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1

76 FR 43698 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FWS-R5-FHC-2011-N135; 53330-1335-0000-J3] Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives...announce a meeting of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives...Designated Federal Officer, Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control...

2011-07-21

2

75 FR 82061 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FWS-R5-FHC-2010-N045; 53330-1335-0000-J3] Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives...announce a meeting of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives...The meeting will be held at the Lake Champlain Basin Program/Vermont Fish...

2010-12-29

3

Variable Marine Reservoir Effect in Bivalves From Champlain Sea Sediments in the Lake Champlain Valley, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Champlain Sea was an inland sea that existed in the St. Lawrence lowlands and Lake Champlain Valley of eastern North America during the last deglaciation. At the beginning of its formation the Champlain Sea was in contact with the retreating Laurentide Ice Sheet, although the ice margin eventually retreated beyond the sea's extent. Its only connection to the open

J. A. Rayburn; T. M. Cronin; P. L. Manley; D. A. Franzi; P. L. Knuepfer

2006-01-01

4

Movement of Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) are a nuisance aquatic species in the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain that have devastated native fish populations and hampered the restoration of sport fisheries. This study examined inter-basin movement of sea lamprey in Lake Champlain to identify tributaries that contribute parasitic-phase sea lamprey and provide information for prioritizing those tributaries for sea lamprey control. A

Eric A. Howe; J. Ellen Marsden; Wayne Bouffard

2006-01-01

5

Sea Lamprey Control in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1990, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and state agencies initiated an 8-year experimental sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program on Lake Champlain to reduce parasitic phase sea lamprey and increase sport fish survival and growth. Twenty-four 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) treatments were conducted on 13 tributary systems, and nine Bayluscide treatments were conducted on five deltas. Most tributaries

J. Ellen Marsden; Brian D. Chipman; Lawrence J. Nashett; Jon K. Anderson; Wayne Bouffard; Lance Durfey; John E. Gersmehl; William F. Schoch; Nicholas R. Staats; Adam Zerrenner

2003-01-01

6

Discriminating natal origin of spawning adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in Lake Champlain using statolith elemental signatures  

E-print Network

Discriminating natal origin of spawning adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in Lake Champlain Petromyzon marinus Statolith microchemistry Natal origin Lake Champlain Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a nuisance species in the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain. Information about tributary contributions

Marsden, Ellen

7

75 FR 54163 - Office of the Secretary: Renewal of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Secretary: Renewal of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives...reestablished the charter for the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives...alternative to lampricides in Lake Champlain. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

2010-09-03

8

Predictive Morphometric Relationships for Estimating Fecundity of Sea Lampreys from Lake Champlain and Other  

E-print Network

Predictive Morphometric Relationships for Estimating Fecundity of Sea Lampreys from Lake Champlain lampreys in Lake Champlain, we sampled 29 female sea lampreys (mean length ¼ 456 mm [range ¼ 364­550 mm based on wet weight alone. Sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus are a nuisance species in Lake Champlain

Marsden, Ellen

9

Extension Assistant Professor in Watershed Science, Policy, and Education Lake Champlain Sea Grant  

E-print Network

Extension Assistant Professor in Watershed Science, Policy, and Education Lake Champlain Sea Grant University of Vermont Lake Champlain Sea Grant (LCSG) is seeking an Extension Assistant Professor to serve, businesses and other stakeholders in the Lake Champlain Basin to make informed decisions regarding

Hayden, Nancy J.

10

Variable Marine Reservoir Effect in Bivalves From Champlain Sea Sediments in the Lake Champlain Valley, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Champlain Sea was an inland sea that existed in the St. Lawrence lowlands and Lake Champlain Valley of eastern North America during the last deglaciation. At the beginning of its formation the Champlain Sea was in contact with the retreating Laurentide Ice Sheet, although the ice margin eventually retreated beyond the sea's extent. Its only connection to the open ocean was through the relatively narrow Gulf of St. Lawrence. The Champlain Sea must have had significant salinity stratification because it received freshwater runoff from the ice margin, Adirondack Mountains of New York State, and the Green Mountains of Vermont, as well as the entire discharge from the Great Lakes in the west. Age estimates for the Champlain Sea have traditionally been based on an abundance of bivalve and other marine fossils collected throughout the region; however, more recent studies based on terrestrial organic radiocarbon ages indicate that the Champlain Sea may be at least 500 - 1000 years younger than suggested by bivalve ages. We will present paired radiocarbon ages on terrestrial organic material and bivalve shells showing that a simple reservoir correction cannot be applied for all Champlain Sea bivalve ages. Hiatella arctica shells deposited in water depths of less than 100 m appear to be 500 - 800 14C years too old. Portlandia arctica shells deposited in water depths of greater than 200 m appear to be 1000 - 1500 14C years too old. The difference may be related to salinity stratification. Macoma balthica shells appear to be 1500 - 2000 14C years too old, possibly because they are filter feeders and were taking up old carbon from carbonate rich sediment.

Rayburn, J. A.; Cronin, T. M.; Manley, P. L.; Franzi, D. A.; Knuepfer, P. L.

2006-12-01

11

A life cycle approach to modeling sea lamprey population dynamics in the Lake Champlain basin to evaluate alternative control strategies  

E-print Network

A life cycle approach to modeling sea lamprey population dynamics in the Lake Champlain basin Population dynamics Lake Champlain Density dependence Fishery management Matrix modeling Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a nuisance species in the Laurentian Great Lakes and Lake Champlain that has

Marsden, Ellen

12

Movement of Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain Basin Eric A. Howe1, J. Ellen Marsden1,*, and Wayne Bouffard2  

E-print Network

Movement of Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain Basin Eric A. Howe1, J. Ellen Marsden1,*, and Wayne 05405 2U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lake Champlain Fish and Wildlife Resources Office 11 Lincoln species in the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain that have devastated native fish populations and hampered

Marsden, Ellen

13

Lake Trout Reproduction in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were driven to extirpation in Lake Champlain in the early 1900s. Possible causes include overharvest, predation on adults by sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, and predation on fry by rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax. Efforts to restore a lake trout fishery began in 1972 when a coordinated stocking program was initiated. Attempts to control sea lamprey populations

Brian J. Ellrott; J. Ellen Marsden

2004-01-01

14

Predation on emergent lake trout fry in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rehabilitation of extirpated lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain has been hindered by various biological and physiological impediments. Efforts to restore a lake trout fishery to Lake Champlain include hatchery stocking and sea lamprey control. Despite these management actions, there is little evidence of recruitment of naturally-produced fish in annual fall assessments. Spawning occurs

Jacob W. Riley; J. Ellen Marsden

2009-01-01

15

Evaluation of the Native Status of Sea Lampreys in Lake Champlain Based on Mitochondrial DNA Sequencing Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus parasitize a variety of recreationally, commercially, and ecologically important fishes in the north temperate Atlantic Ocean and some inland waters of North America, including the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain. This has resulted in the development of international, provincial, and state programs to suppress their abundance in some of these waters. This effort, in part,

John R. Waldman; Cheryl Grunwald; Isaac Wirgin

2006-01-01

16

Lake Champlain Maritime Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in the town of Vergennes, Vermont, the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum offers a lively interpretation of the maritime past and present in and around Lake Champlain. The materials on the site are divided into sections that include "Education", "Our Fleet", Shipwrecks & History", and "Ship's Store". The "Education" area is a good place to start, and it contains links to archived shipwreck webcasts and information for educators. Moving on, the "Shipwrecks & History" area features some of the Museum's Underwater Cultural Resources Survey Report and a brief narrative essay on the history of the Champlain Valley. Visitors with a scholarly bent may wish to check out the "Maritime Research Institute" area. Here they will find information about internships at the Institute and they can also read about the ongoing work at their conservation lab.

17

Exotic species in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lake Champlain basin contains substantially fewer exotic species (N=48) than the Great Lakes (N>180), in part due to its isolation from commercial traffic. Exotic species have been introduced by authorized and unauthorized stocking, bait buckets, use of ornamental plants, and through the Champlain and Chambly canals that link the lake to the Hudson River, Mohawk River, Erie Canal, and

J. Ellen Marsden; Michael Hauser

2009-01-01

18

76 FR 12129 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...regarding the implementation of sea lamprey control methods alternative to lampricides, to recommend priorities for research to be control methods alternative to lampricides, to recommend priorities for research to be conducted by cooperating...

2011-03-04

19

Impacts of post-glacial lake drainage events and revised chronology of the Champlain Sea episode 13-9??ka  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lithologic, CHIRP (Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse) sonar, paleomagnetic, stable isotopic and micropaleontological analyses of sediment cores from Lake Champlain (New York, Vermont) were used to determine the age of the post-glacial Champlain Sea marine episode, the timing of salinity changes and their relationship to freshwater discharge from mid-continent glacial lakes. Calibrated radiocarbon ages on plant material provide an improved post-glacial chronology overcoming problems from shell ages caused by carbon reservoir effects up to 1500??yr. The final drainage of glacial Lake Vermont and the inception of marine conditions occurred ??? 13.1-12.8??ka (kiloannum, calendar years) and a sharp decrease in Champlain Sea salinity from ??? 25 to 7-8??psu (practical salinity units) occurred approximately 11.4-11.2??ka. Reduced salinity was most likely caused by rapid freshwater inflow eastward from glacial Lake Algonquin into the Champlain Basin. The timing of inferred freshwater event coincides with the widespread climatic cooling called the Preboreal Oscillation.

Cronin, T. M.; Manley, P.L.; Brachfeld, S.; Manley, T.O.; Willard, D.A.; Guilbault, J.-P.; Rayburn, J.A.; Thunell, R.; Berke, M.

2008-01-01

20

Glacial Lake Outflow via the St. Lawrence Pathway Prior to the Champlain Sea Invasion and During the Younger Dryas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the Laurentide Ice Sheet receded north of the Adirondacks, Glacial Lake Frontenac overflowed to Glacial Lake Vermont (Coveville phase)-Albany. The water level of Lake Frontenac fell by about 90 m, as a result of the drawdown, glacio-isostatic rebound and outflow of Lake Vermont-Albany through the Hudson Valley to the North Atlantic Ocean. Lake level stabilized to form the Belleville, Upper Fort-Ann, post-Sherbrooke phase of glacial lakes post-Iroquois, Vermont and Memphremagog, respectively. Initially, the confluent fresh-water body extended from the Lake Ontario basin into the upper St. Lawrence Valley, Lake Champlain basin and along the Appalachian piedmont. The outlet of the lake was the Upper Fort-Ann sill, along the Hudson pathway (Lake Albany). The expansion of the lake was time transgressive and related to the regional ice retreat. As the lake expanded across the lowlands, into the Ottawa and central St. Lawrence valleys, and along the Appalachian piedmont, its level fell by about 20 m, from the Belleville to the Trenton strandlines on the western side of the Adirondacks, and about 26 m (Rayburn, 2004) from the Upper to the Lower Fort-Ann strandlines in the Lake Champlain basin. The extent of the lake during its final stage is estimated at about 30,000 km2. Varves deposited in the deeper parts of the lake are characterized by the ostracode Candona subtriangulata. Varve counts from several reference sections provide an approximate duration for the glaciolacustrine phase in different parts of the lowlands. They range from about 50 to 30 yr in the lower Ottawa Valley, where the estimated depth was 180 to 200 m, about 100 yr along the Appalachian piedmont and, tentatively, to more than 160 yr in the Lake Champlain basin (Rayburn et al., 2005). The lake overflowed/drained suddenly to the east, toward the western arm of the Goldthwait Sea, in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence, and hence into the North Atlantic Ocean. During this event, the water level fell by about 50 to 40 m to the highest strandline of the Champlain Sea. The timing and volume of this fresh-water discharge are quantified to allow assessment of its potential impact on the thermohaline circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean, and whether it could have triggered the cold Younger Dryas episode. The overflow occurred within a one-year span between 11.2 and 10.9 14C ka BP or 13.2 and 12.85 cal ka BP, close to the onset of the Younger Dryas cold interval. The total freshwater outflow through the St. Lawrence pathway comprised the one-year overflow phase (about 1500 km3), an early mixing phase of fresh and marine waters in the Champlain Sea domain (about 400 km3 for several years), a rapid collapse of the ice margin in the lowlands during about 250 yr and, during the Younger Dryas, several outburst floods from glacial Lake Algonquin into the Champlain Sea through the middle Ottawa Valley.

Occhietti, S.; Anderson, T. W.; Karrow, P. F.; Lewis, M. C.; Mott, R. J.; Parent, M.; Richard, P. J.; Rodrigues, C. G.; Stea, R.

2005-12-01

21

33 CFR 117.993 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.993 Section 117...Requirements Vermont 117.993 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2010-07-01

22

33 CFR 117.797 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.797 Section 117...Requirements New York 117.797 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2011-07-01

23

33 CFR 117.797 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.797 Section 117...Requirements New York 117.797 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2010-07-01

24

33 CFR 117.797 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.797 Section 117...Requirements New York 117.797 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2013-07-01

25

33 CFR 117.993 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.993 Section 117...Requirements Vermont 117.993 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2013-07-01

26

33 CFR 117.993 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.993 Section 117...Requirements Vermont 117.993 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2014-07-01

27

33 CFR 117.797 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.797 Section 117...Requirements New York 117.797 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2014-07-01

28

33 CFR 117.797 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.797 Section 117...Requirements New York 117.797 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2012-07-01

29

33 CFR 117.993 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.993 Section 117...Requirements Vermont 117.993 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2012-07-01

30

33 CFR 117.993 - Lake Champlain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Champlain. 117.993 Section 117...Requirements Vermont 117.993 Lake Champlain. (a) The drawspan for...US2 Bridge, mile 91.8, over Lake Champlain, between South Hero Island...

2011-07-01

31

78 FR 14444 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Champlain, Swanton, VT  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Champlain, Swanton, VT AGENCY: Coast...Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Champlain, Swanton, VT'' in the Federal...reads as follows: Sec. 117.993 Lake Champlain. * * * * * (c) The draw...

2013-03-06

32

The origin and distribution of subbottom sediments in southern Lake Champlain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three units, correlatable with recent Lake Champlain, late-glacial marine Champlain Sea, and proglacial Lake Vermont sediments, have been identified from about 200 km of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles and eight piston cores collected in southern Lake Champlain. Lake Vermont deposits are nonfossiliferous and range from thin to absent nearshore and on bedrock highs to more than 126 m thick near Split Rock Point. Champlain Sea sediments contain marine foraminifers and ostracodes and are fairly uniform in thickness (20-30 m). Recent Lake Champlain sediments range in thickness from 0 to 25 m. Average sedimentation rates for Lake Vermont are considerably higher (4-8 cm/yr) than those for the Champlain Sea (0.8-1.2 cm/yr) and Lake Champlain (0.14-0.15 cm/yr). Bedrock, till, and deltaic and alluvial deposits were also identified on the acoustic records but were not sampled. An unconformity separating Champlain Sea deposits from Lake Champlain deposits is associated with numerous benches at water depths of 20-30 m. These benches, the alluvial deposits, and the onset of deltaic deposition are probably associated with a low water level stillstand at the close of the Champlain Sea episode.

Freeman-Lynde, R. P.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Folger, D. W.; Wiley, B. H.; Hewett, M. J.

1980-09-01

33

The origin and distribution of subbottom sediments in southern Lake Champlain.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

3 units, correlatable with recent Lake Champlain, late-glacial marine Champlain Sea, and proglacial Lake Vermont sediments, have been identified from seismic reflection profiles and 8 piston cores. Lake Vermont deposits are nonfossiliferous and range from thin to absent nearshore and on bedrock highs to more than 126 m thick near Split Rock Point. Champlain Sea sediments contain marine foraminifers and ostracodes and are fairly uniform in thickness (20-30 m). Recent Lake Champlain sediments range in thickness from 0 to 25 m. Average sedimentation rates for Lake Vermont are considerably higher (4-8 cm/yr) than those for the Champlain Sea (0.8-1.2 cm/yr) and Lake Champlain (0.14-0.15 cm/yr). Bedrock, till, and deltaic and alluvial deposits were also identified.- from Authors

Freeman-Lynde, R. P.; Hutchinson, D.R.; Folger, D.W.; Wiley, B.H.; Hewett, M.J.

1980-01-01

34

The reconstruction of the Lake Champlain sidewheel steamer Champlain II  

E-print Network

DOCUMENTS . . 195 APPENDIX E 1994 FIELD SEASON ARTIFACT CATALOGUE. . . . . . . 197 VITA 203 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Map of Lake Champlain showing the 19th-century canals at the north and south ends of the lake 1-2. Map of the primary rail lines...

Baldwin, Elizabeth Robinson

1997-01-01

35

Pollen and stratigraphic evidence for abrupt climate changes in the Northeastern United States: Lake Champlain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Champlain, located between New York and Vermont in the northeastern United States, was formed during the last deglaciation. Sediments deposited in Lake Champlain preserve a detailed record of climate intervals including deposition from pro-glacial Lake Vermont, a marine excursion represented by the Champlain Sea, and Holocene lacustrine sedimentation of Lake Champlain. Short sediment cores (<5 m) from southern Lake Champlain were recovered in 2004 by the R/V Melosira in a joint USGS-Middlebury College study. These cores include sediments deposited during the Champlain Sea and Lake Champlain phases of deposition, and pollen assemblages are used to a) establish an independent dating tool and b) evaluate timing of plant community responses to post-glacial climate change and centennial-scale climate variability. Pollen records from five sediment cores collected in southern Lake Champlain are compared with well-dated records from other lakes and bogs within the limits of Champlain Sea deposition, and sites bordering the sea, to establish a pollen-based chronology for the area. Radiocarbon dates on shells from the cores are compared to the pollen-based chronology to evaluate local reservoir effects on shell dates and redefine the timing of marine and lacustrine depositional phases. Sequences of radiocarbon dates from these cores suggest that temporal resolution at these sites is sufficient to interpret patterns of successive colonizing forests following ice-margin retreat and centennial-scale climate variability at the end of the deglacial interval.

Willard, D. A.; Cronin, T. M.; Manley, P. L.

2005-12-01

36

Constraints on Lake Agassiz discharge through the late-glacial Champlain Sea (St. Lawrence Lowlands, Canada) using salinity proxies and an estuarine circulation model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the last deglaciation, abrupt freshwater discharge events from proglacial lakes in North America, such as glacial Lake Agassiz, are believed to have drained into the North Atlantic Ocean, causing large shifts in climate by weakening the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water and decreasing ocean heat transport to high northern latitudes. These discharges were caused by changes in lake drainage outlets, but the duration, magnitude and routing of discharge events, factors which govern the climatic response to freshwater forcing, are poorly known. Abrupt discharges, called floods, are typically assumed to last months to a year, whereas more gradual discharges, called routing events, occur over centuries. Here we use estuarine modeling to evaluate freshwater discharge from Lake Agassiz and other North American proglacial lakes into the North Atlantic Ocean through the St. Lawrence estuary around 11.5 ka BP, the onset of the Preboreal oscillation (PBO). Faunal and isotopic proxy data from the Champlain Sea, a semi-isolated, marine-brackish water body that occupied the St. Lawrence and Champlain Valleys from 13 to 9 ka, indicate salinity fell about 7-8 (range of 4-11) around 11.5 ka. Model results suggest that minimum (1600 km3) and maximum (9500 km3) estimates of plausible flood volumes determined from Lake Agassiz paleoshorelines would produce the proxy-reconstructed salinity decrease if the floods lasted <1 day to 5 months and 1 month to 2 years, respectively. In addition, Champlain Sea salinity responds very quickly to the initiation (within days) and cessation (within weeks) of flooding events. These results support the hypothesis that a glacial lake flood, rather than a sustained routing event, discharged through the St. Lawrence Estuary during the PBO. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Katz, B.; Najjar, R.G.; Cronin, T.; Rayburn, J.; Mann, M.E.

2011-01-01

37

77 FR 67319 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Champlain, Swanton, VT  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Champlain, Swanton, VT AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...paragraph (d) to read as follows: Sec. 117.993 Lake Champlain. * * * * * (c) The draw of the New England...

2012-11-09

38

Technical Report No. 54 Updating the Lake Champlain  

E-print Network

Technical Report No. 54 Updating the Lake Champlain Basin Land Use Data to Improve Prediction for Lake Champlain Basin Program May 2007 PUBLICATION SERIES THIS PROGRAM IS SPONSORED BY U of Natural Resources Clean and Clear Action Plan funds through the Lake Champlain Basin Program. (General

Vermont, University of

39

Modeling the Atmospheric Deposition of Mercury to Lake Champlain  

E-print Network

Modeling the Atmospheric Deposition of Mercury to Lake Champlain (from Anthropogenic Sources at the Workshop on Coordination of Atmospheric Deposition Research in the Lake Champlain Basin June 5-6, 2003 be used in coordination -- to understand Hg in Lake Champlain enough to be able to fix problems #12;Three

40

NOAA Technical Memorandum GLERL-146 PROCEEDINGS OF NOAA LAKE CHAMPLAIN  

E-print Network

NOAA Technical Memorandum GLERL-146 PROCEEDINGS OF NOAA LAKE CHAMPLAIN PROGRAM REVIEW - OCTOBER 29;4 #12;5 Proceedings of NOAA Lake Champlain Program Review October 29-30 2008. G.L. Fahnenstiel, M.J. McCormick, and R. Artz 1.0 INTRODUCTION On October 29-30 2008, a formal review of NOAA's Lake Champlain Research

41

Lake Champlain Primary Investigator: Gary Fahnenstiel -NOAA GLERL  

E-print Network

Lake Champlain Primary Investigator: Gary Fahnenstiel - NOAA GLERL Co-Investigators: Mike McCormick Overview GLERL is participating in a large-scale multi-institutional program to study Lake Champlain: The Lake Champlain Research Consortium (LCRC), NOAA/GLERL and NOAA/ARL. GLERL's primary role has been

42

A Guide to the Zooplankton of Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This key was developed by undergraduate research students working on a project with NYDEC and the Lake Champlain Monitoring program to develop long-term data sets for Lake Champlain plankton. Funding for development of this key was provided by, the Lake Champlain Basin Program through the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYDEC). The

Karen J. Carling; Ian M. Ater; Megan R. Pellam; Adam M. Bouchard; Timothy B. Mihuc

2004-01-01

43

Strategic Plan for Lake Champlain Fisheries Miscellaneous Publication 2010-03  

E-print Network

Strategic Plan for Lake Champlain Fisheries Miscellaneous Publication 2010-03 #12;The Great Lakes Strickland Virginia West William W. Taylor October 2010 #12;Strategic Plan for Lake Champlain Fisheries J.......................................................................................................................... 2 DESCRIPTION OF LAKE CHAMPLAIN

Marsden, Ellen

44

75 FR 21990 - Safety Zone; Extended Debris Removal in the Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone (Between...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Extended Debris Removal in the Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone (Between...waters immediately surrounding the Lake Champlain Bridge construction zone between...Transportation demolished the Lake Champlain Bridge after an inspection...

2010-04-27

45

75 FR 22228 - Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone, NY and VT  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone, NY...around the construction zone of the Lake Champlain Bridge between Crown Point, New...transiting the navigable waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of the...

2010-04-28

46

Seismic and Core Stratigraphic Evidence for Abrupt Climate Changes in the Northeast: Lake Champlain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Champlain is the sixth largest freshwater lake in the United States having a mean elevation of 92.5 feet above sea level and a surficial area of 437 square miles. Located between the New York and Vermont it was formed during the last deglaciation. Three periods of sedimentation characterize the post-glacial record: pro-glacial Lake Vermont, a marine excursion, the Champlain Sea, and Holocene lacustrine sedimentation of the present-day Lake Champlain. During 2004 and 2005 high-resolution CHIRP sonar profiles were obtained from several depositional basins with the objective of further defining these three stages of the lake's history and to identify potential long coring sites for high-resolution paleoclimate records. Five short cores strategically sampled key seismic horizons and new 14C dates on shell and plant material allowed us to determine carbon reservoir on shell dates, and to redefine the timing of lacustrine and marine phases of deposition. The thickness of each varies throughout the basins and the new chronology defines sedimentation rates between the deeper basins and shallower regions. Our results show that the Champlain Sea correlates at least in part with the Younger Dryas; Lake Vermont sediments are pre-Younger Dryas in age. Rapid sedimentation rates and high temporal resolution permit detailed analysis of the termination of Younger Dryas event. In particular, three widespread erosional horizons and changes in benthic foraminifera occur during the Champlain Sea that may represent large fresh water discharges during the Younger Dryas.

Manley, P. L.; Cronin, T.; Brachfeld, S.; McGeehin, J.

2005-12-01

47

Climatology of Lake-Effect Precipitation Events over Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides the first long-term climatological analysis of lake-effect precipitation events that de- veloped in relation to a small lake (having a surface area of #1500 km2). The frequency and environmental conditions favorable for Lake Champlain lake-effect precipitation were examined for the nine winters (October-March) from 1997\\/98 through 2005\\/06. Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) data from Burlington, Vermont, were

Neil F. Laird; Jared Desrochers; Melissa Payer

2009-01-01

48

33 CFR 110.136 - Lake Champlain, NY and VT.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Champlain, NY and VT. 110.136 Section 110.136 Navigation...ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds 110.136 Lake Champlain, NY and VT. (a) Burlington Harbor, Vt....

2012-07-01

49

33 CFR 110.136 - Lake Champlain, NY and VT.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Champlain, NY and VT. 110.136 Section 110.136 Navigation...ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds 110.136 Lake Champlain, NY and VT. (a) Burlington Harbor, Vt....

2014-07-01

50

33 CFR 110.136 - Lake Champlain, NY and VT.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Champlain, NY and VT. 110.136 Section 110.136 Navigation...ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds 110.136 Lake Champlain, NY and VT. (a) Burlington Harbor, Vt....

2013-07-01

51

33 CFR 110.136 - Lake Champlain, NY and VT.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Champlain, NY and VT. 110.136 Section 110.136 Navigation...ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds 110.136 Lake Champlain, NY and VT. (a) Burlington Harbor, Vt....

2011-07-01

52

33 CFR 110.136 - Lake Champlain, NY and VT.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Champlain, NY and VT. 110.136 Section 110.136 Navigation...ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds 110.136 Lake Champlain, NY and VT. (a) Burlington Harbor, Vt....

2010-07-01

53

Benthonic foraminiferal faunal and isotopic data for the postglacial evolution of the Champlain Sea*1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthonic foraminiferal faunal and isotopic data from Champlain Sea sediments (approximately 12,500 to 10,000 yr B.P. in age) in two piston cores from Lake Champlain provide a detailed, apparently continuous record of the evolution of the Champlain Sea. Cassidulina reniforme and Islandiella helenae are the dominant benthonic foraminifera during the initial phase of the Champlain Sea, and are replaced by Elphidium excavatum forma clavatum and Protelphidium orbiculare as the dominant species during the remainder of the sea's history. The oxygen-isotopic data show a gradual decrease in ?18O between approximately 12,500 and 10,900 yr B.P., followed by a more rapid decrease during the interval 10,900 to 10,000 yr B.P. The ?13C data have a similar trend as ?18O, with generally decreasing values up the section. The isotopic and faunal data suggest that nearly marine conditions were present in the initial plase of the Champlain Sea, followed by gradually decreasing salinities and increasing temperatures as the sea evolved. The beginning of the rapid isotopic decrease at approximately 10,900 yr B.P. marks the onset of the largest environmental change in the history of the Champlain Sea, probably reflecting a major pulse of meltwater from the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

Corliss, Bruce H.; Hunt, Allen S.; Keigwin, Lloyd D.

1982-05-01

54

A Comparison of Lake Trout Spawning, Fry Emergence, and Habitat Use in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Champlain  

E-print Network

is underway in all of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, but restoration has only been achieved in Lake Huron, in Lake Michi- gan, and in Lake Champlain in 2000­2003. Divers surveyed and assessed abundance in Lake Michi- gan and Parry Sound, and very high at one site in Lake Champlain. Egg deposition was lowest

Marsden, Ellen

55

33 CFR 165.T01-0176 - Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point, New York and Chimney...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point... Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point... All navigable waters on Lake Champlain 300 yards to the north and...

2010-07-01

56

33 CFR 165.T01-0176 - Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point, New York and Chimney...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point... Regulated Navigation Area; Lake Champlain Bridge Construction, Crown Point... All navigable waters on Lake Champlain 300 yards to the north and...

2011-07-01

57

Evidence from the Lake Champlain Valley for a later onset of the Champlain Sea and implications for late glacial meltwater routing to the North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean circulation models indicate that freshwater runoff from the North American continent during the last deglaciation may have had an effect on North Atlantic Ocean circulation, and thereby have altered regional climate. One such example is a flood from Lake Agassiz, which has been proposed by previous workers to have caused the onset of the Younger Dryas at around 12,850

J. A. Rayburn; D. A. Franzi; P. L. K. Knuepfer

2007-01-01

58

The eutrophication of Lake Champlain's northeastern arm: Insights from paleolimnological analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trophic history of Lake Champlain's northeastern arm was assessed using a multi-proxy paleolimnological approach to provide sub-basin specific information for restoration planning. Sediment cores collected from Missisquoi Bay, St. Albans Bay, and the central Northeast Arm (Inland Sea) were analyzed for nutrients, organic carbon, carbon stable isotopes, biogenic silica, pigments, diatoms and soft algae microfossils. Results indicate that this

Suzanne N. Levine; Andrea Lini; Milton L. Ostrofsky; Lynda Bunting; Heather Burgess; Peter R. Leavitt; Daun Reuter; Andrea Lami; Piero Guilizzoni; Elizabeth Gilles

59

The history and future of Lake Champlain's fishes and fisheries J. Ellen Marsden a,  

E-print Network

The history and future of Lake Champlain's fishes and fisheries J. Ellen Marsden a, , Richard W, physical, chemical, and biological alterations of Lake Champlain have resulted in the loss of two species Lakes Research. Introduction Following the European discovery of Lake Champlain in 1609 by its namesake

Marsden, Ellen

60

33 CFR 110.8 - Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. 110.8...Anchorage Areas 110.8 Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. (a) Ticonderoga...small cove at the westerly side of Lake Champlain, shoreward of a line...

2012-07-01

61

33 CFR 110.8 - Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. 110.8...Anchorage Areas 110.8 Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. (a) Ticonderoga...small cove at the westerly side of Lake Champlain, shoreward of a line...

2011-07-01

62

Mapping cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Champlain's Missisquoi Bay using QuickBird and MERIS satellite data  

E-print Network

Mapping cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Champlain's Missisquoi Bay using QuickBird and MERIS-a) concentrations for the eutrophic waters of Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain (VT­QC) were retrieved from Envisat. Missisquoi Bay on the Vermont­Québec border in northern Lake Champlain is typical of many such waters, where

Vincent, Warwick F.

63

Impacts of Projected Climate Change over the Lake Champlain Basin in Vermont  

E-print Network

Impacts of Projected Climate Change over the Lake Champlain Basin in Vermont JUSTIN GUILBERT November 2013, in final form 22 May 2014) ABSTRACT The Lake Champlain basin is a critical ecological the twenty-first century. 1. Introduction The Lake Champlain basin is a 21 326-km2 watershed on the U

Beckage, Brian

64

Lake Champlain 2010: A summary of recent research and monitoring initiatives Douglas E. Facey a,  

E-print Network

Lake Champlain 2010: A summary of recent research and monitoring initiatives Douglas E. Facey a, Aiken Center, 81 Carrigan Dr., University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA c Lake Champlain Research Institute, SUNY Plattsburgh, Plattsburgh, NY 12901, USA d Lake Champlain Basin Program, 54 West

Marsden, Ellen

65

33 CFR 110.8 - Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. 110.8...Anchorage Areas 110.8 Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. (a) Ticonderoga...small cove at the westerly side of Lake Champlain, shoreward of a line...

2010-07-01

66

33 CFR 110.8 - Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. 110.8...Anchorage Areas 110.8 Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. (a) Ticonderoga...small cove at the westerly side of Lake Champlain, shoreward of a line...

2013-07-01

67

33 CFR 110.8 - Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. 110.8...Anchorage Areas 110.8 Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. (a) Ticonderoga...small cove at the westerly side of Lake Champlain, shoreward of a line...

2014-07-01

68

Survey of lake flooding from ERTS-1: Lake Champlain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery showing seasonal lake-level conditions in Lake-Champlain can be used to assess shoreline change and flooding extent. MSS bands 6 and 7 provide maximum land-water contrasts and are the most useful for shoreline location. Shoreline changes observed between ERTS coverages of October 10 (low water) and April 7 and 25 (high water) are readily apparent and enlargement of specific scenes by a factor of four provides data which can be transferred to a map base. The unique synoptic view provided by ERTS-1 will make it possible to map shoreline positions occurring at a specific lake stage. Due to present government concerns over abnormally high lake levels, resource management questions have been raised regarding the extent, nature, and occurrence of inundation magnitude of shoreline change, and lake volume change.

Lind, A. O. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

69

Glacial Lake Outflow via the St. Lawrence Pathway Prior to the Champlain Sea Invasion and During the Younger Dryas  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the Laurentide Ice Sheet receded north of the Adirondacks, Glacial Lake Frontenac overflowed to Glacial Lake Vermont (Coveville phase)-Albany. The water level of Lake Frontenac fell by about 90 m, as a result of the drawdown, glacio-isostatic rebound and outflow of Lake Vermont-Albany through the Hudson Valley to the North Atlantic Ocean. Lake level stabilized to form the Belleville,

S. Occhietti; T. W. Anderson; P. F. Karrow; M. C. Lewis; R. J. Mott; M. Parent; P. J. Richard; C. G. Rodrigues; R. Stea

2005-01-01

70

THE TROPHIC STATUS AND PHOSPHORUS LOADINGS OF LAKE CHAMPLAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Information on the trophic status of the several basins of Lake Champlain is summarized, the amounts and distribution of total phosphorus loading into the lake are evaluated, and recommendations for further study are made. The general objective is to provide basic background info...

71

Micropaleontological Record of Post-glacial History in Lake Champlain and Adjacent Regions: Implications for Glacial Lake Drainage and Abrupt Climate Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-glacial lacustrine and marine sediments of the Lake Champlain region range from 20 to >50 meters in thickness presenting an opportunity to assess the timing of North American glacial lake drainage at multidecadal timescales and evaluate its effect on North Atlantic salinity and abrupt climate events 13.5 to 10 kyr B.P. High-resolution analysis of foraminifera and ostracodes from cores taken onshore in the Plattsburgh, N.Y. vicinity and southern Quebec and offshore in southern Lake Champlain reveal complex changes in salinity during and after the transition from pro-glacial Lake Vermont (Lake Candona in Canada) to marine sedimentation in the Champlain Sea. The microfaunal sequence (bottom to top) includes: non-marine ostracodes ( Candona) in lacustrine varves, foraminiferal assemblages (common Cassidulina reniforme), another interval of Candona-bearing sediments (sometimes containing foraminifera), and, finally, sediments from the main phase of the Champlain sea episode containing diverse foraminiferal and marine ostracode assemblages. A decrease in salinity during the Champlain Sea is also in evidence from the shift in dominance of distinct variants of Elphidium in the deep basin. The marine episode ended with a progressive salinity decrease and the formation of Lake Champlain about 10 kyr B.P. Observed salinity changes could be caused by catastrophic fresh-water influx from large glacial lakes west of the Lake Champlain region, meltwater from the retreating Laurentide Ice Sheet margin, diminished influx of marine water from the St. Lawrence due to changes in the position of the ice sheet margin and isostatic adjustment, or a combination of factors. The ages of these events were determined by estimating the reservoir effect on radiocarbon dates on marine shells through comparison with AMS dates on plant material and palynology, and shed light on the hypothesis that glacial lake discharges catalyzed abrupt climate events.

Cronin, T. M.; Manley, P. L.; Guilbault, J.; Berke, M.; Rayburn, J. A.; Franzi, D. A.; Knuepfer, P. L.

2005-12-01

72

The evolution and distribution of methane in Lake Champlain sediments  

SciTech Connect

Regions of Lake Champlain sediments are acoustically impenetrable to the energy emitted from high resolution, low energy sub-bottom seismic profiling apparatus. This anomolous behavior is caused by the presence of interstitial methane gas which absorbs the wave energy and thus prevents the formation of well-defined seismic boundaries. Through gas chromatographic and carbon isotope analyses, the methane gas contained in the recent sediments of Lake Champlain has been demonstrated to be biogenic in origin. The production of biogenic methane occurs as a result of a series of coupled oxidation-reduction reactions occurring within the upper two meters beneath the sediment-water interface.

Thibodeau, P.M. (Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-03-01

73

Mass balance assessment for mercury in Lake Champlain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mass balance model for mercury in Lake Champlain was developed in an effort to understand the sources, inventories, concentrations, and effects of mercury (Hg) contamination in the lake ecosystem. To construct the mass balance model, air, water, and sediment were sampled as a part of this project and other research/monitoring projects in the Lake Champlain Basin. This project produced a STELLA-based computer model and quantitative apportionments of the principal input and output pathways of Hg for each of 13 segments in the lake. The model Hg concentrations in the lake were consistent with measured concentrations. Specifically, the modeling identified surface water inflows as the largest direct contributor of Hg into the lake. Direct wet deposition to the lake was the second largest source of Hg followed by direct dry deposition. Volatilization and sedimentation losses were identified as the two major removal mechanisms. This study significantly improves previous estimates of the relative importance of Hg input pathways and of wet and dry deposition fluxes of Hg into Lake Champlain. It also provides new estimates of volatilization fluxes across different lake segments and sedimentation loss in the lake. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

Gao, N.; Armatas, N.G.; Shanley, J.B.; Kamman, N.C.; Miller, E.K.; Keeler, G.J.; Scherbatskoy, T.; Holsen, T.M.; Young, T.; McIlroy, L.; Drake, S.; Olsen, B.; Cady, C.

2006-01-01

74

Mass balance assessment for mercury in Lake Champlain.  

PubMed

A mass balance model for mercury in Lake Champlain was developed in an effort to understand the sources, inventories, concentrations, and effects of mercury (Hg) contamination in the lake ecosystem. To construct the mass balance model, air, water, and sediment were sampled as a part of this project and other research/monitoring projects in the Lake Champlain Basin. This project produced a STELLA-based computer model and quantitative apportionments of the principal input and output pathways of Hg for each of 13 segments in the lake. The model Hg concentrations in the lake were consistent with measured concentrations. Specifically, the modeling identified surface water inflows as the largest direct contributor of Hg into the lake. Direct wet deposition to the lake was the second largest source of Hg followed by direct dry deposition. Volatilization and sedimentation losses were identified as the two major removal mechanisms. This study significantly improves previous estimates of the relative importance of Hg input pathways and of wet and dry deposition fluxes of Hg into Lake Champlain. It also provides new estimates of volatilization fluxes across different lake segments and sedimentation loss in the lake. PMID:16433336

Gao, Ning; Armatas, N Gabriel; Shanley, James B; Kamman, Neil C; Miller, Eric K; Keeler, Gerald J; Scherbatskoy, Timothy; Holsen, Thomas M; Young, Thomas; McIlroy, Lyn; Drake, Stephen; Olsen, Bill; Cady, Carol

2006-01-01

75

Numerical studies of the 4-day oscillation in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The summer thermocline of Lake Champlain, which is found at depths of 20-30 m, oscillates with typical vertical amplitudes of 20-40 m and periods of ~4 days. Fluctuations at the ends of the lake are opposite in phase and accompanied in the central lake by strong shears across the thermocline. These are basin-wide baroclinic disturbances which are forced by wind.

Kenneth Hunkins; Thomas O. Manley; Patricia Manley; James Saylor

1998-01-01

76

ERTS-1 imagery of the Lake Champlain region: A first look  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. First-look analysis of RBV imagery of Lake Champlain and adjacent areas provided the following information on land and water resources: (1) location and shape of islands over 200 meters at narrowest part; (2) location of manmade structures at least 10 meters across; (3) location of shoreline; (4) identification of algal blooms and major turbidity boundary; (5) identification of lake bottom features in sandy, shallow areas; (6) identification of major lake shore wetland and floodplain wetlands; (7) location of major streams; (8) identification of ice marginal deposits of major proportions and former shorelines of Champlain Sea; (9) identification of wooded areas, open land, and built-up areas.

Lind, A. O. (principal investigator); Henson, E. B.; Olson, J.; Wagner, W. P.

1972-01-01

77

Investigating public preferences for managing Lake Champlain using a choice experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lake Champlain Basin in Vermont and New York, USA and Quebec, Canada includes a large lake and watershed with complex management issues. A transboundary comprehensive management plan prepared for the lake includes 11 goals across many issue areas. We developed a choice experiment to examine public preferences for alternative Lake Champlain management scenarios across these issue areas. Five ecosystem

Robyn L. Smyth; Mary C. Watzin; Robert E. Manning

2009-01-01

78

Effect of Density and Age on Larval Sea Lamprey Growth and Survival in Three Lake Champlain Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-1 and age-3 larval sea lamprey were separately held in circular cages (0.16 m) with 30 cm of optimal habitat for one year. The five treatments for each age class were: 25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 larvae\\/m. Growth of age-1 larvae was significantly higher than age-3 larvae (P<0.006), although survival was not significantly different between ages (P<0.546). Density treatments

Adam Zerrenner

2004-01-01

79

Numerical studies of the 4-day oscillation in Lake Champlain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The summer thermocline of Lake Champlain, which is found at depths of 20-30 m, oscillates with typical vertical amplitudes of 20-40 m and periods of 4 days. Fluctuations at the ends of the lake are opposite in phase and accompanied in the central lake by strong shears across the thermocline. These are basin-wide baroclinic disturbances which are forced by wind. A numerical, one-dimensional, two-layer, shallow-water model incorporating nonlinear and frictional effects in a rectangular basin forced by wind was first tested with idealized wind impulses. The results do not resemble the observed thermocline motion. However, when this simple model is forced with wind data from a nearby shore site, there is reasonable agreement between the model results and observed long-period thermocline motions in Lake Champlain. Dispersion effects appear to be negligible here. This contrasts with other long, narrow lakes where dispersion effects are important and internal surges are followed by wave trains resembling the soliton solutions of the Korteweg-deVries equation. A possible explanation for the different regime in Lake Champlain may be found in its unique bathymetry with sloping bottom at the ends and numerous embayments on the sides that provide traps to collect wind-driven warm water and then release it slowly during recovery of equilibrium, preventing the formation of steep fronts and soliton wave trains.

Hunkins, Kenneth; Manley, Thomas O.; Manley, Patricia; Saylor, James

1998-08-01

80

Mercury in the Pelagic Food Web of Lake Champlain  

PubMed Central

Lake Champlain continues to experience mercury contamination resulting in public advisories to limit human consumption of top trophic level fish such as walleye. Prior research suggested that mercury levels in biota could be modified by differences in ecosystem productivity as well as mercury loadings. We investigated relationships between mercury in different trophic levels in Lake Champlain. We measured inorganic and methyl mercury in water, seston, and two size fractions of zooplankton from 13 sites representing a range of nutrient loading conditions and productivity. Biomass varied significantly across lake segments in all measured ecosystem compartments in response to significant differences in nutrient levels. Local environmental factors such as alkalinity influenced the partitioning of mercury between water and seston. Mercury incorporation into biota was influenced by the biomass and mercury content of different ecosystem strata. Pelagic fish tissue mercury was a function of fish length and the size of the mercury pool associated with large zooplankton. We used these observations to parameterize a model of mercury transfers in the Lake Champlain food web that accounts for ecosystem productivity effects. Simulations using the mercury trophic transfer model suggest that reductions of 25 to 75% in summertime dissolved eplimnetic total mercury will likely allow fish tissue mercury concentrations to drop to the target level of 0.3 g g?1 in a 40-cm fish in all lake segments. Changes in nutrient loading and ecosystem productivity in eutrophic segments may delay any response to reduced dissolved mercury and may result in increases in fish tissue mercury. PMID:22193540

Chen, Celia; Kamman, Neil; Shanley, James; Chalmers, Ann; Jackson, Brian; Taylor, Vivien; Smeltzer, Eric; Stangel, Pete; Shambaugh, Angela

2013-01-01

81

Mercury in the pelagic food web of Lake Champlain.  

PubMed

Lake Champlain continues to experience mercury contamination resulting in public advisories to limit human consumption of top trophic level fish such as walleye. Prior research suggested that mercury levels in biota could be modified by differences in ecosystem productivity as well as mercury loadings. We investigated relationships between mercury in different trophic levels in Lake Champlain. We measured inorganic and methyl mercury in water, seston, and two size fractions of zooplankton from 13 sites representing a range of nutrient loading conditions and productivity. Biomass varied significantly across lake segments in all measured ecosystem compartments in response to significant differences in nutrient levels. Local environmental factors such as alkalinity influenced the partitioning of mercury between water and seston. Mercury incorporation into biota was influenced by the biomass and mercury content of different ecosystem strata. Pelagic fish tissue mercury was a function of fish length and the size of the mercury pool associated with large zooplankton. We used these observations to parameterize a model of mercury transfers in the Lake Champlain food web that accounts for ecosystem productivity effects. Simulations using the mercury trophic transfer model suggest that reductions of 25-75% in summertime dissolved eplimnetic total mercury will likely allow fish tissue mercury concentrations to drop to the target level of 0.3 ?g g(-1) in a 40-cm fish in all lake segments. Changes in nutrient loading and ecosystem productivity in eutrophic segments may delay any response to reduced dissolved mercury and may result in increases in fish tissue mercury. PMID:22193540

Miller, Eric K; Chen, Celia; Kamman, Neil; Shanley, James; Chalmers, Ann; Jackson, Brian; Taylor, Vivien; Smeltzer, Eric; Stangel, Pete; Shambaugh, Angela

2012-04-01

82

Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

2013-01-01

83

Mapping Cyanobacteria Blooms in Lake Champlain at Multiple ScaleMapping Cyanobacteria Blooms in Lake Champlain at Multiple Scales:s: QuickBirdQuickBird and MERIS Satellite Dataand MERIS Satellite Data  

E-print Network

Mapping Cyanobacteria Blooms in Lake Champlain at Multiple ScaleMapping Cyanobacteria Blooms in Lake Champlain at Multiple Scales:s: QuickBirdQuickBird and MERIS Satellite Dataand MERIS Satellite Data Harmful algal blooms in Lake Champlain (VT-NY-QC) are an increasingly serious concern. Such blooms

Morrissey, Leslie A.

84

Environmental study of ERTS-1 imagery: Lake Champlain and Vermont  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmental concerns of the State of Vermont currently being stressed include water quality in Lake Champlain and a state-wide land use and capability plan. Significant results obtained from ERTS-1 relate directly to the above concerns. Industrial water pollution and turbidity in Lake Champlain have been identified and mapped and the ERTS pollution data will be used in the developing court suit which Vermont has initiated against the polluters. ERTS imagery has also provided a foundation for updating and revising land use inventories. Major classes of land use have been identified and mapped, and substantial progress has been made toward the mapping of such land use divisions as crop and forest type, and wetlands.

Lind, A. O.; Henson, E. B.; Pelton, J. O.

1973-01-01

85

Hydrodynamic Studies on Lake Champlain Primary Investigator(s): Gary Fahnenstiel -NOAA GLERL and Michael McCormick  

E-print Network

Hydrodynamic Studies on Lake Champlain Primary Investigator(s): Gary Fahnenstiel - NOAA GLERL studies have been underway on Lake Champlain since 1990 and is being expanded to include novel lagrangian of Lake Champlain have been very difficult to obtain using long- term Eulerian measurement techniques due

86

Wet deposition of mercury and ambient mercury concentrations at a site in the Lake Champlain basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Waters program, established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, mandated that atmospheric deposition of hazardous air pollutants to Lake Champlain (including Hg) be assessed. An assessment of the magnitude and seasonal variation of atmospheric Hg deposition in the Lake Champlain basin was initiated in December 1992 with one year of event precipitation collection, as well as collection

J. Burke; M. Hoyer; G. Keeler; T. Scherbatskoy

1995-01-01

87

The Age, Growth, and Feeding Habits of the Whitefish, Coregonus Clupeaformis (Mitchell), of Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is based on 120 whitefish collected in northern Lake Champlain (Missisquoi Bay) in 1930 and on 175 whitefish taken in southern Lake Champlain in 1931. Since the whitefish population had not been exploited commercially after 1912 in United States waters and after 1915 in Canadian waters, its study should be of interest in showing the characteristics of a

John Van Oosten; Hilary J. Deason

1939-01-01

88

Long-term patterns in Lake Champlain's zooplankton: 19922010  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined patterns in Lake Champlain zooplankton abundance from 1992 to 2010 using summer data from five study sites. Rotifer abundance (#\\/m3) for many common taxa such as Polyarthra, Kellicottia, and Keratella declined lakewide in the mid-1990s which coincided with the invasion of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) into Lake Champlain. The only rotifer to increase in density following zebra mussel

Timothy B. Mihuc; Fred Dunlap; Casey Binggeli; Luke Myers; Carrianne Pershyn; Amanda Groves; Allison Waring

89

A Comparison of Lake Trout Spawning, Fry Emergence, and Habitat Use in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restoration of self-sustaining populations of lake trout is underway in all of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, but restoration has only been achieved in Lake Superior and in Parry Sound, Lake Huron. We evaluated progress toward restoration by comparing spawning habitat availability, spawner abundance, egg and fry density, and egg survival in Parry Sound in Lake Huron, in Lake

J. Ellen Marsden; Brian J. Ellrott; Randall M. Claramunt; Jory L. Jonas; John D. Fitzsimons

2005-01-01

90

Evidence of Lacustrine Bedforms in Lake Champlain, Vermont  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution CHIRP seismic profiles reveal the presence of two large lacustrine sediment drifts (Drifts A and B) located in Lake Champlain's Juniper Deep. Both drifts are positive features composed of highly laminated sediments overlying trough-filling acoustically-transparent sediment. Both drifts are oriented approximately north-south and are parallel to a steep ridge along the eastern shore of the basin. Drift A, located at the bottom of a structural trough, is classified as a confined, elongate drift that transitions northward to become a system of mudwaves. Drift B is perched atop a structural high to the west of Drift A and is classified as a detached elongate drift. Bottom current depositional control was inferred from the orientations of the bedforms and modern lake circulation patterns. Sediment thicknesses and volume estimates were used to create isopach maps and 3-dimensional images detailing drift evolution. Sediment cores were taken at the crest and at the edges of the drifts. Drift source, deposition, and evolution will be discussed in the context of the regional history of the Lake Champlain Valley.

Manley, P. L.; Hayo, K.

2007-12-01

91

Modeling invasive species spread in Lake Champlain via evolutionary computations.  

PubMed

We use a reaction diffusion equation, together with a genetic algorithm approach for model selection to develop a general modeling framework for biological invasions. The diffusion component of the reaction diffusion model is generalized to include dispersal and advection. The reaction component is generalized to include both linear and non-linear density dependence, and Allee effect. A combination of the reaction diffusion and genetic algorithm is able to evolve the most parsimonious model for invasive species spread. Zebra mussel data obtained from Lake Champlain, which demarcates the states of New York and Vermont, is used to test the appropriateness of the model. We estimate the minimum wave spread rate of Zebra mussels to be 22.5 km/year. In particular, the evolved models predict an average northward advection rate of 60.6 km/year (SD 1.9), which compares very well with the rate calculated from the known hydrologic residence time of 60 km/year. A combination of a reaction diffusion model and a genetic algorithm is, therefore, able to adequately describe some of the hydrodynamic features of Lake Champlain and the spread of a typical invasive species--Zebra mussels within the lake. PMID:21293950

Osei, B M; Ellingwood, C D; Hoffmann, J P; Bentil, D E

2011-06-01

92

Atmospheric mercury and trace metals in the Lake Champlain basin  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric mercury in the Lake Champlain basin is currently being investigated by UMAQL and the Vermont Monitoring Cooperative to assess the magnitude, deposition and seasonal variation of atmospheric mercury in the region. Measurements of mercury in precipitation and in ambient air (vapor and particulate phase) have been conducted at the Proctor Maple Research Center in Underhill, VT since December, 1992. Precipitation samples were collected on a daily event basis, and analyzed for total mercury. Rain samples of sufficient volume were also filtered to determine the percent of total mercury in the dissolved phase. Samples were analyzed for mercury using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. ICP-MS will also be used to quantify a number of other trace metals in the precipitation. Concentration ranges for mercury in the vapor phase, particulate phase and in precipitation for Under hill to date are 1.2--4.2 ng/m{sup 3}, 1--43 pg/m{sup 3} and 1.5--26 ng/L, respectively. Seasonal trends were evident, with higher concentrations in precipitation and greater wet deposition in the spring and summer months, whereas particulate mercury concentrations were elevated in winter months. Trace metal concentrations in particulates obtained from the NESCAUM network, in precipitation from ICP-MS analysis and meteorological associations will be used to investigate the sources of atmospheric mercury to the Lake Champlain basin.

Burke, J.M.; Rea, A.W.; Keeler, G.J. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Air Quality Lab.; Scherbatskoy, T. [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

1994-12-31

93

Pollution detection in Lake Champlain using ERTS-1 imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A major waste water discharge plume generated by a large paper mill along the New York shore of Lake Champlain was visually detected on ERTS-1 imagery. The plume is best displayed in 9.5 inch positive transparencies of MSS bands 4 and 5. Observation of the magnitude and extent of this plume is feasible, under magnification of 4 times. The chemical parameters of this plume have been documented by limnological studies. An enhancement technique useful for documenting the presence of waste water discharge plumes in Lake Champlain utilizes Polaroid MP-3 copy camera equipment and Spectral Data Corporation's multispectral viewer. The 9.5 inch, ERTS-1, positive transparency is enlarged using the Polaroid MP-3 copy camera to produce an enlarged lantern slide size positive transparency. These are projected through the multispectral viewer for enhancement and the scene is viewed directly on the screen or copied by an additional photographic step. The technique is simple and produces rapid results.

Lind, A. O. (principal investigator); Henson, E. B.

1972-01-01

94

Lake Champlain hydrodynamic monitoring program--An overview  

SciTech Connect

The Vermont Waters Research Center (VWRC) sponsored Lake Champlain Hydrodynamic Monitoring Program began in June 1991 through a cooperative program between Middlebury College, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, and the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. This pilot program was designed to lead into a multi-year study of the internal mechanics of lake circulation (such as the variability of internal stratification, forcing and response functions, mixing, transport, and basin-basin exchange), bottom morphological studies relating to longterm flow patterns of the lake as well as sedimentation-rates. The field program incorporated three year-long taught-wire moorings along the thalweg of the central lake from Valcour Island to Thompson's Point in addition to several side-scan and hydrographic surveys. Each mooring consisted of a thermistory chain spanning the summer thermocline, 2 current meters (one above and one below the t-chain), and 3 equally-spaced sediment traps. Subsequent funding through NOAA expanded the field program to five year-long moorings within the central lake as well as the installation of a Passage Exchange Network (PEN) station at the Grand Isle bridge. Presently, a year and a half of data has been obtained from these programs. An overview of the program as well as results specifically relating to the internal seiche and its potential non-linear behavior, the strong bimodal structure of currents, inertial currents, thermal history, temporal and spatial variability, regions believed to have enhanced mixing, and basin-basin exchange.

Manley, T.O.; Manley, P.L. (Middlebury Coll., VT (United States). Geology Dept.); Saylor, J. (GLERL, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Hunkins, K.L. (LDGO, Palisades, NY (United States))

1993-03-01

95

The Eagle: an American brig on Lake Champlain during the War of 1812  

E-print Network

THE EAGLE: AN AMERICAN BRIG ON LAKE CHAMPLAIN DURING THE WAR OF 1812 A Thesis by KEVIN JAMES CRISMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS... December 1984 Major Subject: Anthropology THE EAGLE: AN AMERICAN BRIG ON LAKE CHAMPLAIN DURING THE WAR OF 1812 A Thesis by KEVIN JAMES CRISMAN Approved as to style and content by: J. Richard Stef (Chairman of Committee) nny L. Hamrlton (Member...

Crisman, Kevin James

1984-01-01

96

Spatial and temporal variation in mercury bioaccumulation by zooplankton in Lake Champlain (North America)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trophic transfer of Hg across lakes within a region has been related to multiple environmental factors, but the nature of these relationships across distinct basins within individual large lakes is unknown. We investigated Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton in basins of differing trophic status in Lake Champlain (Vermont, USA) to determine the strongest predictors of Hg bioaccumulation. Zooplankton were sampled in

Celia Chen; Neil Kamman; Jason Williams; Deenie Bugge; Vivien Taylor; Brian Jackson; Eric Miller

97

Spatial and temporal comparisons of double-crested cormorant diets following the establishment of alewife in Lake Champlain, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing numbers of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) on Lake Champlain have caused concerns related to potential impacts on the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) population. However, with the establishment of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) in 2003, cormorant foraging may have changed. We examined cormorant diets from four areas of Lake Champlain to assess past, current, and potential future impacts of cormorants on

Robin L. DeBruyne; Travis L. DeVault; Adam E. Duerr; David E. Capen; Fred E. Pogmore; James R. Jackson; Lars G. Rudstam

98

The Effect of Terrigenous Inputs on Spatial Patterns of Water Quality Indicators in South Lake, Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial patterns of measures of trophic state, optical properties and particle composition are documented for Lake Champlain, with particular emphasis on the southernmost shallow section (< 10 m deep, ? 55 km in length) known as South Lake, to depict the impacts of terrigenous inputs. The analysis is supported by two surveys conducted in 1998 for South Lake (thirteen sites)

Steven W. Effler; Carol M. Brooks; Mary Gail Perkins; Nicholas K. Ohrazda; David A. Matthews; David L. Johnson; Martin T. Auer; Jay A. Bloomfield; Scott O. Quinn

2000-01-01

99

Pollution monitoring in Lake Champlain using ERTS-1 imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Band 4 imagery of April 7 and 25 show contrasting pollution effects due to seasonal and discharge variations. The pollution plume emanating from the International Paper Co. mill just north of Fort Ticonderoga was first detected on October 10 ERTS-1 imagery and now has been documented during spring high lake level conditions. The plume was observed extending further to the north and east than under low water conditions of October 10. This northward extension reflects a stronger northward current flow expected in the turbid southern leg of Lake Champlain. The extensive plume of April 25 represents full plant operation while the April 5 scene shows some plume traces directly over the submerged diffuser, discharge pipe representing minimal discharge during weekend plant operation. The ERTS-1 documentation will be used in developing a model of plume behavior under varying environmental conditions and will hopefully serve to assist in a major resource decision pending at U.S. Supreme Court level.

Lind, A. O. (principal investigator); Henson, E. B.

1973-01-01

100

Trace-element composition in wet deposition over Lake Champlain  

SciTech Connect

As part of our research program to characterize trace elements present in atmospheric particulate materials, we have determined the trace elements present in wet deposition events over Lake Champlain at monitoring sites in Willsboro and Moss Lake, New York, from samples collected each week between March 1992 and October 1993. No previous long-term trace-element data are available for weekly deposition events occurring over a 1 1/2-yr period. The concentrations of {approximately}40 elements have been determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), although not from within each sample. The concentrations of environmentally important anions SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} were determined by ion chromatography. Measurements of pH were made on each sample as well. Particular attention was paid to 7 of the 11 toxic elements (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, manganese, and selenium), whose control is mandated in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Of the remaining four, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy will be used to determine nickel, lead, and selenium concentrations, and mercury will be measured by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. These toxic trace elements are emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources and can be removed from the atmoshere by wet and dry deposition mechanisms.

Huang, X.; Olmez, I. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Fink, R.D. [Amherst College, MA (United States); Meier, S.; Galvin, P.

1994-12-31

101

A Phosphorus Budget, Model, and Load Reduction Strategy For Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phosphorus budget and mass balance model were developed for Lake Champlain in order to identify load reductions necessary to attain interim in-lake total phosphorus concentration criteria established in a water quality agreement between New York, Quebec, and Vermont Total phosphorus loadings were measured from 31 tributaries, 88 wastewater discharges, and direct precipitation. Mean annual tributary loadings were estimated using

Eric Smeltzer; Scott Quinn

1996-01-01

102

SWAT modeling of Critical Source Area for Runoff and Phosphorus losses: Lake Champlain Basin, VT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lake Champlain, located between Vermont, New York, and Quebec, exhibits eutrophication due to continuing phosphorus (P) inputs mainly from upstream nonpoint source areas. To address the Lake's eutrophication problem and as part of total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements, a state-level P reducti...

103

Determination of critical source areas for phosphorous losses: Lake Champlain Basin, Vermont  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lake Champlain, located between Vermont, New York, and Quebec, exhibits eutrophication due to continuing phosphorus (P) inputs mainly from upstream nonpoint source areas. To address the Lake's eutrophication problem and as part of total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements, a state-level P reducti...

104

The Effects of Zebra Mussels on the Lower Planktonic Foodweb in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective grazing by zebra mussels has altered phytoplankton communities in many North American lakes, but the specific changes are not the same in each ecosystem. Because of this variation in response, we investigated the impacts of zebra mussels on the plankton community of Lake Champlain with two objectives: first to determine whether zebra mussels increased the dominance of potentially toxic

Emily Brines Miller; Mary C. Watzin

2007-01-01

105

Paper plant effluent in sediments of southern Lake Champlain  

SciTech Connect

In 1972--73 the authors collected an extensive set of geologic and geochemical data in southern Lake Champlain near the International Paper Company (IPC) plant. Much of the work was carried out in support of a suit filed by the Attorney General of Vermont against IPC for polluting the lake and against the State of New York for failing to enforce its environmental laws. In 1988, the authors were subpoenaed to present their data once again in class-action suit brought by a group of Vermont citizens against IPC for causing their property values to decline due to pollution of the air and of the lake waters. To update the earlier work, they collected nine cores upstream and downstream of the plant's effluent diffuser. They compared the new analyses of samples from the cores with the results obtained in the early 70's. In 1973, 2 years after the plant opened, sediment contaminated with effluent near the diffuser was 4.5 cm thick. In 1988, in the same area, sediment contaminated with effluent was 17 cm thick. In 15 years, water content increased form 72% to 85%, volatile solids from 7% to 20%, and organic carbon from 2% to 12%. Cl/Si and S/Si (not measured in 1972--73) were high only near the diffuser and were zero elsewhere. Contaminated sediment in the area of the diffuser appears to be accumulating at a rate of about 1 cm/yr. Twenty-two km upstream (south) from the plant, at an uncontaminated control location, the top, poorly consolidated layer was only 1 cm or less thick both in 1973 and in 1988. The suit was settled in favor of the plaintiffs for $5 million.

Haupt, R.S. (Vermont Agency of Transportation Materials and Research Div., Montpelier, VT (United States)); Folger, D.W. (Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA (United States))

1993-03-01

106

Small-scale lacustrine drifts in Lake Champlain, Vermont  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High resolution CHIRP (Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse) seismic profiles reveal the presence of two lacustrine sediment drifts located in Lake Champlain's Juniper Deep. Both drifts are positive features composed of highly laminated sediments. Drift B sits on a basement high while Drift A is built on a trough-filling acoustically-transparent sediment unit inferred to be a mass-transport event. These drifts are oriented approximately northsouth and are parallel to a steep ridge along the eastern shore of the basin. Drift A, located at the bottom of a structural trough, is classified as a confined, elongate drift that transitions northward to become a system of upslope asymmetric mudwaves. Drift B is perched atop a structural high to the west of Drift A and is classified as a detached elongate drift. Bottom current depositional control was investigated using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) located across Drift A. Sediment cores were taken at the crest and at the edges of the Drift A and were dated. Drift source, deposition, and evolution show that these drifts are formed by a water column shear with the highest deposition occurring along its crest and western flank and began developing circa 87008800 year BP.

Manley, Patricia L.; Manley, T.O.; Hayo, Kathryn; Cronin, Thomas

2012-01-01

107

Comparison of Larval Sea Lamprey Life History Characteristics in a Lampricide-Treated Tributary and Untreated Tributary  

E-print Network

and Untreated Tributary System of Lake Champlain ADAM ZERRENNER 1 AND J. ELLEN MARSDEN* Rubenstein School Abstract.--Control of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus in Lake Champlain and the Laurentian Great Lakes to changes in age at transformation to prevent transformers from leaving Lake Champlain and Great Lakes

Marsden, Ellen

108

Spatial and temporal variation in mercury bioaccumulation by zooplankton in Lake Champlain (North America)  

PubMed Central

Trophic transfer of Hg across lakes within a region has been related to multiple environmental factors, but the nature of these relationships across distinct basins within individual large lakes is unknown. We investigated Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton in basins of differing trophic status in Lake Champlain (Vermont, USA) to determine the strongest predictors of Hg bioaccumulation. Zooplankton were sampled in Malletts Bay (oligotrophic) and Missisquoi Bay (eutrophic) in 20052008. Zooplankton in the eutrophic basin had lower concentrations of total Hg and MeHg than those in the oligotrophic basin in all years but 2007, when no bloom occurred in Missisquoi. In addition, Hg concentrations in seston and small zooplankton, sampled during 2009 at 12 sites spanning the lake, decreased with increasing phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass. Thus, Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton across basins in Lake Champlain is related to trophic status, as observed previously in multiple lake studies. PMID:21995871

Kamman, Neil; Williams, Jason; Bugge, Deenie; Taylor, Vivien; Jackson, Brian; Miller, Eric

2012-01-01

109

Spatial and temporal variation in mercury bioaccumulation by zooplankton in Lake Champlain (North America).  

PubMed

Trophic transfer of Hg across lakes within a region has been related to multiple environmental factors, but the nature of these relationships across distinct basins within individual large lakes is unknown. We investigated Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton in basins of differing trophic status in Lake Champlain (Vermont, USA) to determine the strongest predictors of Hg bioaccumulation. Zooplankton were sampled in Malletts Bay (oligotrophic) and Missisquoi Bay (eutrophic) in 2005-2008. Zooplankton in the eutrophic basin had lower concentrations of total Hg and MeHg than those in the oligotrophic basin in all years but 2007, when no bloom occurred in Missisquoi. In addition, Hg concentrations in seston and small zooplankton, sampled during 2009 at 12 sites spanning the lake, decreased with increasing phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass. Thus, Hg bioaccumulation in zooplankton across basins in Lake Champlain is related to trophic status, as observed previously in multiple lake studies. PMID:21995871

Chen, Celia; Kamman, Neil; Williams, Jason; Bugge, Deenie; Taylor, Vivien; Jackson, Brian; Miller, Eric

2012-02-01

110

[Seltzer, N. and D.Wang. 2004. The importance of hydric soils and near-lake areas as phosphorus source areas in the Lake Champlain Basin: Evidence from a landscape-level model. pp. 143-158 IN  

E-print Network

source areas in the Lake Champlain Basin: Evidence from a landscape-level model. pp. 143-158 IN T.O. Manley, P.L. Manley, and T.B. Mihuc. (eds.) Lake Champlain: Partnerships and Research in the New AS PHOSPHORUS SOURCE AREAS IN THE LAKE CHAMPLAIN BASIN: EVIDENCE FROM A LANDSCAPE-LEVEL MODEL Nicole Seltzer

Vermont, University of

111

Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners from Lake Champlain sediments by Mysis relicta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Champlain often exceed the F.D.A. tolerance level of 2 [mu]g\\/g (wet weight). Of added concern are recent studies that suggest a relationship between the dioxin-like properties of non-ortho-substituted PCB congeners and impaired lake trout egg hatchability. Dietary accumulation of PCBs is thought to be an important exposure route for

Deborah C. Lester; Alan McIntosh

1994-01-01

112

Vermont Water Resources and Lake Studies Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

Department of Environmental Conservation, Lake Champlain Basin Program, and other programs in the state of the Water Center is also a member of the Steering Committee of Lake Champlain Basin Program (LCBP partnerships. The Director of the Water Center is also the Director of Lake Champlain Sea Grant, which allows

113

Astronauts Cooper and Conrad arrive aboard U.S.S. Lake Champlain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A red-carpet welcome was staged for Astronauts L. Gordon Cooper Jr. and Charles Conrad Jr. as they arrive aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Lake Champlain. They had been recovered from the Atlantic after the splashdown of their Gemini 5 spacecraft.

1965-01-01

114

Native rainbow smelt and nonnative alewife distribution related to temperature and light gradients in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) recently became established in Lake Champlain and may compete with native rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) for food or consume larval rainbow smelt. The strength of this effect depends partly on the spatial and temporal overlap of different age groups of the two species; therefore, we need a better understanding of factors affecting alewife and rainbow smelt distributions

Paul W. Simonin; Donna L. Parrish; Lars G. Rudstam; Patrick J. Sullivan; Bernard Pientka

115

Management-Induced Reproductive Failure and Breeding Dispersal in Double-Crested Cormorants on Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied breeding dispersal of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) associated with management practices that suppressed their reproduction on Lake Champlain in the northeastern United States. We implemented an experiment on one colony by spraying corn oil on cormorant eggs in portions of the colony and leaving other portions untreated. Gulls (Larus spp.) consumed cormorant eggs during the oiling process, but

ADAM E. DUERR; THERESE M. DONOVAN; DAVID E. CAPEN

2007-01-01

116

Distribution of pollutants from a new paper plant in southern Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

From November of 1973 to May of 1974, 15 arrays of sediment traps were placed along 33 km of southern Lake Champlain to sample the distribution of effluent from a large paper plant located on the western shore which had commenced operation in 1971. In the arrays located near the effluent diffuser pipeline as much as 2.3 cm of sediment

D. L. Mason; D. W. Folger; R. S. Haupt; R. R. McGirr; W. H. Hoyt

1977-01-01

117

Astronauts Conrad and Cooper slice cake on U.S.S. Lake Champlain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr. (left) and L. Gordon Cooper Jr. prepate to slice into the huge cake prepared for them by the cooks onboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Lake Champlain. They are using ornamental Navy swords for knives.

1965-01-01

118

Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Phosphates, Nitrates, and Silicates in Lake Champlain, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the limnological characteristics was conducted from January through November, 1970 of Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York, U.S.A. The seasonal and spatial distribution of soluble nitrate, total phosphate and reactive silicate concentrations from 20 stations are presented here.

Gerhard K. Gruendling; John L. Malanchuk

1974-01-01

119

Quantifying sediment loadings from streambank erosion in selected agricultural watersheds draining to Lake Champlain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

At its mouth on Lake Champlain the Missisquoi River has a history of exceedance of phosphorus concentration target levels endorsed by the governments of Vermont, Qubec, and New York. Observations along the study reach of the Missisquoi River and several of its tributaries have indicated that the r...

120

Assessment of nutrient distributions in Lake Champlain using satellite remote sensing.  

PubMed

The introduction of nutrients to lakes causing eutrophic conditions is a major problem around the world. Proper monitoring and modeling are important to effectively manage eutrophication in lake waters. The goal is to develop remote sensing models for nutrients, total phosphorus and total nitrogen, in Lake Champlain. The remote sensing models were created using multivariate linear regression with the unique band combinations of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery based on the empirical relationship with the field observations. The resulting models successfully showed nutrient distributions in the most eutrophic part of Lake Champlain, Missisquoi Bay, with reasonable adjusted coefficient of determination values (R(2)=0.81 and 0.75 for total phosphorus and total nitrogen, respectively). The results show the feasibility and the utility of satellite imagery to detect spatial distributions of lake water quality constituents, which can be used to better understand nutrient distributions in Lake Champlain. This approach can be applicable to other lakes experiencing eutrophication assisting decision making when implementing Best Management Practices and other mitigation techniques to lakes. PMID:25193831

Isenstein, Elizabeth M; Park, Mi-Hyun

2014-09-01

121

Streamflow Regime Sensitivity to Climate Change Impacts within Lake Champlain Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Champlain Basin serves as a major source of ecosystem services and economic inputs to the northeastern United States. Research on northeastern United States climate indicates that historical trends of warmer air temperatures, increased precipitation amounts and changes in the timing and intensity of precipitation are expected to continue in the 21th century. Lake Champlain Basin might then be affected with seasonal weather shifts caused by significant climatic changes driven primarily by human generated greenhouse gases. This expected 21th century climatic changes might then impact flow regime in the Lake Champlain Basin and hence raise concerns about hydrological, ecological as well as political basin conditions. In this work, we examine alternative possibilities that might emerge in the Lake Champlain Basin streamflow regime given the imminent changes anticipated in climate forcing variables. Three streamflow regime classifications that include high flow disturbance, low flow disturbance and flow variability and predictability (Colwell index) will be analyzed in this work to better understand climate change impacts on streamflow regime within the Lake Champlain Basin. The Mad River near Moretown watershed located at Vermont, United States of America and upstream of United States Geological Survey gauge # 04288000 has been selected to be the study watershed for this work (drainage area about 360 km2). The Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys) model will be used to assess how climate changes might impact streamflow regime. The RHESSys model driven by historic precipitation, minimum and maximum air temperature data was first calibrated to daily streamflows at the watershed outlet. Streamflow realizations were then obtained by driving the calibrated RHESSys model with daily scenarios of different climate data to examine streamflow regime changes sensitivity. Our preliminary streamflow realization results at the study watershed outlet suggest that an increase in flood duration periods as well as an increase in base flow index values are likely to occur. Also our results suggest that a decrease in overall flow variability without considering the temporal sequence of flow variation is expected. Streamflow predictability results at the study watershed outlet suggest that a continuation of being due to high constancy (constancy is a measure of temporal invariance) of streamflow which varies little among months and years. In other words, the streamflow discharge at this study gauge is perfectly predictable with all the predictability driven from the constancy component of Colwell index. This work represents a contribution to the conservation community of the Lake Champlain Basin as they begin to plan and respond to the current and future impacts of climate changes on Lake Champlain.

Mohammed, I. N.; Wemple, B. C.; Bomblies, A.

2013-12-01

122

An initial view of subsurface Lagrangian observations in Lake Champlain: General patterns, cross-lake flow and coastal currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface free-drifting floats operating in the Main Lake of Lake Champlain in 2002 and 2004 showed the presence of 1) small circular to elliptical motion away from coastal boundaries, 2) linear to curvilinear motion associated with alongshore currents and 3) subsurface westward cross-lake flow located within the base of the epilimnion and upper metalimnion (1016m) followed by large displacements up

T. O. Manley; Michael McCormick; Jean Claude Gascard; Pierre Tillier; Kenneth L. Hunkins; Patricia L. Manley

123

Factors Affecting Sea Lamprey Egg Survival STEPHEN J. SMITH  

E-print Network

is a nuisance parasitic fish in Lake Champlain that negatively affects important sport fish populations lamprey abundance (Marsden et al. 2003). Lake Champlain is 193 km long, has a maximum width of 19 km nontarget mortality in regularly treated tributaries. A population model of sea lampreys in Lake Champlain

Marsden, Ellen

124

Streamwater fluxes of total mercury and methylmercury into and out of Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 2000 to 2004, we sampled for total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in inlet streams to Lake Champlain, targeting high flow periods to capture increases in THg and MeHg concentrations with increasing flow. We used these data to model stream THg and MeHg fluxes for Water Years 2001 through 2009. In this mountainous forested basin with a high watershed-to-lake

James B. Shanley; Ann T. Chalmers

125

Environmental study of ERTS-1 imagery Lake Champlain Basin and Vermont  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has idenfified the following significant results. A first approximation land-type map using three categories of classification was generated for the Burlington area. The identification and mapping of a major turbidity front separating turbid waters of the southern arm of Lake Champlain from the clearer main water mass was reported on RBV 1 and 2 imagery and on subsequent MSS bands 4 and 5. Significant industrial pollution of Lake Champlain has degraded environmental quality in certain sections of the lake. Wetlands were detected and recognized using a combination of RBV bands 2 and 3. Using first-look RBV band 2 imagery, major ice marginal features were identified by using tonal patterns associated with vegetative cover. Major rivers were detected and recognized through the use of RBV band 3 imagery and MSS bands 6 and 7.

Lind, A. O. (principal investigator)

1972-01-01

126

SEA GRANT AT A GLANCE February 2014 National Sea Grant Office's  

E-print Network

:40pm ­ 11:10am Lake Champlain Sea Grant (Garber) #12;SEA GRANT AT A GLANCE ­ February 2014 3 11:10am at a glance USC Sea Grant at a glance TEXAS Sea Grant at a glance LAKE CHAMPLAIN Sea Grant at a glance

127

Micropaleontological Record of Postglacial History in Lake Champlain and Adjacent Regions: Implications for Glacial Lake Drainage and Abrupt Climate Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-glacial lacustrine and marine sediments of the Lake Champlain region range from 20 to >50 meters in thickness presenting an opportunity to assess the timing of North American glacial lake drainage at multidecadal timescales and evaluate its effect on North Atlantic salinity and abrupt climate events 13.5 to 10 kyr B.P. High-resolution analysis of foraminifera and ostracodes from cores taken

T. M. Cronin; P. L. Manley; J. Guilbault; M. Berke; J. A. Rayburn; D. A. Franzi; P. L. Knuepfer

2005-01-01

128

Groundwater quality in the Lake Champlain Basin, New York, 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water was sampled from 20 production and domestic wells from August through November 2009 to characterize groundwater quality in the Lake Champlain Basin in New York. Of the 20 wells sampled, 8 were completed in sand and gravel, and 12 were completed in bedrock. The samples were collected and processed by standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria. Water quality in the study area is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards; these were color (1 sample), pH (3 samples), sodium (3 samples), total dissolved solids (4 samples), iron (4 samples), manganese (3 samples), gross alpha radioactivity (1 sample), radon-222 (10 samples), and bacteria (5 samples). The pH of all samples was typically neutral or slightly basic (median 7.1); the median water temperature was 9.7C. The ions with the highest median concentrations were bicarbonate [median 158 milligrams per liter (mg/L)] and calcium (median 45.5 mg/L). Groundwater in the study area is soft to very hard, but more samples were hard or very hard (121 mg/L or more as CaCO3) than were moderately hard or soft (120 mg/L or less as CaCO3); the median hardness was 180 mg/L as CaCO3. The maximum concentration of nitrate plus nitrite was 3.79 mg/L as nitrogen, which did not exceed established drinking-water standards for nitrate plus nitrite (10 mg/L as nitrogen). The trace elements with the highest median concentrations were strontium (median 202 micrograms per liter [?g/L]), and iron (median 55 ?g/L in unfiltered water). Six pesticides and pesticide degradates, including atrazine, fipronil, disulfoton, prometon, and two pesticide degradates, CIAT and desulfinylfipronil, were detected among five samples at concentrations of 0.02 ?g/L or less; they included herbicides, herbicide degradates, insecticides, and insecticide degradates. Six VOCs were detected among six samples; these included a solvent, the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and four trihalomethanes. The highest radon-222 activities were in samples from crystalline bedrock wells (maximum 4,100 picocuries per liter [pCi/L]); half of all samples exceeded a proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking-water standard of 300 pCi/L. Total coliform bacteria were detected in five samples, fecal coliform bacteria were detected in one sample, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were not detected in any sample.

Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

2011-01-01

129

Mapping cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Champlain's Missisquoi Bay using QuickBird and MERIS satellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

C-phycocyanin (C-PC) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations for the eutrophic waters of Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain (VTQC) were retrieved from Envisat's MERIS radiance data (300m spatial resolution) and validated against coincident georeferenced transect observations. Pigment concentrations were also predicted from empirically calibrated QuickBird data (2.4m spatial resolution) using selected band ratios and principal components analysis. The QuickBird NIR\\/Red band ratio accounted

Sarah M. Wheeler; Leslie A. Morrissey; Suzanne N. Levine; Gerald P. Livingston; Warwick F. Vincent

130

Using Abiotic and Biotic Factors to Predict the Range Expansion of White Perch in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

White perch (Morone americana) invaded Lake Champlain, New York-Vermont, in the mid-1980s, yet abundance of white perch and those factors controlling their abundance are unknown. To predict the expansion of white perch, we differentiated between the most likely factors affecting white perch abundance; habitat characteristics or an invasion gradient (i.e., abundance is greater near the point of entry). Therefore, we

Ethan J. Hawes; Donna L. Parrish

2003-01-01

131

Distribution of pollutants from a new paper plant in southern Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

From November of 1973 to May of 1974, 15 arrays of sediment traps were placed along 33 km of southern Lake Champlain to sample\\u000a the distribution of effluent from a large paper plant located on the western shore which had commenced operation in 1971.\\u000a In the arrays located near the effluent diffuser pipeline as much as 2.3 cm of sediment

D. L. Mason; D. W. Folger; R. S. Haupt; R. R. McGirr; W. H. Hoyt

1977-01-01

132

Sediment Quality in Burlington Harbor, Lake Champlain, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface samples and cores were collected in 1993 fromthe Burlington Harbor region of Lake Champlain. Sediment samples were analyzed for trace metals(cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, silver and zinc),simultaneously extracted metal\\/acid volatile sulfide(SEM-AVS), grain size, nutrients (carbon and nitrogen)and organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatichydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs)). The concentrations of cadmium, copper,silver and zinc from the partial sediment digestion ofthe surface

E. M. Lacey; J. W. King; J. G. Quinn; E. L. Mecray; P. G. Appleby; A. S. Hunt

2001-01-01

133

Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners from Lake Champlain sediments by Mysis relicta  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Champlain often exceed the F.D.A. tolerance level of 2 [mu]g/g (wet weight). Of added concern are recent studies that suggest a relationship between the dioxin-like properties of non-ortho-substituted PCB congeners and impaired lake trout egg hatchability. Dietary accumulation of PCBs is thought to be an important exposure route for fish. The epibenthic freshwater shrimp Mysis relicta is an integral part of the benthic and pelagic food web in lake Champlain and may act as a link between PCBs in sediments and lake trout. Previous investigations have shown that diurnal migrations of mysids enhance the movement and distribution of toxic contaminants, effectively coupling the benthic and pelagic zones. The objective of this research was to examine the role contaminated sediments play in the transfer of PCBs to mysids. Bioaccumulation was assessed by exposing mysids to such sediments in two ways: (a) with organisms screened from sediments; and (b) with organisms in direct contact with sediments. Accumulation of PCBs over the course of the 24-day exposure period was examined on the following days: 0, 3, 6, 12, 21, and 24. Eighty-nine individual PCB congeners were measured in tissue and sediment. Mysids in direct contact with sediments accumulated significantly higher levels of PCBs than did organisms screened from sediments. Mysids accumulated substantial levels of PCBs, suggesting they may play an important part in the transfer of PCBs from sediments into the Lake Champlain food web. It is clear from this research that sediments can play a critical role in the accumulation of PCBs by mysids.

Lester, D.C.; McIntosh, A. (Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States). Vermont Water Resources and Lake Studies Center)

1994-11-01

134

Streamwater fluxes of total mercury and methylmercury into and out of Lake Champlain.  

PubMed

From 2000 to 2004, we sampled for total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in inlet streams to Lake Champlain, targeting high flow periods to capture increases in THg and MeHg concentrations with increasing flow. We used these data to model stream THg and MeHg fluxes for Water Years 2001 through 2009. In this mountainous forested basin with a high watershed-to-lake area ratio of 18, fluvial export from the terrestrial watershed was the dominant source of Hg to the lake. Unfiltered THg and MeHg fluxes were dominated by the particulate fraction; about 40% of stream THg was in the filtered (<0.4 ?m) phase. THg flux from the watershed to the lake averaged 2.37 ?g m(-2) yr(-1), or about 13% of atmospheric Hg wet and dry deposition to the basin. THg export from the lake represented only about 3% of atmospheric Hg input to the basin. PMID:21835521

Shanley, James B; Chalmers, Ann T

2012-02-01

135

Investigating public preferences for managing Lake Champlain using a choice experiment.  

PubMed

The Lake Champlain Basin in Vermont and New York, USA and Quebec, Canada includes a large lake and watershed with complex management issues. A transboundary comprehensive management plan prepared for the lake includes 11 goals across many issue areas. We developed a choice experiment to examine public preferences for alternative Lake Champlain management scenarios across these issue areas. Five ecosystem attributes (water clarity-algae blooms, public beach closures, land use change, fish consumption advisories and the spread of water chestnut, an invasive plant) were varied across three levels and arrayed into paired comparisons following an orthogonal fractional factorial design. Two thousand questionnaires were distributed to basin residents, each including nine paired comparisons that required trading off two, three or four attributes. Completed surveys yielded 6541 responses which were analyzed using binary logistic regression. The results showed that although water clarity and beach closures were important, safe fish consumption was the strongest predictor of choice. Land use pattern and water chestnut distribution were weaker but also significant predictors, with respondents preferring less land development and preservation of the agricultural landscape. Current management efforts in the Lake Champlain Basin are heavily weighted toward improving water clarity by reducing phosphorus pollution. Our results suggest that safe fish consumption warrants additional management attention. Because choice experiments provide information that is much richer than the simple categorical judgments more commonly used in surveys, they can provide managers with information about tradeoffs that could be used to enhance public support and maximize the social benefits of an ecosystem management program. PMID:18262328

Smyth, Robyn L; Watzin, Mary C; Manning, Robert E

2009-01-01

136

An historical assessment of trace metal accumulation in Lake Champlain, Vermont  

SciTech Connect

The Lake Champlain watershed, with its increased land use, shoreline development, and population, is being threatened by pollutants in the water column and bottom sediments. A comprehensive study is currently being conducted to characterize the bottom sediments of the lake for toxicity and to reconstruct the history of pollutant inputs. Surface sediment samples were collected from 30 stations and analyzed for metal (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cd, Al, and Ag) concentrations to determine the contaminated regions of the lake. Once the contaminated regions were determined, a Nemesis corer was used to retrieve sediments cores averaging 1 meter in length from 10 sites within Lake Champlain. Grain size and metal analyses were conducted at one and two cm intervals down the cores. Grain size data, in combination with metal and radiometric stratigraphy, can serve as an indicator of changing land use in the watershed. The grain size in some cores has a fining upward trend indicating increased land use and soil erosion. Downcore variations in metal concentrations reveal two different regimes. The concentration at depth remain consistently low and are inferred to correspond with the natural background levels. In contrast, the upper section of the cores show abrupt increases in metal concentrations which are attributed to increased anthropogenic inputs. Radiometric ([sup 210] and [sup 137]Cs) and pollen chronostratigraphy of these cores indicates that the increased metal concentrations and the changes in grain size recorded in the upper most sediments is related to increased human disturbance beginning in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. This study demonstrates that the historical record of pollution inputs to Lake Champlain can be reconstructed from the sediment sequences.

Mecray, E.L.; King, J.W. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States). Graduate School of Oceanography)

1993-03-01

137

Remote sensing models using Landsat satellite data to monitor algal blooms in Lake Champlain.  

PubMed

Lake Champlain is significantly impaired by excess phosphorus loading, requiring frequent lake-wide monitoring for eutrophic conditions and algal blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides regular, synoptic coverage of algal production over large areas with better spatial and temporal resolution compared with in situ monitoring. This study developed two algal production models using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM(+)) satellite imagery: a single band model and a band ratio model. The models predicted chlorophyll a concentrations to estimate algal cell densities throughout Lake Champlain. Each model was calibrated with in situ data compiled from summer 2006 (July 24 to September 10), and then validated with data for individual days in August 2007 and 2008. Validation results for the final single band and band ratio models produced Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) coefficients of 0.65 and 0.66, respectively, confirming satisfactory model performance for both models. Because these models have been validated over multiple days and years, they can be applied for continuous monitoring of the lake. PMID:23416605

Trescott, A; Park, M-H

2013-01-01

138

Combining scientific data in frameworks for decision-making: examples from two transboundary lakes (Lake Champlain, USA & Canada, and Lake Ohrid, Macedonia & Albania)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful integrated water resources management must be based on a comprehensive scientific data base. When measures of the physical and biological characteristics of the environment are combined with information about human activities and their effects on the ecosystem, an assessment of ecological condition can be linked to the potential causes of environmental change. In the Lake Champlain Basin, we have

Mary Watzin

2004-01-01

139

Modeling 200 Years of Changing Trophic Status in Lake Champlain Based on Land Use Change and Commercial Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleolimnological records show that since Europeans began settling in the Lake Champlain Basin almost 250 years ago, the lake has become progressively eutrophic. Eutrophication of freshwater bodies through input of excess nutrients has been a major water quality issue worldwide for the past half century (Codd et al. 2005). While the underlying causes of productivity rise in Lake Champlain, such as deforestation, increasing population, and lake level changes, have been inferred from anecdotal evidence, quantitative inferences based on modeled nutrient fluxes are lacking. Land use changes, such as the switch from subsistence farming to commercial practices focusing on one or two crops or animal types, as well as massive deforestation in 19th century, may explain some of the observed variability in nutrient and algal biomass accumulation rates since settlement began. While increased sampling of the Lake Champlain increases the amount of paleolimnological data, researching the historic information of the area gives a more complete grasp of the past drivers in land use change. In order to manage the historical land use data that are currently available, a simulation model was developed in Simile, a declarative programming software, to simulate algal productivity in response to phosphorous load based on alterations in land use, population, livestock numbers, fertilizer use, waste water treatment effluent, precipitation, and lake level. Data within the Lake Champlain Basin from the past two centuries were gathered from various online sources and individuals who had previously collected data. The output from the model was compared with phosphorus and algal pigment profiles in sediment cores collected from several locations in Lake Champlain. These show phosphorous accumulation rate and algal productivity increasing over the past 200 years, but do not indicate the reasons for change (Levine and Lini, unpublished data). Ongoing research is increasing data availability and improving model calibrations.

Carr, H. E.; Boumans, R.; Levine, S.

2009-12-01

140

Application of ERTS imagery to environmental studies of Lake Champlain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERTS Imagery has provided data relating to a number of environmental and limnological concerns such as water quality, lake flooding and lake ice formation. Pollution plume data provided by ERTS was recently used in the Supreme Court case involving the States of Vermont and New York and a paper company. Flooding of lowland tracts has been a major concern due to a repetitive pattern of high lake levels over the past three years, and ERTS imagery is being used to construct the first series of flood maps of the affected areas. Lake ice development and turbidity patterns have also been studied from ERTS, since these have significance for shore erosion studies.

Lind, A. O.

1974-01-01

141

New estimates of lethality of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attacks on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): Implications for fisheries management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control in North America costs millions of dollars each year, and control measures are guided by assessment of lamprey-induced damage to fisheries. The favored prey of sea lamprey in freshwater ecosystems has been lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). A key parameter in assessing sea lamprey damage, as well as managing lake trout fisheries, is the probability of an adult lake trout surviving a lamprey attack. The conventional value for this parameter has been 0.55, based on laboratory experiments. In contrast, based on catch curve analysis, mark-recapture techniques, and observed wounding rates, we estimated that adult lake trout in Lake Champlain have a 0.74 probability of surviving a lamprey attack. Although sea lamprey growth in Lake Champlain was lower than that observed in Lake Huron, application of an individual-based model to both lakes indicated that the probability of surviving an attack in Lake Champlain was only 1.1 times higher than that in Lake Huron. Thus, we estimated that lake trout survive a lamprey attack in Lake Huron with a probability of 0.66. Therefore, our results suggested that lethality of a sea lamprey attack on lake trout has been overestimated in previous model applications used in fisheries management. ?? 2008 NRC.

Madenjian, C.P.; Chipman, B.D.; Marsden, J.E.

2008-01-01

142

On the Assessment of Atmospheric Deposition of Sulfur and Nitrogen Species to the Surface of Large Inland LakesLake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early work indicated that wet deposition of radioactive fallout to the water surface of a lake greatly exceeded dry, when calculated as annual averages. To test whether this result also applies to the deposition rates of soluble trace gases from the lower atmosphere, data collected at land sites near Lake Champlain have been used to estimate deposition rates to the

Bruce B. Hicks

2007-01-01

143

Principal components analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in sediments from Lake Champlain and Lake George, New York, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principal-components analysis (PCA) was used to compare concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) compounds in sediments collected from two interconnected lakes, Lake Champlain and Lake George, New York, USA. Two different PCDD\\/PCDF congener profiles were present in surface sediment samples from Lake George. Samples collected near residential areas and power-boat marinas had elevated hepta- and octa-CDDs (10.3

P. O'Keefe; R. Smith; S. Connor; K. Aldous; H. Valente; R. Donnelly

1994-01-01

144

Assessing sediment quality in heterogeneous environments: A case study of a small urban harbor in Lake Champlain, Vermont, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively few case studies have been conducted demonstrating the utility of multiple endpoint approaches to sediment quality assessment in areas with moderate contaminant levels and heterogeneous conditions. Because variability is commonplace in natural systems, assessment approaches must be designed explicitly for these conditions. In an assessment of highly heterogeneous freshwater sediments in Lake Champlain, Vermont, USA, the authors measured multiple

Mary C. Watzin; Alan W. McIntosh; Erik A. Brown; Rebekah Lacey; Deborah C. Lester; Kathleen L. Newbrough; Ann R. Williams

1997-01-01

145

Movement Patterns, Activity, and Home Range of the Eastern Spiny Softshell Turtle (Apalone spinifera) in Northern Lake Champlain, Qubec, Vermont  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied movement patterns, activity, and home range of the eastern spiny softshell turtle (Apalone spinifera) in northern Lake Champlain (Quebec, Canada; Vermont) from 1996 to 1999. This turtle population is at the northern limit of its range and considered threatened. Of the 30 individuals captured and marked, 15 females and eight males were equipped with radio-transmitters and monitored from

Patrick Galois; Martin Lveill; Lyne Bouthillier; Claude Daigle; Steve Parren

2002-01-01

146

Phosphorus, Nitrogen, and Silica as Controls on Phytoplankton Biomass and Species Composition in Lake Champlain (USA-Canada)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-standing assumption that the phytoplankton in Lake Champlain are phosphorus limited was tested through measurement of physiological indicators of phosphorus status (alkaline phosphatase activity and orthophosphate turnover time) and enrichment experiments conducted four times during the growth season. Phosphorus addition to experimental carboys incubated 45 days in situ substantially increased phytoplankton biomass relative to controls in June, but had

Suzanne N. Levine; Angela d. Shambaugh; Staci E. Pomeroy; Moshe Braner

1997-01-01

147

The deposition of mercury in throughfall and litterfall in the lake champlain watershed: A short-term study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an ongoing study of the atmospheric deposition of Hg in the Lake Champlain watershed, event throughfall, event precipitation, ambient, green foliage, and litterfall samples were collected and analyzed for Hg from a mixed hardwood forest in Underhill Center, VT, for six weeks during the months of August and September 1994. During this time period, the volume-weighted mean Hg concentration in throughfall (12.0 8.5 ng ? -1) was higher than in precipitation (6.5 2.8 ng ? -1). In August and September 1994, the total deposition of Hg in throughfall was estimated to be 3.1 ?gm -2 (1.9 ?g m -2 in precipitation) to the deciduous hardwood forests in the Lake Champlain basin. The mean Hg concentration in litterfall (53.2 11.4 ng g -1) was significantly greater than the mean concentration in green foliage (34.2 +7.2 ng g -1), suggesting uptake of Hg from the atmosphere by foliage. Estimated annual litterfall deposition to the Lake Champlain basin was 13 ?g m -2. This study suggests that throughfall and litterfall play a significant role in the cycling and deposition of Hg in the Lake Champlain watershed.

Rea, Anne W.; Keeler, Gerald J.; Scherbatskoy, Timothy

148

The deposition of mercury in throughfall and litterfall in the lake champlain watershed: A short-term study  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an ongoing study of the atmospheric deposition of Hg in the Lake Champlain watershed, event throughfall, event precipitation, ambient, green foliage, and litterfall samples were collected and analyzed for Hg from a mixed hardwood forest in Underhill Center, VT, for six weeks during the months of August and September 1994. During this time period, the volume-weighted mean

Timothy Scherbatskoy

1996-01-01

149

Use of flow-normalization to evaluate nutrient concentration and flux changes in Lake Champlain tributaries, 19902009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated 20years of total phosphorus (P) and total nitrogen (N) concentration data for 18 Lake Champlain tributaries using a new statistical method based on weighted regressions to estimate daily concentration and flux histories based on discharge, season, and trend as explanatory variables. The use of all the streamflow discharge values for a given date in the

Laura Medalie; Robert M. Hirsch; Stacey A. Archfield

150

Diet of Invasive Adult White Perch ( Morone americana) and their Effects on the Zooplankton Community in Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

White perch (Morone americana) became established in Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain in the mid 1990s. Since that time, cyanobacteria blooms have become common in summer. Although introduced planktivorous fish often impact plankton communities through a reduction in Daphnia density, such effects can be difficult to predict in an opportunistic species such as white perch. In this study, we examined the

Sam C. Couture; Mary C. Watzin

2008-01-01

151

Physical processes driving high-speed currents in Lake Champlain bottom water  

SciTech Connect

The authors have examined current velocity profiles obtained at two sites in Lake Champlain to delineate physical processes causing high-speed currents near the lake bottom. Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP's) were deployed during the interval June--October, 1992 at mid-lake sites near Thompson's Point and Valcour Island. The instruments measured horizontal current velocity at 1 m intervals through the water column. The ADCP measurement range covered 74% of the water depth at the Valcour Island site and 49% at Thompson's Point site. The deepest measurement level at the Valcour Island site was 9 m above the lake floor. Two phenomena causing intense bottom currents at Valcour Island were identified in the data sets. One occurred during the relatively weak density stratification of the early summer period. It was caused by a downwelled thermocline at Valcour which was associated with impulses of northward-directed wind stress. On three occasions the wind stress was large enough to propel essentially all hypolimnion water south of Valcour Island. After these downwellings the lower layer returned as a steeply-faced internal surge with high-speed, turbulent flow at its leading edge. The second process forcing high-speed bottom currents was related to large-amplitude internal seiches that dominated Lake Champlain's main basin during September and October. Amplitudes of the seiches approached several tens of meters; their persistence suggests near-resonant wind forcing as a generating mechanism. Currents at the deepest measurement level exceeded 30 cm/s over duration's of 12 or more hours. Periods of the internal seiches were observed to vary with the intensity of stratification and with seasonal thermocline depth as predicted by first principles governing internal wave propagation.

Saylor, J.; Miller, J. (GLERL, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Manley, T.O.; Manley, P.L. (Middlebury Coll., VT (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-03-01

152

New England from Boston to Lake Champlain and up to southern Main from STS-58  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph includes much of the heart of New England, stretching from Boston and Boston Harbor (lower left) across New Hampshire and Vermont to Lake Champlain (upper left), and up to southern Maine (Portland is just off the photo at right center). North of Boston flows the Merrimack River (which forms part of the state boundary between Massachuesetts and New Hampshire). It is delineated by the small industrial towns (Concord, Manchester, Nashua, Lowell) which grew up on its banks. The White Mountains of New Hampshire are seen near the center, and Mt. Washington (6,288 feet) is capped with snow. Fort Sam Houston is contained within the northeast quadrant of the city, Brooks Air Force Base lies at the southeastern corner, and Lackland and Kelly Air Force Bases are within the suburban fringe to the southwest. San Antonio International Airport can be seen at the foot of the escarpment in the northern part of the city.

1993-01-01

153

Growth rates of rainbow smelt in Lake Champlain: Effects of density and diet  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stritzel Thomson JL, Parrish DL, Parker-Stetter SL, Rudstam LG, Sullivan PJ. Growth rates of rainbow smelt in Lake Champlain: effects of density and diet. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 2010. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract- We estimated the densities of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) using hydroacoustics and obtained specimens for diet analysis and groundtruthed acoustics data from mid-water trawl sampling in four areas of Lake Champlain, USA-Canada. Densities of rainbow smelt cohorts alternated during the 2-year study; age-0 rainbow smelt were very abundant in 2001 (up to 6fish per m2) and age-1 and older were abundant (up to 1.2fish per m2) in 2002. Growth rates and densities varied among areas and years. We used model selection on eight area-year-specific variables to investigate biologically plausible predictors of rainbow smelt growth rates. The best supported model of growth rates of age-0 smelt indicated a negative relationship with age-0 density, likely associated with intraspecific competition for zooplankton. The next best-fit model had age-1 density as a predictor of age-0 growth. The best supported models (N=4) of growth rates of age-1 fish indicated a positive relationship with availability of age-0 smelt and resulting levels of cannibalism. Other plausible models were contained variants of these parameters. Cannibalistic rainbow smelt consumed younger conspecifics that were up to 53% of their length. Prediction of population dynamics for rainbow smelt requires an understanding of the relationship between density and growth as age-0 fish outgrow their main predators (adult smelt) by autumn in years with fast growth rates, but not in years with slow growth rates. ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Stritzel, Thomson J.L.; Parrish, D.L.; Parker-Stetter, S. L.; Rudstam, L.G.; Sullivan, P.J.

2011-01-01

154

The R/V Folger a Floating Laboratory: Teaching Marine Science Skills on Lake Champlain (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate senior work has been required at Middlebury College as far back as 1960's and hands-on experiential learning was and still is the mode for our geology courses. The history of Middlebury College having a research vessel started in the 1970's when Dave Folger started the marine component of our curriculum and obtained the first Middlebury College's research vessel - a coast guard rescue surf boat (Bruno Schmidt). The second Middlebury College research vessel, the R/V Baldwin was purchased in 1985 and was used exclusively in a river-like setting due to its open cockpit and minimal research equipment. In 1990, Middlebury College received a grant from NSF-MRI to upgrade the vessel, to a then state-of the-art small oceanographic vessel including new equipment (CTD, side-scan sonar, ROV, met station, coring devices, computers and navigation). Middlebury College contributed monies to enclose the wheelhouse, install safer diesel engines, as well as a winch and an A-frame to haul in equipment. Over 600+ students used the Baldwin in a variety of geology courses; mainly Oceanography and Marine Geology. In 2010, Middlebury College received an NSF -ARRA grant (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act) to replace the ailing R/V Baldwin with a floating state-of-the art laboratory with the specific goals of increasing 1) access to lake research for Middlebury faculty and students in the biological, chemical, and environmental sciences, 2) the scope of lake research by reducing transit times over this 100km long lake, 3) stability for broad-lake research, 4) improve and expand research capabilities on Lake Champlain, 5) the carrying capacity (both equipment and people), and 6) instructional capability and overnight capabilities. The newly built R/V Folger is a sophisticated research vessel with advanced capabilities that provides a greater capacity to the research infrastructure on Lake Champlain, enhancing interdisciplinary inquiry not only for Middlebury College, but for other members of the local educational community for the next 30 to 50 years. The R/V Folger hosts significant amount of lab space allowing for on-vessel processing of real time data, enhanced navigational capabilities, smart classroom technology and new instrumentation such as multi-beam and CTD-rosette system. This all aluminum new research vessel, besides providing a new platform for Middlebury College's students, will also be used to enable faculty at other local colleges to provide experiential training in research techniques that would otherwise be unavailable; provide research training to local K-12 teachers; offer outreach to "land-locked" institutions and organizations within our tri-state region (NY, NH and VT); the development of a nautical archaeology program in the Lake Champlain basin; and produce data with environmental benefits to the region.

Manley, P.; Manley, T.

2013-12-01

155

Late Wisconsinan glacial, lacustrine and marine stratigraphy in the Champlain Valley, New York and Vermont  

SciTech Connect

The stratigraphy of late-glacial, and postglacial deposits and landforms in the Champlain Lowland is interpreted from high-resolution (3.5 khz transducer) acoustical profiling and piston core analysis of sediments beneath Lake Champlain in conjunction with detailed morphologic sequence mapping of surficial deposits. The sediments of Lake Champlain have been grouped by acoustic, lithologic, and biostratigraphic criteria into three stratigraphic units that were deposited successively into Lake Vermont, the Champlain Sea, and Lake Champlain. The maximum thickness of unconsolidated sediment is known to exceed 200 meters locally. Biostratigraphic subdivision of these units using pollen, diatoms, ostracodes, and foraminifera provides further definition of late-glacial and postglacial events in the region and indicates that transitional environments occurred as conditions changed from proglacial lake to marine estuary to freshwater lake. The stratigraphy of surficial deposits records proglacial lake sequences in the Champlain Valley and its tributaries. Interbasinal correlation of the tributary proglacial lake sequences and reconstructed ice marginal positions, is consistent with a model of generally synchronous, northward recession controlled primarily by backwasting of active continental ice lobes. Minor asynchroneity of retreat rates may be attributed to local differences in subglacial topography and changes in proglacial lake level, both of which may affect calving rates. Northward ice recession of the Champlain Lobe allowed successive inundation of tributary valleys by Lake Vermont. Elevations of deltaic sandplains reveal at least three distinct lake levels in the northwestern Champlain Valley. The highest level corresponds to the Coveville Stage while the lower two represent levels of the Fort Ann Stage.

Franzi, D.A. (Stat Univ. of New York, Plattsburgh, NY (United States). Center for Earth and Environmental Science); Hunt, A.S. (Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-03-01

156

Role of wetlands in reducing phosphorus loading to surface water in eight watersheds in the Lake Champlain Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A landscape-level approach was applied to eight rural watersheds to assess the role that wetlands play in reducing phosphorus\\u000a loading to surface waters in the Lake Champlain Basin. Variables summarizing various characteristics of wetlands within a\\u000a watershed were calculated using a geographic information system and then compared to measured phosphorus loading through multiple\\u000a regression analyses. The inclusion of a variable

Christine M. Weller; Mary C. Watzin; Deane Wang

1996-01-01

157

Historical Trace Metal Accumulation in the Sediments of an Urbanized Region of the Lake Champlain Watershed, Burlington, Vermont  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study documents the history ofpollution inputs in the Burlington region of LakeChamplain, Vermont using measurements of anthropogenicmetals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Ag) in four age-datedsediment cores. Sediments record a history ofcontamination in a region and can be used to assessthe changing threat to biota over time and to evaluatethe effectiveness of discharge regulations onanthropogenic inputs.Grain size, magnetic

Ellen L. Mecray; John W. King; Peter G. Appleby; Allen S. Hunt

2001-01-01

158

Distribution of pollutants from a new paper plant in southern Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From November of 1973 to May of 1974, 15 arrays of sediment traps were placed along 33 km of southern Lake Champlain to sample the distribution of effluent from a large paper plant located on the western shore which had commenced operation in 1971. In the arrays located near the effluent diffuser pipeline as much as 2.3 cm of sediment accumulated, whereas elsewhere in the lake less than 1 cm accumulated. In the area of accelerated accumulation, sediments contained high concentrations of several components used in or derived from paper manufacturing. Values for kaolinite, expressed as the ratio of kaolinite to chlorite, for example, were as high as 1.4, anatase (TiO2) concentrations were as high as 0.8%, organic carbon 8.7%, and phosphorus 254 ??g/g; all were more abundant than in sediments collected in traps to the south or north. In surficial bottom sediments collected near each array organic carbon and phosphorus were also higher (4.2% and 127 ??g/g respectively) near the diffuser than elsewhere. Thus, the new plant after three years of production measurably affected the composition of suspended sediment and surficial bottom sediment despite the construction and use of extensive facilities to reduce the flow of pollutants to the lake. ?? 1977 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Mason, D.L.; Folger, D.W.; Haupt, R.S.; McGirr, R.R.; Hoyt, W.H.

1977-01-01

159

Application of ERTS-1 imagery in the Vermont-New York dispute over pollution of Lake Champlain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery and a composite map derived from ERTS-1 imagery were presented as evidence in a U.S. Supreme Court case involving the pollution of an interstate water body (Lake Champlain). A pollution problem generated by a large paper mill forms the basis of the suit (Vermont vs. International Paper Co. and State of New York) and ERTS-1 imagery shows the effluent pattern on the lake surface as extending into Vermont during three different times.

Lind, A. O. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

160

Application of PMF in the Investigation of VOCs Emission Sources for Lake Champlain Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) have long been considered hazardous atmospheric pollutants. VOCs account for the majority of the 188 air toxics species listed in the 1990 Clean Air Act (US). The National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) Program established by EPA aims to coordinate national and state level efforts on concentration data collection, emission inventory, and population risk assessment. Like many other states, the State of Vermont established its Air Toxics Program which consists of seven monitoring sites, some of which started sample collection as early as 1993. This presentation focuses on an ongoing project to investigate emission sources of VOCs in the Lake Champlain Basin. Two monitoring sites, Burlington and Underhill sites were selected for their representation of two distinctly different urban and rural environments. Statistical methods including the Positive Matrix Factorization were employed. Identified likely sources, up to fourteen of them for each site, that are either common to both sites or unique to one of the two, as well as the apportionment results, will be discussed. In addition, the presentation will discuss particular challenges arisen in the source-receptor modeling processes due to low concentration levels of many VOCs, the absence of some very volatile species in the Vermont Air Toxics monitoring program, rapid chemical transformations or decompositions occurred during atmospheric transport of the VOCs, and the complexity and uncertainty in the emissions inventory.

Gao, N.; Anderson, K.; Poirot, R.

2009-04-01

161

Application of the WHO alert level framework to cyanobacterial monitoring of Lake Champlain, Vermont.  

PubMed

The increasing incidence of toxic cyanobacteria blooms worldwide has created a need for practical and efficient monitoring in order to protect public health. We developed a monitoring and alert framework based on World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations and applied it on Lake Champlain during the summers of 2002-2004. The protocol began with collection of net samples of phytoplankton in order to maximize the chance of finding potential toxin-producing cyanobacteria. Samples were collected lake-wide in partnership with ongoing monitoring efforts, but because open water sample sites did not capture conditions along the shoreline, we added near-shore and shoreline stations in problem areas. Samples were examined qualitatively until potential toxin-producing taxa were found. Then quantitative analyses began, using a rapid screening method to estimate cell density based on colony size. A final cell density of 4000 cells/mL triggered toxin analyses. Primary analysis was for microcystins using ELISA methods. Cell densities, locations of colonies, and toxin concentrations were reported weekly to public health officials. We found that screening for potential toxin-producing cyanobacteria and then measuring toxin concentrations when cell densities reached critical levels worked well to identify problem locations. Although the WHO recommends using chlorophyll a concentration, it was not a good indicator of problem densities of potential toxin-producing cyanobacteria. Our cell density screening method missed no developing blooms but produced less precise density estimates at high cell counts. Overall, our framework appears to provide an efficient and effective method for monitoring cyanotoxin risks. PMID:16646001

Watzin, Mary C; Miller, Emily Brines; Shambaugh, Angela D; Kreider, Meghan A

2006-06-01

162

Carbon Cycling and the Coupling Between Proton and Electron Transfer Reactions in Aquatic Sediments in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used fine-scale porewater profiles and rate measurements together with a multiple component transportreaction model to\\u000a investigate carbon degradation pathways and the coupling between electron and proton transfer reactions in Lake Champlain\\u000a sediments. We measured porewater profiles of O2, Mn2+, Fe2+, HS?, pH and pCO2 at mm resolution by microelectrodes, and profiles of NO3\\u000a ?, SO4\\u000a 2?, NH4\\u000a +, total

Wei-Jun CaiGeorge; George W. Luther; Jeffrey C. Cornwell; Anne E. Giblin

2010-01-01

163

Great Lakes Region Sea Grant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Site dedicated to the Great Lakes Sea Grant program. Information on GLSG priorities and initiatives. Topics of increased importance to the Great Lakes include fisheries and invasive species. Links to sites featuring publications and photos of Great Lakes storms and seiches and wildlife.

164

Great Lakes Region Sea Grant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is dedicated to the Great Lakes Sea Grant program. It provides information on the GLSG's priorities and initiatives. Topics of increased importance to the Great Lakes include fisheries and invasive species. Links to sites featuring publications and photos of Great Lakes storms and wildlife.

165

Sediment quality in Burlington Harbor, Lake Champlain, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surface samples and cores were collected in 1993 from the Burlington Harbor region of Lake Champlain. Sediment samples were analyzed for trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, silver and zinc), simultaneously extracted metal/acid volatile sulfide (SEM-AVS), grain size, nutrients (carbon and nitrogen) and organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)). The concentrations of cadmium, copper, silver and zinc from the partial sediment digestion of the surface samples correlated well with each other (r2 > 0.60) indicating that either a common process, or group of processes determined the sediment concentrations of these metals. In an analysis of the spatial distribution of the trace metals and PAHs, high surficial concentrations were present in the southern portion of the Harbor. The trace metal trend was strengthened when the concentrations were normalized by grain size. A sewage treatment plant outfall discharge was present in the southeastern portion of the Harbor at the time of this study and is the major source of trace metal and PAH contamination. Evaluation of sediment cores provides a proxy record of historical trace metal and organic inputs. The peak accumulation rate for copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc was in the late 1960s and the peak silver accumulation rate was later. The greatest accumulation of trace metals occurred in the late 1960s after discharges from the STP began. Subsequent declines in trace metal concentrations may be attributed to increased water and air regulations. The potential toxicity of trace metals and organic contaminants was predicted by comparing contaminant concentrations to benchmark concentrations and potential trace metal bioavailability was predicted with SEM-AVS results. Surface sample results indicate lead, silver, ???PAHs and ???PCBs are potentially toxic and/or bioavailable. These predictions were supported by studies of biota in the Burlington Harbor watershed. There is a clear trend of decreasing PAH and trace metal contaminant concentrations with distance from the STP outfall.Surface samples and cores were collected in 1993 from the Burlington Harbor region of Lake Champlain. Sediment samples were analyzed for trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, silver and zinc), simultaneously extracted metal/acid volatile sulfide (SEM-AVS), grain size, nutrients (carbon and nitrogen) and organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)). The concentrations of cadmium, copper, silver and zinc from the partial sediment digestion of the surface samples correlated well with each other (r2>0.60) indicating that either a common process, or group of processes determined the sediment concentrations of these metals. In an analysis of the spatial distribution of the trace metals and PAHs, high surficial concentrations were present in the southern portion of the Harbor. The trace metal trend was strengthened when the concentrations were normalized by grain size. A sewage treatment plant outfall discharge was present in the southeastern portion of the Harbor at the time of this study and is the major source of trace metal and PAH contamination. Evaluation of sediment cores provides a proxy record of historical trace metal and organic inputs. The peak accumulation rate for copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc was in the late 1960s and the peak silver accumulation rate was later. The greatest accumulation of trace metals occurred in the late 1960s after discharges from the STP began. Subsequent declines in trace metal concentrations may be attributed to increased water and air regulations. The potential toxicity of trace metals and organic contaminants was predicted by comparing contaminant concentrations to benchmark concentrations and potential trace metal bioavailability was predicted with SEM-AVS results. Surface sample results indicate lead, silver, ??PAHs and ??PCBs are potentially toxic and/or bi

Lacey, E.M.; King, J.W.; Quinn, J.G.; Mecray, E.L.; Appleby, P.G.; Hunt, A.S.

2001-01-01

166

Hydroacoustic separation of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in Lake Champlain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Separate assessment of young-of-year (YOY) and yearling-and-older (YAO) fish is desirable from both ecological and management perspectives. Acoustic assessments provide information on fish population size structure in the target strength (TS) distribution, but interpretation of TS distributions must be done carefully, as single age groups can produce multiple TS modes. We assessed the ability of in situ TS distributions to identify Lake Champlain rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in June, July, and September of 2001 using mobile and stationary surveys, knowledge of vertical distribution preferences, and predicted TS from trawl catches. YAO rainbow smelt (93-179 mm total length) had wide TS distributions between -60 and -35 dB in all 3 months with two modes at approximately -50 and -40 dB. Most stationary survey single-fish tracks attributed to YAO had targets in both TS modes and a wide TS range often over 15 dB. Between June and September, YOY rainbow smelt TS increased, but single-fish tracks were unimodal, and the TS range was smaller (6 dB). Overlap in TS attributed to YOY and YAO increased from no overlap in June (YOY TS -76 to -61 dB, 15-25 mm) to moderate overlap in July (-76 to -50 dB, 25-63 mm) to considerable overlap in September (-68 to -45 dB, 33-80 mm). In June and July, the TS distribution changed abruptly at the thermocline, indicating almost complete separation of the two groups. A more gradual TS transition was evident in September, indicating substantial overlap between YOY and YAO. Separate estimates can be obtained in September by decomposing TS overlap into components attributed to YOY and YAO rainbow smelt. However, this decomposition introduces additional uncertainty and an assessment in July or possibly August is preferable to obtain separate abundance estimates of YOY and YAO. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Parker, Stetter S.L.; Rudstam, L.G.; Stritzel, Thomson J.L.; Parrish, D.L.

2006-01-01

167

Paper plant effluent revisited-southern Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used geologic and geochemical techniques to document the change with time of the distribution and concentration of contaminated bottom sediments in southern Lake Champlain near an International Paper Company plant. Our work, initiated in 1972, was expanded on behalf of Vermont citizens in a class-action suit against the International Paper Company. To update our 1972-1973 results, we collected nine cores in 1988 upstream and downstream from the paper plant effluent diffuser. Water content, volatile solids, organic carbon, and three ratios, Al/Si, Cl/Si, and S/Si, in addition to megascopic and microscopic observations, were evaluated to identify and trace the distribution of effluent and to measure the thickness of sediment affected by or containing components of effluent. Analyses were carried out on samples from the cores as well as from effluent collected directly from the plant's waste treatment facility. In 1973, two years after the plant opened, we cored near the diffuser; sediment contaminated with effluent was 4.5 cm thick. In 1988, in the same area, sediment contaminated with effluent was 17 cm thick. In 15 years, water content increased from 72 to 85 percent, volatile solids from 7 to 20 percent, and organic carbon from 2 to 12 percent. Cl/Si and S/Si were high only near the diffuser and were zero elsewhere. In the area of the diffuser, contaminated sediment appears to be accumulating at a rate of about 1 cm/yr. At a control location 22 km upstream (south) from the plant, the top, poorly consoli-dated layer was only 1 cm or less thick both in 1973 and in 1988. The class-action suit was settled in favor of the plaintiffs for $5 million. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

Haupt, R.S.; Folger, D.W.

1993-01-01

168

Ground-water quality in the Lake Champlain basin, New York, 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples were collected from 11 public-supply wells and 11 private domestic wells in the Lake Champlain basin in New York during the fall of 2004 to characterize the chemical quality of ground water. Wells were selected for sampling based on location and focused on areas of greatest ground-water use. Samples were analyzed for 219 physical properties and constituents, including inorganic compounds, nutrients, metals, radionuclides, pesticides and pesticide degradates, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. Sixty-eight constituents were detected at concentrations above laboratory reporting levels. The cation and anion with the highest median concentration were calcium (34.8 mg/L) bicarbonate (134 mg/L), respectively. The predominant nutrient was nitrate, which was detected in 14 (64 percent) of the 22 samples. The two metals with the highest median concentrations were iron (175 ?g/L) and strontium (124 ?g/L); concentrations of iron, manganese, aluminum, and zinc exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary drinking-water standards in one or more samples. Radon concentrations were less than 1,000 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) in most samples, but concentrations as high as 6,900 pCi/L were detected and, in eight samples, exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed maximum contaminant level (300 pCi/L) for radon. The most frequently detected pesticides were degradates of the broadleaf herbicides metolachlor, alachlor, and atrazine. Volatile organic compounds were detected in only three samples; those that were detected typically were fuel oxygenates, such as methyl tert-butyl ether. Coliform bacteria were detected in four samples, two of which also tested positive for E. coli.

Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

2006-01-01

169

Paper plant effluent revisited-southern Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used geologic and geochemical techniques to document the change with time of the distribution and concentration of contaminated bottom sediments in southern Lake Champlain near an International Paper Company plant. Our work, initiated in 1972, was expanded on behalf of Vermont citizens in a class-action suit against the International Paper Company. To update our 1972 1973 results, we collected nine cores in 1988 upstream and downstream from the paper plant effluent diffuser. Water content, volatile solids, organic carbon, and three ratios, Al/Si, Cl/Si, and S/Si, in addition to megascopic and microscopic observations, were evaluated to identify and trace the distribution of effluent and to measure the thickness of sediment affected by or containing components of effluent. Analyses were carried out on samples from the cores as well as from effluent collected directly from the plant's waste treatment facility. In 1973, two years after the plant opened, we cored near the diffuser; sediment contaminated with effluent was 4.5 cm thick. In 1988, in the same area, sediment contaminated with effluent was 17 cm thick. In 15 years, water content increased from 72 to 85 percent, volatile solids from 7 to 20 percent, and organic carbon from 2 to 12 percent. Cl/Si and S/Si were high only near the diffuser and were zero elsewhere. In the area of the diffuser, contaminated sediment appears to be accumulating at a rate of about 1 cm/yr. At a control location 22 km upstream (south) from the plant, the top, poorly consoli-dated layer was only 1 cm or less thick both in 1973 and in 1988. The class-action suit was settled in favor of the plaintiffs for 5 million.

Haupt, R. S.; Folger, D. W.

1993-04-01

170

Meltwater discharge and the triggering of Younger Dryas : new data on the chronology of Champlain Sea transgression in the St-Lawrence River Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate chronology of ice retreat is crucial to understand the Ocean-Atmosphere couple at the end of the Pleistocene. The St-Lawrence River Valley is key in this regard, and two sedimentary sequences from Mount Saint-Hilaire, in the middle of the valley, contain a record that sheds new lignt on ice retreat and the penecontemporaneous proglacial marine invasion. Basal AMS-dates on terrestrial plant macrofossils coupled with an extrapolation from the pollen content of underlying postglacial lake sediments at Hemlock Carr (243 m), show that local ice retreat occurred around 11 350 14C yr BP. Cross-dating of such macrofossils (10 510 60 14C yr BP) with shells from marine sediments (~12 200 14C yr BP) catched in the neighbouring Lake Hertel's basin (169 m) show a ca. 1700 14C years difference mainly ascribed to the effect of old, glacially-derived carbon in the upper shallow waters of the Champlain Sea. The pollen-based chronological extrapolation at Lake Hertel indicates that the marine invasion occurred around 11 100 100 14C yr BP. This result supports the chronology based on deep-water invertebrate marine fauna (Rodrigues, 1988). The 14C assessment of the New-England varve chronology (Ridge et al., 1999) is thus confirmed. Deglaciation of the entire Saint-Lawrence River Valley took place within 1000 14C years. The chronology of ice retreat in southern Qubec is shortened and made younger. This prompts major revision of all the associated paleohydrological events. Routing of the glacial meltwaters to the North Atlantic was impossible before 11 100 14C yr BP. The abrupt transition from Glacial Lake Candona (ca. 220 m) to the proglacial phase of the Champlain Sea (ca. 190 m) at 11 100 14C yr BP implies an input of glacial meltwater to the ocean estimated at 1500 km3. This may well have affected the thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic and triggered the Younger Dryas oscillation.

Richard, P.; Occhietti, S.

2004-05-01

171

A leaky aquifer below Champlain Sea clay: closed-form solutions for natural seepage.  

PubMed

Closed-form solutions are proposed for natural seepage in semiconfined (leaky) aquifers such as those existing below the massive Champlain Sea clay layers in the Saint-Lawrence River Valley. The solutions are for an ideal horizontal leaky aquifer below an ideal aquitard that may have either a constant thickness and a constant hydraulic head at its surface, or a variable thickness and a variable hydraulic head at its surface. A few simplifying assumptions were needed to obtain the closed-form solutions. These have been verified using a finite element method, which did not make any of the assumptions but gave an excellent agreement for hydraulic heads and groundwater velocities. For example, the difference between the two solutions was smaller than 1 mm for variations in the 5 to 8 m range for the hydraulic head in the semiconfined aquifer. Note that fitting the hydraulic head data of monitoring wells to the theoretical solutions gives only the ratio of the aquifer and aquitard hydraulic conductivities, a clear case of multiple solutions for an inverse problem. Consequently, field permeability tests in the aquitard and the aquifer, and pumping tests in the aquifer, are still needed to determine the hydraulic conductivity values. PMID:23441962

Chapuis, Robert P; Saucier, Antoine

2013-01-01

172

Wastewater effluent, combined sewer overflows, and other sources of organic compounds to Lake Champlain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some sources of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) to streams, lakes, and estuaries, including wastewater-treatment-plant effluent, have been well documented, but other sources, particularly wet-weather discharges from combined-sewer-overflow (CSO) and urban runoff, may also be major sources of OWCs. Samples of wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) effluent, CSO effluent, urban streams, large rivers, a reference (undeveloped) stream, and Lake Champlain were collected from March to August 2006. The highest concentrations of many OWCs associated with wastewater were in WWTP-effluent samples, but high concentrations of some OWCs in samples of CSO effluent and storm runoff from urban streams subject to leaky sewer pipes or CSOs were also detected. Total concentrations and numbers of compounds detected differed substantially among sampling sites. The highest total OWC concentrations (10-100 ??g/l) were in samples of WWTP and CSO effluent. Total OWC concentrations in samples from urban streams ranged from 0.1 to 10 ??g/l, and urban stream-stormflow samples had higher concentrations than baseflow samples because of contributions of OWCs from CSOs and leaking sewer pipes. The relations between OWC concentrations in WWTP-effluent and those in CSO effluent and urban streams varied with the degree to which the compound is removed through normal wastewater treatment. Concentrations of compounds that are highly removed during normal wastewater treatment [including caffeine, Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, and cholesterol] were generally similar to or higher in CSO effluent than in WWTP effluent (and ranged from around 1 to over 10 ??g/l) because CSO effluent is untreated, and were higher in urban-stream stormflow samples than in baseflow samples as a result of CSO discharge and leakage from near-surface sources during storms. Concentrations of compounds that are poorly removed during treatment, by contrast, are higher in WWTP effluent than in CSO, due to dilution. Results indicate that CSO effluent and urban stormwaters can be a significant major source of OWCs entering large water bodies such as Burlington Bay. ?? 2008 American Water Resources Association.

Phillips, P.; Chalmers, A.

2009-01-01

173

Unraveling associations between cyanobacteria blooms and in-lake environmental conditions in Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain, USA, using a modified self-organizing map.  

PubMed

Exploratory data analysis on physical, chemical, and biological data from sediments and water in Lake Champlain reveals a strong relationship between cyanobacteria, sediment anoxia, and the ratio of dissolved nitrogen to soluble reactive phosphorus. Physical, chemical, and biological parameters of lake sediment and water were measured between 2007 and 2009. Cluster analysis using a self-organizing artificial neural network, expert opinion, and discriminant analysis separated the data set into no-bloom and bloom groups. Clustering was based on similarities in water and sediment chemistry and non-cyanobacteria phytoplankton abundance. Our analysis focused on the contribution of individual parameters to discriminate between no-bloom and bloom groupings. Application to a second, more spatially diverse data set, revealed similar no-bloom and bloom discrimination, yet a few samples possess all the physicochemical characteristics of a bloom without the high cyanobacteria cell counts, suggesting that while specific environmental conditions can support a bloom, another environmental trigger may be required to initiate the bloom. Results highlight the conditions coincident with cyanobacteria blooms in Missisquoi Bay of Lake Champlain and indicate additional data are needed to identify possible ecological contributors to bloom initiation. PMID:24251635

Pearce, Andrea R; Rizzo, Donna M; Watzin, Mary C; Druschel, Gregory K

2013-12-17

174

Historical trace metal accumulation in the sediments of an urbanized region of the Lake Champlain watershed, Burlington, Vermont  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study documents the history of pollution inputs in the Burlington region of Lake Champlain, Vermont using measurements of anthropogenic metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Ag) in four age-dated sediment cores. Sediments record a history of contamination in a region and can be used to assess the changing threat to biota over time and to evaluate the effectiveness of discharge regulations on anthropogenic inputs. Grain size, magnetic susceptibility, radiometric dating and pollen stratigraphy were combined with trace metal data to provide an assessment of the history of contamination over the last 350 yr in the Burlington region of Lake Champlain. Magnetic susceptibility was initially used to identify land-use history for each site because it is a proxy indicator of soil erosion. Historical trends in metal inputs in the Burlington region from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries are reflected in downcore variations in metal concentrations and accumulation rates. Metal concentrations increase above background values in the early to mid nineteenth century. The metal input rate to the sediments increases around 1920 and maximum concentrations and accumulation rates are observed in the late 1960s. Decreases in concentration and accumulation rate between 1970 and the present are observed, for most metals. The observed trends are primarily a function of variations in anthropogenic inputs and not variations in sediment grain size. Grain size data were used to remove texture variations from the metal profiles and results show trends in the anthropogenic metal signals remain. Radiometric dating and pollen stratigraphy provide well-constrained dates for the sediments thereby allowing the metal profiles to be interpreted in terms of land-use history.This study documents the history of pollution inputs in the Burlington region of Lake Champlain, Vermont using measurements of anthropogenic metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Ag) in four age-dated sediment cores. Sediments record a history of contamination in a region and can be used to assess the changing threat to biota over time and to evaluate the effectiveness of discharge regulations on anthropogenic inputs. Grain size, magnetic susceptibility, radiometric dating and pollen stratigraphy were combined with trace metal data to provide an assessment of the history of contamination over the last 350 yr in the Burlington region of Lake Champlain. Magnetic susceptibility was initially used to identify land-use history for each site because it is a proxy indicator of soil erosion. Historical trends in metal inputs in the Burlington region from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries are reflected in downcore variations in metal concentrations and accumulation rates. Metal concentrations increase above background values in the early to mid nineteenth century. The metal input rate to the sediments increases around 1920 and maximum concentrations and accumulation rates are observed in the late 1960s. Decreases in concentration and accumulation rate between 1970 and the present are observed for most metals. The observed trends are primarily a function of variations in anthropogenic inputs and not variations in sediment grain size. Grain size data were used to remove texture variations from the metal profiles and results show trends in the anthropogenic metal signals remain. Radiometric dating and pollen stratigraphy provide well-constrained dates for the sediments thereby allowing the metal profiles to be interpreted in terms of land-use history.

Mecray, E.L.; King, J.W.; Appleby, P.G.; Hunt, A.S.

2001-01-01

175

Use of flow-normalization to evaluate nutrient concentration and flux changes in Lake Champlain tributaries, 1990-2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated 20 years of total phosphorus (P) and total nitrogen (N) concentration data for 18 Lake Champlain tributaries using a new statistical method based on weighted regressions to estimate daily concentration and flux histories based on discharge, season, and trend as explanatory variables. The use of all the streamflow discharge values for a given date in the record, in a process called "flow-normalization," removed the year-to-year variation due to streamflow and generated a smooth time series from which trends were calculated. This approach to data analysis can be of great value to evaluations of the success of restoration efforts because it filters out the large random fluctuations in the flux that are due to the temporal variability in streamflow. Results for the full 20 years of record showed a mixture of upward and downward trends for concentrations and yields of P and N. When the record was broken into two 10-year periods, for many tributaries, the more recent period showed a reversal in N from upward to downward trends and a similar reversal or reduction in magnitude of upward trends for P. Some measures of P and N concentrations and yields appear to be related to intensity of agricultural activities, point-source loads of P, or population density. Total flow-normalized P flux aggregated from the monitored tributaries showed a decrease of 30 metric tons per year from 1991 to 2009, which is about 15% of the targeted reduction established by the operational management plan for the Lake Champlain Basin.

Medalie, Laura; Hirsch, Robert M.; Archfield, Stacey A.

2012-01-01

176

Wetlands in the Lake Champlain region of Vermont: Present and future threats to the resource. Boundary determination and background information for the EPA's proposed advanced identification. Final report  

SciTech Connect

EPA Region 1 Wetlands Protections Section is planning an Advanced Identification Project for the Lake Champlain Region of Vermont. 'Advanced Identification' refers to the two authorities EPA can utilize under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act to protect wetlands in advance of permit applications. In Vermont, a combined activities-based Advanced Identification of Sites (AIS) and Advance 404(c) project is proposed. This study determines the boundaries for the Advanced Identification action. It discusses the criteria developed to evaluate watershed considerations and both present and future threats to the resource. All towns in four counties bordering Lake Champlain were evaluated with regard to location in watershed, wetland acreage, wetland loss, population projections, historical growth trends, tax information, and housing stock estimates. Based on the criteria listed above, the towns selected are experiencing the types of growth pressures that will lead to continued wetland loss. EPA plans to restrict work at especially valuable sites with this area using Advance 404(c).

Borre, M.A.

1988-11-01

177

Contingent rating method for measuring the benefits of water-quality improvements: development and application. [St. Albans Bay, Lake Champlain  

SciTech Connect

A new contigent valuation method was developed and tested for estimating the benefits from improving the water quality of a lake or stream. The need for such a method arises because of the public-goods nature of water quality. The contigent rating method is a technique that uses utility information to indirectly measure the benefits from an improvement in water quality at a recreation site. Indifference curves reflecting an individual's preferences for cleaner water at a site are derived through a rating game. By applying a budget line to the indifference surface, the Hicksian welfare measure of benefits from the provision of improved water quality can be obtained. This method was used to estimate the benefits from improving the water quality in St. Albans Bay, on Lake Champlain in Vermont. The results of the application of the contingent rating method are very encouraging. The technique is easy to administer. Most of the indifference maps were consistent with economic theory. Almost all of the maps implied that a cleaner St. Albans Bay is preferred to the current state, agreeing with verbal statements made by the respondents.

Ribaudo, M.O.

1983-01-01

178

Role of wetlands in reducing phosphorus loading to surface water in eight watersheds in the Lake Champlain Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A landscape-level approach was applied to eight rural watersheds to assess the role that wetlands play in reducing phosphorus loading to surface waters in the Lake Champlain Basin. Variables summarizing various characteristics of wetlands within a watershed were calculated using a geographic information system and then compared to measured phosphorus loading through multiple regression analyses. The inclusion of a variable based on the area of riparian wetlands located along low- and medium-order streams in conjunction with the area of agricultural and nonwetland forested lands explained 88% of the variance in phosphorus loading to surface waters. The best fit model coefficients (Pload = 0.86Ag + 0.64For - 30Ripwet + 160) suggest that a hectare of riparian wetland may be many times more important in reducing phosphorus than an agricultural hectare is in producing phosphorus. These results provide additional support for the concept that protection of riparian wetlands is an important management strategy for controlling stream water quality in multiuse landscapes.

Weller, Christine M.; Watzin, Mary C.; Wang, Deane

1996-09-01

179

Role of Wetlands in Reducing Phosphorus Loading to Surface Water in Eight Watersheds in the Lake Champlain Basin  

PubMed

A landscape-level approach was applied to eight rural watersheds to assess the role that wetlands play in reducing phosphorus loading to surface waters in the Lake Champlain Basin. Variables summarizing various characteristics of wetlands within a watershed were calculated using a geographic information system and then compared to measured phosphorus loading through multiple regression analyses. The inclusion of a variable based on the area of riparian wetlands located along low- and medium-order streams in conjunction with the area of agricultural and nonwetland forested lands explained 88% of the variance in phosphorus loading to surface waters. The best fit model coefficients (Pload=0.86Ag+0.64For-30Ripwet+160) suggest that a hectare of riparian wetland may be many times more important in reducing phosphorus than an agricultural hectare is in producing phosphorus. These results provide additional support for the concept that protection of riparian wetlands is an important management strategy for controlling stream water quality in multiuse landscapes.KEY WORDS: Wetlands; Phosphorus; Landscape; Regression model; Riparian; Vermont PMID:8703110

Weller; Watzin; Wang

1996-09-01

180

Assessing sediment quality in heterogeneous environments: A case study of a small urban harbor in Lake Champlain, Vermont, USA  

SciTech Connect

Relatively few case studies have been conducted demonstrating the utility of multiple endpoint approaches to sediment quality assessment in areas with moderate contaminant levels and heterogeneous conditions. Because variability is commonplace in natural systems, assessment approaches must be designed explicitly for these conditions. In an assessment of highly heterogeneous freshwater sediments in Lake Champlain, Vermont, USA, the authors measured multiple endpoints, including physical and chemical characteristics of the sediment, acute and chronic toxicity in three tests (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Chironomus tentans, and Pimephales promelas), and benthic community composition, at 19 sites throughout Inner Burlington Harbor. Multiple regression techniques were used to investigate whether significant relationships existed between biological endpoints and the physical and chemical characteristics of the sediments. Although all three laboratory exposures indicated toxicity at some sites, little correspondence was found among the tests. No changes in the benthic community could be attributed to trace contaminants. Multiple regression was useful in showing associations between contaminants, grain size, toxicity, and benthic community composition. Although not demonstrating causal linkages, these statistical analyses suggested which factors might be important in driving measured responses. In heterogeneous sites, an individualized assessment approach based on a preliminary analysis of variability might provide the most useful information.

Watzin, M.C.; McIntosh, A.W.; Brown, E.A.; Lacey, R.; Lester, D.C.; Newbrough, K.L.; Williams, A.R. [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States). School of Natural Resources

1997-10-01

181

75 FR 10229 - Application for Presidential Permit; Champlain Hudson Power Express, Inc.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Bridgeport, Connecticut. From the U.S.-Canada border, the submarine transmission cables would be routed through Lake Champlain and travel south to the northern entrance of the Champlain Canal, near Whitehall, New York. To the extent...

2010-03-05

182

Vermont Water Resources and Lake Studies Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

as well as other collaborating stakeholder groups. These groups include the Lake Champlain Basin Program, the Lake Champlain Research Consortium, municipalities, and NGOs. Additional support for the Vermont Water Sensing and GIS Modeling, Lake Champlain 2010 Conference: Our Lake, Our Future, Lake Champlain Research

183

Concentration and flux of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids for monitored tributaries of Lake Champlain, 1990-2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual and daily concentrations and fluxes of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids were estimated for 18 monitored tributaries to Lake Champlain by using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Seasons regression model. Estimates were made for 21 or 23 years, depending on data availability, for the purpose of providing timely and accessible summary reports as stipulated in the 2010 update to the Lake Champlain Opportunities for Action management plan. Estimates of concentration and flux were provided for each tributary based on (1) observed daily discharges and (2) a flow-normalizing procedure, which removed the random fluctuations of climate-related variability. The flux bias statistic, an indicator of the ability of the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season regression models to provide accurate representations of flux, showed acceptable bias (less than 10 percent) for 68 out of 72 models for total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride. Six out of 18 models for total suspended solids had moderate bias (between 10 and 30 percent), an expected result given the frequently nonlinear relation between total suspended solids and discharge. One model for total suspended solids with a very high bias was influenced by a single extreme value; however, removal of that value, although reducing the bias substantially, had little effect on annual fluxes.

Medalie, Laura

2014-01-01

184

High-water marks from flooding in Lake Champlain from April through June 2011 and Tropical Storm Irene in August 2011 in Vermont  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, identified high-water marks after two floods in Vermont during 2011. Following a snowy winter, new monthly precipitation records were set in Burlington, Vermont, in April and May 2011, causing extensive flooding from April through June. The spring 2011 flooding resulted in a new record for stage (103.27 feet, referenced to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929) at the Lake Champlain at Burlington, Vt., gaging station (04294500). During August 28 and 29, 2011, tropical storm Irene delivered rainfall totals of 3 to more than 7 inches throughout Vermont, which resulted in extensive flooding and new streamflow records at nine streamgaging stations. Four presidential declarations of disaster were made following the 2011 flood events in Vermont. Thirty-nine high-water marks were identified and flagged to mark the highest levels of Lake Champlain from the May 2011 flooding, and 1,138 high-water marks were identified and flagged along Vermont rivers after flooding from tropical storm Irene in August 2011. Seventy-four percent of the high-water marks that were flagged were later found and surveyed to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988.

Medalie, Laura; Olson, S.A.

2013-01-01

185

RESTORATION OF ATLANTIC SALMON AND THEIR ECOSYSTEM SERVICES TO LAKE CHAMPLAIN BY RESTORING THEIR RIVER IMPRINTING  

EPA Science Inventory

It is expected that each river and hatchery will have a distinct amino acid profile. Also, it is predicted that amino acid concentrations will be highest in the hatcheries, lowest in the lake and at intermediate levels in the rivers. If the hatcheries have a different amino...

186

EFFECTIVENESS OF AGRICULTURAL BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN REDUCING PHOSPHORUS LOADING TO LAKE CHAMPLAIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus is an essential element for the growth of terrestrial and aquatic plants. But in P-limited freshwater lakes, increased P loading can accelerate eutrophication and an associated growth of undesirable algae and aquatic weeds. Eutrophication has been blamed for the decline in water quality i...

187

Ohio Sea Grant and Lake Erie Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ohio Sea Grant and Lake Erie Programs are housed at The Ohio State University, and are responsible for maintaining a number of scientific laboratories and research endeavors that focus primarily on Lake Erie. A number of their most valuable online resources are made available on their homepage, including the Lake Erie Information Discussion Board (where visitors can get answers to Lake Erie-related questions) and the Sea Grant's work in creating artificial reefs in Lake Erie. Moving on from there, the homepage also contains a site index, where visitors can learn about the diverse research projects currently underway and view some of their online publications. One particular publication, "Twine Line", is quite useful, as it is geared towards the general public and includes coverage about Lake Erie and Great Lakes issues and research.

188

Sources of fine particulate species in ambient air over Lake Champlain Basin, VT  

SciTech Connect

This study is a part of an ongoing investigation of the types and locations of emission sources that contribute fine particulate air contaminants to Underhill, VT. The air quality monitoring data used for this study are from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network for the period of 2001-2003 for the Underhill site. The main source-receptor modeling techniques used are the positive matrix factorization (PMF) and potential source contribution function (PSCF). This new study is intended as a comparison to a previous study of the 1988-1995 Underhill data that successfully revealed a total of 11 types of emission sources with significant contributions to this rural site. This new study has identified a total of nine sources: nitrate-rich secondary aerosol, wood smoke, East Coast oil combustion, automobile emission, metal working, soil/dust, sulfur-rich aerosol type I, sulfur-rich aerosol type II, and sea salt/road salt. Furthermore, the mass contributions from the PMF identified sources that correspond with sampling days with either good or poor visibility were analyzed to seek possible correlations. It has been shown that sulfur-rich aerosol type I, nitrate aerosol, and automobile emission are the most important contributors to visibility degradation. Soil/dust and sea salt/road salt also have an added effect. 38 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

Ning Gao; Amy E. Gildemeister; Kira Krumhansl; Katherine Lafferty; Philip K. Hopke; Eugene Kim; Richard L. Poirot [St. Lawrence University, Canton, NY (United States)

2006-11-15

189

Sources of fine particulate species in ambient air over lake Champlain Basin, VT.  

PubMed

This study is a part of an ongoing investigation of the types and locations of emission sources that contribute fine particulate air contaminants to Underhill, VT. The air quality monitoring data used for this study are from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network for the period of 2001-2003 for the Underhill site. The main source-receptor modeling techniques used are the positive matrix factorization (PMF) and potential source contribution function (PSCF). This new study is intended as a comparison to a previous study of the 1988-1995 Underhill data that successfully revealed a total of 11 types of emission sources with significant contributions to this rural site. This new study has identified a total of nine sources: nitrate-rich secondary aerosol, wood smoke, East Coast oil combustion, automobile emission, metal working, soil/dust, sulfur-rich aerosol type I, sulfur-rich aerosol type II, and sea salt/road salt. Furthermore, the mass contributions from the PMF identified sources that correspond with sampling days with either good or poor visibility were analyzed to seek possible correlations. It has been shown that sulfur-rich aerosol type I, nitrate aerosol, and automobile emission are the most important contributors to visibility degradation. Soil/dust and sea salt/road salt also have an added effect. PMID:17117747

Gao, Ning; Gildemeister, Amy E; Krumhansl, Kira; Lafferty, Katherine; Hopke, Philip K; Kim, Eugene; Poirot, Richard L

2006-11-01

190

Geology and mineral resources of the Baltimore, Boston, Lake Champlain, and Providence 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS Quadrangles. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program  

SciTech Connect

This document contains 4 geologic and mineral resources reports for the Baltimore, Boston, Lake Champlain, and Providence 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Quadrangles in the northeastern United States. The purpose of these reports is to provide background geologic and mineral resources information to aid in the interpretation of National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) geochemical reconnaissance data. All the reports are accompanied by geologic and mineral locality maps; the Baltimore report contains a map of the geologic provinces and political boundaries, as well as two geologic cross sections. The maps, Plates 1 through 10, are found in the pocket on the inside back cover of this volume in microform. All four papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

Karfunkel, B.S. (comp.)

1983-03-01

191

Assessment of the spatial extent and height of flooding in Lake Champlain during May 2011, using satellite remote sensing and ground-based information  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landsat 5 and moderate resolution imaging spectro-radiometer satellite imagery were used to map the area of inundation of Lake Champlain, which forms part of the border between New York and Vermont, during May 2011. During this month, the lakes water levels were record high values not observed in the previous 150 years. Lake inundation area determined from the satellite imagery is correlated with lake stage measured at three U.S. Geological Survey lake level gages to provide estimates of lake area at different lake levels (stage/area rating) and also compared with the levels of the high-water marks (HWMs) located on the Vermont side of the lake. The rating developed from the imagery shows a somewhat different relation than a similar stage/area rating developed from a medium-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the region. According to the rating derived from the imagery, the lake surface area during the peak lake level increased by about 17 percent above the average or normal lake level. By using a comparable rating developed from the DEM, the increase above average is estimated to be about 12 percent. The northern part of the lake (north of Burlington) showed the largest amount of flooding. Based on intersecting the inundation maps with the medium-resolution DEM, lake levels were not uniform around the lake. This is also evident from the lake level gage measurements and HWMs. The gage data indicate differences up to 0.5 feet between the northern and southern end of the lake. Additionally, the gage data show day-to-day and intradaily variation of the same range (0.5 foot). The high-water mark observations show differences up to 2 feet around the lake, with the highest level generally along the south- and west-facing shorelines. The data suggest that during most of May 2011, water levels were slightly higher and less variable in the northern part of the lake. These phenomena may be caused by wind effects as well as proximity to major river inputs to the lake. The inundation areas generated from the imagery generally coincide with flood mapping as estimated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and shown on its digital flood insurance rate maps. Where areas in the flood inundation map derived from the imagery and the FEMA estimated flooded areas differ substantially, this difference may be due to differences between the flood magnitude at the time of the image and the assumed flood condition used for the FEMA modeling and mapping, wind/storage effects not accounted for by the FEMA modeling, and the resolution of the image compared to the DEM used in the FEMA mapping.

Bjerklie, David M.; Trombley, Thomas J.; Olson, Scott A.

2014-01-01

192

The Sea Lamprey in Lake Erie: a Case History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus), first reported in Lake Erie in 1921, emigrated from Lake Ontario via the Welland Canal. It was not until the advent of pollution abatement, stream rehabilitation, and salmonid enhancement programs that sea lampreys proliferated. The Great Lakes Fishery Commission (GLFC), in co-operation with state, provincial, and federal fisheries agencies, implemented an integrated sea lamprey management (IMSL)

W. Paul Sullivan; Gavin C. Christie; Floyd C. Cornelius; Michael F. Fodale; David A. Johnson; Joseph F. Koonce; Geraldine L. Larson; Rodney B. McDonald; Katherine M. Mullett; Charles K. Murray; Phillip A. Ryan

2003-01-01

193

New York Landscape Regions in Google Earth: Champlain Lowlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Champlain Lowlands tour is part of the New York Landscape Regions Collection of Google Earth tours, created by a group of New York State science educators. This tour includes views of the gorge of the Ausable River, cut through Late Cambrian Potsdam Sandstone, and the geology of the Champlain Thrust Fault, a low angle thrust fault formed as the proto-Atlantic Ocean closed during the Taconic Oregeny. When it was still connected to the ocean, Lake Champlain was home to whales, whose fossils are now entombed in the lake sediments. The tour also includes classroom activities for students.

194

Headwater locations of U.S. streams tributary to St. Lawrence River basin between western Ohio and eastern New York, excluding Lake Champlain basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The headwater locations of several thousand U.S. streams tributary to Lakes Ontario and Erie and the St. Lawrence and Niagara Rivers, from the Maumee River in Ohio to the western border of the Lake Champlain basin in New York, including parts of Pennsylvania, are listed by quadrangle. The location of the headwater of each is given with reference to cultural and topographic features. ' Headwater ' in this report is defined as the first site downstream from which the average streamflow is 5 cubic feet per second. The site locations were determined from drainage areas as indicated on topographic maps. The size of the drainage area required to produce an average flow of 5 cubic feet per second was determined from equations, developed separately for each State by regression techniques, that define the relation between streamflow and hydrologic factors of the region. Drainage area and precipitation were factors in the equations for all three States: forest cover was found to be significant in Ohio. (Woodard-USGS)

Eissler, Benjamin B.

1979-01-01

195

J. Great Lakes Res. 34:721730 Internat. Assoc. Great Lakes Res., 2008  

E-print Network

in Lake Champlain Michael J. McCormick1, Thomas O. Manley2, Dmitry Beletsky3,*, Andrew J. Foley III3 Station Muskegon, Michigan 49441 ABSTRACT. Understanding the hydrodynamics of Lake Champlain is a basic Lakes, which is a natural consequence of the smaller basin size of Lake Champlain relative to the Great

196

Lake Champlain 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS Area, New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire: supplemental data report. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance  

SciTech Connect

This data report presents supplemental analytical results for 1328 stream sediment samples that were collected as part of the SRL-NURE reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Lake Champlain 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle. Results are reported for 23 elements (extractable U, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn). Analyses are tabulated and displayed graphically on microfiche. Field data and neutron activation analysis (NAA) were open-filled in DPST-81-146-2 (GJBX-108(81)).

Cook, J.R.

1981-07-01

197

Fisheries Education: From the Great Lakes to the Sea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are investigations related to fisheries education developed by the Ohio Sea Grant Education Office as a part of a series of Oceanic Education Activities for Great Lake Schools. The investigations discussed are "Yellow Perch in Lake Erie," which concerns fisheries management, and "It's Everyone's Sea: Or Is It," which focuses on fishing

Fortner, Rosanne; Mayer, Victor J.

1980-01-01

198

Vermont Water Resources and Lake Studies Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

Conservation (VTDEC) and other collaborating stakeholder groups. These groups include the Lake Champlain Basin Program, the Lake Champlain Research Consortium, municipalities, and NGOs who have an interest in water streambank sediments in the Lake Champlain Basin of Vermont. (Final report) 2. Bowden, W. B., J. Shanley. Use

199

Vermont Water Resources and Lake Studies Center Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

-02702. Research Program #12;Lagrangian Drifters Within Lake Champlain Feasibility Study Basic Information Title: Lagrangian Drifters Within Lake Champlain Feasibility Study Project Number: 2001VT641B Number: VT641 Title: Lagrangian Drifters Within Lake Champlain Feasibility Study Project Type: Research

200

Vermont Water Resources and Lake Studies Center Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

of a two-year project entitled Trophic Status of Lake Champlain over 400 years of Changing Land Use in the trophic status of important sub-basins in Lake Champlain through analysis of sediment cores. Samples from the cores will be used to assess biological and chemical indicators of ecosystem health in Lake Champlain

201

Development of Two New Sampling Techniques for Assessing Lake Trout Reproduction in Deep Water  

E-print Network

reefs, two new methods (deepwater egg traps and remote electrofishing) were tested in Lake Champlain types of gear at shallow sites in Lake Champlain. After testing, the new egg traps were deployed in Lake and was used to detect fry in Lake Champlain. The remote electrofisher detected fry in 90% of laboratory trials

Marsden, Ellen

202

Contribution of IRSL to facies analysis and groundwater aquifer characterization: discriminating between subaquatic outwash and regressive deltaic sequences in the postglacial Champlain Sea, Quebec, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide-range of glaciomarine sediments can be found in the marginal areas of glaciated continents. These glaciomarine sediments were deposited in former postglacial seas, such as the Champlain Sea that inundated the St. Lawrence Valley shortly after the deglaciation of southwestern Quebec (Canada). Their nature and architecture result from a dynamic balance between glacioisostasy, glacioeustasy, and sediment flux. Among these sediments, large complexes of coarse-grained (sand-gravel) deposits commonly mark the spatial variation in the regional limits of the shoreline. For instance, outwash fans typically mark ice-marginal positions whereas regressive deltas reflect the forced recession of the postglacial sea. Although such sedimentary bodies represent distinct depositional settings, they also show several similarities in term of surface geomorphology and sedimentary features, making their differentiation difficult at places, and thereby introducing large uncertainties in paleogeographic reconstructions. Here we apply optically-stimulated luminescence of feldspar (e.g., IRSL) to develop a new stratigraphic tool aimed at improving sedimentary facies analysis. Specifically, we applied IRSL techniques to outwash fan and deltaic sediments found at similar elevation (180-195 m, a.s.l.) in the Gatineau River valley. Our preliminary results suggest that feldspar extracted from coarse-grained sediments that exhibit a high natural luminescence signal and a large scatter between individual aliquots have retained a considerable residual luminescence signal, thus suggesting they were not exposed to sunlight. This type of deposits is typical of sedimentary bodies that belong to massive outwash fan complexes that were emplaced at the onset of the deglaciation. Sediments that show low natural luminescence signal and small scatter (associated with variable rates of anomalous fading) should be indicative of good exposure to sunlight, thus suggesting they belong to regressive deltas. Accordingly, IRSL dating of this type of deltaic sediments may eventually yield important chronological constraints, particularly during the time interval investigated, which correspond to a period of global eustatic changes associated with ice recession in the Northern Hemisphere. In short, this study may help to discriminate geomorphological features typical of fjord valleys that are either associated with eustatic changes or glacioisotatic changes. Additionally, such a study may also contribute to improve stratigraphic interpretations, which is critical in assessing the role of these sedimentary bodies in the regional hydrogeology. Glaciofluvial outwashes are commonly found overlying glacial deposits or bedrock, in which case they may contribute to the regional recharge. The regressive deltaic sands are typically underlain by material of low conductivity (massive or laminated clays), and thus contribute only to surface hydrogeological flow.

Roy, M.; Lamarche, O.; Lamothe, M.

2012-12-01

203

Influence of Physical Processes on Fish Recruitment Variability in the Great Lakes  

E-print Network

, and Lake Champlain. For Lake Trout in Grand Traverse Bay, we will combine in-situ measures of temperature, and for Lake Trout in Lake Champlain. #12;For Lake Trout and Lake Whitefish in Thunder Bay Lake Huron, we Ruberg ReCON project) to predict spawning, egg incubation times, and fry emergence and dispersal. In Lake

204

Neutron activation analysis of sea-, lake-, and evaporated salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt is essential for human nutrition. Recently, it has become popular in Europe to rather use exotic sea salt or lake salt instead of purified evaporated salt, because of an alleged higher content of trace elements. In this study the content of trace elements and their bioavailability of 19 samples of different types of salt and 1 sample of brine purification sludge were investigated using instrumental neutron activation analysis. In general, sea-, lake-, and evaporated salt are quite pure. Trace elements determined in salt were Al, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Rb, Sc, Sr, and Zn; some of them only in individual cases. It was found that, in general, the content of trace elements in sea- or lake salt was higher than in purified salt. Nevertheless, the use of sea- or lake salt does not contribute significantly to the human needs of essential trace elements, because their concentration in salt is too low or their compounds are not bioavailable.

Steinhauser, G.; Sterba, J. H.; Poljanc, K.; Bichler, M.; Buchtela, K.

2006-01-01

205

Does ice float in Titans lakes and seas?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We model Titans lakes and seas as methane-ethane-nitrogen systems and model the buoyancy of solids in these systems assuming thermodynamic equilibrium. We find that ice will float in methane-rich lakes for all temperatures below the freezing point of pure methane and that ice will also float in ethane-rich seas provided the ice has an air porosity of greater than 5% by volume.

Hofgartner, Jason D.; Lunine, Jonathan I.

2013-03-01

206

Speciation of ?I in sea, lake and rain waters.  

PubMed

Concentrations of the very long-lived fission product (129)I and stable iodine ((127)I) in the Baltic Sea and lake and rain waters from Finland, were measured as well as their occurrence as iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO(3)(-)). The highest concentrations of both (127)I and (129)I occurred in sea water, on average 11.1 4.3 ?g/l and 3.9 4.1 10(-9) at/l. In rain and lake waters the concentration of (129)I was more or less identical and almost one order of magnitude lower than in sea water. Based on these observations, and data from the literature, it is assumed that the source of (129)I in lakes is precipitation and the major source in the Baltic Sea is the inflow of sea water from the North Sea through the Danish Straits. The concentration of (129)I in the Baltic Sea has increased by a factor of six during ten years from 1999. In all studied water types the main chemical form of both iodine isotopes was iodide; in sea and lake waters by 92-96% and in rain water by 75-88%. Compared to (127)I the fraction of iodide was slightly higher in case of (129)I in all waters. PMID:22285065

Lehto, Jukka; Rty, Tero; Hou, Xiaolin; Paatero, Jussi; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Gran; Flinkman, Juha; Kankaanp, Harri

2012-03-01

207

Concentrations and Loads of Nutrients and Suspended Sediments in Englesby Brook and Little Otter Creek, Lake Champlain Basin, Vermont, 2000-2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effectiveness of best-management practices (BMPs) in improving water quality in Lake Champlain tributaries was evaluated from 2000 through 2005 on the basis of analysis of data collected on concentrations of total phosphorus and suspended sediment in Englesby Brook, an urban stream in Burlington, and Little Otter Creek, an agricultural stream in Ferrisburg. Data also were collected on concentrations of total nitrogen in the Englesby Brook watershed. In the winter of 2001-2002, one of three planned structural BMPs was installed in the urban watershed. At approximately the same time, a set of barnyard BMPs was installed in the agricultural watershed; however, the other planned BMPs, which included streambank fencing and nutrient management, were not implemented within the study period. At Englesby Brook, concentrations of phosphorus ranged from 0.024 to 0.3 milligrams per liter (mg/L) during base-flow and from 0.032 to 11.8 mg/L during high-flow conditions. Concentrations of suspended sediment ranged from 3 to 189 mg/L during base-flow and from 5 to 6,880 mg/L during high-flow conditions. An assessment of the effectiveness of an urban BMP was made by comparing concentrations and loads of phosphorus and suspended sediment before and after a golf-course irrigation pond in the Englesby Brook watershed was retrofitted with the objective of reducing sediment transport. Results from a modified paired watershed study design showed that the BMP reduced concentrations of phosphorus and suspended sediment during high-flow events - when average streamflow was greater than 3 cubic feet per second. While construction of the BMP did not reduce storm loads of phosphorus or suspended sediment, an evaluation of changes in slope of double-mass curves showing cumulative monthly streamflow plotted against cumulative monthly loads indicated a possible reduction in cumulative loads of phosphorus and suspended sediment after BMP construction. Results from the Little Otter Creek assessment of agricultural BMPs showed that concentrations of phosphorus ranged from 0.016 to 0.141 mg/L during base-flow and from 0.019 to 0.565 mg/L during high-flow conditions at the upstream monitoring station. Concentrations of suspended sediment ranged from 2 to 13 mg/L during base-flow and from 1 to 473 mg/L during high-flow conditions at the upstream monitoring station. Concentrations of phosphorus ranged from 0.018 to 0.233 mg/L during base-flow and from 0.019 to 1.95 mg/L during high-flow conditions at the downstream monitoring station. Concentrations of suspended sediment ranged from 10 to 132 mg/L during base-flow and from 8 to 1,190 mg/L during high-flow conditions at the downstream monitoring station. Annual loads of phosphorus at the downstream monitoring station were significantly larger than loads at the upstream monitoring station, and annual loads of suspended sediment at the downstream monitoring station were larger than loads at the upstream monitoring station for 4 out of 6 years. On a monthly basis, loads of phosphorus and suspended sediment at the downstream monitoring station were significantly larger than loads at the upstream monitoring station. Pairs of concentrations of phosphorus and monthly loads of phosphorus and suspended sediment from the upstream and downstream monitoring stations were evaluated using the paired watershed study design. The only significant reduction between the calibration and treatment periods was for monthly loads of phosphorus; all other evaluations showed no change between periods.

Medalie, Laura

2007-01-01

208

Michigan Sea Grant Great Lakes Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Education programs provide fieldtrips, shipboard experiences, camps and projects focused on the Great Lakes. A science and multidisciplinary Great Lakes curriculum includes fisheries, aquatic food web, exotic species, water quality and weather. Teaching resources range from fact sheets to artifact trunks and CDs. Teacher training and workshops cover current topics and offer grant and fellowship opportunities.

209

Concentration, flux, and the analysis of trends of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride in 18 tributaries to Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York, 19902011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual concentration, flux, and yield for total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride for 18 tributaries to Lake Champlain were estimated for 1990 through 2011 using a weighted regression method based on time, tributary streamflows (discharges), and seasonal factors. The weighted regression method generated two series of daily estimates of flux and concentration during the period of record: one based on observed discharges and a second based on a flow-normalization procedure that removes random variation due to year-to-year climate-driven effects. The flownormalized estimate for a given date is similar to an average estimate of concentration or flux that would be made if all of the observed discharges for that date were equally likely to have occurred. The flux bias statistic showed that 68 of the 72 flux regression models were minimally biased. Temporal trends in the concentrations and fluxes were determined by calculating percent changes in flow-normalized annual fluxes for the full period of analysis (1990 through 2010) and for the decades 19902000 and 20002010. Basinwide, flow-normalized total phosphorus flux decreased by 42 metric tons per year (t/yr) between 1990 and 2010. This net result reflects a basinwide decrease in flux of 21 metric tons (t) between 1990 and 2000, followed by a decrease of 20 t between 2000 and 2010; both results were largely influenced by flux patterns in the large tributaries on the eastern side of the basin. A comparison of results for total phosphorus for the two separate decades of analysis found that more tributaries had decreasing concentrations and flux rates in the second decade than the first. An overall reduction in dissolved phosphorus flux of 0.7 t/yr was seen in the Lake Champlain Basin during the full period of analysis. That very small net change in flux reflects substantial reductions between 1990 and 2000 from eastern tributaries, especially in Otter Creek and the LaPlatte and Winooski Rivers that largely were offset by increases in the Missisquoi and Saranac Rivers in the second decade (between 2000 and 2010). The number of tributaries that had increases in dissolved phosphorus concentrations stayed constant at 13 or 14 during the period of analysis. Total nitrogen concentration and flux for most of the monitored tributaries in the Lake Champlain Basin have decreased since 1990. Between 1990 and 2010, flow-normalized total nitrogen flux decreased by 386 t/yr, which reflects an increase of 440 t/yr between 1990 and 2000 and a decrease of 826 t/yr between 2000 and 2010. All individual tributaries except the Winooski River had decreases in total nitrogen concentration and flux between 2000 and 2010. The decrease in total nitrogen flux over the period of record could be related to the decrease in nitrogen from atmospheric deposition observed in Vermont or to concurrent benefits realized from the implementation of agricultural best-management practices in the Lake Champlain Basin that were designed primarily to reduce phosphorus runoff. For chloride, large increases in flow-normalized concentrations and flux between 1990 and 2000 for 17 of the 18 tributaries diminished to small increases or decreases between 2000 and 2010. Between 1990 and 2010, flow-normalized flux increased by 32,225 t/yr, 78 percent of which (25,163 t) was realized during the first decade, from 1990 through 2000. The five tributaries that had decreasing concentration and flux of chloride between 2000 and 2010 were all on the eastern side of Lake Champlain, possibly related to reductions since 1999 in winter road salt application in Vermont. Positive correlations of phosphorus flux and changes in phosphorus concentration and flux in tributaries with phosphorus inputs to basins from point sources, suggest that point sources have an effect on stream phosphorus chemistry. Several measures of changes in agricultural statistics, such as agricultural land use, acres of land in farms, acres of cropland, and acres of corn for grain or seed, are positively correlated with changes in phosp

Medalie, Laura

2013-01-01

210

Groundwater-Lake Interaction in the Dead Sea Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dead Sea hypersaline water system is unique in terms of its unusual geochemical composition, rapid lake level changes and water composition of the brines discharging along its shoreline. The Dead Sea can be used as a natural lab for studying groundwater-seawater interaction and saline water hydrological circulation along the aquifer-sea boundary. It provides an opportunity to follow the geochemical processes along a flow path from the lake into the aquifer and back into the lake. The lake level has been dropping since the 1960's due to human interference in its water budget, reaching a rate of 1 m/yr in recent years. Saline water circulation in coastal aquifers may be a major process that governs trace element mass balances in coastal areas. This study uses radium isotopes in order to quantify the lake water circulation in the Dead Sea aquifer. There are four naturally-occurring radium isotopes, with half-lives ranging from 3.7 days to 1600 years which are chain products of uranium and thorium isotopes. Radium isotopes are usually enriched in saline groundwater and therefore are good candidates for estimating seawater or hypersaline lake water circulation in the aquifer. Compared to most natural water bodies, the Dead Sea is extremely enriched in radium and barium, where both 226Ra and 228Ra activities and Ba concentration (145, 1-2 dpm/L and 5 mg/L, respectively) are 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than in ocean water, whereas the salinity of the Dead Sea is only 10 times higher. Circulated Dead Sea water in the aquifer contains decreased concentrations of 226Ra (60 dpm/L), Ba (1.5 mg/L), Sr (300 relative to 340 mg/L in the Dead Sea) and Sulfate (250 relative to 392 mg/L). We suggest that the low 226Ra and Ba concentrations are due to precipitation of barite and celestine from the supersaturated Dead Sea water on entering the aquifer. 228Ra and the shorter-lived 224Ra and 223Ra, which have much lower activities in the Dead Sea (up to 1.8, 3 and 0.8 dpm/L, respectively), are enriched in the circulated Dead Sea water (up to 25, 100 and 30 dpm/L, respectively) due to recoil and desorption. This implies that the circulation of Dead Sea water in the aquifer removes 226Ra and contributes 228Ra, 223Ra and 224Ra to the lake. Therefore, a major source with relatively high 228Ra/226Ra ratios is added to the Dead Sea mass balance. Following a flow path of saline water from the Dead Sea inland, barium and 226Ra decrease gradually and 228Ra increases gradually. This provides a method for calculating the DS mass balance, groundwater age or velocity and the rate of barite and celestine precipitation. 228Ra ages are around 2 and 13 yrs at 10 and 80 m from the shore inland, respectively. With this velocity (5-6 m/yr), the first order precipitation rate constant is 0.23 1/yr. Based on 226Ra and 228Ra mass balances in the Dead Sea, the calculated amount of Dead Sea water circulation is 200-300 million m3/yr, which is of the same order of magnitude as all other known Dead Sea water sources at present (160-340 million m3/yr) and therefore is a significant component in the Dead Sea mass balance.

Kiro, Y.; Weinstein, Y.; Starinsky, A.; Yechieli, Y.

2011-12-01

211

SEA LAMPREY CONTROL ON THE GREAT LAKES  

E-print Network

nigricans Moxosfoma anisurum Golden shiner Creek chub Pearl dace Emerald shiner Common shiner Spottail shiner Lake chub Biacknose dace Longnose dace Redbelly dace Carp Brown bullhead Black bullhead Northern

212

Cassini Flybys Reveal Details About Titan Seas and Lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cassini spacecraft's flybys of Saturn's moon Titan reveal new details about the sizes, depths, and locations of the seas and lakes, whose liquid is mostly methane, that dot the moon's northern hemisphere, according to findings presented by scientists at a 12 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif.

Showstack, Randy

2013-12-01

213

The sources and evolution of sulfur in the hypersaline Lake Lisan (paleo-Dead Sea)  

E-print Network

The sources and evolution of sulfur in the hypersaline Lake Lisan (paleo-Dead Sea) Adi Torfsteina the fate of sulfur in the hypersaline Lake Lisan, the late Pleistocene precursor of the Dead Sea (70­14 ka Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: sulfur isotopes; bacterial sulfate reduction; Lake Lisan

Torfstein, Adi

214

Evaluating the growth potential of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) feeding on siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Differences in the preferred thermal habitat of Lake Superior lake trout morphotypes create alternative growth scenarios for parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attached to lake trout hosts. Siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) inhabit deep, consistently cold water (46 C) and are more abundant than lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) which occupy temperatures between 8 and 12 C during summer thermal stratification. Using bioenergetics models we contrasted the growth potential of sea lampreys attached to siscowet and lean lake trout to determine how host temperature influences the growth and ultimate size of adult sea lamprey. Sea lampreys simulated under the thermal regime of siscowets are capable of reaching sizes within the range of adult sea lamprey sizes observed in Lake Superior tributaries. High lamprey wounding rates on siscowets suggest siscowets are important lamprey hosts. In addition, siscowets have higher survival rates from lamprey attacks than those observed for lean lake trout which raises the prospect that siscowets serve as a buffer to predation on more commercially desirable hosts such as lean lake trout, and could serve to subsidize lamprey growth.

Moody, E.K.; Weidel, B.C.; Ahrenstorff, T.D.; Mattes, W.P.; Kitchell, J.F.

2011-01-01

215

Lake Champlain 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS area New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire: data report (abbreviated). National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance  

SciTech Connect

This abbreviated data report presents results of ground water and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Lake Champlain 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle. Surface sediment samples were collected at 1196 sites. Ground-water samples were collected at 619 sites. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water, and for uranium and 9 other elements in surface water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Data from ground-water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, etc.), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mn, Na, and V). Data from sediment sites include (1) stream water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are also tabulated. A real distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements and for U/Th and U/Hf ratios are included. Key data from stream water sites include (1) water quality measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity) and (2) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mg, Mg, Na, and V). Uranium concentrations in the sediments range from 0.30 to 43.40 ppM with a mean of 3.03 ppM. A cluster of high log (U/Th+Hf) ratios appear in the southeastern portion of the quadrangle. The U x 1000/conductivity ratio in surface water is high in this same area.

Cook, J.R.

1981-03-01

216

Evidence that lake trout served as a buffer against sea lamprey predation on burbot in Lake Erie  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The population of burbot Lota lota in Lake Erie recovered during 1986-2003, mainly because of the control of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, which began in 1986, Burbot populations continued to grow during 1996-1998, when sea lamprey control was substantially reduced. We calculated mortality parameters for burbot in Lake Erie by estimating age at capture for 2,793 burbot caught in annual gill-net surveys of eastern Lake Erie from 1994 to 2003. Based on catch-curve analysis, annual mortality in Lake Erie during 1994-2003 was estimated as 33%. Annual mortality of the 1992 year-class of burbot was estimated as 30%. The mortality of burbot during the years of reduced sea lamprey control was not different from that during the 3 years preceding reduced control and was significantly lower than that during the entire portion of the time series in which full sea lamprey control was conducted. These results suggest that the reduction in sea lamprey control did not lead to increased burbot mortality. The catch per gill-net lift of large burbot (total length > 600 mm), the size preferred by sea lampreys, was lower than that of adult lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (age 5 and older; total length > 700 mm) before lampricide application was reduced. Although adult lake trout populations declined, the abundance of large burbot did not change during the period of reduced lampricide application. These results support a hypothesis that a healthy population of adult lake trout can serve as a buffer species, acting to reduce predation of burbot by sea lampreys when sea lamprey populations increase. Burbot attained sexual maturity at a relatively early age (3 or 4 years) and a total length (approximately 500 mm) that was smaller than the preferred prey size for sea lampreys. These characteristics and the buffering effect of the lake trout population enabled growth of the burbot population during the brief period when lamprey control was reduced.

Stapanian, M.A.; Madenjian, C.P.

2007-01-01

217

Estimates of egg deposition and effects of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) egg predators  

E-print Network

propinquus. In Lake Champlain, sculpin (Cottus spp.) were the most common interstitial predator, yet error = 15.5 ± 0.4 predators·m­2 ) were twice those in Lake Champlain or Parry Sound (6 ± 1 predators·m­2 ). Densities of eggs were higher in Lake Champlain (2994.1 ± 398.3 eggs·m­2 ) and Parry Sound (454

Marsden, Ellen

218

Geomorphology of Lake Lisan terraces along the eastern coast of the Dead Sea, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Lisan, the lake that filled the Jordan graben during the Last Glacial, left behind a well developed sequence of erosional and depositional shore terraces in the south east of the current Dead Sea. These terraces record a series of stillstands that were caused by small transgressions within an overall trend of falling lake levels. The terraces were observed in

Shahrazad Abu Ghazleh; Stephan Kempe

2009-01-01

219

Road salt turning Twin Cities lakes into dead seas By JOSEPHINE MARCOTTY, Star Tribune  

E-print Network

Road salt turning Twin Cities lakes into dead seas By JOSEPHINE MARCOTTY, Star Tribune March 23 in lakes and streams around the Twin Cities -- road salt. The fish, bugs and other wildlife that live Agency (PCA) started a four-year project to figure out which Twin Cities' lakes hold too much chloride

Minnesota, University of

220

Impact of seas\\/lakes on polar meteorology of Titan: Simulation by a coupled GCM-Sea model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of large hydrocarbon seas\\/lakes near the poles by the Cassini spacecraft raises the question as to whether and how polar seas affect the meteorology on Titan. The polar meteorology and methane hydrological cycle in the presence of seas are investigated by a three-dimensional atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a one-dimensional sea energy balance model considering the observed

Tetsuya Tokano

2009-01-01

221

Calcium, magnesium and strontium cycling in stratified, hardwater lakes: Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In stratified hardwater lakes, calcite crystallization in the epilimnion and partial dissolution in the hypolimnion play important roles in the cycling of Ca2+ in the water column. Mg2+ and Sr2+ coprecipitate with this mineral, to be released together with Ca2+ upon its dissolution. Here, we focus on Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee, Israel), a stratified, warm, hardwater lake, searching for an interpretable, high resolution picture of the processes that drive Ca2+, Mg2+ and Sr2+cycling in this and similar lakes elsewhere. In total, 1428 water samples were collected from the lake, and another 81 samples were collected from the Jordan River and two small streams discharging into it, covering a full monomictic cycle from December 2001 through March 2003. Particulate material was retrieved from sediment traps in the hypolimnion. The water samples were analyzed for Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3- and Br-, and the trapped particulates were examined under SEM and analyzed for their Ca, Mg, and Sr content. Individual calcite crystals within the particulate material underwent LA-ICP-MS analysis for Ca, Mg, and Sr. Downward transport of Ca2+ involves crystallization of calcite in the epilimnion, followed by its settling through the water column, followed by its partial dissolution in the hypolimnion. Magnesium and Sr2+ follow Ca2+ by coprecipitation in calcite and are released upon its dissolution in the hypolimnion. Upward cycling of the three solutes occurs through an admixture of the hypolimnetic water into the epilimnion during thermocline deepening, terminated by overturn of the lake. Removal rates of Mg2+ and Sr2+ from the lake, relative to that of Ca2+, and the water-calcite distribution coefficients, DMg and DSr, were calculated from the analyses using: (1) epilimnion water and 'bulk' particulates; (2) epilimnion water only; and (3) epilimnion water and calcite crystals in the particulates. The DSr values obtained were internally consistent (0.194 5.9%, 0.22-0.28, and 0.204-0.232, respectively); however, the DMg value for the 'bulk' particulates (0.0477) was 6 times higher than that corresponding to calcite crystals included therein (0.00841). This difference is attributed to phytoplankton debris in the 'bulk' particulates and should be of concern to geochemists using Mg/Ca ratios in limestone to reconstruct ancient aquatic environments. The cycling of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Sr2+ in the stratified lake is monitored by Mg/Ca vs. Sr/Ca regression diagrams, where each line represents the water column composition on a specific date. The distance of the data points from the initial (mixed lake) coordinates reflects the fractionation of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Sr2+ after the onset of stratification. The regression lines rotate in an orderly anticlockwise direction in response to the high calcite flux from the epilimnion in spring and the higher rate of Mg2+ replenishment than that of Sr2+, compensating for their loss in calcite. The release of Mg2+ and Sr2+ from dissolving calcite in the hypolimnion, at an Mg/Sr ratio (7.5 eq/eq) much lower than that in the surrounding water (160 eq/eq), lends additional support to the anticlockwise rotation. Reversal of rotation occurs in summer, when calcite crystallization and the freshwater supply slow down, and brackish and saline water sources take control over the Mg/Sr ratio in the lake. Subsequent turnover and mixing of the lake in winter reset the Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios to their original values before the next stratification.

Katz, Amitai; Nishri, Ami

2013-03-01

222

75 FR 19358 - Availability of Grant Funds for FY 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Institutional Programs, the Guam Sea Grant Project, the Lake Champlain Sea Grant Project, and the Sea Grant National Law...Colleges, Sea Grant Institutional Programs, the Lake Champlain Sea Grant Project, the Guam Sea Grant Project,...

2010-04-14

223

Changes in the lake trout population of southern Lake Superior in relation to the fishery, the sea lamprey, and stocking, 1950-70  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reduction of sea lamprey abundance resulted in an immediate increase in survival and abundance of lake trout, especially of the larger sizes. As abundance of lake trout progressively increased in 1962-70, survival of the smaller legal-size lake trout increased, probably due to reduction of the predator-prey ratio and an increase in availability of larger lake trout preferred by sea lampreys. Abundance of spawning-size lake trout was limited by high natural mortality in 1965-70. Circumstantial evidence suggested that sea lamprey predation contributed a major part of the high natural mortality.

Pycha, Richard L.; King, George R.

1975-01-01

224

Development and validation of a regional coupled atmosphere lake model for the Caspian Sea Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a validation analysis of a regional climate model coupled to a distributed one dimensional (1D) lake model for the Caspian Sea Basin. Two model grid spacings are tested, 50 and 20 km, the simulation period is 1989-2008 and the lateral boundary conditions are from the ERA-Interim reanalysis of observations. The model is validated against atmospheric as well as lake variables. The model performance in reproducing precipitation and temperature mean seasonal climatology, seasonal cycles and interannual variability is generally good, with the model results being mostly within the observational uncertainty range. The model appears to overestimate cloudiness and underestimate surface radiation, although a large observational uncertainty is found in these variables. The 1D distributed lake model (run at each grid point of the lake area) reproduces the observed lake-average sea surface temperature (SST), although differences compared to observations are found in the spatial structure of the SST, most likely as a result of the absence of 3 dimensional lake water circulations. The evolution of lake ice cover and near surface wind over the lake area is also reproduced by the model reasonably well. Improvements resulting from the increase of resolution from 50 to 20 km are most significant in the lake model. Overall the performance of the coupled regional climate1D lake model system appears to be of sufficient quality for application to climate change scenario simulations over the Caspian Sea Basin.

Turuncoglu, Ufuk Utku; Elguindi, Nellie; Giorgi, Filippo; Fournier, Nicolas; Giuliani, Graziano

2013-10-01

225

The late Quaternary limnological history of Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel  

E-print Network

The late Quaternary limnological history of Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel N. Hazana , M) during the Neogene­Quartenary periods. We reconstructed the limnological history (level and composition

Marco, Shmuel "Shmulik"

226

Diatoms as food of larval sea lampreys in a small tributary of northern Lake Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The food and food preferences of sea lamprey ammocoetes have not been investigated. The food of the larval American brook lamprey, Lampetra lamottei, in the Great Lakes region consisted mainly of diatoms and desmids according to Creaser and Hann. Schroll discussed the biology of feeding of ammocoetes of Lampetra planeri and Eudontomyzon danfordi in Europe. This report presents data on the availability and use of diatoms by sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, ammocoetes in a small tributary of northern Lake Michigan.

Manion, Patrick J.

1967-01-01

227

Survival of Rainbow Trout and Lake Trout after Sea Lamprey Attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival was significantly higher (P = 0.054) for rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (formerly Salmo gairdneri) than for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush when the fish were subjected in the laboratory to a single attack by a sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Of 77 rainbow trout, 40% died (35% by direct attack and 5% by secondary infection) and 60% survived; of 77 lake

William D. Swink; Lee H. Hanson

1989-01-01

228

History of and Advances in Barriers as an Alternative Method to Suppress Sea Lampreys in the Great Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Lakes Fishery Commission (GLFC) continues to seek additional methods of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control to reduce reliance on chemical lampricides (pesticides) and increase the efficiency of the program. Barriers to migrating sea lampreys in tributaries can significantly reduce the spawning potential of sea lamprey in the Great Lakes. These barriers can be any natural or man-made structure

Dennis S. Lavis; Andrew Hallett; Ellie M. Koon; Tom C. McAuley

2003-01-01

229

Simulating the water balance of the Aral Sea with a coupled regional climate-lake model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Before coupled atmosphere-lake models can be used to study the response of large lake systems to climatic forcings, we must first evaluate how well they simulate the water balance and associated lake atmosphere interactions under present-day conditions. We evaluate the hydrology simulated by a lake model coupled to NCAR's regional climate model (RegCM2) in a study of the Aral Sea. The meteorological variables that are input to the lake model are simulated well by RegCM2. Simulated surface air temperatures closely match observed values, except during spring and fall when the simulated temperatures are too cold. The magnitude of precipitation is too high in the region surrounding the Aral Sea during summer and fall. On a yearly basis, RegCM2 produces a reasonable amount of runoff throughout the drainage basin. The lake model coupled to RegCM2 accurately simulates Aral Sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The lake model also simulates observed mid-winter ice fraction well, although the onset of ice growth occurs too late in the year and the ice melts too rapidly in the spring. The simulated annual evaporation from the Aral Sea is consistent with observed estimates; however, the simulated evaporation is greater than observed during summer and less than observed during winter. In a "stand-alone" lake model simulation, the simulated Aral Sea hydrology does not match observations as closely as in the coupled model experiment. These results suggest that a stand-alone lake model would not accurately simulate the hydrologic response of the Aral Sea to various forcings. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

Small, E.E.; Sloan, L.C.; Hostetler, S.; Giorgi, F.

1999-01-01

230

Transient groundwater-lake interactions in a continental rift: Sea of Galilee, Israel  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Sea of Galilee, located in the northern part of the Dead Sea rift, is currently an intermediate fresh-water lake. It is postulated that during a short highstand phase of former Lake Lisan in the late Pleistocene, saline water percolated into the subsurface. Since its recession from the Kinarot basin and the instantaneous formation of the fresh-water lake (the Sea of Galilee), the previously intruded brine has been flushed backward toward the lake. Numerical simulations solving the coupled equations of fluid flow and of solute and heat transport are applied to examine the feasibility of this hypothesis. A sensitivity analysis shows that the major parameters controlling basin hydrodynamics are lake-water salinity, aquifer permeability, and aquifer anisotropy. Results show that a highstand period of 3000 yr in Lake Lisan was sufficient for saline water to percolate deep into the subsurface. Because of different aquifer permeabilities on both sides of the rift, brine percolated into a aquifers on the western margin, whereas percolation was negligible on the eastern side. In the simulation, after the occupation of the basin by the Sea of Galilee, the invading saline water was leached backward by a topography-driven flow. It is suggested that the percolating brine on the western side reacted with limestone at depth to form epigenetic dolomite at elevated temperatures. Therefore, groundwater discharging along the western shores of the Sea of Galilee has a higher calcium to magnesium ratio than groundwater on the eastern side.

Hurwitz, S.; Stanislavsky, E.; Lyakhovsky, V.; Gvirtzman, H.

2000-01-01

231

Patterns of invasion and colonization of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in North America as revealed by microsatellite genotypes.  

PubMed

Invasions by exotic organisms have had devastating affects on aquatic ecosystems, both ecologically and economically. One striking example of a successful invader that has dramatically affected fish community structure in freshwater lakes of North America is the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). We used eight microsatellite loci and multiple analytical techniques to examine competing hypotheses concerning the origins and colonization history of sea lamprey (n = 741). Analyses were based on replicated invasive populations from Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior, populations of unknown origins from Lakes Ontario, Champlain, and Cayuga, and populations of anadromous putative progenitor populations in North America and Europe. Populations in recently colonized lakes were each established by few colonists through a series of genetic bottlenecks which resulted in lower allelic diversity in more recently established populations. The spatial genetic structure of invasive populations differed from that of native populations on the Atlantic coast, reflecting founder events and connectivity of invaded habitats. Anadromous populations were found to be panmictic (theta(P) = 0.002; 95% CI = -0.003-0.006; P > 0.05). In contrast, there was significant genetic differentiation between populations in the lower and upper Great Lakes (theta(P) = 0.007; P < 0.05; 95% CI = 0.003-0.009). Populations in Lakes Ontario, Champlain, and Cayuga are native. Alternative models that describe different routes and timing of colonization of freshwater habitats were examined using coalescent-based analyses, and demonstrated that populations likely originated from natural migrations via the St Lawrence River. PMID:16202094

Bryan, M B; Zalinski, D; Filcek, K B; Libants, S; Li, W; Scribner, K T

2005-10-01

232

Marsden p. 1 J. ELLEN MARSDEN  

E-print Network

pre-proposal. . Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Alternatives Workgroup $100,000 2011-2013. Marsden, J. E among basins in Lake Champlain. State Wildlife Incentives Grant, VTDFW, $39,688 2012-2013 Lochet, A., B lamprey in Lake Champlain using recent advances in statolith microchemistry. Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey

Marsden, Ellen

233

Reactivation of prethrusting, synconvergence normal faults as ramps within the Ordovician Champlain-Taconic thrust system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new geologic maps of the Lake Champlain region of west-central Vermont and east-central New York State. This region contains a shallow-crustal sec- tion of an Ordovician foreland basin and a far-traveled thrust system that transported the Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician platform-sequence, allochthonous rise- facies pelites and arenites and Middle Or- dovician basinal shales and flysch. Early foreland and shelf

Nicholas W. Hayman; W. S. F. Kidd

2002-01-01

234

Recommendations for assessing sea lamprey damages: Toward optimizing the control program in the Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Great Lakes sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program currently allocates stream treatments to optimize the number of juvenile sea lampreys killed for a given level of control. Although the economic benefits derived from control appear to outweigh the dollars spent on control efforts, optimizing the number of sea lampreys killed will not necessarily optimize the economic benefits provided by the fish communities. These benefits include both non-consumptive and fishery values. We emphasize that the biological damages caused by each juvenile sea lamprey will vary, as will the economic value associated with each host that is killed. We consider issues related to assessing damages due to sea lampreys, taking into account effects on the fish community and fisheries, so as to improve the sea lamprey control program. We recommend a consolidation of information regarding the valuation of benefits, better understanding of variation in host-parasite interactions among the Great Lakes, and integration of the control program with other fisheries management objectives and activities. Adoption of these recommendations should promote lake trout rehabilitation in the Great Lakes, healthy fish communities and prudent use of limited fishery management resources.

Stewart, T.J.; Bence, J.R.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Ebener, M.P.; Lupi, F.; Rutter, M.A.

2003-01-01

235

Recommendations for assessing sea lamprey damages: toward optimizing the control program in the Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Great Lakes sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program currently allocates stream treatments to optimize the number of juvenile sea lampreys killed for a given level of control. Although the economic benefits derived from control appear to outweigh the dollars spent on control efforts, optimizing the number of sea lampreys killed will not necessarily optimize the economic benefits provided by the fish communities. These benefits include both non-consumptive and fishery values. We emphasize that the biological damages caused by each juvenile sea lamprey will vary, as will the economic value associated with each host that is killed. We consider issues related to assessing damages due to sea lampreys, taking into account effects on the fish community and fisheries, so as to improve the sea lamprey control program. We recommend a consolidation of information regarding the valuation of benefits, better understanding of variation in host-parasite interactions among the Great Lakes, and integration of the control program with other fisheries management objectives and activities. Adoption of these recommendations should promote lake trout rehabilitation in the Great Lakes, healthy fish communities and prudent use of limited fishery management resources.

Stewart, Thomas J.; Bence, James R.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Ebener, Mark P.; Lupi, Frank; Rutter, Michael A.

2003-01-01

236

Sea Lamprey Abundance and Management in Lake Superior, 1957 to 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program successfully laid the foundation for rehabilitation of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior and was well coordinated among management agencies during 19571999. The lampricide TFM was the primary control tool, with recurring treatments in 52 larval-producing streams. Barriers and sterile-male-release, as alternative control technologies, were significant elements of the program. Barriers

John W. Heinrich; Katherine M. Mullett; Michael J. Hansen; Jean V. Adams; Gerald T. Klar; David A. Johnson; Gavin C. Christie; Robert J. Young

2003-01-01

237

Wind Fields over the Great Lakes Measured by the SeaWinds Scatterometer on the QuikSCAT Satellite  

E-print Network

Wind Fields over the Great Lakes Measured by the SeaWinds Scatterometer on the QuikSCAT Satellite for wind retrieval over the Great Lakes on a daily basis. We use data acquired by the SeaWinds Scatterometer on the QuikSCAT (QSCAT) satellite launched in June 1999 to derive wind speeds and directions over

238

Lake Baikal in southeastern Siberia,the "Sacred Sea,"incites strong emotions and action in Russia. In March 2006,  

E-print Network

Articles Lake Baikal in southeastern Siberia,the "Sacred Sea,"incites strong emotions and action pipeline scheduled to pass within 800 me- ters (m) of Lake Baikal's shoreline, and, within days, President,Russia,located within the airshed of Lake Baikal; one protester was killed and several were seriously injured by young

Dever, Jennifer A.

239

Effects of nonlethal sea lamprey attack on the blood chemistry of lake trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A laboratory study examined changes in the blood chemistry of field-caught and hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush subjected to a nonlethal attack by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. We measured glucose, total protein, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase, calcium, magnesium, triglycerides, sodium, and potassium with a Kodak Ektachem DT60 Analyzer, Ektachem DTSC Module, and the DTE Module. Mean levels of total protein, AST, ALKP, hematocrit, calcium, magnesium, and sodium decreased significantly (Pa?? 0.05), and mean levels of ALT and potassium increased significantly (Pa?? 0.05) after sea lamprey feeding. Lake trout condition (K) and hematocrit levels also decreased significantly (Pa?? 0.05) after the sea lamprey attack. Frequency distributions of eight lake trout blood chemistry variables and the hematocrit were significantly different before and after a sea lamprey attack. A second study that used hatchery lake trout broodstock measured changes in hematocrit before and after a sea lamprey attack.

Edsall, Carol Cotant; Swink, William D.

2001-01-01

240

Statolith microchemistry as a technique for discriminating among Great Lakes sea lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus ) spawning tributaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laurentian Great Lakes fishery management agencies are seeking ways to identify natal origins of parasitic- and spawning-phase sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) so that efforts to control this invasive species can be prioritized. We developed laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) as a technique to quantify elemental concentrations in larval sea lamprey statoliths and explored the use of statolith microchemistry

Carrol P. Hand; Stuart A. Ludsin; Brian J. Fryer; J. Ellen Marsden

2008-01-01

241

Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) parasite-host interactions in the Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prediction of how host mortality responds to efforts to control sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) is central to the integrated management strategy for sea lamprey (IMSL) in the Great Lakes. A parasite-host submodel is used as part of this strategy, and this includes a type-2 multi-species functional response, a developmental response, but no numerical response. General patterns of host species and size selection are consistent with the model assumptions, but some observations appear to diverge. For example, some patterns in sea lamprey marking on hosts suggest increases in selectivity for less preferred hosts and lower host survival when preferred hosts are scarce. Nevertheless, many of the IMSL assumptions may be adequate under conditions targeted by fish community objectives. Of great concern is the possibility that the survival of young parasites (parasitic-phase sea lampreys) varies substantially among lakes or over time. Joint analysis of abundance estimates for parasites being produced in streams and returning spawners could address this. Data on sea lamprey marks is a critical source of information on sea lamprey activity and potential effects. Theory connecting observed marks to sea lamprey feeding activity and host mortality is reviewed. Uncertainties regarding healing and attachment times, the probability of hosts surviving attacks, and problems in consistent classification of marks have led to widely divergent estimates of damages caused by sea lamprey. Laboratory and field studies are recommended to provide a firmer linkage between host blood loss, host mortality, and observed marks on surviving hosts, so as to improve estimates of damage.

Bence, James R.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Christie, Gavin C.; Cochran, Phillip A.; Ebener, Mark P.; Koonce, Joseph F.; Rutter, Michael A.; Swink, William D.

2003-01-01

242

Estimating parasitic sea lamprey abundance in Lake Huron from heterogeneous data sources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Great Lakes Fishery Commission uses time series of transformer, parasitic, and spawning population estimates to evaluate the effectiveness of its sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program. This study used an inverse variance weighting method to integrate Lake Huron sea lamprey population estimates derived from two estimation procedures: 1) prediction of the lake-wide spawning population from a regression model based on stream size and, 2) whole-lake mark and recapture estimates. In addition, we used a re-sampling procedure to evaluate the effect of trading off sampling effort between the regression and mark-recapture models. Population estimates derived from the regression model ranged from 132,000 to 377,000 while mark-recapture estimates of marked recently metamorphosed juveniles and parasitic sea lampreys ranged from 536,000 to 634,000 and 484,000 to 1,608,000, respectively. The precision of the estimates varied greatly among estimation procedures and years. The integrated estimate of the mark-recapture and spawner regression procedures ranged from 252,000 to 702,000 transformers. The re-sampling procedure indicated that the regression model is more sensitive to reduction in sampling effort than the mark-re capture model. Reliance on either the regression or mark-recapture model alone could produce misleading estimates of abundance of sea lampreys and the effect of the control program on sea lamprey abundance. These analyses indicate that the precision of the lake-wide population estimate can be maximized by re-allocating sampling effort from marking sea lampreys to trapping additional streams.

Young, R.J.; Jones, M.L.; Bence, J.R.; McDonald, R.B.; Mullett, K.M.; Bergstedt, R.A.

2003-01-01

243

Estimating parasitic sea lamprey abundance in Lake Huron from heterogenous data sources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Great Lakes Fishery Commission uses time series of transformer, parasitic, and spawning population estimates to evaluate the effectiveness of its sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program. This study used an inverse variance weighting method to integrate Lake Huron sea lamprey population estimates derived from two estimation procedures: 1) prediction of the lake-wide spawning population from a regression model based on stream size and, 2) whole-lake mark and recapture estimates. In addition, we used a re-sampling procedure to evaluate the effect of trading off sampling effort between the regression and mark-recapture models. Population estimates derived from the regression model ranged from 132,000 to 377,000 while mark-recapture estimates of marked recently metamorphosed juveniles and parasitic sea lampreys ranged from 536,000 to 634,000 and 484,000 to 1,608,000, respectively. The precision of the estimates varied greatly among estimation procedures and years. The integrated estimate of the mark-recapture and spawner regression procedures ranged from 252,000 to 702,000 transformers. The re-sampling procedure indicated that the regression model is more sensitive to reduction in sampling effort than the mark-recapture model. Reliance on either the regression or mark-recapture model alone could produce misleading estimates of abundance of sea lampreys and the effect of the control program on sea lamprey abundance. These analyses indicate that the precision of the lake-wide population estimate can be maximized by re-allocating sampling effort from marking sea lampreys to trapping additional streams.

Young, Robert J.; Jones, Michael L.; Bence, James R.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Mullett, Katherine M.; Bergstedt, Roger A.

2003-01-01

244

Control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in Lake Superior, 1953-70  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although sea lamprey control and heavy plantings of hatchery-reared stock had restored lake trout abundance to prelamprey levels in many areas by 1970, the trout had not yet become self-sustaining. Additional effort will be required to further reduce the effects of lamprey predation.

Smith, Bernard R.; Tibbles, J. James; Johnson, B.G.H.

1974-01-01

245

Frost flower formation on sea ice and lake ice Robert W. Style1  

E-print Network

Frost flower formation on sea ice and lake ice Robert W. Style1 and M. Grae Worster1 Received 22 January 2009; revised 20 April 2009; accepted 6 May 2009; published 10 June 2009. [1] Frost flowers vapour-related phenomena occur and confirm our predictions of frost-flower formation with a series

Worster, M. Grae

246

Assessment of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation by recovery of dead lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario, 1982-85  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1982-85, 89 dead lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were recovered with bottom trawls in U.S. waters of Lake Ontario: 28 incidentally during four annual fish-stock assessment surveys and 61 during fall surveys for dead fish. During the assessment surveys, no dead lake trout were recovered in April-June, one was recovered in August, and 27 were recovered in October or November, implying that most mortality from causes other than fishing occurred in the fall. The estimated numbers of dead lake trout between the 30- and 100-m depth contours in U.S. waters ranged from 16 000 (0.08 carcass/ha) in 1983 to 94 000 (0.46 carcass/ha) in 1982. Of 76 carcasses fresh enough to enable recognition of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) wounds, 75 bore fresh wounds. Assuming that sea lamprey wounding rates on dead fish were the same as on live ones of the same length range (430-740 mm), the probability of 75 of the 76 dead lake trout bearing sea lamprey wounds was 3.5 x 10-63 if death was independent of sea lamprey attack, thus strongly implicating sea lampreys as the primary cause of death of fish in the sample. The recovery of only one unwounded dead lake trout also suggested that natural mortality from causes other than sea lamprey attactks is negligible.

Bergstedt, Roger A.; Schneider, Clifford P.

1988-01-01

247

Vermont Water Resources and Lake Studies Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

to be mobilized by fluvial processes and represented in various legacy sediment accretions in the Northern Lake Champlain watershed, D. quantify sediment and P production in selected meso/macro scale examples and relate

248

Estimating lake-wide abundance of spawning-phase sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in the great lakes: Extrapolating from sampled streams using regression models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lake-wide abundance of spawning-phase sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) can be used as one means to evaluate sea lamprey control efforts in the Great Lakes. Lake-wide abundance in each Great Lake was the sum of estimates for all streams thought to contribute substantial numbers of sea lampreys. A subset of these streams was sampled with traps and mark-recapture studies were conducted. When sea lampreys were captured in traps, but no mark-recapture study was conducted, abundance was estimated from a relation between trap catch and mark-recapture estimates observed in other years. In non-sampled streams, a regression model that used stream drainage area, geographic region, larval sea lamprey, production potential, the number of years since the last lampricide treatment, and spawning year was used to predict abundance of spawning-phase sea lampreys. The combination of estimates from sampled and non-sampled streams provided a 20-year time series of spawning-phase sea lamprey abundance estimates in the Great Lakes.

Mullett, K.M.; Heinrich, J.W.; Adams, J.V.; Young, R.J.; Henson, M.P.; McDonald, R.B.; Fodale, M.F.

2003-01-01

249

Estimating lake-wide abundance of spawning-phase sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes: extrapolating from sampled streams using regression models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lake-wide abundance of spawning-phase sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) can be used as one means to evaluate sea lamprey control efforts in the Great Lakes. Lake-wide abundance in each Great Lake was the sum of estimates for all streams thought to contribute substantial numbers of sea lampreys. A subset of these streams was sampled with traps and mark-recapture studies were conducted. When sea lampreys were captured in traps, but no mark-recapture study was conducted, abundance was estimated from a relation between trap catch and mark-recapture estimates observed in other years. In non-sampled streams, a regression model that used stream drainage area, geographic region, larval sea lamprey, production potential, the number of years since the last lampricide treatment, and spawning year was used to predict abundance of spawning-phase sea lampreys. The combination of estimates from sampled and non-sampled streams provided a 20-year time series of spawning-phase sea lamprey abundance estimates in the Great Lakes.

Mullett, Katherine M.; Heinrich, John W.; Adams, Jean V.; Young, Robert J.; Henson, Mary P.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Fodale, Michael F.

2003-01-01

250

Mark-recapture population estimates of parasitic sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in Lake Huron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Metamorphosed sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) were collected and marked at two points in their life cycle. Recently metamorphosed juveniles were collected from streams, marked with coded wire tags, and returned to migrate to the Great Lakes. Juveniles already in the lakes and feeding on teleost hosts were obtained from incidental catches by sport or commercial fisheries. Sea lampreys in the Great Lakes spend only 1 feeding year as parasites, and marked animals were recaptured during the spawning runs. For one marked group in each of four parasitic cohorts (feeding years 1991 to 1994) and two marked groups in each of three cohorts (feeding years 1998 to 2000) we recovered from 1.1 to 10.2 percent of marked animals. The number of metamorphosed animals present in autumn before migration to Lake Huron was estimated for five cohorts, with estimates ranging from 639 to 803 thousand. The number of feeding, parasitic animals present in Lake Huron in mid summer was estimated for five cohorts, with estimates ranging from 515,000 to 2,342,000. The larger estimates later in the parasitic year suggested that animals collected and marked from sport or commercial fisheries did not survive at the same rate as unmarked animals. It is recommended that only estimates from recaptures of animals marked in the streams before migration be used until it can be established why survival of juveniles obtained from sport or commercial fisheries might be affected.

Bergstedt, Roger A.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Mullett, Katherine M.; Wright, Gregory M.; Swink, William D.; Burnham, Kenneth P.

2003-01-01

251

[Variability of myxospores in the myxosporidian genus Henneguya depending on host and geography in the transect "Khubsugul Lake (Mongolia)--Baikal Lake--Laptev Sea (Russia)"].  

PubMed

Analysis of variability and estimation of significance of the differences in morphometric parameters of spores have been carried out for three species of the genus Henneguya (Myxosporidia). Representatives of these species collected both in the same water body (but from different host species) and in geographically distant localities were compared. Thus, we compared samples of Henneguya zschokkei from different host species in Chivyrkui Bay of Baical Lake and in Laptev Sea, and also we compared samples of this species from Baikal Lake with those from Laptev Sea. Materials on Henneguya cerebralis from Baikal Lake were compared with those from Khubsugul Lake; samples of H. cutanea from one host species (Siberian dace) but from water bodies of different type (lake or river) were compared. PMID:21874845

Pronin, N M; Batueva, M D

2011-01-01

252

Seasonal patterns in growth, blood consumption, and effects on hosts by parasitic-phase sea lampreys in the Great Lakes: An individual-based model approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An individual-based model (IBM) was developed for sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The IBM was then calibrated to observed growth, by season, for sea lampreys in northern Lake Huron under two different water temperature regimes: a regime experienced by Seneca-strain lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and a regime experienced by Marquette-strain lake trout. Modeling results indicated that seasonal blood consumption under the Seneca regime was very similar to that under the Marquette regime. Simulated mortality of lake trout directly due to blood removal by sea lampreys occurred at nearly twice the rate during August and September under the Marquette regime than under the Seneca regime. However, cumulative sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout over the entire duration of the sea lamprey's parasitic phase was only 7% higher for the Marquette regime compared with the Seneca regime. Thus, these modeling results indicated that the strain composition of the host (lake trout) population was not important in determining total number of lake trout deaths or total blood consumption attributable to the sea lamprey population, given the sea lamprey growth pattern. Regardless of water temperature regime, both blood consumption rate by sea lampreys and rate of sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout peaked in late October. Elevated blood consumption in late October appeared to be unrelated to changes in water temperature. The IBM approach should prove useful in optimizing control of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

Madenjian, C.P.; Cochran, P.A.; Bergstedt, R.A.

2003-01-01

253

Seasonal patterns in growth, blood consumption, and effects on hosts by parasitic-phase sea lampreys in the Great Lakes: an individual-based model approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An individual-based model (IBM) was developed for sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The IBM was then calibrated to observed growth, by season, for sea lampreys in northern Lake Huron under two different water temperature regimes: a regime experienced by Seneca-strain lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and a regime experienced by Marquette-strain lake trout. Modeling results indicated that seasonal blood consumption under the Seneca regime was very similar to that under the Marquette regime. Simulated mortality of lake trout directly due to blood removal by sea lampreys occurred at nearly twice the rate during August and September under the Marquette regime than under the Seneca regime. However, cumulative sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout over the entire duration of the sea lamprey's parasitic phase was only 7% higher for the Marquette regime compared with the Seneca regime. Thus, these modeling results indicated that the strain composition of the host (lake trout) population was not important in determining total number of lake trout deaths or total blood consumption attributable to the sea lamprey population, given the sea lamprey growth pattern. Regardless of water temperature regime, both blood consumption rate by sea lampreys and rate of sea lamprey-inuced mortality on lake trout peaked in late October. Elevated blood consumption in late October appeared to be unrelated to changes in water temperature. The IBM approach should prove useful in optimizing control of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

Madenjian, Charles P.; Cochran, Philip A.; Bergstedt, Roger A.

2003-01-01

254

Isolation of Aeromonas salmonicida from sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) with furuncle-like lesions in Lake Ontario.  

PubMed

For the past six decades, parasitic sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) have caused devastating losses to salmonid fisheries in the Great Lakes. To reduce the number of sea lampreys, the Great Lakes Fishery Commission began a large-scale program based on trapping male sea lampreys, sterilizing them, and releasing sterile males back into streams to compete with fertile males for spawning females. The transfer of lampreys among lakes can potentially lead to the transfer of various pathogens, and this has raised major concerns regarding the possibility of resident fish populations becoming infected by introduced pathogens. During a health inspection of sea lampreys collected from Lake Ontario, lampreys with obvious furuncle-like lesions (1-2 cm in diameter) were noticed. Most of the furuncles occupied the dorso-lateral musculature, and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida was isolated from the kidneys. This bacterium was cultured from kidneys of 2.5% of the sea lampreys collected from two locations within the Lake Ontario watershed in 2004. The identity of bacterial colonies was presumptively verified with biochemical reactions and confirmed with polymerase chain reaction. This is the first report of A. salmonicida infection in sea lamprey in the Great Lakes basin associated with furunculosis. PMID:17984256

Faisal, M; Eissa, A E; Elsayed, E E

2007-10-01

255

Diseases and parasites of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, in the Lake Huron basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sea lampreys from the Lake Huron basin carried no external parasites and showed a fairly low degree of infection by internal parasites. The material examined represented three life-history stages of the sea lamprey. Recently transformed downstream migrants (215 specimens) harbored only nematodes belonging to the genus Camallanus. The percentage of infection was 2.3. Active feeders from the lake (29 lampreys) revealed the highest degree of parasitism (31.0 percent) with the following parasites present: Echinorhynchus coregoni Linkins; Triaenophorus crasses Forel; and Camallanus sp. Among the 257 sexually mature upstream migrants (14.8 percent infected) Echinorhynchus coregoni and E. leidyi Van Cleave were the most common. Only occasional nematodes and cestodes were found, which fact indicates a failure of the lamprey to carry these parasites to the end of its natural life. Of the parasites observed, only the nematodes gave evidence of serious damage to the host. The study suggests that the role played by parasites in the natural control of the sea lamprey in its new habitat in the upper Great Lakes is of minor importance.

McLain, Alberton L.

1952-01-01

256

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-print Network

's personal copy Predation on emergent lake trout fry in Lake Champlain Jacob W. Riley 1 , J. Ellen Marsden The rehabilitation of extirpated lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain has been to Lake Champlain include hatchery stocking and sea lamprey control. Despite these management actions

Marsden, Ellen

257

Potential relation between equatorial sea surface temperatures and historic water level variability for Lake Turkana, Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water level in Lake Turkana, Kenya in the past ca. 150 years is controlled primarily from the biannual passage of the East and West African Monsoon, with rainfall volume related partially to sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Western Indian and East Atlantic oceans. Empirical orthogonal function analyses show significant correlation between Eastern Atlantic or Western Indian SSTs and lake level anomalies, with the first mode accounting for 66% and 55% of the variability. The primary geographic loadings are consistent with a Gulf of Guinea moisture source and positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) state. The second mode explains 10% of variability, and reflects the westward extension of an Indian Ocean cool pool, potentially indicative of a normal to a negative IOD state. There is significant spatial correlation between basin rainfall anomalies associated with Eastern Atlantic SSTs and a low in the continental divide between the Kenyan and the Ethiopian Highlands, which is a passage for moisture from the Congo Basin. Linear regression analysis with Bootstrap sampling and Monte Carlo simulations define numeric relations between Western Indian and Eastern Atlantic SSTs and lake level change for AD 1992-2013. The monthly and yearly lake level reconstructions based on this numeric analysis capture the decadal-scale variability and the 15 m drop in water level in the early 20th century. Meter-scale variability in lake level since ca. AD 1930 is associated with precipitation sourced from the Western Indian Ocean with IOD variability, whereas the 15 m drop in water level in the early 20th century may reflect a profound decrease in moisture from Atlantic/Congo Basin source. These numerical solutions are poised to reconstruct water level variations in the past ca. 300 years for Lake Turkana with new proxy records of SSTs from the Western Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Guinea.

Bloszies, Chris; Forman, Steven L.

2015-01-01

258

Microbial life in the Lake Medee, the largest deep-sea salt-saturated formation  

PubMed Central

Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic lakes (DHALs) of the Eastern Mediterranean represent some of the most hostile environments on our planet. We investigated microbial life in the recently discovered Lake Medee, the largest DHAL found to-date. Medee has two unique features: a complex geobiochemical stratification and an absence of chemolithoautotrophic Epsilonproteobacteria, which usually play the primary role in dark bicarbonate assimilation in DHALs interfaces. Presumably because of these features, Medee is less productive and exhibits reduced diversity of autochthonous prokaryotes in its interior. Indeed, the brine community almost exclusively consists of the members of euryarchaeal MSBL1 and bacterial KB1 candidate divisions. Our experiments utilizing cultivation and [14C]-assimilation, showed that these organisms at least partially rely on reductive cleavage of osmoprotectant glycine betaine and are engaged in trophic cooperation. These findings provide novel insights into how prokaryotic communities can adapt to salt-saturated conditions and sustain active metabolism at the thermodynamic edge of life. PMID:24352146

Yakimov, Michail M.; La Cono, Violetta; Slepak, Vladlen Z.; La Spada, Gina; Arcadi, Erika; Messina, Enzo; Borghini, Mireno; Monticelli, Luis S.; Rojo, David; Barbas, Coral; Golyshina, Olga V.; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N.; Giuliano, Laura

2013-01-01

259

Microbial life in the Lake Medee, the largest deep-sea salt-saturated formation.  

PubMed

Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic lakes (DHALs) of the Eastern Mediterranean represent some of the most hostile environments on our planet. We investigated microbial life in the recently discovered Lake Medee, the largest DHAL found to-date. Medee has two unique features: a complex geobiochemical stratification and an absence of chemolithoautotrophic Epsilonproteobacteria, which usually play the primary role in dark bicarbonate assimilation in DHALs interfaces. Presumably because of these features, Medee is less productive and exhibits reduced diversity of autochthonous prokaryotes in its interior. Indeed, the brine community almost exclusively consists of the members of euryarchaeal MSBL1 and bacterial KB1 candidate divisions. Our experiments utilizing cultivation and [(14)C]-assimilation, showed that these organisms at least partially rely on reductive cleavage of osmoprotectant glycine betaine and are engaged in trophic cooperation. These findings provide novel insights into how prokaryotic communities can adapt to salt-saturated conditions and sustain active metabolism at the thermodynamic edge of life. PMID:24352146

Yakimov, Michail M; La Cono, Violetta; Slepak, Vladlen Z; La Spada, Gina; Arcadi, Erika; Messina, Enzo; Borghini, Mireno; Monticelli, Luis S; Rojo, David; Barbas, Coral; Golyshina, Olga V; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N; Giuliano, Laura

2013-01-01

260

Microbial life in the Lake Medee, the largest deep-sea salt-saturated formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic lakes (DHALs) of the Eastern Mediterranean represent some of the most hostile environments on our planet. We investigated microbial life in the recently discovered Lake Medee, the largest DHAL found to-date. Medee has two unique features: a complex geobiochemical stratification and an absence of chemolithoautotrophic Epsilonproteobacteria, which usually play the primary role in dark bicarbonate assimilation in DHALs interfaces. Presumably because of these features, Medee is less productive and exhibits reduced diversity of autochthonous prokaryotes in its interior. Indeed, the brine community almost exclusively consists of the members of euryarchaeal MSBL1 and bacterial KB1 candidate divisions. Our experiments utilizing cultivation and [14C]-assimilation, showed that these organisms at least partially rely on reductive cleavage of osmoprotectant glycine betaine and are engaged in trophic cooperation. These findings provide novel insights into how prokaryotic communities can adapt to salt-saturated conditions and sustain active metabolism at the thermodynamic edge of life.

Yakimov, Michail M.; La Cono, Violetta; Slepak, Vladlen Z.; La Spada, Gina; Arcadi, Erika; Messina, Enzo; Borghini, Mireno; Monticelli, Luis S.; Rojo, David; Barbas, Coral; Golyshina, Olga V.; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N.; Giuliano, Laura

2013-12-01

261

Classification of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attack marks on Great Lakes lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Criteria for the classification of marks inflicted by sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) into nine categories were developed from laboratory studies in an attempt to refine the classification system used in field assessment work. These criteria were based on characteristics of the attachment site that could be identified under field conditions by unaided visual means and by touching the attachment site. Healing of these marks was somewhat variable and was influenced by the size of lamprey, duration of attachment, severity of the wound at lamprey detachment, season and water temperature, and by other less obvious factors. Even under laboratory conditions staging of some wounds was difficult, especially at low water temperatures. If these criteria are to be used effectively and with precision in the field, close examination of individual fish may be required. If the feeding and density of specific year-classes of sea lampreys are to be accurately assessed on an annual basis, close attention to the wound size (as it reflects the size of the lamprey's oral disc) and character of wounds on fish will be required as well as consideration of the season of the year in which they are observed.

King, Everett Louis, Jr.

1980-01-01

262

Tests of glacial rebound models for Fennoscandinavia based on instrumented sea- and lake-level records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence for changing sea levels in northwestern Europe related to glacial rebound is found in both the geological record of the past millennia and in the instrumental records of the past two centuries. The latter records are of two types: records of sea-level change, primarily from the Baltic and the Gulfs of Finland and Bothnia, and records of the tilting of some of the larger lakes in both Finland and Sweden. The sea-level records are particularly important because of their long duration and high quality, their large number and good spatial distribution, and the spatially coherent background noise. The two instrumental data types are complementary and provide constraints on the upper-mantle rheology and on the distribution of ice during the late glacial stage. Comparisons of the observed rates of change of the water levels with models for glacial rebound yield earth models with a lithospheric thickness of 80-100 km and an upper-mantle viscosity of (4-5) 1020 Pa s, effective parameters that are consistent with those obtained from the analysis of the geological evidence for the same region. The mareograph results support ice-sheet models in which the Late Weichselian ice thickness over the eastern and southern parts of Fennoscandia is relatively thinner than that for the western region, also consistent with the interpretation of the geological evidence for sea-level change. In addition, the instrumental records provide constraints on the eustatic sea-level change for about the past 100 years. A satisfactory separation of the earth rheology parameters from this rate of change can be achieved by estimating the latter only from those records for which the predicted isostatic effects are small. A check on these results is possible by using the lake-level records to establish constraints on the earth-model parameters and the sea-level records to constrain also the eustatic change. All approaches lead to an average eustatic sea-level rise for the past century of about 1.1 +/- 0.2 mm yr-1.

Lambeck, Kurt; Smither, Catherine; Ekman, Martin

1998-11-01

263

History told from the depths of Lake Champlai: 1992-1993 Fort Ticonderoga-Mount Independence submerged cultural resource survey  

E-print Network

HISTORY TOLD FROM THE DEPTHS OF LAKE CHAMPLAIN: 1992-1993 FORT TICONDEROGA-MOUNT INDEPENDENCE SUBMERGED CULTURAL RESOURCE SURVEY Volume I A Thesis SCOTT ARTHUR McLAUGHLIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8dlll University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS Maior Subtect. Anthropology HISTORY TOLD FROM THE DEPTHS OF LAKE CHAMPLAIN: 1992-1993 FORT TICONDEROGA-MOUNT INDEPENDENCE SUBMERGED CULTURAL RESOURCE SURVEY Volume( A Thesis...

McLaughlin, Scott Arthur

2000-01-01

264

Stromatolites in caves of the Dead Sea Fault Escarpment: implications to latest Pleistocene lake levels and tectonic subsidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A varied assemblage of algal stromatolites was encountered in caves along the northern section of the Dead Sea Fault Escarpment. The caves are situated at the lower part of the escarpment at altitudes -310 to -188 m relative to mean sea level (m.s.l.), i.e. ca 110-230 m above the present Dead Sea level. The cave stromatolites are mainly composed of aragonite yielding U-Th ages of 75-17 ka. The altitude, mineralogy and ages, as well as comparison with previously documented stromatolite outcrops in the area, ascribe the cave stromatolites to the aragonite-precipitating hypersaline Lake Lisanthe Late Pleistocene predecessor of the Dead Sea. The stromatolites are used as a lake level gauge, based on the algae being reliant upon the light of the upper water layer. Preservation of the original structure and aragonite mineralogy of the stromatolites, suggests a closed system regarding the radioactive elements, enabling reliable U-Th dating. A curve of Lake Lisan levels is constructed based on the stromatolite ages and cave elevations. The following points are noted: (1) Lake levels of -247 m relative to m.s.l., are recorded at 75-72.5 ka; (2) relatively high lake levels above -220 m relative to m.s.l., are achieved at 41.5 ka, and are still recorded at 17 ka; (3) the peak level is -188 m relative to m.s.l., at 35.5-29.5 ka. These results indicate lake stands up to 80 m higher than previously accepted, for large parts of the Lake Lisan time span. This difference is explained by tectonic subsidence of up to 2.2 m/ka within the Dead Sea depression since the latest Pleistocene. This subsidence rate is in the same order of magnitude with previously calculated subsidence rates for the Dead Sea depression [Begin, Z.B., Zilberman, E., 1997. Main Stages and Rate of the Relief Development in Israel. Geological Survey of Israel report, Jerusalem]. Unlike previous Lake Lisan level estimations, the new curve is measured at the relatively stable shoulders of the Dead Sea depression.

Lisker, Sorin; Vaks, Anton; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Porat, Roi; Frumkin, Amos

2009-01-01

265

Geomorphology of Lake Lisan terraces along the eastern coast of the Dead Sea, Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Lisan, the lake that filled the Jordan graben during the Last Glacial, left behind a well developed sequence of erosional and depositional shore terraces in the south east of the current Dead Sea. These terraces record a series of stillstands that were caused by small transgressions within an overall trend of falling lake levels. The terraces were observed in places where they had not been identified previously. The morphology of the terraces was investigated in six cross-sections using differential GPS altimetry. The levels of the terraces range between - 370 and - 148 m a.s.l. The high stand of Lake Lisan at - 148 m correlates well with the high level of - 150 m reported by Bowman and Gross [Bowman, D., Gross, T., 1992. The highest stand of Lake Lisan: ~ 150 meters below MSL. Israel Journal of Earth-Science 41, 233-237.] along the western coast of Lake Lisan. The lake terraces are horizontal, elongated and tectonically undisturbed, and have a sub-horizontal foreshore (tread) with an average slope of 8.2 and steep backshore cliff (riser) with an average slope of 17.7. The six cross-sections show a good altitudinal correlation between their terraces. Moreover, the terraces appear in undisturbed continuity on the aerial photos. These morphological characteristics demonstrate that the retreat of the lake was a result of substantial climatic changes, not of tectonic subsidence. In-situ stromatolites were found on most of the terraces, reflecting a shallow water environment and emphasizing that these terraces are recessional. Well-developed desert varnish and Tafoni observed on blocks sitting on the terrace surfaces imply a long period of exposure and a low rate of post lacustrine erosion. The formation of Lisan terraces is constrained mainly by coastal slope, water depth and underlying lithology. The morphological analysis of these terraces allows identification of two kinds of pseudo-terraces, which were formed as a result of tread or riser destruction. U/Th and OSL dating allowed the dating of three events within the lake level curve more precisely. The high level of - 148 m occurred at 30.5 0.22 ka BP, consistent with the Heinrich Event 3 and Dansgaard-Oeschger stadial 5, the coldest period in the NGRIP Greenland Ice Core record. The next lower terrace at - 154 m was formed at 22.9 ka BP 0.29 and corresponds to the stadial 2C, the final phase of the Last High Glacial. The correlation between the Lisan high stands and climatic stadials suggests that Northern-Hemispheric cold periods led to periods with a more positive water balance in the Near East. At ~ 10 0.8 ka BP Lake Lisan experienced a sharp drop to - 200 m followed by a transgression between 9.5 to 7 ka BP.

Abu Ghazleh, Shahrazad; Kempe, Stephan

2009-07-01

266

Changing climate and sea level alter Hg mobility at Lake Tulane, Florida, U.S.  

PubMed

Between 45,000 cal years BP and the beginning of the Holocene, the accumulation rate for Hg in sediments of Lake Tulane, Florida ranged from ?2 to 10 ?g m(-2) yr(-1), compared with 53 ?g Hg m(-2) yr(-1) in the 1985-1990 period of anthropogenic input. The locality experienced regional draw-down of the water table during the Wisconsinan glaciation, which lowered global sea level by nearly 130 m. Natural atmospheric deposition of Hg to the surrounding area resulted in long-term (ca. 100,000 years) sequestration of this atmospheric flux of Hg, primarily by adsorption in the oxic Al- and Fe-hydroxide-rich sandy subsoil. Global sea level rise during deglaciation led to a rising regional water table, flooding the oxidized soils surrounding Tulane. Iron and adsorbed Hg were mobilized by reductive dissolution and transported by groundwater flow to Lake Tulane and ultimately to the accumulating sediment. The accumulation rate of Hg (and Fe) increased rapidly about 16,000 cal years BP, peaked at nearly 60 ?g Hg m(-2) yr(-1) ca. 13,000-14,000 cal years BP, declined sharply during the Younger Dryas, and then increased sharply to a second 60 ?g Hg m(-2) yr(-1) peak about 5000 cal years BP. Thereafter, it declined nearly to background by 900 cal years BP. In similar geologic situations, rapid modern sea level rise will initiate this process globally, and may mobilize large accumulations of Hg and lesser amounts of As, and other redox sensitive metals to groundwater and surface water. PMID:23043314

Jacobson, G L; Norton, S A; Grimm, E C; Edgar, T

2012-11-01

267

J. ELLEN MARSDEN Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Vermont  

E-print Network

vector. Lake Champlain Sea Grant , $101,00 2009-2010 Janice Adams, J. Ellen Marsden, James Johnson Fishery Commission, $175,623 2009-2010. Emerging threats on Lake Champlain. Levine, S., J. E. Marsden, and M. Watzin. Lake Champlain Sea Grant, $371,000. 2007 The effects of zebra mussel growth in different

Marsden, Ellen

268

Passage of Four Teleost Species Prior to Sea Lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus) Migration in Eight Tributaries of Lake Superior, 1954 to 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonally operated barriers in rivers are used by the Great Lakes Fishery Commission to block adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) migrations, yet pass other fish during some part of the year. Knowledge of the overlap of spawning migrations of sea lampreys and other fish species are vital for the efficient operation of the Commission's barrier program. The migration of sea

Gregory L. Klingler; Jean V. Adams; John W. Heinrich

2003-01-01

269

40 CFR 81.48 - Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.48 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions 81.48 Champlain...

2011-07-01

270

40 CFR 81.48 - Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.48 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions 81.48 Champlain...

2013-07-01

271

Early Holocene climatic instability in Japan: organic geochemical evidence in sediment cores from Lake Biwa, Lake Kizaki and the Japan Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment cores from Lake Biwa (Shiga Prefecture) and Lake Kizaki (Nagano Prefecture) provide evidence of variations in the climate of Japan subsequent to the end of the last glacial period. Concentrations of organic carbon increase in sediments deposited after the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, as wetter climates washed in more soil nutrients and aquatic productivity increased. Organic matter C/N ratios simultaneously decrease, indicating smaller proportions of land-derived plant matter. Lake Biwa C/N ratios and organic carbon isotope ratios fluctuate markedly between 10 and 4 Kya, suggesting that both delivery of land-derived organic matter and production of lake-derived organic matter were variable during this period of time. Similar variability in biotic paleoceanographic indicators has been reported in sediments from the Oki Ridge in the Japan Sea and has been interpreted to record early Holocene fluctuations in the intensity of the Tsushima Current. Such fluctuations in this warm-water current are likely to have caused concordant fluctuations in climate on Honshu, a relationship that explains the variability in rainfall evident in the organic matter of the lake sediments.

Meyers, Philip A.

1998-04-01

272

Application of Geophysical Methods and Numerical Models to Quantify Solute Transport Into a Fresh-Water Lake: Sea of Galilee, Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sea of Galilee is the lowest freshwater lake on Earth, covering a pull-apart basin along the Dead Sea transform. Saline groundwater emerges through onshore and offshore springs and through flux from the lake's sediments. In this study, we combined geophysics, geology and numerical models to quantify groundwater and chloride discharge rates into the Sea of Galilee. The results have practical implications for management of the lake and the surrounding aquifers. Multi-channel seismic reflection data define two distinct zones beneath the lake: a deep graben (aquitard) that underlies most of the lake, and shallow pre-rift units (aquifers) underlying the northwestern faulted part of the lake. Applying the novel surface marine modification of the TDEM (Time Domain Electromagnetic) method, the spatial distribution of brines in the sediments below the lake was delineated. Resistivities of 1.0 and 0.5 ohm-m were detected at depths of about 10 m below the lake bottom in most of the lake area, equivalent to approximately 11,000 and 22,000 mgCl/l, respectively. Relatively fresh groundwater was detected beneath most of the shoreline. It is hypothesized that the brine was leached from the sediments beneath the lake's margins due to forceful topography-driven flow systems, but still is trapped beneath the central part of the lake. The detection of shallow brine in the lake's sediment has lead us to propose that in the late Pleistocene, during a short high-stand phase of former Lake Lisan, its saline water percolated into the subsurface. Since its recession and the instantaneous formation of the freshwater lake, the Sea of Galilee, the previously intruded brine has been flushed backwards towards the lake. Numerical simulations of fluid flow and of solute and heat transport show that a high-stand period of approximately 1,000 years in Lake Lisan was sufficient for saline water to percolate deep into the subsurface. Results of 1-D advective-dispersive chloride transport numerical simulations that take into account sedimentation and compaction at the lake bottom were compared with measured chloride concentration profiles in sediment cores. The calculated results validate the hypothesis that Lake Lisan solutes are currently discharged into the Sea of Galilee, and indicate that upward water velocity in the sediment ranges between 9 and 22 mm/year, implying that the total solute discharge into the lake induced by compaction is less than 5% of the total discharge.

Hurwitz, S.; Gvirtzman, H.

2002-12-01

273

Lithosphere-biosphere interaction at a shallow-sea hydrothermal vent site; Hot Lake, Panarea, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep-Sea hydrothermal systems are unique habitats for microbial life with primary production based on chemosynthesis and are considered to be windows to the subsurface biosphere. It is often overlooked, however, that their far more accessible shallow-sea counterparts are also valuable targets to study the effects of hydrothermal activity on geology, seawater chemistry and finally, on microbial life. Such an area of shallow marine hydrothermal venting is observed approximately 2.5 km east of Panarea Island (Sicily, Italy). This system is characterized by fluid temperatures of up to 135 C, gas emissions dominated by CO2 and precipitation of elemental sulfur on the seafloor. In an interdisciplinary project to investigate the influence of geofuels on marine microbiota, sediment cores and pore fluids were sampled for geological and geochemical analyses. An attempt was made to link these geochemical data with a characterization of the microbial community. One of the investigated sites (Lago Caldo, Hot Lake) is an oval-shaped (~10 by 6 meters) shallow (~2.5 m deep) depression covered by elemental sulfur. The sediments in this depression are strongly affected by hydrothermal activity: the pH of pore fluids is in a range between 5 and 6; the salinity is approximately two times higher than seawater. In situ temperatures of 36 C and 74 C (10 cm sediment depth) at two different locations within Hot Lake indicate variability in hydrothermal flux. The sediment surface layer is anoxic, and with increasing depth from the sediment-water interface, sulfate concentrations decrease from ~30 mM to less than 10 mM, whereas sulfide concentrations increase from less than 50 ?m to ~1000 ?m at 25 cm sediment depth, thus suggesting a higher potential for energy gain based on sulfur disequilibrium. As indicated by the variability in the sediment temperatures at 10 cm, fluid fluxes and mixing with seawater is not found to be uniform at Hot Lake. This is reflected in variability of the pore fluids geochemistry (anions, cations and stable isotope composition of water and sulfate) of depth profiles. DNA-fingerprinting techniques (DGGE, ARISA) revealed distinctly different bacterial 16S rRNA gene patterns for three separate sediment cores taken at Hot Lake. Intact polar lipid (IPL) biomarker analysis revealed a dominance of bacterial over archaeal biomass. The bacterial IPLs were mainly comprised of diether and diester phospholipids and ornithine lipids, indicative of viable thermophilic sulfate-reducing and acidophilic sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. Bacterial IPL abundance was highest in the sediment surface layer. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that with increasing depth and temperature, the abundance of archaea increased relative to that of bacteria. Comparative 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed a moderate diversity of bacteria, and a dominance of epsilonproteobacterial sequences. Cultured representatives of the detected epsilonproteobacterial classes are known to catalyze elemental sulfur reduction and oxidation reactions and to mediate the formation of iron-sulfides, including framboidal pyrite, which was found in sediment samples. We conclude that mixing between hydrothermal fluids and seawater leads to distinctly different temperature gradients and ecological niches in Hot Lake sediments. From the geochemical profiles and a preliminary characterization of the microbiological community, we found strong evidence of sulfur-related metabolism. Further investigation of certain clusters of bacteria and archaea as well as gene expression analysis will give us a deeper understanding of the interaction between geosphere and biosphere at this site in the future.

Huang, Chia-I.; Amann, Rudolf; Amend, Jan P.; Bach, Wolfgang; Brunner, Benjamin; Meyerdierks, Anke; Price, Roy E.; Schubotz, Florence; Summons, Roger; Wenzhfer, Frank

2010-05-01

274

Assessing the hydrological impacts of agricultural changes upstream of the Tunisian World Heritage sea-connected Ichkeul Lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of changes in agricultural land use and practices as a controlling driver of hydrologic response and as a source of diffuse pollution, are studied in the Joumine River basin, discharging into the Ichkeul Lake, northern Tunisia, a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1979. The lake is characterized by a very specific hydrological functioning based on a seasonal alternation of water levels and salinity through its link to the Mediterranean Sea. Three Landsat images, in situ surveys and SWAT modelling were used to simulate and assess streamflows and nitrate loads under retrospective land uses.

Aouissi, J.; Chabaane, Z. L.; Benabdallah, S.; Cudennec, C.

2015-03-01

275

Groundwater-saline lakes interaction - The contribution of saline groundwater circulation to solute budget of saline lakes: a lesson from the Dead Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saline lakes act as base level for both surface water and groundwater. Thus, a change in lake levels is expected to result in changes in the hydrogeological system in its vicinity, exhibited in groundwater levels, location of the fresh-saline water interface, sub-lacustrine groundwater discharge (SGD) and saline water circulation. All these processes were observed in the declining Dead Sea system, whose water level dropped by ~35 meters in the last 50 years. This work focuses mainly on the effect of circulation of Dead Sea water in the aquifer, which continues even in this very rapid base level drop. In general, seawater circulation in coastal aquifers is now recognized as a major process affecting trace element mass balances in coastal areas. Estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) vary over several orders of magnitude (1-1000000 m3/yr per meter shoreline). These estimates are sensitive to fresh-saline SGD ratios and to the temporal and spatial scales of the circulation. The Dead Sea system is an excellent natural field lab for studying seawater-groundwater interaction and large-scale circulation due to the absence of tides and to the minor role played by waves. During Dead Sea water circulation in the aquifer several geochemical reactions occur, ranging from short-term adsorption-desorption reactions and up to long-term precipitation and dissolution reactions. These processes affect the trace element distribution in the saline groundwater. Barite and celestine, which are supersaturated in the lake water, precipitate during circulation in the aquifer, reducing barium (from 5 to 1.5 mg/L), strontium (from 350 to 300 mg/L) and the long-lived 226Ra (from 145 to 60 dpm/L) in the saline groundwater. Redox-controlled reactions cause a decrease in uranium from 2.4 to 0.1 ?g/L, and an increase in iron from 1 to 13 mg/L. 228Ra (t1/2=5.75 yr) activity in the Dead Sea is ~1 dpm/L and increase gradually as the saline water flows further inland until reaching steady-state activities (~27 dpm/L) with the aquifer sediments. The decrease in 226Ra and increase in 228Ra in the circulation process provide a robust method for calculating the amount of Dead Sea water circulating in the aquifer. This process can affect trace element concentrations in the Dead Sea and emphasize the potential of long-term seawater circulation in mass balances of saline water bodies.

Kiro, Yael; Weinstein, Yishai; Starinsky, Abraham; Yechieli, Yoseph

2013-04-01

276

Lake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense

Wien, Carol Anne

2008-01-01

277

Changes in diatom assemblages in Lake C2 (Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada): response to basin isolation from the sea and to other environmental changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diatoms preserved in the sediments of Lake C2 (8250' N, 7600' W), a high arctic meromictic lake, track changes in the lake's salinity which have occurred as the basin was isolated from the sea. An assemblage dominated by marine taxa, such as Chaetoceros species, Nitzschia cylindrus and Diploneis spp., was replaced by a Cyclotella kuetzingiana var. planetophora dominated freshwater flora.

M. S. V. Douglas; S. Ludlam; S. Feeney

1996-01-01

278

Numerical simulations of tsunamis generated by underwater volcanic explosions at Karymskoye lake (Kamchatka, Russia) and Kolumbo volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing human activities along the coasts of the world provoke the necessity to assess tsunami hazard from different sources (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity). In this paper, we simulate tsunamis generated by underwater volcanic explosions from (1) a submerged vent in a shallow water lake (Karymskoye Lake, Kamchatka), and (2) from Kolumbo submarine volcano (7 km NE of Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece). The 1996 tsunami in Karymskoye lake is a well-documented example and thus serves as a case study for validating the calculations. The numerical model reproduces realistically the tsunami run-ups measured onshore. Systematic numerical study of tsunamis generated by explosions of the Kolumbo volcano is then conducted for a wide range of energies. Results show that in case of reawakening, the Kolumbo volcano might represent a significant tsunami hazard for the northern, eastern and southern coasts of Santorini, even for small-power explosions.

Ulvrov, M.; Paris, R.; Kelfoun, K.; Nomikou, P.

2014-02-01

279

Numerical simulations of tsunami generated by underwater volcanic explosions at Karymskoye lake (Kamchatka, Russia) and Kolumbo volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing human activities along the coasts of the world arise the necessity to assess tsunami hazard from different sources (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity). In this paper, we simulate tsunamis generated by underwater volcanic explosions from (1) a submerged vent in a shallow water lake (Karymskoye Lake, Kamchatka), and (2) from Kolumbo submarine volcano (7 km NE of Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece). The 1996 tsunami in Karymskoye lake is a well-documented example and thus serves as a case-study for validating the calculations. The numerical model reproduces realistically the tsunami runups measured onshore. Systematic numerical study of tsunamis generated by explosions of Kolumbo volcano is then conducted for a wide range of energies. Results show that in case of reawakening, Kolumbo volcano might represent a significant tsunami hazard for the northern, eastern and southern coasts of Santorini, even for small-power explosions.

Ulvrov, M.; Paris, R.; Kelfoun, K.; Nomikou, P.

2013-11-01

280

Interannual variation of persistent organic pollutants over the Great Lakes induced by tropical Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The linkage between decadal monitored air concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) around the Great Lakes from 1992 to 2002 and the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the tropical Pacific was studied on a year-to-year basis. It is shown that interannual fluctuation of air concentrations of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in the Great Lakes basin in spring and summer are highly correlated with the tropical Pacific SSTA. Spatial correlation patterns between the air concentrations of POPs over the Great Lakes and SSTA exhibit a feature of the characteristic SST signature associated with the occurrence of an El Nio event and SSTA forcing in atmospheric circulation teleconnections. The relations between air concentration of these POPs and the tropical Pacific SSTA are consistent with the response of midlatitude atmospheric circulation to the Pacific SSTA, showing that air concentration of the POPs in spring and summer seasons is related to tropical Pacific SSTA in preceding winter and spring months. The up to 6 month lag response of the POP air concentration to the SSTA provides a basis for forecasting the temporal trend of POPs in the atmosphere over the Great Lakes basin. The connection of the SSTA and the changes in the POP air concentration with the atmospheric circulation suggests that the atmospheric circulation associated with the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) forcing plays a major role in the reemission of POPs from sources and long-range transport of POPs in the atmosphere.

Ma, Jianmin; Li, Yi-Fan

2006-02-01

281

Beryllium isotopes as tracers of Lake Lisan (last Glacial Dead Sea) hydrology and the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The content of the cosmogenic isotope 10Be (t1/2=1.39 Ma) in lacustrine sediments that deposit in lakes with a large watershed is susceptible to both climate and cosmogenic production rate variations. In order to distinguish between these two controls, we measured 10Be and major elements in several sections of the annually laminated sediments of the Lake Lisan (the last Glacial precursor of the Dead Sea) that are composed of detrital sediments and primary (evaporitic) aragonites. The sections were selected to represent regional hydrology and climate as reflected by different lake configurations (level rise, drop and high-stands) and rapid change in the 10Be production rate during the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion. Since the short-lived cosmogenic sister of 10Be, 7Be (t1/2=53.3 d) has virtually no recycled component, the recycled 10Be in Lake Lisan detrital sediments was evaluated by measuring 7Be in their modern equivalents: modern flood suspended matter, dust and mud cracks. Our results demonstrate that although the recycled 10Be component is significant, secular variations in the 10Be concentration in Lake Lisan sediments correlate with hydrological variations and geomagnetic excursions. During periods of moderate variations in 10Be production rate, the 10Be concentration in the Lisan detrital sediments positively correlates with lake level, Al + Fe content and the (Al + Fe)/(Ca + Mg) ratio. These correlations suggest that the 10Be is adsorbed on the fine silicate component (probably clays) of the detrital laminae. The fine silicates together with carbonates were transported to Dead Sea drainage basin mainly as airborne dust that after a short residence time was washed into Lake Lisan as flood suspended matter. We suggest that preferential dissolution of carbonates in the flood suspended matter concentrated the residual fine component leading to the positive correlation between 10Be and the (Al + Fe)/(Ca + Mg) ratio. During periods of increased water discharge more carbonates were dissolved and hence the 10Be concentration in the detrital laminae increased. During periods of rapid increase in the 10Be production rate (e.g. the Laschamp excursion), 10Be showed a ?2 fold increase, beyond the above-mentioned correlations (lake levels and Al + Fe contents). This observation suggests that Lake Lisan can serve as a potential high-resolution archive of 10Be production rate variations during periods of geomagnetic excursions.

Belmaker, Reuven; Stein, Mordechai; Beer, Jrg; Christl, Marcus; Fink, David; Lazar, Boaz

2014-08-01

282

Modeling invasive species spread in Lake Champlain via evolutionary computations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a reaction diffusion equation, together with a genetic algorithm approach for model selection to develop a general\\u000a modeling framework for biological invasions. The diffusion component of the reaction diffusion model is generalized to include\\u000a dispersal and advection. The reaction component is generalized to include both linear and non-linear density dependence, and\\u000a Allee effect. A combination of the reaction

B. M. Osei; C. D. Ellingwood; J. P. Hoffmann; D. E. Bentil

2011-01-01

283

The Effects of Sewage on a Lake Champlain Wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stevens Brook wetland is presently receiving partially treated sewage from the City of St. Albans, Vermont. The water quality in St. Albans Bay is deteriorating. There is conflicting evidence for the theory that wetlands act as a nutrient sink or as a biotic nutrient filter. This research is an investigation into the productivity and trophic food chain relationships of Stevens

Larry N. Schwartz; Gerhard K. Gruendling

1985-01-01

284

Relationship of length of fish to incidence of sea lamprey scars on white suckers, Catostomus commersoni, in Lake Huron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the course of experimental fishing operations conducted by the staff of Hammond Bay Fishery Laboratory (a field station of Great Lakes Fishery Investigations) in 1950-1951, length measurements and records of scarring incidence and number of scars per individual were obtained for a sample of 552 white suckers, Catostomus commersoni (Lacepede). The results of this study indicate that if information on the incidence of sea lamprey scars on white suckers is to be used to judge the relative abundance of sea lampreys and the damages inflicted by that parasite on the sucker stock, data must include records of the lengths of fish. It is to be suspected strongly that a similar conclusion applies in other localities and to other species preyed upon by the sea lamprey.

Hall, A.E.; Elliott, Oliver R.

1954-01-01

285

Pollution records from sediments of three lakes in New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment core segments from Sylvan Lake, Lake Champlain and Lake Canadarago were dated radiometrically with 210 Pb and 137 Cs. Their respective sedimentation rates were determined to be 0.11, 0.14 and 0.52 g cm -2 yr -1 . For the two lakes of lower sedimentation the variations of selected elemental abundances as function of depth were analyzed. Two groupings were

M. Wahlen; R. C. Thompson

1980-01-01

286

Widespread waterborne pollution in central Swedish lakes and the Baltic Sea from pre-industrial mining and metallurgy.  

PubMed

Metal pollution is viewed as a modern problem that began in the 19th century and accelerated through the 20th century; however, in many parts of the globe this view is wrong. Here, we studied past waterborne metal pollution in lake sediments from the Bergslagen region in central Sweden, one of many historically important mining regions in Europe. With a focus on lead (including isotopes), we trace mining impacts from a local scale, through a 120-km-long river system draining into Mlaren--Sweden's third largest lake, and finally also the Baltic Sea. Comparison of sediment and peat records shows that pollution from Swedish mining was largely waterborne and that atmospheric deposition was dominated by long-range transport from other regions. Swedish ore lead is detectable from the 10th century, but the greatest impact occurred during the 16th-18th centuries with improvements occurring over recent centuries, i.e., historical pollution > modern industrial pollution. PMID:19268409

Bindler, Richard; Renberg, Ingemar; Rydberg, Johan; Andrn, Thomas

2009-07-01

287

Experimental evaluation of atmospheric effects on radiometric measurements using the EREP of Skylab. [Salton Sea and Great Salt Lake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Test sites were located near the Great Salt Lake and the Salton Sea. Calculations were performed for a set of atmospheric models corresponding to the test sites, in addition to standard models for summer and winter midlatitude atmospheres with respective integrated water vapor amount of 2.4 g/sq cm and 0.9 g/sq cm. Each atmosphere was found to contain an average amount of continental aerosol. Computations were valid for high solar elevation angles. Atmospheric attenuation quantities were computed in addition to simulated EREP S192 radiances.

Chang, D. T. (principal investigator); Isaacs, R. G.

1975-01-01

288

Verification and Application of a Bio-optical Algorithm for Lake Michigan Using SeaWiFS: a 7-year Inter-annual Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we utilize 7 years of SeaWiFS satellite data to obtain seasonal and interannual time histories of the major water color-producing agents (CPAs), phytoplankton chlorophyll (chl), dissolved organic carbon (doc), and suspended minerals (sm) for Lake Michigan. We first present validation of the Great Lakes specific algorithm followed by correlations of the CPAs with coincident environmental observations. Special

Robert Shuchman; Anton Korosov; Charles Hatt; Dmitry Pozdnyakov; Jay Means; Guy Meadows

2006-01-01

289

Basin elevation and salinity changes: late Holocene development of two freshwater lakes at the Karelian White Sea coast, northwest Russia as reflected in their sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paleolimnological multi-proxy study, anthropogenic influences and salinity changes of the northwest Russian lakes\\u000a Erchovskye Ozero East (ESE) and Erchovskye Ozero West (ESW) were assessed using diatoms, pollen and other microfossils from\\u000a 210Pb-dated sediment cores. Both lakes are situated on the Fennoscandian Shield in direct vicinity to the White Sea coast, a\\u000a region that is still subject to isostatic

Mirko Dreler; Manuela Schult; Michael Schubert; Jessica Buck

290

Lake and Sea Populations of Mysis relicta (Crustacea, Mysida) with Different Visual-Pigment Absorbance Spectra Use the Same A1 Chromophore  

PubMed Central

Glacial-relict species of the genus Mysis (opossum shrimps) inhabiting both fresh-water lakes and brackish sea waters in northern Europe show a consistent lake/sea dichotomy in eye spectral sensitivity. The absorbance peak (?max) recorded by microspectrophotometry in isolated rhabdoms is invariably 2030 nm red-shifted in lake compared with sea populations. The dichotomy holds across species, major opsin lineages and light environments. Chromophore exchange from A1 to A2 (retinal ? 3,4-didehydroretinal) is a well-known mechanism for red-shifting visual pigments depending on environmental conditions or stages of life history, present not only in fishes and amphibians, but in some crustaceans as well. We tested the hypothesis that the lake/sea dichotomy in Mysis is due to the use of different chromophores, focussing on two populations of M. relicta from, respectively, a Finnish lake and the Baltic Sea. They are genetically very similar, having been separated for less than 10 kyr, and their rhabdoms show a typical lake/sea difference in ?max (554 nm vs. 529 nm). Gene sequencing has revealed no differences translating into amino acid substitutions in the transmembrane parts of their opsins. We determined the chromophore identity (A1 or A2) in the eyes of these two populations by HPLC, using as standards pure chromophores A1 and A2 as well as extracts from bovine (A1) and goldfish (A2) retinas. We found that the visual-pigment chromophore in both populations is A1 exclusively. Thus the spectral difference between these two populations of M. relicta is not due to the use of different chromophores. We argue that this conclusion is likely to hold for all populations of M. relicta as well as its European sibling species. PMID:24516590

Belikov, Nikolai; Yakovleva, Marina; Feldman, Tatiana; Demina, Olga; Khodonov, Andrei; Lindstrm, Magnus; Donner, Kristian; Ostrovsky, Mikhail

2014-01-01

291

Long-term changes in cyanobacteria populations in lake kinneret (sea of galilee), Israel: an eco-physiological outlook.  

PubMed

The long-term record of cyanobacteria abundance in Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel, demonstrates changes in cyanobacteria abundance and composition in the last five decades. New invasive species of the order Nostocales (Aphanizomenon ovalisporum and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii) became part of the annual phytoplankton assemblage during summer-autumn. Concomitantly, bloom events of Microcystis sp. (Chroococcales) during winter-spring intensified. These changes in cyanobacteria pattern may be partly attributed to the management policy in Lake Kinneret's vicinity and watershed aimed to reduce effluent discharge to the lake and partly to climate changes in the region; i.e., increased water column temperature, less wind and reduced precipitation. The gradual decrease in the concentration of total and dissolved phosphorus and total and dissolved nitrogen and an increase in alkalinity, pH and salinity, combined with the physiological features of cyanobacteria, probably contributed to the success of cyanobacteria. The data presented here indicate that the trend of the continuous decline of nutrients may not be sufficient to reduce and to control the abundance and proliferation of toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria. PMID:25664964

Hadas, Ora; Kaplan, Aaron; Sukenik, Assaf

2015-01-01

292

Quantification of a male sea lamprey pheromone in tributaries of Laurentian Great Lakes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed an assay for measuring 7?,12?,24-trihydroxy-5a-cholan-3-one-24-sulfate (3kPZS), a mating pheromone released by male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus), at low picomolar concentrations in natural waters to assess the presence of invasive populations. 3kPZS was extracted from streamwater at a rate of recovery up to 90% using a single cation-exchange and reversed-phase mixed-mode cartridge, along with [2H5]3kPZS as an internal standard, and quantified using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of detection was below 0.1 ng L1 (210 fM), which was the lowest concentration tested. Intra- and interday coefficients of variation were between 0.311.6% and 4.89.8%, respectively, at 1 ng 3kPZS L1 and 5 ng 3kPZS L1. This assay was validated by repeat measurements of water samples from a stream spiked with synthesized 3kPZS to reach 4.74 ng L1 or 0.24 ng L1. We further verified the utility of this assay to detect spawning populations of lampreys; in the seven tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes sampled, 3kPZS concentrations were found to range between 0.15 and 2.85 ng L1 during the spawning season in known sea lamprey infested segments and were not detectable in uninfested segments. The 3kPZS assay may be useful for the integrated management of sea lamprey, an invasive species in the Great Lakes where pheromone-based control and assessment techniques are desired.

Xi, X.; Johnson, N.S.; Brant, C.O.; Yun, S.-S.; Chambers, K.L.; Jones, A.D.; Li, W.

2011-01-01

293

Reproductive isolation, evolutionary distinctiveness and setting conservation priorities: The case of European lake whitefish and the endangered North Sea houting (Coregonus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adaptive radiation within fishes of the Coregonus lavaretus complex has created numerous morphs, posing significant challenges for taxonomy and conservation priorities. The highly endangered North Sea houting (C. oxyrhynchus; abbreviated NSH) has been considered a separate species from European lake whitefish (C. lavaretus; abbreviated ELW) due to morphological divergence and adaptation to oceanic salinities. However, its evolutionary and taxonomic

Michael M Hansen; Dylan J Fraser; Thomas D Als; Karen-Lise D Mensberg

2008-01-01

294

Relative Importance of Water Temperature, Water Level, and Lunar Cycle to Migratory Activity in Spawning-Phase Sea Lampreys in Lake Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed historical trapping records from six Lake Ontario tributaries to (1) compare the relative importance of water temperature, water level, and lunar cycle to migratory activity in upstream-migrating sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus and (2) determine whether the relative importance of these variables differs among streams. We found significant stream-dependent differences in the relative importance of the environmental variables. Water

Thomas R. Binder; Robert L. McLaughlin; D. Gordon McDonald

2010-01-01

295

Lithosphere-biosphere interaction at a shallow-sea hydrothermal vent site; Hot Lake, Panarea, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep-Sea hydrothermal systems are unique habitats for microbial life with primary production based on chemosynthesis and are considered to be windows to the subsurface biosphere. It is often overlooked, however, that their far more accessible shallow-sea counterparts are also valuable targets to study the effects of hydrothermal activity on geology, seawater chemistry and finally, on microbial life. Such an area

Chia-I. Huang; Rudolf Amann; Jan P. Amend; Wolfgang Bach; Benjamin Brunner; Anke Meyerdierks; Roy E. Price; Florence Schubotz; Roger Summons; Frank Wenzhfer

2010-01-01

296

Trophic relations in two lakes from the Bulgarian Black Sea coast and possibilities for their restoration.  

PubMed

Based on quantitative data on nutrients, light penetration, phytoplankton, zooplankton and zoobenthos obtained in the period 1992-1994 the relations between trophic levels were studied by means of statistical analysis. The two lakes are distinguished by relatively high transfer efficiency between phytoplankton and zooplankton, which depends on the size distribution among zooplankton and percentage of blue-green algae. The bottom up influence seems to prevail over the top-down influence, water surface area and phosphorus load are large, and mean depth is more than 1 m. All this let us conclude that biomanipulation measures alone are not sufficient for a substantial lake restoration. PMID:12420960

Kalchev, R K; Pehllvanov, L Z; Beshkova, M B

2002-01-01

297

Optimizing larval assessment to support sea lamprey control in the Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Elements of the larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) assessment program that most strongly influence the chemical treatment program were analyzed, including selection of streams for larval surveys, allocation of sampling effort among stream reaches, allocation of sampling effort among habitat types, estimation of daily growth rates, and estimation of metamorphosis rates, to determine how uncertainty in each element influenced the stream selection program. First, the stream selection model based on current larval assessment sampling protocol significantly underestimated transforming sea lamprey abundance, transforming sea lampreys killed, and marginal costs per sea lamprey killed, compared to a protocol that included more years of data (especially for large streams). Second, larval density in streams varied significantly with Type-I habitat area, but not with total area or reach length. Third, the ratio of larval density between Type-I and Type-II habitat varied significantly among streams, and that the optimal allocation of sampling effort varied with the proportion of habitat types and variability of larval density within each habitat. Fourth, mean length varied significantly among streams and years. Last, size at metamorphosis varied more among years than within or among regions and that metamorphosis varied significantly among streams within regions. Study results indicate that: (1) the stream selection model should be used to identify streams with potentially high residual populations of larval sea lampreys; (2) larval sampling in Type-II habitat should be initiated in all streams by increasing sampling in Type-II habitat to 50% of the sampling effort in Type-I habitat; and (3) methods should be investigated to reduce uncertainty in estimates of sea lamprey production, with emphasis on those that reduce the uncertainty associated with larval length at the end of the growing season and those used to predict metamorphosis.

Hansen, M.J.; Adams, J.V.; Cuddy, D.W.; Richards, J.M.; Fodale, M.F.; Larson, G.L.; Ollila, D.J.; Slade, J.W.; Steeves, T.B.; Young, R.J.; Zerrenner, A.

2003-01-01

298

Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair Bathymetry is the science of measuring (soundings) and mapping (bathymetric maps) the depths of a water body (oceans, seas,  

E-print Network

Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair Bathymetry is the science of measuring (soundings. Large amounts of sounding data were obtained during geophysical surveys of the Great Lakes dating back and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Cana- dian Hydrographic Service . The historic sounding databases

299

Evidence for allochthonous prey delivery to Lake Michigan's Mid-Lake Reef Complex: Are deep reefs analogs to oceanic sea mounts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Michigan's Sheboygan Reef is contained in a refuge for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) restoration, and is one of several deep midlake reefs that historically were productive spawning and fishery grounds. The summits of these reefs are rocky and deeper than the photic zone. We propose that the basis of trophic support for lake trout and their prey is allochthonous

Christopher J. Houghton; Charles R. Bronte; Robert W. Paddock; John Janssen

2010-01-01

300

Approximation methods for the solution of inverse problems in lake and sea sediment core analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical model employing one-dimensional (depth) transport equations to describe vertical redistribution of ocean-floor and lake-floor sediment (particulates, volcanic ash, microtektites, or radioactive tracers) by episodic and nonepisodic events including bioturbation is developed analytically and demonstrated. The principles underlying the model are explained; the model equations are derived; the inverse problem of identifying the depth-dependent bioturbation coefficient is addressed; two approximation theorems are presented; and numerical results for two sample problems are presented graphically. It is suggested that compatification, porosity effects, and depth-dependent sedimentation be taken into account when formulating future models.

Banks, H. T.; Rosen, I. G.

1985-01-01

301

Evaluation of strategies for the release of male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in Lake Superior for a proposed sterile-male-release program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Successful implementation of a sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control technique that uses sterilized males to reduce reproduction presently depends on the importation of large numbers of males outside of the target population. Strategies were examined for releasing male sea lampreys from Lakes Michigan and Huron into the Lake Superior spawning population and the ability of these introduced males to compete with resident males and spawn with resident females. During 1987, 553 (9%) of 6,324 imported fertile males released at 12 shoreline and one offshore site in Lake Superior were recaptured. Most remained within 20 km of the release site and entered the first stream encountered. During 1988, 393 (18%) of 2,208 imported fertile males released directly into three spawning rivers were recaptured. In both cases, animals released early during the spawning run were more likely to be recaptured than those released later. Introduced males successfully competed with resident males and spawned with resident females. Demonstrating that male sea lampreys could reproduce successfully when relocated supported subsequent large-scale field trials of the sterile-male-release technique.

Kaye, C.A.; Heinrich, J.W.; Hanson, L.H.; McDonald, R.B.; Slade, J.W.; Genovese, J.H.; Swink, W.D.

2003-01-01

302

Variability in ice phenology on Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada, from SeaWinds\\/QuikSCAT: 20002006  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal evolution of the backscatter coefficient, sigma-nought (?) from QuikSCAT was evaluated for monitoring ice phenology on Great Bear Lake (66N, 121W) and Great Slave Lake (6140?N, 114W), Northwest Territories, Canada. Results indicated that ? from QuikSCAT can be used to detect melt onset, water clear of ice and freeze onset dates on both lakes. An ice phenology algorithm

Stephen E. L. Howell; Laura C. Brown; Kyung-Kuk Kang; Claude R. Duguay

2009-01-01

303

Examining Dual Frequency X- and Ku-band Backscatter of Snow on Lake Ice and First-Year Sea Ice in the Sub-Arctic Hudson Bay Lowlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fully polarimetric dual frequency ground-based scatterometer observations were collected at X- and Ku-band (9.6 and 17.2 GHz, respectively) near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada in the winter of 2010-11 as part of the Canadian Snow and Ice Experiment (CASIX). Backscatter measurements were collected for five landcover types: lake ice, sea ice, dry tundra, open forest and wetland tundra (sedge fen); the combination of which comprises a unique dataset of dual-frequency backscatter signatures. Correlative data collected, including snow and ice properties, are utilized to characterize active microwave interactions and contribute to the development of snow/ice retrieval algorithms. This study presents backscatter signatures for lake and sea ice obtained during winter 2010-11. The seasonal backscatter evolution is compared to changes in snow and ice properties, including depth, density, snow water equivalent (SWE), ice thickness, ice type, and bubble concentration within the ice. Results over lake ice suggest that increases in backscatter at both X- and Ku-band frequencies correspond to increases in SWE, but are confounded by changes in the sub-nivian ice composition. Surface ice types (snow ice, rafted ice), high bubble concentrations at the ice/water interface and pressure/deformation cracks in the ice serve to confound backscatter at several monitoring sites. Over sea ice, preliminary results indicate that increased salinity levels near the ice/snow interface is the predominate factor influencing backscatter signatures. Physical phenomena encountered at sea ice sites are further explored to assess potential influences on scattering signatures. Preliminary findings presented here document the first ground-based dual frequency X- and Ku-band backscatter signatures collected over first year sea ice, and contribute to the scientific objectives of the proposed Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory (CoReH2O), a candidate Earth Explorer mission of the European Space Agency.

Gunn, G. E.; Duguay, C. R.; Howell, S.; Kelly, R. E.; Silis, A.

2011-12-01

304

The Atmospheric Transport and Deposition of Mercury to the Great Lakes  

E-print Network

National Emissions Inventory · Top contributing sources checked and updated using Great Lakes RegionalChamplain LakeTahoe PugetSound MesaVerdeNP MobileBay MammothCaveNP SandyHook LongIslandSound AdirondackPark MassBay AcadiaNP GulfofMaine ChesapeakeBay ChesBayWS 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 (ug/m2-year) HgDepositionFlux #12;Figure

305

Multilevel Empirical Bayes Modeling for Improved Estimation of Toxicant Formulations to Suppress Parasitic Sea Lamprey in the Upper Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estimation of extreme quantal-response statistics, such as the concentration required to kill 99.9% of test subjects (LC99.9), remains a challenge in the presence of multiple covariates and complex study designs. Accurate and precise estimates of the LC99.9 for mixtures of toxicants are critical to ongoing control of a parasitic invasive species, the sea lamprey, in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. The toxicity of those chemicals is affected by local and temporal variations in water chemistry, which must be incorporated into the modeling. We develop multilevel empirical Bayes models for data from multiple laboratory studies. Our approach yields more accurate and precise estimation of the LC99.9 compared to alternative models considered. This study demonstrates that properly incorporating hierarchical structure in laboratory data yields better estimates of LC99.9 stream treatment values that are critical to larvae control in the field. In addition, out-of-sample prediction of the results of in situ tests reveals the presence of a latent seasonal effect not manifest in the laboratory studies, suggesting avenues for future study and illustrating the importance of dual consideration of both experimental and observational data. ?? 2011, The International Biometric Society.

Hatfield, L.A.; Gutreuter, S.; Boogaard, M.A.; Carlin, B.P.

2011-01-01

306

Great Lakes and Lake Effect Snow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Great Lakes and Lake Effect Snow. This animation is a dissolve between 2 different SeaWiFS images taken in 1999. One image is taken in the spring,April, and the second image is taken in the winter, December. The December 1999 image shows a traditional lake effect snow storm. This animation shows the difference between the seasons in the Great Lakes region.

Lori Perkins

1999-12-03

307

@Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution's at-sea research expeditions and presents both current and archived expeditions from 1999 to the present. Each expedition is described in a feature story with background, definitions, research technology and sampling equipment, maps, photos, daily logs, some videos and virtual tours, researcher profiles, and related links. HBOI scientists have studied maritime history, pharmaceuticals from the sea, sharks, behavior and physiology of marine life, marine sanctuaries and submersible technology.

308

Lake classification in Vermont  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to comply with the Federal Clean Water Act and, in so doing, develop a procedure to periodically update the classification, the State of Vermont evaluated the ability of LANDSAT to detect general water quality and specific water quality parameters in Vermont lakes. Unsupervised and supervised classifications as well as regression analyses were used to examine LANDSAT data from Lake Champlain and from four small nearby lakes. Unsupervised and supervised classifications were found to be of somewhat limited value. Regression analyses revealed a good correlation between depth-integrated total phosphorus concentrations and LANDSAT band 4 data (r2= 0.92) and between Secchi disk transparencies and LANDSAT band 4 data (r2 - 0.85). No correlation was found between depth-integrated chlorophyll-a samples and LANDSAT data. Vermont is expanding this LANDSAT evaluation to include the remaining lakes in the state greater than twenty acres and steps are being taken to incorporate LANDSAT into the state's ongoing water quality monitoring programs.

Garrison, V.; Bryant, N.

1981-01-01

309

Halorhabdus tiamatea: proteogenomics and glycosidase activity measurements identify the first cultivated euryarchaeon from a deep-sea anoxic brine lake as potential polysaccharide degrader  

PubMed Central

Euryarchaea from the genus Halorhabdus have been found in hypersaline habitats worldwide, yet are represented by only two isolates: Halorhabdus utahensis?AX-2T from the shallow Great Salt Lake of Utah, and Halorhabdus tiamatea?SARL4BT from the Shaban deep-sea hypersaline anoxic lake (DHAL) in the Red Sea. We sequenced the H.?tiamatea genome to elucidate its niche adaptations. Among sequenced archaea, H.?tiamatea features the highest number of glycoside hydrolases, the majority of which were expressed in proteome experiments. Annotations and glycosidase activity measurements suggested an adaptation towards recalcitrant algal and plant-derived hemicelluloses. Glycosidase activities were higher at 2% than at 0% or 5% oxygen, supporting a preference for low-oxygen conditions. Likewise, proteomics indicated quinone-mediated electron transport at 2% oxygen, but a notable stress response at 5% oxygen. Halorhabdus tiamatea furthermore encodes proteins characteristic for thermophiles and light-dependent enzymes (e.g. bacteriorhodopsin), suggesting that H.?tiamatea evolution was mostly not governed by a cold, dark, anoxic deep-sea habitat. Using enrichment and metagenomics, we could demonstrate presence of similar glycoside hydrolase-rich Halorhabdus members in the Mediterranean DHAL Medee, which supports that Halorhabdus species can occupy a distinct niche as polysaccharide degraders in hypersaline environments. PMID:24428220

Werner, Johannes; Ferrer, Manuel; Michel, Gurvan; Mann, Alexander J; Huang, Sixing; Juarez, Silvia; Ciordia, Sergio; Albar, Juan P; Alcaide, Mara; La Cono, Violetta; Yakimov, Michail M; Antunes, Andr; Taborda, Marco; da Costa, Milton S; Hai, Tran; Glckner, Frank Oliver; Golyshina, Olga V; Golyshin, Peter N; Teeling, Hanno; The MAMBA Consortium

2014-01-01

310

Natrinema salaciae sp. nov., a halophilic archaeon isolated from the deep, hypersaline anoxic Lake Medee in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.  

PubMed

Two halophilic archaea, strains MDB25(T) and MDB20, were isolated from a sample of the brine from Lake Medee, at a depth of 3050 m, in the Mediterranean Sea. Cells of the organisms were Gram-negative, non-motile and pleomorphic, and colonies were red pigmented. Strains MDB25(T) and MDB20 showed optimum growth at 45C, in 2.6-3.4M NaCl and at pH 7.0-8.0. The major polar lipids of the two strains were phosphatidylglycerol (PG1 and PG2), phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester (PGP-Me) and mannose-2,6-dissulfate (1?2)-glucose glycerol diether (S(2)-DGD). Menaquinone MK-8 and MK-8(H(2)) were the major respiratory quinones. The DNA G+C content of strain MDB25(T) was 63.0%. The strains were facultatively anaerobic but grew better under aerobic conditions, nitrate served as electron acceptor. Analysis of the almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strains MDB25(T) and MDB20 represented a member of the genus Natrinema in the family Halobacteriaceae. Both strains formed a distinct cluster and were most closely related to Natrinema ejinorense JCM 13890(T) and Haloterrigena longa JCM 13562(T) (98.0% and 97.9% sequence similarity, respectively). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization results, physiological and biochemical characteristics we describe a new species represented by strain MDB25(T) (=DSM 25055(T) =JCM 17869(T)) for which we propose the name Natrinema salaciae sp. nov. PMID:22817877

Albuquerque, Luciana; Taborda, Marco; La Cono, Violetta; Yakimov, Michail; da Costa, Milton S

2012-09-01

311

Linear, one-dimensional models of the surface and internal standing waves for a long and narrow lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear, one-dimensional, analytical, and numerical models for seiches (standing waves) existing at the surface and on the internal interface between the upper warm and bottom cold layers for a long, narrow lake are developed. Using the specific bathymetric and thermal structures of a lake, Lake Champlain, these models predict the periods, nodal locations, vertical displacements, and current velocities associated with the fundamental and higher-order modes. Modeled results are compared with historical limnological data obtained from Lake Champlain. Agreement is good for the periods of the first few modes of the surface and internal seiches; however, predicted current velocities associated with the internal seiche are about half as large as those actually observed.

Prigo, Robert B.; Manley, T. O.; Connell, Benjamin S. H.

1996-03-01

312

Lakes of the Huron basin: their record of runoff from the laurentide ice sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 189,000 km2 Huron basin is central in the catchment area of the present Laurentian Great Lakes that now drain via the St. Lawrence River to the North Atlantic Ocean. During deglaciation from 21-7.5 ka BP, and owing to the interactions of ice margin positions, crustal rebound and regional topography, this basin was much more widely connected hydrologically, draining by various routes to the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean, and receiving overflows from lakes impounded north and west of the Great Lakes-Hudson Bay drainage divide. Early ice-marginal lakes formed by impoundment between the Laurentide Ice Sheet and the southern margin of the basin during recessions to interstadial positions at 15.5 and 13.2 ka BP. In each of these recessions, lake drainage was initially southward to the Mississippi River and Gulf of Mexico. In the first recession, drainage subsequently switched eastward along the ice margin to the North Atlantic Ocean. In the second recession, drainage continued southward through the Michigan basin, and later, eastward via the Ontario basin and Mohawk River valley to the North Atlantic Ocean. During the final retreat of ice in the Huron basin from 13 to 10 ka BP, proglacial lake drainage switched twice from the Michigan basin and the Mississippi River system to the North Atlantic via the Ontario basin and Mohawk River valley, finally diverting to the Champlain Sea in the St. Lawrence River valley at about 11.6 ka BP. New seismo- and litho-stratigraphic information with ostracode data from the offshore lacustrine sediments were integrated with the traditional data of shorelines, uplift histories of outlets, and radio-carbon-dated shallow-water evidence of transgressions and regressions to reconstruct the water level history and paleolimnological record for the northern Huron basin for the 11-7 ka BP period. Negative excursions in the ?18O isotopic composition of ostracodes and bivalves in southern Lake Michigan, southwestern Lake Huron and eastern Lake Erie indicate an influx of water from ice-marginal Lake Agassiz in central North America about 11 ka BP. A major decline in water levels of the Huron basin after 10.5 ka BP followed the high-level Main Lake Algonquin phase as ice receded and drainage was established through the North Bay area to Ottawa River valley. During the subsequent Mattawa-Stanley phase, the lake level history was dominated by fluctuations of tens of meters. Highstands of the earliest oscillations, whose origin is not clear, might be related to some of the well known Post Algonquin shorelines. After 9.6 ka BP, it is suggested that large inflows from Lake Agassiz and hydraulic damming in downstream outlets were the likely cause of the Lake Mattawa highstands. A lowstand at 9.3-9.1 ka BP occurred when these inflows were diverted, or impeded by an ice advance in the Nipigon basin area, while undiluted meltwater continued to enter the Huron basin. Assemblages and isotopic composition of the ostracode fauna indicate very dilute meltwater during the lowstands as late as 7.5 ka BP, and precipitation runoff with comparatively higher dissolved solids during the highstands. We speculate that the water composition of the Lake Mattawa highstands was dominated by the Agassiz inflows; by that time, much of Lake Agassiz was remote from ice-marginal environments, and the inflows were drawn from surface water of the southern sector of the lake, which was largely supplied by runoff and dissolved solids from the exposed land area of western Canada. Major inflows apparently ended about 8 ka BP, but northern proglacial lakes apparently continued as meltwater persisted in the Huron basin until about 7.5 ka BP. The cessation of major inflows initiated the final lowstand in the Huron basin and the present hydrological regime of local runoff.

Michael Lewis, C. F.; Moore, Theodore C.; Rea, David K.; Dettman, David L.; Smith, Alison M.; Mayer, Larry A.

313

Aral Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This series of MODIS images shows the dwindling Aral Sea. Once one of the world's largest freshwater lakes, the Aral Sea has decreased by as much as 60% over the past few decades due to diversion of the water to grow cotton and rice. These diversion have dropped the lake levels, increased salinity, and nearly decimated the fishing industry. The previous extent of the lake is clearly visible as a whitish perimeter in these image from April 16, May 18, and June 3, 2002. s. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

314

Concentrations of mercury and metals in the microlayer and sub-surface water of two large lakes  

SciTech Connect

In previous investigations, pollutant concentrations in surface microlayers have been reported to be elevated over those in the sub-surface water. The reasons for this enrichment are many, and include atmospheric deposition, fluvial inputs and oil spills. The objective of this study was to investigate the role that atmospheric deposition plays in the enrichment of mercury and trace metals in the microlayer of Lakes Champlain and Michigan. A secondary objective was to compare the microlayer and sub-surface concentrations of metals. Samples of air, microlayer and sub-surface water were collected using ultra-clean techniques during the summer of 1993. Lake Champlain samples were collected on mile from Burlington, VT while Lake Michigan samples were collected four miles from Chicago, IL. Mercury samples were analyzed in a class 100 clean room at the University of Michigan by dual amalgamation and CVAFS and metals wee analyzed by ICPMS. Results from the field investigations include: (1) Lake Michigan samples had higher average concentrations of mercury and other metals than Lake Champlain; (2) Mercury levels varied more than the other metals for both lakes; (3) Atmospheric deposition may be responsible for elevated concentrations of certain metals such as zinc and cadmium in the microlayer during days when there is transport from adjacent urban areas.

Cleckner, L.B.; Esseks, E.S.; Meier, P.G.; Keeler, G.J. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1994-12-31

315

Philipsburg Plattsburgh  

E-print Network

AdirondackM ountains Green Mountains Lake Champlain Lake George QU?BEC Champlain Canal VERMONTNEWYORK Richelieu River FIGURE 1 | THE LAKE CHAMPLAIN BASIN OR WATERSHED ABOUTTHE LAKE CHAMPLAIN BASIN PROGRAM The Lake Champlain Basin Program (LCBP) was created by the Lake Champlain Special Designation Act of 1990

Hayden, Nancy J.

316

Pollution records from sediments of three lakes in New York State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment core segments from Sylvan Lake, Lake Champlain and Lake Canadarago were dated radiometrically with 210Pb and 137Cs. Their respective sedimentation rates were determined to be 0.11, 0.14 and 0.52 g cm -2 yr -1. For the two lakes of lower sedimentation the variations of selected elemental abundances as function of depth were analyzed. Two groupings were found: Al, K, Ti, Rb and Zr were correlated among themselves but reflected different variations in the input of terrigenous erosion material to the lakes. The Cu, Zn and Pb correlated among themselves showed similar depth dependence with increasing concentrations toward the top which can be attributed to cultural pollution. Recent 'excess' fluxes to the sediments above the natural contribution by clastic material were derived for the location of the cores, which for Cu, Zn and Pb amounted to 3.8, 24 and 16 ?g cm -2 yr -1 respectively for Sylvan Lake and 4.9, 20 and 16 ?g cm -2 yr -1 for Lake Champlain. The corresponding 210Pb flux was 3.3 and 2.3 dpm cm -2 yr -1, respectively for the two lakes. Approximate residence times in the water column were obtained for trace metals at the Lake Champlain location. Short residence times estimated for Pb (< 0.15 yr) and Cu (< 0.4 yr) indicate fast removal, whereas those for Zn (1.0 0.3 yr) and Cr (2.0 0.5 yr) appeared to be dominated by the water residence time.

Wahlen, M.; Thompson, R. C.

1980-02-01

317

75 FR 29757 - New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Final Affirmative Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Whitehall, NY. The Champlain Canal leads north to Lake Champlain. Lake Champlain is a large waterbody that is already designated...demand from transient traffic. The NYS side of Lake Champlain has an additional 1,014 slips available and...

2010-05-27

318

[Microbiological and isotopic geochemical investigation of Lake Kislo-Sladkoe, a meromictic water body at the Kandalaksha Bay Shore (White Sea)].  

PubMed

Microbiological, biogeochemical, and isotopic geochemical investigation of Lake Kislo-Sladkoe (Polusolenoe in early publications) at the Kandalaksha Bay shore (White Sea) was carried out in September 2010. Lake Kislo-Sladkoe was formed in the mid-1900s out of a sea gulf due to a coastal heave. At the time of investigation, the surface layer was saturated with oxygen, while near-bottom water contained sulfide (up to 32 mg/L). Total number of microorganisms was high (12.3 x 10(6) cells/mL on average). Light CO2 fixation exhibited two pronounced peaks. In the oxic zone, the highest rates of photosynthesis were detected at 1.0 and 2.0 m. The second, more pronounced peak of light CO2 fixation was associated with activity of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in the anoxic layer at the depth of 2.9 m (413 ?g C L(-1) day(-1)). Green-colored green sulfur bacteria (GSB) predominated in the upper anoxic layer (2.7-2.9 m), their numbers being as high as 1.12 x 10(4) cells/mL, while brown-colored GSB predominated in the lower horizons. The rates of both sulfate reduction and methanogenesis peaked in the 2.9 m horizon (1690 ?g S L(-1) day(-1) and 2.9 ?L CH4 L(-1) day(-1)). The isotopic composition of dissolved methane from the near-bottom water layer (?13C (CH4) = -87.76 per thousand) was significantly lighter than in the upper horizons (?13C (CH4) = -77.95 per thousand). The most isotopically heavy methane (?13C (CH4) = -72.61 per thousand) was retrieved from the depth of 2.9 m. The rate of methane oxidation peaked in the same horizon. As a result of these reactions, organic matter (OM) carbon of the 2.9 m horizon became lighter (-36.36 per thousand), while carbonate carbon became heavier (-7.56 per thousand). Thus, our results demonstrated that Lake Kislo-Sladkoe is a stratified meromictic lake with active microbial cycles of carbon and sulfur. Suspended matter in the water column was mostly of autochthonous origin. Anoxygenic photosynthesis coupled to utilization of reduced sulfur compounds contributed significantly to OM production. PMID:25423723

Savvichev, A S; Lunina, O N; Rusanov, I I; Zakharova, E E; Veslopolova, E F; Ivanov, M V

2014-01-01

319

[Microbiological and isotopic geochemical investigation of Lake Kislo-Sladkoe, a meromictic water body at the Kandalaksha Bay Shore (White Sea)].  

PubMed

Microbiological, biogeochemical, and isotopic geochemical investigation of Lake Kislo-Sladkoe (Polusolenoe in early publications) at the Kandalaksha Bay shore (White Sea) was carried out in September 2010. Lake Kislo-Sladkoe was formed in the mid-1900s out of a sea gulf due to a coastal heave. At the time of investigation, the surface layer was saturated with oxygen, while near-bottom water contained sulfide (up to 32 mg/L). Total number of microorganisms was high (12.3 x 10(6) cells/mL on average). Light CO2 fixation exhibited two pronounced peaks. In the oxic zone, the highest rates of photosynthesis were detected at 1.0 and 2.0 m. The second, more pronounced peak of light CO2 fixation was associated with activity of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in the anoxic layer at the depth of 2.9 m (413 ?g C L(-1) day(-1)). Green-colored green sulfur bacteria (GSB) predominated in the upper anoxic layer (2.7-2.9 m), their numbers being as high as 1.12 x 10(4) cells/mL, while brown-colored GSB predominated in the lower horizons. The rates of both sulfate reduction and methanogenesis peaked in the 2.9 m horizon (1690 ?g S L(-1) day(-1) and 2.9 ?L CH4 L(-1) day(-1)). The isotopic composition of dissolved methane from the near-bottom water layer (?13C (CH4) = -87.76 per thousand) was significantly lighter than in the upper horizons (?13C (CH4) = -77.95 per thousand). The most isotopically heavy methane (?13C (CH4) = -72.61 per thousand) was retrieved from the depth of 2.9 m. The rate of methane oxidation peaked in the same horizon. As a result of these reactions, organic matter (OM) carbon of the 2.9 m horizon became lighter (-36.36 per thousand), while carbonate carbon became heavier (-7.56 per thousand). Thus, our results demonstrated that Lake Kislo-Sladkoe is a stratified meromictic lake with active microbial cycles of carbon and sulfur. Suspended matter in the water column was mostly of autochthonous origin. Anoxygenic photosynthesis coupled to utilization of reduced sulfur compounds contributed significantly to OM production. PMID:25507446

2014-01-01

320

J. Great Lakes Res. 28(3):451465 Internat. Assoc. Great Lakes Res., 2002  

E-print Network

J. Great Lakes Res. 28(3):451­465 Internat. Assoc. Great Lakes Res., 2002 Secular Changes in Great Lakes Water Level Seasonal Cycles Frank H. Quinn Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory National. The three primary scales of Great Lakes water level fluctuations are interannual, sea- sonal, and episodic

321

Lake Nasser and Toshka Lakes, Egypt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lake Nasser (center) and the Toshka Lakes (center left) glow emerald green and black in this MODIS true-color image acquired March 8, 2002. Located on and near the border of Egypt and Norther Sudan, these lakes are an oasis of water in between the Nubian (lower right) and Libyan Deserts (upper left). Also visible are the Red Sea (in the upper right) and the Nile River (running north from Lake Nasser). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

322

Phylogenetic status of brown trout Salmo trutta populations in five rivers from the southern Caspian Sea and two inland lake basins, Iran: a morphogenetic approach.  

PubMed

Interrelationships, origin and phylogenetic affinities of brown trout Salmo trutta populations from the southern Caspian Sea basin, Orumieh and Namak Lake basins in Iran were analysed from complete mtDNA control region sequences, 12 microsatellite loci and morphological characters. Among 129 specimens from six populations, seven haplotypes were observed. Based on mtDNA haplotype data, the Orumieh and southern Caspian populations did not differ significantly, but the Namak basin-Karaj population presented a unique haplotype closely related to the haplotypes of the other populations (01% Kimura two-parameter, K2P divergence). All Iranian haplotypes clustered as a distinct group within the Danube phylogenetic grouping, with an average K2P distance of 041% relative to other Danubian haplotypes. The Karaj haplotype in the Namak basin was related to a haplotype (Da26) formerly identified in the Tigris basin in Turkey, to a Salmo trutta oxianus haplotype from the Aral Sea basin, and to haplotype Da1a with two mutational steps, as well as to other Iranian haplotypes with one to two mutational steps, which may indicate a centre of origin in the Caspian basin. In contrast to results of the mtDNA analysis, more pronounced differentiation was observed among the populations studied in the morphological and microsatellite DNA data, except for the two populations from the Orumieh basin, which were similar, possibly due to anthropogenic causes. PMID:23020557

Hashemzadeh Segherloo, I; Farahmand, H; Abdoli, A; Bernatchez, L; Primmer, C R; Swatdipong, A; Karami, M; Khalili, B

2012-10-01

323

Deep-Sea Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students will learn about special vehicles used in recent Black Sea research and the theory that the Black Sea during the Ice Age was an isolated freshwater lake surrounded by farmland that was eventually flooded. Students will describe the purpose of the research vehicles by writing newspaper articles pretending they have just returned from the Black Sea expedition.

324

Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985-1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = -0.91, P < 0.01, N = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the state of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977-1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35-0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985-1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 Times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978-1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the lake, may be achieved.

Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

1995-01-01

325

Where the Lake Meets the Sea: Strong Reproductive Isolation Is Associated with Adaptive Divergence between Lake Resident and Anadromous Three-Spined Sticklebacks  

PubMed Central

Contact zones between divergent forms of the same species are often characterised by high levels of phenotypic diversity over small geographic distances. What processes are involved in generating such high phenotypic diversity? One possibility is that introgression and recombination between divergent forms in contact zones results in greater phenotypic and genetic polymorphism. Alternatively, strong reproductive isolation between forms may maintain distinct phenotypes, preventing homogenisation by gene flow. Contact zones between divergent freshwater-resident and anadromous stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) forms are numerous and common throughout the species distribution, offering an opportunity to examine these contrasting hypotheses in greater detail. This study reports on an interesting new contact zone located in a tidally influenced lake catchment in western Ireland, characterised by high polymorphism for lateral plate phenotypes. Using neutral and QTL-linked microsatellite markers, we tested whether the high diversity observed in this contact zone arose as a result of introgression or reproductive isolation between divergent forms: we found strong support for the latter hypothesis. Three phenotypic and genetic clusters were identified, consistent with two divergent resident forms and a distinct anadromous completely plated population that migrates in and out of the system. Given the strong neutral differentiation detected between all three morphotypes (mean FST = 0.12), we hypothesised that divergent selection between forms maintains reproductive isolation. We found a correlation between neutral genetic and adaptive genetic differentiation that support this. While strong associations between QTL linked markers and phenotypes were also observed in this wild population, our results support the suggestion that such associations may be more complex in some Atlantic populations compared to those in the Pacific. These findings provide an important foundation for future work investigating the dynamics of gene flow and adaptive divergence in this newly discovered stickleback contact zone. PMID:25874617

Ravinet, Mark; Hynes, Rosaleen; Poole, Russell; Cross, Tom F.; McGinnity, Phil; Harrod, Chris; Prodhl, Paulo A.

2015-01-01

326

Lake Effect Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lake effect is particularly clear in this Sea-viewing Wide field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) true-color image of the North American Great Lakes region, acquired December 5, 2000. Lakes Nipigon, Superior, and Michigan show striking contrasts between clear and cloudy air as the wind blows from the northwest across the lakes. As it flows across the relatively warm lakes, the cold dry air gathers heat and moisture from the surface. The warm moist air rises into the atmosphere and mixes vigorously with the cold dry air above. The layer of warm moist air deepens as it travels across the lake. Some of the evaporated water from the lake condenses into streamers of fog rising from the surface, while much of the moisture condenses to form a stratocumulus cloud in the upper half of the mixed layer. The cloud-forming water droplets may freeze into ice crystals and, due to accumulated water deposition over time, grow into snowflakes. This process can generate snowstorms that produce significant amounts of snowfall downwind. It is not uncommon for lake effect snowstorms to produce as much as two feet of snow within a 24-hour period in northwestern parts of New York and Pennsylvania. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

327

Great Lakes Fieldscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly interactive mapping tool features rivers and streams, watershed boundaries, water depth, political boundaries, elevation and land cover of the Great Lakes region. Students, volunteers and others can upload quantitative measurements and field notes, and share this with others around the globe. This type of learning provides a rich geographic context that allows participants to gain a better understanding of how they are connected to the Great Lakes. National Geographic partnered with Michigan Sea Grant to develop Great Lakes FieldScope to encourage the exploration and investigation of Great Lakes science and education.

328

Hydroxylated PCBs and other chlorinated phenolic compounds in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) blood plasma from the Great Lakes region.  

PubMed

Recently, there has been an increase in studies focusing on an emerging class of organic contaminants, hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and chlorinated phenolic compounds (CPCs) in the environment, particularly in northern regions of Europe and Canada. Since information for fish from the Great Lakes are scarce, we determined the blood plasma concentrations of OH-PCB congeners, pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol (TCP), and 4-hydroxyheptachlorostyrene (4-OH-HpCS) for lake trout (Savelinus namaycush) collected from two of the Great Lakes, Lake Ontario and Lake Superior, and two regional lakes, Lake Champlain and Lake Opeongo. PCP was the dominant CPC in lake trout (105-658 pg/g of plasma). Detectable concentrations of 2,3,4,5-TCP and 4-OH-HpCS were found in all lake trout (2.6-101 and 0.4-27 pg/g, respectively). Highest concentrations were found in trout from Lake Ontario and Lake Superior. Sixteen OH-PCBs were quantified, with 4-OH-CB187 having the highest concentration in all samples (10-173 pg/g of plasma). Unexpectedly, highly chlorinated OH-PCBs such as 4'-OH-CB199 (mean 21.4 and 74.4 pg/g), 4,4'-diOH-CB202 (18.3 and 27.7 pg/g), and 4'-OH-CB208 (24.5 and 34.7 pg/g) were found in lake trout from Lake Ontario and Lake Superior, respectively. Future studies to delineate the sources and impacts of CPCs in the Great Lakes catchment are needed. PMID:12775040

Campbell, Linda M; Muir, Derek C G; Whittle, D Mike; Backus, Sean; Norstrom, Ross J; Fisk, Aaron T

2003-05-01

329

Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Huron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Efforts to restore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Huron after their collapse in the 1940s were underway in the early 1970s with completion of the first round of lampricide applications in tributary streams and the stocking of several genotypes. We assess results of rehabilitation and establish a historical basis for comparison by quantifying the catch of spawning lake trout from Michigan waters in 1929-1932. Sixty-eight percent of this catch occurred in northern waters (MH-1) and most of the rest (15%) was from remote reefs in the middle of the main basin. Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) increased in the early 1980s in the main basin and depressed spawning populations of lake trout. This increase was especially severe in northern waters and appeared to be associated with untreated populations in the St. Marys River. Excessive commercial fishing stemming from unresolved treaty rights also contributed to loss of spawning fish in northern Michigan waters. Seneca-strain lake trout did not appear to be attacked by sea lampreys until they reached a size > 532 mm. At sizes > 632 mm, Seneca trout were 40-fold more abundant than the Marquette strain in matched-planting experiments. Natural reproduction past the fry stage has occurred in Thunder Bay and South Bay, but prospects for self-sustaining populations of lake trout in the main basin are poor because sea lampreys are too abundant, only one side of the basin is stocked, and stocking is deferred to allow commercial gillnetting in areas where most of the spawning occurred historically. Backcross lake trout, a lake trout x splake (s. Fontinalis x s. Namaycush) hybrid, did not reproduce in Georgian Bay, but this genotype is being replaced with pure-strain lake trout, whose early performance appears promising.

Eshenroder, Randy L.; Payne, N. Robert; Johnson, James E.; Bowen, Charles, II; Ebener, Mark P.

1995-01-01

330

Experimental control of sea lampreys with electricity on the south shore of Lake Superior, 1953-60  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Electric devices of the type and design used are capable of blocking entire runs of adult sea lampreys. An accurate appraisal of the effectiveness of the barrier system is impossible, however. Most of the barriers were not operated long enough to reduce the contribution of parasites from the streams. Furthermore, a complete system of efficient electric barriers was never realized. The greatest weakness of this method of control lies in maintenance of the units in continuous, uninterrupted operation through consecutive migratory seasons.

McLain, Alberton L.; Smith, Bernard R.; Moore, Harry H.

1965-01-01

331

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-print Network

's personal copy Exotic species in Lake Champlain J. Ellen Marsden a, , Michael Hauser b,1 a Rubenstein School: Invasion vector Canals Lake Champlain Great Lakes Exotic The Lake Champlain basin contains substantially recently (2008), the Asian clam was discovered two locks below Lake Champlain. The Lake Champlain canals

Marsden, Ellen

332

INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE CAUSES OF AMPHIBIAN MALFORMATIONS IN THE LAKE CHAMPLAIN BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

The goals of this project were 1) to gather field and laboratory information that will further our knowledge regarding the role of biologically active agents (including current use agricultural pesticides) on the occurrence of northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) abnormalities in...

333

A riverscape perspective on habitat associations among riverine bird assemblages in the Lake Champlain Basin, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The riverscape perspective recognizes the heterogeneous habitat types within the stream corridor as a single, integrated ecological\\u000a unit operating across spatial scales. Although there is ample evidence that the riverscape notion is appropriate in understanding\\u000a the physical phenomena of stream corridors, significantly less attention has focused on its ecological ramifications. To this\\u000a end, we surveyed riverscape habitat variables and bird

S. Maeika P. Sullivan; Mary C. Watzin; William S. Keeton

2007-01-01

334

LANDOWNER VALUES, WATER QUALITY, AND RECREATION IN THE LAKE CHAMPLAIN BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes landowner values about water quality among resident landowners in the LaFlatte River watershed, tests whether suburbanization is producing a new mix of social values, analyzes the relationship between values and behaviors, and explores the link between recreation and water quality advocacy. Results showed that residents hold pro-environmental values, although the region is not a stronghold of environmentalism.

Walter F. Kuentzel; Donald F. Dennis

335

Effects of environmental mercury on gonadal function in Lake Champlain northern pike (Esox lucius)  

SciTech Connect

Levels of mercury in the environment have increased steadily over the past two centuries, primarily because of human activity. Common point sources of this heavy metal include industrial waste discharge from chloralkali and paper pulp plants. More diffuse emissions, which become widely distributed by global wind currents, result from the combustion of fossil fuels and incineration of municipal wastes. Stricter laws in the United States have decreased the amount of pollution from point sources. In contrast, mercury from diffuse atmospheric origins has been increasing, causing a rise in rainwater concentrations and aquatic environments frequently distant from the source of pollution. Once in aquatic systems, mercury is readily converted to the more toxic methylated form and is the only heavy metal that indisputably biomagnifies through the food web. Acid rain compounds the environmental impact of anthropogenic mercury because aquatic organisms concentrate more mercury when living in waters with lower alkalinity. The persistence of this heavy metal in teleosts is illustrated by the finding that mercury, unlike cadmium, arsenic, and lead, did not decrease in North American freshwater fish between 1976 and 1984.

Friedmann, A.S.; Leiter, J.C. [Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH (United States)] [Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH (United States); Watzin, M.C. [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); and others

1996-03-01

336

Effects of Environmental Mercury on Gonadal Function in Lake Champlain Northern Pike ( Esox lucius )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of mercury in the environment have increased steadily over the past two centuries, primarily because of human activity. Common point sources of this heavy metal include industrial waste discharge from chloralkali and paper pulp plants. More diffuse emissions, which become widely distributed by global wind currents, result from the combustion of fossil fuels and incineration of municipal wastes. Stricter

A. S. Friedmann; M. C. Watzin; J. C. Leiter; T. Brinck-Johnsen

1996-01-01

337

Deposition and watershed processing of mercury in the Lake Champlain basin  

SciTech Connect

Daily wet-only precipitation, weekly 24-hour vapor and particulate matter, snowmelt and stream water have been analyzed for total mercury (Hg) in Underhill, VT since December, 1992. Total Hg in precipitation ranged from 1.2-35 ng/L, with maximum concentrations occurring during summer. Vapor phase Hg ranged from 1.2 to 4.2 ng/m, with little annual variability, and particulate phase Hg ranged from 1 to 43 pg/m{sup 3}, with maximum concentrations in winter. Wet-only deposition of total Hg in precipitation totaled 9.26 {mu}g/m{sup 2} in 1993 and 7.66 {mu}g/m{sup 2} in 1994. Total Hg concentrations in a stream in our research watershed were 1-3 ng/L during base flow, and reached 79 ng/L at peak flow during spring snowmelt. Dissolved Hg concentrations were approximately 2 ng/L, even during peak flows, suggesting suspended Hg-containing sediments caused the high total Hg during peak flows. Synoptic sampling of larger streams in the drainage basin also showed significant Hg enrichment during snowmelt. Limited snowpack melt measurements indicated that Hg concentration and dissolved proportion in melt water were dynamic, varying with temperature and melting rate.

Scherbatskoy, T. [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); Rea, A.; Keeler, G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

338

Hydroacoustic separation of rainbow smelt ( Osmerus mordax) age groups in Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separate assessment of young-of-year (YOY) and yearling-and-older (YAO) fish is desirable from both ecological and management perspectives. Acoustic assessments provide information on fish population size structure in the target strength (TS) distribution, but interpretation of TS distributions must be done carefully, as single age groups can produce multiple TS modes. We assessed the ability of in situ TS distributions to

S. L. Parker Stetter; L. G. Rudstam; J. L. Stritzel Thomson; D. L. Parrish

2006-01-01

339

A riverscape perspective on habitat associations among riverine bird assemblages in the Lake Champlain Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The riverscape perspective recognizes the heterogeneous habitat types within the stream corri- dor as a single, integrated ecological unit operating across spatial scales. Although there is ample evidence that the riverscape notion is appropriate in understanding the physical phenomena of stream corridors, significantly less attention has focused on its ecological ramifications. To this end, we surveyed riverscape habitat variables and

S. Mazeika; P. Sullivan; Mary C. Watzin; William S. Keeton

2007-01-01

340

Sources of Fine Particulate Species in Ambient Air over Lake Champlain Basin, VT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a part of an ongoing investigation of the types and locations of emission sources that contribute fine particulate air contaminants to Underhill, VT. The air quality monitoring data used for this study are from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network for the period of 20012003 for the Underhill site. The main source-receptor modeling techniques used

Ning Gao; Amy E. Gildemeister; Kira Krumhansl; Katherine Lafferty; Philip K. Hopke; Eugene Kim; Richard L. Poirot

2006-01-01

341

Downstream migration of recently transformed sea lampreys before and after treatment of a Lake Michigan tributary with a lampricide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

After the Pere Marquette River was treated with a lampricide in May 1964, the number of recently transformed sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) collected in the water-intake structure of a chemical plant near the mouth of the stream dropped 99.5%, from 13,913 (average for 1962-63 and 1963-64) to 76 (average for the next four migration seasons). Average length of the lampreys caught increased markedly after the treatment. In five of the six migration seasons, the catch of downstream migrants was higher in the fall than in the spring.

Hodges, John W.

1972-01-01

342

Mercury contamination in the Laurentian Great Lakes region: introduction and overview.  

PubMed

The Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America contains substantial aquatic resources and mercury-contaminated landscapes, fish, and wildlife. This special issue emanated from a bi-national synthesis of data from monitoring programs and case studies of mercury in the region, here defined as including the Great Lakes, the eight U.S. states bordering the Great Lakes, the province of Ontario, and Lake Champlain. We provide a retrospective overview of the regional mercury problem and summarize new findings from the synthesis papers and case studies that follow. Papers in this issue examine the chronology of mercury accumulation in lakes, the importance of wet and dry atmospheric deposition and evasion to regional mercury budgets, the influence of land-water linkages on mercury contamination of surface waters, the bioaccumulation of methylmercury in aquatic foods webs; and ecological and health risks associated with methylmercury in a regionally important prey fish. PMID:22000118

Wiener, James G; Evers, David C; Gay, David A; Morrison, Heather A; Williams, Kathryn A

2012-02-01

343

Whiting in Lake Michigan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

344

Dead sea asphalts: historical aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asphalts are present in the Dead Sea basin in three forms: (1) huge blocks, up to 100 tons in weight, composed of extremely pure (>99.99%) solid asphalt occasionally found floating on the lake, (2) veins, seepages, and cavity and fissure fillings in Lower Cretaceous to Holocene rocks, and (3) ozocerite veins on the eastern shore of the lake. Dead Sea

Nissenbaum

1978-01-01

345

Multilevel eEmpirical Bayes modeling for improved estimation of toxicant formulations tosuppress parasitic sea lamprey in the Upper Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estimation of extreme quantal-response statistics, such as the concentration required to kill 99.9% of test subjects (LC99.9), remains a challenge in the presence of multiple covariates and complex study designs. Accurate and precise estimates of the LC99.9 for mixtures of toxicants are critical to ongoing control of a parasitic invasive species, the sea lamprey, in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. The toxicity of those chemicals is affected by local and temporal variations in water chemistry, which must be incorporated into the modeling. We develop multilevel empirical Bayes models for data from multiple laboratory studies. Our approach yields more accurate and precise estimation of the LC99.9 compared to alternative models considered. This study demonstrates that properly incorporating hierarchical structure in laboratory data yields better estimates of LC99.9 stream treatment values that are critical to larvae control in the field. In addition, out-of-sample prediction of the results of in situ tests reveals the presence of a latent seasonal effect not manifest in the laboratory studies, suggesting avenues for future study and illustrating the importance of dual consideration of both experimental and observational data.

Hatfield, Laura A.; Gutreuter, Steve; Boogaard, Michael A.; Carlin, Bradley P.

2011-01-01

346

Assessment of Trace Element Levels in Muscle Tissues of Fish Species Collected from a River, Stream, Lake, and Sea in Sakarya, Turkey  

PubMed Central

Levels of some trace and essential elements, including Al, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn, were determined in 17 different fish species from Sakarya River, ark Stream, Sapanca Lake, and Western Black Sea using ICP-OES after microwave (MW) digestion procedure. During preparation of samples for analysis, wet and MW digestion methods were also compared. Accuracy of the digestion methods was checked by the analysis of DORM-3 reference material (Fish Protein Certified Reference Material for Trace Metals). Concentrations of trace elements were found as Al: 6.548.5, B: 0.063.30, Ba: 0.092.92, Cr: 0.021.64, Cu: 0.132.28, Fe: 7.2839.9, Mn: 0.0811.4, Ni: 0.0126.1, Sr: 0.1713.5, and Zn: 11.552.9?g?g?1. The obtained results were compared with other studies published in the literature. Trace element levels in various fish species collected from waters in Sakarya region were found to be below limit values provided by Turkish Food Codex (TFC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and World Health Organization (WHO). PMID:24790570

Kpeli, Tlay; Altunda?, Hseyin; ?mamo?lu, Mustafa

2014-01-01

347

Earthwatch Radio: Sea Lamprey Resurgence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast describes efforts to control the population of sea lampreys in the Great Lakes. Sea lampreys, an invasive species from the Atlantic Ocean, have populated the lakes for years, but have recently increased in numbers despite efforts to control them. A hole in a dam on the Manistique River on the northern edge of Lake Michigan is thought to have caused the problem. The clip is 2 minutes in length and may be downloaded in MP3 format.

Kalinowski, Laura

348

3D visualization of derived hydrophysical parameters in Lakes and Inland Seas. New approach to applied hydrodynamics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on numerical simulation results, derived parameters computed from output variables and represented in 3D are used to have a clearer approach to the hydrodynamics of real systems. More precisely, a 3D dynamic visualization of the Shannon entropy of the velocity direction field is shown to illustrate the horizontal mixing related to the flow dynamics in the case of the Aral and Black sea applications. Previous to that some video test cases are presented in order to have a close view of what is highlighted with this approach. Complementarily, the physical meaning of the Shannon entropy of velocity directions is discussed in comparison with more standard derived variables such as the Obuko-Weiss parameter. The Shannon entropy of other scalar fields is also represented and used for the discussion. The utility of these tools for science as well as for management and more popular applications is discussed. Acknowledgments: This research was developed within the framework of the CLIMSEAS project FP7-IRSES-2009 (ref. 247512).

Barcaru, A.; Roget, E.; Sbert, M.; Zavialov, P.; Korontenko, K.; Feixas, M.

2012-04-01

349

Recruitment Dynamics of the 19711991 Year-Classes of Lake Trout in Michigan Waters of Lake Superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1950s, populations of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Superior collapsed because of excessive exploitation and predation by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. Restoration began in the 1950s with the stocking of juvenile, hatchery-reared lake trout and controls on fisheries and sea lampreys. Partial restoration was declared in 1996 because wild fish made up most of the populations in

Jessica M. Richards; Michael J. Hansen; Charles R. Bronte; Shawn P. Sitar

2004-01-01

350

Lake Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4) "Spirit Lake"; (5) "Lake Manawa"; (6)

Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

1993-01-01

351

East Siberian Sea, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The winter sea ice in the east Siberian Sea is looking a bit like a cracked windshield in these true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 16 and 23, 2002. North of the thawing tundra, the sea ice takes on its cracked, bright blue appearance as it thins, which allows the reflection of the water to show through. Numerous still-frozen lakes dot the tundra. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

352

OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY  

E-print Network

difficult than Lake Erie) ·Aquatic invasive species ·Dead Zone--exacerbated by nutrients ·Climate Change (CLEAR) ·1978--Ohio Sea Grant College Program ·1992--Great Lakes Aquatic Ecosystem Research Consortium

Howat, Ian M.

353

77 FR 30891 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Saint Albans...all waters of Cumberland Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Plattsburgh...Paddling Boat Race. Sponsor: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. Date:...

2012-05-24

354

33 CFR 165.171 - Safety Zones for fireworks displays and swim events held in Coast Guard Sector Northern New...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...includes all waters of Malletts Bay on Lake Champlain, Vermont within the following...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain between Thompson's Point...all waters of Treadwell Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Point...

2012-07-01

355

77 FR 25472 - Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the Environmental Impact Statement for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Harlem and East Rivers, Lake Champlain, and their tributaries. A copy...NY and extend south through Lake Champlain for approximately 101 miles...of exiting the southern end of Lake Champlain at the Village of...

2012-04-30

356

78 FR 35135 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...all waters of Cumberland Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Plattsburgh...Paddling Boat Race. Sponsor: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. Date: July...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Button...

2013-06-12

357

33 CFR 100.120 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events Held in the Coast Guard Sector Northern New England...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Saint Albans...all waters of Cumberland Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Plattsburgh...Paddling Boat Race. Sponsor: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. ...

2011-07-01

358

HumanWildlife Interactions 8(1):2230, Spring 2014 Influence of egg oiling on colony presence  

E-print Network

-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) within the Lake Champlain basin, Vermont, during the nesting season, human­wildlife conflicts, Lake Champlain, Larus delawarensis, nesting colony, ring-billed gull, Vermont, plant communities on Lake Champlain islands have been affected

359

76 FR 30255 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Saint Albans...all waters of Cumberland Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Plattsburgh...Paddling Boat Race. Sponsor: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. Date:...

2011-05-25

360

76 FR 1568 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Saint Albans...all waters of Cumberland Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Plattsburgh...Paddling Boat Race. Sponsor: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. Date: A...

2011-01-11

361

33 CFR 100.120 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events Held in the Coast Guard Sector Northern New England...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Saint Albans...all waters of Cumberland Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Plattsburgh...Paddling Boat Race. Sponsor: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. ...

2014-07-01

362

33 CFR 100.120 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events Held in the Coast Guard Sector Northern New England...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Boat Parade. Sponsor: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. Date...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of the new bridge...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Saint...

2013-07-01

363

33 CFR 100.120 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events Held in the Coast Guard Sector Northern New England...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Boat Parade. Sponsor: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. Date...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of the new bridge...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Saint...

2012-07-01

364

33 CFR 165.171 - Safety Zones for fireworks displays and swim events held in Coast Guard Sector Northern New...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...includes all waters of Malletts Bay on Lake Champlain, Vermont within the following...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain between Thompson's Point...all waters of Treadwell Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Point...

2013-07-01

365

76 FR 17530 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Saint Albans...all waters of Cumberland Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Plattsburgh...Paddling Boat Race. Sponsor: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. Date: A...

2011-03-30

366

78 FR 77385 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...regulated area includes all waters of Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Saint Albans...all waters of Cumberland Bay on Lake Champlain in the vicinity of Plattsburgh...Paddling Boat Race. Sponsor: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. Date: A...

2013-12-23

367

Application of the inundation arealake level rating curves constructed from the SRTM DEM to retrieving lake levels from satellite measured inundation areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing technology has great potential for measuring lake inundation areas and lake levels, and providing important lake water quantity and quality information which can be used for improving our understanding of climate change impacts on the global water cycle, and assessing the influence of the projected future climate change on the global water resources. One remote sensing approach is to estimate lake level from satellite measured inundation area based on the inundation arealake level rating (IALLR) curves. However, this approach is not easy to implement because of a lack of data for constructing the IALLR curves. In this study, an innovative and robust approach to construct the IALLR curves from the digital elevation model (DEM) data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was developed and tested. It was shown that the IALLR curves derived from the SRTM DEM data could be used to retrieve lake level from satellite measured inundation area. Applying the constructed IALLR curve to the estimated inundation areas from 16 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images, 16 lake levels of Lake Champlain in Vermont were obtained. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the estimated lake levels compared to the observed water levels at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gauging station (04294500) at Burlington, Vermont is about 0.12 m.

Pan, Feifei; Liao, Jingjuan; Li, Xinwu; Guo, Huadong

2013-03-01

368

Lakes, Lagerstaetten, and Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity of terrestrial systems is estimated to be greater than in the marine realm. However no hard data yet exists to substantiate this claim. Ancient lacustrine deposits may preserve an exceptionally diverse fossil fauna and aid in determining continental faunal diversities. Fossils preserved in lake deposits, especially those with exceptional preservation (i.e. Konservat Lagerstaetten), may represent a dependable method for determining species diversity changes in the terrestrial environment because of their faunal completeness. Important Konservat Lagerstaetten, such as the Green River Formation (US) and Messel (Germany), both Eocene in age, are found in lake sediments and show a remarkable faunal diversity for both vertebrates and invertebrates. To date information from nearly 25 lake lagerstaetten derived from different types of lake basins from the Carboniferous to the Miocene have been collected and described. Carboniferous sites derive from the cyclothems of Midcontinent of the US while many Cenozoic sites have been described from North and South America as well as Europe and Australia. Asian sites contain fossils from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. With this data, insight into the evolutionary processes associated with lake systems can be examined. Do lakes act as unique evolutionary crucibles in contrast to marine systems? The speciation of cichlid fishes in present-day African lakes appears to be very high and is attributed to the diversity of environments found in large rift lakes. Is this true of all ancient lakes or just large rift lakes? The longevity of a lake system may be an important factor in allowing speciation and evolutionary processes to occur; marine systems are limited only in the existence of environments as controlled by tectonics and sea level changes, on the order of tens of millions of years. Rift lakes are normally the longest lived in the millions of years. Perhaps there are only certain types of lakes in which speciation of nonmarine organisms, and thus the evolution of freshwater organisms, can occur in a short geologic timespan. Because of their unique and varied conditions, the evolution of nonmarine organisms may be linked to lake basin type as well as lake longevity.

Kordesch, E. G.; Park, L. E.

2001-12-01

369

Quaternary Science Reviews 23 (2004) 13131332 Ice-dammed lakes and rerouting of the drainage of northern  

E-print Network

, e.g. toward the Caspian Sea, formed south of these ice sheets. Some lakes are reconstructed from, and that way to the Caspian Sea. Climate modelling shows that the lakes caused lower summer temperatures

Möller, Per

370

Fish community change in Lake Superior, 19702000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Changes,in Lake Superiors fish community,are reviewed,from 1970 to 2000. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and lake whitefish (Coregonus,clupeaformis) stocks have increased substantially and may,be approaching ancestral states. Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) have also recovered, but under sporadic recruitment. Contaminant levels have declined and are in equilibrium with inputs, but toxaphene levels are higher than in all other Great Lakes. Sea

Charles R. Bronte; Mark P. Ebener; Donald R. Schreiner; David S. DeVault; Michael M. Petzold; Douglas A. Jensen; Carl Richards; Steven J. Lozano

2003-01-01

371

Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Erie: a case history  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.

Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger

1995-01-01

372

Sea Lamprey, an Invasive Fish  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Invasive sea lamprey prey on commercially important fish species such as lake trout, living off of the blood and body fluids of adult fish. It is one of many fish species that USGS scientists study from the USGS Research Vessel Muskie.These lamprey belong to the Great Lakes Fisheries Com...

373

Sea Lamprey, an Invasive Fish  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Invasive sea lamprey prey on commercially important fish species such as lake trout, living off of the blood and body fluids of adult fish. It is one of many fish species that USGS scientists study from the USGS Research Vessel Muskie.These lamprey belong to the Great Lakes Fisheries Commissio...

374

Deglaciation chronology, sea-level changes and environmental changes from Holocene lake sediments of Germania Havn S, Sabine , northeast Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Germania Havn S is located at the outermost coast of northeastern Greenland. According to radiocarbon dating, the lake basin was deglaciated in the early Holocene, around 11,000 cal yr BP. At that time the lake was a marine bay, but the lake was isolated soon after deglaciation at ~ 10,600 cal yr BP. The marine fauna was species-poor, indicating harsh conditions with a high sedimentation rate and lowered salinity due to glacial meltwater supply. The pioneer vegetation around the lake was dominated by mosses and herbs. Deposition of relatively coarse sediments during the early Holocene indicates erosion of the newly deglaciated terrain. Remains of the first woody plant (Salix herbacea) appear at 7600 cal yr BP and remains of other woody plants (Salix arctica, Dryas octopetala, Cassiope tetragona and Empetrum nigrum) appear around one millennium later. Declining concentrations of D. octopetala and the caddis fly Apatania zonella in the late Holocene probably imply falling summer temperatures. Only moderate changes in the granulometric and geochemical record during the Holocene indicate relatively stable environmental settings in the lake, which can probably be explained by its location at the outer coast and the buffering effect of the neighboring ocean.

Bennike, Ole; Wagner, Bernd

2012-07-01

375

Hydrology of Lake Butler, Orange County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lake Butler is one of the lakes that collectively make up the Butler chain of lakes in the headwaters of the Kissimmee River, Florida. The bottom configuration of the lake is typical of relict karst features formed during lower stages in sea level. The top of the Floridan aquifer is 50 to 100 feet below the land surface. The drainage area of Lake Butler is approximately 14.5 sq mi and is comprised of sub-basins of other lakes in the vicinity. Surface outflow from Lake Butler is generally southward to Cypress Creek, a tributary of the Kissimmee River. The extremes in lake stage for the period 1933-81 are 94.67 ft on June 23, 1981 and 101.78 ft on September 13, 1960. The median lake stage for this period was 99.28 ft above sea level. The quality of water in Lake Butler is excellent, based on studies of physical, chemical, and biological conditions by the Orange County Pollution Control Department. The lake water is slightly acidic and soft (48 mg/L hardness as calcium carbonate). Pesticides in water were below detection levels at two sites sampled in the lake, but were detected in the bottom sediments. (USGS)

Smoot, James L.; Schiffer, Donna M.

1984-01-01

376

Salt Lake City, Utah  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

2002-01-01

377

Salton: A Sea of Controversy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Salton Sea is an accidental lake that receives used irrigation water from the Colorado River. Humans have profoundly altered the area's ecosystems. The sea is important for wildlife and recreation but is now saltier than the ocean. How might it be sav

Kristin B. Vessey

2000-09-01

378

Status of lake trout rehabilitation on Six Fathom Bank and Yankee Reef in Lake Huron  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six Fathom Bank, an offshore reef in the central region of Lake Huron's main basin, was stocked annually with hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush during 1985-1998, and nearby Yankee Reef was stocked with hatchery-reared lake trout in 1992, 1997, and annually during 1999-2001. We conducted gill-net surveys during spring and fall to evaluate performances of each of the various strains of lake trout, as well as the performance of the entire lake trout population (all strains pooled), on these two offshore reefs during 1992-2000. Criteria to evaluate performance included the proportion of 'wild' fish within the population, spawner density, adult survival, growth, maturity, and wounding rate by sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Although naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout fry were caught on Six Fathom Bank and Yankee Reef, wild lake trout did not recruit to the adult population to any detectable degree. The density of spawning lake trout on Six Fathom Bank (>100 fish/305 m of gill net) during 1995-1998 appeared to be sufficiently high to initiate a self-sustaining population. However, annual mortality estimates for all lake trout strains pooled from catch curve analyses ranged from 0.48 to 0.62, well exceeding the target level of 0.40 suggested for lake trout rehabilitation. Annual mortality rate for the Seneca Lake strain (0.34) was significantly lower than that for the Superior-Marquette (0.69) and Lewis Lake (0.69) strains. This disparity in survival among strains was probably attributable to the lower sea-lamprey-induced mortality experienced by the Seneca Lake strain. The relatively high mortality experienced by adult lake trout partly contributed to the lack of successful natural recruitment to the adult population on these offshore reefs, but other factors were probably also involved. We recommend that both stocking of the Seneca Lake strain and enhanced efforts to reduce sea lamprey abundance in Lake Huron be continued.

Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; McClain, Jerry R.; Woldt, Aaron P.; Holuszko, Jeffrey D.; Bowen, Charles A., II

2004-01-01

379

Biogeochemical phosphorus mass balance for Lake Baikal, southeastern Siberia, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extensive data for Lake Baikal have been synthesized into a geochemical mass balance for phosphorus (P). Some of the P budget and internal cycling terms for Baikal have been compared to similar terms for oligotrophic Lake Superior, mesotrophic Lake Michigan and the Baltic Sea, and the Ocean. Lake Baikal has a large external source of fluvial P compared to the Laurentian upper Great Lakes and the Ocean. The major tributary to Lake Baikal has experienced substantial increases in organic P loading during the past 25 years. This, coupled with potential P inputs from possible phosphorite mining, may threaten Baikal's oligotrophic status in the future. Water-column remineralization of particulate organic P is substantially greater in Lake Baikal than in the Laurentian Great Lakes. This is probably due to the great water depths of Lake Baikal. There is a gradient in P burial efficiency, with very high values (80%) for Lake Baikal and Lake Superior, lower values (50%) for Lake Michigan and the Baltic Sea, and a low value (13%) for the Ocean. The accumulation rate of P in Lake Baikal sediments is somewhat greater than that in the Laurentian upper Great Lakes and the Baltic Sea, and much greater than in the Ocean. Benthic regeneration rates are surprisingly similar for large lacustrine and marine environments and supply less than 10% of the P utilized for primary production in these aquatic environments.

Callender, E.; Granina, L.

1997-01-01

380

Marine Incursion: The Freshwater Herring of Lake Tanganyika Are the Product of a Marine Invasion into West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectacular marine-like diversity of the endemic fauna of Lake Tanganyika, the oldest of the African Great Lakes, led early researchers to suggest that the lake must have once been connected to the ocean. Recent geophysical reconstructions clearly indicate that Lake Tanganyika formed by rifting in the African subcontinent and was never directly linked to the sea. Although the Lake

Anthony B. Wilson; Guy G. Teugels; Axel Meyer; Craig Moritz

2008-01-01

381

Progress toward lake trout restoration in Lake Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Progress toward lake trout restoration in Lake Michigan is described through 1993. Extinction of the native lake trout fishery by sea lamprey predation, augmented by exploitation and habitat destruction, resulted in an extensive stocking program of hatchery-reared lake trout that began in 1965. Sea lamprey abundance was effectively controlled using selective chemical toxicants. The initial stocking produced a measurable wild year class of lake trout by 1976 in Grand Traverse Bay, but failed to continue probably due to excessive exploitation. The overall lack of successful reproduction lakewide by the late 1970s led to the development and implementation in 1985 of a focused interagency lakewide restoration plan by a technical committee created through the Lake Committee structure of the Great Lakes Fishery Commission. Strategies implemented in 1985 by the plan included setting a 40% total mortality goal lakewide, creating two large refuges designed to encompass historically the most productive spawning habitat and protect trout stocked over their home range, evaluating several lake trout strains, and setting stocking priorities throughout the lake. Target levels for stocking in the 1985 Plan have never been reached, and are much less than the estimated lakewide recruitment of yearlings by the native lake trout stocks. Since 1985, over 90% of the available lake trout have been stocked over the best spawning habitat, and colonization of the historically productive offshore reefs has occurred. Concentrations of spawning lake trout large enough for successful reproduction, based on observations of successful hatchery and wild stocks, have developed at specific reefs. Continued lack of recruitment at these specific sites suggests that something other than stock abundance has limited success. Poor survival of lake trout eggs, assumed to be related to contaminant burden, occurred in the late 1970s and early 1980s, but survival has since increased to equal survival in the hatchery. A recent increase in lamprey wounding rates in northern Lake Michigan appears to be related to the uncontrolled build-up of lampreys in the St. Marys River a tributary of Lake Huron. If left uncontrolled, further progress toward restoration in the Northern Refuge may be limited.

Holey, Mark E.; Rybicki, Ronald W.; Eck, Gary W.; Brown, Edward H., Jr.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lavis, Dennis S.; Toneys, Michael L.; Trudeau, Tom N.; Horrall, Ross M.

1995-01-01

382

Density Stratified Lakes in Northern Ellesmere Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE discovery of density stratification in Lake Tuborg, northern Ellesmere Island (lat. 80 50' N, long. 79 W)1, alerted us to the possibility that other lakes in the area might show the same phenomenon, provided they were near enough to sea level to allow the trapping of seawater either through advance of a glacier or through postglacial rise of land.

G. Hattersley-Smith; J. E. Keys; H. Serson; JAMES E. MIELKE

1970-01-01

383

Sea Grant: Enhancing K-12 Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sea Grant is a major contributor to marine and aquatic education in K-12 classrooms through curriculum development, teacher education, school programs at field sites, and educational research. Describes Sea Grant's efforts in these areas. Specific programs outlined include Operation Pathfinder, Ohio Sea Grant Partnerships for Great Lakes

Fortner, Rosanne W.

1998-01-01

384

Aral Sea Evaporation (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Aral Sea is actually not a sea at all, but an immense fresh water lake. In the last thirty years, more than sixty percent of the lake has disappeared because much of the river flow feeding the lake was diverted to irrigate cotton fields and rice paddies. Concentrations of salts and minerals began to rise in the shrinking body of water, leading to staggering alterations in the lakes ecology and precipitous drops in the Arals fish population. Powerful winds that blow across this part of Asia routinely pick up and deposit the now exposed lake bed soil. This has contributed to a significant reduction in breathable air quality, and crop yields have been appreciably affected due to heavily salt laden particles falling on arable land. This series of Landsat images taken in 1973, 1987 and 2000 show the profound reduction in overall area at the north end of the Aral, and a commensurate increase in land area as the floor of the sea now lies exposed.

Joycelyn Thomson

2005-02-15

385

Genetic strategies for lake trout rehabilitation: a synthesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The goal of lake trout rehabilitation efforts in the Great Lakes has been to reestablish inshore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations to self-sustaining levels. A combination of sea lamprey control, stocking of hatchery-reared lake trout, and catch restrictions were used to enhance remnant lake trout stocks in Lake Superior and reestablish lake trout in Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Genetic diversity is important for the evolution and maintenance of successful adaptive strategies critical to population restoration. The loss of genetic diversity among wild lake trout stocks in the Great Lakes imposes a severe constraint on lake trout rehabilitation. The objective of this synthesis is to address whether the particular strain used for stocking combined with the choice of stocking location affects the success or failure of lake trout rehabilitation. Poor survival, low juvenile recruitment, and inefficient habitat use are three biological impediments to lake trout rehabilitation that can be influenced by genetic traits. Evidence supports the hypothesis that the choices of appropriate lake trout strain and stocking locations enhance the survival of lake trout stocked into the Great Lakes. Genetic strategies proposed for lake trout rehabilitation include conservation of genetic diversity in remnant stocks, matching of strains with target environments, stocking a greater variety of lake trout phenotypes, and rehabilitation of diversity at all trophic levels.

Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.; Krueger, Charles C.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Johnson, James E.; Stewart, Thomas J.; Horrall, Ross M.; MacCallum, Wayne R.; Kenyon, Roger; Lange, Robert E.

1995-01-01

386

Rehabilitation of lake trout in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Marked success of rehabilitation of lake trout in Lake Superior has been due principally to the control of the sea lamprey and closure of the lake trout fishery in 1962 and large-scale plantings of yearling lake trout in 1959-66. After the sea lamprey became established in the late 1940s, spawning stocks of lake trout began to decrease and were almost nonexistent by 1960-61. After control of the sea lamprey and closure of the commercial fishery for lake trout in 1962, the abundance of spawning stocks began to rise and reached the highest levels on record in 1964-66. Successful spawning in 1964 and 1965 was demonstrated by catches of age-0 lake trout in 1965 and 1966, the first evidence of natural reproduction since 1959. Plantings of hatchery-reared lake trout in Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior began in 1952. The percentage of hatchery-reared fish in catches of juvenile lake trout increased almost steadily from 1953 to 1965 (when nearly all were of hatchery origin). The abundance of juvenile fish increased from 1959 to 1962 and remained nearly constant in 1962-66. The success of lake trout plantings was highest in 1959-61 but generally declined after 1961; the success of the plantings was inversely related to the abundance of older lake trout. Annual increments of growth of hatchery-reared lake trout varied from 1.1 to 5.0 inches after planting. The average lengths of fish of identical age-groups varied according to gear of capture, depth of water, and season. More than 65% of the season's growth of age-III lake trout took place after September. The findings indicate that the present rate of stocking lake trout may be higher than necessary to maintain optimum abundance.

Dryer, William R.; King, George R.

1968-01-01

387

Response of the St. Joseph River to lake level changes during the last 12,000years in the Lake Michigan basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water level of the Lake Michigan basin is currently 177m above sea level. Around 9,800 14Cyears B.P., the lake level in the Lake Michigan basin had dropped to its lowest level in prehistory, about 70m above sea\\u000a level. This low level (Lake Chippewa) had profound effects on the rivers flowing directly into the basin. Recent studies of\\u000a the St.

Kevin A. Kincare

2007-01-01

388

Lake Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists studying large lakes in northern and tropical latitudes are finding that rising water temperatures are affecting the ecosystems of these lakes. "Changing Planet " is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

NBC Learn

2010-10-07

389

Cornell University, Office of Sponsored Programs Awards Received in February 2004  

E-print Network

) ADOPTIVE PLACEMENTS FOR CHILDREN IN FOSTER CARE $43,761 GEA 40690 BAKER, DALE SEA GRANT EXT SUNY RF LAKE CHAMPLAIN SEA GRANT $66,802 KLH 41816 BAKER, DALE SEA GRANT EXT SUNY RF TIER-BASED MONITORING FOR TOXIC

Danforth, Bryan Nicholas

390

EVALUATION OF THE ROLE OF SEA SALT IMPUTS IN THE LONG-TERM ACIDIFICATION OF COASTAL NEW ENGLAND LAKES (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Input of neutral salt (NaCl) from sea spray, followed by Na(sup +)-H(sup +) exchange within the soil exchange complex, has been proposed as an important factor in surface water acidification of coastal areas. This hypothesis was tested on a regional basis by comparing the Na:Cl r...

391

CONNECTICUT LAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of named lakes in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes all lakes that are named on the U.S. Geologicial Survey (USGS) 7 minute topographic quadrangle maps that cover the State of Connecticut, plus other officially named lakes i...

392

Lake Eyre  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... View Larger Image Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. ... the effect of sunglint at the nadir camera view angle. Dry, salt encrusted parts of the lake appear bright white or gray. Purple areas have ...

2013-04-16

393

EVOLUTION IN LAKE TAI ECOSYSTEMS AS A RESULT OF GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Large lakes evolve continuously through interaction with the physical, chemical, and biological environments of the surrounding watershed and lakes. ecent evidence from Lake Tai shows global climate and sea level changes led to a major change in Lake Tai from brackish to a freshw...

394

Lake Sarez, Tajikistan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lake Sarez (top), deep in the Pamir mountains of Tajikistan, was created 90 years ago when a strong earthquake triggered a massive landslide that, in turn, became a huge dam along the Murghob River, now called the Usoi Dam. The resulting lake is perched above surrounding drainages at an elevation greater than 3000m, and is part of the watershed that drains the towering Akademi Nauk Range (see the regional image, lower). The lake is 61 km long and as deep as 500 m, and holds an estimated 17 cubic km of water. The area experiences considerable seismic activity, and scientists fear that part of the right bank may slump into the lake, creating a huge wave that will top over and possibly breach the natural dam. Such a wave would create a catastrophic flood downstream along the Bartang, Panj and Amu Darya Rivers, perhaps reaching all the way to the Aral Sea. Currently, central Asian governments, as well as the World Bank and the UN are monitoring the dam closely, and have proposed gradually lowering the lake level as a preventive measure. More information about the lake is available at the following web sites: Lake Sarez Study group, UN Report, Reliefweb Digital photograph numbers ISS002-E-7771 and ISS002-E-7479 were taken in the spring of 2001 from Space Station Alpha and are provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

395

The Wandering Lake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the area at the very far eastern corner of China's Taklimakan Desert, Lop Nor Lake was located up until some years ago. Lop Nor, also called the 'the heart of the heart' of Asia, was the place where the waters of the largest inner basin (i.e., not flowing into the sea) of the world-including the Tarim and Kum-daria Rivers-were collected. Depending on the balance between rainfall water yield and evaporation, both position and size of the lake were strongly variable, thus giving rise to the legend of the Wandering Lake. 'Lop City' was the place where Marco Polo took his last rest before facing the one-year long crossing of the Gobi Desert. Starting from the end of the 19th century, several explorers tried to find the legendary place. One such explorer was Sven Hedin, who was commissioned by the Governor of Nanjing to lead an expedition to find the lake. In 1937, the Swedish explorer published his book entitled The Wandering Lake. Comparing this very precise map from Sven Hedin's book with the above Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) false-color image (acquired on October 28, 2001), one can find a faint sign on the soil where the Lop Nor was located. This image, derived using a combination of MODIS' near-infrared and red channels (vegetation in red), shows where the Tarim River waters currently end their flow. The Wandering Lake does not exist anymore. The combination of climate change and human exploitation of water resources for agriculture caused the disappearance of the lake. This image was processed by Telespazio, Earth Observation division, new products development facility in Rome, Italy. The MODIS sensor flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft, launched in December 1999. Caption and image courtesy Luca Pietranera, Telespazio, Rome, Italy, based on data from the MODIS Science Team

2002-01-01

396

INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE CAUSES OF AMPHIBIAN MALFORMATIONS IN THE LAKE CHAMPLAIN BASIN OF NEW ENGLAND (AWARDED PROJECT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The concurrent geographic extent and rate of amphibian malformations appear to have markedly increased above background levels in recent years in many states and Canadian provinces as documented by the North American Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations (www.npwrc.usgs.go...

397

Head capsule deformities in midge larvae exposed to Burlington Harbor (Lake Champlain) sediments -- field and laboratory investigations  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of sediment associated contaminants in Burlington Harbor indicated the harbor contains elevated levels of a number of pollutants. Lead, silver, mercury and total PAH levels exceed NOAA`s ER-M at numerous sites in the harbor. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations (ranging from 0.055 to 6.64 ug/g (dry wt.)) exceed the ER-M at a number of sites. Pyrene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, chrysene, anthracene and fluorene also exceed the ER-M at a number of stations within the harbor. Despite these relatively high levels of contaminants found in harbor sediments, solid phase and pore water exposures with Ceriodaphnia dubia indicate acute toxicity at only a limited number of sites. Examination of midge larvae populations from the harbor, however, indicates a high rate of head capsule deformities at some sites. Preliminary work which exposed laboratory cultures of Chironomus tentans to harbor sediment induced a 17% incidence in deformities in the F{sub 1} generation, a 50% incidence in the F{sub 2} generation and a 75% in the F{sub 3} generation. The incidence of deformities decreased substantially when F{sub 3} generation organisms were reared in clean substrate. Laboratory cultures of C. tentans are being exposed to sediments from various harbor sites for determination of head capsule deformity induction. In addition, several generations of larvae will be reared in sediment to determine the overall impacts on survival and whether deformities increase in subsequent generations.

Lester, D.; Williams, A.; McIntosh, A.; Lacey, R. [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States). School of Natural Resources

1994-12-31

398

Sediment-current interactions at Valcour Island, Lake Champlain--A case of helical flow in the bottom boundary layer  

SciTech Connect

Sediment furrows have been documented in diverse environments. In all cases they are morphologically similar exhibiting long, linear parallel troughs oriented with the dominant bottom current direction. The similar nature of their morphology suggests that they form as a result of a long-term interaction between the sediment surface and bottom current flow. Thus furrows are maintained in regions where bottom currents are sufficiently stable in direction and of high flow rates. Previous studies suggest that furrow formation is controlled by secondary circulation within the bottom boundary layer which localize erosion at flow convergence on the bed. Once established, the furrow field and flow reinforce this secondary circulation pattern. Thus the trough continues to exist by the resuspension of finer grained sediment and abrasion by coarser debris concentrated within the trough. Sediment furrows were documented by side-scan sonar surveys near the long-term current meter mooring east of Valcour Island. The furrows are located in 63 m of water. Their widths range from 4 to 8 m while inter-furrow spacing varies from 10 to 30 m. Grain size of surface bottom sediments ranged from silty mud (5.48[phi]) near the mooring site to very fine sand (3.4[phi]) in the south end of the survey area. The furrow orientations are consistent with the typical north-south flow observed within this region. Although still under investigation, it appears that the bottom moored current meter at Valcour Island (during the summer months of 1991) documented the secondary flow pattern within the bottom boundary layer.

Manley, P.L.; Manley, T.O. (Middlebury College, VT (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-03-01

399

Hydrologic considerations in dewatering and refilling Lake Carlton : Orange and Lake Counties, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lake Carlton straddles the line between Lake and Orange Counties in central Florida. The 382-acre lake is highly eutrophic and subject to virtually perpetual algal blooms. The Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission has proposed to restore the lake to a less eutrophic state by dewatering the lake long enough to allow the muck on its bottom to dry and compact. Lake Carlton would be permanently sealed off from Lake Carlton. On the assumption that the seasonal rainfall would be normal, and that the dewatering phase would begin on March 1, the predicted time required to dewater the lake at a pumping rate of 50,000 gpm (gallons per minute) is 21 days. The average rate of pumping required to maintain the lake in a dewatered condition is computed to be 2,400 gpm. If pumping is ended May 31, the predicted altitude to which the lake would recover by October 31 as a result of net natural input is 56.2 feet above sea level. Raising the lake level to 63 feet above sea level by October 31 would require that the net natural input be supplemented at an average rate of about 4,860 gpm between May 31 and October 31. (Woodard-USGS)

Anderson, Warren; Hughes, G.H.

1977-01-01

400

Abundance Indices for Determining the Status of Lake Trout Restoration in Michigan Waters of Lake Superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-sustaining populations of lake trout Sal vet in us namaycush have returned to most areas in Lake Superior, but progress toward achieving historic commercial yields has been difficult to measure because of unrecorded losses to predation by sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus and to fisheries. Consequently, we developed restoration targets (catch per effort, CPE; geometric mean number per kilometer of 114-mm

MICHAEL J. HANSEN; RICHARD G. SCHORFHAAR; JAMES W. PECK; JAMES H. SELGEBY; WILLIAM W. TAYLOR

1995-01-01

401

The Dead Sea an economic resource for 10 000 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The archaeological and historical record of the Dead Sea as an economic resource is longer than that of any other hypersaline lake. Although it is completely devoid of life, except for a few bacteria and algae, the climatic and geological conditions in the Dead Sea basin have produced circumstances which made this lake important for the economy of the area.

Arie Nissenbaum

1993-01-01

402

Lake trout population dynamics in the Northern Refuge of Lake Michigan: implications for future rehabilitation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Northern Refuge was established in 1985 as part of the lake trout Salvelinus namaycush rehabilitation effort for Lake Michigan. To evaluate progress toward lake trout rehabilitation in the Northern Refuge, we conducted annual (19912008) gill-net surveys in the fall to assess the adult population and beam trawl surveys in the spring to assess naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout. Our criteria for evaluating progress included the density of wild age-0 fish within the Northern Refuge, the proportion of wild fish within the adult population, density of spawners, adult survival, growth, and wounding rate by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. No wild age-0 lake trout were caught in the Northern Refuge during 19912008. Overall, wild lake trout did not recruit to the adult population to any detectable degree. The mean density of spawning lake trout decreased from 45 fish305 m of gill net?1d?1 during 19911999 to only 4 fish305 m?1d?1 during 20002008. Although the sea lamprey wounding rate more than doubled between these two time periods, catch curve analysis revealed that mortality of adult lake trout actually decreased between the two periods. Therefore, the 90% decrease in abundance of spawning lake trout between the two periods could not be attributed to increased sea lamprey predation but instead was probably due in part to the reduced lake trout stocking rate during 19952005. The paucity of natural reproduction in the Northern Refuge during 19912008 most likely resulted from alewife Alosa pseudoharengus interference with lake trout reproduction and from the relatively low lake trout spawner density during 20002008. Our results suggest that the annual stocking rate of lake trout yearlings should be increased to at least 250,000 fish/reef to achieve greater densities of spawners.

Madenjiana, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.

2010-01-01

403

Salton, A Sea of Controversy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Salton Sea is an accidental lake that receives used irrigation water from the Colorado River. Humans have profoundly altered the areas ecosystems. The Salton Sea is important for wildlife and recreation, but is now saltier than the ocean. How might it be saved? This case examines the Salton Seas problems and uncertain future. The case would be suitable for introductory environmental, biology, geography and geology classes, and courses dealing with land use, water resources, agriculture, birds or fish, ecosystems, and government policy.

Kristin B. Vessey

1999-01-01

404

Lake trout population dynamics at Drummond Island Refuge in Lake Huron: Implications for future rehabilitation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Drummond Island Refuge (DIR) was established in 1985 as part of the rehabilitation effort for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since then, several strains of hatchery-reared lake trout have been stocked annually at the DIR. An intensive lampricide treatment of the St. Marys River during 1998-2001 was expected to lower the abundance of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus within the DIR by 2000. We conducted annual gill-net surveys during spring and fall to evaluate the performance of each of the strains of lake trout as well as that of the entire lake trout population (all strains pooled) in the DIR during 1991-2005. The criteria to evaluate performance included the proportion of "wild" fish within the population, spawner density, adult survival, growth, maturity, and wounding rate by sea lampreys. Wild lake trout did not recruit to the adult population to any detectable degree. During 1991-2005, the average density of spawning lake trout appeared to be marginally sufficient to initiate a self-sustaining population. Survival of the Seneca Lake (SEN) strain of lake trout was significantly higher than that of the Superior-Marquette (SUP) strain, in part because of the higher sea-lamprey-induced mortality suffered by the SUP strain. However, other factors were also involved. Apparently SUP fish were more vulnerable to fishing conducted in waters near the refuge boundaries than SEN fish. The St. Marys River treatment appeared to be effective in reducing the sea lamprey wounding rate on SEN fish. We recommend that the stocking of SEN lake trout in the DIR, control of sea lampreys in the St. Marys River, and reduction of commercial fishery effort in waters near the DIR be maintained. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

Madenjian, C.P.; Ebener, M.P.; Desorcie, T.J.

2008-01-01

405

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE  

E-print Network

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE CAUTION! FISH LAKE SCAVANGER HUNT RED HEADED is another majestic bird of Fish Lake. These birds can be seen perched at Fish Lake. CLUB-TAIL DRAGONFLY INSECTS OF FISH LAKE There are A LOT

Minnesota, University of

406

Wisconsin's Great Lakes Shipwrecks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What better way to beat the heat than to imagine diving into the deep, cool waters of Lake Superior (average temp: Ten degrees above freezing) without having to leave your desk. This exceptional shipwreck site, produced by the Wisconsin Historical Society and the UW Madison Sea Grant Institute, allows the visitor to pick her or his lake, Superior or Michigan, and explore the many shipwrecks that are chronicled there. The exhibits include photo galleries and video, taking the visitor up-close with these fascinating underwater artifacts. Deeper in the site is a section called Notes in the Field, where scientists involved in this summer's exploration of the Kate Kelly, a schooner that reefed between Milwaukee and Chicago in 1895, provide a daily log of their activities. Also off of this link is another link to the Kids' Corner, which provides all sorts of good information for kids and teachers about underwater archaeology and shipwrecks. This is definitely a site worth diving into.

407

SEASAT altimetry for surface height of inland seas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability of spaceborne altimetry to record the level, or monitor changes in the level, of inland seas was assessed. SEASAT altimetry data from Lake Baikal in Siberia; the Caspian, Black, and Aral Seas in the southern Soviet Union; the Great Salt Lake in the United States; lakes and reservoirs in northwestern and central China; and snow cover in northwestern India and on the Tibetan Plateau were examined.

Welker, J. E.

1984-01-01

408

The Role of the Great Lakes Fishery Commission in the Solution of Great Lakes Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Lakes Fishery Commission was established by treaty between the United States and Canada. Under the terms of the Convention the Commission is charged with the implementation of a program for the control of the sea lamprey and with the coordination of fishery research by various agencies. In-the performance of its duties with respect to sea lamprey the Commission

John L. Farley

1957-01-01

409

Banff, Calgary, CANMORE, Emerald Lake & Lake Louise  

E-print Network

Travel Banff, Calgary, CANMORE, Emerald Lake & Lake Louise The University of Winnipeg Day 1 Travel opportunity) Sulfur Mountain Gondola Ride Banff Hot Springs (optional) Day 4 Emerald Lake (sightseeing) Lake Gondola ride up the Canadian Rockies Trip to Lake Louise Trip to Emerald Lake Trip to Johnston Canyon

Martin, Jeff

410

Glacial Lake Chicago Early Lake Michigan  

E-print Network

between the ice front and the moraines that circle the southern end of the Lake Michigan Basin. The lakeGlacial Lake Chicago Early Lake Michigan Ancient Shorelines This section refers to the phases of Glacial Lake Chicago. The title "Lake Michigan" refers to stages that occurred after ice had completely

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

411

Archaea in Yellowstone Lake  

PubMed Central

The Yellowstone geothermal complex has yielded foundational discoveries that have significantly enhanced our understanding of the Archaea. This study continues on this theme, examining Yellowstone Lake and its lake floor hydrothermal vents. Significant Archaea novelty and diversity were found associated with two near-surface photic zone environments and two vents that varied in their depth, temperature and geochemical profile. Phylogenetic diversity was assessed using 454-FLX sequencing (?51?000 pyrosequencing reads; V1 and V2 regions) and Sanger sequencing of 200 near-full-length polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clones. Automated classifiers (Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and Greengenes) were problematic for the 454-FLX reads (wrong domain or phylum), although BLAST analysis of the 454-FLX reads against the phylogenetically placed full-length Sanger sequenced PCR clones proved reliable. Most of the archaeal diversity was associated with vents, and as expected there were differences between the vents and the near-surface photic zone samples. Thaumarchaeota dominated all samples: vent-associated organisms corresponded to the largely uncharacterized Marine Group I, and in surface waters, ?6984% of the 454-FLX reads matched archaeal clones representing organisms that are Nitrosopumilus maritimus-like (9697% identity). Importance of the lake nitrogen cycling was also suggested by >5% of the alkaline vent phylotypes being closely related to the nitrifier Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. The Euryarchaeota were primarily related to the uncharacterized environmental clones that make up the Deep Sea Euryarchaeal Group or Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group-6. The phylogenetic parallels of Yellowstone Lake archaea to marine microorganisms provide opportunities to examine interesting evolutionary tracks between freshwater and marine lineages. PMID:21544103

Kan, Jinjun; Clingenpeel, Scott; Macur, Richard E; Inskeep, William P; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Gorby, Yuri; McDermott, Timothy R; Nealson, Kenneth

2011-01-01

412

ANALYSES OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SALTON SEA FISH. (R826552)  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical contamination of fish from the Salton Sea, a quasi-marine lake in Southern California, could adversely impact millions of birds using the Pacific Flyway and thousands of humans using the lake for recreation. Bairdiella icistia (bairdiella), Cynoscion xanthul...

413

75 FR 34720 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement and To Conduct Public Scoping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...States and Canada, crossing in Lake Champlain to the east of the Town of Champlain...bipoles) would extend south under Lake Champlain for approximately 111 miles entirely...State. At the southern end of Lake Champlain, the cables would exit...

2010-06-18

414

75 FR 12233 - New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Receipt of Petition and Tentative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Champlain Canal, which leads north to Lake Champlain, a large waterbody that is a...transient traffic. The NYS side of Lake Champlain (a waterbody that has already...located on the New York side of Lake Champlain which is already...

2010-03-15

415

LAKE FORK  

EPA Science Inventory

The Lake Fork of the Arkansas River Watershed has been adversely affected through mining, water diversion and storage projects, grazing, logging, and other human influences over the past 120 years. It is the goals of the LFWWG to improve the health of Lake fork by addressing th...

416

Lake Constance  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... Swiss shores of Lake Constance at the town of Rorschach. Eutrophication, or the process of nutrient enrichment, is rapidly accelerated ... of the value of Lake Constance, efforts to mitigate eutrophication were initiated in the 1970's. MISR was built and is managed ...

2013-04-17

417

The Disappearing Aral Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In just 30 years, the Aral Sea has lost more than 60 percent of its water. Barring change, it may disappear entirely by 2020. In this visualization, satellite images dating from 1973 to 2000 show how water diverted from this inland lake for agriculture has caused it to shrink considerably over a short period of time. The feature can be run as an animation or as a series of slides. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

418

Metagenomic Sequencing of Two Salton Sea Microbiomes  

PubMed Central

The Salton Sea is the largest inland body of water in California, with salinities ranging from brackish freshwater to hypersaline. The lake experiences high nutrient input, and its surface water is exposed to temperatures up to 40C. Here, we report the community profiles associated with surface water from the Salton Sea. PMID:24459270

Hawley, Erik R.; Schackwitz, Wendy

2014-01-01

419

Paleoclimatic studies with Dead Sea Sediments  

E-print Network

evaluation of the global warming effects. DeadSea Saharo-Arabian desert belt ITCZ July Dead Sea basin Maximum and its late Quaternary climate history reflect global shifts of the major ocean- atmospheric systems dust washed to the lake by the winter floods. It provides information on the dust sources and mode

Shepard, Kenneth

420

Metagenomic sequencing of two salton sea microbiomes.  

PubMed

The Salton Sea is the largest inland body of water in California, with salinities ranging from brackish freshwater to hypersaline. The lake experiences high nutrient input, and its surface water is exposed to temperatures up to 40C. Here, we report the community profiles associated with surface water from the Salton Sea. PMID:24459270

Hawley, Erik R; Schackwitz, Wendy; Hess, Matthias

2014-01-01

421

This article was downloaded by: [J. Ellen Marsden] On: 23 January 2013, At: 13:04  

E-print Network

://www.tandfonline.com/loi/utaf20 Lake Whitefish Diet, Condition, and Energy Density in Lake Champlain and the Lower Four Great Density in Lake Champlain and the Lower Four Great Lakes following Dreissenid Invasions, Transactions, and Energy Density in Lake Champlain and the Lower Four Great Lakes following Dreissenid Invasions Seth J

Marsden, Ellen

422

Satellite Altimetry for Monitoring Lake Level Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate and continuous monitoring of lakes and inland seas is possible since 1991 thanks to the recent missions of satellite altimetry (Topex-Poseidon, ERS-1, ERS-2, Jason-1 and Envisat). Global processing of the data of these satellites could provide temporal and spatial times series of lakes water level from 1991 to 2003 on the whole Earth with a decimeter precision. The response

J.-F. Cretaux; A. Kouraev; M. Berge-Nguyen; A. Cazenave; F. Papa

423

Lake Nipigon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These recent postings from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing's (CCRS) "Images of Canada" series provide an interesting introduction to remote sensing techniques and the history of landforms, both natural and human-made. The Landsat image of Ontario's Lake Nipigon, a name meaning "deep, clear lake," is viewable in two sizes and is accompanied by text and other remote images on the structural geology, rock types, recent forest fires, and forestry research around the lake. The CCRS was last mentioned in the May 24, 2000 Scout Report for Science and engineering.

2001-01-01

424

Sea Education Association (SEA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sea Education Association (SEA) in Woods Hole, MA provides undergraduates with an opportunity to participate in an academic study-abroad program called the SEA Semester. The program combines intensive research in the areas of oceanography, maritime studies, and nautical science with hands-on experience aboard a traditional sailing ship. Piloting, celestial navigation, and practical seamanship are learned together with oceanographic sampling techniques and marine laboratory procedures. Critical thinking, problem-solving, team-building and leadership skills are emphasized throughout the program. SEA Semester is appropriate for students in marine biology, geology and physical science, environmental studies, American studies, and most other areas within the liberal arts and sciences. Academic credit for SEA Semester is obtained through Boston University.

425

Pyramid Lake  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Pyramid Lake, Nevada, not only holds deep cultural connections for the Paiute Tribe and tribal member Dan Mosely (pictured), but also supports a tribal economy centered on fishing and recreational activities. ...

426

Lake Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lake Study for Windows is a two-part simulation designed to involve students with the scientific method. It allows them to collect data, formulate hypotheses, and test the hypotheses with controlled experiments.

427

Lena River Delta and East Siberian Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The winter sea ice in the east Siberian Sea is looking a bit like a cracked windshield in these true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 16 and 23, 2002. North of the thawing tundra, the sea ice takes on its cracked, bright blue appearance as it thins, which allows the reflection of the water to show through. Numerous still-frozen lakes dot the tundra. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

428

Introduction to the Great Lakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reference information on this site discusses one of the youngest natural features on the North American continent, the Great Lakes. Covering more than 94,000 square miles and draining more than twice as much land, these freshwater seas hold an estimated 6 quadrillion gallons of water, about one-fifth of the world's fresh surface water supply and nine-tenths of the U.S. supply. Students will discover that the Great Lakes watershed includes part or all of eight U.S. states (Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York) and the Canadian province of Ontario. The site offers a page of information on each lake, including descriptions and statistics.

429

Investigating sedimentary rock deposition and weathering in Mawikwe Bay Sea Caves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A field investigation to the Mawikwe Bay Sea Caves of northern Wisconsin along Lake Superior in the winter. Students will investigate deposition of sedimentary rocks and weathering of the rocks to produce sea caves.

430

Development of an Advanced Technique for Mapping and Monitoring Sea and Lake Ice in Preparation for GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the uniqueness of the Earth's ice covered regions and their importance to the world is being increasingly recognized. They are considered vital and valuable for a variety of economic, environmental, and social reasons. Ice information can also improve weather and climate predictions. Observations show that Arctic ice is decreasing in both thickness and extent which will lead to the change in absorption of solar radiation and temperature of the earth. The increasing activity in ice-affected waters has led to a growing requirement for ice information and better mapping systems with improvements in both time and spatial resolution. A variety of Earth Observation sensors are used to map ice covered areas. Visible-Infrared sensors at moderate-resolution from polar orbiting satellites (NOAA-AVHRR, MODIS Aqua/ Terra) have been used extensively because of their easy accessibility. However, clouds, fog and low time resolutions limit the use of this type of sensor to fully meet operational ice mapping requirements, particularly in cloud- and fog ice zones. The primary objective of this research is to explore the potentials of mapping ice with the geostationary satellites which can provide a reasonably good time resolution and satisfactory spatial resolutions. The aim of this ongoing project is to develop an automated ice-mapping algorithm, which would make maximum use of GOES-R ABI's improved observing capabilities and to be the pioneer of creating daily ice maps from a geostationary satellite. Data collected by SEVIRI instrument onboard of Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite have been used as a prototype. The Northern region of the Caspian Sea has been selected for algorithm development and calibration. The approach used in the algorithm development includes daily cloud-clear image compositing as well as pixel-by-pixel image classification using spectral criteria. All available spectral channels (reflectance and temperature) have been tested and used in order to accurately classify Cloud, water and ice. The preliminary steps of the research will focus on correcting the BRDF effect of ice and developing a new ICE BRDF model to be used for such regions. In the next step the BRDF model will be used as a base for future classification and retrieval of cloud, water and ice pixels and addendum of other spectral bands.

Nazari, R.; Temimi, M.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Romanov, P.

2008-05-01

431

Biogeochemistry of manganese in Lake Matano, Indonesia  

E-print Network

2991, 2011 www.biogeosciences.net/8/2977/2011/ C. Jones et al.: Biogeochemistry of manganese in ferruginous Lake Matano 2985 1 2 m 0 2,500 5,000 7,500 10,000 Voltage 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Inte nsi ty Mn Fe Cu Cu O C Mn Fe Si Fig. 7. TEM micrograph...). A conceptual model of Mn and O2 water column profiles generally applicable to most stratified aquatic environments (e.g. Lake Vanda, the Black Sea, Lake Bret, etc.) (see Davison, 1993 for a review) is shown in Fig. 1. Reactions controlling...

Jones, C.; Crowe, S.A.; Sturm, A.; Leslie, Karla Louise; MacLean, L.C.W.; Katsev, S.; Henny, C.; Fowle, David A.; Canfield, D.E.

2011-10-26

432

Satonda Crater Lake, Indonesia: Hydrogeochemistry and biocarbonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe results of detailed hydrochemical and biosedimentological studies of the sea-linked Satonda Crater Lake, Sumbawa Island\\/Indonesia\\u000a are presented. They revealed that the mildly alkaline, mid-water stratified and species-poor lake supports growth of cyanobacterial-red\\u000a algal calcareous reefs comparable with some ancient marine biocarbonates. The chemical and biotic changes during the last\\u000a 4,000 years of the lake history have been reconstructed. They

Stephan Kempe; Jzef Ka?mierczak

1993-01-01

433

Biology of penaeid prawns in the Suez Canal lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made from January 1988 to March 1989 of the penaid prawns in the Great Bitter Lake and Lake Timsah located in the central part of the Suez Canal. Two species of Red Sea origin were investigated,Metapenaeus stebbingi andTrachypenaeus curvirostris; the former is by far the commoner. Both species displayed seasonal breeding over the period April to October,

A. A.-F. A. Gab-Alla; R. G. Hartnoll; A.-F. Ghobashy; S. Z. Mohammed

1990-01-01

434

Lake Biwa and the ocean: geochemical similarity and difference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average composition of water, bottom sediments, manganese (Mn) crusts, and Mn concretions from Lake Biwa (the largest\\u000a freshwater lake in Japan) are re-examined, in conjunction with those of seawater, oceanic pelagic clay, and deep-sea Mn nodules.\\u000a The purpose is to gain additional insights into the geochemical behaviors of elements in Lake Biwa and the ocean, which are\\u000a quite different

Yuan-Hui Li; Yoshiki Sohrin; Takejiro Takamatsu

2011-01-01

435

Nannoplankton of Marine Origin from Great Bear Lake in the Northwest Territories of Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

GREAT Bear Lake is situated on the Arctic Circle at a point where the Pre-Cambrian Shield emerges from the adjoining Cretaceous formations. The present lake surface is 143 m above sea level, and because the maximum depth is 542 m there is a cryptodepression of 309 m. The shape of the lake could be described as amoeboid with five arms

A. S. Bursa; L. Johnson

1967-01-01

436

Holocene environmental history of thermokarst lakes on Richards Island, Northwest Territories, Canada: Theocamoebians as paleolimnological indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Richards Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, is characterized by thermokarst lakes which record Holocene limnological change. This study is the first report of thecamoebian assemblages and continuous annual lake water temperatures from these Arctic lakes. Ecological environments on Richards Island are influenced by a climatic gradient resulting from the contrasting influences of the cold Beaufort Sea to the north and the

Audrey Dallimore; Claudia J. Schrder-Adams; Scott R. Dallimore

2000-01-01

437

Brackish and freshwater shallow lakes different systems or variations on the same theme?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saline lakes may be divided into two categories those primarily saline because they are endorheic and those secondarily saline (brackish) because of natural or anthropomorphic inputs of sea water. Endorheic lakes have greatly varying composition and salinity, occur in arid regions and are not as abundant for that reason as exorheic lakes. The area of land surface over which

Brian Moss

1994-01-01

438

Low-Head Barrier Dams Restrict the Movements of Fishes in Two Lake Ontario Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Lakes Fishery Commission (GLFC) is considering greater use of low-head barrier dams on stream tributaries of the Laurentian Great Lakes to control populations of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. The impact of these barriers on nontarget fishes is not known. A markrecapture study on four Lake Ontario streams examined movements of fishes in streams with (barrier) and without (reference)

L. M. Porto; R. L. McLaughlin; D. L. G. Noakes

1999-01-01

439

Great Lakes Climate and Water Movement. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The theme of this book is Great Lakes climate and water movement. Students learn about land-sea

Miller, Heidi, Ed.; Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

440

Hg Deposition to Lakes in Northern New England Inferred at Multiple Scales From 210Pb-Dated Sediment Cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury (Hg) contamination of aquatic systems is recognized to be a problem of global consequence, and Hg bioaccumulation poses significant risks to piscivorous animals and humans who consume gamefish. In order to quantify historical and current Hg deposition to the northern New England landscape, we dated and performed Hg analyses on sediments cores from various lakes at local and regional scales. In this presentation, we contrast results of three studies: a regional assessment of Hg deposition to the VT-NH landscape (10 lakes); a localized study of deposition to the Lye Brook Wilderness of southern VT (four lakes); and the first-ever dated assessment of sediment Hg deposition history for Lake Champlain (three sites + one adjacent inland lake). At the VT-NH scale, total Hg (HgT) fluxes to sediments ranged from 5 to 17 ? g.m-2.yr-1 during pre-industrial times, and from 21 to 83 ? g.m-2.yr-1 presently. Present-day HgT fluxes are between 2.1 to 6.9 times greater than pre-1850 fluxes, and atmospheric Hg deposition to the VT-NH region was estimated at 21 ? g.m-2.yr-1. This agrees well with measured HgT deposition, when re-evasion of Hg is accounted for. Hg fluxes to lake sediments have declined in recent decades, owing to reductions in atmospheric Hg deposition to the lake surfaces. In the high-elevation Lye Brook Wilderness landscape, baseline, peak, and present accumulations were higher than those estimated from the VT-NH dataset, a finding that highlights the roles of elevation, watershed size, and dissolved organic carbon export in mediating Hg transport. Available data from the Lake Champlain Basin show the influence of historical and current watershed sediment delivery due to land cultivation, and more recently to land-use conversion. These studies jointly indicate that watershed export of legacy Hg continues despite declines in present-day deposition rates, contributing to the impression that Hg retention by watershed soils has declined.

Kamman, N. C.; Engstrom, D.

2004-05-01

441

Sea Turtles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea World informational resource on all eight species of sea turtles. Excellent introduction to sea turtles including information on their classification, habitat, diet, reproduction, and much more. Includes photographs and illustrations throughout. Features two teaching activities for grades K-2.

442

Lake Powell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The white ring around Lake Powell tells the story. The surface is down 98 feet. This is critical, because Powell, Lake Mead, and other lakes along the Colorado River provide water for millions of people in five states. We are in the eighth year of a drought on the Colorado River. This year was the driest year ever reported in Southern California, and there is a severe drought in Northern California, down to less than 30-percent of snow pack. This ASTER image of part of Lake Powell was acquired in 2001. The gray area depicts the shrunken, reduced 2007 lake extent compared to the extended, larger black area in 2001.

The image covers an area of 24 x 30 km, and is centered near 37.1 degrees north latitude, 111.3 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2007-01-01

443

Recovery and decline of lake whitefish in U.S. waters of eastern Lake Ontario, 1980-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) was an important member of the native fish community and a valued commercial species in Lake Ontario. Lake whitefish were common in U.S. waters of the lake until 1965 and very abundant in Canadian waters through the early 1970s, although their numbers declined shortly thereafter. During 1975-1985, lake whitefish stocks remained depressed throughout the lake as a result of the combined effects of degraded water quality, overfishing, and predation. Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) probably preyed on whitefish fry, and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) preyed on adults. During 1985-1987, lake whitefish stocks began to recover in eastern Lake Ontario, and their buildup continued into the mid-1990s. Reasons for the recovery likely included control of the sea lamprey population and a reduction in the number of piscivorous rainbow smelt. By 1997, lake whitefish abundance had declined severely again; some fish appeared to have dispersed from the northeastern to the southeastern regions of the lake, and the depth of capture increased. We believe that the collapse of Diporeia spp. populations during 1992-1999 was responsible for the decline in the lake whitefish populations and the shifts in geographic and bathymetric distribution because lake whitefish fed primarily on Diporeia spp. After the collapse of Diporeia spp. populations, lake whitefish in southeastern Lake Ontario fed on Mysis relicta and quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis). Changing from a diet of high-lipid Diporeia spp to low-lipid dreissenids and foraging on Mysis relicta at lower temperatures are apparently hampering the rebuilding of lake whitefish stocks.

Owens, Randall W.; O'Gorman, Robert; Eckert, Thomas H.; Lantry, Brian F.; Dittman, Dawn E.

2005-01-01

444

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-print Network

whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Lake Champlain Seth J. Herbst 1 , J. Ellen Marsden Rubenstein School from 151 lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from Lake Champlain, 2009. Mean and systematic evaluation of precision and bias of age structures for Lake Champlain's unexploited lake whitefish population

Marsden, Ellen

445

This article was downloaded by: [J. Ellen Marsden] On: 28 December 2011, At: 07:04  

E-print Network

://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ujfm20 Lake Whitefish in Lake Champlain after Commercial Fishery Closure and Ecosystem Changes Seth J and Wildlife Service, Lake Champlain Fish and Wildlife Resources Office, 11 Lincoln Street, Essex Junction this article: Seth J. Herbst, J. Ellen Marsden & Stephen J. Smith (2011): Lake Whitefish in Lake Champlain

Marsden, Ellen

446

Lake acidification  

SciTech Connect

This paper examined a National Research Council (NRC) report called Acid Deposition: Long-Term Trends. The report has been the final word on acid deposition as the cause of acidification of lakes. The authors considered it important that the tentative nature of this report be kept in perspective so that the work of the NRC would promote rather than inhibit scientific inquiry on the lake acidification issue. In this spirit, this report proposed that degradation of storm damaged trees could increase the acidity of the forest humus and as a result the ground water which would fed local streams and lakes. They proposed that extensive forest blowdown could be a factor in acidification of surface waters.

Dobson, J.E.; Peplies, R.W.; Rush, R.M.

1987-06-01

447

Uplift of the Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The north-west region of the Europe (the Baltic shield) has the well-known phenomena of the postglacial uplift. Parameters of this uplift were evaluated many times in various projects (e.g. Baltic Sea Level, BIFROST), from permanent GPS station data, and by tide gauge recordings and repeated precise levelling. In addition to the general uplift pattern that is centered at the northern part of the Gulf of Bothnia (~10 mm/year) and smoothly reduced towards the edge of the Baltic shield, an additional maximum (up to ~7 mm/year) at the north of the Lake Ladoga was anticipated by geodetic leveling (Kakkuri, Poutanen 1997) and by GPS observations (Prilepin et al. 2002). A new data of permanent and campaign-wise GPS observations during 1999-2009 were used to estimate the uplift values in the area of Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega. The height component of GPS points near these lakes have anomalous large uplift values (3 - 6 mm/year) centered to the north of Lake Ladoga. In this determination, permanent IGS and EPN stations in SE Finland and Russia have their expected values of uplift for this region (2 - 5 mm/year). The horizontal components of these points have the usual east-northeast trend. References Kakkuri J., Poutanen M., 1997. Geodetic determination of the surface topography of the Baltic Sea. Marine Geodesy, vol. 20, 4, 1-10. Prilepin, M. T., Mishin, A. V., Kaban, M. K., Baranova, S. M. (2002) Study of the Baltic Shield Geodynamics from GPS data. Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth, vol. 38, 9, 756-764.

Galaganov, O.; Guseva, T.; Rosenberg, N.; Gorshkov, V.; Scherbakova, N.; Poutanen, M.

2010-05-01

448

Lake Sihwa tidal power plant project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Tidal Power Plant (TPP) is being constructed in the middle section of the existing Lake Sihwa dike located near the southern Incheon Port in Korea. The project, which will be completed in 2010, is to harness the largest tidal energy in the Kyeonggi Bay in the eastern Yellow Sea. While noting the current progress in terms of plant construction,

Young Ho Bae; Kyeong Ok Kim; Byung Ho Choi

2010-01-01

449

Global Change in the Great Lakes: Scenarios.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ohio Sea Grant Education Program has produced this series of publications designed to help people understand how global change may affect the Great Lakes region. The possible implications of global change for this region of the world are explained in the hope that policymakers and individuals will be more inclined to make responsible decisions

Garrison, Barbara K., Ed.; Rosser, Arrye R., Ed.

450

The birth and death of lakes on young landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ongoing land uplift caused by postglacial isostatic rebound creates strong landscape-age gradients alongside the Gulf of Bothnia, northern Scandinavia. Lakes are continuously generated on this dynamic landscape as the uplift isolates bays from sea inundation. However, concomitant with this process older lakes are lost as the basins are filled with sediments, creating a continuum of lake ages on the landscape. We studied the lake size and depth distributions and lake densities, along an age gradient covering 0-4500 years. Map data on the density, area, and elevation of lakes were combined with field-based measurements of maximum basin depth. We find that young lake populations are densely distributed and dominated by small and shallow lakes. Over time, small and shallow lakes are lost by complete sediment filling, resulting in lower lake density and a shift in size and depth distributions towards larger, deeper lakes. Since lake filling is a universal process, we propose that these findings can be generalized to other gradients in landscape age.

Englund, GRan; Eriksson, HKan; Nilsson, Mats B.

2013-04-01

451

Red Sea  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title: The Red Sea View Larger Image ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast ... the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae, Trichodesmium erythraeum , found in the sea turn reddish-brown when ...

2013-04-16

452

Lake Victoria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from "The Biodiversity Crisis: Losing What Counts", provides insight into how human behavior has put one of the world's largest ecosystems close to death. It covers the astonishingly diverse cichlid species that live only in Lake Victoria and changes to the ecosystem brought about by the introduction of a non-native species.

453

Land-lake breezes at low latitudes: The case of Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tonle Sap Lake is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. During the postmonsoon season, a small linear cloud system has been observed over this lake in early morning, while the sky above the surrounding land is clear. Although this cloud system is apparently generated by land breezes, previous studies on land-lake (sea) circulation have suggested that environmental factors at low latitudes inhibit development of nocturnal land breezes. In this study, we investigate the mechanism of these early morning clouds through numerical simulation. The simulations show a linear updraft system over the lake, forming along the southwest lakeshore around 22:00 and moving northeast to the middle of the lake. The heavier air mass from the land meets the extraordinarily warm and humid air mass over the lake, triggering updrafts under the conditionally convective instability. The characteristic high surface water temperature was favorable for generation of the land breeze and updraft systems. That high surface water temperature of the lake is produced by the tropical climate along with efficient energy absorption because of the shallowness of the water body. This unique feature can generate a clear nocturnal land breeze circulation accompanying a migrating updraft system over the lake despite its low latitude.

Tsujimoto, Kumiko; Koike, Toshio

2013-07-01

454

Research to Guide Use of Barriers, Traps, and Fishways to Control Sea Lamprey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a rigorous and directed research framework for fostering innovations in the design, implementation, and operation of barriers, traps, and fishways used to control the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. It was developed to support the Great Lakes Fishery Commission's milestone ple