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and state agencies initiated an 8-year experimental sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program on Lake Champlain to reduce parasitic phase sea lamprey and increase sport fish survival and growth. Twenty-four 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) treatments were conducted on 13 tributary systems, and nine Bayluscide treatments were conducted on five deltas. Most tributaries

J. Ellen Marsden; Brian D. Chipman; Lawrence J. Nashett; Jon K. Anderson; Wayne Bouffard; Lance Durfey; John E. Gersmehl; William F. Schoch; Nicholas R. Staats; Adam Zerrenner

2003-01-01

5

Discriminating natal origin of spawning adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in Lake Champlain using statolith elemental signatures  

E-print Network

Discriminating natal origin of spawning adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in Lake Champlain Petromyzon marinus Statolith microchemistry Natal origin Lake Champlain Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a nuisance species in the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain. Information about tributary contributions

Marsden, Ellen

6

75 FR 54163 - Office of the Secretary: Renewal of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary: Renewal of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives...reestablished the charter for the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives...alternative to lampricides in Lake Champlain. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

2010-09-03

7

Predictive Morphometric Relationships for Estimating Fecundity of Sea Lampreys from Lake Champlain and Other  

E-print Network

Predictive Morphometric Relationships for Estimating Fecundity of Sea Lampreys from Lake Champlain lampreys in Lake Champlain, we sampled 29 female sea lampreys (mean length ¼ 456 mm [range ¼ 364­550 mm based on wet weight alone. Sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus are a nuisance species in Lake Champlain

Marsden, Ellen

8

76 FR 12129 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...sea lamprey control methods alternative to lampricides, to recommend...research to be control methods alternative to lampricides, to recommend...agencies with the coordination of alternative sea lamprey control research to advance the state of the science in Lake Champlain and...

2011-03-04

9

Extension Assistant Professor in Watershed Science, Policy, and Education Lake Champlain Sea Grant  

E-print Network

Extension Assistant Professor in Watershed Science, Policy, and Education Lake Champlain Sea Grant University of Vermont Lake Champlain Sea Grant (LCSG) is seeking an Extension Assistant Professor to serve, businesses and other stakeholders in the Lake Champlain Basin to make informed decisions regarding

Hayden, Nancy J.

10

Variable Marine Reservoir Effect in Bivalves From Champlain Sea Sediments in the Lake Champlain Valley, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Champlain Sea was an inland sea that existed in the St. Lawrence lowlands and Lake Champlain Valley of eastern North America during the last deglaciation. At the beginning of its formation the Champlain Sea was in contact with the retreating Laurentide Ice Sheet, although the ice margin eventually retreated beyond the sea's extent. Its only connection to the open ocean was through the relatively narrow Gulf of St. Lawrence. The Champlain Sea must have had significant salinity stratification because it received freshwater runoff from the ice margin, Adirondack Mountains of New York State, and the Green Mountains of Vermont, as well as the entire discharge from the Great Lakes in the west. Age estimates for the Champlain Sea have traditionally been based on an abundance of bivalve and other marine fossils collected throughout the region; however, more recent studies based on terrestrial organic radiocarbon ages indicate that the Champlain Sea may be at least 500 - 1000 years younger than suggested by bivalve ages. We will present paired radiocarbon ages on terrestrial organic material and bivalve shells showing that a simple reservoir correction cannot be applied for all Champlain Sea bivalve ages. Hiatella arctica shells deposited in water depths of less than 100 m appear to be 500 - 800 14C years too old. Portlandia arctica shells deposited in water depths of greater than 200 m appear to be 1000 - 1500 14C years too old. The difference may be related to salinity stratification. Macoma balthica shells appear to be 1500 - 2000 14C years too old, possibly because they are filter feeders and were taking up old carbon from carbonate rich sediment.

Rayburn, J. A.; Cronin, T. M.; Manley, P. L.; Franzi, D. A.; Knuepfer, P. L.

2006-12-01

11

A life cycle approach to modeling sea lamprey population dynamics in the Lake Champlain basin to evaluate alternative control strategies  

E-print Network

A life cycle approach to modeling sea lamprey population dynamics in the Lake Champlain basin Population dynamics Lake Champlain Density dependence Fishery management Matrix modeling Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a nuisance species in the Laurentian Great Lakes and Lake Champlain that has

Marsden, Ellen

12

Movement of Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain Basin Eric A. Howe1, J. Ellen Marsden1,*, and Wayne Bouffard2  

E-print Network

Movement of Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain Basin Eric A. Howe1, J. Ellen Marsden1,*, and Wayne 05405 2U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lake Champlain Fish and Wildlife Resources Office 11 Lincoln species in the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain that have devastated native fish populations and hampered

Marsden, Ellen

13

Lake Trout Reproduction in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were driven to extirpation in Lake Champlain in the early 1900s. Possible causes include overharvest, predation on adults by sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, and predation on fry by rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax. Efforts to restore a lake trout fishery began in 1972 when a coordinated stocking program was initiated. Attempts to control sea lamprey populations

Brian J. Ellrott; J. Ellen Marsden

2004-01-01

14

Predation on emergent lake trout fry in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rehabilitation of extirpated lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain has been hindered by various biological and physiological impediments. Efforts to restore a lake trout fishery to Lake Champlain include hatchery stocking and sea lamprey control. Despite these management actions, there is little evidence of recruitment of naturally-produced fish in annual fall assessments. Spawning occurs

Jacob W. Riley; J. Ellen Marsden

2009-01-01

15

Evaluation of the Native Status of Sea Lampreys in Lake Champlain Based on Mitochondrial DNA Sequencing Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus parasitize a variety of recreationally, commercially, and ecologically important fishes in the north temperate Atlantic Ocean and some inland waters of North America, including the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain. This has resulted in the development of international, provincial, and state programs to suppress their abundance in some of these waters. This effort, in part,

John R. Waldman; Cheryl Grunwald; Isaac Wirgin

2006-01-01

16

Lake Champlain Maritime Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in the town of Vergennes, Vermont, the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum offers a lively interpretation of the maritime past and present in and around Lake Champlain. The materials on the site are divided into sections that include "Education", "Our Fleet", Shipwrecks & History", and "Ship's Store". The "Education" area is a good place to start, and it contains links to archived shipwreck webcasts and information for educators. Moving on, the "Shipwrecks & History" area features some of the Museum's Underwater Cultural Resources Survey Report and a brief narrative essay on the history of the Champlain Valley. Visitors with a scholarly bent may wish to check out the "Maritime Research Institute" area. Here they will find information about internships at the Institute and they can also read about the ongoing work at their conservation lab.

17

Exotic species in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lake Champlain basin contains substantially fewer exotic species (N=48) than the Great Lakes (N>180), in part due to its isolation from commercial traffic. Exotic species have been introduced by authorized and unauthorized stocking, bait buckets, use of ornamental plants, and through the Champlain and Chambly canals that link the lake to the Hudson River, Mohawk River, Erie Canal, and

J. Ellen Marsden; Michael Hauser

2009-01-01

18

Impacts of post-glacial lake drainage events and revised chronology of the Champlain Sea episode 13-9??ka  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lithologic, CHIRP (Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse) sonar, paleomagnetic, stable isotopic and micropaleontological analyses of sediment cores from Lake Champlain (New York, Vermont) were used to determine the age of the post-glacial Champlain Sea marine episode, the timing of salinity changes and their relationship to freshwater discharge from mid-continent glacial lakes. Calibrated radiocarbon ages on plant material provide an improved post-glacial chronology overcoming problems from shell ages caused by carbon reservoir effects up to 1500??yr. The final drainage of glacial Lake Vermont and the inception of marine conditions occurred ??? 13.1-12.8??ka (kiloannum, calendar years) and a sharp decrease in Champlain Sea salinity from ??? 25 to 7-8??psu (practical salinity units) occurred approximately 11.4-11.2??ka. Reduced salinity was most likely caused by rapid freshwater inflow eastward from glacial Lake Algonquin into the Champlain Basin. The timing of inferred freshwater event coincides with the widespread climatic cooling called the Preboreal Oscillation.

Cronin, T. M.; Manley, P.L.; Brachfeld, S.; Manley, T.O.; Willard, D.A.; Guilbault, J.-P.; Rayburn, J.A.; Thunell, R.; Berke, M.

2008-01-01

19

Glacial Lake Outflow via the St. Lawrence Pathway Prior to the Champlain Sea Invasion and During the Younger Dryas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the Laurentide Ice Sheet receded north of the Adirondacks, Glacial Lake Frontenac overflowed to Glacial Lake Vermont (Coveville phase)-Albany. The water level of Lake Frontenac fell by about 90 m, as a result of the drawdown, glacio-isostatic rebound and outflow of Lake Vermont-Albany through the Hudson Valley to the North Atlantic Ocean. Lake level stabilized to form the Belleville, Upper Fort-Ann, post-Sherbrooke phase of glacial lakes post-Iroquois, Vermont and Memphremagog, respectively. Initially, the confluent fresh-water body extended from the Lake Ontario basin into the upper St. Lawrence Valley, Lake Champlain basin and along the Appalachian piedmont. The outlet of the lake was the Upper Fort-Ann sill, along the Hudson pathway (Lake Albany). The expansion of the lake was time transgressive and related to the regional ice retreat. As the lake expanded across the lowlands, into the Ottawa and central St. Lawrence valleys, and along the Appalachian piedmont, its level fell by about 20 m, from the Belleville to the Trenton strandlines on the western side of the Adirondacks, and about 26 m (Rayburn, 2004) from the Upper to the Lower Fort-Ann strandlines in the Lake Champlain basin. The extent of the lake during its final stage is estimated at about 30,000 km2. Varves deposited in the deeper parts of the lake are characterized by the ostracode Candona subtriangulata. Varve counts from several reference sections provide an approximate duration for the glaciolacustrine phase in different parts of the lowlands. They range from about 50 to 30 yr in the lower Ottawa Valley, where the estimated depth was 180 to 200 m, about 100 yr along the Appalachian piedmont and, tentatively, to more than 160 yr in the Lake Champlain basin (Rayburn et al., 2005). The lake overflowed/drained suddenly to the east, toward the western arm of the Goldthwait Sea, in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence, and hence into the North Atlantic Ocean. During this event, the water level fell by about 50 to 40 m to the highest strandline of the Champlain Sea. The timing and volume of this fresh-water discharge are quantified to allow assessment of its potential impact on the thermohaline circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean, and whether it could have triggered the cold Younger Dryas episode. The overflow occurred within a one-year span between 11.2 and 10.9 14C ka BP or 13.2 and 12.85 cal ka BP, close to the onset of the Younger Dryas cold interval. The total freshwater outflow through the St. Lawrence pathway comprised the one-year overflow phase (about 1500 km3), an early mixing phase of fresh and marine waters in the Champlain Sea domain (about 400 km3 for several years), a rapid collapse of the ice margin in the lowlands during about 250 yr and, during the Younger Dryas, several outburst floods from glacial Lake Algonquin into the Champlain Sea through the middle Ottawa Valley.

Occhietti, S.; Anderson, T. W.; Karrow, P. F.; Lewis, M. C.; Mott, R. J.; Parent, M.; Richard, P. J.; Rodrigues, C. G.; Stea, R.

2005-12-01

20

The reconstruction of the Lake Champlain sidewheel steamer Champlain II  

E-print Network

, but was in service only a few years before she was dramatically wrecked on the night of July 16, 1875. Champlain II holds an important place in the development of steamships on Lake Champlain. This thesis examines the historical and economic background of Champlain...

Baldwin, Elizabeth Robinson

1997-01-01

21

33 CFR 117.993 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.993 Section 117...Requirements Vermont 117.993 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2013-07-01

22

33 CFR 117.993 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.993 Section 117...Requirements Vermont 117.993 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2012-07-01

23

33 CFR 117.797 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.797 Section 117...Requirements New York 117.797 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2010-07-01

24

33 CFR 117.993 - Lake Champlain.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.993 Section 117...Requirements Vermont 117.993 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2014-07-01

25

33 CFR 117.797 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.797 Section 117...Requirements New York 117.797 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2013-07-01

26

33 CFR 117.797 - Lake Champlain.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.797 Section 117...Requirements New York 117.797 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2014-07-01

27

33 CFR 117.797 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.797 Section 117...Requirements New York 117.797 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2012-07-01

28

33 CFR 117.993 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.993 Section 117...Requirements Vermont 117.993 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2011-07-01

29

33 CFR 117.797 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.797 Section 117...Requirements New York 117.797 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2011-07-01

30

33 CFR 117.993 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.993 Section 117...Requirements Vermont 117.993 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2010-07-01

31

78 FR 14444 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Champlain, Swanton, VT  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Champlain, Swanton, VT AGENCY: Coast...Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Champlain, Swanton, VT'' in the Federal...reads as follows: Sec. 117.993 Lake Champlain. * * * * * (c) The draw...

2013-03-06

32

The origin and distribution of subbottom sediments in southern Lake Champlain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three units, correlatable with recent Lake Champlain, late-glacial marine Champlain Sea, and proglacial Lake Vermont sediments, have been identified from about 200 km of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles and eight piston cores collected in southern Lake Champlain. Lake Vermont deposits are nonfossiliferous and range from thin to absent nearshore and on bedrock highs to more than 126 m thick near Split Rock Point. Champlain Sea sediments contain marine foraminifers and ostracodes and are fairly uniform in thickness (20-30 m). Recent Lake Champlain sediments range in thickness from 0 to 25 m. Average sedimentation rates for Lake Vermont are considerably higher (4-8 cm/yr) than those for the Champlain Sea (0.8-1.2 cm/yr) and Lake Champlain (0.14-0.15 cm/yr). Bedrock, till, and deltaic and alluvial deposits were also identified on the acoustic records but were not sampled. An unconformity separating Champlain Sea deposits from Lake Champlain deposits is associated with numerous benches at water depths of 20-30 m. These benches, the alluvial deposits, and the onset of deltaic deposition are probably associated with a low water level stillstand at the close of the Champlain Sea episode.

Freeman-Lynde, R. P.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Folger, D. W.; Wiley, B. H.; Hewett, M. J.

1980-09-01

33

The origin and distribution of subbottom sediments in southern Lake Champlain.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

3 units, correlatable with recent Lake Champlain, late-glacial marine Champlain Sea, and proglacial Lake Vermont sediments, have been identified from seismic reflection profiles and 8 piston cores. Lake Vermont deposits are nonfossiliferous and range from thin to absent nearshore and on bedrock highs to more than 126 m thick near Split Rock Point. Champlain Sea sediments contain marine foraminifers and ostracodes and are fairly uniform in thickness (20-30 m). Recent Lake Champlain sediments range in thickness from 0 to 25 m. Average sedimentation rates for Lake Vermont are considerably higher (4-8 cm/yr) than those for the Champlain Sea (0.8-1.2 cm/yr) and Lake Champlain (0.14-0.15 cm/yr). Bedrock, till, and deltaic and alluvial deposits were also identified.- from Authors

Freeman-Lynde, R. P.; Hutchinson, D.R.; Folger, D.W.; Wiley, B.H.; Hewett, M.J.

1980-01-01

34

Pollen and stratigraphic evidence for abrupt climate changes in the Northeastern United States: Lake Champlain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Champlain, located between New York and Vermont in the northeastern United States, was formed during the last deglaciation. Sediments deposited in Lake Champlain preserve a detailed record of climate intervals including deposition from pro-glacial Lake Vermont, a marine excursion represented by the Champlain Sea, and Holocene lacustrine sedimentation of Lake Champlain. Short sediment cores (<5 m) from southern Lake Champlain were recovered in 2004 by the R/V Melosira in a joint USGS-Middlebury College study. These cores include sediments deposited during the Champlain Sea and Lake Champlain phases of deposition, and pollen assemblages are used to a) establish an independent dating tool and b) evaluate timing of plant community responses to post-glacial climate change and centennial-scale climate variability. Pollen records from five sediment cores collected in southern Lake Champlain are compared with well-dated records from other lakes and bogs within the limits of Champlain Sea deposition, and sites bordering the sea, to establish a pollen-based chronology for the area. Radiocarbon dates on shells from the cores are compared to the pollen-based chronology to evaluate local reservoir effects on shell dates and redefine the timing of marine and lacustrine depositional phases. Sequences of radiocarbon dates from these cores suggest that temporal resolution at these sites is sufficient to interpret patterns of successive colonizing forests following ice-margin retreat and centennial-scale climate variability at the end of the deglacial interval.

Willard, D. A.; Cronin, T. M.; Manley, P. L.

2005-12-01

35

Constraints on Lake Agassiz discharge through the late-glacial Champlain Sea (St. Lawrence Lowlands, Canada) using salinity proxies and an estuarine circulation model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the last deglaciation, abrupt freshwater discharge events from proglacial lakes in North America, such as glacial Lake Agassiz, are believed to have drained into the North Atlantic Ocean, causing large shifts in climate by weakening the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water and decreasing ocean heat transport to high northern latitudes. These discharges were caused by changes in lake drainage outlets, but the duration, magnitude and routing of discharge events, factors which govern the climatic response to freshwater forcing, are poorly known. Abrupt discharges, called floods, are typically assumed to last months to a year, whereas more gradual discharges, called routing events, occur over centuries. Here we use estuarine modeling to evaluate freshwater discharge from Lake Agassiz and other North American proglacial lakes into the North Atlantic Ocean through the St. Lawrence estuary around 11.5 ka BP, the onset of the Preboreal oscillation (PBO). Faunal and isotopic proxy data from the Champlain Sea, a semi-isolated, marine-brackish water body that occupied the St. Lawrence and Champlain Valleys from 13 to 9 ka, indicate salinity fell about 7-8 (range of 4-11) around 11.5 ka. Model results suggest that minimum (1600 km3) and maximum (9500 km3) estimates of plausible flood volumes determined from Lake Agassiz paleoshorelines would produce the proxy-reconstructed salinity decrease if the floods lasted <1 day to 5 months and 1 month to 2 years, respectively. In addition, Champlain Sea salinity responds very quickly to the initiation (within days) and cessation (within weeks) of flooding events. These results support the hypothesis that a glacial lake flood, rather than a sustained routing event, discharged through the St. Lawrence Estuary during the PBO. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Katz, B.; Najjar, R.G.; Cronin, T.; Rayburn, J.; Mann, M.E.

2011-01-01

36

77 FR 67319 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Champlain, Swanton, VT  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Champlain, Swanton, VT AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...paragraph (d) to read as follows: Sec. 117.993 Lake Champlain. * * * * * (c) The draw of the New England...

2012-11-09

37

Technical Report No. 54 Updating the Lake Champlain  

E-print Network

Technical Report No. 54 Updating the Lake Champlain Basin Land Use Data to Improve Prediction for Lake Champlain Basin Program May 2007 PUBLICATION SERIES THIS PROGRAM IS SPONSORED BY U of Natural Resources Clean and Clear Action Plan funds through the Lake Champlain Basin Program. (General

Vermont, University of

38

Modeling the Atmospheric Deposition of Mercury to Lake Champlain  

E-print Network

Modeling the Atmospheric Deposition of Mercury to Lake Champlain (from Anthropogenic Sources at the Workshop on Coordination of Atmospheric Deposition Research in the Lake Champlain Basin June 5-6, 2003 be used in coordination -- to understand Hg in Lake Champlain enough to be able to fix problems #12;Three

39

A Guide to the Zooplankton of Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This key was developed by undergraduate research students working on a project with NYDEC and the Lake Champlain Monitoring program to develop long-term data sets for Lake Champlain plankton. Funding for development of this key was provided by, the Lake Champlain Basin Program through the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYDEC). The

Karen J. Carling; Ian M. Ater; Megan R. Pellam; Adam M. Bouchard; Timothy B. Mihuc

2004-01-01

40

Lake Champlain Primary Investigator: Gary Fahnenstiel -NOAA GLERL  

E-print Network

Lake Champlain Primary Investigator: Gary Fahnenstiel - NOAA GLERL Co-Investigators: Mike McCormick Overview GLERL is participating in a large-scale multi-institutional program to study Lake Champlain: The Lake Champlain Research Consortium (LCRC), NOAA/GLERL and NOAA/ARL. GLERL's primary role has been

41

NOAA Technical Memorandum GLERL-146 PROCEEDINGS OF NOAA LAKE CHAMPLAIN  

E-print Network

NOAA Technical Memorandum GLERL-146 PROCEEDINGS OF NOAA LAKE CHAMPLAIN PROGRAM REVIEW - OCTOBER 29;4 #12;5 Proceedings of NOAA Lake Champlain Program Review October 29-30 2008. G.L. Fahnenstiel, M.J. McCormick, and R. Artz 1.0 INTRODUCTION On October 29-30 2008, a formal review of NOAA's Lake Champlain Research

42

Strategic Plan for Lake Champlain Fisheries Miscellaneous Publication 2010-03  

E-print Network

Strategic Plan for Lake Champlain Fisheries Miscellaneous Publication 2010-03 #12;The Great Lakes Strickland Virginia West William W. Taylor October 2010 #12;Strategic Plan for Lake Champlain Fisheries J.......................................................................................................................... 2 DESCRIPTION OF LAKE CHAMPLAIN

Marsden, Ellen

43

75 FR 22228 - Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone, NY and VT  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone, NY...around the construction zone of the Lake Champlain Bridge between Crown Point, New...transiting the navigable waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of the...

2010-04-28

44

75 FR 21990 - Safety Zone; Extended Debris Removal in the Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone (Between...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Extended Debris Removal in the Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone (Between...waters immediately surrounding the Lake Champlain Bridge construction zone between...Transportation demolished the Lake Champlain Bridge after an inspection...

2010-04-27

45

Climatology of Lake-Effect Precipitation Events over Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides the first long-term climatological analysis of lake-effect precipitation events that de- veloped in relation to a small lake (having a surface area of #1500 km2). The frequency and environmental conditions favorable for Lake Champlain lake-effect precipitation were examined for the nine winters (October-March) from 1997\\/98 through 2005\\/06. Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) data from Burlington, Vermont, were

Neil F. Laird; Jared Desrochers; Melissa Payer

2009-01-01

46

Seismic and Core Stratigraphic Evidence for Abrupt Climate Changes in the Northeast: Lake Champlain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Champlain is the sixth largest freshwater lake in the United States having a mean elevation of 92.5 feet above sea level and a surficial area of 437 square miles. Located between the New York and Vermont it was formed during the last deglaciation. Three periods of sedimentation characterize the post-glacial record: pro-glacial Lake Vermont, a marine excursion, the Champlain Sea, and Holocene lacustrine sedimentation of the present-day Lake Champlain. During 2004 and 2005 high-resolution CHIRP sonar profiles were obtained from several depositional basins with the objective of further defining these three stages of the lake's history and to identify potential long coring sites for high-resolution paleoclimate records. Five short cores strategically sampled key seismic horizons and new 14C dates on shell and plant material allowed us to determine carbon reservoir on shell dates, and to redefine the timing of lacustrine and marine phases of deposition. The thickness of each varies throughout the basins and the new chronology defines sedimentation rates between the deeper basins and shallower regions. Our results show that the Champlain Sea correlates at least in part with the Younger Dryas; Lake Vermont sediments are pre-Younger Dryas in age. Rapid sedimentation rates and high temporal resolution permit detailed analysis of the termination of Younger Dryas event. In particular, three widespread erosional horizons and changes in benthic foraminifera occur during the Champlain Sea that may represent large fresh water discharges during the Younger Dryas.

Manley, P. L.; Cronin, T.; Brachfeld, S.; McGeehin, J.

2005-12-01

47

33 CFR 110.136 - Lake Champlain, NY and VT.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Champlain, NY and VT. 110.136 Section 110.136 Navigation...ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds 110.136 Lake Champlain, NY and VT. (a) Burlington Harbor, Vt....

2012-07-01

48

33 CFR 110.136 - Lake Champlain, NY and VT.  

...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Champlain, NY and VT. 110.136 Section 110.136 Navigation...ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds 110.136 Lake Champlain, NY and VT. (a) Burlington Harbor, Vt....

2014-07-01

49

33 CFR 110.136 - Lake Champlain, NY and VT.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Champlain, NY and VT. 110.136 Section 110.136 Navigation...ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds 110.136 Lake Champlain, NY and VT. (a) Burlington Harbor, Vt....

2010-07-01

50

33 CFR 110.136 - Lake Champlain, NY and VT.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Champlain, NY and VT. 110.136 Section 110.136 Navigation...ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds 110.136 Lake Champlain, NY and VT. (a) Burlington Harbor, Vt....

2013-07-01

51

33 CFR 110.136 - Lake Champlain, NY and VT.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Champlain, NY and VT. 110.136 Section 110.136 Navigation...ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds 110.136 Lake Champlain, NY and VT. (a) Burlington Harbor, Vt....

2011-07-01

52

A Comparison of Lake Trout Spawning, Fry Emergence, and Habitat Use in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Champlain  

E-print Network

is underway in all of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, but restoration has only been achieved in Lake Huron, in Lake Michi- gan, and in Lake Champlain in 2000­2003. Divers surveyed and assessed abundance in Lake Michi- gan and Parry Sound, and very high at one site in Lake Champlain. Egg deposition was lowest

Marsden, Ellen

53

Benthonic foraminiferal faunal and isotopic data for the postglacial evolution of the Champlain Sea*1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthonic foraminiferal faunal and isotopic data from Champlain Sea sediments (approximately 12,500 to 10,000 yr B.P. in age) in two piston cores from Lake Champlain provide a detailed, apparently continuous record of the evolution of the Champlain Sea. Cassidulina reniforme and Islandiella helenae are the dominant benthonic foraminifera during the initial phase of the Champlain Sea, and are replaced by Elphidium excavatum forma clavatum and Protelphidium orbiculare as the dominant species during the remainder of the sea's history. The oxygen-isotopic data show a gradual decrease in ?18O between approximately 12,500 and 10,900 yr B.P., followed by a more rapid decrease during the interval 10,900 to 10,000 yr B.P. The ?13C data have a similar trend as ?18O, with generally decreasing values up the section. The isotopic and faunal data suggest that nearly marine conditions were present in the initial plase of the Champlain Sea, followed by gradually decreasing salinities and increasing temperatures as the sea evolved. The beginning of the rapid isotopic decrease at approximately 10,900 yr B.P. marks the onset of the largest environmental change in the history of the Champlain Sea, probably reflecting a major pulse of meltwater from the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

Corliss, Bruce H.; Hunt, Allen S.; Keigwin, Lloyd D.

1982-05-01

54

Evidence from the Lake Champlain Valley for a later onset of the Champlain Sea and implications for late glacial meltwater routing to the North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean circulation models indicate that freshwater runoff from the North American continent during the last deglaciation may have had an effect on North Atlantic Ocean circulation, and thereby have altered regional climate. One such example is a flood from Lake Agassiz, which has been proposed by previous workers to have caused the onset of the Younger Dryas at around 12,850

J. A. Rayburn; D. A. Franzi; P. L. K. Knuepfer

2007-01-01

55

33 CFR 165.T01-0176 - Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point, New York and Chimney...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point... Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point... All navigable waters on Lake Champlain 300 yards to the north and...

2010-07-01

56

33 CFR 165.T01-0176 - Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point, New York and Chimney...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point... Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point... All navigable waters on Lake Champlain 300 yards to the north and...

2011-07-01

57

The eutrophication of Lake Champlain's northeastern arm: Insights from paleolimnological analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trophic history of Lake Champlain's northeastern arm was assessed using a multi-proxy paleolimnological approach to provide sub-basin specific information for restoration planning. Sediment cores collected from Missisquoi Bay, St. Albans Bay, and the central Northeast Arm (Inland Sea) were analyzed for nutrients, organic carbon, carbon stable isotopes, biogenic silica, pigments, diatoms and soft algae microfossils. Results indicate that this

Suzanne N. Levine; Andrea Lini; Milton L. Ostrofsky; Lynda Bunting; Heather Burgess; Peter R. Leavitt; Daun Reuter; Andrea Lami; Piero Guilizzoni; Elizabeth Gilles

58

The history and future of Lake Champlain's fishes and fisheries J. Ellen Marsden a,  

E-print Network

The history and future of Lake Champlain's fishes and fisheries J. Ellen Marsden a, , Richard W, physical, chemical, and biological alterations of Lake Champlain have resulted in the loss of two species Lakes Research. Introduction Following the European discovery of Lake Champlain in 1609 by its namesake

Marsden, Ellen

59

Survey of lake flooding from ERTS-1: Lake Champlain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery showing seasonal lake-level conditions in Lake-Champlain can be used to assess shoreline change and flooding extent. MSS bands 6 and 7 provide maximum land-water contrasts and are the most useful for shoreline location. Shoreline changes observed between ERTS coverages of October 10 (low water) and April 7 and 25 (high water) are readily apparent and enlargement of specific scenes by a factor of four provides data which can be transferred to a map base. The unique synoptic view provided by ERTS-1 will make it possible to map shoreline positions occurring at a specific lake stage. Due to present government concerns over abnormally high lake levels, resource management questions have been raised regarding the extent, nature, and occurrence of inundation magnitude of shoreline change, and lake volume change.

Lind, A. O. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

60

Glacial Lake Outflow via the St. Lawrence Pathway Prior to the Champlain Sea Invasion and During the Younger Dryas  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the Laurentide Ice Sheet receded north of the Adirondacks, Glacial Lake Frontenac overflowed to Glacial Lake Vermont (Coveville phase)-Albany. The water level of Lake Frontenac fell by about 90 m, as a result of the drawdown, glacio-isostatic rebound and outflow of Lake Vermont-Albany through the Hudson Valley to the North Atlantic Ocean. Lake level stabilized to form the Belleville,

S. Occhietti; T. W. Anderson; P. F. Karrow; M. C. Lewis; R. J. Mott; M. Parent; P. J. Richard; C. G. Rodrigues; R. Stea

2005-01-01

61

33 CFR 110.8 - Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. 110.8...Anchorage Areas 110.8 Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. (a) Ticonderoga...small cove at the westerly side of Lake Champlain, shoreward of a line...

2014-07-01

62

Lake Champlain 2010: A summary of recent research and monitoring initiatives Douglas E. Facey a,  

E-print Network

Lake Champlain 2010: A summary of recent research and monitoring initiatives Douglas E. Facey a, Aiken Center, 81 Carrigan Dr., University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA c Lake Champlain Research Institute, SUNY Plattsburgh, Plattsburgh, NY 12901, USA d Lake Champlain Basin Program, 54 West

Marsden, Ellen

63

Mapping cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Champlain's Missisquoi Bay using QuickBird and MERIS satellite data  

E-print Network

Mapping cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Champlain's Missisquoi Bay using QuickBird and MERIS-a) concentrations for the eutrophic waters of Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain (VT­QC) were retrieved from Envisat. Missisquoi Bay on the Vermont­Québec border in northern Lake Champlain is typical of many such waters, where

Vincent, Warwick F.

64

Impacts of Projected Climate Change over the Lake Champlain Basin in Vermont  

E-print Network

Impacts of Projected Climate Change over the Lake Champlain Basin in Vermont JUSTIN GUILBERT November 2013, in final form 22 May 2014) ABSTRACT The Lake Champlain basin is a critical ecological the twenty-first century. 1. Introduction The Lake Champlain basin is a 21 326-km2 watershed on the U

Beckage, Brian

65

33 CFR 110.8 - Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. 110.8...Anchorage Areas 110.8 Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. (a) Ticonderoga...small cove at the westerly side of Lake Champlain, shoreward of a line...

2013-07-01

66

33 CFR 110.8 - Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. 110.8...Anchorage Areas 110.8 Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. (a) Ticonderoga...small cove at the westerly side of Lake Champlain, shoreward of a line...

2011-07-01

67

33 CFR 110.8 - Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. 110.8...Anchorage Areas 110.8 Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. (a) Ticonderoga...small cove at the westerly side of Lake Champlain, shoreward of a line...

2012-07-01

68

33 CFR 110.8 - Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. 110.8...Anchorage Areas 110.8 Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. (a) Ticonderoga...small cove at the westerly side of Lake Champlain, shoreward of a line...

2010-07-01

69

THE TROPHIC STATUS AND PHOSPHORUS LOADINGS OF LAKE CHAMPLAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Information on the trophic status of the several basins of Lake Champlain is summarized, the amounts and distribution of total phosphorus loading into the lake are evaluated, and recommendations for further study are made. The general objective is to provide basic background info...

70

The evolution and distribution of methane in Lake Champlain sediments  

SciTech Connect

Regions of Lake Champlain sediments are acoustically impenetrable to the energy emitted from high resolution, low energy sub-bottom seismic profiling apparatus. This anomolous behavior is caused by the presence of interstitial methane gas which absorbs the wave energy and thus prevents the formation of well-defined seismic boundaries. Through gas chromatographic and carbon isotope analyses, the methane gas contained in the recent sediments of Lake Champlain has been demonstrated to be biogenic in origin. The production of biogenic methane occurs as a result of a series of coupled oxidation-reduction reactions occurring within the upper two meters beneath the sediment-water interface.

Thibodeau, P.M. (Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-03-01

71

Mass balance assessment for mercury in Lake Champlain.  

PubMed

A mass balance model for mercury in Lake Champlain was developed in an effort to understand the sources, inventories, concentrations, and effects of mercury (Hg) contamination in the lake ecosystem. To construct the mass balance model, air, water, and sediment were sampled as a part of this project and other research/monitoring projects in the Lake Champlain Basin. This project produced a STELLA-based computer model and quantitative apportionments of the principal input and output pathways of Hg for each of 13 segments in the lake. The model Hg concentrations in the lake were consistent with measured concentrations. Specifically, the modeling identified surface water inflows as the largest direct contributor of Hg into the lake. Direct wet deposition to the lake was the second largest source of Hg followed by direct dry deposition. Volatilization and sedimentation losses were identified as the two major removal mechanisms. This study significantly improves previous estimates of the relative importance of Hg input pathways and of wet and dry deposition fluxes of Hg into Lake Champlain. It also provides new estimates of volatilization fluxes across different lake segments and sedimentation loss in the lake. PMID:16433336

Gao, Ning; Armatas, N Gabriel; Shanley, James B; Kamman, Neil C; Miller, Eric K; Keeler, Gerald J; Scherbatskoy, Timothy; Holsen, Thomas M; Young, Thomas; McIlroy, Lyn; Drake, Stephen; Olsen, Bill; Cady, Carol

2006-01-01

72

Mass balance assessment for mercury in Lake Champlain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mass balance model for mercury in Lake Champlain was developed in an effort to understand the sources, inventories, concentrations, and effects of mercury (Hg) contamination in the lake ecosystem. To construct the mass balance model, air, water, and sediment were sampled as a part of this project and other research/monitoring projects in the Lake Champlain Basin. This project produced a STELLA-based computer model and quantitative apportionments of the principal input and output pathways of Hg for each of 13 segments in the lake. The model Hg concentrations in the lake were consistent with measured concentrations. Specifically, the modeling identified surface water inflows as the largest direct contributor of Hg into the lake. Direct wet deposition to the lake was the second largest source of Hg followed by direct dry deposition. Volatilization and sedimentation losses were identified as the two major removal mechanisms. This study significantly improves previous estimates of the relative importance of Hg input pathways and of wet and dry deposition fluxes of Hg into Lake Champlain. It also provides new estimates of volatilization fluxes across different lake segments and sedimentation loss in the lake. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

Gao, N.; Armatas, N.G.; Shanley, J.B.; Kamman, N.C.; Miller, E.K.; Keeler, G.J.; Scherbatskoy, T.; Holsen, T.M.; Young, T.; McIlroy, L.; Drake, S.; Olsen, B.; Cady, C.

2006-01-01

73

Micropaleontological Record of Post-glacial History in Lake Champlain and Adjacent Regions: Implications for Glacial Lake Drainage and Abrupt Climate Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-glacial lacustrine and marine sediments of the Lake Champlain region range from 20 to >50 meters in thickness presenting an opportunity to assess the timing of North American glacial lake drainage at multidecadal timescales and evaluate its effect on North Atlantic salinity and abrupt climate events 13.5 to 10 kyr B.P. High-resolution analysis of foraminifera and ostracodes from cores taken onshore in the Plattsburgh, N.Y. vicinity and southern Quebec and offshore in southern Lake Champlain reveal complex changes in salinity during and after the transition from pro-glacial Lake Vermont (Lake Candona in Canada) to marine sedimentation in the Champlain Sea. The microfaunal sequence (bottom to top) includes: non-marine ostracodes ( Candona) in lacustrine varves, foraminiferal assemblages (common Cassidulina reniforme), another interval of Candona-bearing sediments (sometimes containing foraminifera), and, finally, sediments from the main phase of the Champlain sea episode containing diverse foraminiferal and marine ostracode assemblages. A decrease in salinity during the Champlain Sea is also in evidence from the shift in dominance of distinct variants of Elphidium in the deep basin. The marine episode ended with a progressive salinity decrease and the formation of Lake Champlain about 10 kyr B.P. Observed salinity changes could be caused by catastrophic fresh-water influx from large glacial lakes west of the Lake Champlain region, meltwater from the retreating Laurentide Ice Sheet margin, diminished influx of marine water from the St. Lawrence due to changes in the position of the ice sheet margin and isostatic adjustment, or a combination of factors. The ages of these events were determined by estimating the reservoir effect on radiocarbon dates on marine shells through comparison with AMS dates on plant material and palynology, and shed light on the hypothesis that glacial lake discharges catalyzed abrupt climate events.

Cronin, T. M.; Manley, P. L.; Guilbault, J.; Berke, M.; Rayburn, J. A.; Franzi, D. A.; Knuepfer, P. L.

2005-12-01

74

Numerical studies of the 4-day oscillation in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The summer thermocline of Lake Champlain, which is found at depths of 20-30 m, oscillates with typical vertical amplitudes of 20-40 m and periods of ~4 days. Fluctuations at the ends of the lake are opposite in phase and accompanied in the central lake by strong shears across the thermocline. These are basin-wide baroclinic disturbances which are forced by wind.

Kenneth Hunkins; Thomas O. Manley; Patricia Manley; James Saylor

1998-01-01

75

ERTS-1 imagery of the Lake Champlain region: A first look  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. First-look analysis of RBV imagery of Lake Champlain and adjacent areas provided the following information on land and water resources: (1) location and shape of islands over 200 meters at narrowest part; (2) location of manmade structures at least 10 meters across; (3) location of shoreline; (4) identification of algal blooms and major turbidity boundary; (5) identification of lake bottom features in sandy, shallow areas; (6) identification of major lake shore wetland and floodplain wetlands; (7) location of major streams; (8) identification of ice marginal deposits of major proportions and former shorelines of Champlain Sea; (9) identification of wooded areas, open land, and built-up areas.

Lind, A. O. (principal investigator); Henson, E. B.; Olson, J.; Wagner, W. P.

1972-01-01

76

Effect of Density and Age on Larval Sea Lamprey Growth and Survival in Three Lake Champlain Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-1 and age-3 larval sea lamprey were separately held in circular cages (0.16 m) with 30 cm of optimal habitat for one year. The five treatments for each age class were: 25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 larvae\\/m. Growth of age-1 larvae was significantly higher than age-3 larvae (P<0.006), although survival was not significantly different between ages (P<0.546). Density treatments

Adam Zerrenner

2004-01-01

77

POLICY OPTIONS FOR REDUCING PHOSPHORUS LOADING IN LAKE CHAMPLAIN: FINAL REPORT TO THE LAKE CHAMPLAIN BASIN PROGRAM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This report describes the processes and outcomes of the project titled 'Developing and Assessing Policy Options for Reducing Phosphorus Loading in Lake Champlain.' While coordinated by Winrock International, this effort drew heavily on the input of nationally recognized scientists, economists, and p...

78

Investigating public preferences for managing Lake Champlain using a choice experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lake Champlain Basin in Vermont and New York, USA and Quebec, Canada includes a large lake and watershed with complex management issues. A transboundary comprehensive management plan prepared for the lake includes 11 goals across many issue areas. We developed a choice experiment to examine public preferences for alternative Lake Champlain management scenarios across these issue areas. Five ecosystem

Robyn L. Smyth; Mary C. Watzin; Robert E. Manning

2009-01-01

79

Numerical studies of the 4-day oscillation in Lake Champlain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The summer thermocline of Lake Champlain, which is found at depths of 20-30 m, oscillates with typical vertical amplitudes of 20-40 m and periods of 4 days. Fluctuations at the ends of the lake are opposite in phase and accompanied in the central lake by strong shears across the thermocline. These are basin-wide baroclinic disturbances which are forced by wind. A numerical, one-dimensional, two-layer, shallow-water model incorporating nonlinear and frictional effects in a rectangular basin forced by wind was first tested with idealized wind impulses. The results do not resemble the observed thermocline motion. However, when this simple model is forced with wind data from a nearby shore site, there is reasonable agreement between the model results and observed long-period thermocline motions in Lake Champlain. Dispersion effects appear to be negligible here. This contrasts with other long, narrow lakes where dispersion effects are important and internal surges are followed by wave trains resembling the soliton solutions of the Korteweg-deVries equation. A possible explanation for the different regime in Lake Champlain may be found in its unique bathymetry with sloping bottom at the ends and numerous embayments on the sides that provide traps to collect wind-driven warm water and then release it slowly during recovery of equilibrium, preventing the formation of steep fronts and soliton wave trains.

Hunkins, Kenneth; Manley, Thomas O.; Manley, Patricia; Saylor, James

1998-08-01

80

Mercury in the pelagic food web of Lake Champlain.  

PubMed

Lake Champlain continues to experience mercury contamination resulting in public advisories to limit human consumption of top trophic level fish such as walleye. Prior research suggested that mercury levels in biota could be modified by differences in ecosystem productivity as well as mercury loadings. We investigated relationships between mercury in different trophic levels in Lake Champlain. We measured inorganic and methyl mercury in water, seston, and two size fractions of zooplankton from 13 sites representing a range of nutrient loading conditions and productivity. Biomass varied significantly across lake segments in all measured ecosystem compartments in response to significant differences in nutrient levels. Local environmental factors such as alkalinity influenced the partitioning of mercury between water and seston. Mercury incorporation into biota was influenced by the biomass and mercury content of different ecosystem strata. Pelagic fish tissue mercury was a function of fish length and the size of the mercury pool associated with large zooplankton. We used these observations to parameterize a model of mercury transfers in the Lake Champlain food web that accounts for ecosystem productivity effects. Simulations using the mercury trophic transfer model suggest that reductions of 25-75% in summertime dissolved eplimnetic total mercury will likely allow fish tissue mercury concentrations to drop to the target level of 0.3 ?g g(-1) in a 40-cm fish in all lake segments. Changes in nutrient loading and ecosystem productivity in eutrophic segments may delay any response to reduced dissolved mercury and may result in increases in fish tissue mercury. PMID:22193540

Miller, Eric K; Chen, Celia; Kamman, Neil; Shanley, James; Chalmers, Ann; Jackson, Brian; Taylor, Vivien; Smeltzer, Eric; Stangel, Pete; Shambaugh, Angela

2012-04-01

81

Mercury in the Pelagic Food Web of Lake Champlain  

PubMed Central

Lake Champlain continues to experience mercury contamination resulting in public advisories to limit human consumption of top trophic level fish such as walleye. Prior research suggested that mercury levels in biota could be modified by differences in ecosystem productivity as well as mercury loadings. We investigated relationships between mercury in different trophic levels in Lake Champlain. We measured inorganic and methyl mercury in water, seston, and two size fractions of zooplankton from 13 sites representing a range of nutrient loading conditions and productivity. Biomass varied significantly across lake segments in all measured ecosystem compartments in response to significant differences in nutrient levels. Local environmental factors such as alkalinity influenced the partitioning of mercury between water and seston. Mercury incorporation into biota was influenced by the biomass and mercury content of different ecosystem strata. Pelagic fish tissue mercury was a function of fish length and the size of the mercury pool associated with large zooplankton. We used these observations to parameterize a model of mercury transfers in the Lake Champlain food web that accounts for ecosystem productivity effects. Simulations using the mercury trophic transfer model suggest that reductions of 25 to 75% in summertime dissolved eplimnetic total mercury will likely allow fish tissue mercury concentrations to drop to the target level of 0.3 g g?1 in a 40-cm fish in all lake segments. Changes in nutrient loading and ecosystem productivity in eutrophic segments may delay any response to reduced dissolved mercury and may result in increases in fish tissue mercury. PMID:22193540

Chen, Celia; Kamman, Neil; Shanley, James; Chalmers, Ann; Jackson, Brian; Taylor, Vivien; Smeltzer, Eric; Stangel, Pete; Shambaugh, Angela

2013-01-01

82

Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

2013-01-01

83

Environmental study of ERTS-1 imagery: Lake Champlain and Vermont  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmental concerns of the State of Vermont currently being stressed include water quality in Lake Champlain and a state-wide land use and capability plan. Significant results obtained from ERTS-1 relate directly to the above concerns. Industrial water pollution and turbidity in Lake Champlain have been identified and mapped and the ERTS pollution data will be used in the developing court suit which Vermont has initiated against the polluters. ERTS imagery has also provided a foundation for updating and revising land use inventories. Major classes of land use have been identified and mapped, and substantial progress has been made toward the mapping of such land use divisions as crop and forest type, and wetlands.

Lind, A. O.; Henson, E. B.; Pelton, J. O.

1973-01-01

84

Mapping Cyanobacteria Blooms in Lake Champlain at Multiple ScaleMapping Cyanobacteria Blooms in Lake Champlain at Multiple Scales:s: QuickBirdQuickBird and MERIS Satellite Dataand MERIS Satellite Data  

E-print Network

Mapping Cyanobacteria Blooms in Lake Champlain at Multiple ScaleMapping Cyanobacteria Blooms in Lake Champlain at Multiple Scales:s: QuickBirdQuickBird and MERIS Satellite Dataand MERIS Satellite Data Harmful algal blooms in Lake Champlain (VT-NY-QC) are an increasingly serious concern. Such blooms

Morrissey, Leslie A.

85

Hydrodynamic Studies on Lake Champlain Primary Investigator(s): Gary Fahnenstiel -NOAA GLERL and Michael McCormick  

E-print Network

Hydrodynamic Studies on Lake Champlain Primary Investigator(s): Gary Fahnenstiel - NOAA GLERL studies have been underway on Lake Champlain since 1990 and is being expanded to include novel lagrangian of Lake Champlain have been very difficult to obtain using long- term Eulerian measurement techniques due

86

The Age, Growth, and Feeding Habits of the Whitefish, Coregonus Clupeaformis (Mitchell), of Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is based on 120 whitefish collected in northern Lake Champlain (Missisquoi Bay) in 1930 and on 175 whitefish taken in southern Lake Champlain in 1931. Since the whitefish population had not been exploited commercially after 1912 in United States waters and after 1915 in Canadian waters, its study should be of interest in showing the characteristics of a

John Van Oosten; Hilary J. Deason

1939-01-01

87

Long-term patterns in Lake Champlain's zooplankton: 19922010  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined patterns in Lake Champlain zooplankton abundance from 1992 to 2010 using summer data from five study sites. Rotifer abundance (#\\/m3) for many common taxa such as Polyarthra, Kellicottia, and Keratella declined lakewide in the mid-1990s which coincided with the invasion of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) into Lake Champlain. The only rotifer to increase in density following zebra mussel

Timothy B. Mihuc; Fred Dunlap; Casey Binggeli; Luke Myers; Carrianne Pershyn; Amanda Groves; Allison Waring

88

Wet deposition of mercury and ambient mercury concentrations at a site in the Lake Champlain basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Waters program, established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, mandated that atmospheric deposition of hazardous air pollutants to Lake Champlain (including Hg) be assessed. An assessment of the magnitude and seasonal variation of atmospheric Hg deposition in the Lake Champlain basin was initiated in December 1992 with one year of event precipitation collection, as well as collection

J. Burke; M. Hoyer; G. Keeler; T. Scherbatskoy

1995-01-01

89

A Comparison of Lake Trout Spawning, Fry Emergence, and Habitat Use in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restoration of self-sustaining populations of lake trout is underway in all of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, but restoration has only been achieved in Lake Superior and in Parry Sound, Lake Huron. We evaluated progress toward restoration by comparing spawning habitat availability, spawner abundance, egg and fry density, and egg survival in Parry Sound in Lake Huron, in Lake

J. Ellen Marsden; Brian J. Ellrott; Randall M. Claramunt; Jory L. Jonas; John D. Fitzsimons

2005-01-01

90

Evidence of Lacustrine Bedforms in Lake Champlain, Vermont  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution CHIRP seismic profiles reveal the presence of two large lacustrine sediment drifts (Drifts A and B) located in Lake Champlain's Juniper Deep. Both drifts are positive features composed of highly laminated sediments overlying trough-filling acoustically-transparent sediment. Both drifts are oriented approximately north-south and are parallel to a steep ridge along the eastern shore of the basin. Drift A, located at the bottom of a structural trough, is classified as a confined, elongate drift that transitions northward to become a system of mudwaves. Drift B is perched atop a structural high to the west of Drift A and is classified as a detached elongate drift. Bottom current depositional control was inferred from the orientations of the bedforms and modern lake circulation patterns. Sediment thicknesses and volume estimates were used to create isopach maps and 3-dimensional images detailing drift evolution. Sediment cores were taken at the crest and at the edges of the drifts. Drift source, deposition, and evolution will be discussed in the context of the regional history of the Lake Champlain Valley.

Manley, P. L.; Hayo, K.

2007-12-01

91

Modeling invasive species spread in Lake Champlain via evolutionary computations.  

PubMed

We use a reaction diffusion equation, together with a genetic algorithm approach for model selection to develop a general modeling framework for biological invasions. The diffusion component of the reaction diffusion model is generalized to include dispersal and advection. The reaction component is generalized to include both linear and non-linear density dependence, and Allee effect. A combination of the reaction diffusion and genetic algorithm is able to evolve the most parsimonious model for invasive species spread. Zebra mussel data obtained from Lake Champlain, which demarcates the states of New York and Vermont, is used to test the appropriateness of the model. We estimate the minimum wave spread rate of Zebra mussels to be 22.5 km/year. In particular, the evolved models predict an average northward advection rate of 60.6 km/year (SD 1.9), which compares very well with the rate calculated from the known hydrologic residence time of 60 km/year. A combination of a reaction diffusion model and a genetic algorithm is, therefore, able to adequately describe some of the hydrodynamic features of Lake Champlain and the spread of a typical invasive species--Zebra mussels within the lake. PMID:21293950

Osei, B M; Ellingwood, C D; Hoffmann, J P; Bentil, D E

2011-06-01

92

Pollution detection in Lake Champlain using ERTS-1 imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A major waste water discharge plume generated by a large paper mill along the New York shore of Lake Champlain was visually detected on ERTS-1 imagery. The plume is best displayed in 9.5 inch positive transparencies of MSS bands 4 and 5. Observation of the magnitude and extent of this plume is feasible, under magnification of 4 times. The chemical parameters of this plume have been documented by limnological studies. An enhancement technique useful for documenting the presence of waste water discharge plumes in Lake Champlain utilizes Polaroid MP-3 copy camera equipment and Spectral Data Corporation's multispectral viewer. The 9.5 inch, ERTS-1, positive transparency is enlarged using the Polaroid MP-3 copy camera to produce an enlarged lantern slide size positive transparency. These are projected through the multispectral viewer for enhancement and the scene is viewed directly on the screen or copied by an additional photographic step. The technique is simple and produces rapid results.

Lind, A. O. (principal investigator); Henson, E. B.

1972-01-01

93

Atmospheric mercury and trace metals in the Lake Champlain basin  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric mercury in the Lake Champlain basin is currently being investigated by UMAQL and the Vermont Monitoring Cooperative to assess the magnitude, deposition and seasonal variation of atmospheric mercury in the region. Measurements of mercury in precipitation and in ambient air (vapor and particulate phase) have been conducted at the Proctor Maple Research Center in Underhill, VT since December, 1992. Precipitation samples were collected on a daily event basis, and analyzed for total mercury. Rain samples of sufficient volume were also filtered to determine the percent of total mercury in the dissolved phase. Samples were analyzed for mercury using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. ICP-MS will also be used to quantify a number of other trace metals in the precipitation. Concentration ranges for mercury in the vapor phase, particulate phase and in precipitation for Under hill to date are 1.2--4.2 ng/m{sup 3}, 1--43 pg/m{sup 3} and 1.5--26 ng/L, respectively. Seasonal trends were evident, with higher concentrations in precipitation and greater wet deposition in the spring and summer months, whereas particulate mercury concentrations were elevated in winter months. Trace metal concentrations in particulates obtained from the NESCAUM network, in precipitation from ICP-MS analysis and meteorological associations will be used to investigate the sources of atmospheric mercury to the Lake Champlain basin.

Burke, J.M.; Rea, A.W.; Keeler, G.J. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Air Quality Lab.; Scherbatskoy, T. [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

1994-12-31

94

Lake Champlain hydrodynamic monitoring program--An overview  

SciTech Connect

The Vermont Waters Research Center (VWRC) sponsored Lake Champlain Hydrodynamic Monitoring Program began in June 1991 through a cooperative program between Middlebury College, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, and the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. This pilot program was designed to lead into a multi-year study of the internal mechanics of lake circulation (such as the variability of internal stratification, forcing and response functions, mixing, transport, and basin-basin exchange), bottom morphological studies relating to longterm flow patterns of the lake as well as sedimentation-rates. The field program incorporated three year-long taught-wire moorings along the thalweg of the central lake from Valcour Island to Thompson's Point in addition to several side-scan and hydrographic surveys. Each mooring consisted of a thermistory chain spanning the summer thermocline, 2 current meters (one above and one below the t-chain), and 3 equally-spaced sediment traps. Subsequent funding through NOAA expanded the field program to five year-long moorings within the central lake as well as the installation of a Passage Exchange Network (PEN) station at the Grand Isle bridge. Presently, a year and a half of data has been obtained from these programs. An overview of the program as well as results specifically relating to the internal seiche and its potential non-linear behavior, the strong bimodal structure of currents, inertial currents, thermal history, temporal and spatial variability, regions believed to have enhanced mixing, and basin-basin exchange.

Manley, T.O.; Manley, P.L. (Middlebury Coll., VT (United States). Geology Dept.); Saylor, J. (GLERL, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Hunkins, K.L. (LDGO, Palisades, NY (United States))

1993-03-01

95

Spatial and temporal variation in mercury bioaccumulation by zooplankton in Lake Champlain (North America)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trophic transfer of Hg across lakes within a region has been related to multiple environmental factors, but the nature of these relationships across distinct basins within individual large lakes is unknown. We investigated Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton in basins of differing trophic status in Lake Champlain (Vermont, USA) to determine the strongest predictors of Hg bioaccumulation. Zooplankton were sampled in

Celia Chen; Neil Kamman; Jason Williams; Deenie Bugge; Vivien Taylor; Brian Jackson; Eric Miller

96

Trace-element composition in wet deposition over Lake Champlain  

SciTech Connect

As part of our research program to characterize trace elements present in atmospheric particulate materials, we have determined the trace elements present in wet deposition events over Lake Champlain at monitoring sites in Willsboro and Moss Lake, New York, from samples collected each week between March 1992 and October 1993. No previous long-term trace-element data are available for weekly deposition events occurring over a 1 1/2-yr period. The concentrations of {approximately}40 elements have been determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), although not from within each sample. The concentrations of environmentally important anions SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} were determined by ion chromatography. Measurements of pH were made on each sample as well. Particular attention was paid to 7 of the 11 toxic elements (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, manganese, and selenium), whose control is mandated in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Of the remaining four, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy will be used to determine nickel, lead, and selenium concentrations, and mercury will be measured by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. These toxic trace elements are emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources and can be removed from the atmoshere by wet and dry deposition mechanisms.

Huang, X.; Olmez, I. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Fink, R.D. [Amherst College, MA (United States); Meier, S.; Galvin, P.

1994-12-31

97

Pollution monitoring in Lake Champlain using ERTS-1 imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Band 4 imagery of April 7 and 25 show contrasting pollution effects due to seasonal and discharge variations. The pollution plume emanating from the International Paper Co. mill just north of Fort Ticonderoga was first detected on October 10 ERTS-1 imagery and now has been documented during spring high lake level conditions. The plume was observed extending further to the north and east than under low water conditions of October 10. This northward extension reflects a stronger northward current flow expected in the turbid southern leg of Lake Champlain. The extensive plume of April 25 represents full plant operation while the April 5 scene shows some plume traces directly over the submerged diffuser, discharge pipe representing minimal discharge during weekend plant operation. The ERTS-1 documentation will be used in developing a model of plume behavior under varying environmental conditions and will hopefully serve to assist in a major resource decision pending at U.S. Supreme Court level.

Lind, A. O. (principal investigator); Henson, E. B.

1973-01-01

98

The Effect of Terrigenous Inputs on Spatial Patterns of Water Quality Indicators in South Lake, Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial patterns of measures of trophic state, optical properties and particle composition are documented for Lake Champlain, with particular emphasis on the southernmost shallow section (< 10 m deep, ? 55 km in length) known as South Lake, to depict the impacts of terrigenous inputs. The analysis is supported by two surveys conducted in 1998 for South Lake (thirteen sites)

Steven W. Effler; Carol M. Brooks; Mary Gail Perkins; Nicholas K. Ohrazda; David A. Matthews; David L. Johnson; Martin T. Auer; Jay A. Bloomfield; Scott O. Quinn

2000-01-01

99

Spatial and temporal comparisons of double-crested cormorant diets following the establishment of alewife in Lake Champlain, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing numbers of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) on Lake Champlain have caused concerns related to potential impacts on the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) population. However, with the establishment of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) in 2003, cormorant foraging may have changed. We examined cormorant diets from four areas of Lake Champlain to assess past, current, and potential future impacts of cormorants on

Robin L. DeBruyne; Travis L. DeVault; Adam E. Duerr; David E. Capen; Fred E. Pogmore; James R. Jackson; Lars G. Rudstam

100

Paper plant effluent in sediments of southern Lake Champlain  

SciTech Connect

In 1972--73 the authors collected an extensive set of geologic and geochemical data in southern Lake Champlain near the International Paper Company (IPC) plant. Much of the work was carried out in support of a suit filed by the Attorney General of Vermont against IPC for polluting the lake and against the State of New York for failing to enforce its environmental laws. In 1988, the authors were subpoenaed to present their data once again in class-action suit brought by a group of Vermont citizens against IPC for causing their property values to decline due to pollution of the air and of the lake waters. To update the earlier work, they collected nine cores upstream and downstream of the plant's effluent diffuser. They compared the new analyses of samples from the cores with the results obtained in the early 70's. In 1973, 2 years after the plant opened, sediment contaminated with effluent near the diffuser was 4.5 cm thick. In 1988, in the same area, sediment contaminated with effluent was 17 cm thick. In 15 years, water content increased form 72% to 85%, volatile solids from 7% to 20%, and organic carbon from 2% to 12%. Cl/Si and S/Si (not measured in 1972--73) were high only near the diffuser and were zero elsewhere. Contaminated sediment in the area of the diffuser appears to be accumulating at a rate of about 1 cm/yr. Twenty-two km upstream (south) from the plant, at an uncontaminated control location, the top, poorly consolidated layer was only 1 cm or less thick both in 1973 and in 1988. The suit was settled in favor of the plaintiffs for $5 million.

Haupt, R.S. (Vermont Agency of Transportation Materials and Research Div., Montpelier, VT (United States)); Folger, D.W. (Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA (United States))

1993-03-01

101

A Phosphorus Budget, Model, and Load Reduction Strategy For Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phosphorus budget and mass balance model were developed for Lake Champlain in order to identify load reductions necessary to attain interim in-lake total phosphorus concentration criteria established in a water quality agreement between New York, Quebec, and Vermont Total phosphorus loadings were measured from 31 tributaries, 88 wastewater discharges, and direct precipitation. Mean annual tributary loadings were estimated using

Eric Smeltzer; Scott Quinn

1996-01-01

102

Determination of critical source areas for phosphorous losses: Lake Champlain Basin, Vermont  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lake Champlain, located between Vermont, New York, and Quebec, exhibits eutrophication due to continuing phosphorus (P) inputs mainly from upstream nonpoint source areas. To address the Lake's eutrophication problem and as part of total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements, a state-level P reducti...

103

The Effects of Zebra Mussels on the Lower Planktonic Foodweb in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective grazing by zebra mussels has altered phytoplankton communities in many North American lakes, but the specific changes are not the same in each ecosystem. Because of this variation in response, we investigated the impacts of zebra mussels on the plankton community of Lake Champlain with two objectives: first to determine whether zebra mussels increased the dominance of potentially toxic

Emily Brines Miller; Mary C. Watzin

2007-01-01

104

SWAT modeling of Critical Source Area for Runoff and Phosphorus losses: Lake Champlain Basin, VT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lake Champlain, located between Vermont, New York, and Quebec, exhibits eutrophication due to continuing phosphorus (P) inputs mainly from upstream nonpoint source areas. To address the Lake's eutrophication problem and as part of total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements, a state-level P reducti...

105

Small-scale lacustrine drifts in Lake Champlain, Vermont  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High resolution CHIRP (Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse) seismic profiles reveal the presence of two lacustrine sediment drifts located in Lake Champlain's Juniper Deep. Both drifts are positive features composed of highly laminated sediments. Drift B sits on a basement high while Drift A is built on a trough-filling acoustically-transparent sediment unit inferred to be a mass-transport event. These drifts are oriented approximately northsouth and are parallel to a steep ridge along the eastern shore of the basin. Drift A, located at the bottom of a structural trough, is classified as a confined, elongate drift that transitions northward to become a system of upslope asymmetric mudwaves. Drift B is perched atop a structural high to the west of Drift A and is classified as a detached elongate drift. Bottom current depositional control was investigated using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) located across Drift A. Sediment cores were taken at the crest and at the edges of the Drift A and were dated. Drift source, deposition, and evolution show that these drifts are formed by a water column shear with the highest deposition occurring along its crest and western flank and began developing circa 87008800 year BP.

Manley, Patricia L.; Manley, T.O.; Hayo, Kathryn; Cronin, Thomas

2012-01-01

106

Spatial and temporal variation in mercury bioaccumulation by zooplankton in Lake Champlain (North America).  

PubMed

Trophic transfer of Hg across lakes within a region has been related to multiple environmental factors, but the nature of these relationships across distinct basins within individual large lakes is unknown. We investigated Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton in basins of differing trophic status in Lake Champlain (Vermont, USA) to determine the strongest predictors of Hg bioaccumulation. Zooplankton were sampled in Malletts Bay (oligotrophic) and Missisquoi Bay (eutrophic) in 2005-2008. Zooplankton in the eutrophic basin had lower concentrations of total Hg and MeHg than those in the oligotrophic basin in all years but 2007, when no bloom occurred in Missisquoi. In addition, Hg concentrations in seston and small zooplankton, sampled during 2009 at 12 sites spanning the lake, decreased with increasing phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass. Thus, Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton across basins in Lake Champlain is related to trophic status, as observed previously in multiple lake studies. PMID:21995871

Chen, Celia; Kamman, Neil; Williams, Jason; Bugge, Deenie; Taylor, Vivien; Jackson, Brian; Miller, Eric

2012-02-01

107

Spatial and temporal variation in mercury bioaccumulation by zooplankton in Lake Champlain (North America)  

PubMed Central

Trophic transfer of Hg across lakes within a region has been related to multiple environmental factors, but the nature of these relationships across distinct basins within individual large lakes is unknown. We investigated Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton in basins of differing trophic status in Lake Champlain (Vermont, USA) to determine the strongest predictors of Hg bioaccumulation. Zooplankton were sampled in Malletts Bay (oligotrophic) and Missisquoi Bay (eutrophic) in 20052008. Zooplankton in the eutrophic basin had lower concentrations of total Hg and MeHg than those in the oligotrophic basin in all years but 2007, when no bloom occurred in Missisquoi. In addition, Hg concentrations in seston and small zooplankton, sampled during 2009 at 12 sites spanning the lake, decreased with increasing phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass. Thus, Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton across basins in Lake Champlain is related to trophic status, as observed previously in multiple lake studies. PMID:21995871

Kamman, Neil; Williams, Jason; Bugge, Deenie; Taylor, Vivien; Jackson, Brian; Miller, Eric

2012-01-01

108

Physical processes driving high-speed currents in Lake Champlain bottom water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have examined current velocity profiles obtained at two sites in Lake Champlain to delineate physical processes causing high-speed currents near the lake bottom. Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP's) were deployed during the interval June--October, 1992 at mid-lake sites near Thompson's Point and Valcour Island. The instruments measured horizontal current velocity at 1 m intervals through the water column.

J. Saylor; J. Miller; T. O. Manley; P. L. Manley

1993-01-01

109

Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners from Lake Champlain sediments by Mysis relicta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Champlain often exceed the F.D.A. tolerance level of 2 [mu]g\\/g (wet weight). Of added concern are recent studies that suggest a relationship between the dioxin-like properties of non-ortho-substituted PCB congeners and impaired lake trout egg hatchability. Dietary accumulation of PCBs is thought to be an important exposure route for

Deborah C. Lester; Alan McIntosh

1994-01-01

110

Assessment of nutrient distributions in Lake Champlain using satellite remote sensing.  

PubMed

The introduction of nutrients to lakes causing eutrophic conditions is a major problem around the world. Proper monitoring and modeling are important to effectively manage eutrophication in lake waters. The goal is to develop remote sensing models for nutrients, total phosphorus and total nitrogen, in Lake Champlain. The remote sensing models were created using multivariate linear regression with the unique band combinations of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery based on the empirical relationship with the field observations. The resulting models successfully showed nutrient distributions in the most eutrophic part of Lake Champlain, Missisquoi Bay, with reasonable adjusted coefficient of determination values (R(2)=0.81 and 0.75 for total phosphorus and total nitrogen, respectively). The results show the feasibility and the utility of satellite imagery to detect spatial distributions of lake water quality constituents, which can be used to better understand nutrient distributions in Lake Champlain. This approach can be applicable to other lakes experiencing eutrophication assisting decision making when implementing Best Management Practices and other mitigation techniques to lakes. PMID:25193831

Isenstein, Elizabeth M; Park, Mi-Hyun

2014-09-01

111

Astronauts Conrad and Cooper slice cake on U.S.S. Lake Champlain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr. (left) and L. Gordon Cooper Jr. prepate to slice into the huge cake prepared for them by the cooks onboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Lake Champlain. They are using ornamental Navy swords for knives.

1965-01-01

112

Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Phosphates, Nitrates, and Silicates in Lake Champlain, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the limnological characteristics was conducted from January through November, 1970 of Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York, U.S.A. The seasonal and spatial distribution of soluble nitrate, total phosphate and reactive silicate concentrations from 20 stations are presented here.

Gerhard K. Gruendling; John L. Malanchuk

1974-01-01

113

Management-Induced Reproductive Failure and Breeding Dispersal in Double-Crested Cormorants on Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied breeding dispersal of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) associated with management practices that suppressed their reproduction on Lake Champlain in the northeastern United States. We implemented an experiment on one colony by spraying corn oil on cormorant eggs in portions of the colony and leaving other portions untreated. Gulls (Larus spp.) consumed cormorant eggs during the oiling process, but

ADAM E. DUERR; THERESE M. DONOVAN; DAVID E. CAPEN

2007-01-01

114

Distribution of pollutants from a new paper plant in southern Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

From November of 1973 to May of 1974, 15 arrays of sediment traps were placed along 33 km of southern Lake Champlain to sample the distribution of effluent from a large paper plant located on the western shore which had commenced operation in 1971. In the arrays located near the effluent diffuser pipeline as much as 2.3 cm of sediment

D. L. Mason; D. W. Folger; R. S. Haupt; R. R. McGirr; W. H. Hoyt

1977-01-01

115

Astronauts Cooper and Conrad arrive aboard U.S.S. Lake Champlain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A red-carpet welcome was staged for Astronauts L. Gordon Cooper Jr. and Charles Conrad Jr. as they arrive aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Lake Champlain. They had been recovered from the Atlantic after the splashdown of their Gemini 5 spacecraft.

1965-01-01

116

Native rainbow smelt and nonnative alewife distribution related to temperature and light gradients in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) recently became established in Lake Champlain and may compete with native rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) for food or consume larval rainbow smelt. The strength of this effect depends partly on the spatial and temporal overlap of different age groups of the two species; therefore, we need a better understanding of factors affecting alewife and rainbow smelt distributions

Paul W. Simonin; Donna L. Parrish; Lars G. Rudstam; Patrick J. Sullivan; Bernard Pientka

117

Streamflow Regime Sensitivity to Climate Change Impacts within Lake Champlain Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Champlain Basin serves as a major source of ecosystem services and economic inputs to the northeastern United States. Research on northeastern United States climate indicates that historical trends of warmer air temperatures, increased precipitation amounts and changes in the timing and intensity of precipitation are expected to continue in the 21th century. Lake Champlain Basin might then be affected with seasonal weather shifts caused by significant climatic changes driven primarily by human generated greenhouse gases. This expected 21th century climatic changes might then impact flow regime in the Lake Champlain Basin and hence raise concerns about hydrological, ecological as well as political basin conditions. In this work, we examine alternative possibilities that might emerge in the Lake Champlain Basin streamflow regime given the imminent changes anticipated in climate forcing variables. Three streamflow regime classifications that include high flow disturbance, low flow disturbance and flow variability and predictability (Colwell index) will be analyzed in this work to better understand climate change impacts on streamflow regime within the Lake Champlain Basin. The Mad River near Moretown watershed located at Vermont, United States of America and upstream of United States Geological Survey gauge # 04288000 has been selected to be the study watershed for this work (drainage area about 360 km2). The Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys) model will be used to assess how climate changes might impact streamflow regime. The RHESSys model driven by historic precipitation, minimum and maximum air temperature data was first calibrated to daily streamflows at the watershed outlet. Streamflow realizations were then obtained by driving the calibrated RHESSys model with daily scenarios of different climate data to examine streamflow regime changes sensitivity. Our preliminary streamflow realization results at the study watershed outlet suggest that an increase in flood duration periods as well as an increase in base flow index values are likely to occur. Also our results suggest that a decrease in overall flow variability without considering the temporal sequence of flow variation is expected. Streamflow predictability results at the study watershed outlet suggest that a continuation of being due to high constancy (constancy is a measure of temporal invariance) of streamflow which varies little among months and years. In other words, the streamflow discharge at this study gauge is perfectly predictable with all the predictability driven from the constancy component of Colwell index. This work represents a contribution to the conservation community of the Lake Champlain Basin as they begin to plan and respond to the current and future impacts of climate changes on Lake Champlain.

Mohammed, I. N.; Wemple, B. C.; Bomblies, A.

2013-12-01

118

An initial view of subsurface Lagrangian observations in Lake Champlain: General patterns, cross-lake flow and coastal currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface free-drifting floats operating in the Main Lake of Lake Champlain in 2002 and 2004 showed the presence of 1) small circular to elliptical motion away from coastal boundaries, 2) linear to curvilinear motion associated with alongshore currents and 3) subsurface westward cross-lake flow located within the base of the epilimnion and upper metalimnion (1016m) followed by large displacements up

T. O. Manley; Michael McCormick; Jean Claude Gascard; Pierre Tillier; Kenneth L. Hunkins; Patricia L. Manley

119

Comparison of Larval Sea Lamprey Life History Characteristics in a Lampricide-Treated Tributary and Untreated Tributary  

E-print Network

and Untreated Tributary System of Lake Champlain ADAM ZERRENNER 1 AND J. ELLEN MARSDEN* Rubenstein School Abstract.--Control of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus in Lake Champlain and the Laurentian Great Lakes to changes in age at transformation to prevent transformers from leaving Lake Champlain and Great Lakes

Marsden, Ellen

120

Streamwater fluxes of total mercury and methylmercury into and out of Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 2000 to 2004, we sampled for total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in inlet streams to Lake Champlain, targeting high flow periods to capture increases in THg and MeHg concentrations with increasing flow. We used these data to model stream THg and MeHg fluxes for Water Years 2001 through 2009. In this mountainous forested basin with a high watershed-to-lake

James B. Shanley; Ann T. Chalmers

121

14C chronology for ice retreat and inception of Champlain Sea in the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AMS radiocarbon cross-dating of plant debris and marine shells trapped in a lake basin on Mount St. Hilaire (Qubec, Canada) provides a direct assessment of a reservoir effect totaling ca. 1800 14C years during the early stage of Champlain Sea. Pollen-based extrapolation of bottommost ages on terrestrial plant macrofossils in sediments of this lake, and of another lake nearby support an estimate of 11,100 100 14C yr B.P. for marine invasion in the Central St. Lawrence River Lowlands. Results indicate a 400-1000 years younger regional chronology of ice retreat, now congruent with the one inferred from the New England varve chronology. This is a summary of a longer paper to be published in French.

Richard, Pierre J. H.; Occhietti, Serge

2005-05-01

122

Environmental study of ERTS-1 imagery Lake Champlain Basin and Vermont  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has idenfified the following significant results. A first approximation land-type map using three categories of classification was generated for the Burlington area. The identification and mapping of a major turbidity front separating turbid waters of the southern arm of Lake Champlain from the clearer main water mass was reported on RBV 1 and 2 imagery and on subsequent MSS bands 4 and 5. Significant industrial pollution of Lake Champlain has degraded environmental quality in certain sections of the lake. Wetlands were detected and recognized using a combination of RBV bands 2 and 3. Using first-look RBV band 2 imagery, major ice marginal features were identified by using tonal patterns associated with vegetative cover. Major rivers were detected and recognized through the use of RBV band 3 imagery and MSS bands 6 and 7.

Lind, A. O. (principal investigator)

1972-01-01

123

Vermont Water Resources and Lake Studies Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

Department of Environmental Conservation, Lake Champlain Basin Program, and other programs in the state of the Water Center is also a member of the Steering Committee of Lake Champlain Basin Program (LCBP partnerships. The Director of the Water Center is also the Director of Lake Champlain Sea Grant, which allows

124

Groundwater quality in the Lake Champlain Basin, New York, 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water was sampled from 20 production and domestic wells from August through November 2009 to characterize groundwater quality in the Lake Champlain Basin in New York. Of the 20 wells sampled, 8 were completed in sand and gravel, and 12 were completed in bedrock. The samples were collected and processed by standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria. Water quality in the study area is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards; these were color (1 sample), pH (3 samples), sodium (3 samples), total dissolved solids (4 samples), iron (4 samples), manganese (3 samples), gross alpha radioactivity (1 sample), radon-222 (10 samples), and bacteria (5 samples). The pH of all samples was typically neutral or slightly basic (median 7.1); the median water temperature was 9.7C. The ions with the highest median concentrations were bicarbonate [median 158 milligrams per liter (mg/L)] and calcium (median 45.5 mg/L). Groundwater in the study area is soft to very hard, but more samples were hard or very hard (121 mg/L or more as CaCO3) than were moderately hard or soft (120 mg/L or less as CaCO3); the median hardness was 180 mg/L as CaCO3. The maximum concentration of nitrate plus nitrite was 3.79 mg/L as nitrogen, which did not exceed established drinking-water standards for nitrate plus nitrite (10 mg/L as nitrogen). The trace elements with the highest median concentrations were strontium (median 202 micrograms per liter [?g/L]), and iron (median 55 ?g/L in unfiltered water). Six pesticides and pesticide degradates, including atrazine, fipronil, disulfoton, prometon, and two pesticide degradates, CIAT and desulfinylfipronil, were detected among five samples at concentrations of 0.02 ?g/L or less; they included herbicides, herbicide degradates, insecticides, and insecticide degradates. Six VOCs were detected among six samples; these included a solvent, the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and four trihalomethanes. The highest radon-222 activities were in samples from crystalline bedrock wells (maximum 4,100 picocuries per liter [pCi/L]); half of all samples exceeded a proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking-water standard of 300 pCi/L. Total coliform bacteria were detected in five samples, fecal coliform bacteria were detected in one sample, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were not detected in any sample.

Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

2011-01-01

125

Micropaleontological Record of Postglacial History in Lake Champlain and Adjacent Regions: Implications for Glacial Lake Drainage and Abrupt Climate Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-glacial lacustrine and marine sediments of the Lake Champlain region range from 20 to >50 meters in thickness presenting an opportunity to assess the timing of North American glacial lake drainage at multidecadal timescales and evaluate its effect on North Atlantic salinity and abrupt climate events 13.5 to 10 kyr B.P. High-resolution analysis of foraminifera and ostracodes from cores taken

T. M. Cronin; P. L. Manley; J. Guilbault; M. Berke; J. A. Rayburn; D. A. Franzi; P. L. Knuepfer

2005-01-01

126

Factors Affecting Sea Lamprey Egg Survival STEPHEN J. SMITH  

E-print Network

is a nuisance parasitic fish in Lake Champlain that negatively affects important sport fish populations lamprey abundance (Marsden et al. 2003). Lake Champlain is 193 km long, has a maximum width of 19 km nontarget mortality in regularly treated tributaries. A population model of sea lampreys in Lake Champlain

Marsden, Ellen

127

Sediment Quality in Burlington Harbor, Lake Champlain, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface samples and cores were collected in 1993 fromthe Burlington Harbor region of Lake Champlain. Sediment samples were analyzed for trace metals(cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, silver and zinc),simultaneously extracted metal\\/acid volatile sulfide(SEM-AVS), grain size, nutrients (carbon and nitrogen)and organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatichydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs)). The concentrations of cadmium, copper,silver and zinc from the partial sediment digestion ofthe surface

E. M. Lacey; J. W. King; J. G. Quinn; E. L. Mecray; P. G. Appleby; A. S. Hunt

2001-01-01

128

Using Abiotic and Biotic Factors to Predict the Range Expansion of White Perch in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

White perch (Morone americana) invaded Lake Champlain, New York-Vermont, in the mid-1980s, yet abundance of white perch and those factors controlling their abundance are unknown. To predict the expansion of white perch, we differentiated between the most likely factors affecting white perch abundance; habitat characteristics or an invasion gradient (i.e., abundance is greater near the point of entry). Therefore, we

Ethan J. Hawes; Donna L. Parrish

2003-01-01

129

Distribution of pollutants from a new paper plant in southern Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

From November of 1973 to May of 1974, 15 arrays of sediment traps were placed along 33 km of southern Lake Champlain to sample\\u000a the distribution of effluent from a large paper plant located on the western shore which had commenced operation in 1971.\\u000a In the arrays located near the effluent diffuser pipeline as much as 2.3 cm of sediment

D. L. Mason; D. W. Folger; R. S. Haupt; R. R. McGirr; W. H. Hoyt

1977-01-01

130

Mapping cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Champlain's Missisquoi Bay using QuickBird and MERIS satellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

C-phycocyanin (C-PC) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations for the eutrophic waters of Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain (VTQC) were retrieved from Envisat's MERIS radiance data (300m spatial resolution) and validated against coincident georeferenced transect observations. Pigment concentrations were also predicted from empirically calibrated QuickBird data (2.4m spatial resolution) using selected band ratios and principal components analysis. The QuickBird NIR\\/Red band ratio accounted

Sarah M. Wheeler; Leslie A. Morrissey; Suzanne N. Levine; Gerald P. Livingston; Warwick F. Vincent

131

Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners from Lake Champlain sediments by Mysis relicta  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Champlain often exceed the F.D.A. tolerance level of 2 [mu]g/g (wet weight). Of added concern are recent studies that suggest a relationship between the dioxin-like properties of non-ortho-substituted PCB congeners and impaired lake trout egg hatchability. Dietary accumulation of PCBs is thought to be an important exposure route for fish. The epibenthic freshwater shrimp Mysis relicta is an integral part of the benthic and pelagic food web in lake Champlain and may act as a link between PCBs in sediments and lake trout. Previous investigations have shown that diurnal migrations of mysids enhance the movement and distribution of toxic contaminants, effectively coupling the benthic and pelagic zones. The objective of this research was to examine the role contaminated sediments play in the transfer of PCBs to mysids. Bioaccumulation was assessed by exposing mysids to such sediments in two ways: (a) with organisms screened from sediments; and (b) with organisms in direct contact with sediments. Accumulation of PCBs over the course of the 24-day exposure period was examined on the following days: 0, 3, 6, 12, 21, and 24. Eighty-nine individual PCB congeners were measured in tissue and sediment. Mysids in direct contact with sediments accumulated significantly higher levels of PCBs than did organisms screened from sediments. Mysids accumulated substantial levels of PCBs, suggesting they may play an important part in the transfer of PCBs from sediments into the Lake Champlain food web. It is clear from this research that sediments can play a critical role in the accumulation of PCBs by mysids.

Lester, D.C.; McIntosh, A. (Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States). Vermont Water Resources and Lake Studies Center)

1994-11-01

132

SEA GRANT AT A GLANCE February 2014 National Sea Grant Office's  

E-print Network

:40pm ­ 11:10am Lake Champlain Sea Grant (Garber) #12;SEA GRANT AT A GLANCE ­ February 2014 3 11:10am at a glance USC Sea Grant at a glance TEXAS Sea Grant at a glance LAKE CHAMPLAIN Sea Grant at a glance

133

Streamwater fluxes of total mercury and methylmercury into and out of Lake Champlain.  

PubMed

From 2000 to 2004, we sampled for total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in inlet streams to Lake Champlain, targeting high flow periods to capture increases in THg and MeHg concentrations with increasing flow. We used these data to model stream THg and MeHg fluxes for Water Years 2001 through 2009. In this mountainous forested basin with a high watershed-to-lake area ratio of 18, fluvial export from the terrestrial watershed was the dominant source of Hg to the lake. Unfiltered THg and MeHg fluxes were dominated by the particulate fraction; about 40% of stream THg was in the filtered (<0.4 ?m) phase. THg flux from the watershed to the lake averaged 2.37 ?g m(-2) yr(-1), or about 13% of atmospheric Hg wet and dry deposition to the basin. THg export from the lake represented only about 3% of atmospheric Hg input to the basin. PMID:21835521

Shanley, James B; Chalmers, Ann T

2012-02-01

134

An historical assessment of trace metal accumulation in Lake Champlain, Vermont  

SciTech Connect

The Lake Champlain watershed, with its increased land use, shoreline development, and population, is being threatened by pollutants in the water column and bottom sediments. A comprehensive study is currently being conducted to characterize the bottom sediments of the lake for toxicity and to reconstruct the history of pollutant inputs. Surface sediment samples were collected from 30 stations and analyzed for metal (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cd, Al, and Ag) concentrations to determine the contaminated regions of the lake. Once the contaminated regions were determined, a Nemesis corer was used to retrieve sediments cores averaging 1 meter in length from 10 sites within Lake Champlain. Grain size and metal analyses were conducted at one and two cm intervals down the cores. Grain size data, in combination with metal and radiometric stratigraphy, can serve as an indicator of changing land use in the watershed. The grain size in some cores has a fining upward trend indicating increased land use and soil erosion. Downcore variations in metal concentrations reveal two different regimes. The concentration at depth remain consistently low and are inferred to correspond with the natural background levels. In contrast, the upper section of the cores show abrupt increases in metal concentrations which are attributed to increased anthropogenic inputs. Radiometric ([sup 210] and [sup 137]Cs) and pollen chronostratigraphy of these cores indicates that the increased metal concentrations and the changes in grain size recorded in the upper most sediments is related to increased human disturbance beginning in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. This study demonstrates that the historical record of pollution inputs to Lake Champlain can be reconstructed from the sediment sequences.

Mecray, E.L.; King, J.W. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States). Graduate School of Oceanography)

1993-03-01

135

Investigating public preferences for managing Lake Champlain using a choice experiment.  

PubMed

The Lake Champlain Basin in Vermont and New York, USA and Quebec, Canada includes a large lake and watershed with complex management issues. A transboundary comprehensive management plan prepared for the lake includes 11 goals across many issue areas. We developed a choice experiment to examine public preferences for alternative Lake Champlain management scenarios across these issue areas. Five ecosystem attributes (water clarity-algae blooms, public beach closures, land use change, fish consumption advisories and the spread of water chestnut, an invasive plant) were varied across three levels and arrayed into paired comparisons following an orthogonal fractional factorial design. Two thousand questionnaires were distributed to basin residents, each including nine paired comparisons that required trading off two, three or four attributes. Completed surveys yielded 6541 responses which were analyzed using binary logistic regression. The results showed that although water clarity and beach closures were important, safe fish consumption was the strongest predictor of choice. Land use pattern and water chestnut distribution were weaker but also significant predictors, with respondents preferring less land development and preservation of the agricultural landscape. Current management efforts in the Lake Champlain Basin are heavily weighted toward improving water clarity by reducing phosphorus pollution. Our results suggest that safe fish consumption warrants additional management attention. Because choice experiments provide information that is much richer than the simple categorical judgments more commonly used in surveys, they can provide managers with information about tradeoffs that could be used to enhance public support and maximize the social benefits of an ecosystem management program. PMID:18262328

Smyth, Robyn L; Watzin, Mary C; Manning, Robert E

2009-01-01

136

Application of ERTS imagery to environmental studies of Lake Champlain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERTS Imagery has provided data relating to a number of environmental and limnological concerns such as water quality, lake flooding and lake ice formation. Pollution plume data provided by ERTS was recently used in the Supreme Court case involving the States of Vermont and New York and a paper company. Flooding of lowland tracts has been a major concern due to a repetitive pattern of high lake levels over the past three years, and ERTS imagery is being used to construct the first series of flood maps of the affected areas. Lake ice development and turbidity patterns have also been studied from ERTS, since these have significance for shore erosion studies.

Lind, A. O.

1974-01-01

137

Remote sensing models using Landsat satellite data to monitor algal blooms in Lake Champlain.  

PubMed

Lake Champlain is significantly impaired by excess phosphorus loading, requiring frequent lake-wide monitoring for eutrophic conditions and algal blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides regular, synoptic coverage of algal production over large areas with better spatial and temporal resolution compared with in situ monitoring. This study developed two algal production models using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM(+)) satellite imagery: a single band model and a band ratio model. The models predicted chlorophyll a concentrations to estimate algal cell densities throughout Lake Champlain. Each model was calibrated with in situ data compiled from summer 2006 (July 24 to September 10), and then validated with data for individual days in August 2007 and 2008. Validation results for the final single band and band ratio models produced Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) coefficients of 0.65 and 0.66, respectively, confirming satisfactory model performance for both models. Because these models have been validated over multiple days and years, they can be applied for continuous monitoring of the lake. PMID:23416605

Trescott, A; Park, M-H

2013-01-01

138

Combining scientific data in frameworks for decision-making: examples from two transboundary lakes (Lake Champlain, USA & Canada, and Lake Ohrid, Macedonia & Albania)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful integrated water resources management must be based on a comprehensive scientific data base. When measures of the physical and biological characteristics of the environment are combined with information about human activities and their effects on the ecosystem, an assessment of ecological condition can be linked to the potential causes of environmental change. In the Lake Champlain Basin, we have

Mary Watzin

2004-01-01

139

Modeling 200 Years of Changing Trophic Status in Lake Champlain Based on Land Use Change and Commercial Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleolimnological records show that since Europeans began settling in the Lake Champlain Basin almost 250 years ago, the lake has become progressively eutrophic. Eutrophication of freshwater bodies through input of excess nutrients has been a major water quality issue worldwide for the past half century (Codd et al. 2005). While the underlying causes of productivity rise in Lake Champlain, such as deforestation, increasing population, and lake level changes, have been inferred from anecdotal evidence, quantitative inferences based on modeled nutrient fluxes are lacking. Land use changes, such as the switch from subsistence farming to commercial practices focusing on one or two crops or animal types, as well as massive deforestation in 19th century, may explain some of the observed variability in nutrient and algal biomass accumulation rates since settlement began. While increased sampling of the Lake Champlain increases the amount of paleolimnological data, researching the historic information of the area gives a more complete grasp of the past drivers in land use change. In order to manage the historical land use data that are currently available, a simulation model was developed in Simile, a declarative programming software, to simulate algal productivity in response to phosphorous load based on alterations in land use, population, livestock numbers, fertilizer use, waste water treatment effluent, precipitation, and lake level. Data within the Lake Champlain Basin from the past two centuries were gathered from various online sources and individuals who had previously collected data. The output from the model was compared with phosphorus and algal pigment profiles in sediment cores collected from several locations in Lake Champlain. These show phosphorous accumulation rate and algal productivity increasing over the past 200 years, but do not indicate the reasons for change (Levine and Lini, unpublished data). Ongoing research is increasing data availability and improving model calibrations.

Carr, H. E.; Boumans, R.; Levine, S.

2009-12-01

140

On the Assessment of Atmospheric Deposition of Sulfur and Nitrogen Species to the Surface of Large Inland LakesLake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early work indicated that wet deposition of radioactive fallout to the water surface of a lake greatly exceeded dry, when calculated as annual averages. To test whether this result also applies to the deposition rates of soluble trace gases from the lower atmosphere, data collected at land sites near Lake Champlain have been used to estimate deposition rates to the

Bruce B. Hicks

2007-01-01

141

Physical processes driving high-speed currents in Lake Champlain bottom water  

SciTech Connect

The authors have examined current velocity profiles obtained at two sites in Lake Champlain to delineate physical processes causing high-speed currents near the lake bottom. Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP's) were deployed during the interval June--October, 1992 at mid-lake sites near Thompson's Point and Valcour Island. The instruments measured horizontal current velocity at 1 m intervals through the water column. The ADCP measurement range covered 74% of the water depth at the Valcour Island site and 49% at Thompson's Point site. The deepest measurement level at the Valcour Island site was 9 m above the lake floor. Two phenomena causing intense bottom currents at Valcour Island were identified in the data sets. One occurred during the relatively weak density stratification of the early summer period. It was caused by a downwelled thermocline at Valcour which was associated with impulses of northward-directed wind stress. On three occasions the wind stress was large enough to propel essentially all hypolimnion water south of Valcour Island. After these downwellings the lower layer returned as a steeply-faced internal surge with high-speed, turbulent flow at its leading edge. The second process forcing high-speed bottom currents was related to large-amplitude internal seiches that dominated Lake Champlain's main basin during September and October. Amplitudes of the seiches approached several tens of meters; their persistence suggests near-resonant wind forcing as a generating mechanism. Currents at the deepest measurement level exceeded 30 cm/s over duration's of 12 or more hours. Periods of the internal seiches were observed to vary with the intensity of stratification and with seasonal thermocline depth as predicted by first principles governing internal wave propagation.

Saylor, J.; Miller, J. (GLERL, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Manley, T.O.; Manley, P.L. (Middlebury Coll., VT (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-03-01

142

Assessing sediment quality in heterogeneous environments: A case study of a small urban harbor in Lake Champlain, Vermont, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively few case studies have been conducted demonstrating the utility of multiple endpoint approaches to sediment quality assessment in areas with moderate contaminant levels and heterogeneous conditions. Because variability is commonplace in natural systems, assessment approaches must be designed explicitly for these conditions. In an assessment of highly heterogeneous freshwater sediments in Lake Champlain, Vermont, USA, the authors measured multiple

Mary C. Watzin; Alan W. McIntosh; Erik A. Brown; Rebekah Lacey; Deborah C. Lester; Kathleen L. Newbrough; Ann R. Williams

1997-01-01

143

Use of flow-normalization to evaluate nutrient concentration and flux changes in Lake Champlain tributaries, 19902009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated 20years of total phosphorus (P) and total nitrogen (N) concentration data for 18 Lake Champlain tributaries using a new statistical method based on weighted regressions to estimate daily concentration and flux histories based on discharge, season, and trend as explanatory variables. The use of all the streamflow discharge values for a given date in the

Laura Medalie; Robert M. Hirsch; Stacey A. Archfield

144

Movement Patterns, Activity, and Home Range of the Eastern Spiny Softshell Turtle (Apalone spinifera) in Northern Lake Champlain, Qubec, Vermont  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied movement patterns, activity, and home range of the eastern spiny softshell turtle (Apalone spinifera) in northern Lake Champlain (Quebec, Canada; Vermont) from 1996 to 1999. This turtle population is at the northern limit of its range and considered threatened. Of the 30 individuals captured and marked, 15 females and eight males were equipped with radio-transmitters and monitored from

Patrick Galois; Martin Lveill; Lyne Bouthillier; Claude Daigle; Steve Parren

2002-01-01

145

The deposition of mercury in throughfall and litterfall in the lake champlain watershed: A short-term study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an ongoing study of the atmospheric deposition of Hg in the Lake Champlain watershed, event throughfall, event precipitation, ambient, green foliage, and litterfall samples were collected and analyzed for Hg from a mixed hardwood forest in Underhill Center, VT, for six weeks during the months of August and September 1994. During this time period, the volume-weighted mean Hg concentration in throughfall (12.0 8.5 ng ? -1) was higher than in precipitation (6.5 2.8 ng ? -1). In August and September 1994, the total deposition of Hg in throughfall was estimated to be 3.1 ?gm -2 (1.9 ?g m -2 in precipitation) to the deciduous hardwood forests in the Lake Champlain basin. The mean Hg concentration in litterfall (53.2 11.4 ng g -1) was significantly greater than the mean concentration in green foliage (34.2 +7.2 ng g -1), suggesting uptake of Hg from the atmosphere by foliage. Estimated annual litterfall deposition to the Lake Champlain basin was 13 ?g m -2. This study suggests that throughfall and litterfall play a significant role in the cycling and deposition of Hg in the Lake Champlain watershed.

Rea, Anne W.; Keeler, Gerald J.; Scherbatskoy, Timothy

146

Diet of Invasive Adult White Perch ( Morone americana) and their Effects on the Zooplankton Community in Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

White perch (Morone americana) became established in Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain in the mid 1990s. Since that time, cyanobacteria blooms have become common in summer. Although introduced planktivorous fish often impact plankton communities through a reduction in Daphnia density, such effects can be difficult to predict in an opportunistic species such as white perch. In this study, we examined the

Sam C. Couture; Mary C. Watzin

2008-01-01

147

The deposition of mercury in throughfall and litterfall in the lake champlain watershed: A short-term study  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an ongoing study of the atmospheric deposition of Hg in the Lake Champlain watershed, event throughfall, event precipitation, ambient, green foliage, and litterfall samples were collected and analyzed for Hg from a mixed hardwood forest in Underhill Center, VT, for six weeks during the months of August and September 1994. During this time period, the volume-weighted mean

Timothy Scherbatskoy

1996-01-01

148

Phosphorus, Nitrogen, and Silica as Controls on Phytoplankton Biomass and Species Composition in Lake Champlain (USA-Canada)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-standing assumption that the phytoplankton in Lake Champlain are phosphorus limited was tested through measurement of physiological indicators of phosphorus status (alkaline phosphatase activity and orthophosphate turnover time) and enrichment experiments conducted four times during the growth season. Phosphorus addition to experimental carboys incubated 45 days in situ substantially increased phytoplankton biomass relative to controls in June, but had

Suzanne N. Levine; Angela d. Shambaugh; Staci E. Pomeroy; Moshe Braner

1997-01-01

149

Principal components analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in sediments from Lake Champlain and Lake George, New York, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principal-components analysis (PCA) was used to compare concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) compounds in sediments collected from two interconnected lakes, Lake Champlain and Lake George, New York, USA. Two different PCDD\\/PCDF congener profiles were present in surface sediment samples from Lake George. Samples collected near residential areas and power-boat marinas had elevated hepta- and octa-CDDs (10.3

P. O'Keefe; R. Smith; S. Connor; K. Aldous; H. Valente; R. Donnelly

1994-01-01

150

New estimates of lethality of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attacks on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): Implications for fisheries management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control in North America costs millions of dollars each year, and control measures are guided by assessment of lamprey-induced damage to fisheries. The favored prey of sea lamprey in freshwater ecosystems has been lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). A key parameter in assessing sea lamprey damage, as well as managing lake trout fisheries, is the probability of an adult lake trout surviving a lamprey attack. The conventional value for this parameter has been 0.55, based on laboratory experiments. In contrast, based on catch curve analysis, mark-recapture techniques, and observed wounding rates, we estimated that adult lake trout in Lake Champlain have a 0.74 probability of surviving a lamprey attack. Although sea lamprey growth in Lake Champlain was lower than that observed in Lake Huron, application of an individual-based model to both lakes indicated that the probability of surviving an attack in Lake Champlain was only 1.1 times higher than that in Lake Huron. Thus, we estimated that lake trout survive a lamprey attack in Lake Huron with a probability of 0.66. Therefore, our results suggested that lethality of a sea lamprey attack on lake trout has been overestimated in previous model applications used in fisheries management. ?? 2008 NRC.

Madenjian, C.P.; Chipman, B.D.; Marsden, J.E.

2008-01-01

151

New England from Boston to Lake Champlain and up to southern Main from STS-58  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph includes much of the heart of New England, stretching from Boston and Boston Harbor (lower left) across New Hampshire and Vermont to Lake Champlain (upper left), and up to southern Maine (Portland is just off the photo at right center). North of Boston flows the Merrimack River (which forms part of the state boundary between Massachuesetts and New Hampshire). It is delineated by the small industrial towns (Concord, Manchester, Nashua, Lowell) which grew up on its banks. The White Mountains of New Hampshire are seen near the center, and Mt. Washington (6,288 feet) is capped with snow. Fort Sam Houston is contained within the northeast quadrant of the city, Brooks Air Force Base lies at the southeastern corner, and Lackland and Kelly Air Force Bases are within the suburban fringe to the southwest. San Antonio International Airport can be seen at the foot of the escarpment in the northern part of the city.

1993-01-01

152

Growth rates of rainbow smelt in Lake Champlain: Effects of density and diet  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stritzel Thomson JL, Parrish DL, Parker-Stetter SL, Rudstam LG, Sullivan PJ. Growth rates of rainbow smelt in Lake Champlain: effects of density and diet. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 2010. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract- We estimated the densities of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) using hydroacoustics and obtained specimens for diet analysis and groundtruthed acoustics data from mid-water trawl sampling in four areas of Lake Champlain, USA-Canada. Densities of rainbow smelt cohorts alternated during the 2-year study; age-0 rainbow smelt were very abundant in 2001 (up to 6fish per m2) and age-1 and older were abundant (up to 1.2fish per m2) in 2002. Growth rates and densities varied among areas and years. We used model selection on eight area-year-specific variables to investigate biologically plausible predictors of rainbow smelt growth rates. The best supported model of growth rates of age-0 smelt indicated a negative relationship with age-0 density, likely associated with intraspecific competition for zooplankton. The next best-fit model had age-1 density as a predictor of age-0 growth. The best supported models (N=4) of growth rates of age-1 fish indicated a positive relationship with availability of age-0 smelt and resulting levels of cannibalism. Other plausible models were contained variants of these parameters. Cannibalistic rainbow smelt consumed younger conspecifics that were up to 53% of their length. Prediction of population dynamics for rainbow smelt requires an understanding of the relationship between density and growth as age-0 fish outgrow their main predators (adult smelt) by autumn in years with fast growth rates, but not in years with slow growth rates. ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Stritzel, Thomson J.L.; Parrish, D.L.; Parker-Stetter, S. L.; Rudstam, L.G.; Sullivan, P.J.

2011-01-01

153

The R/V Folger a Floating Laboratory: Teaching Marine Science Skills on Lake Champlain (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate senior work has been required at Middlebury College as far back as 1960's and hands-on experiential learning was and still is the mode for our geology courses. The history of Middlebury College having a research vessel started in the 1970's when Dave Folger started the marine component of our curriculum and obtained the first Middlebury College's research vessel - a coast guard rescue surf boat (Bruno Schmidt). The second Middlebury College research vessel, the R/V Baldwin was purchased in 1985 and was used exclusively in a river-like setting due to its open cockpit and minimal research equipment. In 1990, Middlebury College received a grant from NSF-MRI to upgrade the vessel, to a then state-of the-art small oceanographic vessel including new equipment (CTD, side-scan sonar, ROV, met station, coring devices, computers and navigation). Middlebury College contributed monies to enclose the wheelhouse, install safer diesel engines, as well as a winch and an A-frame to haul in equipment. Over 600+ students used the Baldwin in a variety of geology courses; mainly Oceanography and Marine Geology. In 2010, Middlebury College received an NSF -ARRA grant (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act) to replace the ailing R/V Baldwin with a floating state-of-the art laboratory with the specific goals of increasing 1) access to lake research for Middlebury faculty and students in the biological, chemical, and environmental sciences, 2) the scope of lake research by reducing transit times over this 100km long lake, 3) stability for broad-lake research, 4) improve and expand research capabilities on Lake Champlain, 5) the carrying capacity (both equipment and people), and 6) instructional capability and overnight capabilities. The newly built R/V Folger is a sophisticated research vessel with advanced capabilities that provides a greater capacity to the research infrastructure on Lake Champlain, enhancing interdisciplinary inquiry not only for Middlebury College, but for other members of the local educational community for the next 30 to 50 years. The R/V Folger hosts significant amount of lab space allowing for on-vessel processing of real time data, enhanced navigational capabilities, smart classroom technology and new instrumentation such as multi-beam and CTD-rosette system. This all aluminum new research vessel, besides providing a new platform for Middlebury College's students, will also be used to enable faculty at other local colleges to provide experiential training in research techniques that would otherwise be unavailable; provide research training to local K-12 teachers; offer outreach to "land-locked" institutions and organizations within our tri-state region (NY, NH and VT); the development of a nautical archaeology program in the Lake Champlain basin; and produce data with environmental benefits to the region.

Manley, P.; Manley, T.

2013-12-01

154

Distribution of pollutants from a new paper plant in southern Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From November of 1973 to May of 1974, 15 arrays of sediment traps were placed along 33 km of southern Lake Champlain to sample the distribution of effluent from a large paper plant located on the western shore which had commenced operation in 1971. In the arrays located near the effluent diffuser pipeline as much as 2.3 cm of sediment accumulated, whereas elsewhere in the lake less than 1 cm accumulated. In the area of accelerated accumulation, sediments contained high concentrations of several components used in or derived from paper manufacturing. Values for kaolinite, expressed as the ratio of kaolinite to chlorite, for example, were as high as 1.4, anatase (TiO2) concentrations were as high as 0.8%, organic carbon 8.7%, and phosphorus 254 ??g/g; all were more abundant than in sediments collected in traps to the south or north. In surficial bottom sediments collected near each array organic carbon and phosphorus were also higher (4.2% and 127 ??g/g respectively) near the diffuser than elsewhere. Thus, the new plant after three years of production measurably affected the composition of suspended sediment and surficial bottom sediment despite the construction and use of extensive facilities to reduce the flow of pollutants to the lake. ?? 1977 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Mason, D.L.; Folger, D.W.; Haupt, R.S.; McGirr, R.R.; Hoyt, W.H.

1977-01-01

155

Historical Trace Metal Accumulation in the Sediments of an Urbanized Region of the Lake Champlain Watershed, Burlington, Vermont  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study documents the history ofpollution inputs in the Burlington region of LakeChamplain, Vermont using measurements of anthropogenicmetals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Ag) in four age-datedsediment cores. Sediments record a history ofcontamination in a region and can be used to assessthe changing threat to biota over time and to evaluatethe effectiveness of discharge regulations onanthropogenic inputs.Grain size, magnetic

Ellen L. Mecray; John W. King; Peter G. Appleby; Allen S. Hunt

2001-01-01

156

Role of wetlands in reducing phosphorus loading to surface water in eight watersheds in the Lake Champlain Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A landscape-level approach was applied to eight rural watersheds to assess the role that wetlands play in reducing phosphorus\\u000a loading to surface waters in the Lake Champlain Basin. Variables summarizing various characteristics of wetlands within a\\u000a watershed were calculated using a geographic information system and then compared to measured phosphorus loading through multiple\\u000a regression analyses. The inclusion of a variable

Christine M. Weller; Mary C. Watzin; Deane Wang

1996-01-01

157

Late Wisconsinan glacial, lacustrine and marine stratigraphy in the Champlain Valley, New York and Vermont  

SciTech Connect

The stratigraphy of late-glacial, and postglacial deposits and landforms in the Champlain Lowland is interpreted from high-resolution (3.5 khz transducer) acoustical profiling and piston core analysis of sediments beneath Lake Champlain in conjunction with detailed morphologic sequence mapping of surficial deposits. The sediments of Lake Champlain have been grouped by acoustic, lithologic, and biostratigraphic criteria into three stratigraphic units that were deposited successively into Lake Vermont, the Champlain Sea, and Lake Champlain. The maximum thickness of unconsolidated sediment is known to exceed 200 meters locally. Biostratigraphic subdivision of these units using pollen, diatoms, ostracodes, and foraminifera provides further definition of late-glacial and postglacial events in the region and indicates that transitional environments occurred as conditions changed from proglacial lake to marine estuary to freshwater lake. The stratigraphy of surficial deposits records proglacial lake sequences in the Champlain Valley and its tributaries. Interbasinal correlation of the tributary proglacial lake sequences and reconstructed ice marginal positions, is consistent with a model of generally synchronous, northward recession controlled primarily by backwasting of active continental ice lobes. Minor asynchroneity of retreat rates may be attributed to local differences in subglacial topography and changes in proglacial lake level, both of which may affect calving rates. Northward ice recession of the Champlain Lobe allowed successive inundation of tributary valleys by Lake Vermont. Elevations of deltaic sandplains reveal at least three distinct lake levels in the northwestern Champlain Valley. The highest level corresponds to the Coveville Stage while the lower two represent levels of the Fort Ann Stage.

Franzi, D.A. (Stat Univ. of New York, Plattsburgh, NY (United States). Center for Earth and Environmental Science); Hunt, A.S. (Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-03-01

158

Application of ERTS-1 imagery in the Vermont-New York dispute over pollution of Lake Champlain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery and a composite map derived from ERTS-1 imagery were presented as evidence in a U.S. Supreme Court case involving the pollution of an interstate water body (Lake Champlain). A pollution problem generated by a large paper mill forms the basis of the suit (Vermont vs. International Paper Co. and State of New York) and ERTS-1 imagery shows the effluent pattern on the lake surface as extending into Vermont during three different times.

Lind, A. O. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

159

Application of PMF in the Investigation of VOCs Emission Sources for Lake Champlain Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) have long been considered hazardous atmospheric pollutants. VOCs account for the majority of the 188 air toxics species listed in the 1990 Clean Air Act (US). The National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) Program established by EPA aims to coordinate national and state level efforts on concentration data collection, emission inventory, and population risk assessment. Like many other states, the State of Vermont established its Air Toxics Program which consists of seven monitoring sites, some of which started sample collection as early as 1993. This presentation focuses on an ongoing project to investigate emission sources of VOCs in the Lake Champlain Basin. Two monitoring sites, Burlington and Underhill sites were selected for their representation of two distinctly different urban and rural environments. Statistical methods including the Positive Matrix Factorization were employed. Identified likely sources, up to fourteen of them for each site, that are either common to both sites or unique to one of the two, as well as the apportionment results, will be discussed. In addition, the presentation will discuss particular challenges arisen in the source-receptor modeling processes due to low concentration levels of many VOCs, the absence of some very volatile species in the Vermont Air Toxics monitoring program, rapid chemical transformations or decompositions occurred during atmospheric transport of the VOCs, and the complexity and uncertainty in the emissions inventory.

Gao, N.; Anderson, K.; Poirot, R.

2009-04-01

160

Application of the WHO alert level framework to cyanobacterial monitoring of Lake Champlain, Vermont.  

PubMed

The increasing incidence of toxic cyanobacteria blooms worldwide has created a need for practical and efficient monitoring in order to protect public health. We developed a monitoring and alert framework based on World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations and applied it on Lake Champlain during the summers of 2002-2004. The protocol began with collection of net samples of phytoplankton in order to maximize the chance of finding potential toxin-producing cyanobacteria. Samples were collected lake-wide in partnership with ongoing monitoring efforts, but because open water sample sites did not capture conditions along the shoreline, we added near-shore and shoreline stations in problem areas. Samples were examined qualitatively until potential toxin-producing taxa were found. Then quantitative analyses began, using a rapid screening method to estimate cell density based on colony size. A final cell density of 4000 cells/mL triggered toxin analyses. Primary analysis was for microcystins using ELISA methods. Cell densities, locations of colonies, and toxin concentrations were reported weekly to public health officials. We found that screening for potential toxin-producing cyanobacteria and then measuring toxin concentrations when cell densities reached critical levels worked well to identify problem locations. Although the WHO recommends using chlorophyll a concentration, it was not a good indicator of problem densities of potential toxin-producing cyanobacteria. Our cell density screening method missed no developing blooms but produced less precise density estimates at high cell counts. Overall, our framework appears to provide an efficient and effective method for monitoring cyanotoxin risks. PMID:16646001

Watzin, Mary C; Miller, Emily Brines; Shambaugh, Angela D; Kreider, Meghan A

2006-06-01

161

Carbon Cycling and the Coupling Between Proton and Electron Transfer Reactions in Aquatic Sediments in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used fine-scale porewater profiles and rate measurements together with a multiple component transportreaction model to\\u000a investigate carbon degradation pathways and the coupling between electron and proton transfer reactions in Lake Champlain\\u000a sediments. We measured porewater profiles of O2, Mn2+, Fe2+, HS?, pH and pCO2 at mm resolution by microelectrodes, and profiles of NO3\\u000a ?, SO4\\u000a 2?, NH4\\u000a +, total

Wei-Jun CaiGeorge; George W. Luther; Jeffrey C. Cornwell; Anne E. Giblin

2010-01-01

162

Sediment quality in Burlington Harbor, Lake Champlain, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surface samples and cores were collected in 1993 from the Burlington Harbor region of Lake Champlain. Sediment samples were analyzed for trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, silver and zinc), simultaneously extracted metal/acid volatile sulfide (SEM-AVS), grain size, nutrients (carbon and nitrogen) and organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)). The concentrations of cadmium, copper, silver and zinc from the partial sediment digestion of the surface samples correlated well with each other (r2 > 0.60) indicating that either a common process, or group of processes determined the sediment concentrations of these metals. In an analysis of the spatial distribution of the trace metals and PAHs, high surficial concentrations were present in the southern portion of the Harbor. The trace metal trend was strengthened when the concentrations were normalized by grain size. A sewage treatment plant outfall discharge was present in the southeastern portion of the Harbor at the time of this study and is the major source of trace metal and PAH contamination. Evaluation of sediment cores provides a proxy record of historical trace metal and organic inputs. The peak accumulation rate for copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc was in the late 1960s and the peak silver accumulation rate was later. The greatest accumulation of trace metals occurred in the late 1960s after discharges from the STP began. Subsequent declines in trace metal concentrations may be attributed to increased water and air regulations. The potential toxicity of trace metals and organic contaminants was predicted by comparing contaminant concentrations to benchmark concentrations and potential trace metal bioavailability was predicted with SEM-AVS results. Surface sample results indicate lead, silver, ???PAHs and ???PCBs are potentially toxic and/or bioavailable. These predictions were supported by studies of biota in the Burlington Harbor watershed. There is a clear trend of decreasing PAH and trace metal contaminant concentrations with distance from the STP outfall.Surface samples and cores were collected in 1993 from the Burlington Harbor region of Lake Champlain. Sediment samples were analyzed for trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, silver and zinc), simultaneously extracted metal/acid volatile sulfide (SEM-AVS), grain size, nutrients (carbon and nitrogen) and organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)). The concentrations of cadmium, copper, silver and zinc from the partial sediment digestion of the surface samples correlated well with each other (r2>0.60) indicating that either a common process, or group of processes determined the sediment concentrations of these metals. In an analysis of the spatial distribution of the trace metals and PAHs, high surficial concentrations were present in the southern portion of the Harbor. The trace metal trend was strengthened when the concentrations were normalized by grain size. A sewage treatment plant outfall discharge was present in the southeastern portion of the Harbor at the time of this study and is the major source of trace metal and PAH contamination. Evaluation of sediment cores provides a proxy record of historical trace metal and organic inputs. The peak accumulation rate for copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc was in the late 1960s and the peak silver accumulation rate was later. The greatest accumulation of trace metals occurred in the late 1960s after discharges from the STP began. Subsequent declines in trace metal concentrations may be attributed to increased water and air regulations. The potential toxicity of trace metals and organic contaminants was predicted by comparing contaminant concentrations to benchmark concentrations and potential trace metal bioavailability was predicted with SEM-AVS results. Surface sample results indicate lead, silver, ??PAHs and ??PCBs are potentially toxic and/or bi

Lacey, E.M.; King, J.W.; Quinn, J.G.; Mecray, E.L.; Appleby, P.G.; Hunt, A.S.

2001-01-01

163

Paper plant effluent revisited-southern Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used geologic and geochemical techniques to document the change with time of the distribution and concentration of contaminated bottom sediments in southern Lake Champlain near an International Paper Company plant. Our work, initiated in 1972, was expanded on behalf of Vermont citizens in a class-action suit against the International Paper Company. To update our 1972-1973 results, we collected nine cores in 1988 upstream and downstream from the paper plant effluent diffuser. Water content, volatile solids, organic carbon, and three ratios, Al/Si, Cl/Si, and S/Si, in addition to megascopic and microscopic observations, were evaluated to identify and trace the distribution of effluent and to measure the thickness of sediment affected by or containing components of effluent. Analyses were carried out on samples from the cores as well as from effluent collected directly from the plant's waste treatment facility. In 1973, two years after the plant opened, we cored near the diffuser; sediment contaminated with effluent was 4.5 cm thick. In 1988, in the same area, sediment contaminated with effluent was 17 cm thick. In 15 years, water content increased from 72 to 85 percent, volatile solids from 7 to 20 percent, and organic carbon from 2 to 12 percent. Cl/Si and S/Si were high only near the diffuser and were zero elsewhere. In the area of the diffuser, contaminated sediment appears to be accumulating at a rate of about 1 cm/yr. At a control location 22 km upstream (south) from the plant, the top, poorly consoli-dated layer was only 1 cm or less thick both in 1973 and in 1988. The class-action suit was settled in favor of the plaintiffs for $5 million. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

Haupt, R.S.; Folger, D.W.

1993-01-01

164

Ground-water quality in the Lake Champlain basin, New York, 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples were collected from 11 public-supply wells and 11 private domestic wells in the Lake Champlain basin in New York during the fall of 2004 to characterize the chemical quality of ground water. Wells were selected for sampling based on location and focused on areas of greatest ground-water use. Samples were analyzed for 219 physical properties and constituents, including inorganic compounds, nutrients, metals, radionuclides, pesticides and pesticide degradates, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. Sixty-eight constituents were detected at concentrations above laboratory reporting levels. The cation and anion with the highest median concentration were calcium (34.8 mg/L) bicarbonate (134 mg/L), respectively. The predominant nutrient was nitrate, which was detected in 14 (64 percent) of the 22 samples. The two metals with the highest median concentrations were iron (175 ?g/L) and strontium (124 ?g/L); concentrations of iron, manganese, aluminum, and zinc exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary drinking-water standards in one or more samples. Radon concentrations were less than 1,000 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) in most samples, but concentrations as high as 6,900 pCi/L were detected and, in eight samples, exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed maximum contaminant level (300 pCi/L) for radon. The most frequently detected pesticides were degradates of the broadleaf herbicides metolachlor, alachlor, and atrazine. Volatile organic compounds were detected in only three samples; those that were detected typically were fuel oxygenates, such as methyl tert-butyl ether. Coliform bacteria were detected in four samples, two of which also tested positive for E. coli.

Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

2006-01-01

165

Paper plant effluent revisited-southern Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used geologic and geochemical techniques to document the change with time of the distribution and concentration of contaminated bottom sediments in southern Lake Champlain near an International Paper Company plant. Our work, initiated in 1972, was expanded on behalf of Vermont citizens in a class-action suit against the International Paper Company. To update our 1972 1973 results, we collected nine cores in 1988 upstream and downstream from the paper plant effluent diffuser. Water content, volatile solids, organic carbon, and three ratios, Al/Si, Cl/Si, and S/Si, in addition to megascopic and microscopic observations, were evaluated to identify and trace the distribution of effluent and to measure the thickness of sediment affected by or containing components of effluent. Analyses were carried out on samples from the cores as well as from effluent collected directly from the plant's waste treatment facility. In 1973, two years after the plant opened, we cored near the diffuser; sediment contaminated with effluent was 4.5 cm thick. In 1988, in the same area, sediment contaminated with effluent was 17 cm thick. In 15 years, water content increased from 72 to 85 percent, volatile solids from 7 to 20 percent, and organic carbon from 2 to 12 percent. Cl/Si and S/Si were high only near the diffuser and were zero elsewhere. In the area of the diffuser, contaminated sediment appears to be accumulating at a rate of about 1 cm/yr. At a control location 22 km upstream (south) from the plant, the top, poorly consoli-dated layer was only 1 cm or less thick both in 1973 and in 1988. The class-action suit was settled in favor of the plaintiffs for 5 million.

Haupt, R. S.; Folger, D. W.

1993-04-01

166

Hydroacoustic separation of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in Lake Champlain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Separate assessment of young-of-year (YOY) and yearling-and-older (YAO) fish is desirable from both ecological and management perspectives. Acoustic assessments provide information on fish population size structure in the target strength (TS) distribution, but interpretation of TS distributions must be done carefully, as single age groups can produce multiple TS modes. We assessed the ability of in situ TS distributions to identify Lake Champlain rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in June, July, and September of 2001 using mobile and stationary surveys, knowledge of vertical distribution preferences, and predicted TS from trawl catches. YAO rainbow smelt (93-179 mm total length) had wide TS distributions between -60 and -35 dB in all 3 months with two modes at approximately -50 and -40 dB. Most stationary survey single-fish tracks attributed to YAO had targets in both TS modes and a wide TS range often over 15 dB. Between June and September, YOY rainbow smelt TS increased, but single-fish tracks were unimodal, and the TS range was smaller (6 dB). Overlap in TS attributed to YOY and YAO increased from no overlap in June (YOY TS -76 to -61 dB, 15-25 mm) to moderate overlap in July (-76 to -50 dB, 25-63 mm) to considerable overlap in September (-68 to -45 dB, 33-80 mm). In June and July, the TS distribution changed abruptly at the thermocline, indicating almost complete separation of the two groups. A more gradual TS transition was evident in September, indicating substantial overlap between YOY and YAO. Separate estimates can be obtained in September by decomposing TS overlap into components attributed to YOY and YAO rainbow smelt. However, this decomposition introduces additional uncertainty and an assessment in July or possibly August is preferable to obtain separate abundance estimates of YOY and YAO. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Parker, Stetter S.L.; Rudstam, L.G.; Stritzel, Thomson J.L.; Parrish, D.L.

2006-01-01

167

Wastewater effluent, combined sewer overflows, and other sources of organic compounds to Lake Champlain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some sources of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) to streams, lakes, and estuaries, including wastewater-treatment-plant effluent, have been well documented, but other sources, particularly wet-weather discharges from combined-sewer-overflow (CSO) and urban runoff, may also be major sources of OWCs. Samples of wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) effluent, CSO effluent, urban streams, large rivers, a reference (undeveloped) stream, and Lake Champlain were collected from March to August 2006. The highest concentrations of many OWCs associated with wastewater were in WWTP-effluent samples, but high concentrations of some OWCs in samples of CSO effluent and storm runoff from urban streams subject to leaky sewer pipes or CSOs were also detected. Total concentrations and numbers of compounds detected differed substantially among sampling sites. The highest total OWC concentrations (10-100 ??g/l) were in samples of WWTP and CSO effluent. Total OWC concentrations in samples from urban streams ranged from 0.1 to 10 ??g/l, and urban stream-stormflow samples had higher concentrations than baseflow samples because of contributions of OWCs from CSOs and leaking sewer pipes. The relations between OWC concentrations in WWTP-effluent and those in CSO effluent and urban streams varied with the degree to which the compound is removed through normal wastewater treatment. Concentrations of compounds that are highly removed during normal wastewater treatment [including caffeine, Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, and cholesterol] were generally similar to or higher in CSO effluent than in WWTP effluent (and ranged from around 1 to over 10 ??g/l) because CSO effluent is untreated, and were higher in urban-stream stormflow samples than in baseflow samples as a result of CSO discharge and leakage from near-surface sources during storms. Concentrations of compounds that are poorly removed during treatment, by contrast, are higher in WWTP effluent than in CSO, due to dilution. Results indicate that CSO effluent and urban stormwaters can be a significant major source of OWCs entering large water bodies such as Burlington Bay. ?? 2008 American Water Resources Association.

Phillips, P.; Chalmers, A.

2009-01-01

168

Great Lakes Region Sea Grant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is dedicated to the Great Lakes Sea Grant program. It provides information on the GLSG's priorities and initiatives. Topics of increased importance to the Great Lakes include fisheries and invasive species. Links to sites featuring publications and photos of Great Lakes storms and wildlife.

2010-12-30

169

Great Lakes Region Sea Grant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Site dedicated to the Great Lakes Sea Grant program. Information on GLSG priorities and initiatives. Topics of increased importance to the Great Lakes include fisheries and invasive species. Links to sites featuring publications and photos of Great Lakes storms and seiches and wildlife.

170

A leaky aquifer below Champlain Sea clay: closed-form solutions for natural seepage.  

PubMed

Closed-form solutions are proposed for natural seepage in semiconfined (leaky) aquifers such as those existing below the massive Champlain Sea clay layers in the Saint-Lawrence River Valley. The solutions are for an ideal horizontal leaky aquifer below an ideal aquitard that may have either a constant thickness and a constant hydraulic head at its surface, or a variable thickness and a variable hydraulic head at its surface. A few simplifying assumptions were needed to obtain the closed-form solutions. These have been verified using a finite element method, which did not make any of the assumptions but gave an excellent agreement for hydraulic heads and groundwater velocities. For example, the difference between the two solutions was smaller than 1 mm for variations in the 5 to 8 m range for the hydraulic head in the semiconfined aquifer. Note that fitting the hydraulic head data of monitoring wells to the theoretical solutions gives only the ratio of the aquifer and aquitard hydraulic conductivities, a clear case of multiple solutions for an inverse problem. Consequently, field permeability tests in the aquitard and the aquifer, and pumping tests in the aquifer, are still needed to determine the hydraulic conductivity values. PMID:23441962

Chapuis, Robert P; Saucier, Antoine

2013-01-01

171

Meltwater discharge and the triggering of Younger Dryas : new data on the chronology of Champlain Sea transgression in the St-Lawrence River Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate chronology of ice retreat is crucial to understand the Ocean-Atmosphere couple at the end of the Pleistocene. The St-Lawrence River Valley is key in this regard, and two sedimentary sequences from Mount Saint-Hilaire, in the middle of the valley, contain a record that sheds new lignt on ice retreat and the penecontemporaneous proglacial marine invasion. Basal AMS-dates on terrestrial plant macrofossils coupled with an extrapolation from the pollen content of underlying postglacial lake sediments at Hemlock Carr (243 m), show that local ice retreat occurred around 11 350 14C yr BP. Cross-dating of such macrofossils (10 510 60 14C yr BP) with shells from marine sediments (~12 200 14C yr BP) catched in the neighbouring Lake Hertel's basin (169 m) show a ca. 1700 14C years difference mainly ascribed to the effect of old, glacially-derived carbon in the upper shallow waters of the Champlain Sea. The pollen-based chronological extrapolation at Lake Hertel indicates that the marine invasion occurred around 11 100 100 14C yr BP. This result supports the chronology based on deep-water invertebrate marine fauna (Rodrigues, 1988). The 14C assessment of the New-England varve chronology (Ridge et al., 1999) is thus confirmed. Deglaciation of the entire Saint-Lawrence River Valley took place within 1000 14C years. The chronology of ice retreat in southern Qubec is shortened and made younger. This prompts major revision of all the associated paleohydrological events. Routing of the glacial meltwaters to the North Atlantic was impossible before 11 100 14C yr BP. The abrupt transition from Glacial Lake Candona (ca. 220 m) to the proglacial phase of the Champlain Sea (ca. 190 m) at 11 100 14C yr BP implies an input of glacial meltwater to the ocean estimated at 1500 km3. This may well have affected the thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic and triggered the Younger Dryas oscillation.

Richard, P.; Occhietti, S.

2004-05-01

172

Unraveling associations between cyanobacteria blooms and in-lake environmental conditions in Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain, USA, using a modified self-organizing map.  

PubMed

Exploratory data analysis on physical, chemical, and biological data from sediments and water in Lake Champlain reveals a strong relationship between cyanobacteria, sediment anoxia, and the ratio of dissolved nitrogen to soluble reactive phosphorus. Physical, chemical, and biological parameters of lake sediment and water were measured between 2007 and 2009. Cluster analysis using a self-organizing artificial neural network, expert opinion, and discriminant analysis separated the data set into no-bloom and bloom groups. Clustering was based on similarities in water and sediment chemistry and non-cyanobacteria phytoplankton abundance. Our analysis focused on the contribution of individual parameters to discriminate between no-bloom and bloom groupings. Application to a second, more spatially diverse data set, revealed similar no-bloom and bloom discrimination, yet a few samples possess all the physicochemical characteristics of a bloom without the high cyanobacteria cell counts, suggesting that while specific environmental conditions can support a bloom, another environmental trigger may be required to initiate the bloom. Results highlight the conditions coincident with cyanobacteria blooms in Missisquoi Bay of Lake Champlain and indicate additional data are needed to identify possible ecological contributors to bloom initiation. PMID:24251635

Pearce, Andrea R; Rizzo, Donna M; Watzin, Mary C; Druschel, Gregory K

2013-12-17

173

Historical trace metal accumulation in the sediments of an urbanized region of the Lake Champlain watershed, Burlington, Vermont  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study documents the history of pollution inputs in the Burlington region of Lake Champlain, Vermont using measurements of anthropogenic metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Ag) in four age-dated sediment cores. Sediments record a history of contamination in a region and can be used to assess the changing threat to biota over time and to evaluate the effectiveness of discharge regulations on anthropogenic inputs. Grain size, magnetic susceptibility, radiometric dating and pollen stratigraphy were combined with trace metal data to provide an assessment of the history of contamination over the last 350 yr in the Burlington region of Lake Champlain. Magnetic susceptibility was initially used to identify land-use history for each site because it is a proxy indicator of soil erosion. Historical trends in metal inputs in the Burlington region from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries are reflected in downcore variations in metal concentrations and accumulation rates. Metal concentrations increase above background values in the early to mid nineteenth century. The metal input rate to the sediments increases around 1920 and maximum concentrations and accumulation rates are observed in the late 1960s. Decreases in concentration and accumulation rate between 1970 and the present are observed, for most metals. The observed trends are primarily a function of variations in anthropogenic inputs and not variations in sediment grain size. Grain size data were used to remove texture variations from the metal profiles and results show trends in the anthropogenic metal signals remain. Radiometric dating and pollen stratigraphy provide well-constrained dates for the sediments thereby allowing the metal profiles to be interpreted in terms of land-use history.This study documents the history of pollution inputs in the Burlington region of Lake Champlain, Vermont using measurements of anthropogenic metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Ag) in four age-dated sediment cores. Sediments record a history of contamination in a region and can be used to assess the changing threat to biota over time and to evaluate the effectiveness of discharge regulations on anthropogenic inputs. Grain size, magnetic susceptibility, radiometric dating and pollen stratigraphy were combined with trace metal data to provide an assessment of the history of contamination over the last 350 yr in the Burlington region of Lake Champlain. Magnetic susceptibility was initially used to identify land-use history for each site because it is a proxy indicator of soil erosion. Historical trends in metal inputs in the Burlington region from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries are reflected in downcore variations in metal concentrations and accumulation rates. Metal concentrations increase above background values in the early to mid nineteenth century. The metal input rate to the sediments increases around 1920 and maximum concentrations and accumulation rates are observed in the late 1960s. Decreases in concentration and accumulation rate between 1970 and the present are observed for most metals. The observed trends are primarily a function of variations in anthropogenic inputs and not variations in sediment grain size. Grain size data were used to remove texture variations from the metal profiles and results show trends in the anthropogenic metal signals remain. Radiometric dating and pollen stratigraphy provide well-constrained dates for the sediments thereby allowing the metal profiles to be interpreted in terms of land-use history.

Mecray, E.L.; King, J.W.; Appleby, P.G.; Hunt, A.S.

2001-01-01

174

Wetlands in the Lake Champlain region of Vermont: Present and future threats to the resource. Boundary determination and background information for the EPA's proposed advanced identification. Final report  

SciTech Connect

EPA Region 1 Wetlands Protections Section is planning an Advanced Identification Project for the Lake Champlain Region of Vermont. 'Advanced Identification' refers to the two authorities EPA can utilize under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act to protect wetlands in advance of permit applications. In Vermont, a combined activities-based Advanced Identification of Sites (AIS) and Advance 404(c) project is proposed. This study determines the boundaries for the Advanced Identification action. It discusses the criteria developed to evaluate watershed considerations and both present and future threats to the resource. All towns in four counties bordering Lake Champlain were evaluated with regard to location in watershed, wetland acreage, wetland loss, population projections, historical growth trends, tax information, and housing stock estimates. Based on the criteria listed above, the towns selected are experiencing the types of growth pressures that will lead to continued wetland loss. EPA plans to restrict work at especially valuable sites with this area using Advance 404(c).

Borre, M.A.

1988-11-01

175

Contingent rating method for measuring the benefits of water-quality improvements: development and application. [St. Albans Bay, Lake Champlain  

SciTech Connect

A new contigent valuation method was developed and tested for estimating the benefits from improving the water quality of a lake or stream. The need for such a method arises because of the public-goods nature of water quality. The contigent rating method is a technique that uses utility information to indirectly measure the benefits from an improvement in water quality at a recreation site. Indifference curves reflecting an individual's preferences for cleaner water at a site are derived through a rating game. By applying a budget line to the indifference surface, the Hicksian welfare measure of benefits from the provision of improved water quality can be obtained. This method was used to estimate the benefits from improving the water quality in St. Albans Bay, on Lake Champlain in Vermont. The results of the application of the contingent rating method are very encouraging. The technique is easy to administer. Most of the indifference maps were consistent with economic theory. Almost all of the maps implied that a cleaner St. Albans Bay is preferred to the current state, agreeing with verbal statements made by the respondents.

Ribaudo, M.O.

1983-01-01

176

Role of Wetlands in Reducing Phosphorus Loading to Surface Water in Eight Watersheds in the Lake Champlain Basin  

PubMed

A landscape-level approach was applied to eight rural watersheds to assess the role that wetlands play in reducing phosphorus loading to surface waters in the Lake Champlain Basin. Variables summarizing various characteristics of wetlands within a watershed were calculated using a geographic information system and then compared to measured phosphorus loading through multiple regression analyses. The inclusion of a variable based on the area of riparian wetlands located along low- and medium-order streams in conjunction with the area of agricultural and nonwetland forested lands explained 88% of the variance in phosphorus loading to surface waters. The best fit model coefficients (Pload=0.86Ag+0.64For-30Ripwet+160) suggest that a hectare of riparian wetland may be many times more important in reducing phosphorus than an agricultural hectare is in producing phosphorus. These results provide additional support for the concept that protection of riparian wetlands is an important management strategy for controlling stream water quality in multiuse landscapes.KEY WORDS: Wetlands; Phosphorus; Landscape; Regression model; Riparian; Vermont PMID:8703110

Weller; Watzin; Wang

1996-09-01

177

Assessing sediment quality in heterogeneous environments: A case study of a small urban harbor in Lake Champlain, Vermont, USA  

SciTech Connect

Relatively few case studies have been conducted demonstrating the utility of multiple endpoint approaches to sediment quality assessment in areas with moderate contaminant levels and heterogeneous conditions. Because variability is commonplace in natural systems, assessment approaches must be designed explicitly for these conditions. In an assessment of highly heterogeneous freshwater sediments in Lake Champlain, Vermont, USA, the authors measured multiple endpoints, including physical and chemical characteristics of the sediment, acute and chronic toxicity in three tests (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Chironomus tentans, and Pimephales promelas), and benthic community composition, at 19 sites throughout Inner Burlington Harbor. Multiple regression techniques were used to investigate whether significant relationships existed between biological endpoints and the physical and chemical characteristics of the sediments. Although all three laboratory exposures indicated toxicity at some sites, little correspondence was found among the tests. No changes in the benthic community could be attributed to trace contaminants. Multiple regression was useful in showing associations between contaminants, grain size, toxicity, and benthic community composition. Although not demonstrating causal linkages, these statistical analyses suggested which factors might be important in driving measured responses. In heterogeneous sites, an individualized assessment approach based on a preliminary analysis of variability might provide the most useful information.

Watzin, M.C.; McIntosh, A.W.; Brown, E.A.; Lacey, R.; Lester, D.C.; Newbrough, K.L.; Williams, A.R. [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States). School of Natural Resources

1997-10-01

178

Role of wetlands in reducing phosphorus loading to surface water in eight watersheds in the Lake Champlain Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A landscape-level approach was applied to eight rural watersheds to assess the role that wetlands play in reducing phosphorus loading to surface waters in the Lake Champlain Basin. Variables summarizing various characteristics of wetlands within a watershed were calculated using a geographic information system and then compared to measured phosphorus loading through multiple regression analyses. The inclusion of a variable based on the area of riparian wetlands located along low- and medium-order streams in conjunction with the area of agricultural and nonwetland forested lands explained 88% of the variance in phosphorus loading to surface waters. The best fit model coefficients (Pload = 0.86Ag + 0.64For - 30Ripwet + 160) suggest that a hectare of riparian wetland may be many times more important in reducing phosphorus than an agricultural hectare is in producing phosphorus. These results provide additional support for the concept that protection of riparian wetlands is an important management strategy for controlling stream water quality in multiuse landscapes.

Weller, Christine M.; Watzin, Mary C.; Wang, Deane

1996-09-01

179

75 FR 10229 - Application for Presidential Permit; Champlain Hudson Power Express, Inc.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bridgeport, Connecticut. From the U.S.-Canada border, the submarine transmission cables would be routed through Lake Champlain and travel south to the northern entrance of the Champlain Canal, near Whitehall, New York. To the extent...

2010-03-05

180

RESTORATION OF ATLANTIC SALMON AND THEIR ECOSYSTEM SERVICES TO LAKE CHAMPLAIN BY RESTORING THEIR RIVER IMPRINTING  

EPA Science Inventory

It is expected that each river and hatchery will have a distinct amino acid profile. Also, it is predicted that amino acid concentrations will be highest in the hatcheries, lowest in the lake and at intermediate levels in the rivers. If the hatcheries have a different amino...

181

EFFECTIVENESS OF AGRICULTURAL BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN REDUCING PHOSPHORUS LOADING TO LAKE CHAMPLAIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus is an essential element for the growth of terrestrial and aquatic plants. But in P-limited freshwater lakes, increased P loading can accelerate eutrophication and an associated growth of undesirable algae and aquatic weeds. Eutrophication has been blamed for the decline in water quality i...

182

High-water marks from flooding in Lake Champlain from April through June 2011 and Tropical Storm Irene in August 2011 in Vermont  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, identified high-water marks after two floods in Vermont during 2011. Following a snowy winter, new monthly precipitation records were set in Burlington, Vermont, in April and May 2011, causing extensive flooding from April through June. The spring 2011 flooding resulted in a new record for stage (103.27 feet, referenced to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929) at the Lake Champlain at Burlington, Vt., gaging station (04294500). During August 28 and 29, 2011, tropical storm Irene delivered rainfall totals of 3 to more than 7 inches throughout Vermont, which resulted in extensive flooding and new streamflow records at nine streamgaging stations. Four presidential declarations of disaster were made following the 2011 flood events in Vermont. Thirty-nine high-water marks were identified and flagged to mark the highest levels of Lake Champlain from the May 2011 flooding, and 1,138 high-water marks were identified and flagged along Vermont rivers after flooding from tropical storm Irene in August 2011. Seventy-four percent of the high-water marks that were flagged were later found and surveyed to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988.

Medalie, Laura; Olson, S.A.

2013-01-01

183

SEA LAMPREY CONTROL ON THE GREAT LAKES  

E-print Network

: Sea lamprey Silver lamprey American br»ok igtmpiE£ Bowfin Rainbow trout Brown trout Lake trout Brook of streams and related problems 21 Literature cited 26 #12;SEA LAMPREY CONTROL ON THE GREAT LAKES 1953 trout Round whitefish Smelt White sucker Longnose sucker Hog sucker Silver redhorse Petromyzon marinus

184

The Eagle: an American brig on Lake Champlain during the War of 1812  

E-print Network

282 57 58 60 61 62 63 64 65 Chapelle's reconstruction of the ~N' fh t f th ~N 1 t f ~N' ft ' ' g, view aft Th ~N' g No t The Oneida A Jones gunport Th ~St Th t f th ~T' d Brig to be built at Isle aux Noix 286 288 289 291 296... are ordered to Albany, before the close of the Hudson, for the lake service. l ~(II A4~ sow GALLEY Figure 6. Row galley. (Adapted from The Histor of American Sailin Na , by H. I. Chapelle. Courtesy W. W. Norton & Co. , Inc. , New York) Early in 1814...

Crisman, Kevin James

1984-01-01

185

Vermont Water Resources and Lake Studies Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

as well as other collaborating stakeholder groups. These groups include the Lake Champlain Basin Program, the Lake Champlain Research Consortium, municipalities, and NGOs. Additional support for the Vermont Water Sensing and GIS Modeling, Lake Champlain 2010 Conference: Our Lake, Our Future, Lake Champlain Research

186

Sources of fine particulate species in ambient air over lake Champlain Basin, VT.  

PubMed

This study is a part of an ongoing investigation of the types and locations of emission sources that contribute fine particulate air contaminants to Underhill, VT. The air quality monitoring data used for this study are from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network for the period of 2001-2003 for the Underhill site. The main source-receptor modeling techniques used are the positive matrix factorization (PMF) and potential source contribution function (PSCF). This new study is intended as a comparison to a previous study of the 1988-1995 Underhill data that successfully revealed a total of 11 types of emission sources with significant contributions to this rural site. This new study has identified a total of nine sources: nitrate-rich secondary aerosol, wood smoke, East Coast oil combustion, automobile emission, metal working, soil/dust, sulfur-rich aerosol type I, sulfur-rich aerosol type II, and sea salt/road salt. Furthermore, the mass contributions from the PMF identified sources that correspond with sampling days with either good or poor visibility were analyzed to seek possible correlations. It has been shown that sulfur-rich aerosol type I, nitrate aerosol, and automobile emission are the most important contributors to visibility degradation. Soil/dust and sea salt/road salt also have an added effect. PMID:17117747

Gao, Ning; Gildemeister, Amy E; Krumhansl, Kira; Lafferty, Katherine; Hopke, Philip K; Kim, Eugene; Poirot, Richard L

2006-11-01

187

Sources of fine particulate species in ambient air over Lake Champlain Basin, VT  

SciTech Connect

This study is a part of an ongoing investigation of the types and locations of emission sources that contribute fine particulate air contaminants to Underhill, VT. The air quality monitoring data used for this study are from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network for the period of 2001-2003 for the Underhill site. The main source-receptor modeling techniques used are the positive matrix factorization (PMF) and potential source contribution function (PSCF). This new study is intended as a comparison to a previous study of the 1988-1995 Underhill data that successfully revealed a total of 11 types of emission sources with significant contributions to this rural site. This new study has identified a total of nine sources: nitrate-rich secondary aerosol, wood smoke, East Coast oil combustion, automobile emission, metal working, soil/dust, sulfur-rich aerosol type I, sulfur-rich aerosol type II, and sea salt/road salt. Furthermore, the mass contributions from the PMF identified sources that correspond with sampling days with either good or poor visibility were analyzed to seek possible correlations. It has been shown that sulfur-rich aerosol type I, nitrate aerosol, and automobile emission are the most important contributors to visibility degradation. Soil/dust and sea salt/road salt also have an added effect. 38 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

Ning Gao; Amy E. Gildemeister; Kira Krumhansl; Katherine Lafferty; Philip K. Hopke; Eugene Kim; Richard L. Poirot [St. Lawrence University, Canton, NY (United States)

2006-11-15

188

Ohio Sea Grant and Lake Erie Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ohio Sea Grant and Lake Erie Programs are housed at The Ohio State University, and are responsible for maintaining a number of scientific laboratories and research endeavors that focus primarily on Lake Erie. A number of their most valuable online resources are made available on their homepage, including the Lake Erie Information Discussion Board (where visitors can get answers to Lake Erie-related questions) and the Sea Grant's work in creating artificial reefs in Lake Erie. Moving on from there, the homepage also contains a site index, where visitors can learn about the diverse research projects currently underway and view some of their online publications. One particular publication, "Twine Line", is quite useful, as it is geared towards the general public and includes coverage about Lake Erie and Great Lakes issues and research.

189

Geology and mineral resources of the Baltimore, Boston, Lake Champlain, and Providence 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS Quadrangles. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program  

SciTech Connect

This document contains 4 geologic and mineral resources reports for the Baltimore, Boston, Lake Champlain, and Providence 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Quadrangles in the northeastern United States. The purpose of these reports is to provide background geologic and mineral resources information to aid in the interpretation of National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) geochemical reconnaissance data. All the reports are accompanied by geologic and mineral locality maps; the Baltimore report contains a map of the geologic provinces and political boundaries, as well as two geologic cross sections. The maps, Plates 1 through 10, are found in the pocket on the inside back cover of this volume in microform. All four papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

Karfunkel, B.S. (comp.)

1983-03-01

190

Assessment of the spatial extent and height of flooding in Lake Champlain during May 2011, using satellite remote sensing and ground-based information  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landsat 5 and moderate resolution imaging spectro-radiometer satellite imagery were used to map the area of inundation of Lake Champlain, which forms part of the border between New York and Vermont, during May 2011. During this month, the lakes water levels were record high values not observed in the previous 150 years. Lake inundation area determined from the satellite imagery is correlated with lake stage measured at three U.S. Geological Survey lake level gages to provide estimates of lake area at different lake levels (stage/area rating) and also compared with the levels of the high-water marks (HWMs) located on the Vermont side of the lake. The rating developed from the imagery shows a somewhat different relation than a similar stage/area rating developed from a medium-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the region. According to the rating derived from the imagery, the lake surface area during the peak lake level increased by about 17 percent above the average or normal lake level. By using a comparable rating developed from the DEM, the increase above average is estimated to be about 12 percent. The northern part of the lake (north of Burlington) showed the largest amount of flooding. Based on intersecting the inundation maps with the medium-resolution DEM, lake levels were not uniform around the lake. This is also evident from the lake level gage measurements and HWMs. The gage data indicate differences up to 0.5 feet between the northern and southern end of the lake. Additionally, the gage data show day-to-day and intradaily variation of the same range (0.5 foot). The high-water mark observations show differences up to 2 feet around the lake, with the highest level generally along the south- and west-facing shorelines. The data suggest that during most of May 2011, water levels were slightly higher and less variable in the northern part of the lake. These phenomena may be caused by wind effects as well as proximity to major river inputs to the lake. The inundation areas generated from the imagery generally coincide with flood mapping as estimated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and shown on its digital flood insurance rate maps. Where areas in the flood inundation map derived from the imagery and the FEMA estimated flooded areas differ substantially, this difference may be due to differences between the flood magnitude at the time of the image and the assumed flood condition used for the FEMA modeling and mapping, wind/storage effects not accounted for by the FEMA modeling, and the resolution of the image compared to the DEM used in the FEMA mapping.

Bjerklie, David M.; Trombley, Thomas J.; Olson, Scott A.

2014-01-01

191

SEA LAMPREY SPAWNING RUNS IN THE GREAT LAKES 1951  

E-print Network

SEA LAMPREY SPAWNING RUNS IN THE GREAT LAKES 1951 SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT: FISHERIES No. 68 AND WILDLIFE SERVICE #12;#12;SEA LAMPREY SPAWNING RUNS THE GREAT LAKES 1951 SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT. Washington, Do CLAMPREY SPACING RUNS

192

Headwater locations of U.S. streams tributary to St. Lawrence River basin between western Ohio and eastern New York, excluding Lake Champlain basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The headwater locations of several thousand U.S. streams tributary to Lakes Ontario and Erie and the St. Lawrence and Niagara Rivers, from the Maumee River in Ohio to the western border of the Lake Champlain basin in New York, including parts of Pennsylvania, are listed by quadrangle. The location of the headwater of each is given with reference to cultural and topographic features. ' Headwater ' in this report is defined as the first site downstream from which the average streamflow is 5 cubic feet per second. The site locations were determined from drainage areas as indicated on topographic maps. The size of the drainage area required to produce an average flow of 5 cubic feet per second was determined from equations, developed separately for each State by regression techniques, that define the relation between streamflow and hydrologic factors of the region. Drainage area and precipitation were factors in the equations for all three States: forest cover was found to be significant in Ohio. (Woodard-USGS)

Eissler, Benjamin B.

1979-01-01

193

The Sea Lamprey in Lake Erie: a Case History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus), first reported in Lake Erie in 1921, emigrated from Lake Ontario via the Welland Canal. It was not until the advent of pollution abatement, stream rehabilitation, and salmonid enhancement programs that sea lampreys proliferated. The Great Lakes Fishery Commission (GLFC), in co-operation with state, provincial, and federal fisheries agencies, implemented an integrated sea lamprey management (IMSL)

W. Paul Sullivan; Gavin C. Christie; Floyd C. Cornelius; Michael F. Fodale; David A. Johnson; Joseph F. Koonce; Geraldine L. Larson; Rodney B. McDonald; Katherine M. Mullett; Charles K. Murray; Phillip A. Ryan

2003-01-01

194

New York Landscape Regions in Google Earth: Champlain Lowlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Champlain Lowlands tour is part of the New York Landscape Regions Collection of Google Earth tours, created by a group of New York State science educators. This tour includes views of the gorge of the Ausable River, cut through Late Cambrian Potsdam Sandstone, and the geology of the Champlain Thrust Fault, a low angle thrust fault formed as the proto-Atlantic Ocean closed during the Taconic Oregeny. When it was still connected to the ocean, Lake Champlain was home to whales, whose fossils are now entombed in the lake sediments. The tour also includes classroom activities for students.

195

J. Great Lakes Res. 34:721730 Internat. Assoc. Great Lakes Res., 2008  

E-print Network

in Lake Champlain Michael J. McCormick1, Thomas O. Manley2, Dmitry Beletsky3,*, Andrew J. Foley III3 Station Muskegon, Michigan 49441 ABSTRACT. Understanding the hydrodynamics of Lake Champlain is a basic Lakes, which is a natural consequence of the smaller basin size of Lake Champlain relative to the Great

196

A series of large, Late Wisconsinan meltwater floods through the Champlain and Hudson Valleys, New York State, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Champlain Valley in northeastern New York lies at the junction of two important Late Wisconsinan proglacial outflow routes, the Hudson Valley to the south and the St. Lawrence Valley to the northeast. Freshwater outflow from proglacial lakes in the Hudson\\/Champlain valleys (glacial lake Albany\\/Vermont) and the combined Ontario and St. Lawrence valleys (glacial Lake Iroquois) may have affected ocean

John A. Rayburn; Peter L. K. Knuepfer; David A. Franzi

2005-01-01

197

SEA LAMPREY SPAWNING RUNS IN THE GREAT LAKES, 1950  

E-print Network

u SEA LAMPREY SPAWNING RUNS IN THE GREAT LAKES, 1950 SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT: FISHERIES No. 61 and Wildlife Service, Albert M. Day, Director SEA LAMPREY SPAWNING RUNS IN THE GREAT LAKES IN 1950 by Vernon C Page Introduction i Installation and operation of sea lamprey CO nT-rO-L StrilC OUT eS Xn Xy y

198

Lake Champlain 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS Area, New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire: supplemental data report. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance  

SciTech Connect

This data report presents supplemental analytical results for 1328 stream sediment samples that were collected as part of the SRL-NURE reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Lake Champlain 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle. Results are reported for 23 elements (extractable U, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn). Analyses are tabulated and displayed graphically on microfiche. Field data and neutron activation analysis (NAA) were open-filled in DPST-81-146-2 (GJBX-108(81)).

Cook, J.R.

1981-07-01

199

Fisheries Education: From the Great Lakes to the Sea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are investigations related to fisheries education developed by the Ohio Sea Grant Education Office as a part of a series of Oceanic Education Activities for Great Lake Schools. The investigations discussed are "Yellow Perch in Lake Erie," which concerns fisheries management, and "It's Everyone's Sea: Or Is It," which focuses on fishing

Fortner, Rosanne; Mayer, Victor J.

1980-01-01

200

Microwave radiometry over Titan's seas and lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In its passive, or radiometry, mode of operation, the Cassini Radar measures the microwave thermal emission from the surface at a wavelength of 2.2 cm. In doing so, it provides unique insight into surface properties of Saturn's largest moon Titan such as physical temperature, overall composition and structure (roughness, heterogeneity...). To date, almost the whole surface of Titan has been mapped by the Cassini Radiometer , whose calibration has been recently refined resulting in an unprecedented accuracy of about 1%. The measured brightness temperatures have also been referenced to the same epoch (i.e. 2005 based on CIRS observations of seasonal surface temperature variations) and to normal incidence. This allows the use of measurements performed at different epochs and with different observational geometries to compare the emissivities of different geological units on Titan. In particular, comparison of radiometry data acquired over Titan's seas and lakes at different places and times should provide clues to their composition and potential seasonal variations. In this paper, we will mainly focus on the radiometry data collected over the northern seas Ligeia Mare and Kraken Mare and the southern lake Ontario Lacus. These three features have been observed several times over the course of the Cassini mission, both in SAR-radiometry and altimetry-radiometry modes of operation. In all cases, assuming no evaporative cooling, radiometry data point to a dielectric constant of about 1.700.25, consistent with liquid hydrocarbons. Comparison of radiometry at sea with nearby onshore measurements may allow us to detect evaporative cooling. This will be investigated and further discussed.

Le Gall, A. A.; Janssen, M. A.; Encrenaz, P.; Lunine, J. I.; Lorenz, R. D.; Hayes, A.; Fernandez, L. I.; Ries, P. A.

2013-12-01

201

Vermont Water Resources and Lake Studies Center Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

of a two-year project entitled Trophic Status of Lake Champlain over 400 years of Changing Land Use in the trophic status of important sub-basins in Lake Champlain through analysis of sediment cores. Samples from the cores will be used to assess biological and chemical indicators of ecosystem health in Lake Champlain

202

Vermont Water Resources and Lake Studies Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

Conservation (VTDEC) and other collaborating stakeholder groups. These groups include the Lake Champlain Basin Program, the Lake Champlain Research Consortium, municipalities, and NGOs who have an interest in water streambank sediments in the Lake Champlain Basin of Vermont. (Final report) 2. Bowden, W. B., J. Shanley. Use

203

Vermont Water Resources and Lake Studies Center Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

-02702. Research Program #12;Lagrangian Drifters Within Lake Champlain Feasibility Study Basic Information Title: Lagrangian Drifters Within Lake Champlain Feasibility Study Project Number: 2001VT641B Number: VT641 Title: Lagrangian Drifters Within Lake Champlain Feasibility Study Project Type: Research

204

Contribution of IRSL to facies analysis and groundwater aquifer characterization: discriminating between subaquatic outwash and regressive deltaic sequences in the postglacial Champlain Sea, Quebec, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide-range of glaciomarine sediments can be found in the marginal areas of glaciated continents. These glaciomarine sediments were deposited in former postglacial seas, such as the Champlain Sea that inundated the St. Lawrence Valley shortly after the deglaciation of southwestern Quebec (Canada). Their nature and architecture result from a dynamic balance between glacioisostasy, glacioeustasy, and sediment flux. Among these sediments, large complexes of coarse-grained (sand-gravel) deposits commonly mark the spatial variation in the regional limits of the shoreline. For instance, outwash fans typically mark ice-marginal positions whereas regressive deltas reflect the forced recession of the postglacial sea. Although such sedimentary bodies represent distinct depositional settings, they also show several similarities in term of surface geomorphology and sedimentary features, making their differentiation difficult at places, and thereby introducing large uncertainties in paleogeographic reconstructions. Here we apply optically-stimulated luminescence of feldspar (e.g., IRSL) to develop a new stratigraphic tool aimed at improving sedimentary facies analysis. Specifically, we applied IRSL techniques to outwash fan and deltaic sediments found at similar elevation (180-195 m, a.s.l.) in the Gatineau River valley. Our preliminary results suggest that feldspar extracted from coarse-grained sediments that exhibit a high natural luminescence signal and a large scatter between individual aliquots have retained a considerable residual luminescence signal, thus suggesting they were not exposed to sunlight. This type of deposits is typical of sedimentary bodies that belong to massive outwash fan complexes that were emplaced at the onset of the deglaciation. Sediments that show low natural luminescence signal and small scatter (associated with variable rates of anomalous fading) should be indicative of good exposure to sunlight, thus suggesting they belong to regressive deltas. Accordingly, IRSL dating of this type of deltaic sediments may eventually yield important chronological constraints, particularly during the time interval investigated, which correspond to a period of global eustatic changes associated with ice recession in the Northern Hemisphere. In short, this study may help to discriminate geomorphological features typical of fjord valleys that are either associated with eustatic changes or glacioisotatic changes. Additionally, such a study may also contribute to improve stratigraphic interpretations, which is critical in assessing the role of these sedimentary bodies in the regional hydrogeology. Glaciofluvial outwashes are commonly found overlying glacial deposits or bedrock, in which case they may contribute to the regional recharge. The regressive deltaic sands are typically underlain by material of low conductivity (massive or laminated clays), and thus contribute only to surface hydrogeological flow.

Roy, M.; Lamarche, O.; Lamothe, M.

2012-12-01

205

Development of Two New Sampling Techniques for Assessing Lake Trout Reproduction in Deep Water  

E-print Network

reefs, two new methods (deepwater egg traps and remote electrofishing) were tested in Lake Champlain types of gear at shallow sites in Lake Champlain. After testing, the new egg traps were deployed in Lake and was used to detect fry in Lake Champlain. The remote electrofisher detected fry in 90% of laboratory trials

Marsden, Ellen

206

Neutron activation analysis of sea-, lake-, and evaporated salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt is essential for human nutrition. Recently, it has become popular in Europe to rather use exotic sea salt or lake salt instead of purified evaporated salt, because of an alleged higher content of trace elements. In this study the content of trace elements and their bioavailability of 19 samples of different types of salt and 1 sample of brine purification sludge were investigated using instrumental neutron activation analysis. In general, sea-, lake-, and evaporated salt are quite pure. Trace elements determined in salt were Al, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Rb, Sc, Sr, and Zn; some of them only in individual cases. It was found that, in general, the content of trace elements in sea- or lake salt was higher than in purified salt. Nevertheless, the use of sea- or lake salt does not contribute significantly to the human needs of essential trace elements, because their concentration in salt is too low or their compounds are not bioavailable.

Steinhauser, G.; Sterba, J. H.; Poljanc, K.; Bichler, M.; Buchtela, K.

2006-01-01

207

Big Sagebrush: A Sea Fragmented into Lakes, Ponds, and Puddles  

E-print Network

Distribution of big sagebrush in the State of Washington before settlement. Distribution of big sagebrush in the State of Washington after settlementAbstract ______________________________________ Welch, Bruce L. 2005. Big sagebrush: A sea fragmented into lakes, ponds, and puddles.

United States; Forest Service; Bruce L. Welch

2005-01-01

208

Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) and its exceptional wind system  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 19731976, research was performed around the Sea of Galilee, aimed at examining the wind regime in the area and whether the area develops a land-sea breeze despite its particular topographical location.The main conclusions were:(1)During the summer mornings a lake breeze develops, blowing towards the shores of the lake. It ceases at the peak of its development when a westerly

Arieh Bitan

1981-01-01

209

Influence of Physical Processes on Fish Recruitment Variability in the Great Lakes  

E-print Network

, and Lake Champlain. For Lake Trout in Grand Traverse Bay, we will combine in-situ measures of temperature, and for Lake Trout in Lake Champlain. #12;For Lake Trout and Lake Whitefish in Thunder Bay Lake Huron, we Ruberg ReCON project) to predict spawning, egg incubation times, and fry emergence and dispersal. In Lake

210

Concentrations and Loads of Nutrients and Suspended Sediments in Englesby Brook and Little Otter Creek, Lake Champlain Basin, Vermont, 2000-2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effectiveness of best-management practices (BMPs) in improving water quality in Lake Champlain tributaries was evaluated from 2000 through 2005 on the basis of analysis of data collected on concentrations of total phosphorus and suspended sediment in Englesby Brook, an urban stream in Burlington, and Little Otter Creek, an agricultural stream in Ferrisburg. Data also were collected on concentrations of total nitrogen in the Englesby Brook watershed. In the winter of 2001-2002, one of three planned structural BMPs was installed in the urban watershed. At approximately the same time, a set of barnyard BMPs was installed in the agricultural watershed; however, the other planned BMPs, which included streambank fencing and nutrient management, were not implemented within the study period. At Englesby Brook, concentrations of phosphorus ranged from 0.024 to 0.3 milligrams per liter (mg/L) during base-flow and from 0.032 to 11.8 mg/L during high-flow conditions. Concentrations of suspended sediment ranged from 3 to 189 mg/L during base-flow and from 5 to 6,880 mg/L during high-flow conditions. An assessment of the effectiveness of an urban BMP was made by comparing concentrations and loads of phosphorus and suspended sediment before and after a golf-course irrigation pond in the Englesby Brook watershed was retrofitted with the objective of reducing sediment transport. Results from a modified paired watershed study design showed that the BMP reduced concentrations of phosphorus and suspended sediment during high-flow events - when average streamflow was greater than 3 cubic feet per second. While construction of the BMP did not reduce storm loads of phosphorus or suspended sediment, an evaluation of changes in slope of double-mass curves showing cumulative monthly streamflow plotted against cumulative monthly loads indicated a possible reduction in cumulative loads of phosphorus and suspended sediment after BMP construction. Results from the Little Otter Creek assessment of agricultural BMPs showed that concentrations of phosphorus ranged from 0.016 to 0.141 mg/L during base-flow and from 0.019 to 0.565 mg/L during high-flow conditions at the upstream monitoring station. Concentrations of suspended sediment ranged from 2 to 13 mg/L during base-flow and from 1 to 473 mg/L during high-flow conditions at the upstream monitoring station. Concentrations of phosphorus ranged from 0.018 to 0.233 mg/L during base-flow and from 0.019 to 1.95 mg/L during high-flow conditions at the downstream monitoring station. Concentrations of suspended sediment ranged from 10 to 132 mg/L during base-flow and from 8 to 1,190 mg/L during high-flow conditions at the downstream monitoring station. Annual loads of phosphorus at the downstream monitoring station were significantly larger than loads at the upstream monitoring station, and annual loads of suspended sediment at the downstream monitoring station were larger than loads at the upstream monitoring station for 4 out of 6 years. On a monthly basis, loads of phosphorus and suspended sediment at the downstream monitoring station were significantly larger than loads at the upstream monitoring station. Pairs of concentrations of phosphorus and monthly loads of phosphorus and suspended sediment from the upstream and downstream monitoring stations were evaluated using the paired watershed study design. The only significant reduction between the calibration and treatment periods was for monthly loads of phosphorus; all other evaluations showed no change between periods.

Medalie, Laura

2007-01-01

211

Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Indicates Sea Lampreys Are Indigenous to Lake Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasitic sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus occurs throughout North America's Great Lakes, where it has an immense economic impact on commercially and recreationally important fishes. Sea lampreys indisputably invaded Lake Erie and the upper Great Lakes from Lake Ontario in the mid-1900s, but their official status as a nonnative species in Lake Ontario is based on circumstantial evidence and has

John R. Waldman; Cheryl Grunwald; Nirmal K. Roy; Isaac I. Wirgin

2004-01-01

212

Concentration, flux, and the analysis of trends of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride in 18 tributaries to Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York, 19902011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual concentration, flux, and yield for total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride for 18 tributaries to Lake Champlain were estimated for 1990 through 2011 using a weighted regression method based on time, tributary streamflows (discharges), and seasonal factors. The weighted regression method generated two series of daily estimates of flux and concentration during the period of record: one based on observed discharges and a second based on a flow-normalization procedure that removes random variation due to year-to-year climate-driven effects. The flownormalized estimate for a given date is similar to an average estimate of concentration or flux that would be made if all of the observed discharges for that date were equally likely to have occurred. The flux bias statistic showed that 68 of the 72 flux regression models were minimally biased. Temporal trends in the concentrations and fluxes were determined by calculating percent changes in flow-normalized annual fluxes for the full period of analysis (1990 through 2010) and for the decades 19902000 and 20002010. Basinwide, flow-normalized total phosphorus flux decreased by 42 metric tons per year (t/yr) between 1990 and 2010. This net result reflects a basinwide decrease in flux of 21 metric tons (t) between 1990 and 2000, followed by a decrease of 20 t between 2000 and 2010; both results were largely influenced by flux patterns in the large tributaries on the eastern side of the basin. A comparison of results for total phosphorus for the two separate decades of analysis found that more tributaries had decreasing concentrations and flux rates in the second decade than the first. An overall reduction in dissolved phosphorus flux of 0.7 t/yr was seen in the Lake Champlain Basin during the full period of analysis. That very small net change in flux reflects substantial reductions between 1990 and 2000 from eastern tributaries, especially in Otter Creek and the LaPlatte and Winooski Rivers that largely were offset by increases in the Missisquoi and Saranac Rivers in the second decade (between 2000 and 2010). The number of tributaries that had increases in dissolved phosphorus concentrations stayed constant at 13 or 14 during the period of analysis. Total nitrogen concentration and flux for most of the monitored tributaries in the Lake Champlain Basin have decreased since 1990. Between 1990 and 2010, flow-normalized total nitrogen flux decreased by 386 t/yr, which reflects an increase of 440 t/yr between 1990 and 2000 and a decrease of 826 t/yr between 2000 and 2010. All individual tributaries except the Winooski River had decreases in total nitrogen concentration and flux between 2000 and 2010. The decrease in total nitrogen flux over the period of record could be related to the decrease in nitrogen from atmospheric deposition observed in Vermont or to concurrent benefits realized from the implementation of agricultural best-management practices in the Lake Champlain Basin that were designed primarily to reduce phosphorus runoff. For chloride, large increases in flow-normalized concentrations and flux between 1990 and 2000 for 17 of the 18 tributaries diminished to small increases or decreases between 2000 and 2010. Between 1990 and 2010, flow-normalized flux increased by 32,225 t/yr, 78 percent of which (25,163 t) was realized during the first decade, from 1990 through 2000. The five tributaries that had decreasing concentration and flux of chloride between 2000 and 2010 were all on the eastern side of Lake Champlain, possibly related to reductions since 1999 in winter road salt application in Vermont. Positive correlations of phosphorus flux and changes in phosphorus concentration and flux in tributaries with phosphorus inputs to basins from point sources, suggest that point sources have an effect on stream phosphorus chemistry. Several measures of changes in agricultural statistics, such as agricultural land use, acres of land in farms, acres of cropland, and acres of corn for grain or seed, are positively correlated with changes in phosp

Medalie, Laura

2013-01-01

213

Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in Lake Michigan, 1971-78  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was exterminated in Lake Michigan by the mid-1950s as a result of the combined effects of an intensive fishery and predation by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). The widespread application of lampricide in tributary streams had greatly reduced the abundance of lampreys by the early 1960s, and a program to restore self-sustaining populations of lake trout through stocking of yearlings and fingerlings was initiated in 1965. Although the hatchery-reared fish spawned widely in Lake Michigan each year after 1970, no progeny were observed except in an isolated area in Grand Traverse Bay. During 1971-78, sea lamprey abundance was generally greater in Wisconsin than in other parts of the lake. However, the rate of occurrence of sea lamprey wounds on lake trout dropped dramatically there in 1978 after the Peshtigo River, a tributary to Green Bay, was treated with lampricide. Application of Lake Michigan wounding rates to a regression model relating mortality to lamprey wounding developed from Lake Superior data, yielded lamprey-induced mortality estimates in 1977 of 5% in Michigan plus Indiana (combined) and 31% in Wisconsin; corresponding estimates for 1978 were 5 and 15%.

Wells, LaRue

1980-01-01

214

Michigan Sea Grant Great Lakes Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Education programs provide fieldtrips, shipboard experiences, camps and projects focused on the Great Lakes. A science and multidisciplinary Great Lakes curriculum includes fisheries, aquatic food web, exotic species, water quality and weather. Teaching resources range from fact sheets to artifact trunks and CDs. Teacher training and workshops cover current topics and offer grant and fellowship opportunities.

2010-07-13

215

The late Quaternary limnological history of Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) and the hypersaline Dead Sea are remnant lakes, evolved from ancient water bodies that filled the tectonic depressions along the Dead Sea Transform (DST) during the NeogeneQuartenary periods. We reconstructed the limnological history (level and composition) of Lake Kinneret during the past ?40,000 years and compared it with the history of the contemporaneous

N. Hazan; M. Stein; A. Agnon; S. Marco; D. Nadel; J. F. W. Negendank; M. J. Schwab; D. Neev

2005-01-01

216

Predation by sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in southern Lake Ontario, 1982-1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dead lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) killed by sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) were collected from the bottom of Lake Ontario using bottom trawls. The number of dead lake trout per hectare could be predicted from the number of type A-1 sea lamprey marks observed on live fish in September gillnet surveys (r2 = 0.60, P P > 0.05) from those of live fish with A-1 marks in 5 of 6 years where comparisons could be made. Compared with Lake Superior strain lake trout, Seneca Lake strain fish were only 0.41 times as likely to be attacked by sea lamprey and were less likely to die from an attack (both differences P < 0.05). Conservative estimates of the numbers of lake trout killed by sea lamprey in southern Lake Ontario from October to mid-November ranged from 17 000 in 1988 to 121 000 in 1984.

Schneider, C.P.; Owens, R.W.; Bergstedt, R.A.; O'Gorman, R.

1996-01-01

217

Stable isotope evidence for glacial lake drainage through the St. Lawrence Estuary, eastern Canada, ~13.1-12.9 ka  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Postglacial varved and rhythmically-laminated clays deposited during the transition from glacial Lake Vermont (LV) to the Champlain Sea (CS) record hydrological changes in the Champlain-St. Lawrence Valley (CSLV) at the onset of the Younger Dryas ?13.112.9 ka linked to glacial lake drainage events. Oxygen isotope (?18O) records of three species of benthic foraminifera (Cassidulina reniforme, Haynesina orbiculare, Islandiella helenae) from six sediment cores and the freshwater ostracode Candona from one core were studied. Results show six large isotope excursions (?0.5 to >2) in C. reniforme ?18O values, five excursions in H. orbiculare (<0.5 to ?1.8), and five smaller changes in I. helenae (<0.5). ?18O values in Candona show a 1.52 increase in the same interval. These isotopic excursions in co-occurring marine and freshwater species in varve-like sediments indicate complex hydrological changes in the earliest Champlain Sea, including brief (sub-annual) periods of complete freshening. One hypothesis to explain these results is that multiple abrupt freshwater influx events caused surface-to-bottom freshening of the Champlain Sea over days to weeks. The most likely source of freshwater would have been drainage of the Morehead Phase of glacial Lake Agassiz, perhaps in a series of floods, ultimately draining out the St. Lawrence Estuary.

Cronin, T. M.; Rayburn, J.A.; Guilbault, J.-P.; Thunell, R.; Franzi, D.A.

2012-01-01

218

Transient salt transport modeling of shallow brine beneath a freshwater lake, the Sea of Galilee, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a lake highstand phase in the late Pleistocene the former saline Lake Lisan covered the topographic depression of Kinarot Basin currently occupied by the freshwater lake, Sea of Galilee. It was hypothesized that during this period, the dense saline waters of Lake Lisan percolated into the sediment. The recession of the saline lake from the basin and the rapid

Shaul Hurwitz; Vladimir Lyakhovsky; Haim Gvirtzman

2000-01-01

219

Wind-driven currents in a shallow lake or sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For shallow lakes and seas such as the great lakes (especially Lake Erie) where the depth is not much greater than the Ekman depth, the usual Ekman dynamics cannot be used to predict the wind driven currents. The necessary extension to include shallow bodies of water, given by Welander, leads to a partial differential equation for the surface displacement which in turn determines all other flow quantities. A technique for obtaining exact analytical solutions to Welander's equation for bodies of water with large class of bottom topographies which may or may not contain islands is given. It involves applying conformal mapping methods to an extension of Welander's equation into the complex plane. When the wind stress is constant (which is the usual assumption for lakes) the method leads to general solutions which hold for bodies of water of arbitrary shape (the shape appears in the solutions through a set of constants which are the coefficients in the Laurent expansion of a mapping of the particular lake geometry). The method is applied to an elliptically shaped lake and a circular lake containing an eccentrically located circular island.

Goldstein, M. E.; Gedney, R. T.

1971-01-01

220

The Dead Sea, The Lake and Its Setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I cannot think of a subject more befitting the description of interdisciplinary research with societal relevance than the study of the Dead Sea, a terminal lake of the Jordan River in Israel and Jordan. The scientific study of the Dead Sea is intimately connected with politics, religion, archeology, economic development, tourism, and environmental change.The Dead Sea is a relatively closed geologic and limnologic system with drastic physical changes often occurring on human timescales and with a long human history to observe these changes. Research in this unique area covers diverse aspects such as active subsidence and deformation along strike-slip faults; vertical stratification and stability of the water column; physical properties of extremely saline and dense (1234 kg/m3) water; spontaneous precipitation of minerals in an oversaturated environment; origin of the unusual chemical composition of the brine; existence of life in extreme environments; use of lake level fluctuations as a paleoclimatic indicator; and effects on the environment of human intervention versus natural climatic variability. Although the Dead Sea covers a small area on a global scale, it is nevertheless one of the largest natural laboratories for these types of research on Earth. These reasons make the Dead Sea a fascinating topic for the curious mind.

Brink, Uri ten

221

Sea Lamprey International Symposium (SLIS II): Advances in the Integrated Management of Sea Lamprey in the Great Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a brief history of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control in the Great Lakes and introduces the second Sea Lamprey International Symposium (SLIS II). SLIS II was held during August 2000 to synthesize advances in sea lamprey management during the two decades since the first Sea Lamprey International Symposium (SLIS I) in 1979. SLIS I was convened by

Gavin C. Christie; Chris I. Goddard

2003-01-01

222

Reconstruction of prehistoric Lake Cahuilla in the Salton Sea Basin using GIS and GPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

During prehistoric times, the Colorado River occasionally meandered into and filled the Salton Sea Basin, creating several huge inland lakes, variously called Lake LeConte and Lake Cahuilla. Previous researchers have identified high stands of these ancient lakes using standard survey methods. The objective of this investigation was to further delineate the prehistoric shorelines using satellite imagery, global positioning system (GPS)

Joseph E. Buckles; Kazuyuki Kashiwase; Timothy Krantz

2002-01-01

223

Lake Champlain 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS area New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire: data report (abbreviated). National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance  

SciTech Connect

This abbreviated data report presents results of ground water and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Lake Champlain 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle. Surface sediment samples were collected at 1196 sites. Ground-water samples were collected at 619 sites. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water, and for uranium and 9 other elements in surface water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Data from ground-water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, etc.), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mn, Na, and V). Data from sediment sites include (1) stream water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are also tabulated. A real distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements and for U/Th and U/Hf ratios are included. Key data from stream water sites include (1) water quality measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity) and (2) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mg, Mg, Na, and V). Uranium concentrations in the sediments range from 0.30 to 43.40 ppM with a mean of 3.03 ppM. A cluster of high log (U/Th+Hf) ratios appear in the southeastern portion of the quadrangle. The U x 1000/conductivity ratio in surface water is high in this same area.

Cook, J.R.

1981-03-01

224

Mercury accumulation in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from Lake Huron.  

PubMed

We determined whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to explore the effects of sex-related differences in activity and resting (standard) metabolic rate (SMR) on mercury accumulation. The grand mean for Hg concentrations was 519 ng/g (standard error of the mean=46 ng/g). On average, males were 16% higher in Hg concentration than females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that 14% higher activity and SMR in males would account for this observed sex difference in Hg concentrations. We concluded that the higher Hg concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and SMR. Our findings have implications for estimating the effects of sea lamprey populations on mercury cycling within ecosystems, as well as for the proposed opening of sea lamprey fisheries. Eventually, our results may prove useful in improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for substantial damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native. PMID:24275530

Madenjian, Charles P; Johnson, Nicholas S; Siefkes, Michael J; Dettmers, John M; Blum, Joel D; Johnson, Marcus W

2014-02-01

225

Evaluating the growth potential of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) feeding on siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Differences in the preferred thermal habitat of Lake Superior lake trout morphotypes create alternative growth scenarios for parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attached to lake trout hosts. Siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) inhabit deep, consistently cold water (46 C) and are more abundant than lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) which occupy temperatures between 8 and 12 C during summer thermal stratification. Using bioenergetics models we contrasted the growth potential of sea lampreys attached to siscowet and lean lake trout to determine how host temperature influences the growth and ultimate size of adult sea lamprey. Sea lampreys simulated under the thermal regime of siscowets are capable of reaching sizes within the range of adult sea lamprey sizes observed in Lake Superior tributaries. High lamprey wounding rates on siscowets suggest siscowets are important lamprey hosts. In addition, siscowets have higher survival rates from lamprey attacks than those observed for lean lake trout which raises the prospect that siscowets serve as a buffer to predation on more commercially desirable hosts such as lean lake trout, and could serve to subsidize lamprey growth.

Moody, E.K.; Weidel, B.C.; Ahrenstorff, T.D.; Mattes, W.P.; Kitchell, J.F.

2011-01-01

226

Frost flower formation on sea ice and lake ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frost flowers are clusters of ice crystals found on freshly formed sea ice and occasionally on frozen lakes. They belong to a class of vapour-related phenomena that includes freezing fog, hoar frost and dew. It has hitherto been supposed that they form by condensation from a supersaturated atmosphere or from water wicked up through porous sea ice. Here we show that they can form on solid, pure ice sublimating into an unsaturated atmosphere. We derive a general regime diagram showing the atmospheric conditions under which the different vapour-related phenomena occur and confirm our predictions of frost-flower formation with a series of laboratory experiments. Our results can be used in climate models to predict occurrence of frost flowers, which significantly enhance albedo and provide the substrate for chemical production of ozone-depleting bromine monoxide, and in paleo-climate reconstructions by relating observations of sea-salt aerosols in ice cores to atmospheric conditions.

Style, Robert W.; Worster, M. Grae

2009-06-01

227

Transient salt transport modeling of shallow brine beneath a freshwater lake, the Sea of Galilee, Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a lake highstand phase in the late Pleistocene the former saline Lake Lisan covered the topographic depression of Kinarot Basin currently occupied by the freshwater lake, Sea of Galilee. It was hypothesized that during this period, the dense saline waters of Lake Lisan percolated into the sediment. The recession of the saline lake from the basin and the rapid formation of a freshwater lake triggered solute transport from the sediment into the lake. A one-dimensional numerical model of solute transport that considers sediment compaction was developed to simulate chloride transport from the sediment into the lake. Simulation results were compared with measured chloride concentration profiles in sediment cores. On the basis of a sensitivity analysis, results are in agreement with the hypothesis that Lake Lisan solutes are currently discharged into the Sea of Galilee. The calculated upward water velocity in the sediment ranges between 9 and 22 mm yr-1.

Hurwitz, Shaul; Lyakhovsky, Vladimir; Gvirtzman, Haim

2000-01-01

228

Estimates of egg deposition and effects of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) egg predators  

E-print Network

propinquus. In Lake Champlain, sculpin (Cottus spp.) were the most common interstitial predator, yet error = 15.5 ± 0.4 predators·m­2 ) were twice those in Lake Champlain or Parry Sound (6 ± 1 predators·m­2 ). Densities of eggs were higher in Lake Champlain (2994.1 ± 398.3 eggs·m­2 ) and Parry Sound (454

Marsden, Ellen

229

The late Quaternary limnological history of Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The freshwater Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) and the hypersaline Dead Sea are remnant lakes, evolved from ancient water bodies that filled the tectonic depressions along the Dead Sea Transform (DST) during the Neogene-Quartenary periods. We reconstructed the limnological history (level and composition) of Lake Kinneret during the past 40,000 years and compared it with the history of the contemporaneous Lake Lisan from the aspect of the regional and global climate history. The lake level reconstruction was achieved through a chronological and sedimentological investigation of exposed sedimentary sections in the Kinnarot basin trenches and cores drilled at the Ohalo II archeological site. Shoreline chronology was established by radiocarbon dating of organic remains and of Melanopsis shells. The major changes in Lake Kinneret level were synchronous with those of the southern Lake Lisan. Both lakes dropped significantly 42,000, 30,000, 23,800, and 13,000 yr ago and rose 39,000, 26,000, 5000, and 1600 yr ago. Between 26,000 and 24,000 yr ago, the lakes merged into a unified water body and lake level achieved its maximum stand of 170 m below mean sea level (m bsl). Nevertheless, the fresh and saline water properties of Lake Kinneret and Lake Lisan, respectively, have been preserved throughout the 40,000 years studied. Calcium carbonate was always deposited as calcite in Lake Kinneret and as aragonite in Lake Lisan-Dead Sea, indicating that the Dead Sea brine (which supports aragonite production) never reached or affected Lake Kinneret, even during the period of lake high stand and convergence. The synchronous level fluctuation of lakes Kinneret, Lisan, and the Holocene Dead Sea is consistent with the dominance of the Atlantic-Mediterranean rain system on the catchment of the basin and the regional hydrology. The major drops in Lake Kinneret-Lisan levels coincide with the timing of cold spells in the North Atlantic that caused a shut down of rains in the East Mediterranean and the lakes drainage area.

Hazan, N.; Stein, M.; Agnon, A.; Marco, S.; Nadel, D.; Negendank, J. F. W.; Schwab, M. J.; Neev, D.

2005-01-01

230

Appendix 1. List of lakes used in study, including geographic location, elevation of lake above mean sea-level, duration of ice-out record, and observers. For  

E-print Network

1 Appendix 1. List of lakes used in study, including geographic location, elevation of lake above mean sea-level, duration of ice-out record, and observers. For some lakes the criteria for determining ice dates are included. Lake Auburn, ME, USA Lat/Long: 44.146839°, -70.254301° Elevation: 79 m

Patterson, Timothy

231

Changes in the lake trout population of southern Lake Superior in relation to the fishery, the sea lamprey, and stocking, 1950-70  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reduction of sea lamprey abundance resulted in an immediate increase in survival and abundance of lake trout, especially of the larger sizes. As abundance of lake trout progressively increased in 1962-70, survival of the smaller legal-size lake trout increased, probably due to reduction of the predator-prey ratio and an increase in availability of larger lake trout preferred by sea lampreys. Abundance of spawning-size lake trout was limited by high natural mortality in 1965-70. Circumstantial evidence suggested that sea lamprey predation contributed a major part of the high natural mortality.

Pycha, Richard L.; King, George R.

1975-01-01

232

Development and validation of a regional coupled atmosphere lake model for the Caspian Sea Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a validation analysis of a regional climate model coupled to a distributed one dimensional (1D) lake model for the Caspian Sea Basin. Two model grid spacings are tested, 50 and 20 km, the simulation period is 1989-2008 and the lateral boundary conditions are from the ERA-Interim reanalysis of observations. The model is validated against atmospheric as well as lake variables. The model performance in reproducing precipitation and temperature mean seasonal climatology, seasonal cycles and interannual variability is generally good, with the model results being mostly within the observational uncertainty range. The model appears to overestimate cloudiness and underestimate surface radiation, although a large observational uncertainty is found in these variables. The 1D distributed lake model (run at each grid point of the lake area) reproduces the observed lake-average sea surface temperature (SST), although differences compared to observations are found in the spatial structure of the SST, most likely as a result of the absence of 3 dimensional lake water circulations. The evolution of lake ice cover and near surface wind over the lake area is also reproduced by the model reasonably well. Improvements resulting from the increase of resolution from 50 to 20 km are most significant in the lake model. Overall the performance of the coupled regional climate1D lake model system appears to be of sufficient quality for application to climate change scenario simulations over the Caspian Sea Basin.

Turuncoglu, Ufuk Utku; Elguindi, Nellie; Giorgi, Filippo; Fournier, Nicolas; Giuliani, Graziano

2013-10-01

233

Wind Fields over the Great Lakes Measured by the SeaWinds Scatterometer on the QuikSCAT Satellite  

E-print Network

Wind Fields over the Great Lakes Measured by the SeaWinds Scatterometer on the QuikSCAT Satellite and Atmospheric Administration Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory 2205 Commonwealth Blvd. Ann Arbor for wind retrieval over the Great Lakes on a daily basis. We use data acquired by the Sea

234

The late Quaternary limnological history of Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel  

E-print Network

The late Quaternary limnological history of Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel N. Hazana , M) during the Neogene­Quartenary periods. We reconstructed the limnological history (level and composition

Marco, Shmuel "Shmulik"

235

75 FR 19358 - Availability of Grant Funds for FY 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutional Programs, the Guam Sea Grant Project, the Lake Champlain Sea Grant Project, and the Sea Grant National Law...Colleges, Sea Grant Institutional Programs, the Lake Champlain Sea Grant Project, the Guam Sea Grant Project,...

2010-04-14

236

Investigating the Great Lakes Environment, Unit One: The Sea Lamprey Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are 11 middle school activities dealing with the sea lamprey and its impact upon the Great Lakes. Included are background information, lesson outlines, references, masters for student worksheets, a wall map, game boards, and two filmstrip-tape units. Using these materials students can learn ecological concepts and some Great Lakes

Lin, Leslie; And Others

237

Evidence that sea lamprey control led to recovery of the burbot population in Lake Erie  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between 1987 and 2003, the abundance of burbot Lota lota in eastern Lake Erie increased significantly, especially in Ontario waters. We considered four hypotheses to explain this increase: (1) reduced competition with lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, the other major coldwater piscivore in Lake Erie; (2) increased abundance of the two main prey species, rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax and round goby Neogobius melanostomus; (3) reduced interference with burbot reproduction by alewives Alosa pseudoharengus; and (4) reduced predation by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus on burbot. Species abundance data did not support the first three hypotheses. Our results suggested that the apparent recovery of the burbot population of Lake Erie was driven by effective sea lamprey control. Sea lamprey predation appeared to be the common factor affecting burbot abundance in Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. In addition, relatively high alewife density probably depressed burbot abundance in Lakes Ontario and Michigan. We propose that a healthy adult lake trout population may augment burbot recovery in some lakes by serving as a buffer against sea lamprey predation and will not negatively impact burbot through competition. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

Stapanian, M.A.; Madenjian, C.P.; Witzel, L.D.

2006-01-01

238

Road salt turning Twin Cities lakes into dead seas By JOSEPHINE MARCOTTY, Star Tribune  

E-print Network

Road salt turning Twin Cities lakes into dead seas By JOSEPHINE MARCOTTY, Star Tribune March 23 in lakes and streams around the Twin Cities -- road salt. The fish, bugs and other wildlife that live, a primary ingredient in salt, and what it will take to keep urban waters healthy. But the far more difficult

Minnesota, University of

239

History of and Advances in Barriers as an Alternative Method to Suppress Sea Lampreys in the Great Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Lakes Fishery Commission (GLFC) continues to seek additional methods of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control to reduce reliance on chemical lampricides (pesticides) and increase the efficiency of the program. Barriers to migrating sea lampreys in tributaries can significantly reduce the spawning potential of sea lamprey in the Great Lakes. These barriers can be any natural or man-made structure

Dennis S. Lavis; Andrew Hallett; Ellie M. Koon; Tom C. McAuley

2003-01-01

240

Tectonic tilt rates derived from lake-level measurements, Salton Sea, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tectonic tilt at the Salton Sea was calculated by differencing lake-level measurements from two points on the sea. During the past 26 years, tilting was down toward the southeast. By 1970 differential vertical movement amounted to 110 millimeters between two gages situated 38 kilometers apart on the southwest shore. A reversal in tilt direction in late 1972 has diminished the

M. E. Wilson; S. H. Wood

1980-01-01

241

PrimaryCareWorkforce Champlain Valley AHEC  

E-print Network

The Vermont PrimaryCareWorkforce Washington Orange Caledonia Lamoille Orleans Essex Northeastern Vermont AHEC University of Vermont AHEC Program Southern Vermont AHEC · Vermont Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Network: Northeastern Vermont AHEC Champlain Valley AHEC Southern Vermont AHEC

Hayden, Nancy J.

242

A numerical study on the influence of fractured regions on lake\\/groundwater interaction; the Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased lake salinity is a growing problem in arid and semi-arid regions. Operational management, which is based on a reliable hydrological understanding, has the potential to reduce the lake salinity. This is the case of the salinity in Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), where saline water flows into the lake through on-shore and off-shore springs. Here, we present a time-dependent

Hila Abbo; Uri Shavit; Doron Markel; Alon Rimmer

2003-01-01

243

Patterns of invasion and colonization of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in North America as revealed by microsatellite genotypes.  

PubMed

Invasions by exotic organisms have had devastating affects on aquatic ecosystems, both ecologically and economically. One striking example of a successful invader that has dramatically affected fish community structure in freshwater lakes of North America is the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). We used eight microsatellite loci and multiple analytical techniques to examine competing hypotheses concerning the origins and colonization history of sea lamprey (n = 741). Analyses were based on replicated invasive populations from Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior, populations of unknown origins from Lakes Ontario, Champlain, and Cayuga, and populations of anadromous putative progenitor populations in North America and Europe. Populations in recently colonized lakes were each established by few colonists through a series of genetic bottlenecks which resulted in lower allelic diversity in more recently established populations. The spatial genetic structure of invasive populations differed from that of native populations on the Atlantic coast, reflecting founder events and connectivity of invaded habitats. Anadromous populations were found to be panmictic (theta(P) = 0.002; 95% CI = -0.003-0.006; P > 0.05). In contrast, there was significant genetic differentiation between populations in the lower and upper Great Lakes (theta(P) = 0.007; P < 0.05; 95% CI = 0.003-0.009). Populations in Lakes Ontario, Champlain, and Cayuga are native. Alternative models that describe different routes and timing of colonization of freshwater habitats were examined using coalescent-based analyses, and demonstrated that populations likely originated from natural migrations via the St Lawrence River. PMID:16202094

Bryan, M B; Zalinski, D; Filcek, K B; Libants, S; Li, W; Scribner, K T

2005-10-01

244

The Dynamic Redox Chemistry of Iron in the Epilimnion of Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The redox chemistry of Fe was investigated in Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), a mesotrophic, monomictic lake in the central part of the Jordan Rift Valley. The concentrations of Fe(II) and Fe(tot) in the epilimnion and in the hypolimnion were measured, and the relationships between Fe(II) and other parameters (e.g., light, pH) were investigated. In addition, laboratory experiments were conducted

Orit Sivan; Yigal Erel; Daniel Mandler; Ami Nishri

1998-01-01

245

Marsden p. 1 J. ELLEN MARSDEN  

E-print Network

pre-proposal. . Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Alternatives Workgroup $100,000 2011-2013. Marsden, J. E among basins in Lake Champlain. State Wildlife Incentives Grant, VTDFW, $39,688 2012-2013 Lochet, A., B lamprey in Lake Champlain using recent advances in statolith microchemistry. Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey

Marsden, Ellen

246

A single sea lamprey attack causes acute anemia and mortality in lake sturgeon.  

PubMed

The effects of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus parasitism on hematological variables have not been quantified for lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens. Our study objectives were to (1) assess changes in lake sturgeon hematology immediately after a single sea lamprey attack and after a 2-week recovery period and (2) assess changes in the histological condition of major hematopoietic organs. Lake sturgeon from four size-groups (470-570, 570-650, 650-760, and 950-1,500 mm fork length) were individually subjected to a sea lamprey attack in a series of 55 experimental trials. Survival of lake sturgeon after a single sea lamprey attack was size dependent, with fish in smaller size-groups exhibiting higher direct and indirect mortality than individuals in larger size-classes. The most sensitive blood chemistry variable was hematocrit: each 1% decline in hematocrit resulted in a 5.1% increase in mortality risk. Other important variables were plasma protein level, with a 10-g/dL decline resulting in a 4.2% increase in mortality risk; and hemoglobin, with a 1-g/dL decline resulting in a 2.9% increase in mortality risk. Most of the surviving lake sturgeon were unable to restore hemoglobin, hematocrit, and plasma protein to pre-attack levels by the end of the 2-week recovery period. We developed an index of histological spleen condition, which indicated that short-duration (< 5-d) sea lamprey attachments depleted red blood cell reserves faster than longer-duration attacks. Our study results indicate that sea lamprey parasitism has the potential to induce acute anemia in lake sturgeon and that nonlethal attacks on smaller (< 760-mm) fish can have serious physiological implications. PMID:22838079

Seplveda, Maria S; Patrick, Holly K; Sutton, Trent M

2012-06-01

247

Geophysical (time domain electromagnetic model) delineation of a shallow brine beneath a freshwater lake, the Sea of Galilee, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sea of Galilee is a freshwater lake, into which saline water emerges through onshore and offshore springs and through flux from the lake's sediments. The novel surface marine modification of the time domain electromagnetic method was used to map the spatial distribution of brines in the sediments below the lake. Results indicate that electrical resistivities of 1.0 and 0.5

Shaul Hurwitz; Mark Goldman; Mikhail Ezersky; Haim Gvirtzman

1999-01-01

248

Effect of water temperature on sea lamprey growth and lake trout survival  

SciTech Connect

Percent mortality of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush subjected to single sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus attacks did not differ significantly between lower-temperature (mortality = 54%; temperature [le] 10[degrees]C; N = 33) and higher-temperature (mortality = 69%; temperature = 12.8-14.4[degrees]C; N = 45) laboratory studies conducted from 1 June to 28 November 1989. However, sea lampreys fed longer and killed fewer fish in colder water (mean attachment 467.0 h; 18 fish killed) than in warmer water (mean attachment 161.7 h; 31 fish killed), probably because food consumption was lower in colder water. These results indicate that the number of fish killed by sea lampreys could be much greater in warmer water and that temperature must be considered when fish losses from sea lamprey attacks are estimated. Previous studies (Swink and Hanson 1989; Swink 1990) of the effects of single sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus attacks on lake trout Salvelinus namaycush showed significantly less lake trout mortality at temperatures of 10[degrees]C and lower than at higher temperatures. The reduced host mortality, however, could not be attributed solely to lower temperature because warmwater and coldwater attacks occurred during different seasons. In those studies, the author was unable to hold water temperature at 10[degrees]C or less in late summer and early fall, when most fish are killed by sea lampreys in the Great Lakes (Christie and Kolenosky 1980; Bergstedt and Schneider 1988). Modifications to the fish holding facilities at the Hammond Bay Biological Station in 1988 allowed maintenance of a limited amount of water at 10[degrees]C or less throughout the year. Hence, the objective of this study was to compare sea lamprey-induced mortality of lake trout at 10[degrees]C or less with that at 12.8-14.4[degrees]C during the normal feeding season (June through November). 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Swink, W.D. (Hammond Bay Biological Station, Millersburg, MI (United States))

1993-11-01

249

Effects of nonlethal sea lamprey attack on the blood chemistry of lake trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A laboratory study examined changes in the blood chemistry of field-caught and hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush subjected to a nonlethal attack by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. We measured glucose, total protein, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase, calcium, magnesium, triglycerides, sodium, and potassium with a Kodak Ektachem DT60 Analyzer, Ektachem DTSC Module, and the DTE Module. Mean levels of total protein, AST, ALKP, hematocrit, calcium, magnesium, and sodium decreased significantly (Pa?? 0.05), and mean levels of ALT and potassium increased significantly (Pa?? 0.05) after sea lamprey feeding. Lake trout condition (K) and hematocrit levels also decreased significantly (Pa?? 0.05) after the sea lamprey attack. Frequency distributions of eight lake trout blood chemistry variables and the hematocrit were significantly different before and after a sea lamprey attack. A second study that used hatchery lake trout broodstock measured changes in hematocrit before and after a sea lamprey attack.

Edsall, Carol Cotant; Swink, William D.

2001-01-01

250

Tectonic tilt rates derived from lake-level measurements, Salton Sea, California  

SciTech Connect

Tectonic tilt at the Salton Sea was calculated by differencing lake-level measurements from two points on the sea. During the past 26 years, tilting was down toward the southeast. By 1970 differential vertical movement amounted to 110 millimeters between two gages situated 38 kilometers apart on the southwest shore. A reversal in tilt direction in late 1972 has diminished the net differential vertical movement to 60 millimeters.

Wilson, M.E. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA); Wood, S.H.

1980-01-11

251

Tectonic tilt rates derived from lake-level measurements, salton sea, california.  

PubMed

Tectonic tilt at the Salton Sea was calculated by differencing lake-level measurements from two points on the sea. During the past 26 years, tilting was down toward the southeast. By 1970 differential vertical movement amounted to 110 millimeters between two gages situated 38 kilometers apart on the southwest shore. A reversal in tilt direction in late 1972 has diminished the net differential vertical movement to 60 millimeters. PMID:17809103

Wilson, M E; Wood, S H

1980-01-11

252

Tectonic tilt rates derived from lake-level measurements, Salton Sea, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tectonic tilt at the Salton Sea was calculated by differencing lake-level measurements from two points on the sea. During the past 26 years, tilting was down toward the southeast. By 1970 differential vertical movement amounted to 110 millimeters between two gages situated 38 kilometers apart on the southwest shore. A reversal in tilt direction in late 1972 has diminished the net differential vertical movement to 60 millimeters. Copyright ?? 1980 AAAS.

Wilson, M.E.; Wood, S.H.

1980-01-01

253

Estimating parasitic sea lamprey abundance in Lake Huron from heterogeneous data sources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Great Lakes Fishery Commission uses time series of transformer, parasitic, and spawning population estimates to evaluate the effectiveness of its sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program. This study used an inverse variance weighting method to integrate Lake Huron sea lamprey population estimates derived from two estimation procedures: 1) prediction of the lake-wide spawning population from a regression model based on stream size and, 2) whole-lake mark and recapture estimates. In addition, we used a re-sampling procedure to evaluate the effect of trading off sampling effort between the regression and mark-recapture models. Population estimates derived from the regression model ranged from 132,000 to 377,000 while mark-recapture estimates of marked recently metamorphosed juveniles and parasitic sea lampreys ranged from 536,000 to 634,000 and 484,000 to 1,608,000, respectively. The precision of the estimates varied greatly among estimation procedures and years. The integrated estimate of the mark-recapture and spawner regression procedures ranged from 252,000 to 702,000 transformers. The re-sampling procedure indicated that the regression model is more sensitive to reduction in sampling effort than the mark-re capture model. Reliance on either the regression or mark-recapture model alone could produce misleading estimates of abundance of sea lampreys and the effect of the control program on sea lamprey abundance. These analyses indicate that the precision of the lake-wide population estimate can be maximized by re-allocating sampling effort from marking sea lampreys to trapping additional streams.

Young, R.J.; Jones, M.L.; Bence, J.R.; McDonald, R.B.; Mullett, K.M.; Bergstedt, R.A.

2003-01-01

254

Estimating parasitic sea lamprey abundance in Lake Huron from heterogenous data sources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Great Lakes Fishery Commission uses time series of transformer, parasitic, and spawning population estimates to evaluate the effectiveness of its sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program. This study used an inverse variance weighting method to integrate Lake Huron sea lamprey population estimates derived from two estimation procedures: 1) prediction of the lake-wide spawning population from a regression model based on stream size and, 2) whole-lake mark and recapture estimates. In addition, we used a re-sampling procedure to evaluate the effect of trading off sampling effort between the regression and mark-recapture models. Population estimates derived from the regression model ranged from 132,000 to 377,000 while mark-recapture estimates of marked recently metamorphosed juveniles and parasitic sea lampreys ranged from 536,000 to 634,000 and 484,000 to 1,608,000, respectively. The precision of the estimates varied greatly among estimation procedures and years. The integrated estimate of the mark-recapture and spawner regression procedures ranged from 252,000 to 702,000 transformers. The re-sampling procedure indicated that the regression model is more sensitive to reduction in sampling effort than the mark-recapture model. Reliance on either the regression or mark-recapture model alone could produce misleading estimates of abundance of sea lampreys and the effect of the control program on sea lamprey abundance. These analyses indicate that the precision of the lake-wide population estimate can be maximized by re-allocating sampling effort from marking sea lampreys to trapping additional streams.

Young, Robert J.; Jones, Michael L.; Bence, James R.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Mullett, Katherine M.; Bergstedt, Roger A.

2003-01-01

255

Frost flower formation on sea ice and lake ice Robert W. Style1  

E-print Network

Frost flower formation on sea ice and lake ice Robert W. Style1 and M. Grae Worster1 Received 22 January 2009; revised 20 April 2009; accepted 6 May 2009; published 10 June 2009. [1] Frost flowers to a class of vapour-related phenomena that includes freezing fog, hoar frost and dew. It has hitherto been

Worster, M. Grae

256

Control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in Lake Superior, 1953-70  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although sea lamprey control and heavy plantings of hatchery-reared stock had restored lake trout abundance to prelamprey levels in many areas by 1970, the trout had not yet become self-sustaining. Additional effort will be required to further reduce the effects of lamprey predation.

Smith, Bernard R.; Tibbles, J. James; Johnson, B.G.H.

1974-01-01

257

Levels of heavy metals in seals of Lake Ladoga and the White Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1990 and 1993 samples of hair, liver, kidney and muscle were collected from 28 ringed seals from Lake Ladoga, Phoca hispida ladogensis, 20 ringed seals, Phoca hispida hispida, and three bearded seals, Erignathus barbatus, from the White Sea for heavy-metal residue analyses in tissues. The concentration of Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn were determined by atomic absorption

N. Medvedev; N. Panichev; H. Hyvrinen

1997-01-01

258

Hydrogen sulfide production and volatilization in a polymictic eutrophic saline lake, Salton Sea, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Salton Sea is a large shallow saline lake located in southern California that is noted for high sulfate concentrations, substantial algal productivity, and very warm water column temperatures. These conditions are well-suited for sulfide production, and sulfide has been implicated in summer fish kills, although no studies have been conducted to specifically understand hydrogen sulfide production and volatilization there.

Brandi Kiel Reese; Michael A. Anderson; Christopher Amrhein

2008-01-01

259

Assessment of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation by recovery of dead lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario, 1982-85  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1982-85, 89 dead lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were recovered with bottom trawls in U.S. waters of Lake Ontario: 28 incidentally during four annual fish-stock assessment surveys and 61 during fall surveys for dead fish. During the assessment surveys, no dead lake trout were recovered in April-June, one was recovered in August, and 27 were recovered in October or November, implying that most mortality from causes other than fishing occurred in the fall. The estimated numbers of dead lake trout between the 30- and 100-m depth contours in U.S. waters ranged from 16 000 (0.08 carcass/ha) in 1983 to 94 000 (0.46 carcass/ha) in 1982. Of 76 carcasses fresh enough to enable recognition of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) wounds, 75 bore fresh wounds. Assuming that sea lamprey wounding rates on dead fish were the same as on live ones of the same length range (430-740 mm), the probability of 75 of the 76 dead lake trout bearing sea lamprey wounds was 3.5 x 10-63 if death was independent of sea lamprey attack, thus strongly implicating sea lampreys as the primary cause of death of fish in the sample. The recovery of only one unwounded dead lake trout also suggested that natural mortality from causes other than sea lamprey attactks is negligible.

Bergstedt, Roger A.; Schneider, Clifford P.

1988-01-01

260

Interactions among Fertile Male, Female, and Sterile Male Sea Lampreys during Spawning in the Carp River, Lake Superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spawning interactions among fertile male, female, and sterilized male sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus were examined by placing externally attached radiotransmitters on 4% (52 animals) of the population of sea lampreys that was introduced above a barrier to their passage in the Carp River, which flows into Lake Superior, during 1996 and 1997. Movements and interactions on nests made by sea

J. R. M. Kelso; W. M. Gardner; R. B. McDonald

2001-01-01

261

Estimating lake-wide abundance of spawning-phase sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes: extrapolating from sampled streams using regression models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lake-wide abundance of spawning-phase sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) can be used as one means to evaluate sea lamprey control efforts in the Great Lakes. Lake-wide abundance in each Great Lake was the sum of estimates for all streams thought to contribute substantial numbers of sea lampreys. A subset of these streams was sampled with traps and mark-recapture studies were conducted. When sea lampreys were captured in traps, but no mark-recapture study was conducted, abundance was estimated from a relation between trap catch and mark-recapture estimates observed in other years. In non-sampled streams, a regression model that used stream drainage area, geographic region, larval sea lamprey, production potential, the number of years since the last lampricide treatment, and spawning year was used to predict abundance of spawning-phase sea lampreys. The combination of estimates from sampled and non-sampled streams provided a 20-year time series of spawning-phase sea lamprey abundance estimates in the Great Lakes.

Mullett, Katherine M.; Heinrich, John W.; Adams, Jean V.; Young, Robert J.; Henson, Mary P.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Fodale, Michael F.

2003-01-01

262

Estimating lake-wide abundance of spawning-phase sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in the great lakes: Extrapolating from sampled streams using regression models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lake-wide abundance of spawning-phase sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) can be used as one means to evaluate sea lamprey control efforts in the Great Lakes. Lake-wide abundance in each Great Lake was the sum of estimates for all streams thought to contribute substantial numbers of sea lampreys. A subset of these streams was sampled with traps and mark-recapture studies were conducted. When sea lampreys were captured in traps, but no mark-recapture study was conducted, abundance was estimated from a relation between trap catch and mark-recapture estimates observed in other years. In non-sampled streams, a regression model that used stream drainage area, geographic region, larval sea lamprey, production potential, the number of years since the last lampricide treatment, and spawning year was used to predict abundance of spawning-phase sea lampreys. The combination of estimates from sampled and non-sampled streams provided a 20-year time series of spawning-phase sea lamprey abundance estimates in the Great Lakes.

Mullett, K.M.; Heinrich, J.W.; Adams, J.V.; Young, R.J.; Henson, M.P.; McDonald, R.B.; Fodale, M.F.

2003-01-01

263

Champlain Valley AHEC Northeastern Vermont AHEC  

E-print Network

· ·Champlain Valley AHEC Northeastern Vermont AHEC University of Vermont AHEC Program Southern Vermont AHEC· · ADULT VERMONTERS NEED BETTER ACCESS TO PRIMARY CARE The Vermont Primary Care Workforce 2011 SNAPSHOT #12;About Vermont AHEC The Vermont Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program

Hayden, Nancy J.

264

Production of sea lamprey larvae from nests in two Lake Superior streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The life history of the landlocked sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, has been described by several authors, the two most recent of which are Applegate and Wigley. The only information on the production of larvae from nests of the sea lamprey was reported by Applegate, who counted the larvae from three nests in the Ocqueoc River, a tributary of Lake Huron. The present report presents data on the hatching success of sea lamprey larvae from 19 nests in two small tributaries of southern Lake Superior and indicates greater production per nest than that recorded by Applegate. Studies were conducted by personnel of the U.S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries on the Little Garlic River, Marquette County, Michigan, and on the Traverse River, Keweenaw County, Michigan.

Manion, Patrick J.

1968-01-01

265

Vermont Water Resources and Lake Studies Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

to be mobilized by fluvial processes and represented in various legacy sediment accretions in the Northern Lake Champlain watershed, D. quantify sediment and P production in selected meso/macro scale examples and relate

266

Strontium isotopic, chemical, and sedimentological evidence for the evolution of Lake Lisan and the Dead Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise strontium isotope ratios, combined with chemical analyses and sedimentological information, are used to monitor the water sources and the evolution of the Dead Sea and its late Pleistocene precursor, Lake Lisan (70-18 kyr B.P.). The materials analyzed include bulk aragonite, water-leached soluble salts, and residual aragonite and gypsum from the Lisan Formation in the Perazim Valley (near the SW

M. Stein; A. Starinsky; A. Katz; S. L. Goldstein; M. Machlus; A. Schramm

1997-01-01

267

Seroepidemiological survey of distemper virus infection in the Caspian Sea and in Lake Baikal.  

PubMed

Forty Caspian seals were surveyed seroepidemiologically between 1993 and 1998 around the times of mass mortality that occurred in 1997 in the Caspian Sea and seven Baikal seals were also surveyed in 1998. Virus neutralizing tests and ELISA clearly suggested that distemper virus epidemic was caused in Caspian seals before the spring of 1997 and that CDV infection continued to occur in Lake Baikal in recent years. PMID:11470542

Ohashi, K; Miyazaki, N; Tanabe, S; Nakata, H; Miura, R; Fujita, K; Wakasa, C; Uema, M; Shiotani, M; Takahashi, E; Kai, C

2001-09-28

268

Application of remote sensing techniques to understand the mechanisms behind the Caspian Sea lake-level fluctuations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Caspian Sea has exhibited significantly wide range of water-level fluctuations in its history. The primary factor for these oscillations has been overwhelmingly ascribed to climate-induced variations; geologic-related processes have been suggested to be trivial and negligible. This work processed TopexPoseidon data to estimate Lake-level heights for the Caspian Sea from the beginning of 1993 to August 2005. In order to improve the accuracy, the new Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment orbits data, new Sea State Bias model, and Topex Microwave Radiometer drift correction were applied to the default altimetry data. The Caspian Sea hydrologic budget from 1998 to 2005 was also calculated using remote sensing and ground-based data. The National Center for Environmental Prediction Department of Energy Reanalysis 2 meteorological data provided all the variables necessary for the Penman method to estimate evaporation over the Caspian Sea. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission rainfall data was utilized to estimate precipitation onto the Caspian Sea. This study reveals that lake-level changes from 1998 to 2005 are essentially controlled by meteorological factors based on the fact that a relatively minor difference between the water budget residuals and CSLL changes in the Caspian Sea. Moreover, the trend observed in the Caspian Sea lake level over the last several decades is closely correlated with Lake Van and Lake Urmia. However, the relatively higher dissimilarity present in 2000 and 2001 could imply that the Caspian Sea needs to lose some of its water to attain water balance. The two significant earthquakes with normal fault focal mechanisms and magnitudes of 6.8 and 6.5 Mw could be responsible for the Caspian Sea lake-level decline in 2000 and 2001. The contribution of submarine mud volcano eruptions to increase Caspian Sea lake level is likely to be negligible on the basis of submarine mud volcanic eruptions in 2003. Both the crustal deformation based on the GPS measurements in the Caspian Sea region and the amount of oil and natural gas production offshore the Caspian Sea are not causing considerable changes in the Caspian Sea lake level.

Ozyavas, Aziz

269

Emigration, Upstream Movement, and Habitat Use by Sterile and Fertile Sea Lampreys in Three Lake Superior Tributaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate upstream spawning migration behavior of fertile and sterilized sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus, we attached radio transmitters to 149 sea lampreys, released them in three tributaries of Lake Superior between 1993 and 1996, and followed their movements for up to 60 d. Emigration from spawning streams was variable between years and streams (1050% of releases within a stream), appeared

J. R. M. Kelso; W. M. Gardner

2000-01-01

270

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-print Network

's personal copy Predation on emergent lake trout fry in Lake Champlain Jacob W. Riley 1 , J. Ellen Marsden The rehabilitation of extirpated lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain has been to Lake Champlain include hatchery stocking and sea lamprey control. Despite these management actions

Marsden, Ellen

271

Potential relation between equatorial sea surface temperatures and historic water level variability for Lake Turkana, Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water level in Lake Turkana, Kenya in the past ca. 150 years is controlled primarily from the biannual passage of the East and West African Monsoon, with rainfall volume related partially to sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Western Indian and East Atlantic oceans. Empirical orthogonal function analyses show significant correlation between Eastern Atlantic or Western Indian SSTs and lake level anomalies, with the first mode accounting for 66% and 55% of the variability. The primary geographic loadings are consistent with a Gulf of Guinea moisture source and positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) state. The second mode explains 10% of variability, and reflects the westward extension of an Indian Ocean cool pool, potentially indicative of a normal to a negative IOD state. There is significant spatial correlation between basin rainfall anomalies associated with Eastern Atlantic SSTs and a low in the continental divide between the Kenyan and the Ethiopian Highlands, which is a passage for moisture from the Congo Basin. Linear regression analysis with Bootstrap sampling and Monte Carlo simulations define numeric relations between Western Indian and Eastern Atlantic SSTs and lake level change for AD 1992-2013. The monthly and yearly lake level reconstructions based on this numeric analysis capture the decadal-scale variability and the 15 m drop in water level in the early 20th century. Meter-scale variability in lake level since ca. AD 1930 is associated with precipitation sourced from the Western Indian Ocean with IOD variability, whereas the 15 m drop in water level in the early 20th century may reflect a profound decrease in moisture from Atlantic/Congo Basin source. These numerical solutions are poised to reconstruct water level variations in the past ca. 300 years for Lake Turkana with new proxy records of SSTs from the Western Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Guinea.

Bloszies, Chris; Forman, Steven L.

2015-01-01

272

Microbial life in the Lake Medee, the largest deep-sea salt-saturated formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic lakes (DHALs) of the Eastern Mediterranean represent some of the most hostile environments on our planet. We investigated microbial life in the recently discovered Lake Medee, the largest DHAL found to-date. Medee has two unique features: a complex geobiochemical stratification and an absence of chemolithoautotrophic Epsilonproteobacteria, which usually play the primary role in dark bicarbonate assimilation in DHALs interfaces. Presumably because of these features, Medee is less productive and exhibits reduced diversity of autochthonous prokaryotes in its interior. Indeed, the brine community almost exclusively consists of the members of euryarchaeal MSBL1 and bacterial KB1 candidate divisions. Our experiments utilizing cultivation and [14C]-assimilation, showed that these organisms at least partially rely on reductive cleavage of osmoprotectant glycine betaine and are engaged in trophic cooperation. These findings provide novel insights into how prokaryotic communities can adapt to salt-saturated conditions and sustain active metabolism at the thermodynamic edge of life.

Yakimov, Michail M.; La Cono, Violetta; Slepak, Vladlen Z.; La Spada, Gina; Arcadi, Erika; Messina, Enzo; Borghini, Mireno; Monticelli, Luis S.; Rojo, David; Barbas, Coral; Golyshina, Olga V.; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N.; Giuliano, Laura

2013-12-01

273

Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair Bathymetry is the science of measuring (soundings) and mapping (bathymetric maps) the depths of a water body (oceans, seas,  

E-print Network

) and mapping (bathymetric maps) the depths of a water body (oceans, seas, lakes) to delineate the topography of their basins. Bathymetric maps are two-dimensional representations of the 3-dimensional shape of these basins to the mid-1800s. However, no bathymetric maps approaching the full resolution allowed by these data were

274

Classification of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attack marks on Great Lakes lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Criteria for the classification of marks inflicted by sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) into nine categories were developed from laboratory studies in an attempt to refine the classification system used in field assessment work. These criteria were based on characteristics of the attachment site that could be identified under field conditions by unaided visual means and by touching the attachment site. Healing of these marks was somewhat variable and was influenced by the size of lamprey, duration of attachment, severity of the wound at lamprey detachment, season and water temperature, and by other less obvious factors. Even under laboratory conditions staging of some wounds was difficult, especially at low water temperatures. If these criteria are to be used effectively and with precision in the field, close examination of individual fish may be required. If the feeding and density of specific year-classes of sea lampreys are to be accurately assessed on an annual basis, close attention to the wound size (as it reflects the size of the lamprey's oral disc) and character of wounds on fish will be required as well as consideration of the season of the year in which they are observed.

King, Everett Louis, Jr.

1980-01-01

275

Evolution of Titan's Lakes and Seas: Insights from Recent Infrared Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titan's North Pole has been illuminated since the spring equinox in August 2009, allowing optical remote sensing instruments to acquire images of the lakes and seas that were discovered by the radar instrument earlier in the Cassini mission [1]. The illumination geometry continually improves with the incidence angle decreasing to its minimum at the summer solstice in 2017. Combined with highly inclined flybys that allow for small values of the emission angle, the 2013 observations are much less affected by the haze scattering because the optical path through the atmosphere is much shorter. The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) can observe Titan's surface in seven infrared atmospheric windows between 0.96- and 5-?m. This study describes observations acquired during the recent T93 flyby on July 26, 2013. The footprint ranges from 10 km/pixel to 3 km/pixel. Maps of the three large seas (Ligeia Mare, Punga Mare, and Kraken Mare) at seven different wavelengths are being constructed and a mosaic of the lake area is being assembled. Ligeia Mare was previously imaged by the VIMS in June 2010 [2]. A preliminary analysis of the 2-?m map suggests that the shoreline has not evolved since 2010. The shape of the 2- ?m atmospheric window will be compared between the two images and between the mare and the shore to investigate whether liquid ethane is present as is the case on Ontario lacus [3]. The lake area located between 0 and 90W was imaged with a resolution that allows comparison with the radar images. A preliminary comparison between the two data sets shows a very strong correlation. One part of Punga mare and a lake known as Kivu lacus were acquired on the same image. The northeastern part of Punga Mare seems entailed by a river network. No connections between Punga mare and Kivu lacus are observed on the VIMS image. Kivu lacus seems to lie in the center of a circular depression whose limit is bright at 2-?m. Equipotential maps are built from the topographic information obtained by the radar team [4] and the gravity potential determined by the Radio Science team [5]. As already determined [6], the topographic polar radius is smaller than the equipotential polar radius of an ellipsoid having the same volume. The three seas are indeed located in the depressions where the value of the gravitational potential is largest. On the other hand, the correlation is less clear with the lakes that seem to sit at higher elevation. If confirmed, this observation suggests that a putative subsurface connection between the lakes and the seas would drain out the lakes. This work has been performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. [1] Stofan, E.R. et al. (2007) Nature 445, 61-64 [2] Sotin C. et al. (2012) Icarus 221, 768-786 [3]Brown R.H. et al. (2008) Nature 454, 607-609 [4] Lorenz R.D. (2013) Icarus 225, 367-377 [5] Iess L. et al. (2012) Science 337, 457-459 [6] Zebker H.A. (2009) Science 324, 921-923.

Sotin, C.; Seignovert, B.; Lawrence, K.; Barnes, J. W.; Brown, R. H.; Hayes, A.; Le Mouelic, S.; Baines, K. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.

2013-12-01

276

Compensatory mechanisms in Great Lakes sea lamprey populations: implications for alternative control strategies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Compensatory mechanisms are demographic processes that tend to increase population growth rates at lower population density. These processes will tend to reduce the effectiveness of actions that use controls on reproductive success to suppress sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an economically important pest in the Great Lakes. Historical evidence for compensatory mechanisms in sea lamprey populations was reviewed, and revealed: (1) strong evidence for shifts in sex ratios as sea lamprey abundance was reduced in the early years of the control program; (2) weak and equivocal evidence for increased growth rates of sea lamprey cohorts re-colonizing streams following a lampricide treatment; and (3) suggestions of other compensatory processes, such as earlier ages at metamorphosis, but with little empirical evidence. Larval size distribution data for cohorts in the first and second years following a lampricide treatment (26 pairs of cohorts in 20 streams) was analyzed and did not indicate a consistent pattern of more rapid growth of the first colonizing cohort (only 11 of 33 cases). To test for compensation between spawning and age-1 in sea lamprey populations, data were analyzed for 49 stream-years for which spawning female abundance was known and age-1 abundance was estimated in the following year. A fit of these data to a Ricker stock-recruitment function showed evidence for compensation, measured as reduced survival to age 1 at higher abundance of spawning females. More obvious, however, was a large amount of density-independent variation in survival, which tends to mask evidence for compensatory survival. The results were applied to a simple model that simulates sea lamprey populations and their control in a hypothetical lake. Control strategies that targeted reproductive success performed far less well than comparable strategies that targeted larval populations, because density-independent recruitment variation leads to occasional strong year classes even when spawner abundance is reduced to low levels through alternative control. It is concluded that further study of recruitment variation in lamprey populations is critical to rationalizing alternative controls that target reproductive success, and that recruitment variation needs to be incorporated into models used to evaluate sea lamprey control options.

Jones, Michael L.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Twohey, Michael B.; Fodale, Michael F.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Slade, Jeffrey W.

2003-01-01

277

Compensatory mechanisms in Great Lakes sea lamprey populations: Implications for alternative control strategies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Compensatory mechanisms are demographic processes that tend to increase population growth rates at lower population density. These processes will tend to reduce the effectiveness of actions that use controls on reproductive success to suppress sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an economically important pest in the Great Lakes. Historical evidence for compensatory mechanisms in sea lamprey populations was reviewed, and revealed: (1) strong evidence for shifts in sex ratios as sea lamprey abundance was reduced in the early years of the control program; (2) weak and equivocal evidence for increased growth rates of sea lamprey cohorts re-colonizing streams following a lampricide treatment; and (3) suggestions of other compensatory processes, such as earlier ages at metamorphosis, but with little empirical evidence. Larval size distribution data for cohorts in the first and second years following a lampricide treatment (26 pairs of cohorts in 20 streams) was analyzed and did not indicate a consistent pattern of more rapid growth of the first colonizing cohort (only 11 of 33 cases). To test for compensation between spawning and age-1 in sea lamprey populations, data were analyzed for 49 stream-years for which spawning female abundance was known and age-1 abundance was estimated in the following year. A fit of these data to a Ricker stock-recruitment function showed evidence for compensation, measured as reduced survival to age 1 at higher abundance of spawning females. More obvious, however, was a large amount of density-independent variation in survival, which tends to mask evidence for compensatory survival. The results were applied to a simple model that simulates sea lamprey populations and their control in a hypothetical lake. Control strategies that targeted reproductive success performed far less well than comparable strategies that targeted larval populations, because density-independent recruitment variation leads to occasional strong year classes even when spawner abundance is reduced to low levels through alternative control. It is concluded that further study of recruitment variation in lamprey populations is critical to rationalizing alternative controls that target reproductive success, and that recruitment variation needs to be incorporated into models used to evaluate sea lamprey control options.

Jones, M.L.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Twohey, M.B.; Fodale, M.F.; Cuddy, D.W.; Slade, J.W.

2003-01-01

278

Lake Kinneret (The Sea of Galilee): the effects of diversion of external salinity sources and the probable chemical composition of the internal salinity sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the chemical variations and evolution of Lake Kinneret (LK), the Sea of Galilee after the diversion of onshore saline springs through the Salinity Diversion Channel (SDC) which reduced the salinity of the lake water. The mass-balance approach enables to determine the average chemical composition of the unknown internal lake sources of salinity that in addition to other

A Nishri; M Stiller; A Rimmer; Y Geifman; M Krom

1999-01-01

279

Changes in mortality of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Michigan waters of Lake Superior in relation to sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation, 1968-78  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Total mortality rates of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of age VII and older from eastern Lake Superior were estimated from catch curves of age distributions each year in 1968-78. The instantaneous rate of total mortality Z varied from 0.62 to 2.31 in close synchrony with sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) wounding rates on lake trout. The regression of transformed Z on the index of lamprey wounding accounted for over 89% of the variation in lake trout mortality (rA? = 0.893). An iterative method of estimating rates of exploitation u, instantaneous rates of fishing mortality F, K (a constant relating sample catch per unit effort to population size), instantaneous normal natural mortality rate M, and instantaneous rate of mortality due to sea lamprey predation L from the sample catch per unit effort and total catch by the fishery is presented. A second method using the results of a 1970-71 tagging study to estimate the mean F in 1970-77 yielded closely similar results to the above and is presented as corroboration. The estimates of u, F, and M appear to be reasonable. F ranged from 0.17 in 1974 to 0.42 in 1969 and M was estimated at 0.26. L varied from 0.21 in 1974 to 1.70 in 1968. Management implications of various policies concerning sea lamprey control, exploitation, and stocking are discussed.

Pycha, Richard L.

1980-01-01

280

Direct and indirect trophic interactions of Aurelia sp. (Scyphozoa) in a stratified marine environment (Mljet Lakes, Adriatic Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern of diel vertical migration and the trophic interactions of moon jelly (Aurelia sp.) were investigated in the sea lakes of Mljet Island (Adriatic Sea) where this scyphomedusa is present throughout the\\u000a year. Water column characteristics, plankton and in situ behaviour of Aurelia were followed over several 24-h cycles (68 times during each cycle) from the surface to the

A. Malej; V. Turk; D. Lu?i?; A. Benovi?

2007-01-01

281

A numerical study on the influence of fractured regions on lake/groundwater interaction; the Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased lake salinity is a growing problem in arid and semi-arid regions. Operational management, which is based on a reliable hydrological understanding, has the potential to reduce the lake salinity. This is the case of the salinity in Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), where saline water flows into the lake through on-shore and off-shore springs. Here, we present a time-dependent flow and transport numerical model that successfully reproduces the monitored groundwater level, discharge, and salinity of the lake springs. The model utilizes a continuum approach and describes the flow through a confined saline carbonate aquifer, which interacts with the discharge lake through fractures and faults. In particular, the model investigates the hydrology around two groups of springs, Fuliya and Tabgha, along the western shore of the lake. Based on seasonal characteristics of the springs and measured boundary conditions, the two springs groups were defined as Lake Dominated Springs (LDS, Fuliya) and Aquifer Dominated Springs (ADS, Tabgha). The models of the two groups differ from each other in the distribution of fractured regions that link between the lake and the underlying aquifers. The numerical solution shows how the fractured regions affect groundwater head, spring discharge, and spring salinity. The different behavior of the LDS and ADS was reproduced with an excellent agreement between measured and calculated patterns. Differences in salinity within a group of springs are shown to be dependent on the depth of the fractured region. It was revealed that in addition to the appropriate distribution of fractured regions some adjustment in the up-stream boundary conditions is necessary to fully reproduce the system hydrology. The model has improved our understanding and provides a prediction tool for future management strategies.

Abbo, Hila; Shavit, Uri; Markel, Doron; Rimmer, Alon

2003-12-01

282

Geomorphology of Lake Lisan terraces along the eastern coast of the Dead Sea, Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Lisan, the lake that filled the Jordan graben during the Last Glacial, left behind a well developed sequence of erosional and depositional shore terraces in the south east of the current Dead Sea. These terraces record a series of stillstands that were caused by small transgressions within an overall trend of falling lake levels. The terraces were observed in places where they had not been identified previously. The morphology of the terraces was investigated in six cross-sections using differential GPS altimetry. The levels of the terraces range between - 370 and - 148 m a.s.l. The high stand of Lake Lisan at - 148 m correlates well with the high level of - 150 m reported by Bowman and Gross [Bowman, D., Gross, T., 1992. The highest stand of Lake Lisan: ~ 150 meters below MSL. Israel Journal of Earth-Science 41, 233-237.] along the western coast of Lake Lisan. The lake terraces are horizontal, elongated and tectonically undisturbed, and have a sub-horizontal foreshore (tread) with an average slope of 8.2 and steep backshore cliff (riser) with an average slope of 17.7. The six cross-sections show a good altitudinal correlation between their terraces. Moreover, the terraces appear in undisturbed continuity on the aerial photos. These morphological characteristics demonstrate that the retreat of the lake was a result of substantial climatic changes, not of tectonic subsidence. In-situ stromatolites were found on most of the terraces, reflecting a shallow water environment and emphasizing that these terraces are recessional. Well-developed desert varnish and Tafoni observed on blocks sitting on the terrace surfaces imply a long period of exposure and a low rate of post lacustrine erosion. The formation of Lisan terraces is constrained mainly by coastal slope, water depth and underlying lithology. The morphological analysis of these terraces allows identification of two kinds of pseudo-terraces, which were formed as a result of tread or riser destruction. U/Th and OSL dating allowed the dating of three events within the lake level curve more precisely. The high level of - 148 m occurred at 30.5 0.22 ka BP, consistent with the Heinrich Event 3 and Dansgaard-Oeschger stadial 5, the coldest period in the NGRIP Greenland Ice Core record. The next lower terrace at - 154 m was formed at 22.9 ka BP 0.29 and corresponds to the stadial 2C, the final phase of the Last High Glacial. The correlation between the Lisan high stands and climatic stadials suggests that Northern-Hemispheric cold periods led to periods with a more positive water balance in the Near East. At ~ 10 0.8 ka BP Lake Lisan experienced a sharp drop to - 200 m followed by a transgression between 9.5 to 7 ka BP.

Abu Ghazleh, Shahrazad; Kempe, Stephan

2009-07-01

283

[Book Review] The Dead Sea, the lake and its setting, edited by T. Niemi, Z. Ben-Avraham, J. Gat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Review of The Dead Sea, the Lake and its Setting. Tina M. Niemi, Zvi Ben-Avraham, and Joel R. Gat (Editors). Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics No. 36. Oxford University Press, N.Y. 286 pp. ISBN 0-19-508703-8, 1997. $75.

ten Brink, Uri

1998-01-01

284

Classifying sea lamprey marks on Great Lakes lake trout: Observer agreement, evidence on healing times between classes, and recommendations for reporting of marking statistics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1997 and 1998 two workshops were held to evaluate how consistent observers were at classifying sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) marks on Great Lakes lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) as described in the King classification system. Two trials were held at each workshop, with group discussion between trials. Variation in counting and classifying marks was considerable, such that reporting rates for A1-A3 marks varied two to three-fold among observers of the same lake trout. Observer variation was greater for classification of healing or healed marks than for fresh marks. The workshops highlighted, as causes for inconsistent mark classification, both departures from the accepted protocol for classifying marks by some agencies, and differences in how sliding and multiple marks were interpreted. Group discussions led to greater agreement in classifying marks. We recommend ways to improve the reliability of marking statistics, including the use of a dichotomous key to classify marks. Laboratory data show that healing times of marks on lake trout were much longer at 4??C and 1??C than at 10??C and varied greatly among individuals. Reported A1-A3 and B1-B3 marks observed in late summer and fall collections likely result from a mixture of attacks by two year classes of sea lamprey. It is likely that a substantial but highly uncertain proportion of attacks that occur in late summer and fall lead to marks that are classified as A1-A3 the next spring. We recommend additional research on mark stage duration.

Ebener, M.P.; Bence, J.R.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Mullett, K.M.

2003-01-01

285

J. ELLEN MARSDEN Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Vermont  

E-print Network

vector. Lake Champlain Sea Grant , $101,00 2009-2010 Janice Adams, J. Ellen Marsden, James Johnson Fishery Commission, $175,623 2009-2010. Emerging threats on Lake Champlain. Levine, S., J. E. Marsden, and M. Watzin. Lake Champlain Sea Grant, $371,000. 2007 The effects of zebra mussel growth in different

Marsden, Ellen

286

Hydrogen sulfide production and volatilization in a polymictic eutrophic saline lake, Salton Sea, California.  

PubMed

The Salton Sea is a large shallow saline lake located in southern California that is noted for high sulfate concentrations, substantial algal productivity, and very warm water column temperatures. These conditions are well-suited for sulfide production, and sulfide has been implicated in summer fish kills, although no studies have been conducted to specifically understand hydrogen sulfide production and volatilization there. Despite polymictic mixing patterns and relatively short accumulation periods, the amount of sulfide produced is comparable to meromictic lakes. Sulfide levels in the Salton Sea reached concentrations of 1.2 mmol L(-1) of total free sulfide in the hypolimnion and 5.6 mmol L(-1) in the sediment pore water. Strong winds in late July mixed H2S into the surface water, where it depleted the entire water column of dissolved oxygen and reached a concentration of 0.1 mmol L(-1). Sulfide concentrations exceeded the toxicity threshold of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and combined with strong anoxia throughout the water column, resulted in a massive fish kill. The mixing of sulfide into the surface waters also increased atmospheric H2S concentrations, reaching 1.0 micromol m(-3). The flux of sulfide from the sediment into the water column was estimated to range from 2-3 mmol m(-2) day(-1) during the winter and up to 8 mmol m(-2) day(-1) during the summer. Application of the two-layer model for volatilization indicates that up to 19 mmol m(-2) day(-1) volatilized from the surface during the mixing event. We estimate that as much as 3400 Mg year(-1) or approximately 26% of sulfide that diffused into the water column from the deepest sediments may have been volatilized to the atmosphere. PMID:18760446

Reese, Brandi Kiel; Anderson, Michael A; Amrhein, Christopher

2008-11-15

287

Changes in dissolved silicate loads to the Baltic Sea The effects of lakes and reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tested the hypothesis that dissolved silicate (DSi) yields [kg km - 2 yr - 1 ] of 82 major watersheds of the Baltic Sea can be expressed as a function of the hydraulic load (HL) as a measure of water residence time and the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration, both variables potentially increasing the DSi yield. Most boreal rivers fitted a linear regression model using HL as an independent variable to explain the DSi yield. Rivers with high HL, i.e., shortest residence times, showed highest DSi yields up to 2300 kg km - 2 yr - 1 . This is most likely caused by an excess supply of DSi, i.e., the geochemical sources prevail over biological sinks in these boreal watersheds. The DSi yield for regulated and unregulated larger rivers of the boreal watersheds constituting about 40% of the total water discharge and of the total DSi load to the Baltic Sea, respectively, can be expressed as: DSi yield = 190 + 49.5 HL[m yr - 1 ] + 0.346 TOC [M] ( R2 = 0.80). Since both HL and TOC concentrations have decreased after damming, the DSi yields have decreased significantly in the regulated boreal watersheds, for the River Lulelven we estimated more than 30%. The larger eutrophic watersheds draining cultivated landscape of the southern catchment of the Baltic Sea and representing about 50% of the annual water discharge to the Baltic Sea, deviated from this pattern and showed lower DSi yields between 60-580 kg km - 2 yr - 1 . DSi yields showed saturation curve like relationship to HL and it appears that DSi is retained in the watersheds efficiently through biogenic silica (BSi) production and subsequent sedimentation along the entire river network. The relationship between HL and DSi yields for all larger cultivated watersheds was best fitted by a Freundlich isotherm (DSi = 115.7HL 109; R2 = 0.73), because once lake and reservoir area exceeds 10% of the watershed area, minimum DSi yields were reached. To estimate an uperturbed DSi yield for the larger eutrophic southeastern watersheds is still difficult, since no unperturbed watersheds for comparison were available. However, a rough estimate indicate that the DSi flux from the cultivated watersheds to the Baltic Sea is nowadays only half the uperturbed flux. Overall, the riverine DSi loads to the Baltic Sea might have dropped with 30-40% during the last century.

Humborg, Christoph; Smedberg, Erik; Medina, Miguel Rodriguez; Mrth, Carl-Magnus

2008-10-01

288

Application of Geophysical Methods and Numerical Models to Quantify Solute Transport Into a Fresh-Water Lake: Sea of Galilee, Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sea of Galilee is the lowest freshwater lake on Earth, covering a pull-apart basin along the Dead Sea transform. Saline groundwater emerges through onshore and offshore springs and through flux from the lake's sediments. In this study, we combined geophysics, geology and numerical models to quantify groundwater and chloride discharge rates into the Sea of Galilee. The results have practical implications for management of the lake and the surrounding aquifers. Multi-channel seismic reflection data define two distinct zones beneath the lake: a deep graben (aquitard) that underlies most of the lake, and shallow pre-rift units (aquifers) underlying the northwestern faulted part of the lake. Applying the novel surface marine modification of the TDEM (Time Domain Electromagnetic) method, the spatial distribution of brines in the sediments below the lake was delineated. Resistivities of 1.0 and 0.5 ohm-m were detected at depths of about 10 m below the lake bottom in most of the lake area, equivalent to approximately 11,000 and 22,000 mgCl/l, respectively. Relatively fresh groundwater was detected beneath most of the shoreline. It is hypothesized that the brine was leached from the sediments beneath the lake's margins due to forceful topography-driven flow systems, but still is trapped beneath the central part of the lake. The detection of shallow brine in the lake's sediment has lead us to propose that in the late Pleistocene, during a short high-stand phase of former Lake Lisan, its saline water percolated into the subsurface. Since its recession and the instantaneous formation of the freshwater lake, the Sea of Galilee, the previously intruded brine has been flushed backwards towards the lake. Numerical simulations of fluid flow and of solute and heat transport show that a high-stand period of approximately 1,000 years in Lake Lisan was sufficient for saline water to percolate deep into the subsurface. Results of 1-D advective-dispersive chloride transport numerical simulations that take into account sedimentation and compaction at the lake bottom were compared with measured chloride concentration profiles in sediment cores. The calculated results validate the hypothesis that Lake Lisan solutes are currently discharged into the Sea of Galilee, and indicate that upward water velocity in the sediment ranges between 9 and 22 mm/year, implying that the total solute discharge into the lake induced by compaction is less than 5% of the total discharge.

Hurwitz, S.; Gvirtzman, H.

2002-12-01

289

A new method of quantifying discharge of small rivers into lakes and inland seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental discharge is an important component of the global hydrological cycle, providing the majority of the input part of the ocean water balance. Buoyant inflow usually causes surface density stratification at the large shelf areas, and plays a significant role in physical, chemical, and biological processes there that is especially important for the lakes and inland seas. Although there is a lack of discharge data for most of rivers in a global scale. Regular direct measurements of discharge are performed only for a relatively small number of rivers, generally the biggest ones or ones that flow through densely populated areas. Within this problem an indirect method of assuming a volume of river discharge was developed. The general idea of the method is the following. Firstly, the spatial surface spread of the plume generated by the considered river discharge is identified using high resolution satellite imagery of the coastal zone adjacent to the river estuary. Secondly, a series of numerical simulations of the river runoff spread is performed under various prescribed external forcing conditions which include the discharge rate. Varying forcing conditions we iteratively improve the accordance between simulated and observed river plumes therefore consequentially specifying the value of river discharge. The developed method was applied and validated against in situ date for several rivers feeding the Black Sea. Practical importance of this work consists in the fact, that the suggested method is an alternative for the expensive and laborious direct measurements of the river discharge, which are used nowadays.

Osadchiev, Alexander; Zavialov, Peter

2014-05-01

290

Distribution and Elimination of 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-Nitrophenol (TFM) by Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and Non-target, Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).  

E-print Network

??The pesticide, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), has been highly successful in the control of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Great Lakes. Treatments with TFM involve (more)

Le Clair, Michael W

2014-01-01

291

Modeling invasive species spread in Lake Champlain via evolutionary computations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a reaction diffusion equation, together with a genetic algorithm approach for model selection to develop a general\\u000a modeling framework for biological invasions. The diffusion component of the reaction diffusion model is generalized to include\\u000a dispersal and advection. The reaction component is generalized to include both linear and non-linear density dependence, and\\u000a Allee effect. A combination of the reaction

B. M. Osei; C. D. Ellingwood; J. P. Hoffmann; D. E. Bentil

2011-01-01

292

The Effects of Sewage on a Lake Champlain Wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stevens Brook wetland is presently receiving partially treated sewage from the City of St. Albans, Vermont. The water quality in St. Albans Bay is deteriorating. There is conflicting evidence for the theory that wetlands act as a nutrient sink or as a biotic nutrient filter. This research is an investigation into the productivity and trophic food chain relationships of Stevens

Larry N. Schwartz; Gerhard K. Gruendling

1985-01-01

293

Chemical tracing of salinity sources in Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Kinneret is a freshwater lake in northern Israel that receives a major part of its salt input from unmonitored springs that discharge through the lake's bottom. We attempt to characterize the nature of these springs by estimating their chemical composition. While the springs around Lake Kinneret are subject to wide spatial and temporal variations in their ionic concentrations, specific

Yehoshua Kolodny; Amitai Katz; Abraham Starinsky; Tamar Moise; Ehud Simon

1999-01-01

294

Ammonium, Alkaline and Alkaline-Earth Element Determination in Antarctic Lake Waters, Flowing Melt Waters, Sea Waters and Snow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium were measured by ion-chromatography in samples collected in different sites during the 1989\\/90 Italian expedition in Antarctica.Sea waters, lake waters, flowing melt waters and snow were considered. In addition ammonium was determined in all the samples whenever the chromatographic separation of adjacent sodium and ammonium peaks was feasible.For each element the observed

P. Papoff; M. Onor; M. Betti

1994-01-01

295

Classifying sea lamprey marks on Great Lakes lake trout: observer agreement, evidence on healing times between classes and recommendations for reporting of marking statistics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1997 and 1998 two workshops were held to evaluate how consistent observers were at classifying sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) marks on Great Lakes lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) as described in the King classification system. Two trials were held at each workshop, with group discussion between trials. Variation in counting and classifying marks was considerable, such that reporting rates for A1-A3 marks varied two to three-fold among observers of the same lake trout. Observer variation was greater for classification of healing or healed marks than for fresh marks. The workshops highlighted, as causes for inconsistent mark classification, both departures from the accepted protocol for classifying marks by some agencies, and differences in how sliding and multiple marks were interpreted. Group discussions led to greater agreement in classifying marks. We recommend ways to improve the reliability of marking statistics, including the use of a dichotomous key to classify marks. Laboratory data show that healing times of marks on lake trout were much longer at 4A?C and 1A?C than at 10A?C and varied greatly among individuals. Reported A1-A3 and B1-B3 marks observed in late summer and fall collections likely result from a mixture of attacks by two year classes of sea lamprey. It is likely that a substantial but highly uncertain proportion of attacks that occur in late summer and fall lead to marks that are classified as A1-A3 the next spring. We recommend additional research on mark stage duration.

Ebener, Mark P.; Bence, James R.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Mullet, Katherine M.

2003-01-01

296

Greigite detected as dominating remanence carrier in Late Pleistocene sediments, Lisan formation, from Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rock magnetic investigation of three sedimentary cores of Lisan formation of late Pleistocene age from Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) northern Israel demonstrates that the magnetization of these sediments is controlled by various degrees of a secondary chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) carried by greigite (Fe3S4). This CRM is superimposed on a primary detrital remanent magnetization (DRM) that resides in Ti-magnetite. This finding is independently confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements performed on magnetic extracts of the sediments. The domain state of the greigite is largely single domain behaviour (SD), thus dominating the magnetization. Therefore, the magnetic record retrieve from of these sediments is not reflecting geomagnetic variations but rather chemical rock magnetic properties, resulting from diagenetic processes. The results of our study suggest that paleomagnetic record of greigite bearing sediments should be interpreted with caution because of the following reasons: 1. Geomagnetic secular variations can be biased, due to large coercivity overlap between magnetite and greigite. 2. Alternating field (AF) demagnetization can produce erroneous directions due to vector distortion by acquisition of a gyro-remnant magnetization (GRM). 3. Estimation of relative paleointensity can be hampered by large-scale variations in natural remnant magnetization (NRM) intensity, caused by the acquisition of a secondary CRM of unknown age and unknown extent superimposed on the DRM. The precipitation of greigite requires reducing conditions at the sediment-water interface and/or interstitial water, associated with the presence of sulphur and iron oxides. Reducing conditions are typical of stratified lakes and other stratified water bodies, such as the Dead Sea, paleo-Lake Lisan, temporarily the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Black Sea and many other marine basins. According to our findings, paleomagnetic records from such environments carried dominantly by greigite therefore should be treated with care.

Ron, H.; Nowaczyk, N. R.; Frank, U.; Schwab, M. J.; Naumann, R.; Striewski, B.; Agnon, A.

2007-07-01

297

Massive infestation by Amyloodinium ocellatum (Dinoflagellida) of fish in a highly saline lake, Salton Sea, California, USA.  

PubMed

Persistent fish infestation by the parasitic dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum was found at a highly saline lake, Salton Sea, California, USA. The seasonal dynamics of the infestation of young tilapia was traced in 1997-1998. First appearing in May, it became maximal in June-August, decreased in October and was not detectable in November. Outbreak of the infestation and subsequent mortality of young fish was registered at the Sea at a water temperature and salinity of 40 degrees C and 46 ppt, respectively. Some aspects of the ultrastructure of parasitic trophonts of A. ocellatum and their location on the fish from different size groups are considered. The interactions of parasitological and environmental factors and their combined effect upon fish from the Salton Sea are discussed. PMID:11407406

Kuperman, B I; Matey, V E

1999-12-22

298

Climate-induced variations in lake levels: A mechanism for short-term sea level change during non-glacial times  

SciTech Connect

Variations in insolation due to periodic orbital parameters can cause climatic changes and associated variations in the intensity of monsoonal circulation. This can lead to significant variations in the levels of internally draining lakes on timescales of 10,000 to 100,000 years in regions affected by the monsoon (20,000 years for orbital precession). These variations may be responsible for small scale (few meters) eustatic sea level changes in an ice-free Earth, and may contribute to sea level changes in the presence of ice as well. The authors have estimated the volume of empty present lake basins in the regions of Asia and North Africa influenced by the monsoon. The surface water volume alone of these basins is equivalent to a two meter difference in sea level, but is considerably augmented by groundwater associated with an increase in lake level. The lake variation mechanism for sea level change has its basis in the Quaternary record of climate change and associated explanatory models. However, the argument also applies to earlier, non-glacial periods of geologic time. Clear evidence for the presence of ice in the Triassic is lacking. However, there is evidence for short-term periodic fluctuations of lake levels as well as sea level during that time. These sea level changes, as well as those in the Devonian, Jurassic, and Cretaceous, may be driven by periodic fluctuation in lacustrine and groundwater storage resulting from orbitally forced changes in monsoon intensity, even in the absence of significant glacial ice.

Jacobs, D. (American Museum of Natural History, N.Y. (United States)); Sahagian, D. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept of Geological Sciences)

1992-01-01

299

Pollution records from sediments of three lakes in New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment core segments from Sylvan Lake, Lake Champlain and Lake Canadarago were dated radiometrically with 210 Pb and 137 Cs. Their respective sedimentation rates were determined to be 0.11, 0.14 and 0.52 g cm -2 yr -1 . For the two lakes of lower sedimentation the variations of selected elemental abundances as function of depth were analyzed. Two groupings were

M. Wahlen; R. C. Thompson

1980-01-01

300

Experimental evaluation of atmospheric effects on radiometric measurements using the EREP of Skylab. [Salton Sea and Great Salt Lake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Test sites were located near the Great Salt Lake and the Salton Sea. Calculations were performed for a set of atmospheric models corresponding to the test sites, in addition to standard models for summer and winter midlatitude atmospheres with respective integrated water vapor amount of 2.4 g/sq cm and 0.9 g/sq cm. Each atmosphere was found to contain an average amount of continental aerosol. Computations were valid for high solar elevation angles. Atmospheric attenuation quantities were computed in addition to simulated EREP S192 radiances.

Chang, D. T. (principal investigator); Isaacs, R. G.

1975-01-01

301

"They Would Not Take Me There" People, Places, and Stories from Champlain's Travels in Canada 1603-1616  

E-print Network

Cartographic Perspectives, Number 66, Fall 2010 They Would Not Take Me There Hermann & Pearce | 41 They Would Not Take Me There People, Places, and Stories from Champlains Travels in Canada 16031616 Michael Hermann1 | mike... with a single map of the hydrography from the Gaspe Peninsula to the Georgian Bay, which was the extent of Champlains exploration of Canada along the St. Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers. But the cartographic challenge evolved into more than mapping...

Hermann, Michael; Pearce, Margaret Wickens

2010-08-01

302

Effects of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control in the Great Lakes on aquatic plants, invertebrates and amphibians  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The chemicals 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) or a combination of TFM and 2a??,5-dichloro-4a??-nitrosalicylanilide (Bayer 73) have been used to control the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes for about 20 yr. These chemicals cause some mortalities of Oligochaeta and Hirudinea, immature forms of Ephemeroptera (Hexagenia sp.), and certain Trichoptera, Simuliidae, and Amphibia (Necturus sp.). The combination of TFM and Bayer 73 may affect some Pelecypoda and Gastropoda, but its overall effects on invertebrates are probably less than those of TFM alone. Granular Bayer 73 is likely to induce mortalities among oligochaetes, microcrustaceans, chironomids, and pelecypods. No evidence exists that the lampricides have caused the catastrophic decline or disappearance of any species. The overall impact of chemical control of sea lampreys on aquatic communities has been minor compared with the benefits derived.

Gilderhus, P.A.; Johnson, B.G.H.

1980-01-01

303

Lake Trout Rehabilitation in Lake Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in

Joseph H. Elrod; Robert OGorman; Clifford P. Schneider; Thomas H. Eckert; Ted Schaner; James N. Bowlby; Larry P. Schleen

1995-01-01

304

Lake and Sea Populations of Mysis relicta (Crustacea, Mysida) with Different Visual-Pigment Absorbance Spectra Use the Same A1 Chromophore  

PubMed Central

Glacial-relict species of the genus Mysis (opossum shrimps) inhabiting both fresh-water lakes and brackish sea waters in northern Europe show a consistent lake/sea dichotomy in eye spectral sensitivity. The absorbance peak (?max) recorded by microspectrophotometry in isolated rhabdoms is invariably 2030 nm red-shifted in lake compared with sea populations. The dichotomy holds across species, major opsin lineages and light environments. Chromophore exchange from A1 to A2 (retinal ? 3,4-didehydroretinal) is a well-known mechanism for red-shifting visual pigments depending on environmental conditions or stages of life history, present not only in fishes and amphibians, but in some crustaceans as well. We tested the hypothesis that the lake/sea dichotomy in Mysis is due to the use of different chromophores, focussing on two populations of M. relicta from, respectively, a Finnish lake and the Baltic Sea. They are genetically very similar, having been separated for less than 10 kyr, and their rhabdoms show a typical lake/sea difference in ?max (554 nm vs. 529 nm). Gene sequencing has revealed no differences translating into amino acid substitutions in the transmembrane parts of their opsins. We determined the chromophore identity (A1 or A2) in the eyes of these two populations by HPLC, using as standards pure chromophores A1 and A2 as well as extracts from bovine (A1) and goldfish (A2) retinas. We found that the visual-pigment chromophore in both populations is A1 exclusively. Thus the spectral difference between these two populations of M. relicta is not due to the use of different chromophores. We argue that this conclusion is likely to hold for all populations of M. relicta as well as its European sibling species. PMID:24516590

Belikov, Nikolai; Yakovleva, Marina; Feldman, Tatiana; Demina, Olga; Khodonov, Andrei; Lindstrm, Magnus; Donner, Kristian; Ostrovsky, Mikhail

2014-01-01

305

Long-term changes in cyanobacteria populations in lake kinneret (sea of galilee), Israel: an eco-physiological outlook.  

PubMed

The long-term record of cyanobacteria abundance in Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel, demonstrates changes in cyanobacteria abundance and composition in the last five decades. New invasive species of the order Nostocales (Aphanizomenon ovalisporum and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii) became part of the annual phytoplankton assemblage during summer-autumn. Concomitantly, bloom events of Microcystis sp. (Chroococcales) during winter-spring intensified. These changes in cyanobacteria pattern may be partly attributed to the management policy in Lake Kinneret's vicinity and watershed aimed to reduce effluent discharge to the lake and partly to climate changes in the region; i.e., increased water column temperature, less wind and reduced precipitation. The gradual decrease in the concentration of total and dissolved phosphorus and total and dissolved nitrogen and an increase in alkalinity, pH and salinity, combined with the physiological features of cyanobacteria, probably contributed to the success of cyanobacteria. The data presented here indicate that the trend of the continuous decline of nutrients may not be sufficient to reduce and to control the abundance and proliferation of toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria. PMID:25664964

Hadas, Ora; Kaplan, Aaron; Sukenik, Assaf

2015-01-01

306

Indiana: the history and archaeology of an early Great Lakes propeller  

E-print Network

in the wilds of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. A special note of thanks is extended to following individuals for their contributions to the project: Robert M. Clarke, Jr. and David Swain, of Ocean State Scuba; Arthur B. Cohn, Director of the Lake Champlain... for all of her helpful comments, observations, and suggestions while editing the text of this thesis. A special debt of gratitude is also due to Messrs. Adam Leven and Gordon Cawood of the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum for their assistance in preparing...

Robinson, David Stewart

1999-01-01

307

Fauna and flora in submarine early Holocene lake-marl deposits from the southwestern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of plant and animal macrofossils have been carried out on early-Holocene lake marls from the southwestern Baltic. The records have been dated to the interval from c. 8500 to 7800 14C years BP by correlating pollen assemblages to an onshore radiocarbon dated pollen diagram. The sediments contain from 5 to 81% carbonate, and only few macroscopic remains of wetland

Ole Bennike; Wolfram Lemke; Jrn Bo Jensen

1998-01-01

308

Mineralogical Composition and Sources of Airborne Settling Particles on Lake Kinneret (the Sea of Galilee), Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dustfall around Lake Kinneret (LK), northernIsrael was collected monthly for four and a half years, January 1993May 1997. The inorganic waterinsoluble portions were found to be composed mainlyof four non-clay minerals: quartz, feldspars, calciteand dolomite. The principal clay minerals, about 10%of the IWI, were palygorskite, kaolinite, illite andsmectite. A seasonal non-clay mineral distributionvariation was noticed, being richer in quartz

E. Ganor; Y. Deutsch; H. A. Foner

2000-01-01

309

78 FR 76140 - Extension of Public Comment Period for the Champlain Hudson Power Express Transmission Line...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EIS-0447). The Draft EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of DOE's proposed Federal action of issuing a Presidential permit to the Applicant, Champlain Hudson Power Express, Inc. (CHPEI), to construct, operate, maintain, and...

2013-12-16

310

40 CFR 81.48 - Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...The Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Vermont-New York) has been revised to consist of the territorial...outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Vermont: Addison County, Chittenden County, Franklin County,...

2012-07-01

311

40 CFR 81.48 - Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...The Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Vermont-New York) has been revised to consist of the territorial...outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Vermont: Addison County, Chittenden County, Franklin County,...

2011-07-01

312

40 CFR 81.48 - Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.  

...The Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Vermont-New York) has been revised to consist of the territorial...outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Vermont: Addison County, Chittenden County, Franklin County,...

2014-07-01

313

40 CFR 81.48 - Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Vermont-New York) has been revised to consist of the territorial...outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Vermont: Addison County, Chittenden County, Franklin County,...

2013-07-01

314

40 CFR 81.48 - Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Vermont-New York) has been revised to consist of the territorial...outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Vermont: Addison County, Chittenden County, Franklin County,...

2010-07-01

315

Variability in ice phenology on Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada, from SeaWinds\\/QuikSCAT: 20002006  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal evolution of the backscatter coefficient, sigma-nought (?) from QuikSCAT was evaluated for monitoring ice phenology on Great Bear Lake (66N, 121W) and Great Slave Lake (6140?N, 114W), Northwest Territories, Canada. Results indicated that ? from QuikSCAT can be used to detect melt onset, water clear of ice and freeze onset dates on both lakes. An ice phenology algorithm

Stephen E. L. Howell; Laura C. Brown; Kyung-Kuk Kang; Claude R. Duguay

2009-01-01

316

Examining Dual Frequency X- and Ku-band Backscatter of Snow on Lake Ice and First-Year Sea Ice in the Sub-Arctic Hudson Bay Lowlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fully polarimetric dual frequency ground-based scatterometer observations were collected at X- and Ku-band (9.6 and 17.2 GHz, respectively) near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada in the winter of 2010-11 as part of the Canadian Snow and Ice Experiment (CASIX). Backscatter measurements were collected for five landcover types: lake ice, sea ice, dry tundra, open forest and wetland tundra (sedge fen); the combination of which comprises a unique dataset of dual-frequency backscatter signatures. Correlative data collected, including snow and ice properties, are utilized to characterize active microwave interactions and contribute to the development of snow/ice retrieval algorithms. This study presents backscatter signatures for lake and sea ice obtained during winter 2010-11. The seasonal backscatter evolution is compared to changes in snow and ice properties, including depth, density, snow water equivalent (SWE), ice thickness, ice type, and bubble concentration within the ice. Results over lake ice suggest that increases in backscatter at both X- and Ku-band frequencies correspond to increases in SWE, but are confounded by changes in the sub-nivian ice composition. Surface ice types (snow ice, rafted ice), high bubble concentrations at the ice/water interface and pressure/deformation cracks in the ice serve to confound backscatter at several monitoring sites. Over sea ice, preliminary results indicate that increased salinity levels near the ice/snow interface is the predominate factor influencing backscatter signatures. Physical phenomena encountered at sea ice sites are further explored to assess potential influences on scattering signatures. Preliminary findings presented here document the first ground-based dual frequency X- and Ku-band backscatter signatures collected over first year sea ice, and contribute to the scientific objectives of the proposed Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory (CoReH2O), a candidate Earth Explorer mission of the European Space Agency.

Gunn, G. E.; Duguay, C. R.; Howell, S.; Kelly, R. E.; Silis, A.

2011-12-01

317

Multilevel empirical Bayes modeling for improved estimation of toxicant formulations to suppress parasitic sea lamprey in the upper Great Lakes  

PubMed Central

Summary Estimation of extreme quantal-response statistics, such as the concentration required to kill 99.9% of test subjects (LC99.9), remains a challenge in the presence of multiple covariates and complex study designs. Accurate and precise estimates of the LC99.9 for mixtures of toxicants is critical to ongoing control of a parasitic invasive species, the sea lamprey, in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. The toxicity of those chemicals is affected by local and temporal variations in water chemistry, which must be incorporated into the modeling. We develop multilevel empirical Bayes models for data from multiple laboratory studies. Our approach yields more accurate and precise estimation of the LC99.9 compared to alternative models considered. This study demonstrates that properly incorporating hierarchical structure in laboratory data yields better estimates of LC99.9 stream treatment values that are critical to larvae control in the field. In addition, out-of-sample prediction of the results of in situ tests reveals the presence of a latent seasonal effect not manifest in the laboratory studies, suggesting avenues for future study and illustrating the importance of dual consideration of both experimental and observational data. PMID:21361894

Hatfield, Laura A.; Gutreuter, Steve; Boogaard, Michael A.; Carlin, Bradley P.

2011-01-01

318

Multilevel Empirical Bayes Modeling for Improved Estimation of Toxicant Formulations to Suppress Parasitic Sea Lamprey in the Upper Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estimation of extreme quantal-response statistics, such as the concentration required to kill 99.9% of test subjects (LC99.9), remains a challenge in the presence of multiple covariates and complex study designs. Accurate and precise estimates of the LC99.9 for mixtures of toxicants are critical to ongoing control of a parasitic invasive species, the sea lamprey, in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. The toxicity of those chemicals is affected by local and temporal variations in water chemistry, which must be incorporated into the modeling. We develop multilevel empirical Bayes models for data from multiple laboratory studies. Our approach yields more accurate and precise estimation of the LC99.9 compared to alternative models considered. This study demonstrates that properly incorporating hierarchical structure in laboratory data yields better estimates of LC99.9 stream treatment values that are critical to larvae control in the field. In addition, out-of-sample prediction of the results of in situ tests reveals the presence of a latent seasonal effect not manifest in the laboratory studies, suggesting avenues for future study and illustrating the importance of dual consideration of both experimental and observational data. ?? 2011, The International Biometric Society.

Hatfield, L.A.; Gutreuter, S.; Boogaard, M.A.; Carlin, B.P.

2011-01-01

319

SEA LAMPREY SPAWNING: MICHIGAN STREAMS  

E-print Network

SEA LAMPREY SPAWNING: MICHIGAN STREAMS OF LAKE SUPERIOR Marine Bioiogical Laboratory MAY 2 3 1952 Service, Albert M. Day, Director SEA LAMPREY SPAWNING s MICHIGAN STREAMS OF LAKE SUPERIOR by Howard A decades since the capture of the first specimen in Lake Erie in 1921, the sea lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus

320

Spatial and Seasonal Patterns of Natural Organic Matter Spectral Fluorescent Signatures in Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) and its Catchment Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a characterization of fluorescent natural organic matter (NOM) in Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) and its catchment basin. Lake Kinneret, the large high-productive subtropical lake, is the only freshwater lake and one of the major water resources in Israel. The work is based on the analysis of the spectral fluorescent signatures (excitation emission matrices; EEM) of 167 water samples collected between 2/2005-9/2006 and examined using parallel factor analysis. By examining relationships between different fluorescing components and probing their spatial and seasonal patterns, we aimed at learning about differences between lacustrian and riverine-originated NOM and differentiating between the various sources of organic matter in the lake. Two humic-like and one proteinous components were sufficient to describe EEM variability among all the water samples. The two humic-like components showed essentially different relations in lake and riverine samples. The vertical distributions of humic-like components in Lake Kinneret are indicative of seasonal lake stratification. When the humic-like matter stratification is established, the concentration of humic-like substances is greater in the bottom water layers than in the surface. At the layer closest to the sediments, the concentration of humic-like components increases also with time (at anoxic conditions) thus linking their production to NOM transformation in the bottom water layer and/or to its release from sediments. Depth-related distribution of humic-like components appears to be similar in different lake locations thus (i) indicating the important role of a distance from the water surface in the vertical distribution of humic-like matter and (ii) supporting a possible influence of photodegradation on the concentrations of humic-like components in the upper water layers. Vertical distribution of the proteinous component, which reflects biological activity at the upper water layers, did not correlate with that of the humic-like components. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations did not show any vertical stratification, emphasizing the power of EEM to explore NOM dynamics.

Borisover, M.; Laor, Y.; Parparov, A.; Bukhanovsky, N.; Lado, M.

2009-04-01

321

Lake classification in Vermont  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to comply with the Federal Clean Water Act and, in so doing, develop a procedure to periodically update the classification, the State of Vermont evaluated the ability of LANDSAT to detect general water quality and specific water quality parameters in Vermont lakes. Unsupervised and supervised classifications as well as regression analyses were used to examine LANDSAT data from Lake Champlain and from four small nearby lakes. Unsupervised and supervised classifications were found to be of somewhat limited value. Regression analyses revealed a good correlation between depth-integrated total phosphorus concentrations and LANDSAT band 4 data (r2= 0.92) and between Secchi disk transparencies and LANDSAT band 4 data (r2 - 0.85). No correlation was found between depth-integrated chlorophyll-a samples and LANDSAT data. Vermont is expanding this LANDSAT evaluation to include the remaining lakes in the state greater than twenty acres and steps are being taken to incorporate LANDSAT into the state's ongoing water quality monitoring programs.

Garrison, V.; Bryant, N.

1981-01-01

322

Halorhabdus tiamatea: proteogenomics and glycosidase activity measurements identify the first cultivated euryarchaeon from a deep-sea anoxic brine lake as potential polysaccharide degrader.  

PubMed

Euryarchaea from the genus Halorhabdus have been found in hypersaline habitats worldwide, yet are represented by only two isolates: Halorhabdus utahensis?AX-2(T) from the shallow Great Salt Lake of Utah, and Halorhabdus tiamatea?SARL4B(T) from the Shaban deep-sea hypersaline anoxic lake (DHAL) in the Red Sea. We sequenced the H.?tiamatea genome to elucidate its niche adaptations. Among sequenced archaea, H.?tiamatea features the highest number of glycoside hydrolases, the majority of which were expressed in proteome experiments. Annotations and glycosidase activity measurements suggested an adaptation towards recalcitrant algal and plant-derived hemicelluloses. Glycosidase activities were higher at 2% than at 0% or 5% oxygen, supporting a preference for low-oxygen conditions. Likewise, proteomics indicated quinone-mediated electron transport at 2% oxygen, but a notable stress response at 5% oxygen. Halorhabdus tiamatea furthermore encodes proteins characteristic for thermophiles and light-dependent enzymes (e.g. bacteriorhodopsin), suggesting that H.?tiamatea evolution was mostly not governed by a cold, dark, anoxic deep-sea habitat. Using enrichment and metagenomics, we could demonstrate presence of similar glycoside hydrolase-rich Halorhabdus members in the Mediterranean DHAL Medee, which supports that Halorhabdus species can occupy a distinct niche as polysaccharide degraders in hypersaline environments. PMID:24428220

Werner, Johannes; Ferrer, Manuel; Michel, Gurvan; Mann, Alexander J; Huang, Sixing; Juarez, Silvia; Ciordia, Sergio; Albar, Juan P; Alcaide, Mara; La Cono, Violetta; Yakimov, Michail M; Antunes, Andr; Taborda, Marco; da Costa, Milton S; Hai, Tran; Glckner, Frank Oliver; Golyshina, Olga V; Golyshin, Peter N; Teeling, Hanno

2014-08-01

323

Viruses in Lake Ladoga Plankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Ladoga is the largest lake in Europe. The ecological state of Lake Ladoga has a significant impact on water quality in the Neva River, the Gulf of Finland, and the Baltic Sea. The anthropogenic pollution during recent decades considerably modified the trophicity of Lake Ladoga. Presently, this level is regarded as mesotrophic [1]. Microbial loop is a new term

A. K. Sirotkin; O. V. Gavrilova; L. N. Voloshko; B. V. Gromov

2001-01-01

324

Radium Isotopes as a Proxy for Groundwater Discharge and Residence Time in a Fresh Water Lake: Case Study From the Sea of Galilee, Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past three decades radium isotopes have been extensively used to quantify the extent and the rate of groundwater discharge into coastal and estuarine environments, where fresh groundwater enters a more saline water body. One of the keys for the conservative behavior of radium in saline systems is the inverse dependence of its adsorption on salinity. In fresh groundwater radium is adsorbed, whereas in saline environment, the adsorbed radium is released to the aqueous phase. Here we examine an opposite scenario where saline groundwater discharges to a fresh water lake. We investigated the distribution of the radium isotope quartet in the Sea of Galilee (Cl~230 mg/l) and saline springs (Fuliya springs, Cl~2200 mg/l) that are considered to be the major salt source for the lake. Assuming that the saline springs of Fuliya represent the groundwater discharge to the lake, and that the measured radium activity in the lake is the residual of mixing, radioactive decay, and adsorption to bottom sediments and suspended particles, we conducted mass balance calculations for the different radium isotopes. Since the half-life of ^{226}Ra (1600 y) is higher than the average water residence time (5.8 y), we neglect the decay factor for this isotope. We use the differences in the ^{226}Ra/Cl ratios in the saline source (7.610-3) and the lake water (1.810-3) to calculate the relative depletion of ^{226}Ra in the lake water. The ^{226}Ra activity in the lake water ("Station A" in the center of the Sea of Galilee; ^{226}Ra=0.44 dmp/l) therefore represents only 24% of the groundwater ^{226}Ra flux, whereas 76% is lost from solution by adsorption. The activities of the short-lived ^{223}Ra (11.6 days) and ^{224}Ra (3.6 days) in the lake (410-4 and 5.910-3 dpm/l, respectively) represents only 2% and 4%, respectively, of the theoretical activities expected upon dilution. We show that the difference between the ^{224}Ra/^{223}Ra ratios in the lake (15.64) and the saline source (4.71) is identical to the ratio of the decay constants of ^{224}Ra and ^{223}Ra (3.1). Since the adsorption coefficients of the short-lived radium isotopes depend on their decay constants, ^{223}Ra with the longer half life would have selective higher adsorption. Assuming an identical residence time in the lake for ^{224}Ra and ^{223}Ra, we use the ratio of the decay constants of ^{224}Ra and ^{223}Ra to calculate the relative proportions of radium that is lost by adsorption and by decay. Our mass-balance results show that only a small fraction of ^{224}Ra and ^{223}Ra is adsorbed (1% and 24%), and a significant fraction is removed by radioactive decay with a residence time of ~23 days. The lack of significant sinks for the radium short- lived isotopes implies that they can be used to quantify saline groundwater fluxes also in freshwater lakes.

Raanan, H.; Vengosh, A.; Nishri, A.; Paytan, A.

2006-12-01

325

Lakes of the Huron basin: their record of runoff from the laurentide ice sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 189,000 km2 Huron basin is central in the catchment area of the present Laurentian Great Lakes that now drain via the St. Lawrence River to the North Atlantic Ocean. During deglaciation from 21-7.5 ka BP, and owing to the interactions of ice margin positions, crustal rebound and regional topography, this basin was much more widely connected hydrologically, draining by various routes to the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean, and receiving overflows from lakes impounded north and west of the Great Lakes-Hudson Bay drainage divide. Early ice-marginal lakes formed by impoundment between the Laurentide Ice Sheet and the southern margin of the basin during recessions to interstadial positions at 15.5 and 13.2 ka BP. In each of these recessions, lake drainage was initially southward to the Mississippi River and Gulf of Mexico. In the first recession, drainage subsequently switched eastward along the ice margin to the North Atlantic Ocean. In the second recession, drainage continued southward through the Michigan basin, and later, eastward via the Ontario basin and Mohawk River valley to the North Atlantic Ocean. During the final retreat of ice in the Huron basin from 13 to 10 ka BP, proglacial lake drainage switched twice from the Michigan basin and the Mississippi River system to the North Atlantic via the Ontario basin and Mohawk River valley, finally diverting to the Champlain Sea in the St. Lawrence River valley at about 11.6 ka BP. New seismo- and litho-stratigraphic information with ostracode data from the offshore lacustrine sediments were integrated with the traditional data of shorelines, uplift histories of outlets, and radio-carbon-dated shallow-water evidence of transgressions and regressions to reconstruct the water level history and paleolimnological record for the northern Huron basin for the 11-7 ka BP period. Negative excursions in the ?18O isotopic composition of ostracodes and bivalves in southern Lake Michigan, southwestern Lake Huron and eastern Lake Erie indicate an influx of water from ice-marginal Lake Agassiz in central North America about 11 ka BP. A major decline in water levels of the Huron basin after 10.5 ka BP followed the high-level Main Lake Algonquin phase as ice receded and drainage was established through the North Bay area to Ottawa River valley. During the subsequent Mattawa-Stanley phase, the lake level history was dominated by fluctuations of tens of meters. Highstands of the earliest oscillations, whose origin is not clear, might be related to some of the well known Post Algonquin shorelines. After 9.6 ka BP, it is suggested that large inflows from Lake Agassiz and hydraulic damming in downstream outlets were the likely cause of the Lake Mattawa highstands. A lowstand at 9.3-9.1 ka BP occurred when these inflows were diverted, or impeded by an ice advance in the Nipigon basin area, while undiluted meltwater continued to enter the Huron basin. Assemblages and isotopic composition of the ostracode fauna indicate very dilute meltwater during the lowstands as late as 7.5 ka BP, and precipitation runoff with comparatively higher dissolved solids during the highstands. We speculate that the water composition of the Lake Mattawa highstands was dominated by the Agassiz inflows; by that time, much of Lake Agassiz was remote from ice-marginal environments, and the inflows were drawn from surface water of the southern sector of the lake, which was largely supplied by runoff and dissolved solids from the exposed land area of western Canada. Major inflows apparently ended about 8 ka BP, but northern proglacial lakes apparently continued as meltwater persisted in the Huron basin until about 7.5 ka BP. The cessation of major inflows initiated the final lowstand in the Huron basin and the present hydrological regime of local runoff.

Michael Lewis, C. F.; Moore, Theodore C.; Rea, David K.; Dettman, David L.; Smith, Alison M.; Mayer, Larry A.

326

Effects of a rainstorm high in sea-salts on labile inorganic aluminium in drainage from the acidified catchments of Lake Terjevann, southernmost Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acidification of many streams and lakes that has occurred in southern Norway during several decades is to a large extent caused by acid deposition. However, in coastal areas deposition events with high loading of sea-salts may result in increased acidity and aluminium concentration in the discharge. Since such episodes are difficult to predict and usually of short duration, the aluminium chemistry during such episodes has so far not been evaluated in detail. In January 1993, during monitoring of streams in the Lake Terjevann catchment, the area was exposed to an extraordinary high sea-salt loading. The Cl - concentration in the stream water more than doubled (reaching about 900 ?eq/l), the labile inorganic aluminium (Al i) concentration almost quadrupled (reaching about 33 and 18 ?M in the two streams), and the relative increase in the Al 3+ concentration was even higher. It took 3-4 months until the Al i concentration and almost a year until the Cl - concentration returned to pre-event levels. Simple equilibria with minerals such as gibbsite, jurbanite, kaolinite/halloysite or imogolite do not control aluminium concentration in the discharge from these catchments. Retention of Na + more than compensated for the desorption of Al 3+. The results strongly indicate that cation exchange in the organic soil layers was essential in controlling the aluminium chemistry in the stream waters especially during high flow. Similar, but less pronounced, effects of the sea-salt episode were seen at the Birkenes catchment about 37 km inland from Lake Terjevann.

Andersen, D. O.; Seip, H. M.

1999-10-01

327

Linear, one-dimensional models of the surface and internal standing waves for a long and narrow lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear, one-dimensional, analytical, and numerical models for seiches (standing waves) existing at the surface and on the internal interface between the upper warm and bottom cold layers for a long, narrow lake are developed. Using the specific bathymetric and thermal structures of a lake, Lake Champlain, these models predict the periods, nodal locations, vertical displacements, and current velocities associated with the fundamental and higher-order modes. Modeled results are compared with historical limnological data obtained from Lake Champlain. Agreement is good for the periods of the first few modes of the surface and internal seiches; however, predicted current velocities associated with the internal seiche are about half as large as those actually observed.

Prigo, Robert B.; Manley, T. O.; Connell, Benjamin S. H.

1996-03-01

328

Gypsum as a monitor of the paleo-limnologicalhydrological conditions in Lake Lisan and the Dead Sea  

E-print Network

within the Lisan Formation (?26 to +28&) is the result of bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) within Pleistocene. During high-stand intervals (i.e., Marine Isotopic Stages 2 and 4), lake brine underwent BSR supply of freshwater to the lake and the limited BSR activity during the arid Holocene time and possibly

Torfstein, Adi

329

In-Flight Validation of Mid and Thermal Infrared Remotely Sensed Data Using the Lake Tahoe and Salton Sea Automated Validation Sites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation includes an introduction, Lake Tahoe site layout and measurements, Salton Sea site layout and measurements, field instrument calibration and cross-calculations, data reduction methodology and error budgets, and example results for MODIS. Summary and conclusions are: 1) Lake Tahoe CA/NV automated validation site was established in 1999 to assess radiometric accuracy of satellite and airborne mid and thermal infrared data and products. Water surface temperatures range from 4-25C.2) Salton Sea CA automated validation site was established in 2008 to broaden range of available water surface temperatures and atmospheric water vapor test cases. Water surface temperatures range from 15-35C. 3) Sites provide all information necessary for validation every 2 mins (bulk temperature, skin temperature, air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, net radiation, relative humidity). 4) Sites have been used to validate mid and thermal infrared data and products from: ASTER, AATSR, ATSR2, MODIS-Terra, MODIS-Aqua, Landsat 5, Landsat 7, MTI, TES, MASTER, MAS. 5) Approximately 10 years of data available to help validate AVHRR.

Hook, Simon J.

2008-01-01

330

Concentrations of mercury and metals in the microlayer and sub-surface water of two large lakes  

SciTech Connect

In previous investigations, pollutant concentrations in surface microlayers have been reported to be elevated over those in the sub-surface water. The reasons for this enrichment are many, and include atmospheric deposition, fluvial inputs and oil spills. The objective of this study was to investigate the role that atmospheric deposition plays in the enrichment of mercury and trace metals in the microlayer of Lakes Champlain and Michigan. A secondary objective was to compare the microlayer and sub-surface concentrations of metals. Samples of air, microlayer and sub-surface water were collected using ultra-clean techniques during the summer of 1993. Lake Champlain samples were collected on mile from Burlington, VT while Lake Michigan samples were collected four miles from Chicago, IL. Mercury samples were analyzed in a class 100 clean room at the University of Michigan by dual amalgamation and CVAFS and metals wee analyzed by ICPMS. Results from the field investigations include: (1) Lake Michigan samples had higher average concentrations of mercury and other metals than Lake Champlain; (2) Mercury levels varied more than the other metals for both lakes; (3) Atmospheric deposition may be responsible for elevated concentrations of certain metals such as zinc and cadmium in the microlayer during days when there is transport from adjacent urban areas.

Cleckner, L.B.; Esseks, E.S.; Meier, P.G.; Keeler, G.J. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1994-12-31

331

The amount and nature of the dustfall on Lake Kinneret (the Sea of Galilee), Israel: flux and fractionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dustfall flux on Lake Kinneret, Israel was measured by a network of 15 sampling stations around the lake over a 3 year period, with partial measurements over a further 2 years. The dustfall was characterized by dividing it into fractions including inorganic water insoluble matter (IWI), i.e. insoluble minerals; inorganic water soluble matter (IWS); and total organic matter (TORG). The total dustfall was fairly constant over the years with a mean input of 12,000 t on the 170 km 2 lake surface. The proportion of atmospheric input to total solids entering the lake is inversely dependent on the amount of rain in a particular year and varied between 17% and 46% (mean = 34%). The dustfall is composed of roughly equal proportions of TORG, IWI and IWS. The organic matter itself is about 50% water soluble. The most variable fraction of the dustfall is the insoluble mineral content (IWI) which is dependent on violent dust storms usually occurring in spring and autumn. The amount of aeolian matter entering the lake is sufficiently large, compared to the fluvial input, to have a significant effect on the water quality. Much of the dustfall entering the lake is more finely divided than the fluvial suspended matter and this will presumably increase its relative effect.

Ganor, E.; Foner, H. A.; Gravenhorst, G.

332

Philipsburg Plattsburgh  

E-print Network

AdirondackM ountains Green Mountains Lake Champlain Lake George QU?BEC Champlain Canal VERMONTNEWYORK Richelieu River FIGURE 1 | THE LAKE CHAMPLAIN BASIN OR WATERSHED ABOUTTHE LAKE CHAMPLAIN BASIN PROGRAM The Lake Champlain Basin Program (LCBP) was created by the Lake Champlain Special Designation Act of 1990

Hayden, Nancy J.

333

Pollution records from sediments of three lakes in New York State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment core segments from Sylvan Lake, Lake Champlain and Lake Canadarago were dated radiometrically with 210Pb and 137Cs. Their respective sedimentation rates were determined to be 0.11, 0.14 and 0.52 g cm -2 yr -1. For the two lakes of lower sedimentation the variations of selected elemental abundances as function of depth were analyzed. Two groupings were found: Al, K, Ti, Rb and Zr were correlated among themselves but reflected different variations in the input of terrigenous erosion material to the lakes. The Cu, Zn and Pb correlated among themselves showed similar depth dependence with increasing concentrations toward the top which can be attributed to cultural pollution. Recent 'excess' fluxes to the sediments above the natural contribution by clastic material were derived for the location of the cores, which for Cu, Zn and Pb amounted to 3.8, 24 and 16 ?g cm -2 yr -1 respectively for Sylvan Lake and 4.9, 20 and 16 ?g cm -2 yr -1 for Lake Champlain. The corresponding 210Pb flux was 3.3 and 2.3 dpm cm -2 yr -1, respectively for the two lakes. Approximate residence times in the water column were obtained for trace metals at the Lake Champlain location. Short residence times estimated for Pb (< 0.15 yr) and Cu (< 0.4 yr) indicate fast removal, whereas those for Zn (1.0 0.3 yr) and Cr (2.0 0.5 yr) appeared to be dominated by the water residence time.

Wahlen, M.; Thompson, R. C.

1980-02-01

334

Threshold of wave generation on Titans lakes and seas: Effect of viscosity and implications for Cassini observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by radar and near-infrared data indicating that Titan's polar lakes are extremely smooth, we consider the conditions under which a lake surface will be ruffled by wind to form capillary waves. We evaluate laboratory data on wind generation and derive, without scaling for surface tension effects, a threshold for pure methane/ethane of 0.5-1 m/s. However, we compute the physical properties of predicted Titan lake compositions using the National Institute for Standards Technology (NIST) code and note that dissolved amounts of C3 and C4 compounds are likely to make Titan lakes much more viscous than pure ethane or methane, even without allowing for suspended particulates which would increase the viscosity further. Wind tunnel experiments show a strong dependence of capillary wave growth on liquid viscosity, and this effect may explain the apparent absence so far of waves, contrary to prior expectations that generation of gravity waves by wind should be easy on Titan. On the other hand, we note that winds over Titan lakes predicted with the TitanWRF Global Circulation Model indicate radar observations so far have in any case been when winds have been low (0.5-0.7 m/s), possibly below the wave generation threshold, while peak winds during summer may reach 1-2 m/s. Thus observations of Titan's northern lakes during the coming years by the Cassini Solstice mission offer the highest probability of observing wind-roughening of lake surfaces, while observations of Ontario Lacus in the south will likely continue to show it to be flat and smooth.

Lorenz, Ralph D.; Newman, Claire; Lunine, Jonathan I.

2010-06-01

335

Phylogenetic status of brown trout Salmo trutta populations in five rivers from the southern Caspian Sea and two inland lake basins, Iran: a morphogenetic approach.  

PubMed

Interrelationships, origin and phylogenetic affinities of brown trout Salmo trutta populations from the southern Caspian Sea basin, Orumieh and Namak Lake basins in Iran were analysed from complete mtDNA control region sequences, 12 microsatellite loci and morphological characters. Among 129 specimens from six populations, seven haplotypes were observed. Based on mtDNA haplotype data, the Orumieh and southern Caspian populations did not differ significantly, but the Namak basin-Karaj population presented a unique haplotype closely related to the haplotypes of the other populations (01% Kimura two-parameter, K2P divergence). All Iranian haplotypes clustered as a distinct group within the Danube phylogenetic grouping, with an average K2P distance of 041% relative to other Danubian haplotypes. The Karaj haplotype in the Namak basin was related to a haplotype (Da26) formerly identified in the Tigris basin in Turkey, to a Salmo trutta oxianus haplotype from the Aral Sea basin, and to haplotype Da1a with two mutational steps, as well as to other Iranian haplotypes with one to two mutational steps, which may indicate a centre of origin in the Caspian basin. In contrast to results of the mtDNA analysis, more pronounced differentiation was observed among the populations studied in the morphological and microsatellite DNA data, except for the two populations from the Orumieh basin, which were similar, possibly due to anthropogenic causes. PMID:23020557

Hashemzadeh Segherloo, I; Farahmand, H; Abdoli, A; Bernatchez, L; Primmer, C R; Swatdipong, A; Karami, M; Khalili, B

2012-10-01

336

Hydroacoustic separation of rainbow smelt ( Osmerus mordax) age groups in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separate assessment of young-of-year (YOY) and yearling-and-older (YAO) fish is desirable from both ecological and management perspectives. Acoustic assessments provide information on fish population size structure in the target strength (TS) distribution, but interpretation of TS distributions must be done carefully, as single age groups can produce multiple TS modes. We assessed the ability of in situ TS distributions to

S. L. Parker Stetter; L. G. Rudstam; J. L. Stritzel Thomson; D. L. Parrish

2006-01-01

337

LANDOWNER VALUES, WATER QUALITY, AND RECREATION IN THE LAKE CHAMPLAIN BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes landowner values about water quality among resident landowners in the LaFlatte River watershed, tests whether suburbanization is producing a new mix of social values, analyzes the relationship between values and behaviors, and explores the link between recreation and water quality advocacy. Results showed that residents hold pro-environmental values, although the region is not a stronghold of environmentalism.

Walter F. Kuentzel; Donald F. Dennis

338

Effects of environmental mercury on gonadal function in Lake Champlain northern pike (Esox lucius)  

SciTech Connect

Levels of mercury in the environment have increased steadily over the past two centuries, primarily because of human activity. Common point sources of this heavy metal include industrial waste discharge from chloralkali and paper pulp plants. More diffuse emissions, which become widely distributed by global wind currents, result from the combustion of fossil fuels and incineration of municipal wastes. Stricter laws in the United States have decreased the amount of pollution from point sources. In contrast, mercury from diffuse atmospheric origins has been increasing, causing a rise in rainwater concentrations and aquatic environments frequently distant from the source of pollution. Once in aquatic systems, mercury is readily converted to the more toxic methylated form and is the only heavy metal that indisputably biomagnifies through the food web. Acid rain compounds the environmental impact of anthropogenic mercury because aquatic organisms concentrate more mercury when living in waters with lower alkalinity. The persistence of this heavy metal in teleosts is illustrated by the finding that mercury, unlike cadmium, arsenic, and lead, did not decrease in North American freshwater fish between 1976 and 1984.

Friedmann, A.S.; Leiter, J.C. [Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH (United States)] [Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH (United States); Watzin, M.C. [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); and others

1996-03-01

339

Deposition and watershed processing of mercury in the Lake Champlain basin  

SciTech Connect

Daily wet-only precipitation, weekly 24-hour vapor and particulate matter, snowmelt and stream water have been analyzed for total mercury (Hg) in Underhill, VT since December, 1992. Total Hg in precipitation ranged from 1.2-35 ng/L, with maximum concentrations occurring during summer. Vapor phase Hg ranged from 1.2 to 4.2 ng/m, with little annual variability, and particulate phase Hg ranged from 1 to 43 pg/m{sup 3}, with maximum concentrations in winter. Wet-only deposition of total Hg in precipitation totaled 9.26 {mu}g/m{sup 2} in 1993 and 7.66 {mu}g/m{sup 2} in 1994. Total Hg concentrations in a stream in our research watershed were 1-3 ng/L during base flow, and reached 79 ng/L at peak flow during spring snowmelt. Dissolved Hg concentrations were approximately 2 ng/L, even during peak flows, suggesting suspended Hg-containing sediments caused the high total Hg during peak flows. Synoptic sampling of larger streams in the drainage basin also showed significant Hg enrichment during snowmelt. Limited snowpack melt measurements indicated that Hg concentration and dissolved proportion in melt water were dynamic, varying with temperature and melting rate.

Scherbatskoy, T. [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); Rea, A.; Keeler, G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

340

A riverscape perspective on habitat associations among riverine bird assemblages in the Lake Champlain Basin, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The riverscape perspective recognizes the heterogeneous habitat types within the stream corridor as a single, integrated ecological\\u000a unit operating across spatial scales. Although there is ample evidence that the riverscape notion is appropriate in understanding\\u000a the physical phenomena of stream corridors, significantly less attention has focused on its ecological ramifications. To this\\u000a end, we surveyed riverscape habitat variables and bird

S. Maeika P. Sullivan; Mary C. Watzin; William S. Keeton

2007-01-01

341

Sources of Fine Particulate Species in Ambient Air over Lake Champlain Basin, VT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a part of an ongoing investigation of the types and locations of emission sources that contribute fine particulate air contaminants to Underhill, VT. The air quality monitoring data used for this study are from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network for the period of 20012003 for the Underhill site. The main source-receptor modeling techniques used

Ning Gao; Amy E. Gildemeister; Kira Krumhansl; Katherine Lafferty; Philip K. Hopke; Eugene Kim; Richard L. Poirot

2006-01-01

342

Effects of Environmental Mercury on Gonadal Function in Lake Champlain Northern Pike ( Esox lucius )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of mercury in the environment have increased steadily over the past two centuries, primarily because of human activity. Common point sources of this heavy metal include industrial waste discharge from chloralkali and paper pulp plants. More diffuse emissions, which become widely distributed by global wind currents, result from the combustion of fossil fuels and incineration of municipal wastes. Stricter

A. S. Friedmann; M. C. Watzin; J. C. Leiter; T. Brinck-Johnsen

1996-01-01

343

A riverscape perspective on habitat associations among riverine bird assemblages in the Lake Champlain Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The riverscape perspective recognizes the heterogeneous habitat types within the stream corri- dor as a single, integrated ecological unit operating across spatial scales. Although there is ample evidence that the riverscape notion is appropriate in understanding the physical phenomena of stream corridors, significantly less attention has focused on its ecological ramifications. To this end, we surveyed riverscape habitat variables and

S. Mazeika; P. Sullivan; Mary C. Watzin; William S. Keeton

2007-01-01

344

Methods to Reduce Indicator Bacteria Levels in Agricultural Runoff in the Lake Champlain Basin  

E-print Network

Portions of many streams in the nation are impaired by bacteria levels that routinely exceed water quality standards. Exposure to water-borne pathogens poses a significant and increasing risk to public health. Livestock agriculture can be a major source of mi-

Donald W. Meals; David C. Braun

2005-01-01

345

Lake Effect Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lake effect is particularly clear in this Sea-viewing Wide field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) true-color image of the North American Great Lakes region, acquired December 5, 2000. Lakes Nipigon, Superior, and Michigan show striking contrasts between clear and cloudy air as the wind blows from the northwest across the lakes. As it flows across the relatively warm lakes, the cold dry air gathers heat and moisture from the surface. The warm moist air rises into the atmosphere and mixes vigorously with the cold dry air above. The layer of warm moist air deepens as it travels across the lake. Some of the evaporated water from the lake condenses into streamers of fog rising from the surface, while much of the moisture condenses to form a stratocumulus cloud in the upper half of the mixed layer. The cloud-forming water droplets may freeze into ice crystals and, due to accumulated water deposition over time, grow into snowflakes. This process can generate snowstorms that produce significant amounts of snowfall downwind. It is not uncommon for lake effect snowstorms to produce as much as two feet of snow within a 24-hour period in northwestern parts of New York and Pennsylvania. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

346

Developing Great Lakes Ice Model (GLIM) using CIOM (Coupled Ice-Ocean Model) in Lake Erie  

E-print Network

sea ice coverage with model results for winter 2004. #12;Figure 2: Seasonal cycle of ice thickness dynamics in the Great Lakes. This is in part because sea ice dynamics and thermodynamics control the waterDeveloping Great Lakes Ice Model (GLIM) using CIOM (Coupled Ice- Ocean Model) in Lake Erie Primary

347

Great Lakes Fieldscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly interactive mapping tool features rivers and streams, watershed boundaries, water depth, political boundaries, elevation and land cover of the Great Lakes region. Students, volunteers and others can upload quantitative measurements and field notes, and share this with others around the globe. This type of learning provides a rich geographic context that allows participants to gain a better understanding of how they are connected to the Great Lakes. National Geographic partnered with Michigan Sea Grant to develop Great Lakes FieldScope to encourage the exploration and investigation of Great Lakes science and education.

348

Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Huron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Efforts to restore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Huron after their collapse in the 1940s were underway in the early 1970s with completion of the first round of lampricide applications in tributary streams and the stocking of several genotypes. We assess results of rehabilitation and establish a historical basis for comparison by quantifying the catch of spawning lake trout from Michigan waters in 1929-1932. Sixty-eight percent of this catch occurred in northern waters (MH-1) and most of the rest (15%) was from remote reefs in the middle of the main basin. Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) increased in the early 1980s in the main basin and depressed spawning populations of lake trout. This increase was especially severe in northern waters and appeared to be associated with untreated populations in the St. Marys River. Excessive commercial fishing stemming from unresolved treaty rights also contributed to loss of spawning fish in northern Michigan waters. Seneca-strain lake trout did not appear to be attacked by sea lampreys until they reached a size > 532 mm. At sizes > 632 mm, Seneca trout were 40-fold more abundant than the Marquette strain in matched-planting experiments. Natural reproduction past the fry stage has occurred in Thunder Bay and South Bay, but prospects for self-sustaining populations of lake trout in the main basin are poor because sea lampreys are too abundant, only one side of the basin is stocked, and stocking is deferred to allow commercial gillnetting in areas where most of the spawning occurred historically. Backcross lake trout, a lake trout x splake (s. Fontinalis x s. Namaycush) hybrid, did not reproduce in Georgian Bay, but this genotype is being replaced with pure-strain lake trout, whose early performance appears promising.

Eshenroder, Randy L.; Payne, N. Robert; Johnson, James E.; Bowen, Charles, II; Ebener, Mark P.

1995-01-01

349

Hydroxylated PCBs and other chlorinated phenolic compounds in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) blood plasma from the Great Lakes region.  

PubMed

Recently, there has been an increase in studies focusing on an emerging class of organic contaminants, hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and chlorinated phenolic compounds (CPCs) in the environment, particularly in northern regions of Europe and Canada. Since information for fish from the Great Lakes are scarce, we determined the blood plasma concentrations of OH-PCB congeners, pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol (TCP), and 4-hydroxyheptachlorostyrene (4-OH-HpCS) for lake trout (Savelinus namaycush) collected from two of the Great Lakes, Lake Ontario and Lake Superior, and two regional lakes, Lake Champlain and Lake Opeongo. PCP was the dominant CPC in lake trout (105-658 pg/g of plasma). Detectable concentrations of 2,3,4,5-TCP and 4-OH-HpCS were found in all lake trout (2.6-101 and 0.4-27 pg/g, respectively). Highest concentrations were found in trout from Lake Ontario and Lake Superior. Sixteen OH-PCBs were quantified, with 4-OH-CB187 having the highest concentration in all samples (10-173 pg/g of plasma). Unexpectedly, highly chlorinated OH-PCBs such as 4'-OH-CB199 (mean 21.4 and 74.4 pg/g), 4,4'-diOH-CB202 (18.3 and 27.7 pg/g), and 4'-OH-CB208 (24.5 and 34.7 pg/g) were found in lake trout from Lake Ontario and Lake Superior, respectively. Future studies to delineate the sources and impacts of CPCs in the Great Lakes catchment are needed. PMID:12775040

Campbell, Linda M; Muir, Derek C G; Whittle, D Mike; Backus, Sean; Norstrom, Ross J; Fisk, Aaron T

2003-05-01

350

Experimental control of sea lampreys with electricity on the south shore of Lake Superior, 1953-60  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Electric devices of the type and design used are capable of blocking entire runs of adult sea lampreys. An accurate appraisal of the effectiveness of the barrier system is impossible, however. Most of the barriers were not operated long enough to reduce the contribution of parasites from the streams. Furthermore, a complete system of efficient electric barriers was never realized. The greatest weakness of this method of control lies in maintenance of the units in continuous, uninterrupted operation through consecutive migratory seasons.

McLain, Alberton L.; Smith, Bernard R.; Moore, Harry H.

1965-01-01

351

Microbial community of a hydrothermal mud vent underneath the deep-sea anoxic brine lake Urania (eastern Mediterranean).  

PubMed

The composition of a metabolically active prokaryotic community thriving in hydrothermal mud fluids of the deep-sea hypersaline anoxic Western Urania Basin was characterized using rRNA-based phylogenetic analysis of a clone library. The physiologically active prokaryotic assemblage in this extreme environment showed a great genetic diversity. Most members of the microbial community appeared to be affiliated to yet uncultured organisms from similar ecosystems, i.e., deep-sea hypersaline basins and hydrothermal vents. The bacterial clone library was dominated by phylotypes affiliated with the epsilon-Proteobacteria subdivision recognized as an ecologically significant group of bacteria inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal environments. Almost 18% of all bacterial clones were related to delta-Proteobacteria, suggesting that sulfate reduction is one of the dominant metabolic processes occurring in warm mud fluids. The remaining bacterial phylotypes were related to alpha- and beta-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroides, Deinococcus-Thermus, KB1 and OP-11 candidate divisions. Moreover, a novel monophyletic clade, deeply branched with unaffiliated 16S rDNA clones was also retrieved from deep-sea sediments and halocline of Urania Basin. Archaeal diversity was much lower and detected phylotypes included organisms affiliated exclusively with the Euryarchaeota. More than 96% of the archaeal clones belonged to the MSBL-1 candidate order recently found in hypersaline anoxic environments, such as endoevaporitic microbial mats, Mediterranean deep-sea mud volcanoes and anoxic basins. Two phylotypes, represented by single clones were related to uncultured groups DHVE-1 and ANME-1. Thus, the hydrothermal mud of hypersaline Urania Basin seems to contain new microbial diversity. The prokaryotic community was significantly different from that occurring in the upper layers of the Urania Basin since 60% of all bacterial and 40% of all archaeal phylotypes were obtained only from mud fluids. The uniqueness of the composition of the active prokaryotic community could be explained by the complex environmental conditions at the site. The interaction of oxygenated warm mud fluids with the cold hypersaline brine of the Urania Basin seems to simultaneously select for various metabolic processes, such as aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophy, sulfide- and methane-dependent chemotrophy along with anaerobic oxidation of methane, sulfate- and metal-reduction. PMID:17136435

Yakimov, Michail M; Giuliano, Laura; Cappello, Simone; Denaro, Renata; Golyshin, Peter N

2007-04-01

352

Microbial Community of a Hydrothermal Mud Vent Underneath the Deep-Sea Anoxic Brine Lake Urania (Eastern Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition of a metabolically active prokaryotic community thriving in hydrothermal mud fluids of the deep-sea hypersaline anoxic Western Urania Basin was characterized using rRNA-based phylogenetic analysis of a clone library. The physiologically active prokaryotic assemblage in this extreme environment showed a great genetic diversity. Most members of the microbial community appeared to be affiliated to yet uncultured organisms from similar ecosystems, i.e., deep-sea hypersaline basins and hydrothermal vents. The bacterial clone library was dominated by phylotypes affiliated with the epsilon- Proteobacteria subdivision recognized as an ecologically significant group of bacteria inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal environments. Almost 18% of all bacterial clones were related to delta- Proteobacteria, suggesting that sulfate reduction is one of the dominant metabolic processes occurring in warm mud fluids. The remaining bacterial phylotypes were related to alpha- and beta- Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroides, Deinococcus-Thermus, KB1 and OP-11 candidate divisions. Moreover, a novel monophyletic clade, deeply branched with unaffiliated 16S rDNA clones was also retrieved from deep-sea sediments and halocline of Urania Basin. Archaeal diversity was much lower and detected phylotypes included organisms affiliated exclusively with the Euryarchaeota. More than 96% of the archaeal clones belonged to the MSBL-1 candidate order recently found in hypersaline anoxic environments, such as endoevaporitic microbial mats, Mediterranean deep-sea mud volcanoes and anoxic basins. Two phylotypes, represented by single clones were related to uncultured groups DHVE-1 and ANME-1. Thus, the hydrothermal mud of hypersaline Urania Basin seems to contain new microbial diversity. The prokaryotic community was significantly different from that occurring in the upper layers of the Urania Basin since 60% of all bacterial and 40% of all archaeal phylotypes were obtained only from mud fluids. The uniqueness of the composition of the active prokaryotic community could be explained by the complex environmental conditions at the site. The interaction of oxygenated warm mud fluids with the cold hypersaline brine of the Urania Basin seems to simultaneously select for various metabolic processes, such as aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophy, sulfide- and methane-dependent chemotrophy along with anaerobic oxidation of methane, sulfate- and metal-reduction.

Yakimov, Michail M.; Giuliano, Laura; Cappello, Simone; Denaro, Renata; Golyshin, Peter N.

2007-04-01

353

Whiting in Lake Michigan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

354

U. S. FEDERAL FISHERY RESEARCH ON THE GREAT LAKES  

E-print Network

lampreys and the expanded Great Lakes Fishery Investigations, 1948-1951 6 The sea lamprey program 6 Research on the sea lamprey 7 Ecology of the sea lamprey 7 Laboratory studies of development, growth

355

Downstream migration of recently transformed sea lampreys before and after treatment of a Lake Michigan tributary with a lampricide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

After the Pere Marquette River was treated with a lampricide in May 1964, the number of recently transformed sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) collected in the water-intake structure of a chemical plant near the mouth of the stream dropped 99.5%, from 13,913 (average for 1962-63 and 1963-64) to 76 (average for the next four migration seasons). Average length of the lampreys caught increased markedly after the treatment. In five of the six migration seasons, the catch of downstream migrants was higher in the fall than in the spring.

Hodges, John W.

1972-01-01

356

Assessment of Trace Element Levels in Muscle Tissues of Fish Species Collected from a River, Stream, Lake, and Sea in Sakarya, Turkey  

PubMed Central

Levels of some trace and essential elements, including Al, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn, were determined in 17 different fish species from Sakarya River, ark Stream, Sapanca Lake, and Western Black Sea using ICP-OES after microwave (MW) digestion procedure. During preparation of samples for analysis, wet and MW digestion methods were also compared. Accuracy of the digestion methods was checked by the analysis of DORM-3 reference material (Fish Protein Certified Reference Material for Trace Metals). Concentrations of trace elements were found as Al: 6.548.5, B: 0.063.30, Ba: 0.092.92, Cr: 0.021.64, Cu: 0.132.28, Fe: 7.2839.9, Mn: 0.0811.4, Ni: 0.0126.1, Sr: 0.1713.5, and Zn: 11.552.9?g?g?1. The obtained results were compared with other studies published in the literature. Trace element levels in various fish species collected from waters in Sakarya region were found to be below limit values provided by Turkish Food Codex (TFC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and World Health Organization (WHO). PMID:24790570

Kpeli, Tlay; Altunda?, Hseyin; ?mamo?lu, Mustafa

2014-01-01

357

Multilevel eEmpirical Bayes modeling for improved estimation of toxicant formulations tosuppress parasitic sea lamprey in the Upper Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estimation of extreme quantal-response statistics, such as the concentration required to kill 99.9% of test subjects (LC99.9), remains a challenge in the presence of multiple covariates and complex study designs. Accurate and precise estimates of the LC99.9 for mixtures of toxicants are critical to ongoing control of a parasitic invasive species, the sea lamprey, in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. The toxicity of those chemicals is affected by local and temporal variations in water chemistry, which must be incorporated into the modeling. We develop multilevel empirical Bayes models for data from multiple laboratory studies. Our approach yields more accurate and precise estimation of the LC99.9 compared to alternative models considered. This study demonstrates that properly incorporating hierarchical structure in laboratory data yields better estimates of LC99.9 stream treatment values that are critical to larvae control in the field. In addition, out-of-sample prediction of the results of in situ tests reveals the presence of a latent seasonal effect not manifest in the laboratory studies, suggesting avenues for future study and illustrating the importance of dual consideration of both experimental and observational data.

Hatfield, Laura A.; Gutreuter, Steve; Boogaard, Michael A.; Carlin, Bradley P.

2011-01-01

358

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-print Network

's personal copy Exotic species in Lake Champlain J. Ellen Marsden a, , Michael Hauser b,1 a Rubenstein School: Invasion vector Canals Lake Champlain Great Lakes Exotic The Lake Champlain basin contains substantially recently (2008), the Asian clam was discovered two locks below Lake Champlain. The Lake Champlain canals

Marsden, Ellen

359

Mercury contamination in the Laurentian Great Lakes region: introduction and overview.  

PubMed

The Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America contains substantial aquatic resources and mercury-contaminated landscapes, fish, and wildlife. This special issue emanated from a bi-national synthesis of data from monitoring programs and case studies of mercury in the region, here defined as including the Great Lakes, the eight U.S. states bordering the Great Lakes, the province of Ontario, and Lake Champlain. We provide a retrospective overview of the regional mercury problem and summarize new findings from the synthesis papers and case studies that follow. Papers in this issue examine the chronology of mercury accumulation in lakes, the importance of wet and dry atmospheric deposition and evasion to regional mercury budgets, the influence of land-water linkages on mercury contamination of surface waters, the bioaccumulation of methylmercury in aquatic foods webs; and ecological and health risks associated with methylmercury in a regionally important prey fish. PMID:22000118

Wiener, James G; Evers, David C; Gay, David A; Morrison, Heather A; Williams, Kathryn A

2012-02-01

360

Glacial Lake Chicago Early Lake Michigan  

E-print Network

= 640 feet above sea level Shoreline was uneven with several inlets, peninsulas and offshore islands #12 of Glenwood Phase Two-Creeks Phase 12.2-11.8 kya Lake level was low Determined in 1905 when submerged spruce was older than the Calumet shoreline Water level was lower than Calumet Stage 1982 ­ another submerged

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

361

Archaeal and Bacterial Communities Respond Differently to Environmental Gradients in Anoxic Sediments of a California Hypersaline Lake, the Salton Sea ?  

PubMed Central

Sulfidic, anoxic sediments of the moderately hypersaline Salton Sea contain gradients in salinity and carbon that potentially structure the sedimentary microbial community. We investigated the abundance, community structure, and diversity of Bacteria and Archaea along these gradients to further distinguish the ecologies of these domains outside their established physiological range. Quantitative PCR was used to enumerate 16S rRNA gene abundances of Bacteria, Archaea, and Crenarchaeota. Community structure and diversity were evaluated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), quantitative analysis of gene (16S rRNA) frequencies of dominant microorganisms, and cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA. Archaea were numerically dominant at all depths and exhibited a lesser response to environmental gradients than that of Bacteria. The relative abundance of Crenarchaeota was low (0.4 to 22%) at all depths but increased with decreased carbon content and increased salinity. Salinity structured the bacterial community but exerted no significant control on archaeal community structure, which was weakly correlated with total carbon. Partial sequencing of archaeal 16S rRNA genes retrieved from three sediment depths revealed diverse communities of Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota, many of which were affiliated with groups previously described from marine sediments. The abundance of these groups across all depths suggests that many putative marine archaeal groups can tolerate elevated salinity (5.0 to 11.8% [wt/vol]) and persist under the anaerobic conditions present in Salton Sea sediments. The differential response of archaeal and bacterial communities to salinity and carbon patterns is consistent with the hypothesis that adaptations to energy stress and availability distinguish the ecologies of these domains. PMID:19948847

Swan, Brandon K.; Ehrhardt, Christopher J.; Reifel, Kristen M.; Moreno, Lilliana I.; Valentine, David L.

2010-01-01

362

Archaeal and bacterial communities respond differently to environmental gradients in anoxic sediments of a California hypersaline lake, the Salton Sea.  

PubMed

Sulfidic, anoxic sediments of the moderately hypersaline Salton Sea contain gradients in salinity and carbon that potentially structure the sedimentary microbial community. We investigated the abundance, community structure, and diversity of Bacteria and Archaea along these gradients to further distinguish the ecologies of these domains outside their established physiological range. Quantitative PCR was used to enumerate 16S rRNA gene abundances of Bacteria, Archaea, and Crenarchaeota. Community structure and diversity were evaluated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), quantitative analysis of gene (16S rRNA) frequencies of dominant microorganisms, and cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA. Archaea were numerically dominant at all depths and exhibited a lesser response to environmental gradients than that of Bacteria. The relative abundance of Crenarchaeota was low (0.4 to 22%) at all depths but increased with decreased carbon content and increased salinity. Salinity structured the bacterial community but exerted no significant control on archaeal community structure, which was weakly correlated with total carbon. Partial sequencing of archaeal 16S rRNA genes retrieved from three sediment depths revealed diverse communities of Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota, many of which were affiliated with groups previously described from marine sediments. The abundance of these groups across all depths suggests that many putative marine archaeal groups can tolerate elevated salinity (5.0 to 11.8% [wt/vol]) and persist under the anaerobic conditions present in Salton Sea sediments. The differential response of archaeal and bacterial communities to salinity and carbon patterns is consistent with the hypothesis that adaptations to energy stress and availability distinguish the ecologies of these domains. PMID:19948847

Swan, Brandon K; Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Reifel, Kristen M; Moreno, Lilliana I; Valentine, David L

2010-02-01

363

Solar Lakes and Solar Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

POR1 recently described the interesting discovery of a ``solar lake'' on the shores of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, 20 km south of Elat. Such a solar lake is characterized by a very sharp increase of salinity, and, consequently, of density with depth, with the result that a layer of high static stability is produced near the bottom. The

J. Neumann

1968-01-01

364

Recruitment Dynamics of the 19711991 Year-Classes of Lake Trout in Michigan Waters of Lake Superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1950s, populations of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Superior collapsed because of excessive exploitation and predation by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. Restoration began in the 1950s with the stocking of juvenile, hatchery-reared lake trout and controls on fisheries and sea lampreys. Partial restoration was declared in 1996 because wild fish made up most of the populations in

Jessica M. Richards; Michael J. Hansen; Charles R. Bronte; Shawn P. Sitar

2004-01-01

365

Snow Clouds Stream off Lake Michigan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) true-color image of Lake Michigan shows a lake effect where clear dry air moves eastward from Wisconsin, picking up moisture as it traverses the lake and forming dense clouds by the time it reaches Lake Michigan's eastern shore. The scene was acquired on January 17, 2002. Note the newly-fallen snow that covers Wisconsin, Michigan, and northern Illinois. The southern edge of the snow line extends to just south of the Chicago area. Chicago sits on the southwestern shore of Lake Michigan. Except for cloudy areas in the west and east and around Lake Superior, the entire Canadian portion of the broader image can be seen to be snow covered as well. Lake Winnipeg (upper left) and James Bay (upper right of center) are frozen over. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

366

Application of the inundation arealake level rating curves constructed from the SRTM DEM to retrieving lake levels from satellite measured inundation areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing technology has great potential for measuring lake inundation areas and lake levels, and providing important lake water quantity and quality information which can be used for improving our understanding of climate change impacts on the global water cycle, and assessing the influence of the projected future climate change on the global water resources. One remote sensing approach is to estimate lake level from satellite measured inundation area based on the inundation arealake level rating (IALLR) curves. However, this approach is not easy to implement because of a lack of data for constructing the IALLR curves. In this study, an innovative and robust approach to construct the IALLR curves from the digital elevation model (DEM) data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was developed and tested. It was shown that the IALLR curves derived from the SRTM DEM data could be used to retrieve lake level from satellite measured inundation area. Applying the constructed IALLR curve to the estimated inundation areas from 16 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images, 16 lake levels of Lake Champlain in Vermont were obtained. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the estimated lake levels compared to the observed water levels at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gauging station (04294500) at Burlington, Vermont is about 0.12 m.

Pan, Feifei; Liao, Jingjuan; Li, Xinwu; Guo, Huadong

2013-03-01

367

Predicting minimum habitat characteristics for the Indiana bat in the Champlain Valley  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Predicting potential habitat across a landscape for rare species is extremely challenging. However, partitioned Mahalanobis D2 methods avoid pitfalls commonly encountered when surveying rare species by using data collected only at known species locations. Minimum habitat requirements are then determined by examining a principal components analysis to find consistent habitat characteristics across known locations. We used partitioned D 2 methods to examine minimum habitat requirements of Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) in the Champlain Valley of Vermont and New York, USA, across 7 spatial scales and map potential habitat for the species throughout the same area. We radiotracked 24 female Indiana bats to their roost trees and across their nighttime foraging areas to collect habitat characteristics at 7 spatial scales: 1) roost trees, 2) 0.1-ha circular plots surrounding the roost trees, 3) home ranges, and 4-7) 0.5-km, 1-km, 2-km, and 3-km buffers surrounding the roost tree. Roost trees (n = 50) typically were tall, dead, large-diameter trees with exfoliating bark, located at low elevations and close to water. Trees surrounding roosts typically were smaller in diameter and shorter in height, but they had greater soundness than the roost trees. We documented 14 home ranges in areas of diverse, patchy land cover types that were close to water with east-facing aspects. Across all landscape extents, area of forest within roost-tree buffers and the aspect across those buffers were the most consistent features. Predictive maps indicated that suitable habitat ranged from 4.7-8.1% of the area examined within the Champlain Valley. These habitat models further understanding of Indiana bat summer habitat by indicating minimum habitat characteristics at multiple scales and can be used to aid management decisions by highlighting potential habitat. Nonetheless, information on juvenile production and recruitment is lacking; therefore, assessments of Indiana bat habitat quality in the region are still incomplete.

Watrous, K.S.; Donovan, T.M.; Mickey, R.M.; Darling, S.R.; Hicks, A.C.; Von Oettingen, S. L.

2006-01-01

368

Quaternary Science Reviews 23 (2004) 13131332 Ice-dammed lakes and rerouting of the drainage of northern  

E-print Network

, e.g. toward the Caspian Sea, formed south of these ice sheets. Some lakes are reconstructed from, and that way to the Caspian Sea. Climate modelling shows that the lakes caused lower summer temperatures

Möller, Per

369

77 FR 30891 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Saint Albans...all waters of Cumberland Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Plattsburgh...Paddling Boat Race. Sponsor: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. Date:...

2012-05-24

370

78 FR 35135 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...all waters of Cumberland Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Plattsburgh...Paddling Boat Race. Sponsor: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. Date: July...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Button...

2013-06-12

371

33 CFR 100.120 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events Held in the Coast Guard Sector Northern New England...  

...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Saint Albans...all waters of Cumberland Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Plattsburgh...Paddling Boat Race. Sponsor: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. ...

2014-07-01

372

HumanWildlife Interactions 8(1):2230, Spring 2014 Influence of egg oiling on colony presence  

E-print Network

-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) within the Lake Champlain basin, Vermont, during the nesting season, human­wildlife conflicts, Lake Champlain, Larus delawarensis, nesting colony, ring-billed gull, Vermont, plant communities on Lake Champlain islands have been affected

373

77 FR 25472 - Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the Environmental Impact Statement for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Harlem and East Rivers, Lake Champlain, and their tributaries. A copy...NY and extend south through Lake Champlain for approximately 101 miles...of exiting the southern end of Lake Champlain at the Village of...

2012-04-30

374

76 FR 30255 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Saint Albans...all waters of Cumberland Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Plattsburgh...Paddling Boat Race. Sponsor: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. Date:...

2011-05-25

375

33 CFR 165.171 - Safety Zones for fireworks displays and swim events held in Coast Guard Sector Northern New...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...includes all waters of Malletts Bay on Lake Champlain, Vermont within the following...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain between Thompson's Point...all waters of Treadwell Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Point...

2013-07-01

376

33 CFR 100.120 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events Held in the Coast Guard Sector Northern New England...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Saint Albans...all waters of Cumberland Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Plattsburgh...Paddling Boat Race. Sponsor: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. ...

2011-07-01

377

Lake Trout Status in the Main Basin of Lake Huron, 19732010  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed indices of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush status in the main basin of Lake Huron (19732010) to understand increases in the relative abundance of wild year-classes during 19952010. Sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus wounds per 100 lake trout declined from 23.63 in 2000 to 5.8610.64 in 20022010. The average age-7 lake trout catch per effort per recruitment (CPE\\/R; fish305 m

Ji X. He; Mark P. Ebener; Stephen C. Riley; Adam Cottrill; Adam Kowalski; Scott Koproski; Lloyd Mohr; James E. Johnson

2012-01-01

378

Fish community change in Lake Superior, 19702000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Changes,in Lake Superiors fish community,are reviewed,from 1970 to 2000. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and lake whitefish (Coregonus,clupeaformis) stocks have increased substantially and may,be approaching ancestral states. Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) have also recovered, but under sporadic recruitment. Contaminant levels have declined and are in equilibrium with inputs, but toxaphene levels are higher than in all other Great Lakes. Sea

Charles R. Bronte; Mark P. Ebener; Donald R. Schreiner; David S. DeVault; Michael M. Petzold; Douglas A. Jensen; Carl Richards; Steven J. Lozano

2003-01-01

379

Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Erie: a case history  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.

Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger

1995-01-01

380

Sea Lamprey, an Invasive Fish  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Invasive sea lamprey prey on commercially important fish species such as lake trout, living off of the blood and body fluids of adult fish. It is one of many fish species that USGS scientists study from the USGS Research Vessel Muskie.These lamprey belong to the Great Lakes Fisheries Com...

381

Sea Lamprey, an Invasive Fish  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Invasive sea lamprey prey on commercially important fish species such as lake trout, living off of the blood and body fluids of adult fish. It is one of many fish species that USGS scientists study from the USGS Research Vessel Muskie.These lamprey belong to the Great Lakes Fisheries Commissio...

382

Deglaciation chronology, sea-level changes and environmental changes from Holocene lake sediments of Germania Havn S, Sabine , northeast Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Germania Havn S is located at the outermost coast of northeastern Greenland. According to radiocarbon dating, the lake basin was deglaciated in the early Holocene, around 11,000 cal yr BP. At that time the lake was a marine bay, but the lake was isolated soon after deglaciation at ~ 10,600 cal yr BP. The marine fauna was species-poor, indicating harsh conditions with a high sedimentation rate and lowered salinity due to glacial meltwater supply. The pioneer vegetation around the lake was dominated by mosses and herbs. Deposition of relatively coarse sediments during the early Holocene indicates erosion of the newly deglaciated terrain. Remains of the first woody plant (Salix herbacea) appear at 7600 cal yr BP and remains of other woody plants (Salix arctica, Dryas octopetala, Cassiope tetragona and Empetrum nigrum) appear around one millennium later. Declining concentrations of D. octopetala and the caddis fly Apatania zonella in the late Holocene probably imply falling summer temperatures. Only moderate changes in the granulometric and geochemical record during the Holocene indicate relatively stable environmental settings in the lake, which can probably be explained by its location at the outer coast and the buffering effect of the neighboring ocean.

Bennike, Ole; Wagner, Bernd

2012-07-01

383

Tapping rocks for Terror Lake hydro project  

SciTech Connect

The Terror Lake hydro project in Alaska is described. Terror Lake is a small alpine lake surrounded by barren glacier-scoured, rocky mountain tops and plateaus that do not retain moisture. The method for obtaining more water for the hydro project in Kodiak is unique. The basic program was to dam up the outlet of Terror Lake and raise the water level 170 ft. from approximately 1250 ft. above sea level to 1420 ft. Although the megawatt output of the project is small, the concept of the Terror Lake Project has an epic scale to it.

Sieber, O.V.

1983-12-01

384

Laurance LakeLaurance Lake Lost LakeLost Lake  

E-print Network

Lost Lake gler2frnh2hm owerdle2hm Hood River Subbasin 1:200,000 Bull Trout Rainbow Cutthroat BarrierHood River Odell Parkdale Laurance LakeLaurance Lake Lost LakeLost Lake gler2frnh2hm owerdle2hm HoodRiver NealCreek DogRive r Evans Creek TonyCreek Eagle Creek LaddCreek W e st Fork H ood River La ke

385

In situ determination of the annual thermal habitat use by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Huron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Records of the temperatures occupied by 33 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) at large in Lake Huron were obtained for up to 14 months per fish, at 75-minute intervals, from surgically implanted archival temperature tags. The dataset covered nearly three years, from October 1998 to June 2001, and included 160,000 observations. The objectives of the tagging were to obtain temperature data to refine bioenergetics models of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation on lake trout, and compare the temperatures occupied by strains of lake trout stocked in Lake Huron. The seasonal, thermal-use profiles of lake trout followed the general warming and cooling pattern of Lake Huron. During periods when the zone of surface water mixing extended below the depth range occupied by lake trout, variability among individual fish and strains was low and followed surface temperature. However, during the period of summer stratification, the average temperatures occupied varied substantially among individual fish and strains. Strains originating from the upper Great Lakes (Lake Superior and Lewis Lake, WY) occupied similar temperatures. Between June and mid August, upper Great Lakes lake trout typically occupied water several degrees warmer than that occupied by lake trout of Finger Lakes, New York origin. Most of the lake trout occupied summer temperatures lower than the preferred temperatures suggested by laboratory studies. In October, all strains occupied water as warm or warmer than that occupied in summer, which may partially explain the higher lethality of sea lamprey attacks during October.

Bergstedt, Roger A.; Argyle, Ray L.; Seelye, James G.; Scribner, Kim T.; Curtis, Gary L.

2003-01-01

386

SEA TURTLES Sea Turtles  

E-print Network

317 SEA TURTLES UNIT 24 Sea Turtles Unit 24 PROTECTED RESOURCES STAFF NMFS Office of Protected are listed as endangered. The authority to protect and conserve sea turtles in the marine environment for protection of sea turtles, their eggs, and hatchlings on land (nesting beaches). SPECIES AND STATUS Sea

387

Dynamics of the Lake Michigan food web, 1970?2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herein, we document changes in the Lake Michigan food web between 1970 and 2000 and identify the fac- tors responsible for these changes. Control of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) populations in Lake Michigan, beginning in the 1950s and 1960s, had profound effects on the food web. Recoveries of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and burbot (Lota lota)

Charles P. Madenjian; Gary L. Fahnenstiel; Thomas H. Johengen; Thomas F. Nalepa; Henry A. Vanderploeg; Guy W. Fleischer; Philip J. Schneeberger; Darren M. Benjamin; Emily B. Smith; James R. Bence; Edward S. Rutherford; Dennis S. Lavis; Dale M. Robertson; David J. Jude; Mark P. Ebener

2002-01-01

388

Sediment-current interactions at Valcour Island, Lake Champlain--A case of helical flow in the bottom boundary layer  

SciTech Connect

Sediment furrows have been documented in diverse environments. In all cases they are morphologically similar exhibiting long, linear parallel troughs oriented with the dominant bottom current direction. The similar nature of their morphology suggests that they form as a result of a long-term interaction between the sediment surface and bottom current flow. Thus furrows are maintained in regions where bottom currents are sufficiently stable in direction and of high flow rates. Previous studies suggest that furrow formation is controlled by secondary circulation within the bottom boundary layer which localize erosion at flow convergence on the bed. Once established, the furrow field and flow reinforce this secondary circulation pattern. Thus the trough continues to exist by the resuspension of finer grained sediment and abrasion by coarser debris concentrated within the trough. Sediment furrows were documented by side-scan sonar surveys near the long-term current meter mooring east of Valcour Island. The furrows are located in 63 m of water. Their widths range from 4 to 8 m while inter-furrow spacing varies from 10 to 30 m. Grain size of surface bottom sediments ranged from silty mud (5.48[phi]) near the mooring site to very fine sand (3.4[phi]) in the south end of the survey area. The furrow orientations are consistent with the typical north-south flow observed within this region. Although still under investigation, it appears that the bottom moored current meter at Valcour Island (during the summer months of 1991) documented the secondary flow pattern within the bottom boundary layer.

Manley, P.L.; Manley, T.O. (Middlebury College, VT (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-03-01

389

Reconsideration of EPAs Approval of Vermonts 2002 Lake Champlain Phosphorus Total Maximum Daily  

E-print Network

Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (Act) requires states to identify waters that do not or are not expected to meet applicable water quality standards after imposition of technology-based controls alone. In that event, the waters are considered impaired, and must be identified or listed under Section 303(d) of the Act. Once such waters are identified, states are to develop TMDLs for any pollutant that is causing the impairment, at a level necessary to attain and maintain the applicable state water quality standards with seasonal variations and a margin of safety that accounts for any lack of knowledge concerning the relationship between effluent limitations and water quality. The total maximum daily load that applies to a water segment is the sum of the load allocations (LA) of pollutants from nonpoint sources, the wasteload allocations (WLA) of pollutants from point sources, and a margin of safety. 1 See 40 C.F.R. 130.2(g)-(i), 130.2(c)(1). Once the public has had the opportunity to review and comment on such TMDLs, states are required to submit the TMDLs to EPA for review and approval. If EPA disapproves a TMDL, it must then establish the TMDL at the level necessary to implement the applicable water quality standards and the state must incorporate the TMDL into its continuing planning process.

A. Statutory; Regulatory Background

2011-01-01

390

INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE CAUSES OF AMPHIBIAN MALFORMATIONS IN THE LAKE CHAMPLAIN BASIN OF NEW ENGLAND (AWARDED PROJECT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The concurrent geographic extent and rate of amphibian malformations appear to have markedly increased above background levels in recent years in many states and Canadian provinces as documented by the North American Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations (www.npwrc.usgs.go...

391

Taconic foreland basin evolution: Sedimentology and cement stratigraphy of the Black River Group limestones in the Champlain Basin  

SciTech Connect

The Black River Group (Middle Ordovician, Mohawkian Series) limestones in the Champlain Basin record the transition between the shallow deposits of the underlying Chazy Group limestones and the shale-limestone couplets of the overlying Trenton Group which record rapid deepening of the foreland basin. The Black River Group was deposited in a subsiding foreland basin during the early stages of the Taconic Orogeny. Syn-depositional block faulting as a result of thrust loading has been demonstrated to affect Chazy and Trenton Group deposition. Abrupt lithofacies changes within the Black River Group record the dynamic bathymetry present in the Champlain Basin during its deposition. The Black River Group helps refine the timing of extensional block faulting during the Taconic Orogeny. The Black River Group in the Champlain Basin is a relatively thin unit, approximately 80 feet thick at Crown Point, New York. Exposures between Crown Point, NY and South Hero Island, VT record deposition of the Black River Group limestones in a protected lagoonal environment, with an evolving fringing pellet shoal barrier complex. Eight lithofacies are defined, grading from a basal sandstone and/or a sandy dolomite, to a micrite to biomicrite, to an intra-pelsparite of a shoal environment. Intraclast horizons and broken, rounded marine allochems suggest the influence of storm activity as a modifier of depositional history. Rapid deepenings into the normal marine subtidal environment, as well as micro-karst textures and fossil beach rock exposures are interpreted to represent sudden bas level changes, possibly from syndepositional block fault movement. Although dynamic bathymetry influences the stratigraphy within the Black River Group, a macro-scale deepening upwards on a formation scale is present, representing subsidence of the foreland basin.

Bechtel, S.C.; Mehrtens, C.J. (Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-03-01

392

Sea Grant: Enhancing K-12 Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sea Grant is a major contributor to marine and aquatic education in K-12 classrooms through curriculum development, teacher education, school programs at field sites, and educational research. Describes Sea Grant's efforts in these areas. Specific programs outlined include Operation Pathfinder, Ohio Sea Grant Partnerships for Great Lakes

Fortner, Rosanne W.

1998-01-01

393

Aral Sea Evaporation (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Aral Sea is actually not a sea at all, but an immense fresh water lake. In the last thirty years, more than sixty percent of the lake has disappeared because much of the river flow feeding the lake was diverted to irrigate cotton fields and rice paddies. Concentrations of salts and minerals began to rise in the shrinking body of water, leading to staggering alterations in the lakes ecology and precipitous drops in the Arals fish population. Powerful winds that blow across this part of Asia routinely pick up and deposit the now exposed lake bed soil. This has contributed to a significant reduction in breathable air quality, and crop yields have been appreciably affected due to heavily salt laden particles falling on arable land. This series of Landsat images taken in 1973, 1987 and 2000 show the profound reduction in overall area at the north end of the Aral, and a commensurate increase in land area as the floor of the sea now lies exposed.

Joycelyn Thomson

2005-02-15

394

Sedimentary records of environmental evolution in the Sanmen Lake Basin and the Yellow River running through the Sanmenxia Gorge eastward into the sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of independent faulted basins developed in the present middle reaches of the Yellow River during late Cenozoic, among\\u000a which the Sanmen Lake Basin is located in the east edge of the Loess Plateau, a transitional zone between the second and third\\u000a macromorphological step of China. The thick strata of the Sanmen Group deposited in the large basin. The

Sumin Wang; Xihao Wu; Zhenke Zhang; Fuchu Jiang; Bin Xue; Guobang Tong; Guoqiang Tian

2002-01-01

395

Lake Powell  

article title: Lake Powell View Larger Image ... (14.42 mb) This true-color image over Lake Powell was acquired by Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) in late March 2000. Lake Powell was formed with the construction of the Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, on the ...

2014-05-15

396

Lake Eyre  

... View Larger Image Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. ... the effect of sunglint at the nadir camera view angle. Dry, salt encrusted parts of the lake appear bright white or gray. Purple areas have ...

2013-04-16

397

CONNECTICUT LAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of named lakes in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes all lakes that are named on the U.S. Geologicial Survey (USGS) 7 minute topographic quadrangle maps that cover the State of Connecticut, plus other officially named lakes i...

398

Use of Sediment Quality Guidelines and pollution indicators for the assessment of heavy metal and PAH contamination in Greek surficial sea and lake sediments.  

PubMed

Eight different surface sediment samples (K1-K8) were collected from two separate areas of Lake Koumoundourou and two samples (E1 and E2) from one area of Elefsis Bay, Athens, Greece. The level of pollution attributed to heavy metals was evaluated using several pollution indicators. Degree of Contamination, Modified Contamination Degree and Geoaccumulation Indexes were applied in order to determine and assess the anthropogenic contribution of the selected six elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Pb). Moreover, the adverse effects of the sediments to aquatic organisms, from both heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were determined by using Sediment Quality Guidelines. The results indicated that Lake Koumoundourou is contaminated with heavy metals in a moderate degree and almost 50% of the sediments are associated with frequent observation of adverse effects, when it comes to Ni and occasional observation of adverse effects, when it comes to Cu, Zn and Pb. As far as PAHs are concerned, around 60% of the samples can be occasionally associated to toxic biological effects according to the effect-range classification for phenanthrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene and pyrene. Finally, samples taken from the north side of the lake are more contaminated with PAHs than the ones taken from the east side probably due to the existence of the water barrier which acts as a reservoir of PAHs. PMID:22821321

Hahladakis, John; Smaragdaki, Eleftheria; Vasilaki, Georgia; Gidarakos, Evangelos

2013-03-01

399

The Wandering Lake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the area at the very far eastern corner of China's Taklimakan Desert, Lop Nor Lake was located up until some years ago. Lop Nor, also called the 'the heart of the heart' of Asia, was the place where the waters of the largest inner basin (i.e., not flowing into the sea) of the world-including the Tarim and Kum-daria Rivers-were collected. Depending on the balance between rainfall water yield and evaporation, both position and size of the lake were strongly variable, thus giving rise to the legend of the Wandering Lake. 'Lop City' was the place where Marco Polo took his last rest before facing the one-year long crossing of the Gobi Desert. Starting from the end of the 19th century, several explorers tried to find the legendary place. One such explorer was Sven Hedin, who was commissioned by the Governor of Nanjing to lead an expedition to find the lake. In 1937, the Swedish explorer published his book entitled The Wandering Lake. Comparing this very precise map from Sven Hedin's book with the above Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) false-color image (acquired on October 28, 2001), one can find a faint sign on the soil where the Lop Nor was located. This image, derived using a combination of MODIS' near-infrared and red channels (vegetation in red), shows where the Tarim River waters currently end their flow. The Wandering Lake does not exist anymore. The combination of climate change and human exploitation of water resources for agriculture caused the disappearance of the lake. This image was processed by Telespazio, Earth Observation division, new products development facility in Rome, Italy. The MODIS sensor flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft, launched in December 1999. Caption and image courtesy Luca Pietranera, Telespazio, Rome, Italy, based on data from the MODIS Science Team

2002-01-01

400

The Great Lakes--At a Crossroads Edited by Joan Chadde,  

E-print Network

The Great Lakes--At a Crossroads Edited by Joan Chadde, Michigan Technological University/ Great Lakes Sea Grant Network I. The Great Lakes are essential to our economy and quality of life · The Great Lakes are the economic engine of the region. 40% of the Canadian and 15% of the US Gross Domestic

Honrath, Richard E.

401

EVOLUTION IN LAKE TAI ECOSYSTEMS AS A RESULT OF GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Large lakes evolve continuously through interaction with the physical, chemical, and biological environments of the surrounding watershed and lakes. ecent evidence from Lake Tai shows global climate and sea level changes led to a major change in Lake Tai from brackish to a freshw...

402

Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations in Lake Superior and their restoration in 1959-1993  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Naturally-reproducing populations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) have been re-established in most of Lake Superior, but have not been restored to 1929-1943 average abundance. Progress toward lake trout restoration in Lake Superior is described, management actions are reviewed, and the effectiveness of those actions is evaluated; especially stocking lake trout as a tool for building spawning stocks, and subsequently, populations of wild recruits. Widespread destruction of lake trout stocks in the 1950s due to an intense fishery and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation resulted in lower overall phenotypic diversity than was previously present. Stocking of yearling lake trout, begun in the 1950s, produced high densities of spawners that reproduced wherever inshore spawning habitat was widespread. Sea lampreys were greatly reduced beginning in 1961, using selective chemical toxicants and barrier dams, but continue to exert substantial mortality. Fishery regulation was least effective in Wisconsin, where excessive gillnet effort caused high by catch of lake trout until 1991, and in eastern Michigan, where lake trout restoration was deferred in favor of a tribal fishery for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in 1985. Restoration of stocks was quicker in offshore areas where remnant wild lake trout survived and fishing intensity was low, and was slower in inshore areas where stocked lake trout reproduced successfully and fishing intensity was high. Inshore stocks of wild lake trout are currently about 61% of historic abundance in Michigan and 53% in Wisconsin. Direct comparison of modern and historic abundances of inshore lake trout stocks in Minnesota and Ontario is impossible due to lack of historic stock assessment data. Stocks in Minnesota are less abundant at present than in Michigan or Wisconsin, and stocks in Ontario are similar to those in Michigan. Further progress in stock recovery can only be achieved if sea lampreys are depressed and if fisheries are constrained further than at present.

Hansen, Michael J.; Peck, James W.; Schorfhaar, Richard G.; Selgeby, James H.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Schram, Stephen T.; Swanson, Bruce L.; MacCallum, Wayne R.; Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.; Curtis, Gary L.; Heinrich, John W.; Young, Robert J.

1995-01-01

403

EVALUATION OF THE ROLE OF SEA SALT IMPUTS IN THE LONG-TERM ACIDIFICATION OF COASTAL NEW ENGLAND LAKES (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Input of neutral salt (NaCl) from sea spray, followed by Na(sup +)-H(sup +) exchange within the soil exchange complex, has been proposed as an important factor in surface water acidification of coastal areas. This hypothesis was tested on a regional basis by comparing the Na:Cl r...

404

Observations of salt particles in the atmosphere in the vicinity of an inland salt lake: Lake Eyre, South Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Eyre is an ephemeral salt lake in arid country 400 km from the sea. The contributions to the total atmospheric aerosol sodium from sea-salt and lake-salt were determined close to the lake over a four-day sampling period in May 1984. Measurements at the lake site detected significant salt aerosol of marine origin. No conclusive evidence for significant lake-derived salt aerosol was obtained. Coincidence scintillation spectrometry was used to detect and assign sources to the particles. The salt was identified as marine in origin from the Na/K ratios for single particles greater than 0.4 ?m radius and from the similarity of concentration versus mass plots for aerosol at Lake Eyre to plots of marine aerosol over the ocean and at cloud levels in central Queensland, Australia. Back trajectory analyses for air parcels reacing the sampling site during the experiment confirmed that the sampling site was not down wind of the lake and supported the conclusion that despite the proximity of the lake the salt aerosols detected were in fact marine. Over the sampling period the average mass loading of sea-salt in the air at 2 m above ground was 0.55 ?g m -3. The estimated 400 million tons of NaCl in the lake is readily accounted for by deposition of sea salt within the lake catchment area, over a relatively short time.

Clark, N. J.; Smith, Rodney B.

405

Population Dynamics of Lake Ontario Lake Trout during 19852007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were extirpated from Lake Ontario circa 1950 owing to commercial and recreational fishing, predation by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus, and habitat degradation. Since the 1970s, substantial efforts have been devoted to reestablishing a self-sustaining population through stocking, sea lamprey control, and harvest reduction. Although a stocking-supported population has been established, only limited natural reproduction has been

Travis O. Brenden; James R. Bence; Brian F. Lantry; Jana R. Lantry; Ted Schaner

2011-01-01

406

Hydrologic considerations in dewatering and refilling Lake Carlton : Orange and Lake Counties, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lake Carlton straddles the line between Lake and Orange Counties in central Florida. The 382-acre lake is highly eutrophic and subject to virtually perpetual algal blooms. The Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission has proposed to restore the lake to a less eutrophic state by dewatering the lake long enough to allow the muck on its bottom to dry and compact. Lake Carlton would be permanently sealed off from Lake Carlton. On the assumption that the seasonal rainfall would be normal, and that the dewatering phase would begin on March 1, the predicted time required to dewater the lake at a pumping rate of 50,000 gpm (gallons per minute) is 21 days. The average rate of pumping required to maintain the lake in a dewatered condition is computed to be 2,400 gpm. If pumping is ended May 31, the predicted altitude to which the lake would recover by October 31 as a result of net natural input is 56.2 feet above sea level. Raising the lake level to 63 feet above sea level by October 31 would require that the net natural input be supplemented at an average rate of about 4,860 gpm between May 31 and October 31. (Woodard-USGS)

Anderson, Warren; Hughes, G.H.

1977-01-01

407

Cornell University, Office of Sponsored Programs Awards Received in February 2004  

E-print Network

) ADOPTIVE PLACEMENTS FOR CHILDREN IN FOSTER CARE $43,761 GEA 40690 BAKER, DALE SEA GRANT EXT SUNY RF LAKE CHAMPLAIN SEA GRANT $66,802 KLH 41816 BAKER, DALE SEA GRANT EXT SUNY RF TIER-BASED MONITORING FOR TOXIC

Danforth, Bryan Nicholas

408

Gravity field over the Sea of Galilee: Evidence for a composite basin along a transform fault  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sea of Galilee (Lake Kinneret) is located at the northern portion of the Kinneret-Bet Shean basin, in the northern Dead Sea transform. Three hundred kilometers of continuous marine gravity data were collected in the lake and integrated with land gravity data to a distance of more than 20 km around the lake. Analyses of the gravity data resulted in

Zvi Ben-Avraham; Uri ten Brink; Robin Bell; Margaret Reznikov

1996-01-01

409

Modeling Lake Erie ice dynamics: Process studies , Haoguo Hu2  

E-print Network

modeling in Lake Erie (Wake and Rumer, 1979, 1983) based on Hibler's (1979) dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice efforts in coupled ice-ocean modeling in many subpolar seas and bays, such as in Hudson Bay (Wang et al with a viscous-plastic sea ice constitutive law (Hibler, 1979) and a multi-category ice thickness distribution

410

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE  

E-print Network

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE CAUTION! FISH LAKE SCAVANGER HUNT RED HEADED is another majestic bird of Fish Lake. These birds can be seen perched at Fish Lake. CLUB-TAIL DRAGONFLY INSECTS OF FISH LAKE There are A LOT

Minnesota, University of

411

Analyses of organic and inorganic contaminants in Salton Sea fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical contamination of fish from the Salton Sea, a quasi-marine lake in Southern California, could adversely impact millions of birds using the Pacific Flyway and thousands of humans using the lake for recreation. Bairdiella icistia (bairdiella), Cynoscion xanthulus (orangemouth corvina), and Oreochromis spp. (tilapia) were sampled from two river mouths and two nearshore areas of the Salton Sea. Muscle tissues

Ralf Riedel; Daniel Schlenk; Donnell Frank; Barry Costa-Pierce

2002-01-01

412

THE STATE OF SEA GRANT 2010  

E-print Network

Lakeshore, Lake Michigan (Michigan Sea Grant); A Taku Fisheries processing plant worker shows off a nice and Critical Control Point Plans and develop sanitation control procedures, both required by federal law (Kurt

413

Archaea in Yellowstone Lake  

PubMed Central

The Yellowstone geothermal complex has yielded foundational discoveries that have significantly enhanced our understanding of the Archaea. This study continues on this theme, examining Yellowstone Lake and its lake floor hydrothermal vents. Significant Archaea novelty and diversity were found associated with two near-surface photic zone environments and two vents that varied in their depth, temperature and geochemical profile. Phylogenetic diversity was assessed using 454-FLX sequencing (?51?000 pyrosequencing reads; V1 and V2 regions) and Sanger sequencing of 200 near-full-length polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clones. Automated classifiers (Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and Greengenes) were problematic for the 454-FLX reads (wrong domain or phylum), although BLAST analysis of the 454-FLX reads against the phylogenetically placed full-length Sanger sequenced PCR clones proved reliable. Most of the archaeal diversity was associated with vents, and as expected there were differences between the vents and the near-surface photic zone samples. Thaumarchaeota dominated all samples: vent-associated organisms corresponded to the largely uncharacterized Marine Group I, and in surface waters, ?6984% of the 454-FLX reads matched archaeal clones representing organisms that are Nitrosopumilus maritimus-like (9697% identity). Importance of the lake nitrogen cycling was also suggested by >5% of the alkaline vent phylotypes being closely related to the nitrifier Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. The Euryarchaeota were primarily related to the uncharacterized environmental clones that make up the Deep Sea Euryarchaeal Group or Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group-6. The phylogenetic parallels of Yellowstone Lake archaea to marine microorganisms provide opportunities to examine interesting evolutionary tracks between freshwater and marine lineages. PMID:21544103

Kan, Jinjun; Clingenpeel, Scott; Macur, Richard E; Inskeep, William P; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Gorby, Yuri; McDermott, Timothy R; Nealson, Kenneth

2011-01-01

414

LAKE FORK  

EPA Science Inventory

The Lake Fork of the Arkansas River Watershed has been adversely affected through mining, water diversion and storage projects, grazing, logging, and other human influences over the past 120 years. It is the goals of the LFWWG to improve the health of Lake fork by addressing th...

415

A coupled lake-atmosphere model (CLAM) and its application to Lake Kinneret  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinneret is a 166-km2 lake located in Northern Israel, in the central part of the Jordan Valley, a corridor running from north to south, between the Galilee hills in the west and the Golan Heights in the east. Both the Galilee hills and the Golan Heights reach an elevation of about 400 m above mean sea level (MSL), and the lake is about -210 m (MSL). North of the lake is the mountainous area of the Hermon, culminating at about 2800 m (MSL). About 120 km south of it is the Dead Sea, which is about -410 m (MSL), and about 45 km west of it is the Mediterranean Sea. The complexity of the terrain, combined with relatively arid soil and various ground covers surrounding the lake, results in a very complicated system of atmospheric and lake processes. To understand this system, especially the processes affecting the atmosphere and lake dynamics and thermodynamics, and their effects on Lake Kinneret evaporation, a coupled lake-atmosphere model (CLAM) was developed and applied to the lake region. The CLAM is based on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and the oceanic S-coordinate Rutgers University Model (SCRUM). Energy, mass, and momentum are conserved at the interface between the atmosphere and the lake, and appropriate balance equations are applied there. In the atmospheric module, two nested grids are employed to simulate Northern Israel at a resolution of 4 x 4 km2, and the near-lake region at a resolution of 1 x 1 km 2. Synoptic conditions obtained from the National Meteorological Center (NMC) reanalysis are assimilated by the model. Soil moisture, which appears to have a significant impact on atmospheric circulation in this region, was transformed from the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Observations collected during two summers above and inside the lake emphasize the good capability of CLAM to simulate surface fluxes and other microclimatic conditions, as well as lake temperature and currents. Although the lake is small (about 12-km wide and 22-km long), the micrometeorological conditions, lake currents and thermal structure, and the lake-surface heat fluxes vary spatially very significantly, even on a daily basis. It is found that the daily-mean wind curl, which is predominantly determined by the passage of the Mediterranean Sea breeze (MSB) over the lake, is mostly responsible for the gyres in the lake. The thermocline oscillation in the lake is mainly controlled by the surface elevation set up by the time-dependent winds. The intense MSB over the lake in the late afternoon pushes the heated surface water eastward, forces the deep, cooler water to be advected westward, and creates strong mixing in the lake, resulting in a higher temperature off the eastern shore and a lower temperature off the western shore. The variation of lake-surface temperature not only directly affects the atmospheric processes over the lake, but it also changes the wind field, which then influences hydrodynamic processes in the lake. An analytical model of the flow response to spatial variation of atmospheric cooling in coastal ocean was also developed in this study. This model is used to explain the contribution of the spatial variation of latent heat flux to the circulation in Lake Kinneret, and also the cyclonic flow, which is observed in many lakes and semi-enclosed coastal oceans.

Pan, Hai

1999-08-01

416

ANALYSES OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SALTON SEA FISH. (R826552)  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical contamination of fish from the Salton Sea, a quasi-marine lake in Southern California, could adversely impact millions of birds using the Pacific Flyway and thousands of humans using the lake for recreation. Bairdiella icistia (bairdiella), Cynoscion xanthul...

417

Variation of Great Lakes Water Levels Derived from Geosat Altimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for using satellite radar altimetry data to estimate the temporal variation of the water level in moderate to large lakes and enclosed seas is described. Great Lakes data from the first 2 years of the U.S. Navy's Geosat Exact Repeat Mission (November 1986 to November 1988), for which there is an improved orbit, are used to demonstrate the technique. The Geosat results are compared to the lake level data collected by the Great Lakes Section, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and are found to reproduce the temporal variations of the five major lakes with Root-Mean-Square error (RMS) ranging from 9.4 to 13.8 cm and a combined average of 11.1 cm. Geosat data are also analyzed for Lake St. Clair, representing a moderate-sized lake, with a resulting rms of 17.0 cm. During this study period, the water level in the Great Lakes varied in a typical annual cycle of about 0.2 m (0.5 in for Lake Ontario) superimposed on a general decline of approximately 0.5 m. The altimeter data reproduced the general decline reasonably well for all the lakes, but the annual cycle was obscured in some lakes due to systematic errors in the altimeter data. Current and future altimetry missions will have markedly improved accuracy which will permit many moderate (25 km diameter) or larger lakes or enclosed seas to be routinely monitored.

Morris, Charles S.; Gill, Stephen K.

1994-01-01

418

Asynchronous ice lobe retreat and glacial Lake Bascom: Deglaciation of the Hoosic and Vermont valleys, southwestern Vermont  

SciTech Connect

Deglaciation of the Hoosic River drainage basin in southwestern Vermont was more complex than previously described. Detailed surficial mapping, stratigraphic relationships, and terrace levels/delta elevations reveal new details in the chronology of glacial Lake Bascom: (1) a pre-Wisconsinan proglacial lake was present in a similar position to Lake Bascom as ice advanced: (2) the northern margin of 275m (900 ft) glacial Lake Bascom extended 10 km up the Vermont Valley; (3) the 215m (705 ft) Bascom level was stable and long lived; (4) intermediate water planes existed between 215m and 190m (625 ft) levels; and (5) a separate ice tongue existed in Shaftsbury Hollow damming a small glacial lake, here named glacial Lake Emmons. This information is used to correlate ice margins to different lake levels. Distance of ice margin retreat during a lake level can be measured. Lake levels are then used as control points on a Lake Bascom relative time line to compare rate of retreat of different ice tongues. Correlation of ice margins to Bascom levels indicates ice retreat was asynchronous between nearby tongues in southwestern Vermont. The Vermont Valley ice tongue retreated between two and four times faster than the Hoosic Valley tongue during the Bascom 275m level. Rate of retreat of the Vermont Valley tongue slowed to one-half of the Hoosic tongue during the 215m--190m lake levels. Factors responsible for varying rates of retreat are subglacial bedrock gradient, proximity to the Hudson-Champlain lobe, and the presence of absence of a calving margins. Asynchronous retreat produced splayed ice margins in southwestern Vermont. Findings from this study do not support the model of parallel, synchronous retreat proposed by many workers for this region.

Small, E.; Desimone, D. (Williams Coll., Williamstown, MA (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-03-01

419

The Discovery of Stromatolites Developing at 3570 m above Sea Level in a High-Altitude Volcanic Lake Socompa, Argentinean Andes  

PubMed Central

We describe stromatolites forming at an altitude of 3570 m at the shore of a volcanic lake Socompa, Argentinean Andes. The water at the site of stromatolites formation is alkaline, hypersaline, rich in inorganic nutrients, very rich in arsenic, and warm (2024C) due to a hydrothermal input. The stromatolites do not lithify, but form broad, rounded and low-domed bioherms dominated by diatom frustules and aragonite micro-crystals agglutinated by extracellular substances. In comparison to other modern stromatolites, they harbour an atypical microbial community characterized by highly abundant representatives of Deinococcus-Thermus, Rhodobacteraceae, Desulfobacterales and Spirochaetes. Additionally, a high proportion of the sequences that could not be classified at phylum level showed less than 80% identity to the best hit in the NCBI database, suggesting the presence of novel distant lineages. The primary production in the stromatolites is generally high and likely dominated by Microcoleus sp. Through negative phototaxis, the location of these cyanobacteria in the stromatolites is controlled by UV light, which greatly influences their photosynthetic activity. Diatoms, dominated by Amphora sp., are abundant in the anoxic, sulfidic and essentially dark parts of the stromatolites. Although their origin in the stromatolites is unclear, they are possibly an important source of anaerobically degraded organic matter that induces in situ aragonite precipitation. To the best of our knowledge, this is so far the highest altitude with documented actively forming stromatolites. Their generally rich, diverse and to a large extent novel microbial community likely harbours valuable genetic and proteomic reserves, and thus deserves active protection. Furthermore, since the stromatolites flourish in an environment characterized by a multitude of extremes, including high exposure to UV radiation, they can be an excellent model system for studying microbial adaptations under conditions that, at least in part, resemble those during the early phase of life evolution on Earth. PMID:23308236

Faras, Mara E.; Rascovan, Nicols; Toneatti, Diego M.; Albarracn, Virginia H.; Flores, Mara R.; Poir, Daniel G.; Collavino, Mnica M.; Aguilar, O. Mario; Vazquez, Martin P.; Polerecky, Lubos

2013-01-01

420

Lake Nipigon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These recent postings from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing's (CCRS) "Images of Canada" series provide an interesting introduction to remote sensing techniques and the history of landforms, both natural and human-made. The Landsat image of Ontario's Lake Nipigon, a name meaning "deep, clear lake," is viewable in two sizes and is accompanied by text and other remote images on the structural geology, rock types, recent forest fires, and forestry research around the lake. The CCRS was last mentioned in the May 24, 2000 Scout Report for Science and engineering.

2001-01-01

421

Satellite Altimetry for Monitoring Lake Level Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate and continuous monitoring of lakes and inland seas is possible since 1991 thanks to the recent missions of satellite altimetry (Topex-Poseidon, ERS-1, ERS-2, Jason-1 and Envisat). Global processing of the data of these satellites could provide temporal and spatial times series of lakes water level from 1991 to 2003 on the whole Earth with a decimeter precision. The response

J.-F. Cretaux; A. Kouraev; M. Berge-Nguyen; A. Cazenave; F. Papa

422

The Disappearing Aral Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In just 30 years, the Aral Sea has lost more than 60 percent of its water. Barring change, it may disappear entirely by 2020. In this visualization, satellite images dating from 1973 to 2000 show how water diverted from this inland lake for agriculture has caused it to shrink considerably over a short period of time. The feature can be run as an animation or as a series of slides. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

423

Characterizing groundwater-lake interactions and its impact on lake water quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemical tracers were used to investigate groundwater-lake interactions and to map nutrient concentrations within Georgetown Lake, a 1219 ha lake situated at 1960 m above sea level between two mountain ranges in western Montana. Radon-222 was used to identify locations and relative amounts of groundwater inflow to the lake, and nutrients were sampled to investigate the role of groundwater on nutrient dynamics occurring within the lake. Sampling primarily took place during late winter and early spring when the lake was frozen, stratified and relatively anoxic, and all lake samples were collected near the bottom of the lake. Radon concentrations in the lake varied spatially from less than 3.5-194.0 pCi/L. Radon results show that groundwater enters the lake through fractured Paleozoic karst limestone situated near a major thrust fault. No groundwater flows were noted on the western side of the lake, which is underlain by west-dipping Precambrian metasedimentary rocks. The western two-thirds of the lake is anoxic near the bottom of the water column with H2S and NH4+ concentrations as high as 1.99 mg/L and 4.0 mg/L respectively. Along the eastern side of the lake, H2S was absent and NH4+ was generally low, suggesting that groundwater inflows improve water quality. Pore water diffusion samplers show that there is an internal source of NH4+, H2S, and PO43- to the lake originating from decay of organic carbon in the lake sediments.

Shaw, Glenn D.; White, Elizabeth S.; Gammons, Christopher H.

2013-06-01

424

Metagenomic Sequencing of Two Salton Sea Microbiomes  

PubMed Central

The Salton Sea is the largest inland body of water in California, with salinities ranging from brackish freshwater to hypersaline. The lake experiences high nutrient input, and its surface water is exposed to temperatures up to 40C. Here, we report the community profiles associated with surface water from the Salton Sea. PMID:24459270

Hawley, Erik R.; Schackwitz, Wendy

2014-01-01

425

Metagenomic sequencing of two salton sea microbiomes.  

PubMed

The Salton Sea is the largest inland body of water in California, with salinities ranging from brackish freshwater to hypersaline. The lake experiences high nutrient input, and its surface water is exposed to temperatures up to 40C. Here, we report the community profiles associated with surface water from the Salton Sea. PMID:24459270

Hawley, Erik R; Schackwitz, Wendy; Hess, Matthias

2014-01-01

426

75 FR 12233 - New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Receipt of Petition and Tentative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Champlain Canal, which leads north to Lake Champlain, a large waterbody that is a...transient traffic. The NYS side of Lake Champlain (a waterbody that has already...located on the New York side of Lake Champlain which is already...

2010-03-15

427

Introduction to the Great Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reference information on this site discusses one of the youngest natural features on the North American continent, the Great Lakes. Covering more than 94,000 square miles and draining more than twice as much land, these freshwater seas hold an estimated 6 quadrillion gallons of water, about one-fifth of the world's fresh surface water supply and nine-tenths of the U.S. supply. Students will discover that the Great Lakes watershed includes part or all of eight U.S. states (Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York) and the Canadian province of Ontario. The site offers a page of information on each lake, including descriptions and statistics.

428

Hydrology, water quality, and nutrient loads to Lake Catherine and Channel Lake, near Antioch, Lake County, Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From April 21, 1998, through April 30, 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Fox Waterway Agency, conducted an investigation designed to characterize the hydrology, water quality, hydrologic budget, sediment budget, and nutrient budget of Lake Catherine and Channel Lake, Lake County, Illinois. These lakes are the northernmost lakes of the Fox Chain of Lakes. Lake Catherine and Channel Lake are divided into two basins by a submerged ridge but are continuous at the surface. The lakes are marginally to moderately eutrophic. Lake Catherine and Channel Lake have a combined volume of 7,098 acre-feet at a stage of about 736.5 feet above sea level. Lake Catherine and Channel Lake are subject to thermal stratification. Although most of the water in the lakes is well oxidized, nearly anoxic conditions were present at the bottom of Lake Catherine and Channel Lake during part of the summer in 1998. Water enters Lake Catherine and Channel Lake as inflow from surface water in the watershed (61.9 percent), inflow through the State Highway 173 bridge openings (20.7 percent), direct precipitation (8.2 percent), inflow from storm drains (7.2 percent), and inflow of ground water (2.0 percent). Water exits Lake Catherine and Channel Lake as outflow through the State Highway 173 bridge openings (87.8 percent), evaporation (7.2 percent), and as outflow to ground water (5.0 percent). About 5,200 pounds of phosphorus and 107,200 pounds of nitrogen compounds were added to the lakes during the period of investigation. Phosphorus compounds were derived from primarily internal regeneration (40.2 percent), inflow from surface water in the watershed (30.9 percent), inflow from storm drains (12.5 percent), and inflow through the State Highway 173 bridge openings (9.8 percent). Inflowing ground water, waterfowl excrement, precipitation, and atmospheric deposition of particulate matter account for 6.6 percent of the phosphorus load. Nitrogen was derived from inflow of surface water from within the watershed (52.9 percent), internal regeneration (19.5 percent), inflow through the State Highway 173 bridge openings (10.7 percent), precipitation (7 percent), and inflow from storm drains (6.5 percent). Inflowing ground water, waterfowl excrement, and atmospheric deposition of particulate matter account for about 3.4 percent of the nitrogen load. About 2,220 pounds of phosphorus and 52,300 pounds of nitrogen compounds are removed from the lakes, primarily through the openings at State Highway 173. Nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and dissolved phosphorus are utilized by algae and aquatic macrophytes. Uptake of these nutrients by aquatic macrophytes and algae temporarily removes them from the water column but not from the lake basin. Because the amount of nutrients entering the lake greatly exceeds the amount leaving, the nutrients are concentrated in the sediments at the lake bottom, where the nutrients can be used by the rooted aquatic macrophytes (rooted aquatic plant large enough to be visible to the unaided eye) and released to the water column during reducing conditions. The buildup of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in the lakes has the potential over time to stimulate algal and plant growth to nuisance levels that have the potential to affect the fishery and detract from the aesthetic quality of these lakes.

Kay, Robert T.; Johnson, Gary P.; Schrader, David L.

2000-01-01

429

Variability of transparent organic particles in Arctic floodplain lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mackenzie River in the North American Arctic courses into the Beaufort Sea, the outlet of a watershed that drains a vast swath of the western Canadian landscape. At the river's mouth the Mackenzie Delta is a broad floodplain peppered with roughly 45,000 lakes carved into the permafrost. Depending on their connectivity to the river, these floodplain lakes have different mixtures of organic compounds, and such differences affect carbon cycling and sediment processes in the lakes.

Schultz, Colin

2013-02-01

430

Automatic Temporal Tracking of Supra-Glacial Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the recent years, supra-glacial lakes in Greenland have attracted extensive global attention as they potentially play an important role in glacier movement, sea level rise, and climate change. Previous works focused on classification methods and individual cloud-free satellite images, which have limited capabilities in terms of tracking changes of lakes over time. The challenges of tracking supra-glacial lakes automatically

Y. Liang; Q. Lv; D. W. Gallaher; D. Fanning

2010-01-01

431

Biology of penaeid prawns in the Suez Canal lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made from January 1988 to March 1989 of the penaid prawns in the Great Bitter Lake and Lake Timsah located in the central part of the Suez Canal. Two species of Red Sea origin were investigated,Metapenaeus stebbingi andTrachypenaeus curvirostris; the former is by far the commoner. Both species displayed seasonal breeding over the period April to October,

A. A.-F. A. Gab-Alla; R. G. Hartnoll; A.-F. Ghobashy; S. Z. Mohammed

1990-01-01

432

Low-Head Barrier Dams Restrict the Movements of Fishes in Two Lake Ontario Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Lakes Fishery Commission (GLFC) is considering greater use of low-head barrier dams on stream tributaries of the Laurentian Great Lakes to control populations of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. The impact of these barriers on nontarget fishes is not known. A markrecapture study on four Lake Ontario streams examined movements of fishes in streams with (barrier) and without (reference)

L. M. Porto; R. L. McLaughlin; D. L. G. Noakes

1999-01-01

433

Groundwater Contribution to Central Asia Lakes Water Supplies and Water Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Asia Lakes area (the Aral Sea, the Balkhash Lake, the Issyk-Kul Lake, etc.) is the most convincing example of the development of the desertification process in the arid zone, the specific features of which depend on the current structural dynamic condition of economy, the trend and degree of use of the natural (water) resources. This area is a

E. A. Kontar; A. Yu. Tkachev; D. V. Nikiforov

434

Nannoplankton of Marine Origin from Great Bear Lake in the Northwest Territories of Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

GREAT Bear Lake is situated on the Arctic Circle at a point where the Pre-Cambrian Shield emerges from the adjoining Cretaceous formations. The present lake surface is 143 m above sea level, and because the maximum depth is 542 m there is a cryptodepression of 309 m. The shape of the lake could be described as amoeboid with five arms

A. S. Bursa; L. Johnson

1967-01-01

435

The diatom flora of the Salton Sea, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on diatom species of the Salton Sea, a highly saline (43 g l-1) inland lake in California. We identified and photographed all diatom taxa encountered in the phytoplankton and benthos of the Salton Sea and its immediate tributaries. Ninety-four taxa were distinguished based on their morphological features using light- and electron microscopy. In the Salton Sea, there are

Carina B. Lange; Mary Ann Tiffany

2002-01-01

436

Principles of lake sedimentology  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index.

Janasson, L.

1983-01-01

437

Investigating sedimentary rock deposition and weathering in Mawikwe Bay Sea Caves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A field investigation to the Mawikwe Bay Sea Caves of northern Wisconsin along Lake Superior in the winter. Students will investigate deposition of sedimentary rocks and weathering of the rocks to produce sea caves.

438

This article was downloaded by: [J. Ellen Marsden] On: 23 January 2013, At: 13:04  

E-print Network

://www.tandfonline.com/loi/utaf20 Lake Whitefish Diet, Condition, and Energy Density in Lake Champlain and the Lower Four Great Density in Lake Champlain and the Lower Four Great Lakes following Dreissenid Invasions, Transactions, and Energy Density in Lake Champlain and the Lower Four Great Lakes following Dreissenid Invasions Seth J

Marsden, Ellen

439

Salton, A Sea of Controversy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Salton Sea is an “accidental” lake that receives used irrigation water from the Colorado River. Humans have profoundly altered the area’s ecosystems. The Salton Sea is important for wildlife and recreation, but is now saltier than the ocean. How might it be saved? This case examines the Salton Sea’s problems and uncertain future. The case would be suitable for introductory environmental, biology, geography and geology classes, and courses dealing with land use, water resources, agriculture, birds or fish, ecosystems, and government policy.

Vessey, Kristin B.

1999-01-01

440

Lake Powell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The white ring around Lake Powell tells the story. The surface is down 98 feet. This is critical, because Powell, Lake Mead, and other lakes along the Colorado River provide water for millions of people in five states. We are in the eighth year of a drought on the Colorado River. This year was the driest year ever reported in Southern California, and there is a severe drought in Northern California, down to less than 30-percent of snow pack. This ASTER image of part of Lake Powell was acquired in 2001. The gray area depicts the shrunken, reduced 2007 lake extent compared to the extended, larger black area in 2001.

The image covers an area of 24 x 30 km, and is centered near 37.1 degrees north latitude, 111.3 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2007-01-01

441

Hg Deposition to Lakes in Northern New England Inferred at Multiple Scales From 210Pb-Dated Sediment Cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury (Hg) contamination of aquatic systems is recognized to be a problem of global consequence, and Hg bioaccumulation poses significant risks to piscivorous animals and humans who consume gamefish. In order to quantify historical and current Hg deposition to the northern New England landscape, we dated and performed Hg analyses on sediments cores from various lakes at local and regional scales. In this presentation, we contrast results of three studies: a regional assessment of Hg deposition to the VT-NH landscape (10 lakes); a localized study of deposition to the Lye Brook Wilderness of southern VT (four lakes); and the first-ever dated assessment of sediment Hg deposition history for Lake Champlain (three sites + one adjacent inland lake). At the VT-NH scale, total Hg (HgT) fluxes to sediments ranged from 5 to 17 ? g.m-2.yr-1 during pre-industrial times, and from 21 to 83 ? g.m-2.yr-1 presently. Present-day HgT fluxes are between 2.1 to 6.9 times greater than pre-1850 fluxes, and atmospheric Hg deposition to the VT-NH region was estimated at 21 ? g.m-2.yr-1. This agrees well with measured HgT deposition, when re-evasion of Hg is accounted for. Hg fluxes to lake sediments have declined in recent decades, owing to reductions in atmospheric Hg deposition to the lake surfaces. In the high-elevation Lye Brook Wilderness landscape, baseline, peak, and present accumulations were higher than those estimated from the VT-NH dataset, a finding that highlights the roles of elevation, watershed size, and dissolved organic carbon export in mediating Hg transport. Available data from the Lake Champlain Basin show the influence of historical and current watershed sediment delivery due to land cultivation, and more recently to land-use conversion. These studies jointly indicate that watershed export of legacy Hg continues despite declines in present-day deposition rates, contributing to the impression that Hg retention by watershed soils has declined.

Kamman, N. C.; Engstrom, D.

2004-05-01

442

Uplift of the Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The north-west region of the Europe (the Baltic shield) has the well-known phenomena of the postglacial uplift. Parameters of this uplift were evaluated many times in various projects (e.g. Baltic Sea Level, BIFROST), from permanent GPS station data, and by tide gauge recordings and repeated precise levelling. In addition to the general uplift pattern that is centered at the northern part of the Gulf of Bothnia (~10 mm/year) and smoothly reduced towards the edge of the Baltic shield, an additional maximum (up to ~7 mm/year) at the north of the Lake Ladoga was anticipated by geodetic leveling (Kakkuri, Poutanen 1997) and by GPS observations (Prilepin et al. 2002). A new data of permanent and campaign-wise GPS observations during 1999-2009 were used to estimate the uplift values in the area of Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega. The height component of GPS points near these lakes have anomalous large uplift values (3 - 6 mm/year) centered to the north of Lake Ladoga. In this determination, permanent IGS and EPN stations in SE Finland and Russia have their expected values of uplift for this region (2 - 5 mm/year). The horizontal components of these points have the usual east-northeast trend. References Kakkuri J., Poutanen M., 1997. Geodetic determination of the surface topography of the Baltic Sea. Marine Geodesy, vol. 20, 4, 1-10. Prilepin, M. T., Mishin, A. V., Kaban, M. K., Baranova, S. M. (2002) Study of the Baltic Shield Geodynamics from GPS data. Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth, vol. 38, 9, 756-764.

Galaganov, O.; Guseva, T.; Rosenberg, N.; Gorshkov, V.; Scherbakova, N.; Poutanen, M.

2010-05-01

443

The birth and death of lakes on young landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ongoing land uplift caused by postglacial isostatic rebound creates strong landscape-age gradients alongside the Gulf of Bothnia, northern Scandinavia. Lakes are continuously generated on this dynamic landscape as the uplift isolates bays from sea inundation. However, concomitant with this process older lakes are lost as the basins are filled with sediments, creating a continuum of lake ages on the landscape. We studied the lake size and depth distributions and lake densities, along an age gradient covering 0-4500 years. Map data on the density, area, and elevation of lakes were combined with field-based measurements of maximum basin depth. We find that young lake populations are densely distributed and dominated by small and shallow lakes. Over time, small and shallow lakes are lost by complete sediment filling, resulting in lower lake density and a shift in size and depth distributions towards larger, deeper lakes. Since lake filling is a universal process, we propose that these findings can be generalized to other gradients in landscape age.

Englund, GRan; Eriksson, HKan; Nilsson, Mats B.

2013-04-01

444

Sea Turtles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea World informational resource on all eight species of sea turtles. Excellent introduction to sea turtles including information on their classification, habitat, diet, reproduction, and much more. Includes photographs and illustrations throughout. Features two teaching activities for grades K-2.

445

Lake Sihwa tidal power plant project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Tidal Power Plant (TPP) is being constructed in the middle section of the existing Lake Sihwa dike located near the southern Incheon Port in Korea. The project, which will be completed in 2010, is to harness the largest tidal energy in the Kyeonggi Bay in the eastern Yellow Sea. While noting the current progress in terms of plant construction,

Young Ho Bae; Kyeong Ok Kim; Byung Ho Choi

2010-01-01

446

Global Change in the Great Lakes: Scenarios.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ohio Sea Grant Education Program has produced this series of publications designed to help people understand how global change may affect the Great Lakes region. The possible implications of global change for this region of the world are explained in the hope that policymakers and individuals will be more inclined to make responsible decisions

Garrison, Barbara K., Ed.; Rosser, Arrye R., Ed.

447

Epidemiology of great lakes bald eagles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical data are provided to support the hypothesis that organochlorine chemicals introduced into the Great Lakes ecosystem following World War II are the cause of reproductive loss among bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the basin. This is supported with data on concurrent population fluxes of extrabasin North American bald eagle populations and the European white?tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicillus.) where

Theo Colborn

1991-01-01

448

Iceberg Lake  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On Iceberg Lake in Glacier National Park, ice from the glacier is breaking up and melting at a rapid rate. Cold, glacier fed waters provide crucial habitat for native aquatic species such as trout, and as the ice is disappearing, so are the ideal habitats to sustain native ecosystems. ...

449

Lake Victoria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from "The Biodiversity Crisis: Losing What Counts", provides insight into how human behavior has put one of the world's largest ecosystems close to death. It covers the astonishingly diverse cichlid species that live only in Lake Victoria and changes to the ecosystem brought about by the introduction of a non-native species.

450

Great Lakes Information Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Great Lakes Information Network (GLIN) is a partnership that has compiled information relating to the binational Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region of North America. Sections of the site include an overview of the Great Lakes, the environment of the Great Lakes, the economy of the Great Lakes, education, maps and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and tourism.

2007-10-26

451

Great Lakes Information Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Great Lakes Information Network (GLIN) is a partnership that has compiled information relating to the binational Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region of North America. Sections of the site include an overview of the Great Lakes, the environment of the Great Lakes, the economy of the Great Lakes, education, maps and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and tourism.

452

Changing Planet: Warming Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The video addresses impact of warming temperatures on major lakes of the world with specific focus on Lake Superior and Lake Tanganyika. It discusses the science of water stratification and its impact on lake ecosystems and on human populations whose livelihoods depend on the lakes.

Windows to the Universe/NBC Learn

453

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-print Network

whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Lake Champlain Seth J. Herbst 1 , J. Ellen Marsden Rubenstein School from 151 lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from Lake Champlain, 2009. Mean and systematic evaluation of precision and bias of age structures for Lake Champlain's unexploited lake whitefish population

Marsden, Ellen

454

This article was downloaded by: [J. Ellen Marsden] On: 28 December 2011, At: 07:04  

E-print Network

://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ujfm20 Lake Whitefish in Lake Champlain after Commercial Fishery Closure and Ecosystem Changes Seth J and Wildlife Service, Lake Champlain Fish and Wildlife Resources Office, 11 Lincoln Street, Essex Junction this article: Seth J. Herbst, J. Ellen Marsden & Stephen J. Smith (2011): Lake Whitefish in Lake Champlain

Marsden, Ellen

455

Thermal, mixing, and oxygen regimes of the Salton Sea, California, 19971999  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Salton Sea is a shallow (mean depth = 8 m; maximum depth = 15 m), saline (4145 g l-1), intermittently mixing, 57 km long, 980 km2 lake located in the arid southwestern United States. The Sea is a wind driven system, with predominant winds paralleling the long axis of the lake, being strongest in spring and weakest in summer

James M. Watts; Brandon K. Swan; MaryAnn Tiffany; Stuart H. Hurlbert

2001-01-01

456

Sea Grant and Invasive Aquatic Plants: A National Outreach Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Sea Grant College Program is a NOAA-fund- ed, university-based research and outreach program located in universities in 30 coastal and Great Lake states and Puerto Rico. With a primary mission to \\

HEATHER M. CRAWFORD; DOUGLAS A. JENSEN; BARBARA PEICHEL; PATRICE M. CHARLEBOIS; BARBARA A. DOLL; STRATFORD H. KAY; VICTOR A. RAMEY

457

Harvest and Relative Abundance of Siscowet Lake Trout in  

E-print Network

Abstract.Siscowet, a deepwater morphotype of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush and the top predator in Lake Superior, currently makes up most of the lake trout biomass in this lake. Anecdotal accounts indicate that siscowets made up