Science.gov

Sample records for lake city area

  1. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  2. Business Use of Small Computers in the Salt Lake City, Utah Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homer, Michael M.

    In July 1981, Utah Technical College (UTC) conducted a survey of businesses in the Salt Lake City area to gather information for the development of a curriculum integrating computer applications with business course instruction. The survey sought to determine the status and usage of current micro/mini computer equipment, future data processing…

  3. 75 FR 73983 - Proposed Modification of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B... information from airspace users and others concerning a proposal to revise the Class B airspace area at Salt... Terminal, 397 North 2370 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116. (3) The meeting on Thursday, February 3,...

  4. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western`s power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western`s firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action altemative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  5. 77 FR 13074 - Opportunity for Designation in the Pocatello, ID; Evansville, IN; and Salt Lake City, UT Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Opportunity for Designation in the Pocatello, ID; Evansville, IN; and Salt Lake City, UT Areas; Request for Comments on the Official Agencies Servicing...

  6. Utah: Salt Lake City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for the dry, powdery snow that results from the arid climate and location at the ... should be used with the red filter placed over your left eye. The canyons and peaks of the Uinta and Wasatch Mountains are ...

  7. Issues of scale, location and geologic terrain related to Salt Lake City and Baltimore-Washington metropolitan areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleaves, E.T.; Godfrey, A.E.

    2004-01-01

    Planning and development of expanding metropolitan regions require consideration of earth science issues related to issues involving scale, space (location), geologic terrain and physiographic units, and information transfer. This paper explores these matters with examples from the Salt Lake City, Utah area and Mid-Atlantic region of Baltimore-Washington that include water supply and natural hazards (earthquakes, landslides, and sinkholes.) Information transfer methods using physiographic units at national, regional, local and site scales serve to communicate relevant geologic constraint and natural resource information.

  8. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  9. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 4, Appendixes B-D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  10. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 3, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  11. Effects of wetlands on quality of runoff entering lakes in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Four wetlands were compared with respect to their effectiveness in decreasing suspended solids and nutrient concentrations in runoff to lakes immediately downstream from the wetlands. An artificial impoundment in one of the wetlands increased settling of suspended solids. A decrease of nutrients in this wetland was probably the result of high assimilation rates associated with a dense stand of cattails. Two of the other three wetlands consist of open water and land areas, both of which contain abundant vegetation. Drainage from land areas within the wetlands may have lowered the overall effectiveness of the wetlands in decreasing sediment and nutrient concentrations. The third wetland was a constructed wetland that was ineffective in decreasing sediment or nutrient concentrations because its storage capacity was too small to prevent frequent flushing of accumulated sediment. Sediment concentrations in discharge from this wetland were as much as 22 times greater than the already high sediment concentrations in the inflow. (Author 's abstract)

  12. Land-Surface Subsidence in the Area of Moses Lake Near Texas City, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabrysch, R.K.; Bonnet, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    Removal of water, oil, and gas from the subsurface in Harris and Galveston Counties has caused declines in fluid pressures, which in turn have resulted in subsidence of the land surface. Subsidence of the land surface at Moses Lake in due principaly to the removal of ground water in adjacent areas. Significant subsidence of the land surface at Moses Lake began after 1900, and as much as 1.8 feet of subsidence had occurred in the ara by 1973. Probably future subsidence was calculated by two methods for two loading situations. In the first loading situation, the artesian head in the middle Chicot aquifer, in the Alta Loma Sand (Rose, 1943), and in the Evangeline aquifer would continue to decline at respective rates of 1, 3, and 3 feet per year until 1980 and then cease. In the second loading situation, the artesian head in the middle Chicot aquifer, in the Alta Loma Sand, and in the Evangeline aquifer would continue to decline at respective rates of 1, 3, and 3 feet per year until 1990 and then cease. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a late spring view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.

    This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution

  14. Blanket of Snow Covers Salt Lake City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On December 23, 2001, less than two months before the start of the 2002 Winter Olympics, snow blankets Salt Lake City and the surrounding area. The Great Salt Lake, on the left hand side of the image above, often contributes to the region's snowfall through the 'lake-effect.' As cold air passes over a large body of water it both warms and absorbs moisture. The warm air then rises (like a hot air balloon) and cools again. As it cools, the water vapor condenses out, resulting in snowfall. Just to the east (right) of the Great Salt Lake the mountains of the Wasatch Range lift air from the lake even higher, enhancing the lake-effect, resulting in an average snowfall of 64 inches a year in Salt Lake City and 140 inches in Park City, which is located at the foot of the Wasatch Front. For more information about the lake-effect, read Lake-Effect Snowfalls. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  15. Anaglyph, Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This anaglyph image provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM

  16. CHED Events: Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wink, Donald J.

    2009-03-01

    The Division of Chemical Education (CHED) Committee meetings planned for the Spring 2009 ACS Meeting in Salt Lake City will be in the Marriott City Center Hotel. Check the location of other CHED events, the CHED Social Event, the Undergraduate Program, Sci-Mix, etc. because many will be in the Salt Palace Convention Center.

  17. Relationships between Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing program and hydropower operations at Salt Lake City area integrated projects

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T.D.; Folga, S.; Poch, L.A.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum provides background information on the Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the physical characteristics of the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) hydropower plants, which include the Colorado River Storage Project, the Rio Grande Project, and the Collbran Project. In addition, the history, electrical capacity, storage capacity, and flow restrictions at each dam are presented. An overview of Western`s current programs and services, including a review of statutory authorities, agency discretion, and obligations, is also provided. The variability of SLCA/IP hourly generation under various alternative marketing strategies and purchasing programs is discussed. The effects of Western`s services, such as area load control, outage assistance, and transmission, on SLCA/IP power plant operations are analyzed.

  18. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  19. INTERSECTION OF 445 NORTH & 1040 EAST, SALT LAKE CITY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERSECTION OF 445 NORTH & 1040 EAST, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18272, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  20. 200 MAIN STREET, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    200 MAIN STREET, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST OF "MAIN' STREET. REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18273, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  1. Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations`s proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations.

  2. 250 NORTH & MAIN STREET (PARK 83, SALT LAKE CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    250 NORTH & MAIN STREET (PARK 8-3, SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING NORTH - REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18271, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  3. PLAT X41601 EAST (SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLAT X-4-160-1 EAST (SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT CEMETERY BETWEEN OLIVE STREET (1020 EAST) AND 1000 EAST STREET, REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 12049, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  4. CHINESE PLAT, 1919 (L19 19 4 E, SALT LAKE CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHINESE PLAT, 1919 (L19 19 4 E, SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT CHINESE PLAT MARKER AND BURNER. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  5. Stereo Pair, Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This image pair provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture

  6. IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION OF PROSPECTIVE CHANGES IN SOCIETY, REPORTS PREPARED FOR THE AREA CONFERENCE (2D, SALT LAKE CITY, OCTOBER 24-26, 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MORPHET, EDGAR L.; RYAN, CHARLES O.

    AT A CONFERENCE IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH, OCTOBER 24-26, 1966, SPONSORED BY EIGHT ROCKY MOUNTAIN STATES, SIXTEEN PAPERS AND FOUR SUPPLEMENTARY STATEMENTS WERE GIVEN BY EDUCATIONAL AUTHORITIES TO DEFINE PROSPECTIVE CHANGES IN SOCIETY BY 1980 AND TO CONSIDER THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION. FACTORS INFLUENCING EDUCATIONAL CHANGE INCLUDE POPULATION…

  7. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST OF CITY OF GREENBELT SPRINGHILL LAKE RECREATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST OF CITY OF GREENBELT SPRINGHILL LAKE RECREATION CENTER, 6101 CHERRYWOOD LANE. NOTE CLUBHOUSE FROM FORMER SPRINGHILL LAKE GOLF COURSE IN FOREGROUND. - Springhill Lake Apartments, 9230 Edmonston Road, Greenbelt, Prince George's County, MD

  8. Space Radar Image of Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Salt Lake City, Utah, illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in the Utah Valley. Salt Lake City lies between the shores of the Great Salt Lake (the dark area on the left side of the image) and the Wasatch Front Range (the mountains in the upper half of the image). The Salt Lake City area is of great interest to urban planners because of the combination of lake, valley and alpine environments that coexist in the region. Much of the southern shore of the Great Salt Lake is a waterfowl management area. The green grid pattern in the right center of the image is Salt Lake City and its surrounding communities. The Salt Lake City airport is visible as the brown rectangle near the center of the image. Interstate Highway 15 runs from the middle right edge to the upper left of the image. The bright white patch east of Interstate 15 is the downtown area, including Temple Square and the state capitol. The University of Utah campus is the yellowish area that lies at the base of the mountains, east of Temple Square. The large reservoir in the lower left center is a mine tailings pond. The semi-circular feature in the mountains at the bottom edge of the image is the Kennecott Copper Mine. The area shown is 60 kilometers by 40 kilometers (37 miles by 25 miles) and is centered at 40.6 degrees north latitude, 112.0 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994. The colors in this image represent the following radar channels and polarizations: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  9. 78 FR 45848 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... airspace at Salt Lake City, UT, to accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning...) to modify controlled airspace at Salt Lake City, UT (78 FR 27872). Interested parties were invited to... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation...

  10. Dinkey Lakes Roadless Area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, F.C.W.; Federspiel, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey conducted in 1980, show that parts of the Dinkey Lakes Roadless Area have substantiated resource potential for tungsten and marble and probable resource potential for quartz crystal gemstones. A probable resource potential for geothermal energy exists in one small area. No potential for other metallic mineral or energy resources was identified in this study.

  11. 78 FR 17097 - Safety Zone; Lake Havasu Triathlon; Lake Havasu City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Havasu Triathlon; Lake Havasu City, AZ... temporary safety zone within the navigable waters of Lake Havasu and the London Bridge Channel for the Lake... Triathlon will consist of 600 participants. The waterside swim course consists of 1500 meters in Lake...

  12. CHINESE PLAT, 1919 (L19 19 4 E, SALT LAKE CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHINESE PLAT, 1919 (L19 19 4 E, SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT CHINESE PLAT MARKER, BURNER & CHINESE GRAVES. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  13. Radiocarbon-insights into temporal variations in the sources and concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the Los Angeles and Salt Lake City Metropolitan Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czimczik, Claudia; Mouteva, Gergana; Simon, Fahrni; Guaciara, Santos; James, Randerson

    2014-05-01

    Increased fossil fuel consumption and biomass burning are contributing to significantly larger emissions of black carbon (BC) aerosols to the atmosphere. Together with organic carbon (OC), BC is a major constituent of fine particulate matter in urban air, contributes to haze and has been linked to a broad array of adverse health effects. Black carbon's high light absorption capacity and role in key (in-)direct climate feedbacks also lead to a range of impacts in the Earth system (e.g. warming, accelerated snow melt, changes in cloud formation). Recent work suggests that regulating BC emissions can play an important role in improving regional air quality and reducing future climate warming. However, BC's atmospheric transport pathways, lifetime and magnitudes of emissions by sector and region, particularly emissions from large urban centers, remain poorly constrained by measurements. Contributions of fossil and modern sources to the carbonaceous aerosol pool (corresponding mainly to traffic/industrial and biomass-burning/biogenic sources, respectively) can be quantified unambiguously by measuring the aerosol radiocarbon (14C) content. However, accurate 14C-based source apportionment requires the physical isolation of BC and OC, and minimal sample contamination with extraneous carbon or from OC charring. Compound class-specific 14C analysis of BC remains challenging due to very small sample sizes (5-15 ug C). Therefore, most studies to date have only analyzed the 14C content of the total organic carbonaceous aerosol fraction. Here, we present time-series 14C data of BC and OC from the Los Angeles (LA) metropolitan area in California - one of two megacities in the United States - and from Salt Lake City (SLC), UT. In the LA area, we analyzed 48h-PM10 samples near the LA port throughout 2007 and 2008 (with the exception of summer). We also collected monthly-PM2.5 samples at the University of California - Irvine, with shorter sampling periods during regional wildfire

  14. Salt Lake City, Utah, Perspective View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This 3-D perspective view, in simulated natural colors, presents a late spring view over Salt Lake City towards the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains to the east. The image was created by draping ASTER image data over digital topography data from the US Geological Survey's National Elevation Data.

    This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation

  15. Intercultural Education at High Schools in Greater Salt Lake City, Utah: An Ethnographic Inquiry. Urban Education Reports Series Number Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Frank Andrews

    Intercultural education in the Greater Salt Lake City (Utah) metropolitan area seems to have minimal effect on high school students' behavior or attitudes. This study was planned in order to better understand the nature and dynamics of intercultural instruction in Salt Lake City. Information was analyzed from the following sources: (1) interviews…

  16. Salt Lake City, Utah, Winter 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a snowy, winter view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.

    This image was acquired on February 8, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal

  17. Portion of the Great Lakes area as seen from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An oblique view of a portion of the Great Lakes (43.0N, 70.0W) area as seen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. lake Erie is in the foreground; and Lake Ontario is in the background. The Niagara Falls area is in the center of the photograph. Portions of Pennsylvania, New York, and Ontario, Canada are visible, but under nearly complete snow cover. Major structural features, drainage patterns, road systems and the cities of Buffalo and Toronto are easily distinguished and actually enhanced by the snow. At the time this picture was taken, these two Great Lakes had no observable ice, although cloud formations partially mask the southern shores of the two bodies of water.

  18. Impact of Urban Growth and Urbanization on the Environmental Degradation of Lakes in Hyderabad City, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandan, M. J.; Sen, M. K.; Harini, P.; Sekhar, B. M.; Balaji, T.

    2013-12-01

    Lakes are a vital part of urban ecosystems which perform important ecological and environmental functions to safeguard local climate, groundwater and habitat. The incessant population growth coupled with low urban planning is causing severe damage to urban ecosystems throughout the world. Hyderabad is one of the largest growing metropolitan cities of India covering an area of 65000 ha situated on the banks of Musi River in the northern part of the Deccan Plateau. The city had a population of 1.25 million in 1961 which increased to 6.8 million in 2011 with a metropolitan population of 7.75 million, making it India's fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration. Hyderabad is popularly known as 'City of Lakes' which occupies the top position in India in terms of Urban Lakes. In 20th century, the number of lakes were around 925 which are now reduced to 521 and most of these lakes are facing extinction. The water spread area of these lakes has been considerably reduced due to steady urban growth and the carrying capacity and ecological status of these urban lakes are in real danger. Many of these lakes have shrunk in size while the waters of several lakes got polluted with the discharge of untreated domestic and industrial effluents. Taking into consideration the environmental degradation of urban lakes, an attempt was made to study the current status, loss of water bodies and water spread using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Time-series satellite images of MSS, IRS and RESOURCESAT and Survey of India maps of 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 were used for this study. Analysis of these together with other data sets was accomplished through integrated use of ERDAS Imagine Arc view and ArcGIS software packages. It is estimated that there were 925 lakes in 1982 in erstwhile Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) area which came down to 521 in 2012. A total number of 404 lakes disappeared during the last 30 years period. Consequently the water spread

  19. Salt Lake City, Utah: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Salt Lake City, UT, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  20. 76 FR 52905 - Proposed Amendment to Class B Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... FAA issued a final rule establishing the Salt Lake City, UT, Terminal Control Area (54 FR 43786). As a result of the Airspace Reclassification final rule (56 FR 65638), which became effective in 1993, the... rules and equipment requirements. The SLC Class B airspace area was last modified in 1995 (60 FR...

  1. 78 FR 76781 - Proposed Modification of Class B Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ..., 2012, the FAA published a final rule modifying the Salt Lake City, UT Class B airspace area (77 FR...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... underlying the area. This would benefit and enhance non- participating VFR aircraft operations being...

  2. Hydrogeology of the Lake Miona area, northeast Sumter County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradner, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Lake Miona area, in northeast Sumter County, is characterized by karstic depressions that contain lakes, ponds, and marshes that drain vertically to the upper Floridan aquifer. Lake Miona, Black Lake, and Cherry Lake are the prominent water features of the area. When the lake levels are lowest, the lakes are not connected, but at higher levels, they become connected and water flows eastward from Lake Miona through Black Lake to Cherry Lake. The chemical and biological conditions in the lakes are such that, although they support a large population of submerged aquatic plants, no problem with algae blooms was observed. (USGS)

  3. 75 FR 34932 - Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN in the Federal Register (75 FR 22333). We... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Michigan due to a high speed boat racing event. This... associated with a high speed boat racing event. DATES: This regulation is effective from 9 a.m. until 4...

  4. Contaminant concentrations in stormwater from eight lake Superior basin cities, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steuer, J.J.; Selbig, W.R.; Hornewer, N.J.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected Stormwater samples from eight Lake Superior Basin cities to determine the quality of urban runoff entering Lake Superior from urban areas. The samples were collected during July 1993-September 1994 from storm sewers in Ishpeming, Negaunee, Sault Ste. Marie, and Houghton, Michigan; Virginia and Ribbing, Minnesota; and Ashland and Hurley, Wisconsin. Automated samplers were installed in manholes draining the selected sewers within each city. Water samples were collected for analyses of total recoverable metals, nutrients, and poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of these constituents for each site are listed in data tables.

  5. 33 CFR 165.T11-281 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction; Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction; Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV. 165.T11-281 Section 165.T11-281 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.T11-281 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction; Lake Mead, Boulder...

  6. Disaster Preparedness: Lessons from the 2002 Salt Lake City Olympics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaps, Richard A.

    Between February 7 and February 24, 2002, Utah and Salt Lake City hosted the Winter Olympics. Due to the bombing at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta and the emotional fallout that resulted, it was recommended that the Utah Psychological Association and Utah Red Cross plan for such an occurrence and organize a coordinated Disaster Mental Health…

  7. Characterizing the fabric of the urban environment: A case study of Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Rose, L. Shea

    2001-02-28

    Urban fabric data are needed in order to estimate the impact of light-colored surfaces (roofs and pavements) and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city, and to design effective implementation programs. In this report, we discuss the result of a semi-automatic Monte-Carlo statistical approach used to develop data on surface-type distribution and city-fabric makeup (percentage of various surface-types) using aerial color orthophotography. The digital aerial photographs for Salt Lake City covered a total of about 34 km2 (13 mi2). At 0.50-m resolution, there were approximately 1.4 x 108 pixels of data. Four major land-use types were examined: (1) commercial, (2) industrial, (3) educational, and (4) residential. On average, for the areas studied, vegetation covers about 46 percent of the area (ranging 44-51 percent), roofs cover about 21 percent (ranging 15-24 percent), and paved surfaces about 26 percent (ranging 21-28 percent). For the most part, trees shade streets, parking lots, grass, and sidewalks. In most non-residential areas, paved surfaces cover 46-66 percent of the area. In residential areas, on average, paved surfaces cover about 32 percent of the area. Land-use/land-cover (LU/LC) data from the United States Geological Survey were used to extrapolate these results from neighborhood scales to metropolitan Salt Lake City. In an area of roughly 560 km2, defining most of metropolitan Salt Lake City, over 60 percent is residential. The total roof area is about 110 km2, and the total paved surface area (roads, parking areas, sidewalks) covers about 170 km2. The total vegetated area covers about 230 km2.

  8. ALPINE LAKES WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gualtieri, J.L.; Thurber, H.K.

    1984-01-01

    The Alpine Lakes Wilderness study area, located in the central part of the Cascade Mountains of Washington was examined for its mineral-resource potential. On the basis of that study the area was found to contain deposits of copper, other base metals, and gold and silver. Probable or substantiated mineral-resource potential exists for these commodities in the southwest-central, northwest, and southeast-central parts of the area. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

  9. Sedimentary Evidence of Environmental Degradation in Sanliqi Lake, Daye City (A Typical Mining City, Central China).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Linghan; Ning, Dongliang; Xu, Lei; Mao, Xin; Chen, Xu

    2015-09-01

    To reconstruct the history of environmental degradation in Sanliqi Lake (Daye City, central China), multiple proxies were analyzed in a sedimentary core which was dated using (137)Cs and spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs). The results show that Sanliqi Lake has experienced serious degradation during the past 60 years, resulting from a large influx of metals and nutrients. Expansion of agricultural and industrial activities between 1945 and 1993 enhanced nutrient and metal enrichment, indicated by increases in metals, SCPs, magnetic susceptibility, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and total organic carbon. Further enrichment of Zn, Cd, Ni and Cr after 1993 was linked to a recent intensification of mining activities. Decreases in Cu and Pb after 2006 probably resulted from recent environmental remediation. This study verified the coupling between lake sediment pollution and human activities in Daye City during the past 60 years. The reconstructed history of lake pollution can provide reference information for continued restoration of Sanliqi Lake and other similar heavily polluted lakes in the developing regions. PMID:26188661

  10. An investigation of the origin of Rock City and cause of piping problems at Mountain Lake, Giles County, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atallah, Nidal Walid

    Mountain Lake is one of only two natural lakes in the state of Virginia. The lake's origin has been attributed to either a natural solution-collapse basin, or to a landslide damming the valley of northwesterly flowing Pond Drain, or to a NW-SE trending fracture lineation. The lake is located within the breached northwest limb of a gently plunging anticline, a part of the larger Valley and Ridge physiographic province. In recent years, the lake drained almost completely, exposing the lake bottom and revealing the presence of four sinkhole-like depressions, containing piping holes at their sides and bottoms, at the northeastern and northwestern margins of the lake. This study focuses on the most likely origin of large sandstone blocks present at the northern end of the lake in an area locally referred to as "Rock City", including mapping of the block locations and analyzing the mode and extent of displacement that they have undergone. An additional objective is to investigate the piping potential of the lake-bottom sediment and its role in seepage out of the lake basin causing lake-level fluctuations. Mapping of Rock City was conducted by taking GPS readings at the corners of the rock blocks and using ArcMap Software. Investigations of the displacement mode of the rock blocks was done by comparing the measured orientations of principal discontinuity sets, forming the rock-block boundaries, with discontinuity orientations of undisturbed outcrops within the headscarp, using stereonet analysis. Grain size analysis, Atterberg limits, and a compaction-mold permeameter test were used to evaluate lake sediment's susceptibility to piping. Field observations and discontinuity data analysis indicate that Rock City is a landslide that dammed the valley of Pond Drain, consequently forming the lake. The primary mode of slope movement involves lateral spreading that is associated with extension occurring along discontinuities. The Tuscarora Sandstone rock blocks comprising Rock

  11. Analysis and Application of Airborne Thermal Data at the Local Level Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley-Murphy, Elizabeth A.

    1999-01-01

    Expanding cities are transforming periurban environments such as agricultural land, natural grasslands, forests, wetlands, and and land, into urban surfaces, such as asphalt and concrete. This transformation is part of a process defined as "urban heat island". The urban surfaces get much hotter during the daylight hours in the summer than the natural or vegetated environment. The heat builds up creating a dome effect over the city making it many degrees hotter than it's surrounding area. The impacts from this, which include higher usage of air conditioners, water, etc., are numerous and costly. As cities expand, this problem is exacerbated. It is necessary to incorporate better quality data into urban analysis and for establishing methods that systematically and objectively monitor growth and change due to increased urbanization. NASA initiated Project Atlanta in 1997 "as an interdisciplinary remote sensing study to observe and measure the growth and development of the urban heat island effect over Atlanta, and its associated impacts". This project has recently included Salt Lake City, among others, in the study of the development and effects of "urban heat islands". NASA has made available to Salt Lake City, high resolution, 10 meter, multispectral thermal data collected in June 1998. The data collection was part of a special NASA over-flight, a mission supported by the U.S. EPA in conjunction with their Urban Heat Island (UHI) Mitigation Initiative. Salt Lake City is one of three pilot cities selected to participate in this unique initiative. Hence, this project constitutes a rare opportunity to capitalize upon state-of-the-art NASA technology and link it to an urban community very concerned about rapid growth and development. This data will enhance existing data and be used for improving technical tools used to plan for Utah's future.

  12. 36 CFR 7.62 - Lake Chelan National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Chelan National... THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.62 Lake Chelan National... snowmobiles the following locations within the Lake Chelan National Recreation Area: (1) All open...

  13. Hydrology of the Floral City Pool of Tsala Apopka Lake, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradner, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    Tsala Apopka Lake, in west-central Florida, has an area of about 19,000 acres and is divided into three water-management pools, with the Floral City Pool, the most upgradient. The Floral City Pool, which has a surface area of approximately 4,750 acres, contains an extensive combination of lakes, wetlands, and connecting canals. The Pool receives inflow from the Withlacoochee River through two canals. Outflow is through one manmade canal and one natural slough. Canal flow is partially controlled by manmade structures. A cumulative deficit of 19.4 inches of rainfall from August 1984 through May 1985 reduced surface-water inflow to the Floral City Pool to about 0.5 cu ft/sec by May 1985. During May 1985, pool levels declined approximately 0.04 ft/day. By the end of May, there was no observable outflow. From June 1985 through September 1985, 39.8 inches of rainfall caused above-average inflow to the Floral City Pool and a pool-level increase of 6.2 ft. The inflow of 340 CFS nearly equaled the outflow of 338 CFS by the end of September. (USGS)

  14. Geohydrology of the lowland lakes area, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zenone, Chester

    1976-01-01

    Unconsolidated deposits, chiefly of glacial origin, make up the surficial geologic materials in the Anchorage lowland lakes area , the western part of the Anchorage glacial outwash plain. Postglacial accumulation of peat, commonly 5 to 10 feet thick, and the presence of ground water at or very near the surface combine to create the swamp-muskeg terrane of much of the area. Deeper, confined ground water is also present beneath thick silt and clay layers that underlie the surficial deposits. Domestic water supply for the lowland lakes area is provided largely by public-supply wells completed in the deep, confined aquifers. No large perennial streams traverse the area, thus streamflow is not a major parameter in the area 's natural water balance. The major uses of surface water are recreational, including fishing and boating at several of the larger lakes, and private and commercial aircraft operations at Hood-Spenard Lakes floatplane base. The hydrology and water balance of these lakes is complex. Water levels in some lakes appear to be closely related to adjacent ground-water levels. Other lakes are evidently perched above the local water table. The relation of lake level to adjacent ground-water level may vary along the shoreline of a single lake. The effect of residential development practices on lake basin water balance is not completely understood. At Sand Lake, the largest lake in this area of rapid urbanization, the water level has declined about 6 feet since the early 1960's. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Scope of work-supplemental standards-related fieldwork - Salt Lake City UMTRA Project Site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-23

    This scope of work governs the field effort to conduct transient in situ (hereafter referred to by the trademark name HydroPunch{reg_sign}) investigative subsurface logging and ground water sampling, and perform well point installation services at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Salt Lake City, Utah. The HydroPunch{reg_sign} and well point services subcontractor (the Subcontractor) shall provide services as stated herein to be used to investigate the subsurface, collect and analyze ground water samples, and install shallow well points.

  16. 75 FR 57288 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT... of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT. The human remains and associated funerary objects were... Utah Museum of Natural History professional staff and a report sent to representatives of...

  17. 78 FR 71493 - Special Local Regulation; Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade of Lights; Colorado River; Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Acronyms BNM Broadcast Notices to Mariners COTP Captain of the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR... Boat Parade of Lights; Colorado River; Lake Havasu, AZ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... in support of the Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade of Lights on the Colorado River....

  18. 36 CFR 7.55 - Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Roosevelt National... THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.55 Lake Roosevelt National...) Aircraft. Float planes may be operated on Lake Roosevelt on those waters not administered by Indians...

  19. 36 CFR 7.55 - Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Roosevelt National... THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.55 Lake Roosevelt National...) Aircraft. Float planes may be operated on Lake Roosevelt on those waters not administered by Indians...

  20. WILD CATTLE MOUNTAIN AND HEART LAKE ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Denton, David K., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The results of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical surveys in Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake Roadless Areas in California indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic, nonmetallic, or fossil fuel resources. However, Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of Heart Lake Roadless Area lie in Lassen Known Geothermal Resources Area, and noncompetitive geothermal lease applications have been filed on much of the rest of Heart Lake Roadless Area. Both areas are adjacent to Lassen Volcanic National Park. Geochemical and geologic data indicate that the thermal manifestations in the Park and at Growler and Morgan Hot Springs just southwest of Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area are part of the same large geothermal system. Consequently, the entire Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of the Heart Lake Roadless Area have a substantiated geothermal resource potential; the rest of the Heart Lake Roadless Area has a probable geothermal resource potential.

  1. 78 FR 6832 - Notice of Mailing Address Change for the Utah State Office, Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Mailing Address Change for the Utah State Office, Salt Lake City, UT... of Land Management (BLM), Utah State Office, in Salt Lake City, Utah, will be changing from P.O. Box 45155-0155 to 440 West 200 South, Suite 500, Salt Lake City, Utah 84101-1345. The proposed date will...

  2. Environmental geophysics and sequential aerial photo study at Sunfish and Marsden Lakes, Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Padar, C.A.; McGinnis, L.D.; Thompson, M.D.; Anderson, A.W.; Benson, M.A.; Stevanov, J.E.; Daudt, C.R.; Miller, S.F.; Knight, D.E. |

    1995-08-01

    Geophysical studies at Site H of Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant have delineated specific areas of dumping and waste disposal. Anomalous areas noted in the geophysical data sets have been correlated with features visible in a chronological sequence of aerial photos. The photos aid in dating the anthropogenic changes and in interpreting the geophysical anomalies observed at Site H and across Sunfish Lake. Specifically, two burn cages and what has been interpreted as their surrounding debris have been delineated. The areal extent of another waste site has been defined in the southwest corner of Area H-1. Depth estimates to the top of the Area H-1 anomalies show that the anomalies lie below lake level, indicative of dumping directly into Sunfish Lake. Except for these areas along the northwestern shore, there is no evidence of waste disposal along the shoreline or within the present-day lake margins. Magnetic, electromagnetic, and ground-penetrating-radar data have pinpointed the locations of mounds, observable in aerial photos, around the first burn cage. The second burn cage and its surrounding area have also been clearly defined from aerial photos, with support from further geophysical data. Additional analysis of the data has yielded volumetric estimates of the amount of material that would need removal in the event of excavation of the anomalous areas. Magnetic and electromagnetic profiles were also run across Marsden Lake. On the basis of these data, it has been concluded that no large-scale dumping has occurred in or around Marsden Lake.

  3. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Most of the population of Utah lives just west of the Wasatch Mountains in the north central part of the state. This broad east-northeastward view shows that region with the cities of Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo seen from left to right. The Great Salt Lake (left) and Utah Lake (right) are quite shallow and appear greenish in this enhanced natural color view. Thousands of years ago ancient Lake Bonneville covered all of the lowlands seen here. Its former shoreline is clearly seen as a wave-cut bench and/or light colored 'bathtub ring' at several places along the base of the mountain front - evidence seen from space of our ever-changing planet.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat 5 satellite image mosaic, and a false sky. Topographic expression is exaggerated four times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  4. Hydrogeology of the Tully Lakes area in southern Onondaga and Cortland counties, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kappel, William M.; Miller, Todd S.; Hetcher, Kari K.

    2001-01-01

    Glacial processes created the many kettlehole lakes, ponds, and depressions in the Tully Lakes area, as well as the Valley Heads Moraine, which forms the drainage divide between the St. Lawrence River drainage to the north and the Susquehanna River drainage to the south. The first hydrogeologic studies of the Tully Lakes area began in the 1870's, when the lakes were considered as a possible water supply for the city of Syracuse. Water was diverted from some of the northwestern lakes and ponds into the Tully Valley; these diversions occurred as early as the 1840's and ceased in the early 1960's, with the closure of the eastern Tully Valley brinefield. In 1998, the USGS began a 2-year hydrogeologic study of the aquifer system underlying the Tully Lakes area that included monitoring water levels in five of the Tully Lakes and more than 50 wells. The average annual water-level fluctuations in the three western lakes ranged from about 2.5 feet to 6 feet. Water-level fluctuations in the eastern lakes, near the center of the valley, were much less--about 1.5 feet, because these lakes have natural outlets. Three sets of ground-water-level measurements were made from the spring recharge period through the fall dry period of 2000. The resulting potentiometric-surface maps indicate that the water-level declines from the spring to the fall ranged from 1.5 to 8 feet. The ground-water divide is about 1 mile south of the Valley Heads Moraine crest in the spring and migrates southward in response to declining water levels in the surficial aquifer during the fall. Water-surface altitudes in the kettlehole lakes and ponds respond slowly to seasonal water-level changes in the surrounding aquifer and often differ from water levels in the aquifer because the poorly permeable lakebed sediments impede the exchange of water.

  5. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Salt Lake City Olympics Venues, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This computer generated perspective image provides a northward looking 'view from space' that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling, and the nearby Snow Basin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City area ski resorts host the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and a Landsat 5 satellite image mosaic. Topographic expression is exaggerated four times.

    For a full-resolution, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  6. Hydrology of the Lake Deaton and Lake Okahumpka area, Northeast Sumter County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simonds, Edward P.; German, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer in the Lake Deaton and Lake Okahumpka area is 50 to 130 feet below land surface. During the 16-year period 1963-78 lake evaporation exceeded rainfall by 0.4 inches. Drainage from Lake Deaton and its surrounding area goes into Chitty Chatty Creek and on the Hogeye Sink when the altitude of the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer is low. During a higher altitude of the Floridan potentiometric surface, Hogeye Sink may discharge water; this water, along with the normal runoff, goes into Lake Okahumpka. Average lake fluctuation is 1.5 to 2.0 feet per year. Lake Deaton supports a large population of blue-green algae and Lake Okahumpka is choked with aquatic plants. The water quality of the two lakes differ, with Lake Deaton having a sodium chloride water and Lake Okahumpka having a calcium bicarbonate water. Analysis of water and bottom material samples showed that only cadmium and mercury exceeded the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation 's criteria for Class III waters; however, the amounts detected were at or slightly above the limits of the analytical method. (USGS)

  7. Impact of lake breezes on ozone and nitrogen oxides in the Greater Toronto Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, G. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Sills, D. M. L.

    2015-05-01

    Meteorological and air quality datasets from summertime (May to September, 2010-2012) were analysed in order to assess the influence of lake-breeze circulations on pollutant levels in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). While previous estimates of the frequency of summer days experiencing lake breezes range between 25 and 32 % for the GTA, a simple algorithm using surface meteorological observations suggested Lake Ontario breezes occurred on 56% of summer days, whereas a more reliable multiplatform approach yielded a frequency of 74%. Data from five air quality stations across the GTA were used to compare air quality on days during which a lake-breeze circulation formed ("lake breeze days") versus days when one did not ("non-lake breeze days"). Average daytime O3 maxima were 13.6-14.8 ppb higher on lake breeze days relative to non-lake breeze days. Furthermore, the Ontario Ambient Air Quality Criteria (AAQC) for 1-h average O3 (80 ppb) and 8-h average O3 (65 ppb) were exceeded only on lake breeze days and occurred on a total of 30 and 54 days throughout the study period, respectively. A causal link between lake-breeze circulations and enhanced O3 was identified by examining several days in which only some of the air quality sites were inside the lake-breeze circulation. O3 mixing ratios at sites located within the circulation were at least 30 ppb higher than sites outside the circulation, despite similar temperatures, cloud conditions and synoptic regimes across the region. Rapid O3 increases were concurrent with the arrival of the lake-breeze front, suggesting O3-rich air from over the lake is being advected inland throughout the day. Lake-breeze circulations were found to have less impact on nitrogen oxide (NOx) levels. Morning NOx was greater on lake breeze days, probably due to the stagnant conditions favourable for lake breeze formation. During the late afternoon, only inland sites experience increased NOx on lake breeze days, likely as a result of being downwind

  8. 36 CFR 7.69 - Ross Lake National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.69 Ross Lake National Recreation Area... the U.S./Canadian border to the end of the road at East Landing. (3) Access and circulatory roads...

  9. 36 CFR 7.69 - Ross Lake National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.69 Ross Lake National Recreation Area... the U.S./Canadian border to the end of the road at East Landing. (3) Access and circulatory roads...

  10. 36 CFR 7.69 - Ross Lake National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.69 Ross Lake National Recreation Area... the U.S./Canadian border to the end of the road at East Landing. (3) Access and circulatory roads...

  11. 36 CFR 7.69 - Ross Lake National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.69 Ross Lake National Recreation Area... the U.S./Canadian border to the end of the road at East Landing. (3) Access and circulatory roads...

  12. 36 CFR 7.69 - Ross Lake National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.69 Ross Lake National Recreation Area... the U.S./Canadian border to the end of the road at East Landing. (3) Access and circulatory roads...

  13. Geophysical Studies of Seismic Hazard in the Tahoe City Sub-basin, Lake Tahoe, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehlberg, J. M.; Schweickert, R. A.; McHugh, J.; Rasmussen, T.; Louie, J. N.

    2003-12-01

    The Lake Tahoe basin has the potential for serious earthquakes and earthquake-related tsunamis. The history of lake level fluctuations should be recorded in sediments beneath the Lake's outlet at Tahoe City. Borehole data show the sediments consist primarily of a thick sequence of lacustrine silts and clays with interbedded sands. Beneath this unit is an older Q-T (?) sand and gravel sequence of unknown origin. The lacustrine deposits locally rest upon 2.0 Ma latites, which in turn rest upon the older sand and gravel sequence. Near the outlet, several fault scarps displace units less than 2.0 m.y. old. These scarps may influence the stability of the dam across the outlet and the sequence and extent of lake level high stands. Our project is integrating geophysical and stratigraphic data to further define and describe the Tahoe City sub-basin. We collected new gravity data to provide an estimate of basin depths across the outlet and help define subsurface faults. Preliminary data suggest the maximum basin depth is 180 m, near the outlet. Refraction microtremor surveys yielded information about stratigraphy and shear velocities of the Quaternary deposits. The average shear wave velocity to 30-m depth obtained for this area is 334 m/s. These values correspond to a NEHRP soil hazard class of D, similar to that found in other lacustrine basins of the region. Soils in this NEHRP class tend to show a significant amplification of shaking, posing increased hazard to structures. We are combining stratigraphic with gravity and seismic data to produce geologic cross sections having information on basin depths and Quaternary faults.

  14. HOMESTEAD, LAKE FORK, AND LICK CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, James G.; Conyac, Martin D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey concluded that the Homestead, Lake Fork and Lick Creek Roadless Area, Oregon offer little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in the bedrock. Probable mineral-resource potential is assigned to the west and north parts of the Lake Fork Roadless Area, where gold resources may occur in glacial deposits and alluvium transported into this area from sources outside the roadless area to the west.

  15. 75 FR 22232 - Safety Zone; 2010 Veterans Tribute Fireworks, Lake Charlevoix, Boyne City, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of Lake Charlevoix near Boyne City, Michigan. All vessels are prohibited from transiting the zone located on a portion of Lake Charlevoix. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with a fireworks...

  16. 76 FR 28074 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT... inventory of human remains in the possession and control of the Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake... remains was made by the Utah Museum of Natural History professional staff and a report sent...

  17. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and...) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose... cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas is intended to achieve increased purchases by the...

  18. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and...) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose... cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas is intended to achieve increased purchases by the...

  19. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and...) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose... cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas is intended to achieve increased purchases by the...

  20. 36 CFR 7.57 - Lake Meredith National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... launched at designated launch sites established by the Superintendent in accordance with 36 CFR 1.5 and 1.7... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Meredith National... THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.57 Lake Meredith...

  1. 36 CFR 7.57 - Lake Meredith National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... launched at designated launch sites established by the Superintendent in accordance with 36 CFR 1.5 and 1.7... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Meredith National... THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.57 Lake Meredith...

  2. 76 FR 2579 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Lake Mead in support of the construction project for Lake... blasting operations for the placement of a water intake pipe in Lake Mead during the first 6 months of...

  3. 75 FR 13232 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Lake Mead in support of the construction project for Lake... Pipe from Lake Mead throughout 2010. This safety zone is necessary to ensure non-authorized...

  4. 33 CFR 334.820 - Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.820 Section 334.820 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.820 Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill....

  5. 33 CFR 334.820 - Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.820 Section 334.820 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.820 Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill....

  6. Dynamics in urban water quality: monitoring the Amsterdam city area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Vlugt, Corné; Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, Boris; Ouboter, Maarten; Stuurman, Roelof; Broers, Hans Peter

    2014-05-01

    Urban water quality is influenced by a large number of heterogeneous sources. We aimed to identify solute pathways from different sources in the urban area of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The city is situated in the Dutch delta, and largely below mean sea level. The water system of the centre of the city is connected to the large fresh water lake Ijsselmeer, but suburbs are mainly located within reclaimed lake and polder areas where water is pumped out in order to maintain the water levels, which are generally 1 tot 4 m. below sea level. Sources of water include: urban storm runoff, inlet water from the Ijsselmeer and surrounding areas, groundwater seepage and possibly also leaking sewage systems. The temporal dynamics and spatial patterns related to these flow routes and sources were largely unknown to date. Water quality is measured at those pumping stations systematically each month. We analysed the pumping discharge data and the concentration data to calculate daily water balances and annual load estimates for HCO3,Ca, Cl, Na, SO4, Ptot, Ntot ,NH4, NH3 and NO3. Chloride appears to be a good tracer to identify inlet water and bicarbonate and DIC were effective to estimate the groundwater contribution to the surface water outflow to the regional system. We were able to improve the solute balances by calibrating the measured temporal patterns of chloride and DIC using known concentrations from the individual sources. Subsequently the water balances where used to identify periods where one of the sources was dominant and by doing so we improved our understanding of the dynamics of N, P and S fluxes and the relations with dry and wet meteorological conditions. It appeared that N and P were largely related to groundwater outflow , whereas S was mainly related to dry periods and shallow flow routes influenced by sewage, urban storm runoff and shallow groundwater flow . The results are used to optimize urban water management which benefits from the improved insight in

  7. Emerging Contaminant Sources Fate in Recharged Treated Wasterwater, Lake Havasu City, Arizona

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2008 the City of Lake Havasu, Arizona, began a subsurface, effluent injection program to store treated wastewater effluent, which will eventually be seasonally recovered to balance the demand for irrigation during the summer months. As a proactive measure, the City decided to ...

  8. Lake and bog development at Glimmerglass lake in the Sylvania Wilderness Area, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Brugam, R.B.; Owen, B.; McKeever, K.

    1995-06-01

    We used pollen and diatom analysis to reconstruct post-glacial development of Glimmerglass Lake and its adjacent Sphagnum peatland using transacts of cores. Glimmerglass lake has existed since late-glacial times with little or no change in water levels. In contrast the peatland began growing as a floating mat in a pond that was separated from the main lake by a spit of land. Over time, the floating mat became grounded in the pond but continued growing to cover an adjacent low area that had never been underwater. The peatland continues to grow even though it is approximately 2 m above the level of the adjacent lake. It seems that the peat has slowed drainage into the lake and allowed the peatland to grow above the level of the lake. It is unclear whether climatic change or hydrology controls the rate of accumulation of the peat.

  9. Were Holocene large slumps in Lake Geneva off the city of Lausanne caused by fault activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia Demand, Jehanne; Marillier, François; Kremer, Katrina; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2014-05-01

    Lake Geneva is set in an area where glacier advances and retreats have carved Tertiary Molasse rocks in front of the Alpine units. Glacial and lacustrine sediments have accumulated in the lake on top of the Molasse. Within Holocene sedimentary layers, seismic studies in the central part of Lake Geneva ("Grand-Lac") have shown the presence of several mass transport deposits (MTD). A large one, MTD A, is observed off the city of Lausanne. The depth of the associated failure scars (100 m water depth), its volume (~ 0.13 km3), and the occurrence of other smaller MTDs that were possibly co-deposited with MTD A point to the occurrence of a major slide event in the lake, most likely associated with an earthquake. Based on 14C dating, the sediment age model for MTD A gives an age interval of 1865-1608 BC (Kremer et al. 2014). To resolve the details of the MTDs off Lausanne, and to better understand its geological context different seismic systems were used. These were a 3.5 KHz pinger with a theoretical vertical resolution of 0.15 m and a multichannel system with water-gun or air-gun seismic sources with vertical resolution of 0.6 m and 1.1 m, respectively. After a first pass processing, the multi-channel data were reprocessed in order to take into account the shape of the streamer in the water and to enhance the results of migration. In addition to typical seismic images of MTDs observed in other alpine lakes such as chaotic or transparent seismic character between well-organized reflections, two intriguing positive water-bottom topographic features associated with apparent sub-vertical offsets are revealed by the seismic data. They are located in the near vicinity of the depot centers of the MTDs and conspicuously located near faults in the Tertiary Molasse. These are thrust faults that are offset by small strike-slip faults, and we suggest that the positive topographic features are linked to a compressive component within the sediments due to displacements along these

  10. Energy Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies in Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2000-03-01

    In 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'', to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective to investigate the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City. This paper summarizes our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance and annual C02 reduction of HIR strategies in the three initial cities. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer most savings potential: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by old or new construction and with a gas furnace or an electric heat pump. We defined prototypical building characteristics for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling and heating energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.IE model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on building [direct effect], (3) combined strategies I and 2 [direct effect], (4) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (5) combined strategies 1, 2 and 4 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in each city using readily obtainable data to calculate the metropolitan-wide impact of HIR strategies. The results show, that in Baton Rouge, potential annual energy savings of $15M could be realized by rate-payers from

  11. Holiday CO2: Inference from the Salt Lake City data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryoo, J.; Fung, I. Y.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Stephens, B. B.

    2013-12-01

    A network of high-frequency CO2 sensors has been established in Salt Lake City (SLC), Utah (http://co2.utah.edu/), and the annual/monthly pattern of CO2 variability is consistent with a priori estimates of CO2 fluxes (McKain et al., 2012). Here we ask if short-term changes in anthropogenic sources can be detected, and present a case study of Thanksgiving holiday, when traffic and energy use patterns are expected to be different from that during the rest of the month. CO2 mole fraction is much higher during the Thanksgiving holidays than the other days in November 2008 for all 5 sites in SLC, and a similar pattern is found in other years. Taking into account that the wind speed is relatively low in downtown SLC compared to the other SLC sites, the downtown site is further investigated to minimize the meteorological influence on CO2. In order to understand the relative contributions to the high level of CO2 during the Thanksgiving holidays, we carried out a multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis of the rate of CO2 change against various sources. Mobile CO2 sources are assumed to be proportional to local traffic data and residential CO2 sources are assumed to depend exponentially on temperature. Vulcan data were used to specify the other anthropogenic sources (commercial, industrial, nonroad, electricity, aircraft, and cement). The MLR analysis shows that during the Thanksgiving holidays CO2 contributions from residential and commercial CO2 are larger than that during the rest of November, and mobile sources represent only a relatively small contribution. The study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting changes in urban source contributions using high-frequency measurements in combination with daily PBL height and local traffic volume data.

  12. 78 FR 17869 - Safety Zone; Desert Storm Shootout; Lake Havasu, Lake Havasu City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Desert Storm Shootout; Lake Havasu, Lake... establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the Colorado River in Lake Havasu, Lake...

  13. City Core - detecting the anthropocene in urban lake cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjaer, K. H.; Ilsøe, P.; Andresen, C. S.; Rasmussen, P.; Andersen, T. J.; Frei, R.; Schreiber, N.; Odgaard, B.; Funder, S.; Holm, J. M.; Andersen, K.

    2011-12-01

    Here, we presents the preliminary results from lake cores taken in ditches associated with the historical fortifications enclosing the oldest - central Copenhagen to achieve new knowledge from sediment deposits related to anthropogenic activities. We have examined sediment cores with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzers to correlate element patterns from urban and industrial emissions. Thus, we aim to track these patterns back in time - long before regular routines of recording of atmospheric environment began around 1978. Furthermore, we compare our data to alternative sources of information in order to constrain and expand the temporal dating limits (approximately 1890) achieved from 210Pb activity. From custom reports and statistic sources, information on imported volumes from coal, metal and oil was obtained and related contaminants from these substances to the sediment archives. Intriguingly, we find a steep increase in import of coal and metals matching the exponential increase of lead and zinc counts from XRF-recordings of the sediment cores. In this finding, we claim to have constrain the initiation of urban industrialization. In order to confirm the age resolution of the lake cores, DNA was extracted from sediments, sedaDNA. Thus we attempt to trace plantation of well documented exotic plants to, for instance, the Botanical Garden. Through extraction and sampling of sedaDNA from these floral and arboreal specimens we intend to locate their strataigraphic horizons in the sediment core. These findings may correlate data back to 1872, when the garden was established on the area of the former fortification. In this line of research, we hope to achieve important supplementary knowledge of sedaDNA-leaching frequencies within freshwater sediments.

  14. Environmental geophysics and sequential air photo study at Sunfish Lake Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Padar, C.A.; McGinnis, L.D.; Thompson, M.D.; Anderson, A.W.

    1996-11-01

    Geophysical and air photo studies at the Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant (TCAAP), Minnesota, were conducted to establish a chronology of dumping and waste disposal. This study was undertaken to aid in the assessment of the amount of remediation needed to reclaim a wetland area. An integrated analysis of electromagnetic, magnetic and ground-penetrating RADAR (GPR) measurements over a 25-acre site, provided the information necessary to define waste disposal events. These events are observed on a sequence of aerial photos taken between 1940 and 1993. The former southwestern embayment of the lake, filled in during the original construction of the base, has been clearly defined. Two burn cages and their surrounding debris have been delineated. The areal extent of another waste site has been defined along the northern shoreline. Depth estimates determined from EM-61 analysis, and depths to original lake bottom, derived from GPR, have yielded volumetric estimates of the amount of material that would need removal if excavation is required. Magnetic and electromagnetic data have pinpointed the locations of mounds, observed from historical air photos. Except for these areas along the Northwestern shore, there is no evidence of waste disposal along the shoreline or within the present-day lake margins. The ability to date the anomalous regions is significant, in that different production demands upon TCAAP, during the time periods of WWII, The Korean War, and The Vietnam Conflict, have resulted in different types of waste. The ability to categorize areas with distinct time periods of operation and waste disposal can greatly aid the environmental cleanup effort with regard to the type of contaminants that might be expected at these poorly documented disposal sites.

  15. Growth and potential yield of perch (Perca spp.) in selected areas of Lake Baikal and the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Bronte, Charles R.; Hatcher, Charles O.; Pronin, Nikolai M.; Sokolnikov, Yury

    1998-01-01

    We compared growth, mortality, and potential yield of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Chivirkui Bay in Lake Baikal with that of yellow perch (P. flavescens) from three areas of the Laurentian Great Lakes --Chequamegon Bay in Lake Superior, northeastern Lake Ontario, and southwestern Lake Erie. Graded mesh gill nets were fished in August to sample perch in lakes Baikal (1993), Ontario (1985-93), and Erie (1994). Bottom trawls were fished in July-August to sample perch in Lake Superior (1973-93). Adult yellow perch from the Laurentian Great Lakes were heavier at most lengths than adult Eurasian perch from Lake Baikal. The increase in body weight per unit increase in length was greatest in Lake Erie. Total annual mortality of perch was low in Lake Baikal (0.31), intermediate in lakes Superior (0.41) and Ontario (0.54), and high in Lake Erie (0.66). Annual fishing mortality (u) for perch in Lake Baikal was 60%-70% lower than that for perch in the Great Lakes. At ages 1-3, perch in Lake Erie were longer than those in lakes Baikal, Superior, and Ontario but at ages 4-9 perch in Lake Baikal were longer than those in the other lakes. Although Eurasian perch in Lake Baikal were longer at age 4 and older, growth in length, as measured by the Brody growth coefficient, K, was lower there than in the other lakes and was similar to that in Lake Superior; yellow perch in Lake Erie grew the fastest. Yield-per-recruit was lowest in Lake Erie and highest in Lake Superior. Potential yield was influenced by growth rates and fishing mortality.

  16. CITY/TOWN AREAS FOR ID, OR, AND WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Census place codes were dissolved & combined into state city or census Designated Place (CDP) areas. The total 1990 population was also calculated & attached to the Census place. Each state file may have multiple polygons and/or doughnut holes in an area for a city/CDP. A loca...

  17. Remote sensing monitoring study for water area change of Fuxian Lake in last 40 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Wang, Jinliang; Duan, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Fuxian Lake located in the middle of Yunnan Province is second deepest lake in china. The water level of Fuxian Lake descends and its water area reduces in recent years owing to the climate changing. Therefore, it is crucial for rational utilization of lake resources to study the change trend of Fuxian Lake's area. Landsat images from 1974 to 2014 were used to monitor Fuxian Lake's area change. Monitoring results show that there are four apparent features of Fuxian Lake's area: (1) Years in which Fuxian Lake's area are larger are concentrated in 2006 to 2009. (2) From 1974 to 1990, Fuxian Lake's area change has a trend of decrease. (3) From 1990 to 2005, Fuxian Lake's area change shows a rise trend on the whole. (4) From 2005 to 2014, there is an obvious decrease trend of Fuxian Lake's area change.

  18. Impacts of upwind wildfire emissions on CO, CO2, and PM2.5 concentrations in Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallia, D. V.; Lin, J. C.; Urbanski, S.; Ehleringer, J.; Nehrkorn, T.

    2015-01-01

    burning is known to contribute large quantities of CO2, CO, and PM2.5 to the atmosphere. Biomass burning not only affects the area in the vicinity of fire but may also impact the air quality far downwind from the fire. The 2007 and 2012 western U.S. wildfire seasons were characterized by significant wildfire activity across much of the Intermountain West and California. In this study, we determined the locations of wildfire-derived emissions and their aggregate impacts on Salt Lake City, a major urban center downwind of the fires. To determine the influences of biomass burning emissions, we initiated an ensemble of stochastic back trajectories at the Salt Lake City receptor within the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model, driven by wind fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The trajectories were combined with a new, high-resolution biomass burning emissions inventory—the Wildfire Emissions Inventory. Initial results showed that the WRF-STILT model was able to replicate many periods of enhanced wildfire activity observed in the measurements. Most of the contributions for the 2007 and 2012 wildfire seasons originated from fires located in Utah and central Idaho. The model results suggested that during intense episodes of upwind wildfires in 2007 and 2012, fires contributed as much as 250 ppb of CO during a 3 h period and 15 µg/m3 of PM2.5 averaged over 24 h at Salt Lake City. Wildfires had a much smaller impact on CO2 concentrations in Salt Lake City, with contributions rarely exceeding 2 ppm enhancements.

  19. 12 CFR 1282.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other... HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.13 Central Cities... purchase by each Enterprise of mortgages on housing located in central cities, rural areas, and...

  20. Area contingency plan western lake Superior Coastal zone. (COTP Duluth)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-15

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Western Lake Superior Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Duluth Coastal Zone.

  1. Area contingency plan Western Lake Erie. (COTP Toledo)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-31

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Western Lake Erie Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Toledo Coastal Zone.

  2. Area contingency plan: Eastern Great Lakes. (COTP Buffalo)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Great Lakes Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Buffalo Coastal Zone.

  3. BUCKS LAKE AND CHIPS CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorensen, Martin L.; Linne, J. Mitchell

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral-resource assessment of the Bucks Lake and Chips Creek Roadless Areas, California indicate several areas with mineral-resource potential. The presence or absence of these potentially auriferous deposits can best be determined by drilling through the relatively thin cover of volcanic rocks.

  4. Forest Technology Program, Lake City Community College: The Founding of a School, the Evolution of a College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Susan Robinson

    Since 1947, Lake City Community College (LCCC) has evolved from a forest ranger school to a junior college to a true community college. After World War II, Lake City, the "Forestry Capitol of the World," converted a local air base into the Columbia Forestry School (CFS). The first few years were characterized by extremely low enrollment and…

  5. Geothermal resource assessment of Canon City, Colorado Area

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard

    1982-01-01

    In 1979 a program was initiated to fully define the geothermal conditions of an area east of Canon City, bounded by the mountains on the north and west, the Arkansas River on the south and Colorado Highway 115 on the east. Within this area are a number of thermal springs and wells in two distinct groups. The eastern group consists of 5 thermal artesian wells located within one mile of Colorado Highway 115 from Penrose on the north to the Arkansas river on the south. The western group, located in and adjacent to Canon City, consists of one thermal spring on the south bank of the Arkansas River on the west side of Canon City, a thermal well in the northeast corner of Canon City, another well along the banks of Four Mile Creek east of Canon City and a well north of Canon City on Four Mile Creek. All the thermal waters in the Canon City Embayment, of which the study area is part of, are found in the study area. The thermal waters unlike the cold ground waters of the Canon City Embayment, are a calcium-bicarbonate type and range in temperature from 79 F (26 C) to a high of 108 F (42 C). The total combined surface discharge o fall the thermal water in the study area is in excess of 532 acre feet (A.F.) per year.

  6. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED FROM AN INSTRUMENTED VAN IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH AS PART OF URBAN 2000

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. BROWN; E.R. PARDYJAK

    2001-08-01

    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Salt Lake City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological National Security Program URBAN 2 Field Experiment conducted in October 2000 (Shinn et al., 2000 and Allwine et al., 2001a). The instrumented van was driven over three primary routes, two including downtown, residential, and ''rural'' areas and a third that went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2001b) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 45 to 60 minutes to complete. Based on four nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 2-5 C between the urban core and nearby ''rural'' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the URBAN2000 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Salt Lake City, and to test the urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes as part of the DOE CBNP program.

  7. Simulating Lake-Groundwater Interactions During Decadal Climate Cycles: Accounting For Variable Lake Area In The Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virdi, M. L.; Lee, T. M.

    2009-12-01

    The volume and extent of a lake within the topo-bathymetry of a watershed can change substantially during wetter and drier climate cycles, altering the interaction of the lake with the groundwater flow system. Lake Starr and other seepage lakes in the permeable sandhills of central Florida are vulnerable to climate changes as they rely exclusively on rainfall and groundwater for inflows in a setting where annual rainfall and recharge vary widely. The groundwater inflow typically arrives from a small catchment area bordering the lake. The sinkhole origin of these lakes combined with groundwater pumping from underlying aquifers further complicate groundwater interactions. Understanding the lake-groundwater interactions and their effects on lake stage over multi-decadal climate cycles is needed to manage groundwater pumping and public expectation about future lake levels. The interdependence between climate, recharge, changing lake area and the groundwater catchment pose unique challenges to simulating lake-groundwater interactions. During the 10-year study period, Lake Starr stage fluctuated more than 13 feet and the lake surface area receded and expanded from 96 acres to 148 acres over drier and wetter years that included hurricanes, two El Nino events and a La Nina event. The recently developed Unsaturated Zone Flow (UZF1) and Lake (LAK7) packages for MODFLOW-2005 were used to simulate the changing lake sizes and the extent of the groundwater catchment contributing flow to the lake. The lake area was discretized to occupy the largest surface area at the highest observed stage and then allowed to change size. Lake cells convert to land cells and receive infiltration as receding lake area exposes the underlying unsaturated zone to rainfall and recharge. The unique model conceptualization also made it possible to capture the dynamic size of the groundwater catchment contributing to lake inflows, as the surface area and volume of the lake changed during the study

  8. Molecular Tracers of Saturated and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Inputs into Central Park Lake, New York City

    PubMed Central

    YAN, BEIZHAN; ABRAJANO, TEOFILO A.; BOPP, RICHARD F.; CHAKY, DAMON A.; BENEDICT, LUCILLE A.; CHILLRUD, STEVEN N.

    2011-01-01

    Saturated hydrocarbons (SH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been quantified in a sediment core obtained from Central Park Lake, New York City. Radionuclides 210Pb and 137Cs were used to assign approximate dates to each individual section in the core. The dating profile based on 210Pb matches very well with the time constraints provided by 137Cs. Radionuclide-derived depositional dates are consistent with temporal information from the petroleum-indicator ratio U/R [the ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to saturated hydrocarbons in the aliphatic fraction] and the history of fuel use in the NYC area. Ratios of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrane (DMP) to 1,7-DMP plus 2,6-DMP [1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP], retene to retene plus chrysene [Ret/(Ret + Chy)], and fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene [Fl/(Fl + Py)] provide additional source discrimination throughout the core. Results show that the ratio U/R is sensitive to petroleum inputs and Ret/(Ret + Chy) is responsive to contributions from softwood combustion, whereas both Fl/(Fl + Py) and 1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP can be used to discriminate among wood, coal, and petroleum combustion sources. Combined use of these ratios suggests that in New York City, wood combustion dominated 100 years ago, with a shift to coal combustion occurring from the 1900s to the 1950s. Petroleum use began around the 1920s and has dominated since the 1940s. PMID:16201624

  9. COUGAR LAKES-MOUNT AIX WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, George C.; Van Noy, Ronald M.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Cougar Lakes-Mount Aix Wilderness study area in Washington was carried out to assess its mineral-resource potential. The study included reconnaissance geologic mapping and geochemical sampling, statistical analyses of samples, interpretation of an aeromagnetic survey, and an investigation of mining properties. These studies indicate that the area has a probable mineral-resource potential for silver, copper, manganese, mercury, tungsten, and zinc. This resource potential occurs in four small isolated areas in the southern half of the study area, and in a larger area which has a potential for porphyry copper, near the north boundary of the study area.

  10. Radiocarbon Ages of Postglacial Lake Clays near Michigan City, Indiana.

    PubMed

    Winkler, E M

    1962-08-17

    Two radiocarbon dates were obtained for postglacial clays. One sample, 6350 years old, was taken from a bed of compacted and carbonized wood just above a bed of pebbly clay. Overlying the woody bed is 5(1/2) feet of organic bluish clays and beach sands near the present lake level. The upper clay layer contained a younger wood sample, 5475 years old. The blue clays are of shallow swamp origin and were deposited during the late low-water stage of Lake Chippewa; the pebbly clay is assumed to be of Glenwood age (about 11,000 years) or older. PMID:17749630

  11. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site.

  12. 78 FR 2434 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Natural History Museum of Utah has... may contact the Natural History Museum of Utah. Repatriation of the human remains and...

  13. 78 FR 2430 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Natural History Museum of Utah has... may contact the Natural History Museum of Utah. Repatriation of the human remains and...

  14. Neotectonic fault structures in the Lake Thun area (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Stefano C.; Herwegh, Marco; Schlunegger, Fritz; Hübscher, Christian; Weiss, Benedikt J.; Schmelzbach, Cédric; Horstmeyer, Heinrich; Merz, Kaspar; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2016-04-01

    Strong historic earthquakes (i.e. intensities I0 ≥ V) in Switzerland are well documented by the earthquake catalogue of Switzerland ECOS-09 (e.g. Frutigen, 1729 AD, Mw=5.2, I0=VI). Many of these strong events can be recognized paleoseismically by large subaquatic, earthquake-triggered mass movements that occur frequently in Swiss Lakes. Some of these represent the occasional occurrence of even stronger earthquakes (i.e. Mw ˜6.5) in the Alpine region (Strasser et al., 2013), which are expected to produce noticeable surface ruptures. However, convincing evidence for Quaternary displacements with offset surface expressions have scarcely been found (e.g., Wiemer et al., 2009). Applying a multi-disciplinary approach, this study presents potential candidates for such faults in the larger Lake Thun area at the edge of the Alps. The overdeepened basin of Lake Thun is situated at the northern Alpine front, which extends orthogonally to the general strike direction of the Alpine nappe front. The northern shoreline is predominantly shaped by the front of the Subalpine Molasse, which is in strong contrast to the south western shore built by the structurally higher units of the Middle and Lower Penninic nappes. This pattern with obvious differences of both lake sides suggests a major fault along the lake axis and high tectonic activity during nappe emplacement, i.e. from Eocene times throughout the Late Miocene. The area is dominated today by a strike-slip stress regime with a slight normal faulting component (Kastrup et al., 2004). As part of a multi-disciplinary study, attempting to find potential neotectonically active fault structures in the Lake Thun area, a 2D ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey was conducted. The aim of the GPR survey was to link observations from a multichannel reflection seismic survey and a multibeam bathymetric survey carried out in Lake Thun with findings in a nearby gravel quarry revealing suspicious deformation features such as rotated gravel

  15. TIOGA LAKE, HALL NATURAL AREA, LOG CABIN-SADDLEBAG, AND HORSE MEADOWS ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seitz, J.F.; Federspiel, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the geology and mineral resources of the Tioga Lake, Hall Natural Area, Log Cabin-Saddlebag, and Horse Meadows Roadless Areas in California indicate that parts of the Log Cabin-Saddlebag and Hall Natural Roadless Areas have a substantiated resource potential for gold and (or) silver resources, and a probable potential for tungsten and molybdenum resources. Tioga Lake Roadless Area has little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral resources and the Horse Meadows Roadless Area has a probable potential for low-grade tungsten, gold, and (or) silver resources. The geologic terrane in the roadless areas precludes the occurrence of organic fuel resources.

  16. MONITORING METHODS DEVELOPMENT IN THE BEAUMONT-LAKE CHARLES AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1978, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated a study in the Beaumont, Texas-Lake Charles, Louisiana area (BLCA) as a preliminary step to develop, demonstrate and test methods for monitoring levels of chemicals, primarily in air and water, and to measure effects of ...

  17. 36 CFR 7.48 - Lake Mead National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... persons in the water or at the shoreline. (3) After December 31, 2012, no one may operate a personal.... (a) Aircraft, designated airstrips. (1)(i) The entire water surface of Lakes Mead and Mohave are... under power on those water surface areas designated as special anchorages, including fairways,...

  18. 78 FR 78507 - City of Belfast, Me.-Acquisition Exemption-Certain Assets of Belfast and Moosehead Lake Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board City of Belfast, Me.--Acquisition Exemption--Certain Assets of Belfast and Moosehead Lake Railroad Company The City of Belfast, Me. (the City), a noncarrier municipality, has filed a verified notice of exemption under...

  19. Index for hazard of Glacier Lake Outburst flood of Lake Merzbacher by satellite-based monitoring of lake area and ice cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zunyi; ShangGuan, Donghui; Zhang, Shiqiang; Ding, Yongjian; Liu, Shiyin

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies show that the area of a moraine-dammed lake can provide a good indicator of the significance of its outburst. For a glacier-dammed lake however, because its area and depth fluctuates with the melting of its ice dam, it is difficult to predict the outburst of the glacier-dammed lake by using its area alone.A characteristic of the surface of Lake Merzbacher is a large amount of floating ice therefore, a method is proposed in this article to extract the area of floating ice on the lake and the area of ice free water in the lake by using Environment and Disaster Monitoring Small Satellite images respectively. Furthermore, based on the area of floating ice extracted through the image information of Lake Merzbacher in 2009 and 2010, we determined the relationship between the ice area and the outburst of the lake, then formulated the Index for hazard of Glacier Lake Outburst Flood (IGLOF) of Lake Merzbacher, which cannot only predict the flood outburst, but also determine the specific outburst period after the lake drainage had occurred. This can be shown in a recalculation of the lake drainages in the years 2009 and 2010. Research results indicate that when IGLOF is less than 0.5 and the lake area is larger than 3 km2, the outburst process is in early-warning period and GLOF will occur in the next 5-8 days. Also, the successful outburst prediction of Lake Merzbacher in 2011 showed that the index described in this paper provides a quick methodology for forecasting and warning against Lake Merzbacher outburst floods. However,as our research was based on a short observation period (2009-2011) and also cannot be supplemented by other images, it will still be needed to be checked and validated by continuous observation and improvement in future.

  20. 33 CFR 334.520 - Lake George, Fla.; naval bombing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake George, Fla.; naval bombing... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.520 Lake George, Fla.; naval bombing area. (a) The danger zone. An area in the eastern part of Lake George described as...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area: (1) In the water area of Copper Canyon, Lake...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area: (1) In the water area of Copper Canyon, Lake...

  3. 33 CFR 334.520 - Lake George, Fla.; naval bombing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake George, Fla.; naval bombing... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.520 Lake George, Fla.; naval bombing area. (a) The danger zone. An area in the eastern part of Lake George described as...

  4. 33 CFR 334.520 - Lake George, Fla.; naval bombing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake George, Fla.; naval bombing... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.520 Lake George, Fla.; naval bombing area. (a) The danger zone. An area in the eastern part of Lake George described as...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area: (1) In the water area of Copper Canyon, Lake...

  6. 33 CFR 334.520 - Lake George, Fla.; naval bombing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake George, Fla.; naval bombing... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.520 Lake George, Fla.; naval bombing area. (a) The danger zone. An area in the eastern part of Lake George described as...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area: (1) In the water area of Copper Canyon, Lake...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area: (1) In the water area of Copper Canyon, Lake...

  9. 33 CFR 334.520 - Lake George, Fla.; naval bombing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake George, Fla.; naval bombing... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.520 Lake George, Fla.; naval bombing area. (a) The danger zone. An area in the eastern part of Lake George described as...

  10. 75 FR 5115 - Temporary Concession Contract for Lake Mead National Recreation Area, AZ/NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... concession contract for Lake Mead National Recreation Area. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 36 CFR 51.24, public notice... National Park Service Temporary Concession Contract for Lake Mead National Recreation Area, AZ/NV AGENCY... the conduct of certain visitor services within Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Arizona and...

  11. Molecular tracers of saturated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon inputs into Central Park Lake, New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Beizhan Yan; Teofilo A. Abrajano; Richard F. Bopp; Damon A. Chaky; Lucille A. Benedict; Steven N. Chillrud

    2005-09-15

    Saturated hydrocarbons (SH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been quantified in a sediment core obtained from Central Park Lake, New York City. Radionuclides {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs were used to assign approximate dates to each individual section in the core. The dating profile based on {sup 210}Pb matches very well with the time constraints provided by {sup 137}Cs. Radionuclide-derived depositional dates are consistent with temporal information from the petroleum-indicator ratio U/R (the ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to saturated hydrocarbons in the aliphatic fraction) and the history of fuel use in the NYC area. Ratios of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrane (DMP) to 1,7-DMP plus 2,6-DMP (1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP), retene to retene plus chrysene (Ret/(Ret + Chy)), and fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene (Fl/(Fl + Py))) provide additional source discrimination throughout the core. Results show that the ratio U/R is sensitive to petroleum inputs and Ret/(Ret + Chy) is responsive to contributions from softwood combustion, whereas both Fl/(Fl + Py) and 1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP can be used to discriminate among wood, coal, and petroleum combustion sources. Combined use of these ratios suggests that in New York City, wood combustion dominated 100 years ago, with a shift to coal combustion occurring from the 1900s to the 1950s. Petroleum use began around the 1920s and has dominated since the 1940s. 33 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Numerical Simulation of the Life Cycle of a Persistent Wintertime Inversion over Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Linbo; Pu, Zhaoxia; Wang, Shigong

    2013-08-01

    An episode of persistent wintertime inversion over Salt Lake City, Utah and its vicinity from 1200 UTC 30 November to 0000 UTC 7 December 2010 is simulated using an advanced research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The numerical simulations agree well with observed soundings in temperature, wind speed, and wind direction in the atmospheric boundary layer and above, although there are some differences near the surface due to the influence of complex terrain in the area. The characteristics of large-scale environmental conditions and their interactions with local-scale processes are analyzed to understand the factors that influence the onset and evolution of persistent inversions. It is found that the inversion formed mainly because of the interaction between the heating effect from a high-pressure ridge in the mid-troposphere and a near-surface cold pool due to the effects of radiation. During the following six to seven days, the high-pressure ridge was maintained and vertical motion very weak, allowing a persistent inversion to become established. Finally, the cold effect from a low-pressure trough in the mid-troposphere, combined with mixing due to vertical motion, led to extreme weakening of the persistent inversion.

  13. Glacial lakes in the Indian Himalayas--from an area-wide glacial lake inventory to on-site and modeling based risk assessment of critical glacial lakes.

    PubMed

    Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus

    2013-12-01

    Glacial lake hazards and glacial lake distributions are investigated in many glaciated regions of the world, but comparably little attention has been given to these topics in the Indian Himalayas. In this study we present a first area-wide glacial lake inventory, including a qualitative classification at 251 glacial lakes >0.01 km(2). Lakes were detected in the five states spanning the Indian Himalayas, and lake distribution pattern and lake characteristics were found to differ significantly between regions. Three glacial lakes, from different geographic and climatic regions within the Indian Himalayas were then selected for a detailed risk assessment. Lake outburst probability, potential outburst magnitudes and associated damage were evaluated on the basis of high-resolution satellite imagery, field assessments and through the use of a dynamic model. The glacial lakes analyzed in the states of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh were found to present moderate risks to downstream villages, whereas the lake in Sikkim severely threatens downstream locations. At the study site in Sikkim, a dam breach could trigger drainage of ca. 16×10(6)m(3) water and generate maximum lake discharge of nearly 7000 m(3) s(-). The identification of critical glacial lakes in the Indian Himalayas and the detailed risk assessments at three specific sites allow prioritizing further investigations and help in the definition of risk reduction actions. PMID:23218457

  14. MULTISCALE MODELING OF AIR FLOW IN SALT LAKE CITY AND THE SURROUNDING REGION

    SciTech Connect

    M. BROWN; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    A general overview is given of a modeling effort to simulate the fate and transport of a tracer within the downtown core of Salt Lake City and beyond into the Salt Lake Basin. The problem crosses three significant scales where different physics are predominant: atmospheric mesoscale, city scale, and building scale. Three different computational fluid dynamics models were used, each with strengths at particular spatial and temporal scales. We show preliminary results and discuss what we believe to be the relevant phenomenon one must model as one crosses from atmospheric scale to engineering scale flow problems. We also describe our model validation efforts, including wind-tunnel and tow-tank experiments and a recently completed urban field experiment.

  15. Urbanization effects on stream habitat characteristics in Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; and Salt Lake City, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, T.M.; Giddings, E.M.P.; Zappia, H.; Coles, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Relations between stream habitat and urban land-use intensity were examined in 90 stream reaches located in or near the metropolitan areas of Salt Lake City, Utah (SLC); Birmingham, Alabama (BIR); and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urban intensity was based on a multi-metric index (urban intensity index or UII) that included measures of land cover, socioeconomic organization, and urban infrastructure. Twenty-eight physical variables describing channel morphology, hydraulic properties, and streambed conditions were examined. None of the habitat variables was significantly correlated with urbanization intensity in all three study areas. Urbanization effects on stream habitat were less apparent for streams in SLC and BIR, owing to the strong influence of basin slope (SLC) and drought conditions (BIR) on local flow regimes. Streamflow in the BOS study area was not unduly influenced by similar conditions of climate and physiography, and habitat conditions in these streams were more responsive to urbanization. Urbanization in BOS contributed to higher discharge, channel deepening, and increased loading of fine-grained particles to stream channels. The modifying influence of basin slope and climate on hydrology of streams in SLC and BIR limited our ability to effectively compare habitat responses among different urban settings and identify common responses that might be of interest to restoration or water management programs. Successful application of land-use models such as the UII to compare urbanization effects on stream habitat in different environmental settings must account for inherent differences in natural and anthropogenic factors affecting stream hydrology and geomorphology. The challenge to future management of urban development is to further quantify these differences by building upon existing models, and ultimately develop a broader understanding of urbanization effects on aquatic ecosystems. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  16. [Distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus in the sediments and estimation of the nutrients fluxes in Longjinghu Lake, Chongqing City, during the initial impoundment period].

    PubMed

    Pan, Yan-An; Lei, Pei; Zhang, Hong; Shan, Bao-Qing; Li, Jie

    2014-05-01

    Sediment cores from a newly formed urban lake (Longjinghu Lake in China's Chongqing City) were selected to study the vertical distribution characteristics of both nitrogen and phosphorus from the overlying water to porewater, and then fluxes of ammonia (NH4+ -N) and orthophosphate (PO(3-)(4)-P) from different areas of the lake were calculated using a one-dimensional transport-reaction model based on the Fick's First Law. The results showed that the mean ammonia concentrations in porewater of surface layers (0-5 cm) was 6. 13 mg-L-1 +/-3.07 mg.L-1 , higher by a factor of 10 compared with that in the overlying water. While orthophosphate contents tended to increase downwards, reaching a peak in surface sediment porewater, and then decreased in downcore, with a mean concentration of 2. 01 mg.L-1 +/- 1.05 mg L-1. Based on the porewater diffusion model, ammonia were released from sediments to overlying water, which indicated potential internal nutrient releasing risk. Although the flux of ammonia in the "initial lake area" was higher than that in the "newly submerged area", the annual load contribution from the "newly submerged area" was 85% (3.95 t.a-1). Similar to ammonia, orthophosphate was also released from sediments to overlying water in the "initial lake area", with the highest fluxes in the former Longjinghu Lake and Longjingou Lake Reservoir, reaching 7. 89 mg. ( m2 d)-1 and 6. 13 mg ( m2 .d)-1, respectively. However, in a portion of the "newly submerged area", orthophosphate in the overlying water was transported to the sediments, resulting in negative fluxes ranging from - 1.93 to -2.78 mg (m2 d) -1. The annual load of orthophosphate from the whole sediments was 0. 357 t.a-1, with 72% contributed by the "newly submerged area". PMID:25055659

  17. 75 FR 22333 - Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit a request.... This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Michigan due to high speed power boat... associated with high speed power boat racing. DATES: Comments and related material must be received by...

  18. Hot Dry Rock resources of the Clear Lake area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.; Potter, R.M.; Peake, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Hot Dry Rock resources of the Clear Lake area of northern California are hot, large and areally uniform. The geological situation is special, probably overlying a slabless window caused by interaction between tectonic plates. Consequent magmatic processes have created a high-grade resource, in which the 300{degree}C isotherm is continuous, subhorizontal, and available at the shallow depth of 2.4 to 4.7 km over an area of 800 km{sup 2}. The region is very favorable for HDR development.

  19. Playing the City: Public Participation in a Contested Suburban Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauwaert, Maaike

    2009-01-01

    This article presents one case study of public participation in urban planning: the "Face Your World" project that took place in 2005 in the suburban area of Slotervaart, close to the Dutch city of Amsterdam. "Face Your World" was a participation project that aimed at engaging both younger and immigrant inhabitants of Slotervaart in the urban…

  20. Crosstown Connections: Academic Plan for the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System, St. Paul.

    This report presents Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System's (MnSCU's) academic plan for the Twin Cities metropolitan area. Included are the Metro Alliance's vision, mission, and goals for its eleven institutions. Goal one is to establish program and service alignment among the institutions. Goal two is to increase enrollment by 10…

  1. 78 FR 29696 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Lake County, Illinois, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... Lake County, Illinois, and Incorporated Areas AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Lake County, Illinois, and... rulemaking at 76 FR 39063, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources...

  2. Diversity and Composition of Bacterial Community in Soils and Lake Sediments from an Arctic Lake Area

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Neng Fei; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Yong; Dong, Long Long; Guo, Yu Dong; Ma, Yong Xing; Zang, Jia Ye

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities within soils and lake sediments from an Arctic lake area (London Island, Svalbard). A total of 2,987 operational taxonomic units were identified by high-throughput sequencing, targeting bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The samples from four sites (three samples in each site) were significantly different in geochemical properties and bacterial community composition. Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were abundant phyla in the nine soil samples, whereas Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant phyla in the three sediment samples. Furthermore, Actinobacteria, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Elusimicrobia, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria significantly varied in their abundance among the four sampling sites. Additionally, members of the dominant genera, such as Clostridium, Luteolibacter, Methylibium, Rhodococcus, and Rhodoplanes, were significantly different in their abundance among the four sampling sites. Besides, distance-based redundancy analysis revealed that pH (p < 0.001), water content (p < 0.01), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N, p < 0.01), silicate silicon (SiO42--Si, p < 0.01), nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N, p < 0.05), organic carbon (p < 0.05), and organic nitrogen (p < 0.05) were the most significant factors that correlated with the bacterial community composition. The results suggest soils and sediments from a lake area in the Arctic harbor a high diversity of bacterial communities, which are influenced by many geochemical factors of Arctic environments. PMID:27516761

  3. Diversity and Composition of Bacterial Community in Soils and Lake Sediments from an Arctic Lake Area.

    PubMed

    Wang, Neng Fei; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Yong; Dong, Long Long; Guo, Yu Dong; Ma, Yong Xing; Zang, Jia Ye

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities within soils and lake sediments from an Arctic lake area (London Island, Svalbard). A total of 2,987 operational taxonomic units were identified by high-throughput sequencing, targeting bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The samples from four sites (three samples in each site) were significantly different in geochemical properties and bacterial community composition. Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were abundant phyla in the nine soil samples, whereas Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant phyla in the three sediment samples. Furthermore, Actinobacteria, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Elusimicrobia, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria significantly varied in their abundance among the four sampling sites. Additionally, members of the dominant genera, such as Clostridium, Luteolibacter, Methylibium, Rhodococcus, and Rhodoplanes, were significantly different in their abundance among the four sampling sites. Besides, distance-based redundancy analysis revealed that pH (p < 0.001), water content (p < 0.01), ammonium nitrogen ([Formula: see text]-N, p < 0.01), silicate silicon ([Formula: see text]-Si, p < 0.01), nitrite nitrogen ([Formula: see text]-N, p < 0.05), organic carbon (p < 0.05), and organic nitrogen (p < 0.05) were the most significant factors that correlated with the bacterial community composition. The results suggest soils and sediments from a lake area in the Arctic harbor a high diversity of bacterial communities, which are influenced by many geochemical factors of Arctic environments. PMID:27516761

  4. Does pH affect fish species richness when lake area is considered?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rago, P.J.; Wiener, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    Numerous surveys have shown that fish species richness (number of species) is positively correlated with lake pH. However, species richness of fish communities is also correlated with lake size, and low-pH lakes are often small. Thus, conclusions drawn from examination of fish community structure relative to spatial (among- lake) variation in pH have been limited by uncertainties regarding the confounded effects of lake area. The authors used two statistical methods, analysis of covariance and a nonparametric blocked comparison test, to remove effects of lake area and compare fish species richness in low-pH and high-pH lakes. Data from six previous surveys of water chemistry and fish communities in lakes of Ontario and northern Wisconsin were examined. Lakes with low pH ( less than or equal to 6.0) contained significantly fewer fish species than lakes with high pH (> 6.0) when the effect of lake area was considered. A simple probabilistic model showed that the ability to detect differences in species richness is low when lake areas and the pool of potential colonizing species are small. The authors recommend the blocked comparison test for separating the effects of lake area and pH on species richness.

  5. Algal and Water-Quality Data for Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Putnam, Larry D.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of algae and water-quality sampling on Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake during May and September 2007. The overall purpose of the study was to determine the algal community composition of Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake in relation to organisms that are known producers of unwanted tastes and odors in drinking-water supplies. Algal assemblage structure (phytoplankton and periphyton) was examined at 16 sites on Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake during May and September 2007, and actinomycetes bacteria were sampled at the Rapid City water treatment plant intake in May 2007, to determine if taste-and-odor producing organisms were present. During the May 2007 sampling, 3 Rapid Creek sites and 4 Canyon Lake sites were quantitatively sampled for phytoplankton in the water column, 7 Rapid Creek sites were quantitatively sampled for attached periphyton, and 4 lake and retention pond sites were qualitatively sampled for periphyton. Five Rapid Creek sites were sampled for geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, two common taste-and-odor causing compounds known to affect water supplies. During the September 2007 sampling, 4 Rapid Creek sites were quantitatively sampled for attached periphyton, and 3 Canyon Lake sites were qualitatively sampled for periphyton. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance were measured during each sampling event. Methods of collection and sample analysis are presented for the various types of biological and chemical constituent samples. Diatoms comprised 91-100 percent of the total algal biovolume in periphyton samples collected during May and September. Cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) were detected in 7 of the 11 quantitative periphyton samples and ranged from 0.01 to 2.0 percent of the total biovolume. Cyanobacteria were present in 3 of the 7 phytoplankton samples collected in May, but the relative biovolumes were small (0.01-0.2 percent). Six of seven qualitative samples collected from Canyon Lake

  6. U-Pb isochron age and Pb isotope systematics of the Golden Fleece vein - implications for the relationship of mineralization to the Lake City caldera, western San Juan Mountains, Colorado.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hon, K.; Ludwig, K. R.; Simmons, K.R.; Slack, J.F.; Grauch, R.I.

    1985-01-01

    A U/Pb isochron age of 27.5 + or - 0.5 m.y. is determined for the Golden Fleece vein, an age which is identical with the age of the quartz latite lavas that the vein cuts. Within the Lake City area, only the Golden Fleece vein contains pitchblende and Au-Ag tellurides and has Pb isotope ratios that together define it as unique within the area. The 27.5 m.y. age relates this vein to the waning stages of the Uncompahgre caldera (27-29) rather than to the Lake City caldera (23.1 m.y.). -G.J.N.

  7. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... south 300 feet to the high waterline. (4) El Dorado County Beach. The waters of Lake Tahoe shoreward of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted... § 162.210 Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. (a) The areas—(1) Baldwin Beach,...

  8. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... south 300 feet to the high waterline. (4) El Dorado County Beach. The waters of Lake Tahoe shoreward of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted... § 162.210 Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. (a) The areas—(1) Baldwin Beach,...

  9. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... south 300 feet to the high waterline. (4) El Dorado County Beach. The waters of Lake Tahoe shoreward of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted... § 162.210 Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. (a) The areas—(1) Baldwin Beach,...

  10. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... south 300 feet to the high waterline. (4) El Dorado County Beach. The waters of Lake Tahoe shoreward of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted... § 162.210 Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. (a) The areas—(1) Baldwin Beach,...

  11. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... south 300 feet to the high waterline. (4) El Dorado County Beach. The waters of Lake Tahoe shoreward of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted... § 162.210 Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. (a) The areas—(1) Baldwin Beach,...

  12. [Discussion on water conservancy projects and schistosomiasis control in Poyang Lake area].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dao-Nan

    2013-02-01

    According to the schistosomiasis endemic situation in the Poyang Lake area, this paper analyzes the relationship between the water conservancy projects and schistosomiasis control, and reviews and discusses the effects of the Water Level Control Project of Poyang Lake, the Lake Dike Slope Hardening Project, and the Lifting Delta and Descending Beach Project on Oncomelania snail control. PMID:23687826

  13. Western Stump Lake, a major canvasback staging area in eastern North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrud, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    Large numbers of waterfowl, especially canvasback (Aythya valisineria), used Western Stump Lake as a staging area during most of October 1985. Selection of the lake as a conditioning site by this species likely is caused by extensive, shallow-water beds of sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and lack of human disturbance. A brief limnological and historical account of the lake is provided.

  14. Connections Between Cold Air Pools and Mountain Valley Fog Events in Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chachere, Catherine N.; Pu, Zhaoxia

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the connection between cold air pools and fog events in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. Statistical analyses are conducted using soundings and reported automated surface observing system data from Salt Lake International Airport for the last eighteen cold seasons (October to March, during 1997-2015). A Chi-square test of independence is performed on identified cold air pool, and fog events to determine whether the two events are correlated. Conditional probabilities are then computed to investigate the occurrence of fog, given the presence of a cold pool. These probabilities are compared against that of random fog generation in the mid-winter. It is concluded that the dependence between cold air pools and fog events is statistically significant. The presence of a cold pool makes the formation of fog more likely than random generation.

  15. Groundwater-Lake Interaction in the Dead Sea Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiro, Y.; Weinstein, Y.; Starinsky, A.; Yechieli, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Dead Sea hypersaline water system is unique in terms of its unusual geochemical composition, rapid lake level changes and water composition of the brines discharging along its shoreline. The Dead Sea can be used as a natural lab for studying groundwater-seawater interaction and saline water hydrological circulation along the aquifer-sea boundary. It provides an opportunity to follow the geochemical processes along a flow path from the lake into the aquifer and back into the lake. The lake level has been dropping since the 1960's due to human interference in its water budget, reaching a rate of 1 m/yr in recent years. Saline water circulation in coastal aquifers may be a major process that governs trace element mass balances in coastal areas. This study uses radium isotopes in order to quantify the lake water circulation in the Dead Sea aquifer. There are four naturally-occurring radium isotopes, with half-lives ranging from 3.7 days to 1600 years which are chain products of uranium and thorium isotopes. Radium isotopes are usually enriched in saline groundwater and therefore are good candidates for estimating seawater or hypersaline lake water circulation in the aquifer. Compared to most natural water bodies, the Dead Sea is extremely enriched in radium and barium, where both 226Ra and 228Ra activities and Ba concentration (145, 1-2 dpm/L and 5 mg/L, respectively) are 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than in ocean water, whereas the salinity of the Dead Sea is only 10 times higher. Circulated Dead Sea water in the aquifer contains decreased concentrations of 226Ra (60 dpm/L), Ba (1.5 mg/L), Sr (300 relative to 340 mg/L in the Dead Sea) and Sulfate (250 relative to 392 mg/L). We suggest that the low 226Ra and Ba concentrations are due to precipitation of barite and celestine from the supersaturated Dead Sea water on entering the aquifer. 228Ra and the shorter-lived 224Ra and 223Ra, which have much lower activities in the Dead Sea (up to 1.8, 3 and 0.8 dpm

  16. Chemistry of lakes in designated wilderness areas in the western United States.

    PubMed

    Eilers, J M; Brakke, D F; Landers, D H; Overton, W S

    1989-04-01

    A synoptic survey of 719 lakes representing an estimated 10,393 lakes in mountainous areas of the western United States was conducted in autumn 1985. Nearly two-thirds of the study lakes were located in wilderness areas or national parks and were sampled by ground access. The results of a comparability study of 45 wilderness lakes accessed by helicopter and ground crews indicated that the data were generally indistinguishable, making it possible to use data from lakes sampled by ground crews without modification. Wilderness lakes had lower acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), base cations, sulfate, and dissolved organic carbon than nonwilderness lakes throughout the West. The highest estimated number (849) and percentage (42.1) of low ANC (≤50 μeq L(-1)) wilderness lakes were located in California; the lowest number (66) was located in the Southern Rockies. The Sierra Nevada contained an estimated 808 low ANC lakes, representing the largest subpopulation of low ANC lakes associated with an individual mountain range in the West. Wilderness lakes in selected geographic areas of the Rocky Mountains generally contained higher concentrations of major ions than lakes in the far West and the concentrations generally increased from the Northern to the Southern Rockies. Comparison of wilderness lakes in the West with lakes in the Adirondack Park, New York, and the Boundary Waters Canoe Area/Voyagers National Park in Northeastern Minnesota showed that western lakes are highly sensitive resources that currently exhibit little evidence of anthropogenic acidification. Although wilderness lakes do not exhibit symptoms of chronic acidification, short-term depression of pH and ANC from snowmelt and thunderstorms occur and episodic acidification influenced by anthropogenic sources cannot be discounted on the basis of this survey. PMID:24249054

  17. Role of the Lakes in Groundwater Recharge and Discharge in the Young Glacial Area, Northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Jaworska-Szulc, Beata

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this research was to delineate characteristic hydrogeological lake types in the Young Glacial Area (YGA). The YGA is in the central and east part of the Kashubian Lake District (KLD) in Northern Poland, an area covered by deposits of Quaternary glaciation. All the bigger lakes were investigated in the area of about 1500 km(2) (39 lakes). The role of lakes in groundwater recharge and discharge was determined from total dissolved solids (TDS) in lake waters and also from groundwater flow simulation. The general trend was that gaining lakes, as determined by flow modeling, had higher values of TDS than losing lakes. In addition to typical gaining lakes (with TDS > 250 mg/l), there were losing lakes perched on glacial till deposits with very low TDS (<100 mg/l). Two groups of losing lakes were delineated: ones with very low TDS and another group with slightly higher TDS (due to local contact with groundwater). Flow-through lakes with TDS of 170-200 mg/l were also delineated. PMID:26619113

  18. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. 81.13 Section 81.13 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE...

  19. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. 81.13 Section 81.13 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION (FANNIE MAE)...

  20. LOW-LEVEL EMERGING CONTAMINANTS IN LAKE HAVASU, ARIZONA AND CALIFORNIA AND THEIR ACCESS TO LAKE HAVASU CITY'S DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In preparation of a wastewater effluent re-charge and recovery program, involving alluvial fan sediments, the City of Lake Havasu initiated a survey to evaluate possible waterborne sources of emerging contaminants in the water/wastewater distribution cycle. This distribution cyc...

  1. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  2. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  3. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  4. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  5. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  6. Ecosystem service value assessment of coastal area in Lianyungang City using LANDSAT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qixiang; Ma, Anqing; Chen, Shang; Tang, Xuexi

    2006-12-01

    This study aims at discovering changes of ecosystem service value based on spatial-temporal variety of land use features on the coastal area in Lianyungang City from 1978 to 2000. Three LANDSAT images (1978 MSS, 1987 TM and 2000 ETM) were used to estimate changes in the size of six land-use categories (forest, cropland, urban, wetland, lakes/rivers and coastal water). Coefficients which integrated from Costanza et al.'s (1997) ecosystem services valuation model and Xie Gaodi et al.'s (2003) "ecosystem services value unit area of Chinese terrestrial ecosystems" were used to estimate changes in ecosystem services delivered by each land categories, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the affecting factors of ecosystem service value. The total annual ecosystem service values in coastal area of Lianyungang City decreased from RMB 8.23×10^9 in 1978 to RMB 7.53×10^9 in 1987, however it increased from RMB 7.53×10^9 in 1987 to RMB 10.73×10^9 in 2000. The decline of ecosystem service value from 1978 to 1987 is largely attributable to 53.49% loss of forest at the same period, while the increase of service value is contributed by 147.70% increase of wetland from 1987 to 2000. Change of wetland and forest has the major contribution to the change of total ecosystem service value of Liangyungang city. Waste treatment, water supply and climate regulation are the dominant ecosystem services of this area. Forest and wetland should be strictly conserved in further urban development.

  7. Annual ground-water use in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1970-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horn, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Annual ground-water use in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area from 1970-79 is presented by aquifer and type of use. The data show that most ground water is withdrawn from wells in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer and that major uses of the water are for self-supplied industry and public supplies. Annual ground-water-use data are presented by county for each of the five major aquifers; Prairie du Chien-Jordan, Mount Simon-Hinckley, Ironton-Galesville, St. Peter, and drift. The data also are presented by county for each major use type, including public supply, self-supplied industry, commercial air-conditioning, irrigation, lake-level maintenance, and dewatering. The data were collected initially by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and were supplemented by data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  8. Delayed Response of Lake Area Change to Climate Change in Siling Co Lake, Tibetan Plateau, from 2003 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Yi, Guihua; Zhang, Tingbin

    2015-11-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is a key area for research on global environmental changes. During the past 50 years, the climate in the Siling Co lake area has become continuously warmer and wetter, which may have further caused the increase in Siling Co lake area. Based on the Siling Co lake area (2003 to 2013) and climate data acquired from the Xainza and Baingoin meteorological stations (covering 1966 to 2013), we analyzed the delayed responses of lake area changes to climate changes through grey relational analysis. The following results were obtained: (1) The Siling Co lake area exhibited a rapid expansion trend from 2003 to 2013. The lake area increased to 2318 km², with a growth ratio of 14.6% and an annual growth rate of 26.84 km²·year(-1); (2) The rate of air temperature increase was different in the different seasons. The rate in the cold season was about 0.41 °C per ten years and 0.32 °C in hot season. Precipitation evidently increased, with a change rate of 17.70 mm per ten years in the hot season and a slight increase with a change rate of 2.36 mm per ten years in the cold season. Pan evaporation exhibited evidently decreasing trends in both the hot and cold seasons, with rates of -33.35 and -14.84 mm per ten years, respectively; (3) An evident delayed response of lake area change to climate change is observed, with a delay time of approximately one to two years. PMID:26528996

  9. Delayed Response of Lake Area Change to Climate Change in Siling Co Lake, Tibetan Plateau, from 2003 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Guihua; Zhang, Tingbin

    2015-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is a key area for research on global environmental changes. During the past 50 years, the climate in the Siling Co lake area has become continuously warmer and wetter, which may have further caused the increase in Siling Co lake area. Based on the Siling Co lake area (2003 to 2013) and climate data acquired from the Xainza and Baingoin meteorological stations (covering 1966 to 2013), we analyzed the delayed responses of lake area changes to climate changes through grey relational analysis. The following results were obtained: (1) The Siling Co lake area exhibited a rapid expansion trend from 2003 to 2013. The lake area increased to 2318 km2, with a growth ratio of 14.6% and an annual growth rate of 26.84 km2·year−1; (2) The rate of air temperature increase was different in the different seasons. The rate in the cold season was about 0.41 °C per ten years and 0.32 °C in hot season. Precipitation evidently increased, with a change rate of 17.70 mm per ten years in the hot season and a slight increase with a change rate of 2.36 mm per ten years in the cold season. Pan evaporation exhibited evidently decreasing trends in both the hot and cold seasons, with rates of −33.35 and −14.84 mm per ten years, respectively; (3) An evident delayed response of lake area change to climate change is observed, with a delay time of approximately one to two years. PMID:26528996

  10. Schistosomiasis Breeding Environment Situation Analysis in Dongting Lake Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuanrong; Jia, Yuanyuan; Ma, Lingling; Liu, Zhaoyan; Qian, Yonggang

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring environmental characteristics, such as vegetation, soil moisture et al., of Oncomelania hupensis (O. hupensis)’ spatial/temporal distribution is of vital importance to the schistosomiasis prevention and control. In this study, the relationship between environmental factors derived from remotely sensed data and the density of O. hupensis was analyzed by a multiple linear regression model. Secondly, spatial analysis of the regression residual was investigated by the semi-variogram method. Thirdly, spatial analysis of the regression residual and the multiple linear regression model were both employed to estimate the spatial variation of O. hupensis density. Finally, the approach was used to monitor and predict the spatial and temporal variations of oncomelania of Dongting Lake region, China. And the areas of potential O. hupensis habitats were predicted and the influence of Three Gorges Dam (TGB)project on the density of O. hupensis was analyzed.

  11. Twentieth century atmospheric metal fluxes into Central Park Lake, New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Chillrud, S.N.; Simpson, H.J.; Bopp, R.F.

    1999-03-01

    It is generally assumed that declining atmospheric lead concentrations in urban centers during the 1970s and 1980s were due almost entirely to the progressive introduction of unleaded gasoline. However, most environmental data are from monitoring programs that began only two to three decades ago, which limits their usefulness. Here, trace metal and radionuclide data from sediment cores in Central Park Lake provide a record of atmospheric pollutant deposition in New York City through the 20th century, which suggests that leaded gasoline combustion was not the dominant source of atmospheric lead for NYC. Lead deposition rates, normalized to known Pb-210 atmospheric influxes, were extremely high, reaching maximum values from the late 1930s to early 1960s, decades before maximum emissions from combustion of leaded gasoline. Temporal trends of lead, zinc, and tin deposition derived from the lake sediments closely resemble the history of solid waste incineration in New York City. Furthermore, widespread use of solid waste incinerators in the United States and Europe over the last century suggests that solid waste incineration may have provided the dominant source of atmospheric lead and several other metals to many urban centers.

  12. Twentieth Century Atmospheric Metal Fluxes into Central Park Lake, New York City

    PubMed Central

    CHILLRUD, STEVEN N.; BOPP, RICHARD F.; SIMPSON, H. JAMES; ROSS, JAMES M.; SHUSTER, EDWARD L.; CHAKY, DAMON A.; WALSH, DAN C.; CHOY, CRISTINE CHIN; TOLLEY, LAEL-RUTH; YARME, ALLISON

    2011-01-01

    It is generally assumed that declining atmospheric lead concentrations in urban centers during the 1970s and 1980s were due almost entirely to the progressive introduction of unleaded gasoline. However, most environmental data are from monitoring programs that began only two to three decades ago, which limits their usefulness. Here, trace metal and radionuclide data from sediment cores in Central Park Lake provide a record of atmospheric pollutant deposition in New York City through the 20th century, which suggests that leaded gasoline combustion was not the dominant source of atmospheric lead for NYC. Lead deposition rates, normalized to known Pb-210 atmospheric influxes, were extremely high, reaching maximum values (>70 μg cm−2 yr−1) from the late 1930s to early 1960s, decades before maximum emissions from combustion of leaded gasoline. Temporal trends of lead, zinc, and tin deposition derived from the lake sediments closely resemble the history of solid waste incineration in New York City. Furthermore, widespread use of solid waste incinerators in the United States and Europe over the last century suggests that solid waste incineration may have provided the dominant source of atmospheric lead and several other metals to many urban centers. PMID:21850150

  13. Seismic characterization of the Wasatch fault system beneath Salt Lake City using a land streamer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, B.; Liberty, L. M.; Gribler, G.

    2015-12-01

    We characterize the active Wasatch fault system beneath downtown Salt Lake City by measuring p- and s-wave velocities and seismic reflection profiling. Our focus was on the segment boundary between the Warm Springs and East Bench faults. We collected 14.5 km along 9 west-east profiles in 3 field days using a 60 m aperture seismic land streamer and 200 kg weight drop system. From a p-wave refraction analysis, we measure velocities from 230-3900 m/s for the upper 20-25 meters. Shear wave velocities for the upper 30 m, derived from a multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) approach, show velocities that range from 100-1800 m/s. P-wave reflection images from the upper 100 m depth indicate offset and truncated (mostly) west-dipping strata (Bonneville Lake deposits?) that suggest active faults extend beneath the downtown urban corridor. We identify saturated sediments on the lower elevation (western) portions of the profiles and shallow high velocity (dry) strata to the east of the mapped faults. We observe slow p-wave velocities near identified faults that may represent the fault's colluvial wedge. These velocity results are best highlighted with Vp/Vs ratios. Analyzing shear wave velocities by NEHRP class, we estimate soft soil (NEHRP D) limited less than 1 m depth along most profiles, and stiff soil (NEHRP C) to up to 25 m depth in some locations. However near steep topographic slopes (footwall deposits), we identify NEHRP Class D stiff soil velocities to less than 2 m depth before transition to NEHRP Class C soft rock. Depth to hard rock (velocities >760 m/s) are as shallow as 20 m below the land surface on some steep slopes beneath north Salt Lake City and greater than our imaging depths along the western portions of our profiles. Our findings suggest large variations in seismic velocities beneath the Salt Lake City corridor and that multiple fault strands related to the Warm Springs fault segment extend beneath downtown.

  14. 76 FR 47613 - Board Meeting: September 13-14, 2011-Salt Lake City, UT; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: September 13-14, 2011--Salt Lake City, UT; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board Will Meet To Discuss DOE Plans for Used Fuel Disposition R&D Pursuant to its authority under... Technical Review Board will hold a public meeting in Salt Lake City, Utah, on Tuesday, September 13,...

  15. Late Archean mafic volcanism in the Rainy Lake area, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Day, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Late Archean greenstone-granite terrane of the Rainy Lake area of Minnesota contains a bimodal suite of mafic and felsic volcanic and coeval intrusive rocks. New geochemical data show that the mafic rocks occur in three distinct suites: (1) low-Ti olivine- and quartz-tholeiite, (2) high-Ti quartz-tholeiite and basaltic andesite, and (3) calc-alkaline lamprophyric monzodiorite and quartz diorite. The low-Ti tholeiites have only slightly evolved Mg-numbers from 53-63, Ni=125-300 ppm, and MORB-like REE. In contrast, the high-Ti tholeiites are more evolved, with Mg*=26-48, Ni=43-135 ppm, and higher total REE. Compared to the tholeiitic suites, the monzodiorite suite has more primitive Mg-numbers, with Mg*=70-78, Ni<410 ppm, and anomalously high LREE. The two tholeiitic suites cannot be genetically related by simple fractionation from a single parent magma; however, lower degrees of partial melting (<8 percent) of a mantle source (spinel periodotite) with REE=2-4 times chondrites could have produced the high-Ti tholeiites, and higher degrees of melting (20-30 percent) of a similar source could have generated the low-Ti tholeiites. In contrast, the monzodiorite suite must have been generated from either a LREE-rich or (and) a garnet-bearing source (garnet periodotite). The authors conclude that shallow melting (<40-50 km) within the Archean mantle in the Rainy Lake area produced the tholeiitic rocks, and that deep melting (>40-50 km) generated the lamprophyric monzodiorites.

  16. Climatic and lake temperature data for Wetland P1, Cottonwood Lake Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, 1982-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, Renee S.; Sturrock, A.M.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Winter, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of Wetland P1 and the Cottonwood Lake Area includes the study of evaporation. Presented here in a graphical format are those data collected during the open-water seasons of 1982-87 that were needed for energy- budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies. The data include air temperatures, water surface and lake-bottom temperatures, windspeed, radiation, humidity, and precipitation. Data were collected at a raft station and two land stations.

  17. Hydrologic data for the drainage basins of Chatfield and Cherry Creek Lakes, Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, J.W.; Arnold, L.M.; Reed, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Chatfield and Cherry Creek Lakes are flood control lakes constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and leased to the Colorado Division of Parks and Recreation. Both lakes are in the Denver metropolitan area and provide a variety of recreational activities, including boating, camping, fishing, picnicking, and swimming. The projected increase of urban development in the drainage basins of Chatfield and Cherry Creek lakes could increase the constituent loads delivered to the lakes. Due to the eutrophic condition of Cherry Creek Lake and the potential eutrophic condition of Chatfield Lake, increased constituent loads could affect the suitability of the lakes for recreation. A monitoring program was started to determine the constituent loads of the drainage basins to both lakes. A network of monitoring stations was established to collect ambient water quality samples, storm runoff water quality samples, precipitation, and stream discharge. In the Cherry Creek basin 12 observation wells were established in the alluvium upgradient from Cherry Creek lake. Water levels and water quality data were collected to determine the quantity and quality of groundwater entering Cherry Creek lake. Data were collected from January through December 1982. The data may be used to evaluate the present and projected impact of urbanization in the drainage basins and the effect of increased constituent loads delivered to Chatfield and Cherry Creek lakes. (Author 's abstract)

  18. Interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, T.; Kuroda, K.; Do Thuan, A.; Tran Thi Viet, N.; Takizawa, S.

    2012-12-01

    Hanoi is the capital of Viet Nam and the second largest city in this country (population: 6.45 million in 2009). Hanoi city has developed along the Red River and has many lakes, ponds and canals. However, recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced number of natural water areas such as ponds and lakes by reclamation not only in the central area but the suburban area. Canals also have been reclaimed or cut into pieces. Contrary, number of artificial water areas such as fish cultivation pond has rapidly increased. On the other hand, various kind of waste water flows into these natural and artificial water areas and induces pollution and eutrophication. These waste waters also have possibility of pollution of groundwater that is one of major water resources in this city. In addition, groundwater in this area has high concentrations of Arsenic, Fe and NH4. Thus, groundwater use may causes re-circulation of Arsenic. However, studies on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater and on the role of surface water areas for solute transport with water cycle are a few. Therefore, we focused on these points and took water samples of river, pond and groundwater from four communities in suburban areas: two communities are located near the Red River and other two are far from the River. Also, columnar sediment samples of these ponds were taken and pore water was abstracted. Major dissolved ions, metals and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen of water samples were analyzed. As for water cycle, from the correlation between δ18O and δD, the Red River water (after GNIR) were distributed along the LMWL (δD=8.2δ18O+14.1, calculated from precipitation (after GNIP)). On the other hand, although the pond waters in rainy season were distributed along the LMWL, that in dry season were distributed along the local evaporation line (LEL, slope=5.6). The LEL crossed with the LMWL at around the point of weighted mean values of precipitation in rainy season and of

  19. 75 FR 6218 - New Melones Lake Area Resource Management Plan, Tuolumne and Calaveras Counties, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... published in the Federal Register on November 2, 2009 (74 FR 56656). The written comment period on the Draft... Bureau of Reclamation New Melones Lake Area Resource Management Plan, Tuolumne and Calaveras Counties, CA... a Final RMP/EIS for the New Melones Lake Area. The Final RMP/EIS describes and presents...

  20. 75 FR 35829 - Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Oxford Slough Waterfowl Production Area, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Oxford Slough Waterfowl Production Area... Production Area (WPA) in Oxford, Idaho. We are providing this notice in compliance with our CCP policy to... hydrology and ecological processes of the Bear Lake Watershed. Oxford Slough Waterfowl Production...

  1. An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of the City of North Las Vegas

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek

    2008-06-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of the city of North Las Vegas for the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. Survey areas were selected in collaboration with the City Manager's office and included four separate areas: (1) Las Vegas Motor Speedway (10.6 square miles); (2) North Las Vegas Downtown Area (9.2 square miles); (3) I-15 Industrial Corridor (7.4 square miles); and (4) Future site of University of Nevada Las Vegas campus (17.4 square miles). The survey was conducted in three phases: Phase 1 on December 11-12, 2007 (Areas 1 and 2), Phase 2 on February 28, 2008 (Area 3), and Phase 3 on March 19, 2008 (Area 4). The total completed survey covered a total of 44.6 square miles. The flight lines (without the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. A total of eight 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 feet of flight-line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data, in the form of gamma energy spectra, were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service, with

  2. Multi-century lake area changes in the Southern Altiplano: a tree-ring-based reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, M. S.; Carilla, J.; Grau, H. R.; Villalba, R.

    2015-09-01

    Size fluctuations in endorheic lakes in northwestern Argentina (NWA) and southwestern Bolivia (SWB) are very sensitive to basin hydrological balances, and consequently, very vulnerable to deleterious effects from climatic changes. The management of these water resources and their biodiversity requires a comprehensive knowledge of their natural variability over multiple timescales. In this study, we present a multi-century reconstruction of past lake-area fluctuations in NWA and SWB. The evidence used to develop and validate this reconstruction includes satellite images and a century-long tree-ring record from P. tarapacana. Inter-annual fluctuations in lake area of nine lakes were quantified based on Landsat satellite images over the period 1975 to 2009. A regional P. tarapacana tree-ring chronology, composite from two sampling sites, was used as predictors in a regression model to reconstruct the mean annual (January-December) lake area from the nine lakes. The reconstruction model captures 62 % of the total variance in lake-area fluctuations and shows adequate levels of cross-validation. This high-resolution reconstruction covers the past 601 years and characterizes the occurrence of annual to multi-decadal lake area fluctuations and its main oscillation modes of variability. Our reconstruction points out that the late 20th century decrease in lake area was exceptional over the period 1407-2007; a persistent negative trend in lake area is clear in the reconstruction and consistent with glacier retreat and other climate proxies from the Altiplano and the tropical Andes. Since the mid 1970s, the Vilama-Coruto lake system recorded an accelerated decrease in area consistent with an increasing recurrence of extremely small lake-area events. Throughout the 601 years, the reconstruction provides valuable information about spatial and temporal stabilities of the relationships between changes in lake area, ENSO, and PDO, highlighting the Pacific influence over most modes

  3. Characterization and comparison of phytoplankton in selected lakes of five Great Lakes area national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith Becker; Whitman, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Phytoplankton species have been widely used as indicators of lake conditions, and they may be useful for detecting changes in overall lake condition. In an attempt to inventory and monitor its natural resources, the National Park Service wants to establish a monitoring program for aquatic resources in the Great Lakes Cluster National Parks. This study sought to establish baseline information on the phytoplankton and water chemistry of selected lakes in five national parks in a preliminary effort toward establishing a long-term monitoring program. Phytoplankton and water chemistry samples were collected from ten lakes in five national parks over a two-year period. A total of 176 taxa were identified during the study. Northern lakes generally had higher Shannon-Wiener diversity and clustered together in similarity. Lakes exhibited a south to north gradient of many water chemistry variables, with northern lakes having lower hardness, sulfate, turbidity, and temperature and higher dissolved oxygen. Chloride and sulfate concentrations were the variables that best explained variation among phytoplankton in the ten lakes. A monitoring plan will have to incorporate the differences among lakes, but by coordinating the effort, comparisons within and among parks and other regions will prove useful for determining environmental change.

  4. Roles of surface water areas for water and solute cycle in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takeshi; Kuroda, Keisuke; Do Thuan, An; Tran Thi Viet, Nga; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2013-04-01

    Hanoi city, the capital of Viet Nam, has developed beside the Red river. Recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced a large number of natural water areas such as lakes, ponds and canals not only in the central area but the suburban area. Contrary, the urbanization has increased artificial water areas such as pond for fish cultivation and landscaping. On the other hand, the urbanization has induced the inflow of waste water from households and various kinds of factories to these water areas because of delay of sewerage system development. Inflow of the waste water has induced eutrophication and pollution of these water areas. Also, there is a possibility of groundwater pollution by infiltration of polluted surface water. However, the role of these water areas for water cycle and solute transport is not clarified. Therefore, this study focuses on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city to evaluate appropriate land development and groundwater resource management. We are carrying out three approaches: a) understanding of geochemical characteristics of surface water and groundwater, b) monitoring of water levels of pond and groundwater, c) sampling of soil and pond sediment. Correlation between d18O and dD of precipitation (after GNIP), the Red River (after GNIR) and the water samples of this study showed that the groundwater is composed of precipitation, the Red River and surface water that has evaporation process. Contribution of the surface water with evaporation process was widely found in the study area. As for groundwater monitoring, the Holocene aquifers at two sites were in unconfined condition in dry season and the groundwater levels in the aquifer continued to increase through rainy season. The results of isotopic analysis and groundwater level monitoring showed that the surface water areas are one of the major groundwater sources. On the other hand, concentrations of dissolved Arsenic (filtered by 0.45um) in the pore

  5. 33 CFR 165.1191 - Northern California and Lake Tahoe Area Annual Fireworks Events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... commencement of the fireworks display. 13. Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Martinez Sponsor City of Martinez... area of navigable waters within a 1,000-foot radius of the launch platform located on a Martinez...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1191 - Northern California and Lake Tahoe Area Annual Fireworks Events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... commencement of the fireworks display. 13. Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Martinez Sponsor City of Martinez... area of navigable waters within a 1,000-foot radius of the launch platform located on a Martinez...

  7. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  8. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  9. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  10. Heterogeneity in High Latitude Lake Area Trends and Relationship to Landscape Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, J.; Griffith, B.; Verbyla, D.

    2012-12-01

    During the past ~60 years, net declines in lake area have been identified in several circumpolar regions. Lakes and wetlands in Alaskan National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) provide critical breeding habitats for migratory waterfowl and shorebirds. The loss of these breeding habitats may have far-reaching effects along migratory routes that extend to more southerly parts of North America, South America, Asia, and Australia. However, the magnitude, mechanisms, and biological implications of lake area change have not been fully evaluated across Alaskan refuge lands. The objectives of this work were to: 1) use historical aerial photography and remotely sensed imagery to estimate lake area trends for 8 Alaskan NWRs at two spatial scales; broad-scale estimates were obtained for 10 study areas, and fine-scale estimates were obtained for ~24,000 lakes in these study areas, 2) characterize local to regional heterogeneity in lake area trends, 3) relate heterogeneous lake area trends to landscape characteristics and associated mechanistic processes, and 4) build empirical models to understand the potential effects of changing lake area on waterfowl species richness. Net statewide trends were decreasing (-0.73% per year). However, there was heterogeneity in rates of change among individual lakes (26.2% to -34.1% per year) and among study areas (0.3 to -3.0% per year) since ~1985. The lack of a latitudinal (Arctic to sub-Arctic) or longitudinal (continental to maritime) pattern in study area trends suggested the involvement of substrate characteristics and landscape position, rather than regional climatic gradients, as mechanisms underlying heterogeneous lake area trends. Study areas with a greater proportion of lakes outside of the immediate floodplain zone (> ~1.8 km from rivers), but still in lowland areas with coarse-grained soils were most likely to have net declining trends in lake area. These results indicated drainage and negative hydraulic gradients between surface and

  11. Community health profile of Windsor, Ontario, Canada: anatomy of a Great Lakes area of concern.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, M; Brophy, J

    2001-01-01

    The rates of mortality, morbidity as hospitalizations, and congenital anomalies in the Windsor Area of Concern ranked among the highest of the 17 Areas of Concern on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes for selected end points that might be related to pollution in this relatively highly industrialized city. Mortality and morbidity rates from all causes were higher than in the rest of the province. Anomalously high rates of diseases included various cancers; endocrine, nutritional, metabolic, and immunity disorders; diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, nervous system and sense organs, circulatory and respiratory systems, digestive system, genitourinary system, skin and subcutaneous tissue, musculoskeletal system and connective tissues; congenital anomalies, and infant mortality. Of particular concern was the early onset of the elevated rates of many of these diseases and conditions. Comparison of these incident rates with those in Hamilton, another industrial municipality in southern Ontario, suggested that in addition to a variety of local sources of industrial pollution from automobile manufacturing and use, transboundary air and water pollution from Detroit, Michigan, should be investigated as potentially important causes of these health outcomes in the Windsor Area of Concern. Some of the institutional and political trends of the past decade may need to be reversed before effective remedial programs are implemented for cleaning up contaminated sediments and for containment of leaking hazardous waste sites. This pilot project would seem to be a useful preliminary method of integrating human health concerns and of priority setting for the administration of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement. PMID:11744501

  12. The Implementation of the Salt Lake City School District's Shared Governance Policy: A Study of School-Site Councils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malen, Betty; Ogawa, Rodney T.

    Confronted by complex and divisive issues and by groups seeking participation in policymaking, the Salt Lake City Board of Education adopted a shared governance policy in the middle 1970's. The policy mandated creation of two related councils at each school site. The School Improvement Council (SIC) consisted of the principal and specified school…

  13. Derivation of Lake Areas and Elevations for the Mackenzie Basin Using Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birkett, Charon; Kite, Geoff

    1997-01-01

    Modelling hydrological processes in large watersheds flowing to the Arctic ocean is one step towards larger-scale modelling of the global water and energy cycles. Models of the Mackenzie River Basin (Northern Canada) are currently available but omit explicit routing of river flows through the three main lakes - Athabasca, Great Slave Lake and Great Bear Lake (Kite et al, 1994). These lakes occupy an area of 65,000 sq km but little gauge information is available. The levels of the lakes are only measured at a few points on the circumferences and river flows are only measured downstream. The hydraulic relationships between level/discharge and level/area/volume are uncertain. It has been previously shown that satellite remote sensing can be utilised in providing measurements of both lake surface area using imaging techniques and lake level using radar altimetry (Birkett, 1994). Here, we explore the application of these techniques to derive the lake levels and areas for the Mackenzie Basin lakes.

  14. Seismicity of the Lake Tahoe-Reno Area, Nevada and California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. D.; Hauksson, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    Earthquakes in Lake-Tahoe Reno area are relocated with phase and waveform cross-correlation data using USGS application HYPODD. An approximately 10 km wide zone of seismicity extends from near Tahoe City, California eastward into south urban Reno. It represents one of several similar northeast trending zones of deformation and seismicity along the Walker Lane Belt of the western Great Basin. The area directly north of Lake Tahoe area is located in the transition between north-striking normal faulting systems that make up the Sierran frontal fault zone, to the south, and primary right-lateral strike slip fault zones of the northern Walker Lane Belt, to the north. Whereas the major normal faults along the Sierran front near the Reno-Tahoe area show little micro-earthquake activity, slip transfer regions, similar to what we observe north of Lake Tahoe include persistent seismicity, most likely involving numerous faults within an area distributed deformation. Although the fairly well defined northeast trend of seismicity north of Lake Tahoe includes M ~4+ left-lateral strike slip events consistent with the general orientation of the activity, right-lateral and normal faulting M ~4 earthquakes also occur along the trend. Additionally, portions of this northeast trending zone of activity consist of northwesterly alignments of small magnitude events and localized clusters of seismicity. The distributed seismicity and variety of focal mechanisms most likely reflects the transition from primary normal faulting to strike-slip faulting from south to north. The T-axes from earthquake focal mechanisms are oriented E-W at this latitude along the Sierran front. At its western extent, North Tahoe activity joins with northwest trending alignments of small magnitude events that evolve northwestward into the Mohawk Valley fault zone, near Sierraville, California. Its eastern extent, in south Reno, is nearly coincident with the southeastern limit of the 2008 Mogul-Somersett earthquake

  15. Building Scale Simulation in Support of Field Experiments around Salt Lake City

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.; Calhoun, R.J.; Chan, S.T.; Lee, R.L.; Leone, J.; Shinn, J.

    2000-05-30

    Numerical modeling of the urban boundary layer is complicated by the need to describe airflow patterns outside of the computational domain. These patterns have an impact on how successfully the simulation is able to model the turbulence associated with the urban boundary layer. This talk presents experiments with the model boundary conditions for simulations that were done to support two Department of Energy observational programs involving the Salt Lake City basin. The Chemical/Biological Non-proliferation Program (CBNP) is concerned with the effects of buildings on influencing dispersion patterns in urban environments. The Vertical Transport and Mixing Program (VTMX) investigating mixing mechanisms in the stable boundary layer and how they are influenced by the channeling caused by drainage flows or by obstacles such as building complexes. Both of these programs are investigating the turbulent mixing caused by building complexes and other urban obstacles.

  16. Program for the Division of Chemical Education Salt Lake City, March 22-26, 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smist, Julianne M.; Harwood, William S.; Levy, Irvin J.

    2009-03-01

    CHED technical sessions will be held in the Salt Lake Marriott City Center Hotel, 220 South State Street (location #10 on the ACS map). Exceptions are the Sunday evening Reception and Social Event, the Sunday evening poster session, Undergraduate Program, Undergraduate Research Posters, and Sci-Mix, all of which will be held at the Salt Palace Convention Center. Be sure to check the on-site program for any last-minute changes in time or location. Unless otherwise noted, morning sessions begin at 8:30 a.m. and afternoon sessions at 1:30 p.m. Symposia that are related to the over arching multidisciplinary theme "Nanoscience: Challenges for the Future" are noted cosponsored by NANO.

  17. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Surface remedial action was completed at the Salt Lake City, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in the fall of 1987. Results of water sampling for the years 1992 to 1994 indicate that site-related ground water contamination occurs in the shallow unconfined aquifer (the uppermost aquifer). With respect to background ground water quality, contaminated ground water in the shallow, unconfined aquifer has elevated levels of chloride, sodium, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and uranium. No contamination associated with the former tailings pile occurs in levels exceeding background in ground water in the deeper confined aquifer. This document provides the water sampling and analysis plan for ground water monitoring at the former uranium processing site in Salt Lake City, Utah (otherwise known as the ``Vitro`` site, named after the Vitro Chemical Company that operated the mill). All contaminated materials removed from the processing site were relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell near Clive, Utah, some 85 miles west of the Vitro site (known as the ``Clive`` disposal site). No ground water monitoring is being performed at the Clive disposal site, since concurrence of the remedial action plan by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and completion of the disposal cell occurred before the US Environmental Protection Agency issued draft ground water standards in 1987 (52 FR 36000) for cleanup, stabilization, and control of residual radioactive materials at the disposal site. In addition, the likelihood of post-closure impact on the ground water is minimal to nonexistent, due to the naturally poor quality of the ground water. Water sampling activities planned for calendar year 1994 consist of sampling ground water from nine monitor wells to assess the migration of contamination within the shallow unconfined aquifer and sampling ground water from two existing monitor wells to assess ground water quality in the confined aquifer.

  18. Changes in lake area in response to thermokarst processes and climate in Old Crow Flats, Yukon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, T. C.; Turner, K. W.

    2015-03-01

    Growing evidence indicates that lake-dominated ecosystems at high latitudes are undergoing significant hydrological changes. Research examining these changes is complicated because both thermokarst and climatic processes likely influence lake dynamics. To examine the relative impacts of these processes in permafrost landscapes, we investigated the dynamics of lake area and number in Old Crow Flats (OCF), Yukon using historical air photos and satellite imagery. Between 1951 and 2007, OCF experienced a decline of ~6000 ha in total lake area but gained 232 lakes. Close to half (49%) of the difference in lake area was driven by the rapid and persistent drainage of 38 large lakes. These catastrophic drainages were associated with new or enlarged outlet channels, resulted in the formation of numerous residual ponds, and were likely driven by thermokarst processes. Our analysis shows that catastrophic lake drainages have become more than 5 times more frequent in recent decades. These changes are likely related to the impacts of increased temperature and precipitation on thermokarst processes. Fifty-nine of the 170 intensively studied lakes showed either large bidirectional fluctuations or gradual cumulative declines. These changes affected a much smaller portion of OCF and were likely driven by interactions between increased precipitation and temperature and individual catchment characteristics. To anticipate landscape-scale changes in these systems, and assess their impact on hydrology, wildlife habitat, and carbon storage, field research is required to better characterize the mechanisms responsible for changes.

  19. Dynamic monitoring of Poyang Lake water body area using MODIS images between 2000 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yayong; Huang, Shifeng; Li, Jiren; Li, Xiaotao; Ma, Jianwei; Li, Shanyang; Wang, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake of China, is well known for its ecological and economic importance as a dynamic wetland system. But, influenced by the climate change and human activity, Poyang Lake wetland has changed a lot. The long time series of Terra/MODIS data between 2000 and 2014 were utilized to investigate the variation of Poyang Lake and to analyze Poyang lake response to variation of local precipitation with the meteorological data. The results showed: (1) Poyang Lake water body area showed a significant seasonal variation, minimum value was about 690 km2 and maximum value reached 3500 km2, and inter-annual fluctuation; (2)For the past 15 year , local precipitation directly affected the inundation changes. In particular, the impact of rainfall during the first half of the year is more significant (the relation coefficient with R2 of 0.61); (3) Taking into account humid activities, the impoundment of the Three Gorges dam (TGD) had a certain impact on Poyang Lake water body area, especially the persistent reduction of Poyang lake surface area in November was deteriorated by the impounding of TGD in October after 2006. Finally, the study provides a theoretical basis and data for changes in Poyang Lake wetland research and protection.

  20. The late holocene palaeoenvironment in the Lake Njupi area, west Cameroon: implications regarding the history of Lake Nyos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zogning, Appolinaire; Giresse, Pierre; Maley, Jean; Gadel, François

    1997-04-01

    Lake Njupi, 1 km east of Lake Nyos, on the Cameroon Volcanic Line, was formed by the damming of a local crustal depression. Two cores from Lake Nyos were analysed which penetrated sediments at the margin of the lake. The older deposits give an age of 3400 years BP and this date is proposed as a minimum age for Lake Njupi. Sedimentological, palynological and geochemical studies of a 2 m section provide an opportunity to reconstruct the Late Holocene environmental history. It is an organic-rich deposit (organic carbon up to 30%) with an abundant Silicospongia spicules fraction. An obvious sedimentary homogeneity is interrupted by 5 fine to coarse layers with sandy quartz and lignitic remains. Such inputs were denoted by carbohydrate maxima or sometimes by phenolic compounds. This study confirms the evidence of an arid period culminating between 2500 and 2000 yrs BP. This crisis began around 3000 yrs BP in the rain forest area of West Cameroon and also further to the south in Congo. Lake Njupi, situated today in a mostly grassland savanna environment known as the "Grass Fields", provides evidence for environmental changes from a mosaic of forest and savanna before 2500 years BP to a savanna characterised by high grass pollen contents (75 to 85%), with small islands of forest. The mountain vegetation characterised by Podocarpus and Olea capensis retreated around 2300 years BP at the time Elaeis guineensis (the Oil Palm) began its extension as a pioneer tree, later providing opportunities for its domestication by man.

  1. Density-independent survival of wild lake trout in the Apostle Islands area of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Schram, Stephen T.; Selgeby, James H.; Swanson, Bruce L.

    1995-01-01

    The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) stock at Gull Island Shoal in western Lake Superior was one of only a few stocks of lean lake trout in the Great Lakes that survived overfishing and predation by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Since the mid 1960s, the abundance of wild recruits measured at age 0 and the number of age-7 to -11 wild fish recruited to the fishable stock have increased. We used the Varley-Gradwell method to test for density-dependent survival between these life stages. Survival from age-0 to ages 7–11 was not affected by increasing density, which suggests that further increases in recruitment and stock size are still possible. We suggest that testing for the existence of density-dependent survival can be used to indicate when lake trout populations are rehabilitated.

  2. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  3. Urban Groundwater Mapping - Bucharest City Area Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitanaru, Dragos; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Bica, Ioan; Anghel, Leonard; Amine Boukhemacha, Mohamed; Ionita, Angela

    2013-04-01

    Urban Groundwater Mapping (UGM) is a generic term for a collection of procedures and techniques used to create targeted cartographic representation of the groundwater related aspects in urban areas. The urban environment alters the physical and chemical characteristics of the underneath aquifers. The scale of the pressure is controlled by the urban development in time and space. To have a clear image on the spatial and temporal distribution of different groundwater- urban structures interaction we need a set of thematic maps is needed. In the present study it is described the methodological approach used to obtain a reliable cartographic product for Bucharest City area. The first step in the current study was to identify the groundwater related problems and aspects (changes in the groundwater table, infiltration and seepage from and to the city sewer network, contamination spread to all three aquifers systems located in quaternary sedimentary formations, dewatering impact for large underground structures, management and political drawbacks). The second step was data collection and validation. In urban areas there is a big spectrum of data providers related to groundwater. Due to the fact that data is produced and distributed by different types of organizations (national agencies, private companies, municipal water regulator, etc) the validation and cross check process is mandatory. The data is stored and managed by a geospatial database. The design of the database follows an object-orientated paradigm and is easily extensible. The third step consists of a set of procedures based on a multi criteria assessment that creates the specific setup for the thematic maps. The assessment is based on the following criteria: (1) scale effect area - how the groundwater is interacting with urban structures >, (2) time , (3) vertical distribution and (4) type of the groundwater related problem. The final

  4. Karst collapse in cities and mining areas, China

    SciTech Connect

    Jian Chen )

    1988-08-01

    Karst collapse is a dynamic geological phenomenon, in which the rock mass or deposits overlying the karstified zone subsides down along the karst cavity, resulting in a collapse pit or sinkhole. After discussing the typical examples of collapse emerging in the karst cities and mines in provinces and regions of South China, such as Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Zhejiang, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Jiangxi, it is considered that human activities of economy and production have become a major effect in causing karst collapse. Man-made collapses make 66.4 percent of the total, whereas natural ones 33.6 percent. Most of the collapses occurred to the area with soil overburden (96.7 percent), only a few in areas of bedrock overburden (3.3 percent). The karst collapses have a close relationship with the extent of karst development, the character and the thickness of overburden, and the dynamic condition of underground water. Collapse usually occurs in those parts of an area that are more intensely karstified, with soil thickness less than 5 m and a high amplitude of water table fluctuation. Many kinds of mechanical effects are caused by pumping or draining on the over-burden and destroying its equilibrium, leading to the collapse. These effects included the support loss and load-added effect, penetrating suffusion, gas explosion, water-hammer, suction pressure erosion, and liquefaction effects. The collapses are the result of varied comprehensive effects, particularly the support loss and load-added, and penetrating suffusion.

  5. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR ASSESSING QUALITY OF HIGH ALTITUDE LAKES: COLORADO FLAT TOPS WILDERNESS AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of a joint U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Geological Survey sampling effort conducted during 1982 and 1983 on three lakes in the Flat Tops Wilderness Area of Colorado are summarized. Ned Wilson, Oyster and Upper Island Lakes were surveyed. They are represen...

  6. Using SWAT to target critical source sediment and phosphorus areas in the Wister Lake Basin, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wister Lake is located in the San Bois Mountains in southeastern Oklahoma, USA. The reservoir is primarily used as a water supply and flood storage to over 40,000 residents in the area. Due to high levels of phosphorus and sediment, Wister Lake is listed as a high priority basin for the State of Okl...

  7. Determination of critical source areas for phosphorous losses: Lake Champlain Basin, Vermont

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lake Champlain, located between Vermont, New York, and Quebec, exhibits eutrophication due to continuing phosphorus (P) inputs mainly from upstream nonpoint source areas. To address the Lake's eutrophication problem and as part of total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements, a state-level P reducti...

  8. SWAT modeling of Critical Source Area for Runoff and Phosphorus losses: Lake Champlain Basin, VT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lake Champlain, located between Vermont, New York, and Quebec, exhibits eutrophication due to continuing phosphorus (P) inputs mainly from upstream nonpoint source areas. To address the Lake's eutrophication problem and as part of total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements, a state-level P reducti...

  9. Effects of urbanization on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in contrasting environmental settings: Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; and Salt Lake City, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuffney, T.F.; Zappia, H.; Giddings, E.M.P.; Coles, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Responses of invertebrate assemblages along gradients of urban intensity were examined in three metropolitan areas with contrasting climates and topography (Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; Salt Lake City, Utah). Urban gradients were defined using an urban intensity index (UII) derived from basin-scale population, infrastructure, land-use, land-cover, and socioeconomic characteristics. Responses based on assemblage metrics, indices of biotic integrity (B-IBI), and ordinations were readily detected in all three urban areas and many responses could be accurately predicted simply using regional UIIs. Responses to UII were linear and did not indicate any initial resistance to urbanization. Richness metrics were better indicators of urbanization than were density metrics. Metrics that were good indicators were specific to each study except for a richness-based tolerance metric (TOLr) and one B-IBI. Tolerances to urbanization were derived for 205 taxa. These tolerances differed among studies and with published tolerance values, but provided similar characterizations of site conditions. Basin-scale land-use changes were the most important variables for explaining invertebrate responses to urbanization. Some chemical and instream physical habitat variables were important in individual studies, but not among studies. Optimizing the study design to detect basin-scale effects may have reduced the ability to detect local-scale effects. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  10. Substrate conditions and abundance of lake trout eggs in a traditional spawning area in southeastern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorr, John A., III; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Foster, Neal R.; Jude, David J.

    1981-01-01

    Spawning by planted lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was documented by sampling with a diver-assisted pump in a traditional spawning area in southeastern Lake Michigan near Saugatuck, Michigan in mid-November in 1978 and 1979. Bottom depths at the 11 locations sampled ranged from 3 to 12 m and substrate size from boulders to sand. Periphyton (Cladophora and associated biota) was several millimeters thick at most stations but sparse at the shallowest. The most eggs recovered from a single sample occurred at the shallowest depth (3 m). In both years, some of the small numbers of eggs collected (9 in 1978, 14 in 1979) were alive and fertilized. Laboratory incubation of viable eggs resulted in successful hatching of larvae. When compared with egg densities measured at spawning sites used by self-sustaining populations of lake trout in other lakes, densities in the study are (0-13/m2) appeared to be critically low. Insufficient numbers of eggs, combined with harsh incubation conditions (turbulence, ice scour, sedimentation), were implicated as prime causes for lake trout reproductive failure in the study area, although other factors, such as inappropriate spawning behavior (selection of suboptimal spawning location, depth, or substrate) also may have reduced survival of eggs and larvae.

  11. Hydrologic relations between lakes and aquifer in a recharge area near Orlando, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichtler, William F.; Hughes, G.H.; Pfischner, F.L.

    1976-01-01

    The three lakes investigated in Orange County, Florida, gain water from adjoining water-table aquifer and lose water to Floridan aquifer by downward leakage. Net seepage (net exchange of water between lake and aquifers) can be estimated by equation S = AX + BY, where S is net seepage, X represents hydraulic gradient between lake and water-table aquifer, A is lumped parameter representing effect of hydraulic conductivity and cross-sectional area of materials in flow section of water-table aquifer, Y is head difference between lake level and potentiometric surface of Floridan aquifer, and B is lumped parameter representing effect of hydraulic conductivity, area, and thickness of materials between lake bottom and Floridan aquifer. If values of S, X, and Y are available for two contrasting water-level conditions, coefficients A and B are determinable by solution of two simultaneous equations. If the relation between lake and ground-water level is the same on all sides of the lake--with regard to each aquifer--and if X and Y are truly representative of these relations, then X and Y terms of equation provide valid estimates of inflow to lake from water-table aquifer and outflow from lake to Floridan aquifer. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Monitoring of the water-area variations of Lake Dongting in China with ENVISAT ASAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, XianWen; Li, XiaoFeng

    2011-12-01

    As an active microwave remote sensing sensor, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can image the Earth surface with high spatial resolution in both day and night under all weather conditions. In this paper, a digital image processing technique was implemented to extract water area information from SAR images and the result is used to monitor the water area variation of Lake Dongting, the second largest freshwater lake in China. 8-year time series of European Space Agency's ENVISAT ASAR (Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar) images acquired between 2002 and 2009 were obtained and a land-water classification scheme was implemented. Using independent in situ water level data measured at a lake-side hydrologic station during study period, we derived the relationship between water level and water area of Lake Dongting. The results show that, (1) during dry seasons, the water area is 518 km 2 larger than that in the 1990s reported by Yangtze BHYRWRC (Bureau of Hydrology and Yangtze River Water Resources Commission), 2000; (2) the water area of Lake Dongting increased significantly in the 2000s after the Chinese Government's "return land to lake" policy took effect in 1998; (3) the water level of Lake Dongting could be low during a rainy season due to drought; but could be high in a dry season due to discharges from the upstream Three Gorges Dam. In addition, the relationship between water storage change and water area/level change is obtained.

  13. A micrometeorological data base for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcido, A.; Celada-Murillo, A. T.; Villegas-Martínez, R.; Salas-Oviedo, H.; Sozzi, R.; Georgiadis, T.

    2003-05-01

    In order to overcome the lack of the surface micrometeorological data required for air quality studies in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), a long-term micrometeorological campaign was carried out in this area along the 2001-year. Three micrometeorological surface stations were installed at sites located at north, north-east, and south sectors of the MCMA. Each station was equipped with a 3D ultrasonic turbulence sensor and with conventional meteorological sensors for temperature, relative humidity, pressure, global radiation, net radiation, and rain. The sampling rates were 10 Hz for the ultrasonic sensor, and 1 Hz for the conventional sensors. One-hour averages were calculated for all the meteorological parameters and for the turbulence parameters such as friction velocity, scale temperature, Monin-Obukhov length, sensible heat flux and turbulent kinetic energy, among others. A simple micrometeorological database was prepared and mounted on a free access Internet page to furnish a specialized tool to the local Authorities to be utilized in health prevention and pollution regulation applications.

  14. Cancer mortality inequalities in urban areas: a Bayesian small area analysis in Spanish cities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intra-urban inequalities in mortality have been infrequently analysed in European contexts. The aim of the present study was to analyse patterns of cancer mortality and their relationship with socioeconomic deprivation in small areas in 11 Spanish cities. Methods It is a cross-sectional ecological design using mortality data (years 1996-2003). Units of analysis were the census tracts. A deprivation index was calculated for each census tract. In order to control the variability in estimating the risk of dying we used Bayesian models. We present the RR of the census tract with the highest deprivation vs. the census tract with the lowest deprivation. Results In the case of men, socioeconomic inequalities are observed in total cancer mortality in all cities, except in Castellon, Cordoba and Vigo, while Barcelona (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.42-1.67), Madrid (RR = 1.57 95%CI 1.49-1.65) and Seville (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.36-1.74) present the greatest inequalities. In general Barcelona and Madrid, present inequalities for most types of cancer. Among women for total cancer mortality, inequalities have only been found in Barcelona and Zaragoza. The excess number of cancer deaths due to socioeconomic deprivation was 16,413 for men and 1,142 for women. Conclusion This study has analysed inequalities in cancer mortality in small areas of cities in Spain, not only relating this mortality with socioeconomic deprivation, but also calculating the excess mortality which may be attributed to such deprivation. This knowledge is particularly useful to determine which geographical areas in each city need intersectorial policies in order to promote a healthy environment. PMID:21232096

  15. The Role of Trans Tensional Structures and Lake Mead Reservoir in Groundwater Flow in Black Canyon, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, NV-AZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justet, L.; Beard, S.

    2010-12-01

    Hot springs and seeps discharging into Black Canyon (BC) along the Colorado River in north Colorado River Valley (CRV) support endemic riparian ecosystems in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Increases in groundwater development in southern NV and northwestern AZ may impact spring discharge. Sources of spring discharge in BC were evaluated using geochemical methods. Kinematic analysis and geologic mapping of structures associated with BC springs were used to evaluate structural controls on groundwater flow in BC. Geochemical analysis indicates groundwater discharge near Hoover Dam (HD) and along the faulted edge of the Boulder City Pluton is derived from Lake Mead, high δ87Sr Proterozoic or Tertiary crystalline rock and, possibly, Tertiary sedimentary rock. Reducing conditions indicated by 234U/238U and δ34S concentrations suggest the groundwater is confined and/or derived from greater depths while carbon isotopes indicate the groundwater is old. Lighter δD and δO-18, modern tritium concentrations, post-Dam U disequilibrium ages, and occurrence of anthropogenic perchlorate support the presence of a young Lake Mead component. South of the pluton, the Lake Mead component is absent. More oxidizing conditions in this part of BC, indicated by the U and S isotope concentrations, suggest the groundwater is less confined and/or derived from shallower depths compared to groundwater discharging near HD. Older apparent groundwater ages and heavier δD and δO-18 values south of the pluton indicate slower flow paths from a lower elevation or latitude source. Clarifying the nature of groundwater flow in eastern NV, the analyses indicate that hydraulic connection between the regional carbonate aquifer and BC is unlikely. Instead, the data indicate sources of BC springs are derived relatively locally in CRV and, possibly, south Lake Mead Valley. Results of the geologic and kinematic analyses indicate faults that formed from the interaction of E-W extension related to

  16. Geohydrology, water quality, and water budgets of Golden Gate Park and the Lake Merced area in the western part of San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, E.B.; Hamlin, S.N.; McCann, L.H.

    1990-01-01

    The groundwater resources in the western part of the San Francisco, groundwater budgets for Golden Gate Park and the Lake Merced area, and a surface-water budget for Lake Merced are described. A continuous groundwater basin underlies a 39-sq-mi coastal strip in the San Francisco Peninsula south of the city. Basin fill consists largely of sand and silt. An extensive subsurface clay layer is present near Lake Merced. Recharge is principally from rainfall and irrigation-return flow, with lesser amounts from leaking water and sewer pipes, which were identified in part by stable-isotope and major ion analyses. In Golden Gate Park, about 1, 070 acre-ft/yr of groundwater flows to the ocean. Water levels are not declining, and pumpage could be safely increased. However, nitrate concentrations in excess of Federal drinking-water standards in water from many wells may limit potential uses of groundwater. Groundwater in the Lake Merced area is in a state of overdraft, as indicated by long- term declines in the level of Lake Merced and by groundwater levels persistently below sea level in deep wells. Seawater intrusion has not been detected, however. A surface-water budget for Lake Merced indicates that the largest inflow is from shallow groundwater and the largest outflow is loss by evaporation. (USGS)

  17. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama....763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area is... enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as...

  18. The spatial-temporal patterns and the driving forces of land-use/cover change in the Dongting Lake area of the middle Yangtze River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rendong; Liu, Jiyuan; Zhuang, Dafang; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2004-11-01

    Dongting Lake area, located on the southern bank of the middle Yangtze River in central China, is one of the regions experiencing rapid land use change and seriously suffering from flooding disaster in the country. In this paper, a series of land-use coverage was generated through visually interpreting Landsat MSS, TM and ETM images, of 1980, 1990 and 2000 respectively. Then, the spatial-temporal characteristics and the driving forces of the land use changes were analyzed in the study area. The results show that, from 1980 to 2000, the areas of farmland, woodland and non-used land decreased, while those of built-up land, water area and grassland increased. There was a significant shifting from farmland to water or built-up area, and the large-scale reclamation from the lake ever in history has not been found since 1980. The fastest changed area was in Shishou City, Yueyang City and Jinshi City, and the slowest in the eastern and southeastern area. About 49% of the changes were caused by the adjustment of agricultural economic structure, 29.75% by the urbanization and industrialization, and 21.41% by the environmental pressure. The policy, market price and tax on land products also have definitively influences on the land-use changes.

  19. The Impact of Eutrophication on Mercury Cycling in Lake 227 at the Experimental Lakes Area in Northwestern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, J.; Lehnherr, I.; Gleason, A.; St. Louis, V. L.; Muir, D.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a pollutant of global concern as concentrations of methyl mercury (MeHg), the toxic and bioaccumulative form of Hg, are often present in fish at levels high enough to pose health risks to consumers. Although we are beginning to understand the factors controlling MeHg production in freshwater lakes, the impacts of environmental disturbances, such as eutrophication, on Hg cycling are not known. As part of a larger project examining controls on eutrophication, we are studying Hg cycling and MeHg production in the artificially eutrophied Lake 227 at the Experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario. In addition to 40 years of ancillary data, Lake 227 is ideal for this study as it has an anoxic hypolimnion which may be an important zone of microbial MeHg production. To determine sources and losses of inorganic Hg(II) and MeHg from the lake, we are using a mass balance approach including: detailed lake profiles to determine the water column pools of Hg(II) and MeHg, Hg(II) and MeHg inputs via precipitation, and losses of Hg(II) and MeHg from the lake via gaseous elemental Hg(0) evasion and MeHg photodemethylation, respectively. Rates of water column MeHg production are also being determined using Hg stable isotope tracer experiments. 2010-2011 water column profiles demonstrated that although total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations were fairly low in Lake 227 surface waters (2.42 ± 0.64 and 0.11 ± 0.06 ng/L, respectively), MeHg concentrations (1.08 ± 0.39 ng/L) and the % THg that was MeHg (16 ± 5%) were high in deep regions of the water column (6-9 m). The zone of elevated water column MeHg expanded throughout summers 2010-2011, closely following the zone of anoxia, suggesting MeHg is produced in the anoxic hypolimnion. The zone of high particulate-bound THg (62 ± 6%) also migrated with the zone of anoxia over the summer suggesting that particle sinking and sediment resuspension, which are controlled by the timing of algal blooms, are important

  20. Phase 2 and 3 Slim Hole Drilling and Testing at the Lake City, California Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Dick Benoit; David Blackwell; Joe Moore; Colin Goranson

    2005-10-27

    During Phases 2 and 3 of the Lake City GRED II project two slim holes were cored to depths of 1728 and 4727 ft. Injection and production tests with temperature and pressure logging were performed on the OH-1 and LCSH-5 core holes. OH-1 was permanently modified by cementing an NQ tubing string in place below a depth of 947 ft. The LCSH-1a hole was drilled in Quaternary blue clay to a depth of 1727 ft and reached a temperature of 193 oF at a depth of 1649 ft. This hole failed to find evidence of a shallow geothermal system east of the Mud Volcano but the conductive temperature profile indicates temperatures near 325 oF could be present below depth of 4000 ft. The LCSH-5 hole was drilled to a depth of 4727 ft and encountered a significant shallow permeability between depths of 1443 and 1923 ft and below 3955 ft. LCSH-5 drilled impermeable Quaternary fanglomerate to a depth of 1270 ft. Below 1270 ft the rocks consist primarily of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The most significant formation deep in LCSH-5 appears to be a series of poikoilitic mafic lava flows below a depth of 4244 ft that host the major deep permeable fracture encountered. The maximum static temperature deep in LCSH-5 is 323 oF and the maximum flowing temperature is 329 oF. This hole extended the known length of the geothermal system by ¾ of a mile toward the north and is located over ½ mile north of the northernmost hot spring. The OH-1 hole was briefly flow tested prior to cementing the NQ rods in place. This flow test confirmed the zone at 947 ft is the dominant permeability in the hole. The waters produced during testing of OH-1 and LCSH-5 are generally intermediate in character between the deep geothermal water produced by the Phipps #2 well and the thermal springs. Geothermometers applied to deeper fluids tend to predict higher subsurface temperatures with the maximum being 382 oF from the Phipps #2 well. The Lake City geothermal system can be viewed as having shallow (elevation > 4000 ft and

  1. Indoor and outdoor BTX levels in Barcelona City metropolitan area and Catalan rural areas.

    PubMed

    Gallego, E; Roca, F X; Guardino, X; Rosell, M G

    2008-01-01

    Five aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, and three isomeric xylenes) were monitored in indoor and outdoor air of 7 public buildings and 54 private homes, located in Barcelona City metropolitan area and in several rural areas of Catalonia. The sampling was carried out over four periods: spring-summer and winter of 2000, and summer and winter of 2001. Passive ORSA 5 Dräger samplers were used for benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) adsorption. BTX were extracted with carbon disulphide and analysed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a FID detector. In Barcelona metropolitan area the outdoor average concentrations of BTX were 3.5, 34.2, and 31.3 microg/m3 in urban areas, and 1.4, 9.2, and 9.2 microg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. Average indoor air concentrations of BTX were respectively 4.3, 64.8, and 47.6 microg/m3 in urban areas and 5.8, 67.0, and 51.4 microg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. A direct connection between the house and garage was one of the most influential factors for indoor BTX concentrations in rural areas. In urban areas, diffuse traffic sources were the predominant BTX source, slightly influenced by tobacco smoke in indoor air. PMID:19143312

  2. Temporal and Spatial Patterns in Thermokarst Lake Area Change in Yukon Flats, Alaska: an Indication of Permafrost Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Rowland, J. C.; Wilson, C. J.; Altmann, G.; Brumby, S. P.

    2011-12-01

    The formation, expansion, and drainage of thermokarst lakes is determined by the lateral and vertical degradation of permafrost. Consequently, areal changes in thermokarst lakes can reflect changes in the spatial distribution and depth of permafrost. However, natural variability in lake areas confounds the long term trend and makes it difficult to detect permafrost degradation by simply comparing lake areas from different time periods. In this study, we used Landsat images of 16 time periods between 1984 and 2009 to extract lake area (closed basin lakes only) for a 422,382 ha study area within Yukon Flats, Alaska. A multiple linear regression model was built to quantify the long term change in lake area. In this model, we included LWB (local water balance, defined as difference between total precipitation and total potential evapotranspiration since the preceding October), MDT (mean daily temperature from May 1st to the date that Landsat image was acquired) and PRD (four time periods: 1984-1986, 1992, 1999-2002, and 2009). MDT was used to indicate the active layer depth. Both LWB and MDT were used to account for natural variability in lake area. The model explained 95% of the total variability in lake area, with 62%, 16% and 17% accounted for by LWB, MDT and PRD respectively. Using the total lake area (15898 ha) in 1984-1986 as a baseline, lake area increased by 12% in 1992, and decreased by 6% during 1999-2002 and 8% in 2009. Among the 1,667 lakes, 267 lakes showed an area decrease and 115 lakes showed an increase. The expanding lakes were distributed along the Yukon River and its main tributaries (Beaver creek and Birch creek), while the shrinking lakes were located farther away from rivers or on fluvial terraces. A potential reason for the spatial pattern of expanding and shrinking lakes is that, after permafrost thaws, lakes can become connected to the groundwater system. Lakes close to the rivers may be recharged by groundwater due to their lower position

  3. Emissions inventory for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, V.H.P.; Renteria, J.S.; Hernandez, C.G.

    1996-12-31

    The emissions inventory bears a broad relationship to the energy balance, reflecting the dependence of the emissions with reference to the use of energy. Actually the consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel in the transport sector represents collectively, the greatest comparative expense of energy and the major contributor of the ozone precursor pollutants HC, NO{sub x} and CO, relative to the total volume of emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Also, the industrial sector introduces significant emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} due to its energy consumption of fuel oils and natural gas. In contrast, the great majority of suspended particulate in the MCMA emanate from degradation processes of surface soil along the periphery of the urban zone. To the federal and local authorities charged with the design of strategies for prevention and control of atmospheric pollution, the emissions inventory is a strategic tool that reflects the relative intensity of the various emitters to the load capacity of the atmosphere. A comprehensive inventory was compiled for 1995, categorizing the emissions generated by four sectors: industry, services, transport and surface soils and vegetation, considering the following pollutants: TSP, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, HC and CO. The combined pollutant emissions are 4,009,628 tons/year of which 3% are generated by the industry, 10% by the services sector, 75% by the transport sector, and 12% by surface soils and vegetation.

  4. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the mexico city metropolitan area during the milagro campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karydis, V. A.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2011-08-01

    One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs) is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium) between the gas and particulate phases. In this work the PMCAMx-2008 CTM, which includes the recently developed aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA-II, is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area in order to simulate the formation of the major inorganic aerosol components. The main sources of SO2 (such as the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery and the Francisco Perez Rios Power Plant) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are located in Tula, resulting in high predicted PM1 sulfate concentrations (over 25 μg m-3) in that area. The average predicted PM1 nitrate concentrations are up to 3 μg m-3 (with maxima up to 11 μg m-3) in and around the urban center, mostly produced from local photochemistry. The presence of calcium coming from the Tolteca area (7 μg m-3) as well as the rest of the mineral cations (1 μg m-3 potassium, 1 μg m-3 magnesium, 2 μg m-3 sodium, and 3 μg m-3 calcium) from the Texcoco Lake resulted in the formation of a significant amount of aerosol nitrate in the coarse mode with concentrations up to 3 μg m-3 over these areas. PM1-10 chloride is also high and its concentration exceeds 2 μg m-3 in Texcoco Lake. PM ammonium concentrations peak at the center of Mexico City (2 μg m-3) and the Tula vicinity (2.5 μg m-3). The performance of the model for the major inorganic PM components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium) is encouraging. At T0, the average measured values of PM1 sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride are 3.6 μg m-3, 3.6 μg m-3, 2.1 μg m-3, and 0.35 μg m-3 respectively. The corresponding predicted values are 3.7 μg m-3, 2.8 μg m-3, 1.7 μg m-3, and 0.25 μg m-3. Additional improvements are possible by (i) using a day-dependent emission inventory, (ii) improving the performance of

  5. 36 CFR 7.55 - Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... persons in the water. (iii) The stretch of the Spokane Arm from 200 feet west of the Two Rivers Marina on the downstream end, to 200 feet east of the Fort Spokane launch ramp on the upstream end, above the... the “narrows” to the confluence of the lake, marked by “flat wake” buoy(s). (ii) Within 200 feet...

  6. Evaluation of Experimental Four-Day Week Class Schedule, January Through April 1974 at Lake City Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, Clark

    Due to the energy disturbance during the fall and winter of 1973-74, Lake City Community College experimented with a 4-days-per-week schedule of classes. a student evaluation of the 4-day week was completed by 58 percent of the full-time students. Fifty-one percent of the total student sample preferred the 4-day week, and 30 percent preferred the…

  7. Pronounced chemical response of Subarctic lakes to climate-driven losses in surface area.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Tyler L; Lindberg, Mark S; Schmutz, Joel A; Heglund, Patricia J; Rover, Jennifer; Koch, Joshua C; Bertram, Mark R

    2015-03-01

    Losses in lake area have been observed for several Arctic and Subarctic regions in recent decades, with unknown consequences for lake ecosystems. These reductions are primarily attributed to two climate-sensitive mechanisms, both of which may also cause changes in water chemistry: (i) increased imbalance of evaporation relative to inflow, whereby increased evaporation and decreased inflow act to concentrate solutes into smaller volumes; and (ii) accelerated permafrost degradation, which enhances sublacustrine drainage while simultaneously leaching previously frozen solutes into lakes. We documented changes in nutrients [total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP)] and ions (calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium) over a 25 year interval in shrinking, stable, and expanding Subarctic lakes of the Yukon Flats, Alaska. Concentrations of all six solutes increased in shrinking lakes from 1985-1989 to 2010-2012, while simultaneously undergoing little change in stable or expanding lakes. This created a present-day pattern, much weaker or absent in the 1980s, in which shrinking lakes had higher solute concentrations than their stable or expanding counterparts. An imbalanced evaporation-to-inflow ratio (E/I) was the most likely mechanism behind such changes; all four ions, which behave semiconservatively and are prone to evapoconcentration, increased in shrinking lakes and, along with TN and TP, were positively related to isotopically derived E/I estimates. Moreover, the most conservative ion, chloride, increased >500% in shrinking lakes. Conversely, only TP concentration was related to probability of permafrost presence, being highest at intermediate probabilities. Overall, the substantial increases of nutrients (TN >200%, TP >100%) and ions (>100%) may shift shrinking lakes towards overly eutrophic or saline states, with potentially severe consequences for ecosystems of northern lakes. PMID:25294238

  8. Pronounced chemical response of Subarctic lakes to climate-driven losses in surface area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Tyler L.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Rover, Jennifer R.; Koch, Joshua C.; Bertram, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Losses in lake area have been observed for several Arctic and Subarctic regions in recent decades, with unknown consequences for lake ecosystems. These reductions are primarily attributed to two climate-sensitive mechanisms, both of which may also cause changes in water chemistry: (i) increased imbalance of evaporation relative to inflow, whereby increased evaporation and decreased inflow act to concentrate solutes into smaller volumes; and (ii) accelerated permafrost degradation, which enhances sublacustrine drainage while simultaneously leaching previously frozen solutes into lakes. We documented changes in nutrients [total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP)] and ions (calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium) over a 25 year interval in shrinking, stable, and expanding Subarctic lakes of the Yukon Flats, Alaska. Concentrations of all six solutes increased in shrinking lakes from 1985–1989 to 2010–2012, while simultaneously undergoing little change in stable or expanding lakes. This created a present-day pattern, much weaker or absent in the 1980s, in which shrinking lakes had higher solute concentrations than their stable or expanding counterparts. An imbalanced evaporation-to-inflow ratio (E/I) was the most likely mechanism behind such changes; all four ions, which behave semiconservatively and are prone to evapoconcentration, increased in shrinking lakes and, along with TN and TP, were positively related to isotopically derived E/I estimates. Moreover, the most conservative ion, chloride, increased >500% in shrinking lakes. Conversely, only TP concentration was related to probability of permafrost presence, being highest at intermediate probabilities. Overall, the substantial increases of nutrients (TN >200%, TP >100%) and ions (>100%) may shift shrinking lakes towards overly eutrophic or saline states, with potentially severe consequences for ecosystems of northern lakes.

  9. Historical trace metal fluxes in the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone as evidenced by a sedimentary record from the Espejo de los Lirios lake.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fernández, A C; Páez-Osuna, F; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J; Preda, M; Rehault, I

    2004-05-01

    The accumulation of selected trace metals (Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) was studied in a sediment core collected at Espejo de los Lirios lake, a precipitation-dominated seepage lake in Northern Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ). A (210)Pb-derived chronology, obtained from the same core, was used to reconstruct the historical metal fluxes at the site, allowing evaluation of the impact of environmental changes promoted by the development of the City during the last approximately 125 years. The highest levels of metal enrichment above natural concentration levels (NCL) in the sediments from Espejo de los Lirios lake were found for Ag and Pb (approximately 250%) as well as a slight enrichment for Cd (55%), Cr (84%), Co (20%), Cu (60%), Hg (47%), Ni (45%), V (59%) and Zn (66%). Fluxes of trace metals appeared to have noticeably increased from the last 45 years showing the maximum increments for Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, V and Zn during the 1980's (9 to 13 fold natural fluxes), for Ag and Cu (17 and 12 fold, respectively) during the 1990's and for Hg and Pb (2 and 13 fold) during the middle 1970's. Low levels of metal enrichment observed have evidenced that the most conspicuous consequences of the expansive growth of this area of the MCMZ, are mostly related to deforestation and erosion of the surrounding areas, rather than to trace metal pollution. Based on PCA, it can be assumed that atmospheric deposition, weathering of bedrock and soil within the watershed and authigenic production, are the most important processes that explain the trace metal distribution in the site. PMID:15152317

  10. The City of Saskatoon's Local Area Planning Program: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellett, Livia; Peter, Lyla; Moore, Kelley

    2008-01-01

    The City of Saskatoon's Local Area Planning (LAP) Program is a community-based approach to developing comprehensive neighbourhood plans. In order to achieve sustainable and implementable Local Area Plans (LAPs), the City of Saskatoon has been using innovative methods of collaborative decision-making to engage citizens. The program has been…

  11. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... in this section shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama...

  12. Geologic map database of the El Mirage Lake area, San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David M.; Bedford, David R.

    2000-01-01

    This geologic map database for the El Mirage Lake area describes geologic materials for the dry lake, parts of the adjacent Shadow Mountains and Adobe Mountain, and much of the piedmont extending south from the lake upward toward the San Gabriel Mountains. This area lies within the western Mojave Desert of San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, southeastern California. The area is traversed by a few paved highways that service the community of El Mirage, and by numerous dirt roads that lead to outlying properties. An off-highway vehicle area established by the Bureau of Land Management encompasses the dry lake and much of the land north and east of the lake. The physiography of the area consists of the dry lake, flanking mud and sand flats and alluvial piedmonts, and a few sharp craggy mountains. This digital geologic map database, intended for use at 1:24,000-scale, describes and portrays the rock units and surficial deposits of the El Mirage Lake area. The map database was prepared to aid in a water-resource assessment of the area by providing surface geologic information with which deepergroundwater-bearing units may be understood. The area mapped covers the Shadow Mountains SE and parts of the Shadow Mountains, Adobe Mountain, and El Mirage 7.5-minute quadrangles. The map includes detailed geology of surface and bedrock deposits, which represent a significant update from previous bedrock geologic maps by Dibblee (1960) and Troxel and Gunderson (1970), and the surficial geologic map of Ponti and Burke (1980); it incorporates a fringe of the detailed bedrock mapping in the Shadow Mountains by Martin (1992). The map data were assembled as a digital database using ARC/INFO to enable wider applications than traditional paper-product geologic maps and to provide for efficient meshing with other digital data bases prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey's Southern California Areal Mapping Project.

  13. Aquatic balance in Vegoritis Lake, West Macedonia, Greece, relating to lignite mining works in the area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrakopoulos, D.; Grigorakou, E.; Koumantakis, J.

    2003-04-01

    Vegoritis Lake, which is located at Vegoritis closed Basin in West Macedonia, Greece, is the biggest lake in Greece. In 1994 the area of the lake was 35 Km2 with maximum depth 42 m at the northwestern part of the lake. It is the final receiving body of the surface runoff of the hydrological basin. Moreover, it is the surficial appearance of an enormous and not well-known karstic aquifer. Being a closed hydrological basin any interference in surface or groundwater conditions in every part of its area affects the level of the lake. The level of the lake in 1900 was 525 masl, in 1942 was 542 masl reaching the higher level of 543 masl in 1956. The increase of the level of the lake was due to the drainage of Ptolemais (Sarigiol) swamp through Soulou drain ditches that transfer the water in the lake. Since then, a continuous drawdown took place with small periods of rising of water level. Today, the level of the lake is declined in a smaller rate having reached the level of 510 masl. Water coming from the lake has been used in the past, and in some cases still does, for agricultural, industrial and domestic use, for hydropower generation and for the cooling system of power plants. Moreover, P.P.C. (Public Power Corporation of Greece) develops an intense activity in the area with the exploitation of the lignite deposits of the basin and power generation in several Power Plants. Few years ago significant quantities from Vegoritis Lake were used for hydro power of Agras Power Plant. With the elaboration of the existent data (water level measurements, recharge, discharge) the connection between the lowering of the surface of the lake and the subtracted quantities through the Arnissa Tunel the first years of its use, is obvious. The last twenty years the condition has change. Outflow through the Arnissa Tunnel for hydropower has stopped. The continued lowering of the level of the lake is caused, mainly, by overexploitation due to the intense increase of the irrigating land

  14. Evolution of salt and hydrocarbon migration: Sweet Lake area, Cameron Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.A.; Sharpe, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    The interpretation of seismic, gravity, and well data in northern Cameron Parish, Louisiana suggest that lateral salt flow has influenced the area`s structural evolution, depositional patterns, and hydrocarbon migration. Sweet Lake Field has produced over 46 MMBO and 15 BCFG from Middle Miocene deltaic sands. The structural closure is a downthrown anticline on a fault controlled by the underlying salt feature. Sweet Lake Field overlies an allochthonous salt mass that was probably once part of an ancestral salt ridge extending from Hackberry to Big Lake fields. Nine wells encountering top of salt and several seismic lines define a detached salt feature underlying over twenty square miles at depths from 8500-18,000 ft. Salt withdrawal in the East Hackberry-Big Lake area influenced the depositional patterns of the Oligocene lower Hackberry channel systems. Progradation of thick Middle Oligocene Camerina (A) and Miogypsinoides sands into the area caused salt thinning and withdrawal resulting in the development and orientation of the large Marginulina-Miogypsinoides growth fault northwest of Sweet Lake. Additional evidence for the southeast trend of the salt is a well approximately two miles southeast of Sweet Lake which encountered salt at approximately 19,800 ft. High quality 2-D and 3-D seismic data will continue to enhance the regional understanding of the evolving salt structures in the onshore Gulf Coast and the local understanding of hydrocarbon migration. Additional examples of lateral salt flow will be recognized and some may prove to have subsalt hydrocarbon potential.

  15. Orientation study of the Lake Sunapee area, New Hampshire. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karfunkel, B. S.; Sargent, K. A.

    1982-08-01

    An orientation study was conducted in the area of Lake Sunapee, New Hampshire, in preparation for a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance in glacial terrain. The study was carried out by the Savannah River Laboratory as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE). Ground water, lake water, stream water, lake sediment, and stream sediment samples were collected at 188 sites. The concentrations of uranium and other elements were determined by neutron activation analysis. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the NURE program.

  16. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... waterline to 30°09′57.5″ N, 085°44′37″ W; then northerly to point of origin. (2) Area BA-1. The area...

  17. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... waterline to 30°09′57.5″ N, 085°44′37″ W; then northerly to point of origin. (2) Area BA-1. The area...

  18. Research in the Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal area, Northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1981-01-01

    The Geysers-Clear Lake area is one of two places in the world where major vapor-dominated hydrothermal reservoirs are commercially exploited for electric power production. Because energy can be extracted more efficiently from steam than from hot water, vapor-dominated systems are preferable for electric power generation, although most geothermal electric power facilities tap water-dominated systems. The Geysers- Clear Lake geothermal system has therefore been of great interest to the geothermal industry.

  19. 75 FR 41512 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/General Management Plan; Ross Lake National Recreation Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ...Pursuant to Sec. 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (Pub. L. 91-190, as amended), and the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations (40 CFR part 1500-1508), the National Park Service (NPS), Department of the Interior, has prepared a draft environmental impact statement for the proposed General Management Plan (GMP) for Ross Lake National Recreation Area (Ross Lake......

  20. Surficial geologic map of the Red Rock Lakes area, southwest Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Sojda, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    The Centennial Valley and Centennial Range continue to be formed by ongoing displacement on the Centennial fault. The dominant fault movement is downward, creating space in the valley for lakes and the deposition of sediment. The Centennial Valley originally drained to the northeast through a canyon now represented by a chain of lakes starting with Elk Lake. Subsequently, large landslides blocked and dammed the drainage, which created Lake Centennial, in the Centennial Valley. Sediments deposited in this late Pleistocene lake underlie much of the valley floor and rest on permeable sand and gravel deposited when the valley drained to the northeast. Cold Pleistocene climates enhanced colluvial supply of gravelly sediment to mountain streams and high peak flows carried gravelly sediment into the valley. There, the lower gradient of the streams resulted in deposition of alluvial fans peripheral to Lake Centennial as the lake lowered through time to the level of the two present lakes. Pleistocene glaciers formed in the high Centennial Range, built glacial moraines, and also supplied glacial outwash to the alluvial fans. Winds from the west and south blew sand to the northeast side of the valley building up high dunes. The central part of the map area is flat, sloping to the west by only 0.6 meters in 13 kilometers (2 feet in 8 miles) to form a watery lowland. This lowland contains Upper and Lower Red Rock Lakes, many ponds, and peat lands inside the “water plane,” above which are somewhat steeper slopes. The permeable sands and gravels beneath Lake Centennial sediments provide a path for groundwater recharged from the adjacent uplands. This groundwater leaks upward through Lake Centennial sediments and sustains wetland vegetation into late summer. Upper and Lower Red Rock Lakes are formed by alluvial-fan dams. Alluvial fans converge from both the south and the north to form outlet thresholds that dam the two shallow lakes upstream. The surficial geology aids in

  1. Application of the inundation area—lake level rating curves constructed from the SRTM DEM to retrieving lake levels from satellite measured inundation areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Feifei; Liao, Jingjuan; Li, Xinwu; Guo, Huadong

    2013-03-01

    Remote sensing technology has great potential for measuring lake inundation areas and lake levels, and providing important lake water quantity and quality information which can be used for improving our understanding of climate change impacts on the global water cycle, and assessing the influence of the projected future climate change on the global water resources. One remote sensing approach is to estimate lake level from satellite measured inundation area based on the inundation area—lake level rating (IALLR) curves. However, this approach is not easy to implement because of a lack of data for constructing the IALLR curves. In this study, an innovative and robust approach to construct the IALLR curves from the digital elevation model (DEM) data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was developed and tested. It was shown that the IALLR curves derived from the SRTM DEM data could be used to retrieve lake level from satellite measured inundation area. Applying the constructed IALLR curve to the estimated inundation areas from 16 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images, 16 lake levels of Lake Champlain in Vermont were obtained. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the estimated lake levels compared to the observed water levels at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gauging station (04294500) at Burlington, Vermont is about 0.12 m.

  2. Geohydrologic reconnaissance of Lake Mead National Recreation Area; Las Vegas Wash to Virgin River, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laney, R.L.; Bales, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    This study is the last of a series of eight geohydrologic reconnaissance studies that were done in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. The studies were done to evaluate the water resources in the recreation area and to identify areas having potential for the development of water supplies that would be adequate for marinas and campgrounds. The study area includes about 250 square miles north of Lake Mead from Las Vegas Wash to the Virgin River (Overton Arm), Nevada. Volcanic rocks, consolidated sedimentary rocks, and unconsolidated to semiconsolidated sedimentary rocks underlie the area. Surface-water sources include the Colorado River, Virgin River, Muddy River, and Las Vegas Wash. Elsewhere in the area, streamflow is meager and extremely variable. Ground water originates from four sources: (1) subsurface flow in local basins, (2) infiltration of water from Lake Mead into permeable rocks near the lake, (3) subsurface flow in valleys of perennial streams, and (4) subsurface flow in consolidated rocks of the Muddy Mountains. The quantity of water from Lake Mead that has saturated rocks adjacent to the lake probably is greater than the quantity of ground water from all the Other sources. Rocks saturated by water from the lake probably extend less than 0.5 mileinland from the lake shore. The quality of virtually all the ground water in the area is not acceptable for drinking purposes. The most favorable areas for obtaining ground water are those underlain by the coarse-grained deposits of the older alluvium and the younger alluvium adjacent to Lake Mead. The least favorable areas are those underlain by the mudstone facies of the Muddy Creek Formation and fine-grained rocks of the Horse Spring Formation. Four areas identified as having potential for ground-water development are (1) near Overton Beach, (2) west of Callville Bay, (3) near Middle Point, and (4) in the lower Moapa Valley. Usable quantities of water probably can be obtained at these sites, but the

  3. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions of Nettilling Lake area (Baffin Island, Nunavut): A multi-proxy analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Anne; Pienitz, Reinhard; Francus, Pierre; Zdanowicz, Christian; St-Onge, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    The paleoclimate and paleolimnological history of several Arctic regions remains poorly known. This is the case for the area around Nettilling Lake (Baffin Island, Nunavut), the largest lake of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. To reconstruct the past environmental history of this area, a highly innovative multi-proxy approach combining physical, magnetic, chemical and biological properties preserved in lake sediments was used. One particular goal of this study was to investigate the possible coupling between sedimentation processes observed in the lake and melt rates of nearby Penny Ice Cap. A 1-m long sediment core was retrieved from a small bay in the northeastern part of Nettilling Lake during the summer of 2010. This sampling area was chosen based on the hypothesis that incoming glacial meltwaters from Penny Ice Cap would leave a strong climate-modulated signal that would be reflected in the sedimentary sequence. The core was analyzed by both non-destructive (X-radiography (X-ray), microfluorescence-X (µ-XRF), magnetic susceptibility) and destructive (Loss On Ignition, grain size, water content, thin sections, diatoms) techniques. Radiometric AMS 14C and 210Pb/137Cs age determinations, as well as paleomagnetic measurements, were used to develop the core chronology, yielding an estimated bottom age of approximately 1365 AD. The sedimentation rate (0.15 cm.yr-1) in Nettilling Lake was found to be high compared to other Arctic lakes, due to inputs of highly turbid meltwaters from Penny Ice Cap with high suspended sediment loads. Significant correlations were found between geochemical profiles of elements linked to detrital inputs (Si, Ti, K, Ca) and melt rates from Penny Ice Cap since the 19th century. This suggests that variations in detrital elements in Nettilling Lake sediments might be used as an indirect indicator of regional climate fluctuations (e.g., summer temperatures) that determine glacier melt rates.

  4. Comparison of transport pathways and potential sources of PM10 in two cities around a large Chinese lake using the modified trajectory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangzhen; He, Wei; Qin, Ning; He, Qishuang; Yang, Bin; Ouyang, Huiling; Wang, Qingmei; Xu, Fuliu

    2013-03-01

    Trajectory cluster analysis, including the two-stage cluster method based on Euclidean metrics and the one-stage clustering method based on Mahalanobis metrics and self-organizing maps (SOM), was applied and compared to identify the transport pathways of PM10 for the cities of Chaohu and Hefei, both located near Lake Chaohu in China. The two-stage cluster method was modified to further investigate the long trajectories in the second stage in order to eliminate the observed disaggregation among them. Twelve trajectory clusters were identified for both cities. The one-stage clustering method based on Mahalanobis metrics gives the best performance regarding the variances within clusters. The results showed that local PM10 emission was one of the most important sources in both cities and that the local emission in Hefei was higher than in Chaohu. In addition, Chaohu suffered greater effects from the eastern region (Yangtze River Delta, YRD) than Hefei. On the other hand, the long-range transportation from the northwestern pathway had a higher influence on the PM10 level in Hefei. Receptor models, including potential source contribution function (PSCF) and residence time weighted concentrations (RTWC), were utilized to identify the potential source locations of PM10 for both cities. However, the combined PSCF and RTWC results for the two cities provided PM10 source locations that were more consistent with the results of transport pathways and the total anthropogenic PM10 emission inventory. This indicates that the combined method's ability to identify the source regions is superior to that of the individual PSCF or RTWC methods. Henan and Shanxi Provinces and the YRD were important PM10 source regions for the two cities, but the Henan and Shanxi area was more important for Hefei than for Chaohu, while the YRD region was less important. In addition, the PSCF, RTWC and the combined results all had higher correlation coefficients with PM10 emission from traffic than from

  5. Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

  6. 33 CFR 165.901 - Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas. 165.901 Section 165.901 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  7. 33 CFR 165.901 - Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas. 165.901 Section 165.901 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  8. 33 CFR 165.901 - Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas. 165.901 Section 165.901 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  9. 33 CFR 165.901 - Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Lakes-regulated navigation areas. 165.901 Section 165.901 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  10. Modeling carbon dioxide emissions reductions for three commercial reference buildings in Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucich, Stephen M.

    In the United States, the buildings sector is responsible for approximately 40% of the national carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. CO2 is created during the generation of heat and electricity, and has been linked to climate change, acid rain, a variety of health threats, surface water depletion, and the destruction of natural habitats. Building energy modeling is a powerful educational tool that building owners, architects, engineers, city planners, and policy makers can use to make informed decisions. The aim of this thesis is to simulate the reduction in CO2 emissions that may be achieved for three commercial buildings located in Salt Lake City, UT. The following two questions were used to guide this process: 1. How much can a building's annual CO2 emissions be reduced through a specific energy efficiency upgrade or policy? 2. How much can a building's annual CO2 emissions be reduced through the addition of a photovoltaic (PV) array? How large should the array be? Building energy simulations were performed with the Department of Energy's EnergyPlus software, commercial reference building models, and TMY3 weather data. The chosen models were a medium office building, a primary school, and a supermarket. Baseline energy consumption data were simulated for each model in order to identify changes that would have a meaningful impact. Modifications to the buildings construction and operation were considered before a PV array was incorporated. These modifications include (1) an improved building envelope, (2) reduced lighting intensity, and (3) modified HVAC temperature set points. The PV array sizing was optimized using a demand matching approach based on the method of least squares. The arrays tilt angle was optimized using the golden section search algorithm. Combined, energy efficiency upgrades and the PV array reduced building CO2 emissions by 58.6, 54.0, and 52.2% for the medium office, primary school, and supermarket, respectively. However, for these models, it was