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  1. Bacterial Community Composition in Lake Tanganyika: Vertical and Horizontal Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    De Wever, Aaike; Muylaert, Koenraad; Van der Gucht, Katleen; Pirlot, Samuel; Cocquyt, Christine; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Plisnier, Pierre-Denis; Vyverman, Wim

    2005-01-01

    Vertical and latitudinal differences in bacterial community composition (BCC) in Lake Tanganyika were studied during the dry season of 2002 by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR-amplified 16S RNA fragments. Dominant bands were sequenced and identified as members of the Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae, green nonsulfur bacteria, and Firmicutes divisions and the Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria subdivisions. The BCC in the lake displayed both vertical and latitudinal variation. Vertical changes in BCC were related to the thermal water column stratification, which influences oxygen and nutrient concentrations. Latitudinal variation was related to upwelling of deep water and increased primary production in the south of the lake. The number of bands per sample increased with bacterial production in the epilimnion of the lake, suggesting a positive diversity-productivity relationship. PMID:16151083

  2. Gastritis in Lake Tanganyika cichlids (Tropheus duboisii).

    PubMed

    Ferguson, H W; Rosendal, S; Groom, S

    1985-06-29

    Necrotic and granulomatous gastritis is described in Lake Tanganyika cichlids. Clostridium hastiforme and flagellated protozoa were both associated with the reaction but the significance of either is unknown. Nevertheless, treatment of surviving fish with ampicillin was carried out and mortalities ceased. The possible involvement of an unsuitable diet as a predisposing factor is discussed. PMID:3895712

  3. Tempo and Mode of Diversification of Lake Tanganyika Cichlid Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Day, Julia J.; Cotton, James A.; Barraclough, Timothy G.

    2008-01-01

    Background Understanding the causes of disparities in species diversity across taxonomic groups and regions is a fundamental aim in evolutionary biology. Addressing these questions is difficult because of the need for densely sampled phylogenies and suitable empirical systems. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we investigate the cichlid fish radiation of Lake Tanganyika and show that per lineage diversification rates have been more than six times slower than in the species flocks of Lakes Victoria and Malawi. The result holds even at peak periods of diversification in Lake Tanganyika, ruling out the age of the lake as an explanation for slow average rates, and is robust to uncertainties over the calibration of cichlid radiations in geological time. Moreover, Lake Tanganyika lineages, irrespective of different biological characteristics (e.g. sexually dichromatic versus sexually monochromatic clades), have diversified at similar rates, falling within typical estimates across a range of plant and animal clades. For example, the mostly sexually dichromatic haplochromines, which have speciated explosively in Lakes Victoria and Malawi, have displayed modest rates in Lake Tanganyika (where they are called Tropheini). Conclusion/Significance Our results show that either the Lake Tanganyika environment is less conducive for cichlid speciation or the remarkable diversifying abilities of the haplochromines were inhibited by the prior occupancy of older radiations. Although the results indicate a dominant role for the environment in shaping cichlid diversification, differences in the timing of diversification among the Tanganyikan tribes indicate that biological differences were still important for the dynamics of species build-up in the lake. While we cannot resolve the timing of the radiation relative to the origin of the lake, because of the lack of robust geological date calibrations for cichlids, our results are consistent with a scenario that the different clades reflect independent adaptive radiations into different broad niches in the lake. PMID:18320049

  4. Mating and Parental Care in Lake Tanganyika's Cichlids.

    PubMed

    Sefc, Kristina M

    2011-01-01

    Cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika display a variety of mating and parental care behaviors, including polygamous and monogamous mouthbrooding and substrate breeding, cooperative breeding, as well as various alternative reproductive tactics such as sneaking and piracy. Moreover, reproductive behaviors sometimes vary within species both in space and in time. Here, I survey reports on mating and parenting behaviors of Lake Tanganyika cichlid species and address the evolution of mating and parental care patterns and sexual dimorphism. Notes on measures of sexual selection intensity and the difficulties of defining mating systems and estimating selection intensities at species level conclude the essay. PMID:21822482

  5. Multi-year wind dynamics around Lake Tanganyika

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Docquier, D.; Thiery, W.; Lhermitte, S.; van Lipzig, N.

    2016-02-01

    Lake Tanganyika is the second largest freshwater lake in the world by volume and is of prime importance for the regional economy in East Africa. Although the lake is recognized as a key component of the regional climate system, little is known about atmospheric dynamics in its surroundings. To understand this role, we analyze winds around Lake Tanganyika as modeled by a high resolution (7 km) regional climate model (Consortium for Small-scale Modeling in Climate Mode) over the period 1999-2008. Modeled surface wind speed and direction are in very good agreement with high resolution (12.5 km) Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) satellite wind observations during the dry season. Comparison of a control run with a model simulation where all lake pixels are replaced by representative land pixels indicates that mean surface wind speed over Lake Tanganyika almost doubles due to lake presence. Furthermore, a region of higher surface wind speed in the central part of the lake is identified and confirmed by QuikSCAT observations. A combination of wind channeling along valley mountains and wind confluence on the upwind side of the lake is responsible for this speed-up. The lower wind speeds in the rest of the lake result from blocked conditions due to more pronounced orography. Finally, the model captures a zone of higher wind speed at around 2 km height, associated with the low-level Somali jet. These results demonstrate that high resolution climate modeling allows a detailed understanding of wind dynamics in the vicinity of Lake Tanganyika.

  6. What prevents outgassing of methane to the atmosphere in Lake Tanganyika?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durisch-Kaiser, Edith; Schmid, Martin; Peeters, Frank; Kipfer, Rolf; Dinkel, Christian; Diem, Torsten; Schubert, Carsten J.; Wehrli, Bernhard

    2011-06-01

    Tropical East African Lake Tanganyika hosts the Earth's largest anoxic freshwater body. The entire water column holds over 23 Tg of the potent greenhouse gas methane (CH4). Methane is formed under sulphate-poor conditions via carbon dioxide reduction or fermentation from detritus and relict sediment organic matter. Permanent density stratification supports an accumulation of CH4 below the permanent oxycline. Despite CH4 significance for global climate, anaerobic microbial consumption of CH4 in freshwater is poorly understood. Here we provide evidence for intense methanotrophic activity not only in the oxic but also in the anoxic part of the water column of Lake Tanganyika. We measured CH4, 13C of dissolved CH4, dissolved oxygen (O2), sulphate (SO42-), sulphide (HS-) and the transient tracers chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC-12) and tritium (3H). A basic one-dimensional model, which considers vertical transport and biogeochemical fluxes and transformations, was used to interpret the vertical distribution of these substances. The results suggest that the anaerobic oxidation of CH4 is an important mechanism limiting CH4 to the anoxic zone of Lake Tanganyika. The important role of the anaerobic oxidation for CH4 concentrations is further supported by high abundances (up to ˜33% of total DAPI-stained cells) of single living archaea, identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

  7. Evolutionary History of Lake Tanganyika's Predatory Deepwater Cichlids

    PubMed Central

    Kirchberger, Paul C.; Sefc, Kristina M.; Sturmbauer, Christian; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization among littoral cichlid species in Lake Tanganyika was inferred in several molecular phylogenetic studies. The phenomenon is generally attributed to the lake level-induced shoreline and habitat changes. These allow for allopatric divergence of geographically fragmented populations alternating with locally restricted secondary contact and introgression between incompletely isolated taxa. In contrast, the deepwater habitat is characterized by weak geographic structure and a high potential for gene flow, which may explain the lower species richness of deepwater than littoral lineages. For the same reason, divergent deepwater lineages should have evolved strong intrinsic reproductive isolation already in the incipient stages of diversification, and, consequently, hybridization among established lineages should have been less frequent than in littoral lineages. We test this hypothesis in the endemic Lake Tanganyika deepwater cichlid tribe Bathybatini by comparing phylogenetic trees of Hemibates and Bathybates species obtained with nuclear multilocus AFLP data with a phylogeny based on mitochondrial sequences. Consistent with our hypothesis, largely congruent tree topologies and negative tests for introgression provided no evidence for introgressive hybridization between the deepwater taxa. Together, the nuclear and mitochondrial data established a well-supported phylogeny and suggested ecological segregation during speciation. PMID:22675652

  8. Lake Tanganyika--a 'melting pot' of ancient and young cichlid lineages (Teleostei: Cichlidae)?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Juliane D; Cotterill, Fenton P D; Schliewen, Ulrich K

    2015-01-01

    A long history of research focused on the East Africa cichlid radiations (EAR) revealed discrepancies between mtDNA and nuclear phylogenies, suggesting that interspecific hybridisation may have been significant during the radiation of these fishes. The approximately 250 cichlid species of Lake Tanganyika have their roots in a monophyletic African cichlid assemblage, but controversies remain about the precise phylogenetic origin and placement of different lineages and consequently about L. Tanganyika colonization scenarios. 3312 AFLP loci and the mitochondrial ND2 gene were genotyped for 91 species representing almost all major lacustrine and riverine haplotilapiine east African cichlid lineages with a focus on L. Tanganyika endemics. Explicitly testing for the possibility of ancient hybridisation events, a comprehensive phylogenetic network hypothesis is proposed for the origin and diversification of L. Tanganyika cichlids. Inference of discordant phylogenetic signal strongly suggests that the genomes of two endemic L. Tanganyika tribes, Eretmodini and Tropheini, are composed of an ancient mixture of riverine and lacustrine lineages. For the first time a strong monophyly signal of all non-haplochromine mouthbrooding species endemic to L. Tanganyika ("ancient mouthbrooders") was detected. Further, in the genomes of early diverging L. Tanganyika endemics Trematocarini, Bathybatini, Hemibatini and Boulengerochromis genetic components of other lineages belonging to the East African Radiation appear to be present. In combination with recent palaeo-geological results showing that tectonic activity in the L. Tanganyika region resulted in highly dynamic and heterogeneous landscape evolution over the Neogene and Pleistocene, the novel phylogenetic data render a single lacustrine basin as the geographical cradle of the endemic L. Tanganyika cichlid lineages unlikely. Instead a scenario of a pre-rift origin of several independent L. Tanganyika precursor lineages which diversified in ancient rivers and precursor lakes and then amalgamated in the extant L. Tanganyika basin is put forward as an alternative: the 'melting pot Tanganyika' hypothesis. PMID:25928886

  9. The Adaptive Radiation of Cichlid Fish in Lake Tanganyika: A Morphological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Tetsumi; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika is the oldest of the Great Ancient Lakes in the East Africa. This lake harbours about 250 species of cichlid fish, which are highly diverse in terms of morphology, behaviour, and ecology. Lake Tanganyika's cichlid diversity has evolved through explosive speciation and is treated as a textbook example of adaptive radiation, the rapid differentiation of a single ancestor into an array of species that differ in traits used to exploit their environments and resources. To elucidate the processes and mechanisms underlying the rapid speciation and adaptive radiation of Lake Tanganyika's cichlid species assemblage it is important to integrate evidence from several lines of research. Great efforts have been, are, and certainly will be taken to solve the mystery of how so many cichlid species evolved in so little time. In the present review, we summarize morphological studies that relate to the adaptive radiation of Lake Tanganyika's cichlids and highlight their importance for understanding the process of adaptive radiation. PMID:21716857

  10. Hydrothermal vents is Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system

    SciTech Connect

    Tiercelin, J.J.; Pflumio, C.; Castrec, M.

    1993-06-01

    Sublacustrine hydrothermal vents with associated massive sulfides were discovered during April 1987 at Pemba and Cape Banza on the Zaire side of the northern basin of Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system. New investigations by a team of ten scuba divers during the multinational (France, Zaire, Germany, and Burundi) TANGANYDRO expedition (August-October 1991) found hydrothermal vents down to a depth of 46 m along north-trending active faults bounding the Tanganyika rift on the western side. Temperatures from 53 to 103 {degrees}C were measured in hydrothermal fluids and sediments. Veins of massive sulfides 1-10 cm thick (pyrite and marcasite banding) were found associated with vents at the Pemba site. At Cape Banza, active vents are characterized by 1-70-cm-high aragonite chimneys, and there are microcrystalline pyrite coatings on the walls of hydrothermal pipes. Hydrothermal fluid end members show distinctive compositions at the two sites. The Pemba end member is a NaHCO{sub 3}-enriched fluid similar to the NaHCO{sub 3} thermal fluids form lakes Magadi and Bogoria in the eastern branch of the rift. The Cape Banza end member is a solution enriched in NaCl. Such brines may have a deep-seated basement origin, as do the Uvinza NaCl brines on the eastern flank of the Tanganyika basin. Geothermometric calculations have yielded temperatures of fluid-rock interaction of 219 and 179 {degrees}C in the Pemba and Cape Banza systems, respectively. Abundant white or reddish-brown microbial colonies resembling Beggiatoa mats were found surrounding the active vents. Thermal fluid circulation is permitted by opening of cracks related to 130{degrees}N normal-dextral faults that intersect the north-south major rift trend. The sources of heat for such hydrothermal systems may relate to the existence of magmatic bodies under the rift, which is suggested by the isotopic composition of carbon dioxide released at Pemba and Cape Banza. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Ancient lakes as evolutionary reservoirs: evidence from the thalassoid gastropods of Lake Tanganyika.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Anthony B; Glaubrecht, Matthias; Meyer, Axel

    2004-03-01

    Ancient lakes are often collectively viewed as evolutionary hot spots of diversification. East Africa's Lake Tanganyika has long been the subject of scientific interest owing to dramatic levels of endemism in species as diverse as cichlid fishes, paludomid gastropods, decapod and ostracod crustaceans and poriferans. It is the largest and deepest of the African rift lakes, and its endemic fauna has been presented with a stable inland environment for over 10 Myr, offering unique opportunities for within-lake diversification. Although astonishing diversification has been documented in the endemic cichlid fauna of the lake, similar patterns of rapid diversification have long been assumed for other groups. In contrast to this hypothesis of rapid speciation, we show here that there has been no acceleration in the rate of speciation in the thalassoid gastropods of the lake following lake colonization. While limited within-lake speciation has occurred, the dramatic conchological diversity of gastropods presently found within the lake has evolved from at least four major lineages that pre-date its formation by as much as 40 Myr. At the same time, a widespread group of African gastropods appears to have evolved from taxa presently found in the lake. While Lake Tanganyika has been a cradle of speciation for cichlid fishes, it has also been an important evolutionary reservoir of gastropod lineages that have been extirpated outside the basin. PMID:15129964

  12. Late-twentieth-century warming in Lake Tanganyika unprecedented since AD 500

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, Jessica E.; Mayes, Marc T.; Meyer, Natacha; Johnson, Christopher; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Russell, James M.

    2010-06-01

    Instrumental observations suggest that Lake Tanganyika, the largest rift lake in East Africa, has become warmer, increasingly stratified and less productive over the past 90years (refs 1,2). These trends have been attributed to anthropogenic climate change. However, it remains unclear whether the decrease in productivity is linked to the temperature rise, and whether the twentieth-century trends are anomalous within the context of longer-term variability. Here, we use the TEX86 temperature proxy, the weight per cent of biogenic silica and charcoal abundance from Lake Tanganyika sediment cores to reconstruct lake-surface temperature, productivity and regional wildfire frequency, respectively, for the past 1,500years. We detect a negative correlation between lake-surface temperature and primary productivity, and our estimates of fire frequency, and hence humidity, preclude decreased nutrient input through runoff as a cause for observed periods of low productivity. We suggest that, throughout the past 1,500years, rising lake-surface temperatures increased the stratification of the lake water column, preventing nutrient recharge from below and limiting primary productivity. Our records indicate that changes in the temperature of Lake Tanganyika in the past few decades exceed previous natural variability. We conclude that these unprecedented temperatures and a corresponding decrease in productivity can be attributed to anthropogenic global warming, with potentially important implications for the Lake Tanganyika fishery.

  13. Marine Incursion: The Freshwater Herring of Lake Tanganyika Are the Product of a Marine Invasion into West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Anthony B.; Teugels, Guy G.; Meyer, Axel

    2008-01-01

    The spectacular marine-like diversity of the endemic fauna of Lake Tanganyika, the oldest of the African Great Lakes, led early researchers to suggest that the lake must have once been connected to the ocean. Recent geophysical reconstructions clearly indicate that Lake Tanganyika formed by rifting in the African subcontinent and was never directly linked to the sea. Although the Lake has a high proportion of specialized endemics, the absence of close relatives outside Tanganyika has complicated phylogeographic reconstructions of the timing of lake colonization and intralacustrine diversification. The freshwater herring of Lake Tanganyika are members of a large group of pellonuline herring found in western and southern Africa, offering one of the best opportunities to trace the evolutionary history of members of Tanganyika's biota. Molecular phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that herring colonized West Africa 25–50MYA, at the end of a major marine incursion in the region. Pellonuline herring subsequently experienced an evolutionary radiation in West Africa, spreading across the continent and reaching East Africa's Lake Tanganyika during its early formation. While Lake Tanganyika has never been directly connected with the sea, the endemic freshwater herring of the lake are the descendents of an ancient marine incursion, a scenario which may also explain the origin of other Tanganyikan endemics. PMID:18431469

  14. Estimating the age of formation of lakes: An example from Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.; Soreghan, M.J.; Scholz, C.A.

    1993-06-01

    Age estimates for ancient lakes are important for determining their histories and their rates of biotic and tectonic evolution. In the absence of dated core material from the lake`s sedimentary basement, several techniques have been used to generate such age estimates. The most common of these, herein called the reflection seismic-radiocarbon method (RSRM), combines estimates of short-term sediment-accumulation rates derived from radiocarbon-dated cores and depth-to-basement estimates derived from reflection-seismic data at or near the same locality to estimate an age to basement. Age estimates form the RSRM suggest that the structural basins of central Lake Tanganyika began to form between 9 and 12 Ma. Estimates for the northern and southern basins are younger (7 to 8 Ma and 2 to 4 Ma, respectively). The diachroneity of estimates for different segments of the lake is equivocal, and may be due to erosional loss of record in the northern and southern structural basins or to progressive opening of the rift. The RSRM age estimates for Lake Tanganyika are considerably younger than most prior estimates and clarify the extensional history of the western branch of the East African Rift system. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Century-Long Warming Trends in the Upper Water Column of Lake Tanganyika.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Benjamin M; Hook, Simon; Huttula, Timo; Kotilainen, Pekka; O'Reilly, Catherine M; Peltonen, Anu; Plisnier, Pierre-Denis; Sarvala, Jouko; Tamatamah, Rashid; Vadeboncoeur, Yvonne; Wehrli, Bernhard; McIntyre, Peter B

    2015-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika, the deepest and most voluminous lake in Africa, has warmed over the last century in response to climate change. Separate analyses of surface warming rates estimated from in situ instruments, satellites, and a paleolimnological temperature proxy (TEX86) disagree, leaving uncertainty about the thermal sensitivity of Lake Tanganyika to climate change. Here, we use a comprehensive database of in situ temperature data from the top 100 meters of the water column that span the lake's seasonal range and lateral extent to demonstrate that long-term temperature trends in Lake Tanganyika depend strongly on depth, season, and latitude. The observed spatiotemporal variation in surface warming rates accounts for small differences between warming rate estimates from in situ instruments and satellite data. However, after accounting for spatiotemporal variation in temperature and warming rates, the TEX86 paleolimnological proxy yields lower surface temperatures (1.46 °C lower on average) and faster warming rates (by a factor of three) than in situ measurements. Based on the ecology of Thaumarchaeota (the microbes whose biomolecules are involved with generating the TEX86 proxy), we offer a reinterpretation of the TEX86 data from Lake Tanganyika as the temperature of the low-oxygen zone, rather than of the lake surface temperature as has been suggested previously. Our analyses provide a thorough accounting of spatiotemporal variation in warming rates, offering strong evidence that thermal and ecological shifts observed in this massive tropical lake over the last century are robust and in step with global climate change. PMID:26147964

  16. Century-Long Warming Trends in the Upper Water Column of Lake Tanganyika

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer, Benjamin M.; Hook, Simon; Huttula, Timo; Kotilainen, Pekka; O’Reilly, Catherine M.; Peltonen, Anu; Plisnier, Pierre-Denis; Sarvala, Jouko; Tamatamah, Rashid; Vadeboncoeur, Yvonne; Wehrli, Bernhard; McIntyre, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika, the deepest and most voluminous lake in Africa, has warmed over the last century in response to climate change. Separate analyses of surface warming rates estimated from in situ instruments, satellites, and a paleolimnological temperature proxy (TEX86) disagree, leaving uncertainty about the thermal sensitivity of Lake Tanganyika to climate change. Here, we use a comprehensive database of in situ temperature data from the top 100 meters of the water column that span the lake’s seasonal range and lateral extent to demonstrate that long-term temperature trends in Lake Tanganyika depend strongly on depth, season, and latitude. The observed spatiotemporal variation in surface warming rates accounts for small differences between warming rate estimates from in situ instruments and satellite data. However, after accounting for spatiotemporal variation in temperature and warming rates, the TEX86 paleolimnological proxy yields lower surface temperatures (1.46 °C lower on average) and faster warming rates (by a factor of three) than in situ measurements. Based on the ecology of Thaumarchaeota (the microbes whose biomolecules are involved with generating the TEX86 proxy), we offer a reinterpretation of the TEX86 data from Lake Tanganyika as the temperature of the low-oxygen zone, rather than of the lake surface temperature as has been suggested previously. Our analyses provide a thorough accounting of spatiotemporal variation in warming rates, offering strong evidence that thermal and ecological shifts observed in this massive tropical lake over the last century are robust and in step with global climate change. PMID:26147964

  17. Alternative Reproductive Tactics in the Shell-Brooding Lake Tanganyika Cichlid Neolamprologus brevis

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Kazutaka; Aibara, Mitsuto; Morita, Masaya; Awata, Satoshi; Hori, Michio; Kohda, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) are found in several Lake Tanganyika shell-brooding cichlids. Field studies were conducted in the Wonzye population to examine reproductive ecology and ARTs in the Lake Tanganyika shell-brooding cichlid Neolamprologus brevis. We discovered that this fish occurred in both rocky- and sandy-bottom habitats, but in rocky habitats, brood-caring females exclusively occurred in shell-patches that another cichlid species created. All N. brevis of both sexes in the patches were sexually mature, whereas immature males and females with unripe eggs were found frequently in sandy-bottom habitats. Males in sandy-bottom habitats were smaller, but fed more frequently and were in better somatic condition than males in the patches. Similar tendency was found in females. This indicates that N. brevis uses different habitats depending on the stage of its life history, with migration from sandy-bottom habitats to the shell-patches for reproduction. Males in the patches exhibited different behavior patterns: floating above the patches and lying in the patches. The former was larger, more aggressive, and invested less in gonads (relative to body size) than the latter. These results accord with those of other shell-brooding Lake Tanganyika cichlids with ARTs, and they therefore suggest the presence of ARTs in N. brevis. PMID:22888463

  18. Mercury biomagnification in the food web of Lake Tanganyika (Tanzania, East Africa).

    PubMed

    Campbell, L; Verburg, Piet; Dixon, D G; Hecky, R E

    2008-09-01

    Lake Tanganyika is a globally important lake with high endemic biodiversity. Millions of people in the lake basin depend on several fish species for consumption. Due to the importance of fish consumption as an exposure route of mercury to humans, we sampled Lake Tanganyika in 2000 to assess total mercury concentrations and biomagnification of total mercury through the food web. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotope analyses of food web structure indicate a complex food web with overlapping omnivory with some specialist fish species. Stable nitrogen isotope analyses further confirm that mercury is biomagnifying through the Tanganyika food web at rates similar to those seen in Lakes Malawi and Victoria, the other two African Great Lakes. Most collected fish species and all invertebrate species had mercury concentrations below 0.2 microg Hg/g wet weight. However, several fish species, Ctenochromis horei (average 0.15 microg/g ww), Neolamprologus boulengeri (0.2 microg/g ww) , Bathybates spp.spp. (0.21 microg/g ww), Mastacembelus cunningtoni (0.22 microg/g ww) and Clarias theodorae (0.22 microg/g ww) approached or slightly exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO)'s recommended guideline of 0.2 microg Hg/g for vulnerable populations with high rates of fish consumption. Two individuals of the piscivorous fish species Lates microlepis (0.54, 0.78 microg/g ww) and a Polypterus congicus (1.3 microg/g ww) exceeded the international marketing limit value of 0.5 microg/g ww. Because C. theodorae and L. microlepis are also important market fish species, there is a need to monitor mercury concentrations in internationally marketed fish from Lake Tanganikya to ensure that those fish do not present a risk to human consumers. PMID:18559282

  19. Thermophilic Sulfate Reduction in Hydrothermal Sediment of Lake Tanganyika, East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Elsgaard, Lars; Prieur, Daniel; Mukwaya, Gashagaza M.; Jrgensen, Bo B.

    1994-01-01

    In environments with temperatures above 60C, thermophilic prokaryotes are the only metabolically active life-forms. By using the 35SO42- tracer technique, we studied the activity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) in hot sediment from a hydrothermal vent site in the northern part of freshwater Lake Tanganyika (East Africa). Incubation of slurry samples at 8 to 90C demonstrated meso- and thermophilic sulfate reduction with optimum temperatures of 34 to 45C and 56 to 65C, respectively, and with an upper temperature limit of 80C. Sulfate reduction was stimulated at all temperatures by the addition of short-chain fatty acids and benzoate or complex substrates (yeast extract and peptone). A time course experiment showed that linear thermophilic sulfate consumption occurred after a lag phase (12 h) and indicated the presence of a large population of SRM in the hydrothermal sediment. Thermophilic sulfate reduction had a pH optimum of about 7 and was completely inhibited at pH 8.8 to 9.2. SRM could be enriched from hydrothermal chimney and sediment samples at 60 and 75C. In lactate-grown enrichments, sulfide production occurred at up to 70 and 75C, with optima at 63 and 71C, respectively. Several sporulating thermophilic enrichments were morphologically similar to Desulfotomaculum spp. Dissimilatory sulfate reduction in the studied hydrothermal area of Lake Tanganyika apparently has an upper temperature limit of 80C. PMID:16349249

  20. Trematodes indicate animal biodiversity in the Chilean intertidal and Lake Tanganyika.

    PubMed

    Hechinger, Ryan F; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand M

    2008-08-01

    Trematode communities in populations of estuarine snails can reflect surrounding animal diversity, abundance, and trophic interactions. We know less about the potential for trematodes to serve as bioindicators in other habitats. Here, we reanalyze data from 2 published studies concerning trematodes, 1 in the Chilean rocky intertidal zone and the other from the East African rift lake, Lake Tanganyika. Our analyses indicate that trematodes are more common in protected areas and that in both habitats they are directly and positively related to surrounding host abundance. This further supports the notion that trematodes in first intermediate hosts can serve as bioindicators of the condition of free-living animal communities in diverse ecosystems. PMID:18576749

  1. Trace metal concentrations in water, sediments and fish tissue from Lake Tanganyika.

    PubMed

    Chale, F M M

    2002-11-01

    Trace metal (Cu, Pb, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd) concentrations were determined in water, sediments, various fin fish species and a bivalve (Mutela spekei) from Lake Tanganyika using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Integrated water samples to depths of 10 m were collected using a pre-rinsed flexible plastic pipe. Sediment samples were collected using a ponar mud sampler. Fish samples were obtained using a variety of fishing techniques. No differences in trace metal concentrations were observed in both inshore and offshore waters. Levels in inshore sediments were much higher than for the offshore ones. Sediment input through run-off may have been the cause for the differences. However, the levels were much lower than those reported for Lake Malawi sediments. The concentrations in the fish tissue were within ranges reported elsewhere for Lake Tanganyika fish species. The centrapomid Lates stappersii and the clupeids Limnothrissa miodon and Stolothrissa tanganicae are the most important commercial species in the lake followed by Lates marie. Lead and cadmium are of concern to human health. The mean concentrations of the two metals in the commercial fish species were as follows: L. stappersii (5.03 microg Pb/g, 0.28 microg Cd/g); L. marie (4.96 microg Pb/g, 0.25 microg Cd/g); L. miodon (4.64 microg Pb, 0.38 microg Cd); and S. tanganicae (4.96 microg Pb/g, 0.39 microg Cd/g). Levels of lead and iron in the bivalve species were exceptionally very high, being 11.08 and 6.54 mg/g, respectively. PMID:12462578

  2. Nuclear and mitochondrial data reveal different evolutionary processes in the Lake Tanganyika cichlid genus Tropheus

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Bernd; Koblmüller, Stephan; Sturmbauer, Christian; Sefc, Kristina M

    2007-01-01

    Background Cichlid fishes are notorious for their wealth of intra- and interspecific colour pattern diversity. In Lake Tanganyika, the endemic genus Tropheus represents the most impressive example for geographic variation in the pattern and hue of integument colouration, but the taxonomy of the over 100 mostly allopatric colour morphs remains to a large degree unresolved. Previous studies of mitochondrial DNA sequence data revealed polyphyly of the six nominally described species and complex phylogeographic patterns influenced by lake level fluctuations and population admixture, and suggested the parallel evolution of similar colour patterns in divergent evolutionary lineages. A gene tree of a rapidly radiating group may be subject to incomplete and stochastic lineage sorting, and to overcome this problem we used multi-locus, nuclear AFLP data in comparison with mtDNA sequences to study diversification, migration and introgression in Tropheus colour morphs in Lake Tanganyika. Results Significant incongruence between phylogenetic reconstructions from mitochondrial and AFLP data suggested incomplete sorting of mitochondrial haplotypes as well as frequent introgression between differentiated lineages. In contrast to the mitochondrial phylogeny, the AFLP phenogram was largely congruent with species classifications, colour pattern similarities, and in many cases also with the current geographic distribution of populations, and did not produce evidence of convergent colour pattern evolution. Homoplasy in the AFLP data was used to identify populations that were strongly affected by introgression. Conclusion Different evolutionary processes were distinguished by the combination of mitochondrial and AFLP data. Mitochondrial phylogeographic patterns retained signals of large-scale migration events triggered by historical, major lake level fluctuations, whereas AFLP data indicated genetic cohesion among local groups of populations resulting from secondary contact of adjacent populations in the course of the more frequently occurring, minor lake level fluctuations. There was no support for the parallel evolution of similar colour patterns in the AFLP data. Genetic signatures of introgression and hybridisation detected in several populations suggest that lake level fluctuations drove the stunning diversification of Tropheus morphs not only through population fragmentation, but also by promoting hybridisation between differentiated morphs in secondary contact. PMID:17697335

  3. A tribal level phylogeny of Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes based on a genomic multi-marker approach

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Britta S.; Matschiner, Michael; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The species-flocks of cichlid fishes in the East African Great Lakes Victoria, Malawi and Tanganyika constitute the most diverse extant adaptive radiations in vertebrates. Lake Tanganyika, the oldest of the lakes, harbors the morphologically and genetically most diverse assemblage of cichlids and contains the highest number of endemic cichlid genera of all African lakes. Based on morphological grounds, the Tanganyikan cichlid species have been grouped into 12–16 distinct lineages, so-called tribes. While the monophyly of most of the tribes is well established, the phylogenetic relationships among the tribes remain largely elusive. Here, we present a new tribal level phylogenetic hypothesis for the cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika that is based on the so far largest set of nuclear markers and a total alignment length of close to 18 kb. Using next-generation amplicon sequencing with the 454 pyrosequencing technology, we compiled a dataset consisting of 42 nuclear loci in 45 East African cichlid species, which we subjected to maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses. We analyzed the entire concatenated dataset and each marker individually, and performed a Bayesian concordance analysis and gene tree discordance tests. Overall, we find strong support for a position of the Oreochromini, Boulengerochromini, Bathybatini and Trematocarini outside of a clade combining the substrate spawning Lamprologini and the mouthbrooding tribes of the ‘H-lineage’, which are both strongly supported to be monophyletic. The Eretmodini are firmly placed within the ‘H-lineage’, as sister-group to the most species-rich tribe of cichlids, the Haplochromini. The phylogenetic relationships at the base of the ‘H-lineage’ received less support, which is likely due to high speciation rates in the early phase of the radiation. Discordance among gene trees and marker sets further suggests the occurrence of past hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting in the cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika. PMID:25433288

  4. A tribal level phylogeny of Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes based on a genomic multi-marker approach.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Britta S; Matschiner, Michael; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-02-01

    The species-flocks of cichlid fishes in the East African Great Lakes Victoria, Malawi and Tanganyika constitute the most diverse extant adaptive radiations in vertebrates. Lake Tanganyika, the oldest of the lakes, harbors the morphologically and genetically most diverse assemblage of cichlids and contains the highest number of endemic cichlid genera of all African lakes. Based on morphological grounds, the Tanganyikan cichlid species have been grouped into 12-16 distinct lineages, so-called tribes. While the monophyly of most of the tribes is well established, the phylogenetic relationships among the tribes remain largely elusive. Here, we present a new tribal level phylogenetic hypothesis for the cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika that is based on the so far largest set of nuclear markers and a total alignment length of close to 18kb. Using next-generation amplicon sequencing with the 454 pyrosequencing technology, we compiled a dataset consisting of 42 nuclear loci in 45 East African cichlid species, which we subjected to maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses. We analyzed the entire concatenated dataset and each marker individually, and performed a Bayesian concordance analysis and gene tree discordance tests. Overall, we find strong support for a position of the Oreochromini, Boulengerochromini, Bathybatini and Trematocarini outside of a clade combining the substrate spawning Lamprologini and the mouthbrooding tribes of the 'H-lineage', which are both strongly supported to be monophyletic. The Eretmodini are firmly placed within the 'H-lineage', as sister-group to the most species-rich tribe of cichlids, the Haplochromini. The phylogenetic relationships at the base of the 'H-lineage' received less support, which is likely due to high speciation rates in the early phase of the radiation. Discordance among gene trees and marker sets further suggests the occurrence of past hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting in the cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika. PMID:25433288

  5. Hidden biodiversity in an ancient lake: phylogenetic congruence between Lake Tanganyika tropheine cichlids and their monogenean flatworm parasites.

    PubMed

    Vanhove, Maarten P M; Pariselle, Antoine; Van Steenberge, Maarten; Raeymaekers, Joost A M; Hablützel, Pascal I; Gillardin, Céline; Hellemans, Bart; Breman, Floris C; Koblmüller, Stephan; Sturmbauer, Christian; Snoeks, Jos; Volckaert, Filip A M; Huyse, Tine

    2015-01-01

    The stunning diversity of cichlid fishes has greatly enhanced our understanding of speciation and radiation. Little is known about the evolution of cichlid parasites. Parasites are abundant components of biodiversity, whose diversity typically exceeds that of their hosts. In the first comprehensive phylogenetic parasitological analysis of a vertebrate radiation, we study monogenean parasites infecting tropheine cichlids from Lake Tanganyika. Monogeneans are flatworms usually infecting the body surface and gills of fishes. In contrast to many other parasites, they depend only on a single host species to complete their lifecycle. Our spatially comprehensive combined nuclear-mitochondrial DNA dataset of the parasites covering almost all tropheine host species (N = 18), reveals species-rich parasite assemblages and shows consistent host-specificity. Statistical comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies based on distance and topology-based tests demonstrate significant congruence and suggest that host-switching is rare. Molecular rate evaluation indicates that species of Cichlidogyrus probably diverged synchronically with the initial radiation of the tropheines. They further diversified through within-host speciation into an overlooked species radiation. The unique life history and specialisation of certain parasite groups has profound evolutionary consequences. Hence, evolutionary parasitology adds a new dimension to the study of biodiversity hotspots like Lake Tanganyika. PMID:26335652

  6. Hidden biodiversity in an ancient lake: phylogenetic congruence between Lake Tanganyika tropheine cichlids and their monogenean flatworm parasites

    PubMed Central

    Vanhove, Maarten P. M.; Pariselle, Antoine; Van Steenberge, Maarten; Raeymaekers, Joost A. M.; Hablützel, Pascal I.; Gillardin, Céline; Hellemans, Bart; Breman, Floris C.; Koblmüller, Stephan; Sturmbauer, Christian; Snoeks, Jos; Volckaert, Filip A. M.; Huyse, Tine

    2015-01-01

    The stunning diversity of cichlid fishes has greatly enhanced our understanding of speciation and radiation. Little is known about the evolution of cichlid parasites. Parasites are abundant components of biodiversity, whose diversity typically exceeds that of their hosts. In the first comprehensive phylogenetic parasitological analysis of a vertebrate radiation, we study monogenean parasites infecting tropheine cichlids from Lake Tanganyika. Monogeneans are flatworms usually infecting the body surface and gills of fishes. In contrast to many other parasites, they depend only on a single host species to complete their lifecycle. Our spatially comprehensive combined nuclear-mitochondrial DNA dataset of the parasites covering almost all tropheine host species (N = 18), reveals species-rich parasite assemblages and shows consistent host-specificity. Statistical comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies based on distance and topology-based tests demonstrate significant congruence and suggest that host-switching is rare. Molecular rate evaluation indicates that species of Cichlidogyrus probably diverged synchronically with the initial radiation of the tropheines. They further diversified through within-host speciation into an overlooked species radiation. The unique life history and specialisation of certain parasite groups has profound evolutionary consequences. Hence, evolutionary parasitology adds a new dimension to the study of biodiversity hotspots like Lake Tanganyika. PMID:26335652

  7. Monogamy in the maternally mouthbrooding Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish Tropheus moorii

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Bernd; Obermüller, Beate; Phiri, Harris; Sturmbauer, Christian; Sefc, Kristina M

    2006-01-01

    Supported by evidence for assortative mating and polygynandry, sexual selection through mate choice was suggested as the main force driving the evolution of colour diversity of haplochromine cichlids in Lakes Malawi and Victoria. The phylogenetically closely related tribe Tropheini of Lake Tanganyika includes the genus Tropheus, which comprises over 100 colour variants currently classified into six morphologically similar, polyphyletic species. To assess the potential for sexual selection in this sexually monochromatic maternal mouthbrooder, we used microsatellite-based paternity inference to investigate the mating system of Tropheus moorii. In contrast to haplochromines in Lake Malawi, multiple paternity is rare or even absent in broods of T. moorii. Eighteen of the 19 analysed families were consistent with genetic monogamy, while either a mutation or more than one sire explained the genotype of one offspring in another brood. We discuss the differences in breeding behaviour between T. moorii and the Lake Malawi haplochromines, and evaluate additional factors or alternatives to sexual selection as promoters of colour diversification. A preliminary survey of other Tropheini species suggested that multiple paternity is infrequent in the entire tribe. PMID:16790413

  8. Monogamy in the maternally mouthbrooding Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish Tropheus moorii.

    PubMed

    Egger, Bernd; Obermüller, Beate; Phiri, Harris; Sturmbauer, Christian; Sefc, Kristina M

    2006-07-22

    Supported by evidence for assortative mating and polygynandry, sexual selection through mate choice was suggested as the main force driving the evolution of colour diversity of haplochromine cichlids in Lakes Malawi and Victoria. The phylogenetically closely related tribe Tropheini of Lake Tanganyika includes the genus Tropheus, which comprises over 100 colour variants currently classified into six morphologically similar, polyphyletic species. To assess the potential for sexual selection in this sexually monochromatic maternal mouthbrooder, we used microsatellite-based paternity inference to investigate the mating system of Tropheus moorii. In contrast to haplochromines in Lake Malawi, multiple paternity is rare or even absent in broods of T. moorii. Eighteen of the 19 analysed families were consistent with genetic monogamy, while either a mutation or more than one sire explained the genotype of one offspring in another brood. We discuss the differences in breeding behaviour between T. moorii and the Lake Malawi haplochromines, and evaluate additional factors or alternatives to sexual selection as promoters of colour diversification. A preliminary survey of other Tropheini species suggested that multiple paternity is infrequent in the entire tribe. PMID:16790413

  9. Persistent unstable atmospheric boundary layer enhances sensible and latent heat loss in a tropical great lake: Lake Tanganyika

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verburg, Piet; Antenucci, Jason P.

    2010-06-01

    Energy fluxes across the surface of lakes regulate heat storage and affect the water balance. Sensible and latent heat fluxes are affected by atmospheric stability, especially for large lakes. We examined the effect of atmospheric stability on the heat fluxes on seasonal time scales at Lake Tanganyika, East Africa, by estimating hourly sensible and latent heat fluxes and net radiation using thermistor chains and meteorological stations. The atmosphere was almost always unstable, in contrast to the atmosphere above North American Great Lakes which is unstable in winter and stable in summer. Persistent atmospheric instability resulted in a 13% and 18% increase in the annual mean heat loss by latent and sensible heat fluxes, respectively, relative to conditions of neutral stability. The persistent unstable atmosphere is caused by a higher water surface temperature compared with air temperature, which we argue is the case in general in (sub)tropical lakes. Low humidity further enhanced the frequency of unstable conditions and enhanced the exchange of heat and vapor from the lake to the atmosphere. The estimated heat fluxes were sensitive to the temporal scale of data inputs and to the local values of parameters such as air density. To our knowledge this is the first paper that demonstrates and quantifies the effect of atmospheric stability on latent and sensible heat fluxes from a lake on an annual basis, using data collected from the lake surface.

  10. Mastacembelid eels support Lake Tanganyika as an evolutionary hotspot of diversification

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lake Tanganyika (LT) is the oldest of the African Rift Lakes and is one of the richest freshwater ecosystems on Earth, with high levels of faunal diversity and endemism. The endemic species flocks that occur in this lake, such as cichlid fishes, gastropods, catfish and crabs, provide unique comparative systems for the study of patterns and processes of speciation. Mastacembelid eels (Teleostei: Mastacembelidae) are a predominately riverine family of freshwater fish, occurring across Africa and Asia, but which also form a small species flock in LT. Methods Including 25 species across Africa, plus Asian representatives as outgroups, we present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis for the group, focusing particularly on the evolutionary history and biodiversity of LT mastacembelid eels. A combined matrix of nuclear and mitochondrial genes based on 3118 bp are analysed implementing different phylogenetic methods, including Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood. Results LT Mastacembelus are recovered as monophyletic, and analyses reveal the rapid diversification of five main LT lineages. Relaxed molecular clock dates provide age estimates for the LT flock at ~7-8 Myr, indicating intralacustrine diversification, with further speciation events coinciding with periods of lower lake level. Our analyses also reveal as yet undescribed diversity of lacustrine and riverine species. A Southern-Eastern African clade, that is younger than the LT flock, is also recovered, while West African taxa are basal members of the African mastacembelid clade. Conclusions That the LT species flock of mastacembelid eels appears to have colonised and immediately diversified soon after the formation of the lake, supports the view of LT as an evolutionary hotspot of diversification. We find evidence for biogeographic clades mirroring a similar pattern to other ichthyological faunas. In addition, our analyses also highlight a split of African and Asian mastacembelid eels at ~19 Myr that is considerably younger than the split between their associated continents, suggesting a dispersal scenario for their current distribution. PMID:20565906

  11. Phenotypic integration of brain size and head morphology in Lake Tanganyika Cichlids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Phenotypic integration among different anatomical parts of the head is a common phenomenon across vertebrates. Interestingly, despite centuries of research into the factors that contribute to the existing variation in brain size among vertebrates, little is known about the role of phenotypic integration in brain size diversification. Here we used geometric morphometrics on the morphologically diverse Tanganyikan cichlids to investigate phenotypic integration across key morphological aspects of the head. Then, while taking the effect of shared ancestry into account, we tested if head shape was associated with brain size while controlling for the potentially confounding effect of feeding strategy. Results The shapes of the anterior and posterior parts of the head were strongly correlated, indicating that the head represents an integrated morphological unit in Lake Tanganyika cichlids. After controlling for phylogenetic non-independence, we also found evolutionary associations between head shape, brain size and feeding ecology. Conclusions Geometric morphometrics and phylogenetic comparative analyses revealed that the anterior and posterior parts of the head are integrated, and that head morphology is associated with brain size and feeding ecology in Tanganyikan cichlid fishes. In light of previous results on mammals, our results suggest that the influence of phenotypic integration on brain diversification is a general process. PMID:24593160

  12. Mapping landslide processes in the North Tanganyika - Lake Kivu rift zones: towards a regional hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitte, Olivier; Monsieurs, Elise; Jacobs, Liesbet; Basimike, Joseph; Delvaux, Damien; Draida, Salah; Hamenyimana, Jean-Baptiste; Havenith, Hans-Balder; Kubwimana, Désiré; Maki Mateso, Jean-Claude; Michellier, Caroline; Nahimana, Louis; Ndayisenga, Aloys; Ngenzebuhoro, Pierre-Claver; Nkurunziza, Pascal; Nshokano, Jean-Robert; Sindayihebura, Bernard; Philippe, Trefois; Turimumahoro, Denis; Kervyn, François

    2015-04-01

    The mountainous environments of the North Tanganyika - Lake Kivu rift zones are part of the West branch of the East African Rift. In this area, natural triggering and environmental factors such as heavy rainfalls, earthquake occurrences and steep topographies favour the concentration of mass movement processes. In addition anthropogenic factors such as rapid land use changes and urban expansion increase the sensibility to slope instability. Until very recently few landslide data was available for the area. Now, through the initiation of several research projects and the setting-up of a methodology for data collection adapted to this data-poor environment, it becomes possible to draw a first regional picture of the landslide hazard. Landslides include a wide range of ground movements such as rock falls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows. Landslides are possibly the most important geohazard in the region in terms of recurring impact on the populations, causing fatalities every year. Many landslides are observed each year in the whole region, and their occurrence is clearly linked to complex topographic, lithological and vegetation signatures coupled with heavy rainfall events, which is the main triggering factor. Here we present the current knowledge of the various slope processes present in these equatorial environments. A particular attention is given to urban areas such as Bukavu and Bujumbura where landslide threat is particularly acute. Results and research perspectives on landslide inventorying, monitoring, and susceptibility and hazard assessment are presented.

  13. The transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in an area of Lake Province, Tanganyika

    PubMed Central

    Webbe, G.

    1962-01-01

    This paper records the results of detailed studies carried out over a two-year period on the transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in an area of Lake Province, Tanganyika. The ecology of a variety of snail habitats is described; and data on the biology of the principal molluscan host (Bulinus (Physopsis) nasutus productus), on seasonal fluctuations in its population density and associated cercarial infection rates, on its response to desiccation and on other aspects of population dynamics are presented and discussed. Taking into consideration the seasonal fluctuation in snail numbers which occurs in the area and the snails' capacity to survive desiccation, it is considered that a substantial reduction in transmission of S. haematobium might be effected by application of a molluscicide timed so as to lower the population density before aestivation begins, followed by a second treatment when the habitats have been refilled by rainfall to reduce yet further the population that has survived the first treatment and subsequent desiccation. It is also suggested that a combination of methods directed against two stages in the schistosome life-cycle—the snail and the miracidium—by application of molluscicides and treatment of infected persons might be more efficacious than an attempt merely to reduce snail density and alter the population structure. PMID:14005428

  14. Colour-assortative mating among populations of Tropheus moorii, a cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Salzburger, Walter; Niederstätter, Harald; Brandstätter, Anita; Berger, Burkhard; Parson, Walther; Snoeks, Jos; Sturmbauer, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The species flocks of cichlid fishes in the East African Lakes Tanganyika, Malawi and Victoria are prime examples of adaptive radiation and explosive speciation. Several hundreds of endemic species have evolved in each of the lakes over the past several thousands to a few millions years. Sexual selection via colour-assortative mating has often been proposed as a probable causal factor for initiating and maintaining reproductive isolation. Here, we report the consequences of human-mediated admixis among differentially coloured populations of the endemic cichlid fish Tropheus moorii from several localities that have accidentally been put in sympatry in a small harbour bay in the very south of Lake Tanganyika. We analysed the phenotypes (coloration) and genotypes (mitochondrial control region and five microsatellite loci) of almost 500 individuals, sampled over 3 consecutive years. Maximum-likelihood-based parenthood analyses and Bayesian inference of population structure revealed that significantly more juveniles are the product of within-colour-morph matings than could be expected under the assumption of random mating. Our results clearly indicate a marked degree of assortative mating with respect to the different colour morphs. Therefore, we postulate that sexual selection based on social interactions and female mate choice has played an important role in the formation and maintenance of the different colour morphs in Tropheus, and is probably common in other maternally mouthbrooding cichlids as well. PMID:16543167

  15. Contrasting parasite communities among allopatric colour morphs of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid Tropheus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adaptation to different ecological environments is thought to drive ecological speciation. This phenomenon culminates in the radiations of cichlid fishes in the African Great Lakes. Multiple characteristic traits of cichlids, targeted by natural or sexual selection, are considered among the driving factors of these radiations. Parasites and pathogens have been suggested to initiate or accelerate speciation by triggering both natural and sexual selection. Three prerequisites for parasite-driven speciation can be inferred from ecological speciation theory. The first prerequisite is that different populations experience divergent infection levels. The second prerequisite is that these infection levels cause divergent selection and facilitate adaptive divergence. The third prerequisite is that parasite-driven adaptive divergence facilitates the evolution of reproductive isolation. Here we investigate the first and the second prerequisite in allopatric chromatically differentiated lineages of the rock-dwelling cichlid Tropheus spp. from southern Lake Tanganyika (Central Africa). Macroparasite communities were screened in eight populations belonging to five different colour morphs. Results Parasite communities were mainly composed of acanthocephalans, nematodes, monogeneans, copepods, branchiurans, and digeneans. In two consecutive years (2011 and 2012), we observed significant variation across populations for infection with acanthocephalans, nematodes, monogeneans of the genera Gyrodactylus and Cichlidogyrus, and the copepod Ergasilus spp. Overall, parasite community composition differed significantly between populations of different colour morphs. Differences in parasite community composition were stable in time. The genetic structure of Tropheus populations was strong and showed a significant isolation-by-distance pattern, confirming that spatial isolation is limiting host dispersal. Correlations between parasite community composition and Tropheus genetic differentiation were not significant, suggesting that host dispersal does not influence parasite community diversification. Conclusions Subject to alternating episodes of isolation and secondary contact because of lake level fluctuations, Tropheus colour morphs are believed to accumulate and maintain genetic differentiation through a combination of vicariance, philopatric behaviour and mate discrimination. Provided that the observed contrasts in parasitism facilitate adaptive divergence among populations in allopatry (which is the current situation), and promote the evolution of reproductive isolation during episodes of sympatry, parasites might facilitate speciation in this genus. PMID:23409983

  16. Ionospheric plasma turbulence over region of 2006 Iran, 2005 Lake Tanganyika and 2010 New Britain Region earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosciesza, Malgorzata; Blecki, Jan; Wronowski, Roman; Parrot, Michel

    2013-04-01

    We report the results of the observation of ELF plasma turbulence registered by DEMETER satellite in the ionosphere over epicenter region of three earthquakes. First one took place on 2nd of February 2005 in Lake Tanganyika Region with magnitude 6.9. Second was earthquake with magnitude 6.1 in Iran on 31st March 2006. The last one took place on 4th of August 2010 in New Britain Region with magnitude 7.0. Obtained results we compare with data gathered during corresponding time and region with quiet seismic conditions. To study this turbulent processes we apply Fourier, wavelet, bispectral analysis and statistical description with use of kurtosis and skewness of the electric field fluctuations. These registrations are correlated with the plasma parameters measured onboard DEMETER satellite and with geomagnetic indices.

  17. Social status-dependent nest choice of territorial males under reproductive parasitism in a Lake Tanganyika cichlid Telmatochromis vittatus.

    PubMed

    Ota, K; Kohda, M

    2011-03-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to examine how territorial males of a Lake Tanganyika cichlid Telmatochromis vittatus balance the conflicting demands on nest choice between occupying large nests with more females and avoiding reproductive parasitism (nest piracy, which is adopted by the largest males in the population). Pirates less frequently intruded the nests farther from neighbours, perhaps due to the costs associated with travelling between nests. The field experiment showed that territorial male T. vittatus sacrificed the fitness benefits that large nests offer and instead prioritized occupying the nests farther from neighbours on which fewer pirates intruded. The field observations suggested that they adopt different strategies for nest choice according to their relative competitive ability to pirates; the large territorial males, who are size-matched to pirates and can defend their nests against them, compete for larger nests among the more-isolated nests, whereas subordinate territorial males, which are smaller than pirates and thus inferior to them, compete for the more-isolated nests among the less-isolated nests. These findings suggest that the territorial male T. vittatus chooses the more-isolated nests to avoid pirate males at the expense of occupying large nests. PMID:21366567

  18. Acquisition of Lateralized Predation Behavior Associated with Development of Mouth Asymmetry in a Lake Tanganyika Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yuichi; Hori, Michio; Tada, Shinya; Oda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis with asymmetric mouth is an attractive model of behavioral laterality: each adult tears off scales from prey fishes' left or right flanks according to the direction in which its mouth is skewed. To investigate the development of behavioral laterality and mouth asymmetry, we analyzed stomach contents and lower jaw-bone asymmetry of various-sized P. microlepis (22≤SL<115mm) sampled in Lake Tanganyika. The shapes of the pored scales found in each specimen's stomach indicated its attack side preference. Early-juvenile specimens (SL<45mm) feeding mainly on zooplankton exhibited slight but significant mouth asymmetry. As the fish acquired scale-eating (45mm≤SL), attack side preference was gradually strengthened, as was mouth asymmetry. Among size-matched individuals, those with more skewed mouths ate more scales. These findings show that behavioral laterality in scale-eating P. microlepis is established in association with development of mouth asymmetry which precedes the behavioral acquisition, and that this synergistic interaction between physical and behavioral literalities may contribute to efficient scale-eating. PMID:26808293

  19. Acquisition of Lateralized Predation Behavior Associated with Development of Mouth Asymmetry in a Lake Tanganyika Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Yuichi; Hori, Michio; Tada, Shinya; Oda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis with asymmetric mouth is an attractive model of behavioral laterality: each adult tears off scales from prey fishes’ left or right flanks according to the direction in which its mouth is skewed. To investigate the development of behavioral laterality and mouth asymmetry, we analyzed stomach contents and lower jaw-bone asymmetry of various-sized P. microlepis (22≤SL<115mm) sampled in Lake Tanganyika. The shapes of the pored scales found in each specimen’s stomach indicated its attack side preference. Early-juvenile specimens (SL<45mm) feeding mainly on zooplankton exhibited slight but significant mouth asymmetry. As the fish acquired scale-eating (45mm≤SL), attack side preference was gradually strengthened, as was mouth asymmetry. Among size-matched individuals, those with more skewed mouths ate more scales. These findings show that behavioral laterality in scale-eating P. microlepis is established in association with development of mouth asymmetry which precedes the behavioral acquisition, and that this synergistic interaction between physical and behavioral literalities may contribute to efficient scale-eating. PMID:26808293

  20. Textural and compositional variability across littoral segments of Lake Tanganyika: The effect of asymmetric basin structure on sedimentation in large rift lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Soreghan, M.J.; Cohen, A.S.

    1996-03-01

    Lake Tanganyika, part of the East African rift system, represents one of the most widely cited modern analogs for interpreting ancient rift lakes. To date, few published detailed sedimentologic studies of the modern sediments allow for comparisons to outcrop- and well-bore-scale observations within ancient strata. Four recurrent structural margin types exist along the alternating half-graben structure of the lake: hinged margins, axial margins, accommodation zone margins, and escarpment margins. The hinged margin consists of a series of structurally controlled benches over which long, continuous tracts of bioclastic lag deposits predominate; clastic sands are limited to moderate-size silty deltas and long, narrow shoreface sands. The axial margin is dominated by a wave-dominated, silt-rich delta system. Accommodation zone margins consist of bioclastic lag deposits atop structural highs, whereas carbonate and clastic mud accumulates farther offshore. Escarpment margins contain small fan-delta deposits alternating along shore with talus deposits; offshore carbonate and clastic mud is present away from active gravity-flow deposition. Total organic carbon (TOC) and pyrolysis data from fine-grained samples subtly reflect the contrasts in margin types, but these values are controlled more directly by water depth. Although facies are similar among all margin types, their spatial distribution, in particular the degree to which facies tracts trend parallel to shore, best discriminates among the different margin types. These data suggest that unique but predictable associations of reservoir, seal, and source facies exist along each of the different margin types.

  1. Strontium isotopes and rare-earth element geochemistry of hydrothermal carbonate deposits from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Barrat, J.A.; Boulegue, J.; Tiercelin, J.J.; Lesourd, M.

    2000-01-01

    At Cape Banza (North Tanganyika Lake), fluids and aragonite chimneys have been collected many times since the discovery of this sublacustrine field in 1987. This sampling has been investigated here for the Sr isotopic compositions and the rare-earth element features of the carbonates and a few fluid samples. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios of the chimneys indicate that they have precipitated from a mixture of lake water (more than 95%) and hydrothermal fluids. No zoning in the chimneys was detected with the Sr data. For the rare-earth elements, the situation is more complex. The external walls of the chimneys are rare-earth-element-poor (La {approx} 500 ppb, Yb {approx} 200 ppb, La/Yb = 2 to 3.4). Their shale normalized rare-earth element patterns suggest that they are in equilibrium with the inferred carbonate-depositing fluids. The rare-earth element concentrations of the internal walls of the chimneys are significantly light rare earth elements (LREE)-enriched with La contents sometimes up to 5 ppm. The authors suggest that they contain more vent-fluid rare-earth elements than the external wall samples, possibly adsorbed on the surface of growing crystals or simply hosted by impurities. It was not possible to constrain the nature of these phases, but the variations of the compositions of the internal wall materials of the active chimneys with time, as well as data obtained on an inactive chimney indicate that this rare-earth element excess is mobile. Partition coefficients were calculated between the external wall aragonite and carbonate-depositing fluid. The results are strikingly similar to the values obtained by Sholkovitz and Shen (1995) on coral aragonite, and suggest that there is no significant biologic effect on the incorporation of rare-earth elements into coral aragonite and that the various carbonate complexes involved Me(CO{sub 3}{sup +}) complexes are the main LREE carriers in seawater instead of Me(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup {minus}} in Banza fluids have the same behavior during aragonite precipitation.

  2. Comparative support for the expensive tissue hypothesis: Big brains are correlated with smaller gut and greater parental investment in Lake Tanganyika cichlids.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Masahito; Husby, Arild; Kotrschal, Alexander; Hayward, Alexander; Buechel, Séverine D; Zidar, Josefina; Løvlie, Hanne; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-01-01

    The brain is one of the most energetically expensive organs in the vertebrate body. Consequently, the energetic requirements of encephalization are suggested to impose considerable constraints on brain size evolution. Three main hypotheses concerning how energetic constraints might affect brain evolution predict covariation between brain investment and (1) investment into other costly tissues, (2) overall metabolic rate, and (3) reproductive investment. To date, these hypotheses have mainly been tested in homeothermic animals and the existing data are inconclusive. However, there are good reasons to believe that energetic limitations might play a role in large-scale patterns of brain size evolution also in ectothermic vertebrates. Here, we test these hypotheses in a group of ectothermic vertebrates, the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes. After controlling for the effect of shared ancestry and confounding ecological variables, we find a negative association between brain size and gut size. Furthermore, we find that the evolution of a larger brain is accompanied by increased reproductive investment into egg size and parental care. Our results indicate that the energetic costs of encephalization may be an important general factor involved in the evolution of brain size also in ectothermic vertebrates. PMID:25346264

  3. Comparative support for the expensive tissue hypothesis: Big brains are correlated with smaller gut and greater parental investment in Lake Tanganyika cichlids

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Masahito; Husby, Arild; Kotrschal, Alexander; Hayward, Alexander; Buechel, Sverine D; Zidar, Josefina; Lvlie, Hanne; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-01-01

    The brain is one of the most energetically expensive organs in the vertebrate body. Consequently, the energetic requirements of encephalization are suggested to impose considerable constraints on brain size evolution. Three main hypotheses concerning how energetic constraints might affect brain evolution predict covariation between brain investment and (1) investment into other costly tissues, (2) overall metabolic rate, and (3) reproductive investment. To date, these hypotheses have mainly been tested in homeothermic animals and the existing data are inconclusive. However, there are good reasons to believe that energetic limitations might play a role in large-scale patterns of brain size evolution also in ectothermic vertebrates. Here, we test these hypotheses in a group of ectothermic vertebrates, the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes. After controlling for the effect of shared ancestry and confounding ecological variables, we find a negative association between brain size and gut size. Furthermore, we find that the evolution of a larger brain is accompanied by increased reproductive investment into egg size and parental care. Our results indicate that the energetic costs of encephalization may be an important general factor involved in the evolution of brain size also in ectothermic vertebrates. PMID:25346264

  4. Infestation and Pathological Alterations by Ergasilus sarsi (Copepoda) on the Tanganyika Killifish from Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Esmari; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2013-01-01

    A total of 204 Ergasilus sarsi, a copepod, were collected from Tanganyika Killifish Lamprichthys tanganicanus in Lake Tanganyika during March 2010. The prevalence was 86.40%, the mean intensity was 7.56, and the mean abundance was 6.38. Only 27 of the fish were infested, and the highest infestation on one fish was 29. Proliferation of mucus cells and lamellar fusion occurred. Haemorrhage due to blood vessel compression was noted. This is the first record of E. sarsi from Tanganyika Killifish. This study is also the first to provide a description of the pathological alterations caused by E. sarsi. PMID:24341764

  5. VERTICAL MIXING OF LAKE SEDIMENTS BY TUBIFICID OLIGOCHAETES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vertical mixing of lake sediments by tubificid oligochaetes was studied in laboratory experiments by using a radioactive (cesium 137 labeled sediment) marker horizon. Results from these experiments were used to develop and test a mathematical model describing tubificid sediment m...

  6. Back to Tanganyika: a case of recent trans-species-flock dispersal in East African haplochromine cichlid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Britta S.; Indermaur, Adrian; Ehrensperger, Xenia; Egger, Bernd; Banyankimbona, Gaspard; Snoeks, Jos; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The species flocks of cichlid fishes in the East African Great Lakes are the largest vertebrate adaptive radiations in the world and illustrious textbook examples of convergent evolution between independent species assemblages. Although recent studies suggest some degrees of genetic exchange between riverine taxa and the lake faunas, not a single cichlid species is known from Lakes Tanganyika, Malawi and Victoria that is derived from the radiation associated with another of these lakes. Here, we report the discovery of a haplochromine cichlid species in Lake Tanganyika, which belongs genetically to the species flock of haplochromines of the Lake Victoria region. The new species colonized Lake Tanganyika only recently, suggesting that faunal exchange across watersheds and, hence, between isolated ichthyofaunas, is more common than previously thought. PMID:26064619

  7. Back to Tanganyika: a case of recent trans-species-flock dispersal in East African haplochromine cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Britta S; Indermaur, Adrian; Ehrensperger, Xenia; Egger, Bernd; Banyankimbona, Gaspard; Snoeks, Jos; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-03-01

    The species flocks of cichlid fishes in the East African Great Lakes are the largest vertebrate adaptive radiations in the world and illustrious textbook examples of convergent evolution between independent species assemblages. Although recent studies suggest some degrees of genetic exchange between riverine taxa and the lake faunas, not a single cichlid species is known from Lakes Tanganyika, Malawi and Victoria that is derived from the radiation associated with another of these lakes. Here, we report the discovery of a haplochromine cichlid species in Lake Tanganyika, which belongs genetically to the species flock of haplochromines of the Lake Victoria region. The new species colonized Lake Tanganyika only recently, suggesting that faunal exchange across watersheds and, hence, between isolated ichthyofaunas, is more common than previously thought. PMID:26064619

  8. VERTICAL DIFFUSION IN SMALL STRATIFIED LAKES: DATA AND ERROR ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water temperature profiles were measured at 2-min intervals in a stratified temperate lake with a surface area of 0.06 km2 and a aximum depth of 10 m from May 7 to August 9, 1989. he data were used to calculate the vertical eddy diffusion coefficient K2 in the hypolimnion. he dep...

  9. Tracer experiment to quantify the vertical transport in meromictic lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rohden, C.

    2003-04-01

    Transport processes in two mining lakes ( 30~m deep, 4~km^2 surface area) with strongly stratified salty deep water bodies (monimolimnia) are investigated. The monimolimnia are to a large extend separated from the mixing regime in the upper water column. The vertical transport is kept down due to the strong stratification in the region of the density step (halocline) and in the monimolimnion. To quantify the vertical transport under this conditions, the vertical spreading of an injected SF_6-tracer mark as well as the development of the temperature and salinity profiles were observed during several years. Mean vertical transport coefficients Kz for SF_6 were evaluated using the flux-gradient method and the shape development of the SF_6-profiles. The transport is reduced nearly to the molecular level (Kz? 10-9~m^2/s) in the halocline of one of the lakes. Inside the monimolimnion of the other lake, increasing values with depth were found. They rise from Kz? 10-8~m^2/s in the inner part to Kz? 10-6~m^2/s about 2~m above the lake bottom. Including a geothermal heat flux of 0.23~W/m^2, the measured temperature changes yield similar values for the heat transport in the lowermost 2~m. In the depths where the K_z of SF_6 fall below 10-7~m^2/s, heat is transported at the molecular level. Simple model calculations based on the tracer measurements confirm the experimental results and allow to characterize the interaction between groundwater and monimolimnion water. The results represent the effective mixing in time and horizontal direction including the influence of distinct turbulent mixing processes.

  10. Limnological characteristics of vertical structure in the lakes of Syowa Oasis, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Shigeko; Ban, Syuhei; Imura, Satoshi; Kudoh, Sakae; Matsuzaki, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the vertical structure of physicochemical properties in 27 lakes at Skarvsnes and Langhovde, Syowa Oasis, East Antarctica, from December 2003 to February 2004. The lakes were classified into three types based on their origin and geographical characteristics: non-marine relic lakes, marine relic and lotic lakes, and marine relic and lentic lakes. We describe the physicochemical characteristics of each lake type. When the non-marine relic lakes were partly covered with ice, the water column was stratified beneath the ice. In the non-marine relic lakes, during the season with no ice cover, physicochemical parameters were uniform throughout the water column, probably due to frequent vertical mixing induced by wind force and thermal convection within the shallow basins. Similarly, in marine relic and lotic lakes, lake waters appeared to be completely mixed because of a large inflow of meltwater from glaciers and outflow to other lakes and the coastal sea. In the marine relic and lentic lakes, except for Lake Himebati-ike, the lake water was vertically stratified with a strong halocline. In Lakes Suribati-ike and Hunazoko-ike, salinity was very high (up to 20%) due to evapoconcentration. Lake Suribati-ike is a meromictic lake, with a monimolimnion developed below 10 m water depth.

  11. [Vertical Distribution Characteristics and Analysis in Sediments of Xidahai Lake].

    PubMed

    Duan, Mu-chun; Xiao, Hai-feng; Zang, Shu-ying

    2015-07-01

    The organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), the morphological changes of phosphorus and the particle size in columnar sediment core of Xidahai Lake were analyzed, to discuss the vertical distribution characteristics and influencing factors. The results showed that the contents of OM, TN and TP were 0. 633% -2. 756%, 0. 150% -0. 429% and 648. 00 - 1 480.67 mg . kg-1 respectively. The contents of Ca-P, IP and OM changed less, the contents of Fe/Al-P, OP, TP and TN fluctuated from 1843 to 1970; The contents of Ca-P, IP and TP tended to decrease, the contents of Fe/Al-P, OP and OM first decreased and then increased to different degree, TN fluctuated largely from 1970 to 1996; The nutrient elements contents showed relatively large fluctuation from 1996 to 2009, the average contents of Fe/Al-P, OP and OM were the highest in the three stages. The sediment core nutrients pollution sources were mainly from industrial wastewater, sewage and the loss of fertilizers of Xidahai Lake. The ratio of C/N in the sediments showed that organic matter was mainly from aquatic organisms. The sediment particle size composition was dominated by clay and fine silt. The correlation studies showed that Ca-P, IP and TP were significantly positively correlated, showing that the contribution of Ca-P to IP and TP growth was large. PMID:26489314

  12. VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF PROFUNDAL BENTHOS IN LAKE SUPERIOR SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Layers of sediment in box cores from 10 Lake Superior open lake sites were sieved at 250 micrometers to retain benthos. The average density of benthic organisms, 3,055/sq m, was higher than has previously been reported for profundal regions of the lake, suggesting that biological...

  13. Sediment infill within rift basins: Facies distribution and effects of deformation: Examples from the Kenya and Tanganyika Rifts, East Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Tiercelin, J.J.; Lezzar, K.E. ); Richert, J.P. )

    1994-07-01

    Oil is known from lacustrine basins of the east African rift. The geology of such basins is complex and different depending on location in the eastern and western branches. The western branch has little volcanism, leading to long-lived basins, such as Lake Tanganyika, whereas a large quantity of volcanics results in the eastern branch characterized by ephemeral basins, as the Baringo-Bogoria basin in Kenya. The Baringo-Bogoria basin is a north-south half graben formed in the middle Pleistocene and presently occupied by the hypersaline Lake Bogoria and the freshwater Lake Baringo. Lake Bogoria is fed by hot springs and ephemeral streams controlled by grid faults bounding the basin to the west. The sedimentary fill is formed by cycles of organic oozes having a good petroleum potential and evaporites. On the other hand, and as a consequence of the grid faults, Lake Baringo is fed by permanent streams bringing into the basin large quantities of terrigenous sediments. Lake Tanganyika is a meromictic lake 1470 m deep and 700 km long, of middle Miocene age. It is subdivided into seven asymmetric half grabens separated by transverse ridges. The sedimentary fill is thick and formed by organic oozes having a very good petroleum potential. In contrast to Bogoria, the lateral distribution of organic matter is characterized by considerable heterogeneity due to the existence of structural blocks or to redepositional processes.

  14. [Vertical distribution characteristics of nutrients and heavy metals in sediments of Lake Hongze].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Bin; Yu, Hui

    2012-02-01

    In order to understand the vertical distribution characteristics of nutrients and heavy metals in sediments of Lake Hongze, three core sediment samples at 3 sites (one near the Huaihe River inlet of Lake Hongze, one at the western part of the lake and one at the lake center) were collected in June of 2008. By measurement of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Al, Cr, Hg, Mn, As) and by analyzing of their vertical characteristics, investigation revealed the nutrient evolution processes and pollution history. Sediment near Huaihe river mouth was more polluted by the Huaihe River watershed. The nutrients TN, TP and organic matter (OM) concentrations in this core sample were 390.8-643.7, 428.6-538.6, 5 194.3-9 164.9 mg x kg(-1) respectively. Zn, Cd, Al, Fe and Mn in the sediment in this area were affected by human activities less than other heavy metals. Western Lake sediment was affected by the Huaihe River, inlet river and human activities in cities along western lake shoreline. TN, TP and OM concentrations in this core sample were 633.4-2 677.3, 480.0-1115.9, 7 140.8-47 849.7 mg x kg(-1) respectively. The pollution extents of TN, OM and heavy metals in sediment were exacerbated since the late of 1970s, but the situation was improved since the 1990s. As and Cr in the sediments were influenced by human activities more than other heavy metals. Main pollution source in sediment at the lake center were detritus from the lake watershed. TN, TP and OM concentrations in this core sample were 904.7-1 585.4, 526.3-750.1, 10 635.6-19 020.6 mg x kg(-1) respectively. The correlations among nutrients and heavy metals in sediment are significant, and their vertical distribution patterns were similar. The concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals increased from bottom to surface. Nutrients and heavy metal pollution in sediment had the same vertical distribution characteristics which coincided with the lake watershed economic development stage. The sediment in Lake Hongze can be described by the Turbidity Flood Model. PMID:22509573

  15. Lake Tanganyika—A 'Melting Pot' of Ancient and Young Cichlid Lineages (Teleostei: Cichlidae)?

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Juliane D.; Cotterill, Fenton P. D.; Schliewen, Ulrich K.

    2015-01-01

    A long history of research focused on the East Africa cichlid radiations (EAR) revealed discrepancies between mtDNA and nuclear phylogenies, suggesting that interspecific hybridisation may have been significant during the radiation of these fishes. The approximately 250 cichlid species of Lake Tanganyika have their roots in a monophyletic African cichlid assemblage, but controversies remain about the precise phylogenetic origin and placement of different lineages and consequently about L. Tanganyika colonization scenarios. 3312 AFLP loci and the mitochondrial ND2 gene were genotyped for 91 species representing almost all major lacustrine and riverine haplotilapiine east African cichlid lineages with a focus on L. Tanganyika endemics. Explicitly testing for the possibility of ancient hybridisation events, a comprehensive phylogenetic network hypothesis is proposed for the origin and diversification of L. Tanganyika cichlids. Inference of discordant phylogenetic signal strongly suggests that the genomes of two endemic L. Tanganyika tribes, Eretmodini and Tropheini, are composed of an ancient mixture of riverine and lacustrine lineages. For the first time a strong monophyly signal of all non-haplochromine mouthbrooding species endemic to L. Tanganyika (“ancient mouthbrooders”) was detected. Further, in the genomes of early diverging L. Tanganyika endemics Trematocarini, Bathybatini, Hemibatini and Boulengerochromis genetic components of other lineages belonging to the East African Radiation appear to be present. In combination with recent palaeo-geological results showing that tectonic activity in the L. Tanganyika region resulted in highly dynamic and heterogeneous landscape evolution over the Neogene and Pleistocene, the novel phylogenetic data render a single lacustrine basin as the geographical cradle of the endemic L. Tanganyika cichlid lineages unlikely. Instead a scenario of a pre-rift origin of several independent L. Tanganyika precursor lineages which diversified in ancient rivers and precursor lakes and then amalgamated in the extant L. Tanganyika basin is put forward as an alternative: the 'melting pot Tanganyika' hypothesis. PMID:25928886

  16. About the vertical gradient of composition in Titan's lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordier, D.; Roussel, J.; Rannou, P.

    2015-10-01

    The hydrocarbons seas of Titan, discovered by Cassini/Huygens mission are among the most interesting features of this object. However, their chemical composition remains not well known. Due to the presence of the methane in the atmosphere, only a few indications favoring the existence of some amount of ethane in Ontario Lacus have been brought by observations reported in [2, 10]. Several numerical models have been proposed: Dubouloz et al. (1989), Cordier et al. (2009,2013) based on the Regular Solution Theory, Glein et al. (2013) [4] and Tan et al. (2013) [13] respectively based on a RST family model and on the advanced equation of state PC-SAFT1 [5, 13, 10, 3]. The atmosphere of Titan is dominated by nitrogen and contains a few percents of methane. The latter, photolyzed by solar radiations in the stratosphere, gives rise to a complex organic chemistry yielding to the production of a plethora of compounds [7]. According to numerical models, the most abundant species, produced by photochemistry, should be ethane. Then, the bulk composition of Titan's lakes can reasonably regarded as a mixture of methane and ethane, withsome amount of dissolved N2. This latter has a melting temperature (63.3 K) much below than that for methane (around 91 K) and ethane (101 K determined by Streng, 1971; 89.2 K measured by Timmermans,1935); as the ground temperature of Titan in the range 90-95K, the nitrogenmay play a role of an antifreezing solute.

  17. Vertical segregation and phylogenetic characterization of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in a deep oligotrophic lake.

    PubMed

    Auguet, Jean-Christophe; Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Nomokonova, Natalya; Camarero, Lluís; Casamayor, Emilio O

    2012-09-01

    Freshwater habitats have been identified as one of the largest reservoirs of archaeal genetic diversity, with specific lineages of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) populations different from soils and seas. The ecology and biology of lacustrine AOA is, however, poorly known. In the present study, vertical changes in archaeal abundance by CARD-FISH, quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses and identity by clone libraries were correlated with environmental parameters in the deep glacial high-altitude Lake Redon. The lake is located in the central Spanish Pyrenees where atmospheric depositions are the main source of reactive nitrogen. Strong correlations were found between abundance of thaumarchaeotal 16S rRNA gene, archaeal amoA gene and nitrite concentrations, indicating an ammonium oxidation potential by these microorganisms. The bacterial amoA gene was not detected. Three depths with potential ammonia-oxidation activity were unveiled along the vertical gradient, (i) on the top of the lake in winter-spring (that is, the 0 (o)C slush layers above the ice-covered sheet), (ii) at the thermocline and (iii) the bottom waters in summer-autumn. Overall, up to 90% of the 16S rRNA gene sequences matched Thaumarchaeota, mostly from both the Marine Group (MG) 1.1a (Nitrosoarchaeum-like) and the sister clade SAGMGC-1 (Nitrosotalea-like). Clone-libraries analysis showed the two clades changed their relative abundances with water depth being higher in surface and lower in depth for SAGMGC-1 than for MG 1.1a, reflecting a vertical phylogenetic segregation. Overall, the relative abundance and recurrent appearance of SAGMGC-1 suggests a significant environmental role of this clade in alpine lakes. These results expand the set of ecological and thermal conditions where Thaumarchaeota are distributed, unveiling vertical positioning in the water column as a key factor to understand the ecology of different thaumarchaeotal clades in lacustrine environments. PMID:22495069

  18. Vertical segregation and phylogenetic characterization of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in a deep oligotrophic lake

    PubMed Central

    Auguet, Jean-Christophe; Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Nomokonova, Natalya; Camarero, Lluís; Casamayor, Emilio O

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater habitats have been identified as one of the largest reservoirs of archaeal genetic diversity, with specific lineages of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) populations different from soils and seas. The ecology and biology of lacustrine AOA is, however, poorly known. In the present study, vertical changes in archaeal abundance by CARD-FISH, quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses and identity by clone libraries were correlated with environmental parameters in the deep glacial high-altitude Lake Redon. The lake is located in the central Spanish Pyrenees where atmospheric depositions are the main source of reactive nitrogen. Strong correlations were found between abundance of thaumarchaeotal 16S rRNA gene, archaeal amoA gene and nitrite concentrations, indicating an ammonium oxidation potential by these microorganisms. The bacterial amoA gene was not detected. Three depths with potential ammonia-oxidation activity were unveiled along the vertical gradient, (i) on the top of the lake in winter–spring (that is, the 0 oC slush layers above the ice-covered sheet), (ii) at the thermocline and (iii) the bottom waters in summer—autumn. Overall, up to 90% of the 16S rRNA gene sequences matched Thaumarchaeota, mostly from both the Marine Group (MG) 1.1a (Nitrosoarchaeum-like) and the sister clade SAGMGC−1 (Nitrosotalea-like). Clone-libraries analysis showed the two clades changed their relative abundances with water depth being higher in surface and lower in depth for SAGMGC−1 than for MG 1.1a, reflecting a vertical phylogenetic segregation. Overall, the relative abundance and recurrent appearance of SAGMGC−1 suggests a significant environmental role of this clade in alpine lakes. These results expand the set of ecological and thermal conditions where Thaumarchaeota are distributed, unveiling vertical positioning in the water column as a key factor to understand the ecology of different thaumarchaeotal clades in lacustrine environments. PMID:22495069

  19. Vertical migration and nighttime distribution of adult bloaters in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    TeWinkel, Leslie M.; Fleischer, Guy W.

    1999-01-01

    The vertical migration and nighttime vertical distribution of adult bloaters Coregonus hoyi were investigated during late summer in Lake Michigan using acoustics simultaneously with either midwater or bottom trawling. Bloaters remained on or near bottom during the day. At night, bloaters were distributed throughout 30-65 m of water, depending on bottom depth. Shallowest depths of migration were not related to water temperature or incident light. Maximum distances of migration increased with increasing bottom depth. Nighttime midwater densities ranged from 0.00 to 6.61 fish/1,000 mA? and decreased with increasing bottom depth. Comparisons of length distributions showed that migrating and nonmigrating bloaters did not differ in size. However, at most sites, daytime bottom catches collected a greater proportion of larger individuals compared with nighttime midwater or bottom catches. Mean target strengths by 5-m strata indicated that migrating bloaters did not stratify by size in the water column at night. Overall, patterns in frequency of empty stomachs and mean digestive state of prey indicated that a portion of the bloater population fed in the water column at night. Bloater diet composition indicated both midwater feeding and bottom feeding. In sum, although a portion of the bloater population fed in the water column at night, bloaters were not limited to feeding at this time. This research confirmed that bloaters are opportunistic feeders and did not fully support the previously proposed hypothesis that bloater vertical migration is driven by the vertically migrating macroinvertebrate the opossom shrimp Mysis relicta.

  20. Vertical stability of mercury in historic and prehistoric sediments from Clear Lake, California.

    PubMed

    Suchanek, Thomas H; Richerson, Peter J; Zierenberg, Robert A; Slotton, Darell G; Mullen, Lauri H

    2008-12-01

    Clear Lake, California, USA, is the site of the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine, now a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Site. Intermittent mining from 1873 to 1957 resulted in approximately 100 Mg of mercury (Hg) being deposited into the lake's ecosystem. Sediment cores to approximately 2.5 m depth (dated using 210Pb and 14C) represent approximately 3000 years of sedimentation. Clear Lake sediments have experienced Hg deposition from anthropogenic sources (mining) during historic times (to the mid-1900s) and geologic sources during prehistoric times (prior to the mid-1800s). This provides a unique opportunity to evaluate hypotheses relating to (1) the influence of the mine on Hg loading to the lake and (2) the potential upward mobilization of Hg by diagenetic processes proposed by some as an alternative explanation for increased Hg concentrations at the surface of the sediment column believed to be caused by increased global atmospheric deposition. Although Hg mining began in 1873, no significant evidence of anthropogenic Hg loading was detected in cores prior to open-pit mining ca. 1927, which also involved bulldozing mine waste rock and tailings into the lake. Exponential increases in total Hg (TotHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were observed above the 1927 horizon, where estimated sedimentation rates were 2.2-20.4 mm/yr and peaks of both forms of Hg maintained vertical stability within the sediment column. Below the 1927 horizon, a slow increase in both TotHg and MeHg with depth was observed from approximately 1000 to 3000 years before present, where sedimentation rates ranged from approximately 0.6 to 2.0 mm/yr and elevated Hg profiles appear stable. Vertical stability of Hg in the shallow and deep sediment column suggests that both TotHg and MeHg do not undergo diagenetic upward mobilization within the sediment column under rapid or slow sedimentation rates. Because (1) these data were collected at a site with known anthropogenic and geologic sources and (2) regions of elevated Hg concentrations from both sources remain stable within the sediment column under very different sedimentation regimes, these results also support the hypothesis that elevated Hg at the surface of cores in other worldwide locations likely represents global atmospheric deposition rather than upward diagenetic mobilization. PMID:19475930

  1. Zooplankton grazing in a eutrophic lake: implications of diel vertical migration. [Scenedesmus; Eudiaptomus; Daphnia; Ceriodaphnia; Synechococcus

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, W.; Taylor, B.E.

    1985-02-01

    During summer and fall, depth profiles of zooplankton community grazing were determined in situ during day and night in the Schoehsee, a small eutrophic lake. Labeled algae of two different sizes were mixed with the natural suspension of phytoplankton in a grazing chamber. A small blue-green alga (Synechococcus, 1 ..mu..m) was labeled with /sup 32/P; a larger green alga (Scenedesmus, 4-15 ..mu..m) was labeled with /sup 14/C. During summer, grazing in the upper 5 m was negligible during day but strong at night. Hence, algae grow relatively unimpeded by grazing during daytime but are harvested at night. Vertical and diel differences in grazing rates disappeared when the vertical migration ceased in fall. Selectivity of grazing was controlled by the zooplankton species composition. Eudiaptomus showed a strong preference for Scenedesmus. Daphnia showed a slight preference for Scenedesmus, but Ceriodaphnia preferred Synechococcus. Cyclopoid copepodites did not ingest the small blue-green. Because Daphnia and Eudiaptomus were dominant, grazing rates on larger cells were usually higher than grazing rates on the small cells. Negative electivity indices for scenedesmus occurred only when the biomass of large crustaceans was extremely low (near the surface, during day). Zooplankton biomass was the main factor controlling both vertical and seasonal variations in grazing. Highest grazing rates (65%/d) were measured during fall when zooplankton abundance was high. Because differential losses can produce substantial errors in the results, it was necessary to process the samples on the boat immediately after collection, without preservation.

  2. Algorithmic identification of limnological features in vertical profiles from the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wietsma, T.; Collingsworth, P.; Minsker, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    High volume collection of environmental data in digital format presents a range of challenges for the researcher, from quality control and data management to efficient interpretation of the signal and the development of requisite information technology skills. These challenges have been termed the "data deluge". To aid in efficient data interpretation, we describe several algorithmic approaches for feature identification in signal streams, including gradient estimation, spectral analysis, and the hidden Markov model. These approaches are calibrated and evaluated over vertical temperature profiles from the Great Lakes obtained through the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. To demonstrate the value of this data science approach, we describe how the algorithms can be integrated with the historical sampling record to yield an expert system that assists field technicians with adaptive sampling.

  3. Empirical evaluation of predator-driven diel vertical migration in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stockwell, J.D.; Hrabik, T.R.; Jensen, O.P.; Yule, D.L.; Balge, M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies on Lake Superior suggest that diel vertical migration (DVM) of prey (generalized Coregonus spp.) may be influenced by the density of predatory siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush). We empirically evaluated this hypothesis using data from acoustic, midwater trawl, and bottom trawl sampling at eight Lake Superior sites during three seasons in 2005 and a subset of sites in 2006. We expected the larger-bodied cisco (Coregonus artedi) to exhibit a shallower DVM compared with the smaller-bodied kiyi (Coregonus kiyi). Although DVM of kiyi and cisco were consistent with expectations of DVM as a size-dependent, predator-mediated process, we found no relationship between siscowet density and the magnitude of DVM of either coregonid. Cisco appear to have a size refuge from siscowet predation. Kiyi and siscowet co-occur in demersal habitat > 150 m during the day, where visual predation is unlikely, suggesting predator avoidance is not a factor in the daytime distribution of kiyi. Seasonal patterns of kiyi DVM were consistent with reported DVM of their primary prey Mysis relicta. Our results suggest that consideration of nonvisual foraging, rather than lightbased foraging theory (i.e., the antipredation window), is necessary to understand the processes driving DVM in deepwater systems.

  4. Analyses of the vertical and temporal distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria in Lake Aha (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M. Y.; Liang, X. B.; Yuan, X. Y.; Zhang, W.; Zeng, J.

    2008-03-01

    In April and September of 2005, two sediment cores were collected from Lake Aha, which is polluted by the acid mine drainage of the mining industries. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) groups and their quantity were analyzed by using PCR and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization), respectively. The results showed that four SRB groups ( Desulfotomaculum, Desulfobulbus, Desulfococcus Desulfonema Desulfosarcina and Desulfovibrio Desulfomicrobium) were detected in September, while only three SRB groups ( Desulfotomaculum, Desulfobulbus and Desulfococcus Desulfonema Desulfosarcina) were detected in April. Desulfovibrio Desulfomicrobium was not detected and was expected to exist inactively, in April. Meanwhile, the distribution of every SRB group was wider in September than in April. The results indicated that different SRB groups had different vertical and temporal distribution. The vertical and temporal distribution of SRB was mainly in the upper sediments, and the number of SRB groups and quantity were larger in September than in April. It suggested that the environmental conditions of sediments in September were more suitable for SRB.

  5. Do Daphnia use metalimnetic organic matter in a north temperate lake? An analysis of vertical migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brosseau, Chase Julian; Cline, Timothy J.; Cole, Jonathan J.; Hodgson, James R.; Pace, Michael L.; Weidel, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    Diel vertical migration of zooplankton is influenced by a variety of factors including predation, food, and temperature. Research has recently shifted from a focus on factors influencing migration to how migration affects nutrient cycling and habitat coupling. Here we evaluate the potential for Daphnia migrations to incorporate metalimnetic productivity in a well-studied northern Wisconsin lake. We use prior studies conducted between 1985 and 1990 and current diel migration data (2008) to compare day and night Daphnia vertical distributions with the depth of the metalimnion (between the thermocline and 1% light depth). Daphnia migrate from a daytime mean residence depth of between about 1.7 and 2.5 m to a nighttime mean residence depth of between 0 and 2.0 m. These migrations are consistent between the prior period and current measurements. Daytime residence depths of Daphnia are rarely deep enough to reach the metalimnion; hence, metalimnetic primary production is unlikely to be an important resource for Daphnia in this system.

  6. Vertical stratification of bacteria and archaea in sediments of a boreal stratified humic lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissanen, Antti J.; Mpamah, Promise; Peura, Sari; Taipale, Sami; Biasi, Christina; Nykänen, Hannu

    2015-04-01

    Boreal stratified humic lakes, with steep redox gradients in the water column and in the sediment, are important sources of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. CH4 flux from these lakes is largely controlled by the balance between CH4-production (methanogenesis), which takes place in the organic rich sediment and in the deepest water layers, and CH4-consumption (methanotrophy), which takes place mainly in the water column. While there is already some published information on the activity, diversity and community structure of bacteria in the water columns of these lakes, such information on sediment microbial communities is very scarce. This study aims to characterize the vertical variation patterns in the diversity and the structure of microbial communities in sediment of a boreal stratified lake. Particular focus is on microbes with the potential to contribute to methanogenesis (fermentative bacteria and methanogenic archaea) and to methanotrophy (methanotrophic bacteria and archaea). Two sediment cores (26 cm deep), collected from the deepest point (~6 m) of a small boreal stratified lake during winter-stratification, were divided into depth sections of 1 to 2 cm for analyses. Communities were studied from DNA extracted from sediment samples by next-generation sequencing (Ion Torrent) of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - amplified bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The abundance of methanogenic archaea was also specifically studied by quantitative-PCR of methyl coenzyme-M reductase gene (mcrA) amplicons. Furthermore, the community structure and the abundance of bacteria were studied by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Dominant potential fermentative bacteria belonged to families Syntrophaceae, Clostridiaceae and Peptostreptococcaceae. There were considerable differences in the vertical distribution among these groups. The relative abundance of Syntrophaceae started to increase from the sediment surface, peaked at depth layer from 5 to 10 cm (up to 21 % of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons) and decreased gradually towards deeper layers while the relative abundances of Clostridiaceae and Peptostreptococcaceae started to increase at deeper depths, at 5 cm and 10 cm, respectively, both peaking at depth layer from 20 to 26 cm (Clostridiaceae up to 13 % and Peptostreptococcaceae up to 11 % of bacterial 16S rRNA amplicons). Methanogenic community was dominated by acetoclastic methanogens (genus Methanosaeta), which were most abundant at depth layer from sediment surface to 10 cm (up to 87 % of archaeal 16S rRNA gene amplicons) and decreased drastically until the depth of 18 cm having quite stable relative abundance from 18 to 26 cm (5 to 11 % of archaeal 16S rRNA gene amplicons). Hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanoregula, Methanolinea, Methanospirillum, Methanocella) (3 to 11 % of archaeal 16S rRNA gene amplicons) did not show any specific depth patterns. The proportion of methanotrophic microbes was very low and they consisted almost completely of type II methanotrophic bacteria (family Methylocystaceae), which had highest relative abundance at depth layer from 5 to 10 cm (up to 3 % of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons) and were almost absent below 15 cm. Anaerobic methanotrophic archaea were not detected. These findings will be discussed with results from PLFA and q-PCR analyses.

  7. Geomagnetic polarity epochs: new data from Olduvai Gorge, Tanganyika

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gromme, C.S.; Hay, R.L.

    1967-01-01

    The lower lava flow of Bed I in Olduvai Gorge, Tanganyika, carries natural remanent magnetization (NRM) having normal polarity. Thermal demagnetization experiments demonstrate the stability of this NRM. Thus the Olduvai geomagnetic polarity event, which was originally named from the upper lava flow in Bed I, is represented in its type locality by two normally magnetized lavas. These lavas have been shown to be 1.9 m.y. old, and although they are distinct from each other in composition and surface structure, their eruptions appear to have been closely spaced in time. ?? 1967.

  8. Vertical distribution of fish biomass in lake superior: Implications for day bottom trawl surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stockwell, J.D.; Yule, D.L.; Hrabik, T.R.; Adams, J.V.; Gorman, O.T.; Holbrook, B.V.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation of the biases in sampling methodology is essential for understanding the limitations of abundance and biomass estimates of fish populations. Estimates from surveys that rely solely on bottom trawls may be particularly vulnerable to bias if pelagic fish are numerous. We evaluated the variability in the vertical distribution of fish biomass during the U.S. Geological Survey's annual spring bottom trawl survey of Lake Superior using concurrent hydroacoustic observations to (1) test the assumption that fish are generally demersal during the day and (2) evaluate the potential for predictive models to improve bottom trawl-determined biomass estimates. Our results indicate that the assumption that fish exhibit demersal behavior during the annual spring bottom trawl survey in Lake Superior is unfounded. Bottom trawl biomass (BBT) estimates (mean ?? SE) for species known to exhibit pelagic behavior (cisco Coregonus artedi, bloater C. hoyi, kiyi C. kiyi, and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax; 3.01 ?? 0.73 kg/ha) were not significantly greater than mean acoustic pelagic zone biomass (BAPZ) estimates (6.39 ?? 2.03 kg/ha). Mean BAPZ estimates were 1.6- to 4.8-fold greater than mean BBT estimates over 4 years of sampling. The relationship between concurrent BAPZ and BBT estimates was marginally significant and highly variable. Predicted B APZ estimates using cross-validation models were sensitive to adjustments for back-transforming from the logarithmic to the linear scale and poorly corresponded to observed BAPZ estimates. We conclude that statistical models to predict BAPZ from day BBT cannot be developed. We propose that night sampling with multiple gears will be necessary to generate better biomass estimates for management needs. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  9. Seasonally dynamic diel vertical migrations of Mysis diluviana, coregonine fishes, and siscowet lake trout in the pelagia of western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahrenstorff, Tyler D.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Yule, Daniel L.; Sass, Greg G.

    2011-01-01

    Diel vertical migrations are common among many aquatic species and are often associated with changing light levels. The underlying mechanisms are generally attributed to optimizing foraging efficiency or growth rates and avoiding predation risk (μ). The objectives of this study were to (1) assess seasonal and interannual changes in vertical migration patterns of three trophic levels in the Lake Superior pelagic food web and (2) examine the mechanisms underlying the observed variability by using models of foraging, growth, and μ. Our results suggest that the opossum shrimp Mysis diluviana, kiyi Coregonus kiyi, and siscowet lake trout Salvelinus namaycush migrate concurrently during each season, but spring migrations are less extensive than summer and fall migrations. In comparison with M. diluviana, kiyis, and siscowets, the migrations by ciscoes C. artedi were not as deep in the water column during the day, regardless of season. Foraging potential and μ probably drive the movement patterns of M. diluviana, while our modeling results indicate that movements by kiyis and ciscoes are related to foraging opportunity and growth potential and receive a lesser influence from μ. The siscowet is an abundant apex predator in the pelagia of Lake Superior and probably undertakes vertical migrations in the water column to optimize foraging efficiency and growth. The concurrent vertical movement patterns of most species are likely to facilitate nutrient transport in this exceedingly oligotrophic ecosystem, and they demonstrate strong linkages between predators and prey. Fishery management strategies should use an ecosystem approach and should consider how altering the densities of long-lived top predators produces cascading effects on the nutrient cycling and energy flow in lower trophic levels.

  10. Diel changes in vertical overlap between Cyclops strenuus (Copepoda; Cyclopoida) and its prey in oligotrophic Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Wataru; Ban, Syuhei

    1998-06-01

    The vertical distribution of Cyclops strenuus and its prey, and the gut contents of C. strenuus were investigated at 3 h intervals over 24 h periods in the pelagic area of oligotrophic Lake Toya in May, August and October 1992. C. strenuus showed slight diel vertical migration (DVM) in May, but did not migrate and was always distributed below 15 m in August and October, the thermally stratified period. This suggests that the DVM is strongly influenced by the development of the thermocline, which the copepod may not be able to cross. Gut content analyses revealed that in Lake Toya it is omnivorous, and that the dominant prey are cladocerans and Filinia longiseta. The number of prey remains in the gut varied with time, and the diel changes did not follow changes in prey density that take the vertical overlap between predator and prey into account. We argue that very low prey density associated with the oligotrophic nature of the lake would mask the relationship between prey density and the number of prey in the gut of the predator.

  11. Vertical diversity of sediment bacterial communities in two different trophic states of the eutrophic Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Shao, Keqiang; Gao, Guang; Wang, Yongping; Tang, Xiangming; Qin, Boqiang

    2013-06-01

    Vertical diversity of sediment bacterial communities in 2 different trophic states (macrophyte-dominated and algae-dominated) of the large shallow eutrophic Lake Taihu, China, were investigated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Clustering analysis of DGGE profiles showed that different clusters were recognized in different depths of sediment cores in the 2 lake trophic states. Analyses of the bacterial diversity, as estimated by the Shannon index (H'), showed that different sediment layers of the macrophyte-dominated state had higher diversity than the algae-dominated state. In addition, bacterial diversity of the sediment in the macrophyte-dominated state changed abruptly throughout the layers, but bacterial diversity of the algae-dominated state decreased gradually with sediment depth. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in the middle sediment of the 2 lake trophic states. In the macrophyte-dominated state, clone sequences related to Betaproteobacteria (50.0%) were the most abundant, followed by Epsilonproteobacteria (21.1%), Acidobacteria (7.9%), Deltaproteobacteria (7.9%), Chloroflexi (7.9%), and Bacteroidetes (5.3%); whereas in the algae-dominated state, sequences affiliated with Betaproteobacteria (84.4%) were predominant, followed by Deltaproteobacteria (12.5%) and Acidobacteria (3.1%). Canonical correspondence analysis showed that organic matter and pH play key roles in driving the vertical changes of bacterial community composition. PMID:24191609

  12. Densities and Diel Vertical Migration of Mysis relicta in Lake Superior: A Comparison of Optical Plankton Encounter and Net-based Approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we used data from an OPC, and LOPC, and vertical net tows to estimate densities and describe the day/night vertical distribution of Mysis at a series of stations distributed throughout Lake Superior, and to evaluate the efficacy of using (L)OPC for examining DVM of...

  13. The vertical variation of nutrients in a sediment core of Delong Lake reveals the anthropogenic effect.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ying; Zang, Shuying; Xiao, Haifeng

    2014-05-01

    Phosphorus content and its species were studied for the core sediments of Delong Lake, using the SMT sequential extraction method, and then were correlated to the contents of total nitrogen and organic matter. According to (210)Pb and (137)Cs dating, the historical profiles of 33 cm core sediments were generated. The objective of this study was to understand how nutrients of lake sediments evolved in order to get insights into the effect of human activities on their sedimentary history. The nutrients contents in the core sediments slowly increased after 1957, showing the human activity influence the natural deposition of the lake sediment. From 1978 to 1985, various nutrients in the lake sediment rapid increased, showing that the human activities strengthened. From 2003 to now, most of nutrients in the sediment rapidly increased and significantly modified the natural deposition of the lake sediment. PMID:24468926

  14. Vertical distribution of Fe and Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in the sediments of Lake Donghu, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Cuicui; Wang, Chunbo; Tian, Yingying; Wu, Xingqiang; Xiao, Bangding

    2015-08-01

    In lake sediments, iron (Fe) is the most versatile element, and the redox cycling of Fe has a wide influence on the biogeochemical cycling of organic and inorganic substances. The aim of the present study was to analyze the vertical distribution of Fe and Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (FeRB) in the surface sediment (30 cm) of Lake Donghu, China. At the 3 sites we surveyed, FeRB and Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) coexisted in anoxic sediments. Geobacter-related FeRB accounted for 5%-31% of the total Bacteria, while Gallionella-related FeOB accounted for only 0.1%-1.3%. A significant correlation between the relative abundance of poorly crystalline Fe and Geobacter spp. suggested that poorly crystalline Fe favored microbial Fe(III) reduction. Poorly crystalline Fe and Geobacter spp. were significantly associated with solid-phase Fe(II) and total inorganic phosphorus levels. Pore water Fe(II) concentrations negatively correlated with NO3(-) at all sites. We concluded that Geobacter spp. were abundant in the sediments of Lake Donghu, and the redox of Fe might participate in the cycling of nitrogen and phosphorus in sediments. These observations provided insight into the roles of microbial Fe cycling in lake sediments. PMID:26156094

  15. Stratification of Archaea in the Deep Sediments of a Freshwater Meromictic Lake: Vertical Shift from Methanogenic to Uncultured Archaeal Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Borrel, Guillaume; Lehours, Anne-Catherine; Crouzet, Olivier; Jzquel, Didier; Rockne, Karl; Kulczak, Amlie; Duffaud, Emilie; Joblin, Keith; Fonty, Grard

    2012-01-01

    As for lineages of known methanogens, several lineages of uncultured archaea were recurrently retrieved in freshwater sediments. However, knowledge is missing about how these lineages might be affected and structured according to depth. In the present study, the vertical changes of archaeal communities were characterized in the deep sediment of the freshwater meromictic Lake Pavin. For that purpose, an integrated molecular approach was performed to gain information on the structure, composition, abundance and vertical stratification of archaeal communities thriving in anoxic freshwater sediments along a gradient of sediments encompassing 130 years of sedimentation. Huge changes occurred in the structure and composition of archaeal assemblages along the sediment core. Methanogenic taxa (i.e. Methanosaeta and Methanomicrobiales) were progressively replaced by uncultured archaeal lineages (i.e. Marine Benthic Group-D (MBG-D) and Miscellaneous Crenarchaeal Group (MCG)) which are suspected to be involved in the methane cycle. PMID:22927959

  16. Vertical structure of organic-rich fine sediment relevant to resuspension: Lake Apopka, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Ashish; Manning, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Wind-induced resuspension potential of organic-rich bottom sediment in many shallow lakes of Florida is a major management concern. If resuspension remains unabated, high oxygen demand of these waters typically rich in nutrients tends to bring about an abundance of toxic algae and drastic loss of fish population. A case in point is the highly eutrophic Lake Apopka in central Florida which has an area of 12,500 ha and a mean depth of about 2 m. The development of a water management strategy for this and similar lakes requires a thorough understanding of fine sediment dynamics peculiar to bottom muck. Although lake muck is fine-grained, from its surface down to a depth of 1 to 2 m it is significantly stratified with respect to material composition and density. As a result, characteristic parameters defining the state of the bottom, its resuspension by wind and settling of suspended matter tend to differ from those of beds of inorganic matter. In addition, above the bed surface defined by the so-called space-filling density of solids, a fluid-like, almost entirely organic, "fluff" layer can exist without dewatering to form a solid bed. Modeling the response of this lake sediment to wind requires a detailed characterization of the state and transport behavior of stratified muck. This characterization and its significance in sediment transport modeling are described for Lake Apopka.

  17. Vertical gradients of PCBs and PBDEs in fish from European high mountain lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimalt, J. O.; Gallego, E.; Bartrons, M.; Catalan, J.; Camarero, L.; Stuchlik, E.; Battarbee, R.

    2006-12-01

    A first case of temperature-dependent distribution of polybromodiphenyl eters (PBDEs) in remote areas is shown. Analysis of these compounds in fish from Pyrenean lakes distributed along an altitudinal transect shows higher concentrations at lower temperatures, as predicted in the global distillation model. Conversely, no temperature-dependent distribution is observed in a similar transect in the Tatra mountains (Central Europe) nor in fish from high mountain lakes distributed throughout Europe. The fish concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) examined for comparison showed significant temperature correlations in all these studied lakes. In the interval of feasible temperatures for high mountain lakes, cold trapping of both PCBs and PBDEs concerned the less volatile congeners. In the Pyrenean lake transect the concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs in fish were correlated despite the distinct use of these compounds and their 40 year time-lag of emissions to the environment. Thus, temperature effects have overcome these anthropogenic differences constituting at present the main process determining their distributions. The cases of distinct PBDE and PCB behavior in high mountains can therefore be interpreted to reflect early stages in the environmental distribution of the former compounds.

  18. Vertical redistribution of zooplankton in an oligotrophic lake associated with reduction in ultraviolet radiation by wildfire smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urmy, Samuel S.; Williamson, Craig E.; Leach, Taylor H.; Schladow, S. Geoffrey; Overholt, Erin P.; Warren, Joseph D.

    2016-04-01

    We used a natural experiment to test whether wildfire smoke induced changes in the vertical distribution of zooplankton in Lake Tahoe by decreasing incident ultraviolet radiation (UV). Fires have a variety of effects on aquatic ecosystems, but these impacts are poorly understood and have rarely been observed directly. UV is an important driver of zooplankton vertical migration, and wildfires may alter it over large spatial scales. We measured UV irradiance and the distribution of zooplankton on two successive days. On one day, smoke haze from a nearby wildfire reduced incident UV radiation by up to 9%, but not irradiance in the visible spectrum. Zooplankton responded by positioning themselves, on average, 4.1 m shallower in the lake. While a limited data set such as this requires cautious interpretation, our results suggest that smoke from wildfires can change the UV environment and distribution of zooplankton. This process may be important in drought-prone regions with increasingly frequent wildfires, and globally due to widespread biomass burning.

  19. Estimate of the vertical plankton biomass profile on the basis of measurements of fluorescent characteristics in pelagial of Lake Baikal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, Mikhail V.; Sakirko, Maria V.; Usoltseva, Marina V.; Popovskaya, Galina I.; Domysheva, Valentina M.; Shimaraev, Mikhail N.; Zavoruev, Valerii V.; Pestunov, Dmitrii A.

    2014-11-01

    We study the effect of physical, chemical and biological processes on gas exchange of CO2 in the air-water system in Lake Baikal. Photosynthesis of aquatic biota is known to play a crucial role in changing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the water. Fluorescent methods are considered to be of high performance in problems of determining quantitative characteristics of biomass, however they require preliminary calibration directly for a specific type of plankton. In the pelagic zone of Lake Baikal the species composition, quantitative and spatial distribution of phytoplankton are characterized by strong spatial and temporal variability. Therefore, the fluorescent devices calibration on a single reference does not provide acceptable accuracy of quantitative assessment of the biomass. The results discussed in the paper were obtained by shipboard measurements during the Baikal campaign of 2010-2011. Correlation between the biomass in 25-meter water layer and the integral value of the fluorescent signal in this layer was obtained for calibration. The report discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the chosen methods and the results of retrieval of the vertical profiles of the biomass for stations in the pelagic zone of Lake Baikal in spring for the 2010-2011 biennium.

  20. Age-specific light preferences and vertical migration patterns of a Great Lakes invasive invertebrate, Hemimysis anomala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boscarino, Brent T.; Halpin, Kathleen E.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Walsh, Maureen G.; Lantry, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    We use a combination of spectral sensitivity analyses, laboratory behavioral observations and field distributions of a vertically migrating invertebrate, Hemimysis anomala (a recent invasive species to the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America), to determine if light preference and timing of emergence has an ontogenetic component. Juvenile Hemimysis (−3.4 and 10−2.4 mylux— a Hemimysis-specific unit of brightness derived from visual pigment analyses (wavelength of maximum absorbance = 500 nm; 1 mylux ~ 159 lx). These preferred light levels are equivalent to those present during nautical twilight on the Earth's surface and were several orders of magnitude brighter than those most preferred by adults (> 4.5 mm) in the laboratory (10−6.4 to 10−7.4 mylux). Both size classes completely avoided light levels of 10−0.4 mylux and greater, which are representative of daytime light levels at the Earth's surface. Net hauls taken at ~ 20-min intervals from sunset to the end of nautical twilight on two sampling occasions on Seneca Lake, New York (sampling depth = 2 m) revealed that juveniles emerged into the water column during civil twilight. Adult Hemimysis emerged later during nautical twilight when juveniles had already reached their maximum abundance in the water column. Laboratory-derived light preferences successfully predicted the timing of emergence and time of maximal abundance of both size classes on both sampling occasions. This study is one of the first to demonstrate that Hemimysis diel vertical migration has an ontogenetic component and to report the specific light levels likely to initiate and limit vertical movements.

  1. Lake Ontario zooplankton in 2003 and 2008: community changes and vertical redistribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudstam, Lars G.; Holeck, Kristen T.; Bowen, Kelly L.; Watkins, James M.; Weidel, Brian C.; Luckey, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Lake-wide zooplankton surveys are critical for documenting and understanding food web responses to ecosystem change. Surveys in 2003 and 2008 during the binational intensive field year in Lake Ontario found that offshore epilimnetic crustacean zooplankton declined by a factor of 12 (density) and factor of 5 (biomass) in the summer with smaller declines in the fall. These declines coincided with an increase in abundance of Bythotrephes and are likely the result of direct predation by, or behavioral responses to this invasive invertebrate predator. Whole water column zooplankton density also declined from 2003 to 2008 in the summer and fall (factor of 4), but biomass only declined in the fall (factor of 2). The decline in biomass was less than the decline in density because the average size of individual zooplankton increased. This was due to changes in the zooplankton community composition from a cyclopoid/bosminid dominated community in 2003 to a calanoid dominated community in 2008. The increase in calanoid copepods was primarily due to the larger species Limnocalanus macrurus and Leptodiaptomus sicilis. These coldwater species were found in and below the thermocline associated with a deep chlorophyll layer. In 2008, most of the zooplankton biomass resided in or below the thermocline during the day. Increased importance of copepods in deeper, colder water may favor cisco and rainbow smelt over alewife because these species are better adapted to cold temperatures than Alewife.

  2. Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

  3. The Vertical Dynamics of Larval Chironomids on Artificial Substrates in Lake Lido (Bogor, Indonesia)

    PubMed Central

    Wardiatno, Yusli; Krisanti, Majariana

    2013-01-01

    The composition and abundance of chironomid larval communities was studied on artificial substrates in Lido Lake, located in Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. The lake is organically enriched as a result of fish farming activity. Seventy two artificial substrates were deployed at three depths (2.0, 3.5 and 5.0 m) at two sites: a cage culture site and a non-cage culture site (control). Larval chironomid larvae were collected 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after the artificial substrates were deployed. In addition, selected physical and chemical parameters of the water were simultaneously measured. Three chironomid subfamilies, the Chironominae, Tanypodinae and Orthocladiinae, were found at both sites. At the cage culture site, both diversity and total abundance were significantly higher at the 2.0 and 3.5 m depths than at the 5.0 m depth, but this was not the case at the non-cage culture site. Based on pooling of the data from all depths, a Mann-Whitney U test showed that the non-cage culture site had a significantly higher diversity and total abundance than the cage culture site. Dissolved oxygen (DO) and turbidity showed significant differences between the 2.0 m depth and the 2 greater depths at the cage culture site, whereas none of the environmental parameters showed significant differences among the three depths at the non-cage culture site. A comparison of the environmental parameters at the same depth at the two sites showed significant differences in turbidity, pH and DO. A Spearman rank correlation analysis at the cage culture site showed that abundance and DO were positively correlated, whereas abundance and turbidity were negatively correlated. However, only pH was negatively correlated with abundance at the non-cage culture site. PMID:24575246

  4. Factors determining growth and vertical distribution of planktonic algae in extremely acidic mining lakes (pH 2.7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bissinger, Vera

    2003-04-01

    In this thesis, I investigated the factors influencing the growth and vertical distribution of planktonic algae in extremely acidic mining lakes (pH 2-3). In the focal study site, Lake 111 (pH 2.7; Lusatia, Germany), the chrysophyte, Ochromonas sp., dominates in the upper water strata and the chlorophyte, Chlamydomonas sp., in the deeper strata, forming a pronounced deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM). Inorganic carbon (IC) limitation influenced the phototrophic growth of Chlamydomonas sp. in the upper water strata. Conversely, in deeper strata, light limited its phototrophic growth. When compared with published data for algae from neutral lakes, Chlamydomonas sp. from Lake 111 exhibited a lower maximum growth rate, an enhanced compensation point and higher dark respiration rates, suggesting higher metabolic costs due to the extreme physico-chemical conditions. The photosynthetic performance of Chlamydomonas sp. decreased in high-light-adapted cells when IC limited. In addition, the minimal phosphorus (P) cell quota was suggestive of a higher P requirement under IC limitation. Subsequently, it was shown that Chlamydomonas sp. was a mixotroph, able to enhance its growth rate by taking up dissolved organic carbon (DOC) via osmotrophy. Therefore, it could survive in deeper water strata where DOC concentrations were higher and light limited. However, neither IC limitation, P availability nor in situ DOC concentrations (bottom-up control) could fully explain the vertical distribution of Chlamydomonas sp. in Lake 111. Conversely, when a novel approach was adopted, the grazing influence of the phagotrophic phototroph, Ochromonas sp., was found to exert top-down control on its prey (Chlamydomonas sp.) reducing prey abundance in the upper water strata. This, coupled with the fact that Chlamydomonas sp. uses DOC for growth, leads to a pronounced accumulation of Chlamydomonas sp. cells at depth; an apparent DCM. Therefore, grazing appears to be the main factor influencing the vertical distribution of algae observed in Lake 111. The knowledge gained from this thesis provides information essential for predicting the effect of strategies to neutralize the acidic mining lakes on the food-web. Die vorliegende Dissertation beschäftigt sich mit den Faktoren, die das Wachstum und die Vertikalverteilung von Planktonalgen in extrem sauren Tagebaurestseen (TBS; pH 2-3) beeinflussen. Im exemplarisch untersuchten TBS 111 (pH 2.7; Lausitzer Revier) dominiert die Goldalge Ochromonas sp. in oberen und die Grünalge Chlamydomonas sp. in tieferen Wasserschichten, wobei letztere ein ausgeprägtes Tiefenchlorophyll-Maximum (DCM) ausbildet. Es wurde ein deutlicher Einfluss von Limitation durch anorganischen Kohlenstoff (IC) auf das phototrophe Wachstum von Chlamydomonas sp. in oberen Wasserschichten nachgewiesen, die mit zunehmender Tiefe von Lichtlimitation abgelöst wird. Im Vergleich mit Arbeiten aus neutralen Seen zeigte Chlamydomonas sp. erniedrigte maximale Wachstumsraten, einen gesteigerten Kompensationspunkt und erhöhte Dunkelrespirationsraten, was auf gesteigerte metabolische Kosten unter den extremen physikalisch-chemischen Bedingungen hinweist. Die Photosyntheseleistungen von Chlamydomonas sp. waren in Starklicht-adaptierten Zellen durch IC-Limitation deutlich verringert. Außerdem ergaben die ermittelten minimalen Zellquoten für Phosphor (P) einen erhöhten P-Bedarf unter IC-Limitation. Anschließend konnte gezeigt werden, dass Chlamydomonas sp. ein mixotropher Organismus ist, der seine Wachstumsraten über die osmotrophe Aufnahme gelösten organischen Kohlenstoffs (DOC) erhöhen kann. Dadurch ist dieser Organismus fähig, in tieferen, Licht-limitierten Wasserschichten zu überleben, die einen höheren DOC-Gehalt aufweisen. Da die Vertikalverteilung der Algen im TBS 111 jedoch weder durch IC-Limitation, P-Verfügbarkeit noch die in situ DOC-Konzentrationen abschließend erklärt werden konnte (bottom-up Kontrolle), wurde eine neue Theorie zur Entstehung der Vertikalverteilung geprüft. Grazing der phagotrophen und phototrophen Alge Ochromonas sp. auf der phototrophen Alge Chlamydomonas sp. erwies sich als herausragender Faktor, der über top-down Kontrolle die Abundanz der Beute in höheren Wasserschichten beeinflussen kann. Gemeinsam mit der Tatsache, dass Chlamydomonas sp. DOC zur Wachstumssteigerung verwendet, führt dies zu einer Akkumulation von Chlamydomonas sp. in der Tiefe, ausgeprägt als DCM. Daher erscheint grazing als der Hauptfaktor, der die beobachtete Vertikalschichtung der Algen im TBS 111 hervorruft. Die erzielten Ergebnisse liefern grundlegende Informationen, um die Auswirkungen von Strategien zur Neutralisierung der TBS auf das Nahrungsnetz abschätzen zu können.

  5. APPLICATION OF A SEDIMENT DYNAMICS MODEL FOR ESTIMATION OF VERTICAL BURIAL RATES OF PCBS IN SOUTHERN LAKE MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recovery of Lake Michigan from PCB contamination depends on the rates of reduction in PCB input from external sources and removal of PCBs present in the lake system. The loading of PCBs to the Great Lakes should be decreasing. Consequently, if the PCB burden of the lake is al...

  6. Vertical Distribution of Functional Potential and Active Microbial Communities in Meromictic Lake Kivu.

    PubMed

    İnceoğlu, Özgul; Llirós, Marc; Crowe, Sean A; García-Armisen, Tamara; Morana, Cedric; Darchambeau, François; Borges, Alberto V; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Servais, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    The microbial community composition in meromictic Lake Kivu, with one of the largest CH4 reservoirs, was studied using 16S rDNA and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) pyrosequencing during the dry and rainy seasons. Highly abundant taxa were shared in a high percentage between bulk (DNA-based) and active (RNA-based) bacterial communities, whereas a high proportion of rare species was detected only in either an active or bulk community, indicating the existence of a potentially active rare biosphere and the possible underestimation of diversity detected when using only one nucleic acid pool. Most taxa identified as generalists were abundant, and those identified as specialists were more likely to be rare in the bulk community. The overall number of environmental parameters that could explain the variation was higher for abundant taxa in comparison to rare taxa. Clustering analysis based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs at 0.03 cutoff) level revealed significant and systematic microbial community composition shifts with depth. In the oxic zone, Actinobacteria were found highly dominant in the bulk community but not in the metabolically active community. In the oxic-anoxic transition zone, highly abundant potentially active Nitrospira and Methylococcales were observed. The co-occurrence of potentially active sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the anoxic zone may suggest the presence of an active yet cryptic sulfur cycle. PMID:25912922

  7. Direct and indirect effects of vertical mixing, nutrients and ultraviolet radiation on the bacterioplankton metabolism in high-mountain lakes from southern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán, C.; Medina-Sánchez, J. M.; Herrera, G.; Villar-Argaiz, M.; Villafañe, V. E.; Helbling, E. W.; Carrillo, P.

    2014-05-01

    As a consequence of global change, modifications in the interaction among abiotic stressors on aquatic ecosystems have been predicted. Among other factors, UVR transparency, nutrient inputs and shallower epilimnetic layers could alter the trophic links in the microbial food web. Currently, there are some evidences of higher sensitiveness of aquatic microbial organisms to UVR in opaque lakes. Our aim was to assess the interactive direct and indirect effects of UVR (through the excretion of organic carbon - EOC - by algae), mixing regime and nutrient input on bacterial metabolism. We performed in situ short-term experiments under the following treatments: full sunlight (UVR + PAR, >280 nm) vs. UVR exclusion (PAR only, >400 nm); ambient vs. nutrient addition (phosphorus (P; 30 μg PL-1) and nitrogen (N; up to final N : P molar ratio of 31)); and static vs. mixed regime. The experiments were conducted in three high-mountain lakes of Spain: Enol [LE], Las Yeguas [LY] and La Caldera [LC] which had contrasting UVR transparency characteristics (opaque (LE) vs. clear lakes (LY and LC)). Under ambient nutrient conditions and static regimes, UVR exerted a stimulatory effect on heterotrophic bacterial production (HBP) in the opaque lake but not in the clear ones. Under UVR, vertical mixing and nutrient addition HBP values were lower than under the static and ambient nutrient conditions, and the stimulatory effect that UVR exerted on HBP in the opaque lake disappeared. By contrast, vertical mixing and nutrient addition increased HBP values in the clear lakes, highlighting for a photoinhibitory effect of UVR on HBP. Mixed regime and nutrient addition resulted in negative effects of UVR on HBP more in the opaque than in the clear lakes. Moreover, in the opaque lake, bacterial respiration (BR) increased and EOC did not support the bacterial carbon demand (BCD). In contrast, bacterial metabolic costs did not increase in the clear lakes and the increased nutrient availability even led to higher HBP. Consequently, EOC satisfied BCD in the clear lakes, particularly in the clearest one [LC]. Our results suggest that the higher vulnerability of bacteria to the damaging effects of UVR may be particularly accentuated in the opaque lakes and further recognizes the relevance of light exposure history and biotic interactions on bacterioplankton metabolism when coping with fluctuating radiation and nutrient inputs.

  8. The Vertical Distribution of Sediment Archaeal Community in the "Black Bloom" Disturbing Zhushan Bay of Lake Taihu.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xianfang; Xing, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Using the Illumina sequencing technology, we investigated the vertical distribution of archaeal community in the sediment of Zhushan Bay of Lake Taihu, where the black bloom frequently occurred in summer. Overall, the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG), Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group 6 (DHVEG-6), and Methanobacterium dominated the archaeal community. However, we observed significant difference in composition of archaeal community among different depths of the sediment. DHVEG-6 dominated in the surface layer (0-3 cm) sediment. Methanobacterium was the dominating archaeal taxa in the L2 (3-6 cm) and L3 (6-10) sediment. MCG was most abundant in the L4 (10-15 cm) and L5 (15-20 cm) sediment. Besides, DHVEG-6 was significantly affected by the concentration of total phosphorus (TP). And loss on ignition (LOI) was an important environmental factor for Methanobacterium. As the typical archaeal taxa in the surface layer sediment, DHVEG-6 and Methanobacterium might be more adapted to abundant substrate supply from cyanobacterial blooms and take active part in the biomass transformation. We propose that DHVEG-6 and Methanobacterium could be the key archaeal taxa correlated with the "black bloom" formation in Zhushan Bay. PMID:26884723

  9. Vertical Profiles of Abundance and Potential Activity of Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria in Sediment of Lake Biwa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Masazumi; Kojima, Hisaya; Fukui, Manabu

    2012-01-01

    Vertical profiles of the abundance, community composition, and potential activity of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) were investigated in the sediment of Lake Biwa. Sediment samples were obtained from two sites at different water depths. The abundance of MOB was assessed as the copy number of the pmoA gene (encoding the alpha subunit of particulate methane monooxygenase), measured with quantitative real-time PCR. Abundance of the pmoA gene peaked in the 5–8 cm layer of the sediment from both sites. MOB community composition was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of pmoA and 16S rRNA genes. The band patterns observed in DGGE did not significantly differ with sediment depths or sampling sites. Sequence analysis of the DGGE bands indicated the dominance of the genus Methylobacter. Potential activity, which was measured in the presence of sufficient amounts of methane and oxygen, decreased linearly from the sediment surface to deeper layers. These results suggest that the pmoA gene copy number cannot be regarded as an indicator of aerobic MOB that retain potential activity in sediments. PMID:22200642

  10. The Vertical Distribution of Sediment Archaeal Community in the “Black Bloom” Disturbing Zhushan Bay of Lake Taihu

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xianfang; Xing, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Using the Illumina sequencing technology, we investigated the vertical distribution of archaeal community in the sediment of Zhushan Bay of Lake Taihu, where the black bloom frequently occurred in summer. Overall, the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG), Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group 6 (DHVEG-6), and Methanobacterium dominated the archaeal community. However, we observed significant difference in composition of archaeal community among different depths of the sediment. DHVEG-6 dominated in the surface layer (0–3 cm) sediment. Methanobacterium was the dominating archaeal taxa in the L2 (3–6 cm) and L3 (6–10) sediment. MCG was most abundant in the L4 (10–15 cm) and L5 (15–20 cm) sediment. Besides, DHVEG-6 was significantly affected by the concentration of total phosphorus (TP). And loss on ignition (LOI) was an important environmental factor for Methanobacterium. As the typical archaeal taxa in the surface layer sediment, DHVEG-6 and Methanobacterium might be more adapted to abundant substrate supply from cyanobacterial blooms and take active part in the biomass transformation. We propose that DHVEG-6 and Methanobacterium could be the key archaeal taxa correlated with the “black bloom” formation in Zhushan Bay. PMID:26884723

  11. Tectonic significance of a Miocene dike swarm and its post-emplacement vertical and meridional collapse, Lake Mead area, Nevada, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.E. . Denver Federal Center)

    1993-04-01

    Major upper-crustal extension accompanied the dike-on-dike emplacement process that formed the north part of the Miocene-age Wilson Ridge pluton in the northern Black Mountains of northwestern Arizona and adjacent Nevada. Complex patterns of shallow-axis tilting and steep-axis bending of dikes and strata are interpreted as reflecting contrasting styles of accommodation for extension that accompanied and followed the large-magnitude extension represented by the pluton. These events occurred along the south-southeast projection of the Miocene-age northern Nevada rift and perhaps represent a continuation of that feature. Thousands of dikes of intermediate to mafic composition were initially steep and elongate normal to an extension axis oriented 077. Continued extension, as magma supply diminished, produced areally variable, mostly post-emplacement structures resulting mainly from horizontal-axis tilting and associated faulting south of Lake Mead and vertical-axis bending north of Lake Mead. South of the lake pre-intrusive strata and the dikes are steeply tilted away from and downfaulted toward the axis of the pluton, thereby forming structurally raised shoulders and a zone of central vertical collapse analogous to larger scale rifts worldwide. North of the lake pre-intrusive strata and dikes are only slightly tilted, but the steep dikes are spectacularly folded in plain view. These steep-axis folds were initially interpreted as drag features associated with the adjacent Hamblin Bay fault. On the basis of their areally variable vergence and other structural relations, they are now interpreted as resulting from a meridional collapse of the pluton. This horizontal collapse accommodate extension that occurred during the magma-starved phase of protracted deformation, as did the vertical collapse south of the lake.

  12. [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Abundance and Diversity along a Vertical Redox Gradient in Great Salt Lake, USA

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Eric S.; Hamilton, Trinity L.; Swanson, Kevin D.; Howells, Alta E.; Baxter, Bonnie K.; Meuser, Jonathan E.; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Peters, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The use of [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzymes for the biotechnological production of H2 or other reduced products has been limited by their sensitivity to oxygen (O2). Here, we apply a PCR-directed approach to determine the distribution, abundance, and diversity of hydA gene fragments along co-varying salinity and O2 gradients in a vertical water column of Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT. The distribution of hydA was constrained to water column transects that had high salt and relatively low O2 concentrations. Recovered HydA deduced amino acid sequences were enriched in hydrophilic amino acids relative to HydA from less saline environments. In addition, they harbored interesting variations in the amino acid environment of the complex H-cluster metalloenzyme active site and putative gas transfer channels that may be important for both H2 transfer and O2 susceptibility. A phylogenetic framework was created to infer the accessory cluster composition and quaternary structure of recovered HydA protein sequences based on phylogenetic relationships and the gene contexts of known complete HydA sequences. Numerous recovered HydA are predicted to harbor multiple N- and C-terminal accessory iron-sulfur cluster binding domains and are likely to exist as multisubunit complexes. This study indicates an important role for [FeFe]-hydrogenases in the functioning of the GSL ecosystem and provides new target genes and variants for use in identifying O2 tolerant enzymes for biotechnological applications. PMID:25464382

  13. [FeFe]-hydrogenase abundance and diversity along a vertical redox gradient in Great Salt Lake, USA.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Eric S; Hamilton, Trinity L; Swanson, Kevin D; Howells, Alta E; Baxter, Bonnie K; Meuser, Jonathan E; Posewitz, Matthew C; Peters, John W

    2014-01-01

    The use of [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzymes for the biotechnological production of H2 or other reduced products has been limited by their sensitivity to oxygen (O2). Here, we apply a PCR-directed approach to determine the distribution, abundance, and diversity of hydA gene fragments along co-varying salinity and O2 gradients in a vertical water column of Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT. The distribution of hydA was constrained to water column transects that had high salt and relatively low O2 concentrations. Recovered HydA deduced amino acid sequences were enriched in hydrophilic amino acids relative to HydA from less saline environments. In addition, they harbored interesting variations in the amino acid environment of the complex H-cluster metalloenzyme active site and putative gas transfer channels that may be important for both H2 transfer and O2 susceptibility. A phylogenetic framework was created to infer the accessory cluster composition and quaternary structure of recovered HydA protein sequences based on phylogenetic relationships and the gene contexts of known complete HydA sequences. Numerous recovered HydA are predicted to harbor multiple N- and C-terminal accessory iron-sulfur cluster binding domains and are likely to exist as multisubunit complexes. This study indicates an important role for [FeFe]-hydrogenases in the functioning of the GSL ecosystem and provides new target genes and variants for use in identifying O2 tolerant enzymes for biotechnological applications. PMID:25464382

  14. The Rise and Fall of Plankton: Long-Term Changes in the Vertical Distribution of Algae and Grazers in Lake Baikal, Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, Stephanie E.; Gray, Derek K.; Izmest'eva, Lyubov R.; Moore, Marianne V.; Ozersky, Tedy

    2014-01-01

    Both surface water temperatures and the intensity of thermal stratification have increased recently in large lakes throughout the world. Such physical changes can be accompanied by shifts in plankton community structure, including changes in relative abundances and depth distributions. Here we analyzed 45 years of data from Lake Baikal, the world's oldest, deepest, and most voluminous lake, to assess long-term trends in the depth distribution of pelagic phytoplankton and zooplankton. Surface water temperatures in Lake Baikal increased steadily between 1955 and 2000, resulting in a stronger thermal gradient within the top 50 m of the water column. In conjunction with these physical changes our analyses reveal significant shifts in the daytime depth distribution of important phytoplankton and zooplankton groups. The relatively heavy diatoms, which often rely on mixing to remain suspended in the photic zone, shifted downward in the water column by 1.90 m y-1, while the depths of other phytoplankton groups did not change significantly. Over the same time span the density-weighted average depth of most major zooplankton groups, including cladocerans, rotifers, and immature copepods, exhibited rapid shifts toward shallower positions (0.57–0.75 m y−1). As a result of these depth changes the vertical overlap between herbivorous copepods (Epischura baikalensis) and their algal food appears to have increased through time while that for cladocerans decreased. We hypothesize that warming surface waters and reduced mixing caused these ecological changes. Future studies should examine how changes in the vertical distribution of plankton might impact energy flow in this lake and others. PMID:24586441

  15. Discovery of sublacustrine hydrothermal activity and associated massive sulfides and hydrocarbons in the north Tanganyika trough, East African Rift

    SciTech Connect

    Tiercelin, J.J.; Mondeguer, A. ); Thouin, C. ); Kalala, T. )

    1989-11-01

    Massive sulfides and carbonate mineral deposits associated with sublacustrine thermal springs were recently discovered along the Zaire side of the north Tanganyika trough, western branch of the East African Rift. This hydrothermal activity, investigated by scuba diving at a maximum depth of 20 m, is located at the intersection of major north-south normal faults and northwest-southeast faults belonging to the Tanganyika-Rukwa-Malawi (TRM) strike-slip fault zone. The preliminary results presented here come from analyses of sulfide deposits, hydrothermal fluids, and associated hydrocarbons that result from geothermal activity in this part of the East African Rift filled by a thick pile of sediment, the north Tanganyika trough.

  16. The influence of light on the diel vertical migration of young-of-the-year burbot Lota lota in Lake Constance.

    PubMed

    Probst, W N; Eckmann, R

    2009-01-01

    The diel vertical distribution of young-of-the-year (YOY) burbot Lota lota in the pelagic zone of Lake Constance was compared to light intensity at the surface and to the light intensity at their mean depth. Lota lota larvae inhabited the pelagic zone of Lake Constance from the beginning of May until the end of August. From early June, after the stratification of the water column, fish performed diel vertical migrations (DVM) between the hypolimnion and epilimnion. The amplitude of DVM increased constantly during the summer and reached 70 m by the end of August. Lota lota started their ascent to the surface after sunset and descended into the hypolimnion after sunrise. As the YOY fish grew from May to August, they experienced decreasing diel maximum light intensities: in May and early June L. lota spent the day at light intensities >40 W m(-2), but they never experienced light intensities >0.1 W m(-2) after the end of June. From this time, L. lota experienced the brightest light intensities during dusk and dawn, suggesting feeding opportunities at crepuscular hours. The present study implies, that YOY L. lota in the pelagic zone of Lake Constance increased their DVM amplitude during the summer to counteract a perceived predation risk related to body size and pigmentation. PMID:20735530

  17. Distribution of lacustrine Crenarchaeota in Lake Superior: implications for the application of the TEX86 temperature proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltering, M. L.; Werne, J. P.; Hicks, R.; Kish, J.; Oster, R.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    The TEX86 is a proxy that can be applied on continental lake sediments to reconstruct past water temperatures. It is based on the lipids derived from aquatic Crenarchaeota, and although first applied in marine systems has already been successfully used in sediments from some of the continental lake drilling projects in Lake Malawi and Tanganyika. Recent studies have shown that the application of this proxy in lacustrine systems appears to be limited to mainly large to intermediate size lakes that are only marginally terrestrially influenced. Here TEX86 values from surface sediments appear to correlate strongly with both annual mean as mean winter surface water temperatures. Besides this observed empirical relationship between TEX86 values and lake surface temperatures, very little is known about the distribution and ecology of the organisms that produce the lipids that make up the TEX86 in lacustrine systems. Here we will present the results of our multiyear water column and sediment trap study in Lake Superior where we investigated where vertically and at what time of year the lipids are produced that make up the TEX86 proxy, which end up in the sediment record. We have combined both biogeochemical and molecular techniques to both water filter samples as sediment trap material, combined thermistor observations in the water column to create vertical profiles of Crenarchaeotal and lipid abundance to investigate the spatial distribution of the lacustrine Crenarchaeota in order to determine if or what kind of temperature is actually represented by the TEX86 proxy in Lake Superior. Our results show that the TEX86 measured in particulate organic matter does a good job reconstructing the actual thermal structure of the water column. However, the lipids that make up the TEX86 in Lake Superior are produced throughout the lake during isothermal conditions, but mainly below the thermocline when the lake is stratified suggesting that in Lake Superior the TEX86 largely reflects a subsurface temperature instead of a surface water temperature. Three years of sediment trap samples from the same location do not show a strong seasonal cycle the TEX86 values agreeing with a subsurface origin of the TEX86 lipids. The flux of the lipids used in the TEX86 is highly seasonal and mainly occurs during two time periods in winter and spring as observed in 3 consecutive years. Although, covariance between the TEX86 lipid and a soil bacterial lipid flux may indicate that resuspension may have played a significant role in patterns observed in our sediment traps.

  18. Lacustrine mollusc radiations in the Lake Malawi Basin: experiments in a natural laboratory for evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Damme, D.; Gautier, A.

    2013-09-01

    In terminal Pliocene-early Pleistocene times, part of the Malawi Basin was occupied by paleo-lake Chiwondo. Molluscan biostratigraphy situates this freshwater lake either in the East African wet phase between 2.7-2.4 Ma or that of 2.0-1.8 Ma. In-lake divergent evolution remained restricted to a few molluscan taxa and was very modest. The lacustrine Chiwondo fauna went extinct at the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern Lake Malawi malacofauna is depauperate and descends from ubiquistic southeast African taxa and some Malawi basin endemics that invaded the present lake after the Late Pleistocene mega-droughts. The Pleistocene aridity crises caused dramatic changes, affecting the malacofauna of all East African lakes. All lacustrine endemic faunas that had evolved in the Pliocene rift lakes, such as paleo-lake Chiwondo, became extinct. In Lake Tanganyika, the freshwater ecosystem did not crash as in other lakes, but the environmental changes were sufficiently important to trigger a vast radiation. All African endemic lacustrine molluscan clades that are the result of in-lake divergence are hence geologically young, including the vast Lavigeria clade in Lake Tanganyika (ca. 43 species).

  19. Vertical distribution of radiation dose rates in the water of a brackish lake in Aomori Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Iyogi, Takashi; Ueda, Shinji; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2015-11-01

    Seasonal radiation dose rates were measured with glass dosemeters housed in watertight cases at various depths in the water of Lake Obuchi, a brackish lake in Aomori Prefecture, Japan, during fiscal years 2011-2013 to assess the background external radiation dose to aquatic biota in the lake. The mean radiation dose in the surface water of the lake was found to be 27 nGy h(-1), which is almost the same as the absorption dose rate due to cosmic ray reported in the literature. Radiation dose rates decreased exponentially with water depth down to a depth of 1 m above the bottom sediment. In the water near the sediment, the dose rate increased with depth owing to the emission of γ-rays from natural radionuclides in the sediment. PMID:25944958

  20. Lateralized Kinematics of Predation Behavior in a Lake Tanganyika Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Yuichi; Hori, Michio; Oda, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral lateralization has been documented in many vertebrates. The scale-eating cichlid fish Perissodus microlepis is well known for exhibiting lateral dimorphism in its mouth morphology and lateralized behavior in robbing scales from prey fish. A previous field study indicated that this mouth asymmetry closely correlates with the side on which prey is attacked, but details of this species' predation behavior have not been previously analyzed because of the rapidity of the movements. Here, we studied scale-eating behavior in cichlids in a tank through high-speed video monitoring and quantitative assessment of behavioral laterality and kinematics. The fish observed showed a clear bias toward striking on one side, which closely correlated with their asymmetric mouth morphologies. Furthermore, the maximum angular velocity and amplitude of body flexion were significantly larger during attacks on the preferred side compared to those on the nonpreferred side, permitting increased predation success. In contrast, no such lateral difference in movement elements was observed in acoustically evoked flexion during the escape response, which is similar to flexion during scale eating and suggests that they share a common motor control pathway. Thus the neuronal circuits controlling body flexion during scale eating may be functionally lateralized upstream of this common motor pathway. PMID:22238598

  1. Assembly processes of gastropod community change with horizontal and vertical zonation in ancient Lake Ohrid: a metacommunity speciation perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauffe, Torsten; Albrecht, Christian; Wilke, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The Balkan Lake Ohrid is the oldest and most diverse freshwater lacustrine system in Europe. However, it remains unclear whether species community composition, as well as the diversification of its endemic taxa, is mainly driven by dispersal limitation, environmental filtering, or species interaction. This calls for a holistic perspective involving both evolutionary processes and ecological dynamics, as provided by the unifying framework of the "metacommunity speciation model".The current study used the species-rich model taxon Gastropoda to assess how extant communities in Lake Ohrid are structured by performing process-based metacommunity analyses. Specifically, the study aimed (1) to identifying the relative importance of the three community assembly processes and (2) to test whether the importance of these individual processes changes gradually with lake depth or discontinuously with eco-zone shifts.Based on automated eco-zone detection and process-specific simulation steps, we demonstrated that dispersal limitation had the strongest influence on gastropod community composition. However, it was not the exclusive assembly process, but acted together with the other two processes - environmental filtering and species interaction. The relative importance of the community assembly processes varied both with lake depth and eco-zones, though the processes were better predicted by the latter.This suggests that environmental characteristics have a pronounced effect on shaping gastropod communities via assembly processes. Moreover, the study corroborated the high importance of dispersal limitation for both maintaining species richness in Lake Ohrid (through its impact on community composition) and generating endemic biodiversity (via its influence on diversification processes). However, according to the metacommunity speciation model, the inferred importance of environmental filtering and biotic interaction also suggests a small but significant influence of ecological speciation. These findings contribute to the main goal of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) deep drilling initiative - inferring the drivers of biotic evolution - and might provide an integrative perspective on biological and limnological dynamics in ancient Lake Ohrid.

  2. Analysis of the La:P ratio in lake sediments - Vertical and spatial distribution assessed by a multiple-core survey.

    PubMed

    Yasseri, Said; Epe, Tim S

    2016-06-15

    In recent years, lanthanum modified bentonite has been increasingly applied to eutrophic lakes with the aim of converting potentially bio-available forms of phosphorus in sediments into biologically unavailable forms. In many of these applications, however, no attempts have been made to assess the efficiency and efficacy of the measure in terms of its effect on the sediment. In this study, we collected sediment cores from a heavily eutrophied lake that has previously been treated with lanthanum modified clay. This restoration method is based on the strong ionic bond formed between lanthanum and phosphate which results in the formation of LaPO4 (Rhabdophane) in the sediment. In order to determine the changes that had occurred in the sediments as a result of the addition of the clay, we measured the vertical distribution of lanthanum in the collected cores, calculated La:P ratios of the different sediment layers and used the ratios to determine whether or not the applied dosage was sufficient. By means of the geostatistical method of kriging these values were transferred into maps of different depth intervals to visualize the results. The results indicate that the La:P ratio may be a useful tool which allows lake managers to measure the vertical distribution of lanthanum in sediments following treatments and determine whether or not dosages are sufficient to permanently render sediment phosphorus biologically unavailable. The method may also provide a basis on which to decide whether or not smaller reapplications are needed and can be used to control the dispersion of the material. PMID:26250755

  3. Vertical distributions of radionuclides ((239+240)Pu, (240)Pu/(239)Pu, and (137)Cs) in sediment cores of Lake Bosten in Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Liao, Haiqing; Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Wu, Fengchang; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-04-01

    Artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs, (239+240)Pu, (241)Pu, (241)Am) deposited in lacustrine sediments have been used for dating as well as radionuclide source identification. In the present work, we investigated the vertical distributions of (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs activities, (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios, and (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios in sediment cores collected from Lake Bosten, which is the lake closest to the Lop Nor Chinese Nuclear Weapon Test site in northwestern China. Uniformly high concentrations of (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs were found in the upper layers deposited since 1964 in the sediment cores, and these were controlled by the resuspension of soil containing radionuclides from the nearby land surface. As the Chinese nuclear tests varied remarkably in yield, the mixing of the tropospheric deposition from these tests and the stratospheric deposition of global fallout has led to a (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio that is similar to that of global fallout and to a (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratio that is slightly higher than that of global fallout. However, a low (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio of 0.080 and high (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratio of 0.087, significantly different from the global fallout values, were observed in one sediment core (07BS10-2), indicating the inhomogenous tropospheric deposition from the Chinese nuclear tests in Lake Bosten during 1967-1973. These results are important to understand the influence of the CNTs on the radionuclide contamination in Lake Bosten. PMID:24580087

  4. HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF MERCURY IN 1983 LAKE SUPERIOR SEDIMENTS WITH ESTIMATES OF MERCURY STORAGE AND FLUX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake Superior sediments have mercury concentrations above background levels at all sites sampled. For those cores which pentetrated the sediment deep enough (the majority of the cores), background mercury concentrations ranged between 0.0156 and 0.0475 mg/kg.

  5. Remote sensing of freshwater aquatic macrophytes in a southeastern lake: Part 1, Analysis of 30 years of vertical aerial photography

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, J.R. . Dept. of Geography); Mackey, H.E. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the alternatives for conducting aquatic macrophyte mapping using in situ and remote sensing technologies, and then focuses on estimation of historical changes in persistent and non-persistent macrophyte beds in a large cooling lake in South Carolina from 1958 to 1990. Based on analysis of the historical aerial photography, rapid growth of the persistent beds of macrophytes along the shoreline did not begin until the early to mid-1970s and essentially stabilized by the late 1970s or early 1980s. Extensive growth of the non-persistent macrophytes began a few years after the persistent beds and, likewise, stabilized by the early 1980s. Comparisons of in situ and aerial photographic measurements indicate that large-scale, aerial photography can be used to accurately monitor lacustrine wetlands. Multidate photography is required if the lake is not successionally stable and if persistent and nonpersistent macrophyte beds occur, leading to large seasonal changes.

  6. Remote sensing of freshwater aquatic macrophytes in a southeastern lake: Part 1, Analysis of 30 years of vertical aerial photography

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, J.R.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1991-12-31

    This paper summarizes the alternatives for conducting aquatic macrophyte mapping using in situ and remote sensing technologies, and then focuses on estimation of historical changes in persistent and non-persistent macrophyte beds in a large cooling lake in South Carolina from 1958 to 1990. Based on analysis of the historical aerial photography, rapid growth of the persistent beds of macrophytes along the shoreline did not begin until the early to mid-1970s and essentially stabilized by the late 1970s or early 1980s. Extensive growth of the non-persistent macrophytes began a few years after the persistent beds and, likewise, stabilized by the early 1980s. Comparisons of in situ and aerial photographic measurements indicate that large-scale, aerial photography can be used to accurately monitor lacustrine wetlands. Multidate photography is required if the lake is not successionally stable and if persistent and nonpersistent macrophyte beds occur, leading to large seasonal changes.

  7. Levels and patterns of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) from four different lakes in Tanzania: geographical differences and implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Polder, A; Müller, M B; Lyche, J L; Mdegela, R H; Nonga, H E; Mabiki, F P; Mbise, T J; Skaare, J U; Sandvik, M; Skjerve, E; Lie, E

    2014-08-01

    In Tanzania fish is one of the most important protein sources for the rapidly increasing population. Wild fish is threatened by overfishing and pollution from agriculture, industries, mining, household effluents and vector control. To monitor possible implications for public health, the geographical differences of the occurrence and levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in tilapia fish (Oreochromis sp.) from four different Tanzanian lakes were investigated in 2011. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyls (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) were determined in pooled samples of tilapia muscle from Lake (L) Victoria, L. Tanganyika, L. Nyasa (also called L. Malawi) and L. Babati in Tanzania in 2011. Levels of Σ-DDTs (274 ng/g lipid weight (lw)) and sum of 7 indicator PCBs (Σ-7PCBs) (17 ng/g lw) were significantly higher in tilapia from L. Tanganyika compared to the other lakes. The highest levels of Σ-endosulfan (94 ng/g lw) were detected in tilapia from L. Victoria. Toxaphenes were detected in low levels in fish from L. Tanganyika and L. Babati. Results revealed a geographic difference in the use of DDT and endosulfan between L. Victoria and L. Tanganyika. Low ratios of DDE/DDT in tilapia from L. Tanganyika indicated an on-going use of DDT in the area. Median levels of ΣBDEs, including BDE-209, were highest in L. Victoria (19.4 ng/g lw) and BDE-209 was present in 68% of the samples from this lake. The presence of BDE-209 indicates increasing influence of imported products from heavy industrialized countries. The measured POP levels in the studied tilapia were all below MRLs of EU or were lower than recommended levels, and thus the fish is considered as safe for human consumption. They may, however, pose a risk to the fish species and threaten biodiversity. PMID:24836134

  8. An in lake comparison of the branched GDGT lacustrine paleothermometer with other temperature proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, S. E.; Russell, J. M.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative paleoclimate reconstructions are essential for testing the efficacy of climate models, yet there are very few proxies that can reconstruct temperature over much of the terrestrial landscape. A novel group of bacterial membrane lipids known as branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) have strong potential to be used as a paleotemperature proxy given their ubiquity in peats, soils, lacustrine sediments, and near shore ocean sediments. There are nine known branched GDGTs, and the degree of methylation and cyclisation of these compounds has been shown to relate to the mean annual air temperature (MAAT) of their environment. Several different calibrations have been put forth relating branched GDGT distribution to MAAT, but up to now, there has been limited success applying these calibrations lake cores to reconstruct paleotemperatures. We have now developed a branched GDGT temperature calibration based upon 109 lake surface sediments in tropical Africa. Here we test the applicability of branched GDGT lacustrine paleothermometer on three different tropical lakes, including Lake Tanganyika, Lake Malawi, and Lake Peten Itza. These lakes were chosen because they have paleotemperature reconstructions derived from proxies independent of branched GDGTs, including TEX86, fossil pollen (Tanganyika and Malawi) and biogenic carbonate isotopes (Peten Itza) to reconstruct past lake water temperatures, allowing us to directly compare our reconstructions to those derived from other proxies. We apply both published and unpublished calibrations to our lake core data in an attempt to deduce the most accurate calibrations to reconstruct temperatures from lacustrine sediments.

  9. Vertical distribution of Archaea and Bacteria in a meromictic lake as determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Lentini, Valeria; Gugliandolo, Concetta; Maugeri, Teresa L

    2012-01-01

    The prokaryotic cells distribution in the water column of the coastal saline meromictic Lake Faro (Messina, Italy) was investigated by microscopic counting techniques. Water samples were collected at a central station from the surface to the bottom, when waters were characterized by a marked stratification. A "red-water" layer, caused by a dense growth of photosynthetic sulfur bacteria, was present at a depth of 15 m, defining a transition area between oxic (mixolimnion) and anoxic (monimolimnion) layers. Fluorescently labeled 16S rRNA oligonucleotide, group-specific probes were used to determine the abundance of Bacteria and Archaea, and their subgroups, Green Sulfur Bacteria (GSB), Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB), Cyanobacteria and Chromatium okenii, and Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota, as key elements of the microbial community. Bacteria decreased from surface to bottom, while Archaea increased with depth and reached the maximum value at 30 m, where they outnumbered the Bacteria. Bacteria and picophytoplankton prevailed in the mixolimnion. At the chemocline high numbers of prokaryotic cells were present, mainly represented by Cyanobacteria, Chromatium okenii and Euryarchaeota. GSB, SRB, and Crenarchaeota prevailed below the chemocline. Although Archaea constitute a minor fraction of microbial community, they could represent active contributors to the meromictic Lake Faro ecosystem. PMID:22006072

  10. A 12,000-year record of vertical deformation across the Yellowstone caldera margin: The shorelines of Yellowstone Lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, William W.; Meyer, Grant A.

    1994-01-01

    The 600 ka Yellowstone caldera exhibits several signs of unrest, the most evident of which is historic ground deformation including both uplift and subsidence. We document deformation in the area of the southern caldera across approximately 12,000 years using the postglactic shoreline terraces of Yellowstone Lake. Raised shoreline elevations were interpreted from 230 leveling profiles surveyed across flights of terraces, with an accuracy of +/- 0.5 m. Of about 11 recognizable terraces, the five most continuous raised shorelines were correlated around the lake basin to reveal deformation patterns. Net deformation over the past approximatley 3 kyr has been dominantly up within the caldera interior and slightly down along the caldera rim, relative to the extracaldera region. This uplift is roughly similar to the historic pattern and may largely represent the effects of the most recent inflation episode. Subtraction of the total estimated magnitude of inflation in this epsiode suggests that the overall trend of postglacial deformation has been subsidence. The cause of this trend is undetermined but is most likely related to the effects of regional extension and long-term cooling within the Yellowstone caldera.

  11. Continuous Recording of Vertical CO2 Profiles as a Measure of Photosynthetic Activity in a Boreal Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uusimaa, M.; Hari, P.; Ojala, A.; Pumpanen, J.; Huotari, J.; Vesala, T.; Laakso, M.

    2006-12-01

    In aquatic ecology the traditional static way to measure primary production and consequently photosynthesis is to track changes in O2 concentration or carbon uptake of enclosed phytoplankton communities. However, with a feasible way to continuously monitor CO2 concentration in water the in-situ principles sometimes used in terrestrial research can be applied also in aquatic ecology. We have constructed a system consisting of CO2 sensors, metal tubing, silicon tubes and pumps to monitor aquatic CO2; the approach is based on equilibrium between the CO2 dissolved in water and the gas closed in the loop. CO2 concentration was continuously monitored at the depths of 10 cm and 50 cm in a small humic lake in Finland in late autumn 2004. Our results showed that CO2 concentration had a daily pattern, which could be interpreted as a result of photosynthetic activity. Because of the high concentration of DOC light attenuates very rapidly and the conventional primary productivity measurements over 15 years show that the depth of euphotic zone is < 1.0 m. Thus, two depths provide a good accuracy in the numeric determination. There was also an evident regression between the photosynthetically active radiation and aquatic ecosystem CO2 exchange. GPP of the aquatic ecosystem is obtained by integration of photosynthetic rate over time. We calculated the autumnal photosynthetic rate 0.35 g (CO2) m-2 day-1. The daily respiration was estimated to be 1.00 g (CO2) m-2 day-1. Integration of CO2 exchange over time results in NEE and for that we got -0.65 g (CO2) m-2 day-1. Thus, the lake appeared as a small source of CO2.

  12. Lateral and vertical channel movement and potential for bed-material movement on the Madison River downstream from Earthquake Lake, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, Katherine J.; McCarthy, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake caused a massive landslide (Madison Slide) that dammed the Madison River and formed Earthquake Lake. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers excavated a spillway through the Madison Slide to permit outflow from Earthquake Lake. In June 1970, high streamflows on the Madison River severely eroded the spillway channel and damaged the roadway embankment along U.S. Highway 287 downstream from the Madison Slide. Investigations undertaken following the 1970 flood events concluded that substantial erosion through and downstream from the spillway could be expected for streamflows greater than 3,500 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). Accordingly, the owners of Hebgen Dam, upstream from Earthquake Lake, have tried to manage releases from Hebgen Lake to prevent streamflows from exceeding 3,500 ft3/s measured at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gaging station 0638800 Madison River at Kirby Ranch, near Cameron, Montana. Management of flow releases from Hebgen Lake to avoid exceeding the threshold streamflow at USGS gaging station 06038800 is difficult, and has been questioned for two reasons. First, no road damage was reported downstream from the Earthquake Lake outlet in 1993, 1996, and 1997 when streamflows exceeded the 3,500-ft3/s threshold. Second, the 3,500-ft3/s threshold generally precludes releases of higher flows that could be beneficial to the blue-ribbon trout fishery downstream in the Madison River. In response to concerns about minimizing streamflow downstream from Earthquake Lake and the possible armoring of the spillway, the USGS, in cooperation with the Madison River Fisheries Technical Advisory Committee (MADTAC; Bureau of Land Management; Montana Department of Environmental Quality; Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks; PPL-Montana; U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service - Gallatin National Forest; and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service), conducted a study to determine movement of the Madison River channel downstream from Earthquake Lake and to investigate the potential for bed material movement along the same reach. The purpose of this report is to present information about the lateral and vertical movement of the Madison River from 1970 to 2006 for a 1-mile reach downstream from Earthquake Lake and for Raynolds Pass Bridge, and to provide an analysis of the potential for bed-material movement so that MADTAC can evaluate the applicability of the previously determined threshold streamflow for initiation of damaging erosion. As part of this study channel cross sections originally surveyed by the USGS in 1971 were resurveyed in 2006. Incremental channel-movement distances were determined by comparing the stream centerlines from 14 aerial photographs taken between 1970 and 2006. Depths of channel incision and aggregation were determined by comparing the 2006 and 1971 cross-section and water-surface data. Particle sizes of bed and bank materials were measured in 2006 and 2008 using the pebble-count method and sieve analyses. A one-dimensional hydraulic-flow model (HEC-RAS) was used to calculate mean boundary-shear stresses for various streamflows; these calculated boundary-shear stresses were compared to calculated critical-shear stresses for the bed materials to determine the potential for bed-material movement. A comparison of lateral channel movement distances with annual peak streamflows shows that streamflows higher than the 3,500-ft3/s threshold were followed by lateral channel movement except from 1991 to 1992 and possibly from 1996 to 1997. However, it was not possible to discern whether the channel moved gradually or suddenly, or in response to one peak flow, to several peak flows, or to sustained flows. The channel moved between 2002 and 2005 even when streamflows were less than the threshold streamflow of 3,500 ft3/s. Comparisons of cross sections and aerial photographs show that the channel has moved laterally and incised and aggraded to varying degrees. The channel has developed meander bends and has incised as much as 5–12 feet (ft) through the upstream part of the Madison Slide (cross sections 1400–800). Near cross section 800, the stream has eroded into the steep right bank between the stream and the road where fill was mechanically placed after 1970. Channel movement also was noted downstream from the Madison Slide. Near Raynolds Pass Bridge, about 3 miles (mi) downstream from Earthquake Lake, elevations across the channel have changed by -1.4 ft to +1.9 ft, but these changes were local in nature and could represent a few rocks or depressions in the bed. Overall, it does not appear that the materials eroded from the Madison Slide are causing aggradation in the subreach near the Raynolds Pass Bridge. Comparisons of critical shear stresses to mean boundary-shear stresses indicate that the D50 particle sizes (median size) along the right side of the bed between cross sections 400 and 500 and along the right side of the bed between cross sections 1300 and 1400 could move at the threshold streamflow. In contrast, most of the D84 particle sizes at those two locations probably will not move at the threshold streamflow. This lack of movement for the larger particles at the threshold streamflow could lead to further armoring of the bed as the D50 and smaller-sized particles are removed from the bed and transported downstream. The Shields parameter values from 0.04 to 0.08 that were used to calculate critical shear stresses could be conservative for a high-gradient stream such as the Madison. A higher, less conservative, Shields parameter would result in higher critical shear stresses, meaning that higher streamflows would be required to move material than those reported herein. In addition, because materials in the channel thalweg are exposed to higher boundary-shear stresses than the materials along the sides of the channel, larger, more erosion-resistant materials likely exist in the deeper parts of the channel where high-flow depths and velocities prevented sediment sampling. Movement of these materials might require higher critical shear stresses than estimated in this report. Characterization of sediment sizes in the center of the stream and observation of bed-material movement for a range of streamflows could provide information to help refine the Shields parameter and critical-shear stress estimates for bed materials in the Madison River downstream from Earthquake Lake. Furthermore, resurveying cross sections and water-surface elevations more frequently (either annually or after high streamflows) could better define the relation between streamflow and lateral and vertical channel movement.

  13. Lidar vertical profiling of water vapor and aerosols in the Great Lakes Region: A tool for understanding lower atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Basheer, Watheq; Strawbridge, Kevin B.

    2015-02-01

    Results of a recently developed water vapor Raman lidar instrument at Environment Canada's Center for Atmospheric Research Experiments (CARE) are shown for selected days of summer and winter seasons. The basic components of the Raman water vapor lidar consist of a 30 Hz, Q-switched Nd:YAG high-powered laser utilizing the third harmonic (355 nm), beam steering optics, a 0.76 m Cassegrain telescope and three detection channels to simultaneously observe the vertical profiles of aerosols, water vapor, and nitrogen from near ground up to 9.5 km. By manipulating the inelastic backscattering lidar signals from the Raman nitrogen channel (386.7 nm) and Raman water vapor channel (407.5 nm), vertical profiles of water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) are deduced, calibrated, and compared against WVMR profiles obtained from coincident and collocated radiosonde profiles. The average standard deviation, in the water vapor mixing ratio, is estimated to be less than 10% between the sonde and lidar measurements. In addition, comparisons between simultaneous WVMR profiles and aerosol profiles obtained from a simple aerosol backscatter lidar, also located at the CARE facility, provide insight into the complex dynamic mixing of the lower atmosphere and their subsequent impact on climate and air quality.

  14. Metamorphic and structural evidence for significant vertical displacement along the Ross Lake fault zone, a major orogen-parallel shear zone in the Cordillera of western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Julia A.; Whitney, Donna L.; Hurlow, Hugh A.

    1997-08-01

    Results of an investigation of the petrology and structure of the Skymo complex and adjacent terranes constrain the amount, timing, and sense of motion on a segment of the > 600-km-long Late Cretaceous - early Tertiary Ross Lake fault zone (RLFZ), a major orogen-parallel shear zone in the Cordillera of western North America. In the study area in the North Cascades, Washington state, the RLFZ accommodated significant pre-middle Eocene vertical displacement, and it juxtaposes the Skymo complex with upper amphibolite facies (650°-690°C and 6-7 kbar) Skagit Gneiss of the North Cascades crystalline core to the SW and andalusite-bearing phyllite of the Little Jack terrane (Intermontane superterrane) to the NE. The two main lithologic units of the Skymo complex, a primitive mafic intrusion and a fault-bounded block of granulite facies metasedimentary rocks, are unique in the North Cascades. Granulite facies conditions were attained during high-temperature (> 800°C), low pressure (≤ 4 kbar) contact metamorphism associated with intrusion of the mafic magma. P-T estimates and reaction textures in garnet-orthopyroxene gneiss suggest that contact metamorphism followed earlier, higher pressure regional metamorphism. There is no evidence that the Skagit Gneiss experienced high-T - low-P contact metamorphism. In the Little Jack terrane, however, texturally late cordierite ± spinel and partial replacement of andalusite by sillimanite near the terrane's fault contact with Skymo gabbro suggest that the Little Jack terrane experienced high-T (˜ 600°C) - low-P (≤ 4 kbar) contact metamorphism following earlier low-grade regional metamorphism. Similarities in the protoliths of metasedimentary rocks in the Skymo and Little Jack indicate that they may be part of the same terrane. Differences in pressure estimates for the Little Jack versus Skymo for regional metamorphism that preceded contact metamorphism indicate vertical displacement of ˜ 10 km (west side up) on the strand of the RLFZ that now separates the two structural blocks. High-angle faults in the study area are dextral-reverse mylonitic shear zones that experienced later brittle normal slip. Vertical motion on these shear zones before intrusion of Skymo gabbro can account for metamorphic discontinuities indicated by P-T results. The terranes have also been internally deformed by nonintersecting but coeval dextral and sinistral shear zones that formed after the terranes were brought together in the RLFZ and intruded by Eocene dikes, These results show that the RLFZ has accommodated significant vertical displacement but perhaps no more than tens of kilometers of early Tertiary lateral movement. Structural evidence for earlier, large-magnitude strike-slip displacement is not preserved.

  15. Vertical Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Crenarchaeota and Methanogens in the Epipelagic Waters of Lake Kivu (Rwanda-Democratic Republic of the Congo)▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Llirós, Marc; Gich, Frederic; Plasencia, Anna; Auguet, Jean-Christophe; Darchambeau, François; Casamayor, Emilio O.; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Borrego, Carles

    2010-01-01

    Four stratified basins in Lake Kivu (Rwanda-Democratic Republic of the Congo) were sampled in March 2007 to investigate the abundance, distribution, and potential biogeochemical role of planktonic archaea. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization with catalyzed-reported deposition microscopic counts (CARD-FISH), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of signature genes for ammonia-oxidizing archaea (16S rRNA for marine Crenarchaeota group 1.1a [MCG1] and ammonia monooxygenase subunit A [amoA]). Abundance of archaea ranged from 1 to 4.5% of total DAPI (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) counts with maximal concentrations at the oxic-anoxic transition zone (∼50-m depth). Phylogenetic analysis of the archaeal planktonic community revealed a higher level of richness of crenarchaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences (21 of the 28 operational taxonomic units [OTUs] identified [75%]) over euryarchaeotal ones (7 OTUs). Sequences affiliated with the kingdom Euryarchaeota were mainly recovered from the anoxic water compartment and mostly grouped into methanogenic lineages (Methanosarcinales and Methanocellales). In turn, crenarchaeal phylotypes were recovered throughout the sampled epipelagic waters (0- to 100-m depth), with clear phylogenetic segregation along the transition from oxic to anoxic water masses. Thus, whereas in the anoxic hypolimnion crenarchaeotal OTUs were mainly assigned to the miscellaneous crenarchaeotic group, the OTUs from the oxic-anoxic transition and above belonged to Crenarchaeota groups 1.1a and 1.1b, two lineages containing most of the ammonia-oxidizing representatives known so far. The concomitant vertical distribution of both nitrite and nitrate maxima and the copy numbers of both MCG1 16S rRNA and amoA genes suggest the potential implication of Crenarchaeota in nitrification processes occurring in the epilimnetic waters of the lake. PMID:20802065

  16. Use of acoustic backscatter and vertical velocity to estimate concentration and dynamics of suspended solids in Upper Klamath Lake, south-central Oregon: Implications for Aphanizomenon flos-aquae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    Vertical velocity and acoustic backscatter measurements by acoustic Doppler current profilers were used to determine seasonal, subseasonal (days to weeks), and diel variation in suspended solids in a freshwater lake where massive cyanobacterial blooms occur annually. During the growing season, the suspended material in the lake is dominated by the buoyancy-regulating cyanobacteria, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Measured variables (water velocity, relative backscatter [RB], wind speed, and air and water temperatures) were averaged over the deployment season at each sample time of day to determine average diel cycles. Phase shifts between diel cycles in RB and diel cycles in wind speed, vertical water temperature differences (delta T(degree)), and horizontal current speeds were found by determining the lead or lag that maximized the linear correlation between the respective diel cycles. Diel cycles in RB were more in phase with delta T(degree) cycles, and, to a lesser extent, wind cycles, than to water current cycles but were out of phase with the cycle that would be expected if the vertical movement of buoyant cyanobacteria colonies was controlled primarily by light. Clear evidence of a diel cycle in vertical velocity was found only at the two deepest sites in the lake. Cycles of vertical velocity, where present, were out of phase with expected vertical motion of cyanobacterial colonies based on the theoretical cycle for light-driven vertical movement. This suggests that water column stability and turbulence were more important factors in controlling vertical distribution of colonies than light. Variations at subseasonal time scales were determined by filtering data to pass periods between 1.2 and 15 days. At subseasonal time scales, correlations between RB and currents or air temperature were consistent with increased concentration of cyanobacterial colonies near the surface when water column stability increased (higher air temperatures or weaker currents) and dispersal of colonies throughout the water column when the water column mixed more easily. RB was used to estimate suspended solids concentrations (SSC). Correlations of depth-integrated SSC with currents or air temperatures suggest that depth-integrated water column mass decreased under conditions of greater water column stability and weaker currents. Results suggest that the use of measured vertical velocity and acoustic backscatter as a surrogate for suspended material has the potential to contribute significant additional insight into dynamics of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae colonies in Upper Klamath Lake, south-central Oregon.

  17. Laboratory and field trials with a new molluscicide, Bayer 73, in Tanganyika*

    PubMed Central

    Webbe, G.

    1961-01-01

    In Tanganyika, there are at present few large irrigation systems, and observations so far carried out indicate that impounded waters play an important part in the transmission of bilharziasis. More recent studies suggest that, in the western half of the country, small temporary pools may be the most important habitats of the vector of Schistosoma haematobium. The present paper records a series of trials with a new molluscicide, Bayer 73, and, for comparison, with sodium pentachlorophenate, both in the laboratory and in a number of fish-ponds. It is considered that the chief significance of the results obtained is the effectiveness of Bayer 73, against the vectors of bilharziasis and their eggs, at concentrations much lower than are necessary in the case of other available molluscicides. This may permit of chemical control on a scale hitherto not envisaged. On the basis of these results, it would seem that this new molluscicide may play an important part in future snail control and eradication programmes, with consequent impact on the incidence of bilharziasis. PMID:14005427

  18. Vertical and temporal distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus and relationship with their influencing factors in aquatic-terrestrial ecotone: a case study in Taihu Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-jun; Shen, Zhe-min; Zhu, Song-he; ang, Wen-hua

    2007-01-01

    Vertical and temporal distributions of N and P in soil solution in aquatic-terrestrial ecotone (ATE) of Taihu Lake were investigated, and the relations among N, P, ORP (oxidation reduction potential), TOC, root system biomass and microorganism were studied. As a whole, significant declines in TN, NO3- -N, DON (dissolved organic nitrogen) and TP concentration in soil solution have occurred with increase of the depth, and reached their minima at 60 cm depth, except for NH4+ -N, which increased with depth. The concentration of TP increased gradually from spring to winter in the topsoil, the maximum 0.08 mg/L presented in the winter while the minimum 0.03 mg/L in spring. In the deeper layer, the concentration value of TP fluctuated little. As for the NO3- -N, its seasonal variation was significant at 20 cm depth, its concentration increased gradually from spring to autumn, and decreased markedly in winter. Vertical and temporal distribution of DON is contrary to that of NO3- -N. The results also show that the variation of N and P in the percolate between adjacent layers is obviously different. The vertical variation of TN, TP, NO3- -N, NH4+ -N and DON is significant, of which the variation coefficient of NO3- -N along the depth reaches 100.23%, the highest; while the variation coefficient of DON is 41.14%, the smallest. The results of correlation analysis show that the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus correlate significantly with TOC, ORP, root biomass and counts of nitrifying bacteria. Most nutrients altered much from 20 to 40 cm along the depth. However, DON changed more between 60 and 80 cm. Results show that soil of 0-60 cm depth is active rhizoplane, with strong capability to remove the nitrogen and phosphorus in ATE. It may suggest that there exists the optimum ecological efficiency in the depth of above 60 cm in reed wetland. This will be very significant for ecological restoration and reestablishment. PMID:17969641

  19. Vertical distribution of trace-element concentrations and occurrence of metallurgical slag particles in accumulated bed sediments of Lake Roosevelt, Washington, September 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, S.E.; Bell, P.R.; Lowther, J.S.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Sediment cores were collected from six locations in Lake Roosevelt to determine the vertical distributions of trace-element concentrations in the accumulated sediments of Lake Roosevelt. Elevated concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc occurred throughout much of the accumulated sediments. Concentrations varied greatly within the sediment core profiles, often covering a range of 5 to 10 fold. Trace-element concentrations typically were largest below the surficial sediments in the lower one-half of each profile, with generally decreasing concentrations from the 1964 horizon to the surface of the core. The trace-element profiles reflect changes in historical discharges of trace elements to the Columbia River by an upstream smelter. All samples analyzed exceeded clean-up guidelines adopted by the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation for cadmium, lead, and zinc and more than 70 percent of the samples exceeded cleanup guidelines for mercury, arsenic, and copper. Although 100 percent of the samples exceeded sediment guidelines for cadmium, lead, and zinc, surficial concentrations of arsenic, copper, and mercury in some cores were less than the sediment-quality guidelines. With the exception of copper, the trace-element profiles of the five cores collected along the pre-reservoir Columbia River channel typically showed trends of decreasing concentrations in sediments deposited after the 1964 time horizon. The decreasing concentrations of trace elements in the upper half of cores from along the pre-reservoir Columbia River showed a pattern of decreasing concentrations similar to reductions in trace-element loading in liquid effluent from an upstream smelter. Except for arsenic, trace-element concentrations typically were smaller at downstream reservoir locations along the pre-reservoir Columbia River. Trace-element concentration in sediments from the Spokane Arm of the reservoir showed distinct differences compared to the similarities observed in cores from along the pre-reservoir Columbia River. Particles of slag, which have physical and chemical characteristics of slag discharged to the Columbia River by a lead-zinc smelter upstream of the reservoir at Trail, British Columbia, were found in sediments of Lake Roosevelt. Slag particles are more common in the upstream reaches of the reservoir. The chemical composition of the interior matrix of slag collected from Lake Roosevelt closely approximated the reported elemental concentrations of fresh smelter slag, although evidence of slag weathering was observed. Exfoliation flakes were observed on the surface of weathered slag particles isolated from the core sediments. The concentrations of zinc on the exposed surface of slag grains were smaller than concentrations on interior surfaces. Weathering rinds also were observed in the cross section of weathered slag grains, indicating that the glassy slag material was undergoing hydration and chemical weathering. Trace elements observed in accumulated sediments in the middle and lower reaches of the reservoir are more likely due to the input from liquid effluent discharges compared to slag discharges from the upstream smelter.

  20. Upwelling of deep water during thermal stratification onset—A major mechanism of vertical transport in small temperate lakes in spring?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöschke, Franziska; Lewandowski, Jörg; Engelhardt, Christof; Preuß, Konrad; Oczipka, Martin; Ruhtz, Thomas; Kirillin, Georgiy

    2015-12-01

    Using airborne thermal infrared imaging and horizontally resolved in situ temperature monitoring at the lake surface, we estimated strength and duration of regular wind-driven upwelling of dense deep water to the lake surface in two small (in terms of Rossby radius) temperate lakes during the initial phase of summer thermal stratification. The onset and duration of the upwelling events correlated well with the balance between stratification (in terms of Schmidt stability) and wind forcing, as expressed by Lake and Wedderburn numbers. The period of regular upwelling appearances lasted 7-15 days, identified by Schmidt stabilities around 30 J m-2 and Lake numbers between 0 and 1, and resulted in persistent temperature gradients of up to 2°C across the lake surface. Our results suggest that spring upwelling should inevitably take place in all freshwater temperate lakes with mean temperatures crossing the maximum density value of freshwater on annual cycle, whereas duration and intensity of the upwelling would vary depending on lake morphometry and weather conditions. Our results suggest major contribution of upwelling in nutrient supply to the upper waters, oxygenation of the deep water column, and air-lake gas exchange, in particular, the release of the sediment-produced methane into the atmosphere.

  1. Parallel life history evolution in mouthbrooding cichlids from the African Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Duponchelle, Fabrice; Paradis, Emmanuel; Ribbink, Anthony J; Turner, George F

    2008-10-01

    The existence of ancient deep-water lakes provides an opportunity to study the independent adaptation of aquatic organisms to pelagic, benthic, and rocky shore habitats. With improving resolution of their phylogenetic relationships, the many cichlid fish species endemic to the African Great Lakes Malawi, Tanganyika, and Victoria provide a significant resource for the comparative study of such evolutionary processes. Here, we show that cichlid lineages colonizing rocky shores and pelagic habitats in the different lakes have independently evolved larger eggs and lower fecundities than benthic lineages, suggesting parallel adaptive life-history evolution. By contrast, other pelagic teleost fishes in both marine and freshwater habitats, including African lakes, typically produce large numbers of very small eggs. Our results also suggest that decreased fecundity and increased egg size not only occurred independently in each lake but occurred independently in the colonization of rocky and pelagic habitats. PMID:18824688

  2. Understanding the performance of the FLake model over the East-African Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, Wim; Martynov, Andrey; Darchambeau, François; Plisnier, Pierre-Denis; Descy, Jean-Pierre; van Lipzig, Nicole

    2013-04-01

    As a one-dimensional lake parameterisation scheme, FLake has already been coupled to a large number of numerical weather prediction systems, regional climate models and general circulation models. However, even though FLake has therewith become a vital tool to investigate and predict climate change impacts on lacustrine ecosystems, it has never been thoroughly tested for tropical conditions. In this study, the ability of FLake to represent tropical mixolimnion temperatures is investigated for three locations in East-Africa: Lake Kivu, Lake Tanganyika's northern and southern basins. Meteorological observations from surrounding automatic weather stations are corrected and subsequently used to drive FLake, whereas a comprehensive set of water temperature profiles serves to evaluate the model at each site. Careful input data correction and model configuration allows to reproduce the observed mixed layer seasonality at Lake Kivu and Lake Tanganyika (northern and southern basins), with correct representation of both the mixed layer depth and temperature structure. In contrast, when FLake is forced with uncorrected meteorological observations or with ERA-Interim reanalysis data, a correct mixing cycle is predicted only for Lake Tanganyika's southern basin: this is mainly due to an underestimation of wind velocities. At Lake Kivu, an extensive sensitivity study reveals that FLake's water column temperatures are sensitive both to minimal variations in the external parameters (lake depth and water transparency) and to small changes in the meteorological driving data, in particular wind velocity. In each case, small modifications may already lead to a regime switch from the correctly represented seasonal mixolimnion deepening to either completely mixed or permanently stratified conditions. Near-surface water temperatures are however more robust, with acceptable predictions even when the seasonal mixing regime is not reproduced. Furthermore, a study of different initial conditions shows that for lakes lacking reliable initial data, a fully mixed, artificially warm initialisation is to be preferred, but only if the model is allowed to spin up until convergence is reached. Finally, FLake is used to attribute the seasonal cycle at Lake Kivu to variations in the near-surface meteorological conditions. It is found that the annual mixing down to 60 m during the main dry season is primarily due to enhanced lake evaporation and secondarily due to the incoming long wave radiation deficit, both causing a significant heat loss from the lake surface and associated mixolimnion cooling.

  3. Winter Lake Breezes near the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2015-12-01

    Case studies of lake breezes during wintertime cold air pools in Utah's Salt Lake Valley are examined. While summer breezes originating from the Great Salt Lake are typically deeper, of longer duration, and have higher wind speeds than winter breezes, the rate of inland penetration and cross-frontal temperature differences can be higher during the winter. The characteristics of winter breezes and the forcing mechanisms controlling them (e.g., snow cover, background flow, vertical stability profile, clouds, lake temperature, lake sheltering, and drainage pooling) are more complex and variable than those evident in summer. During the afternoon in the Salt Lake Valley, these lake breezes can lead to elevated pollution levels due to the transport of fine particle pollutants from over the Great Salt Lake, decreased vertical mixing depth, and increased vertical stability.

  4. Winter Lake Breezes near the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2016-05-01

    Case studies of lake breezes during wintertime cold air pools in Utah's Salt Lake Valley are examined. While summer breezes originating from the Great Salt Lake are typically deeper, of longer duration, and have higher wind speeds than winter breezes, the rate of inland penetration and cross-frontal temperature differences can be higher during the winter. The characteristics of winter breezes and the forcing mechanisms controlling them (e.g., snow cover, background flow, vertical stability profile, clouds, lake temperature, lake sheltering, and drainage pooling) are more complex and variable than those evident in summer. During the afternoon in the Salt Lake Valley, these lake breezes can lead to elevated pollution levels due to the transport of fine particle pollutants from over the Great Salt Lake, decreased vertical mixing depth, and increased vertical stability.

  5. Understanding the performance of the FLake model over two African Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, W.; Martynov, A.; Darchambeau, F.; Descy, J.-P.; Plisnier, P.-D.; Sushama, L.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.

    2014-02-01

    The ability of the one-dimensional lake model FLake to represent the mixolimnion temperatures for tropical conditions was tested for three locations in East Africa: Lake Kivu and Lake Tanganyika's northern and southern basins. Meteorological observations from surrounding automatic weather stations were corrected and used to drive FLake, whereas a comprehensive set of water temperature profiles served to evaluate the model at each site. Careful forcing data correction and model configuration made it possible to reproduce the observed mixed layer seasonality at Lake Kivu and Lake Tanganyika (northern and southern basins), with correct representation of both the mixed layer depth and water temperatures. At Lake Kivu, mixolimnion temperatures predicted by FLake were found to be sensitive both to minimal variations in the external parameters and to small changes in the meteorological driving data, in particular wind velocity. In each case, small modifications may lead to a regime switch, from the correctly represented seasonal mixed layer deepening to either completely mixed or permanently stratified conditions from ∼ 10 m downwards. In contrast, model temperatures were found to be robust close to the surface, with acceptable predictions of near-surface water temperatures even when the seasonal mixing regime is not reproduced. FLake can thus be a suitable tool to parameterise tropical lake water surface temperatures within atmospheric prediction models. Finally , FLake was used to attribute the seasonal mixing cycle at Lake Kivu to variations in the near-surface meteorological conditions. It was found that the annual mixing down to 60 m during the main dry season is primarily due to enhanced lake evaporation and secondarily to the decreased incoming long wave radiation, both causing a significant heat loss from the lake surface and associated mixolimnion cooling.

  6. Evolution of opercle shape in cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika - adaptive trait interactions in extant and extinct species flocks

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Laura A. B.; Colombo, Marco; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Phenotype-environment correlations and the evolution of trait interactions in adaptive radiations have been widely studied to gain insight into the dynamics underpinning rapid species diversification. In this study we explore the phenotype-environment correlation and evolution of operculum shape in cichlid fishes using an outline-based geometric morphometric approach combined with stable isotope indicators of macrohabitat and trophic niche. We then apply our method to a sample of extinct saurichthyid fishes, a highly diverse and near globally distributed group of actinopterygians occurring throughout the Triassic, to assess the utility of extant data to inform our understanding of ecomorphological evolution in extinct species flocks. A series of comparative methods were used to analyze shape data for 54 extant species of cichlids (N = 416), and 6 extinct species of saurichthyids (N = 44). Results provide evidence for a relationship between operculum shape and feeding ecology, a concentration in shape evolution towards present along with evidence for convergence in form, and significant correlation between the major axes of shape change and measures of gut length and body elongation. The operculum is one of few features that can be compared in extant and extinct groups, enabling reconstruction of phenotype-environment interactions and modes of evolutionary diversification in deep time. PMID:26584885

  7. Evolution of opercle shape in cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika - adaptive trait interactions in extant and extinct species flocks.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura A B; Colombo, Marco; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Phenotype-environment correlations and the evolution of trait interactions in adaptive radiations have been widely studied to gain insight into the dynamics underpinning rapid species diversification. In this study we explore the phenotype-environment correlation and evolution of operculum shape in cichlid fishes using an outline-based geometric morphometric approach combined with stable isotope indicators of macrohabitat and trophic niche. We then apply our method to a sample of extinct saurichthyid fishes, a highly diverse and near globally distributed group of actinopterygians occurring throughout the Triassic, to assess the utility of extant data to inform our understanding of ecomorphological evolution in extinct species flocks. A series of comparative methods were used to analyze shape data for 54 extant species of cichlids (N = 416), and 6 extinct species of saurichthyids (N = 44). Results provide evidence for a relationship between operculum shape and feeding ecology, a concentration in shape evolution towards present along with evidence for convergence in form, and significant correlation between the major axes of shape change and measures of gut length and body elongation. The operculum is one of few features that can be compared in extant and extinct groups, enabling reconstruction of phenotype-environment interactions and modes of evolutionary diversification in deep time. PMID:26584885

  8. Big fish, little divergence: phylogeography of Lake Tanganyika’s giant cichlid, Boulengerochromis microlepis

    PubMed Central

    Koblmüller, Stephan; Odhiambo, Elizabeth A.; Sinyinza, Danny; Sturmbauer, Christian; Sefc, Kristina M.

    2014-01-01

    The largely endemic cichlid species flocks of the East African Great Lakes are among the prime examples for explosive speciation and adaptive radiation. Speciation rates differ among cichlid lineages, and the propensity to radiate has been linked to intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as sexual selection and ecological opportunity. Remarkably, only one cichlid tribe—the Boulengerochromini—comprises just a single species, Boulengerochromis microlepis, a predominantly piscivorous endemic of Lake Tanganyika and the world’s largest cichlid. While the lineage diverged from its closest relatives at the onset of the Lake Tanganyika radiation >8 MYA, mitochondrial control region sequences collected in this study dated the most recent common ancestor of B. microlepis to ~60–110 KYA. There was no evidence of phylogeographic structure in the lake-wide sample. Patterns of genetic diversity and demographic analyses were consistent with slow and steady population growth throughout the reconstructed timescale. Additionally, the shallow divergence within the species may be related to a possibly large variance in reproductive success in this highly fecund species. Trophic niche space restriction by sympatric piscivores, lack of geographic structure, low potential for sexual selection arising from the monogamous mating system and extinction may have contributed to keeping the lineage monotypic. PMID:25983338

  9. Age of cichlids: new dates for ancient lake fish radiations.

    PubMed

    Genner, Martin J; Seehausen, Ole; Lunt, David H; Joyce, Domino A; Shaw, Paul W; Carvalho, Gary R; Turner, George F

    2007-05-01

    Timing divergence events allow us to infer the conditions under which biodiversity has evolved and gain important insights into the mechanisms driving evolution. Cichlid fishes are a model system for studying speciation and adaptive radiation, yet, we have lacked reliable timescales for their evolution. Phylogenetic reconstructions are consistent with cichlid origins prior to Gondwanan landmass fragmentation 121-165 MYA, considerably earlier than the first known fossil cichlids (Eocene). We examined the timing of cichlid evolution using a relaxed molecular clock calibrated with geological estimates for the ages of 1) Gondwanan fragmentation and 2) cichlid fossils. Timescales of cichlid evolution derived from fossil-dated phylogenies of other bony fishes most closely matched those suggested by Gondwanan breakup calibrations, suggesting the Eocene origins and marine dispersal implied by the cichlid fossil record may be due to its incompleteness. Using Gondwanan calibrations, we found accumulation of genetic diversity within the radiating lineages of the African Lakes Malawi, Victoria and Barombi Mbo, and Palaeolake Makgadikgadi began around or after the time of lake basin formation. These calibrations also suggest Lake Tanganyika was colonized independently by the major radiating cichlid tribes that then began to accumulate genetic diversity thereafter. These results contrast with the widely accepted theory that diversification into major lineages took place within the Tanganyika basin. Together, this evidence suggests that ancient lake habitats have played a key role in generating and maintaining diversity within radiating lineages and also that lakes may have captured preexisting cichlid diversity from multiple sources from which adaptive radiations have evolved. PMID:17369195

  10. Lake Malawi sediment and pore water chemistry: Proposition of a conceptual model for stratification intensification since the end of the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branchu, Philippe; Bergonzini, Laurent; Pons-branchu, Edwige; Violier, Eric; Dittrich, Maria; Massault, Marc; Ghaleb, Bassam

    2010-07-01

    Sedimentary records of salinity indicators are largely used to reconstruct past climatic changes in lacustrine systems where chemistry is sensitive to hydroclimatic conditions. In large fresh lakes of the East African Rift such as Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi, salinity is often considered constant and other paleoclimatological proxy data are used. However, a relation between lake surface chloride concentration and hydroclimatic regime was previously demonstrated at the century scale in Lake Tanganyika. This relation is transposed to Lake Malawi on the base of similarity between hydrochemical budgets of both lakes that are computed for the whole lake and epilimnion. Whereas numerous physico-chemical difficulties make generally debatable use of lake pore water chemistry, as illustrated here by diffusion modelling, the dissolved chloride concentration profile from a core sampled in northern Lake Malawi is considered as a potential indicator of limnological-hydroclimatic condition changes for the last 200 years. A decrease in pore water chloride concentration between 1840 AD and present situation is directly associated to a metalimnetic water salinity decrease. The chronology of this event is synchronous with diatom productivity change demonstrated by Johnson et al. (2001) at the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA). A conceptual model of Lake Malawi, based on salinity, organic carbon and its "dead" watershed contribution, lake-level and productivity changes since the mid 19th century is presented. A new scenario is proposed, based on thermal stratification reinforcement at the end of the LIA. Lake productivity and chemistry depend on stratification strength, water column mixing rate and on climatic variability. During the LIA, nutrient distribution profiles were more homogeneous with depth due to the climatically (colder and drier climatic conditions than today) induced destabilisation of the mixing barrier. The productive system is then auto-supplied and does not require external silicon supply while chloride concentration is higher due to closure of the basin. Stratification has become more stable since the end of the LIA, as in nearby Lake Tanganyika where it is linked to air temperature global increase. Results demonstrated that chloride is a suitable indicator of the present and past hydroclimatic and hydrodynamic regimes. This work shows that in Lake Malawi, assessment of "dead" carbon (or old "refractive watershed carbon") contribution to the TOC is a key parameter to set chronological frame from 14C ages.

  11. Measurements of slope distances and vertical angles at Mount Baker and Mount Rainier, Washington, Mount Hood and Crater Lake, Oregon, and Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak, California, 1980-1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chadwick, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    Personnel of the U.S.Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory established trilateration networks at Mount Baker, Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Crater Lake, Mount Shasta, and Lassen Peak in 1980-1984. These networks are capable of detecting changes in slope distance of several centimeters or more. The networks were established to provide baseline information on potentially active volcanoes and were designed along guidelines found useful at Mount St. Helens. Periodic reoccupation of the networks is planned as part of the overall monitoring program of Cascades volcanoes. Methodology, slope distance and vertical angle data, maps of the networks, and benchmark descriptions are presented in this report. Written benchmark descriptions are augmented by photographs, which we have found by experience to very useful in relocating the marks. All repeat measurements at the six volcanoes are probably within measurement error.

  12. Understanding the performance of the FLake model over the African Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, W.; Martynov, A.; Darchambeau, F.; Descy, J.-P.; Plisnier, P.-D.; Sushama, L.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.

    2013-10-01

    The ability of the one-dimensional lake model FLake to represent the mixolimnion temperatures for tropical conditions was tested for three locations in East Africa: Lake Kivu, Lake Tanganyika's northern and southern basins. Meteorological observations from surrounding Automatic Weather Stations were corrected and used to drive FLake, whereas a comprehensive set of water temperature profiles served to evaluate the model at each site. Careful forcing data correction and model configuration allowed to reproduce the observed mixed layer seasonality at Lake Kivu and Lake Tanganyika (northern and southern basins), with correct representation of both the mixed layer depth and temperature structure. At Lake Kivu, mixolimnion temperatures predicted by FLake were found sensitive both to minimal variations in the external parameters (lake depth and water transparency) as to small changes in the meteorological driving data, in particular wind velocity. In each case, small modifications may already lead to a regime switch from the correctly represented seasonal mixed layer deepening to either completely mixed (down to the model lake bottom) or permanently stratified (from ~10 m downwards) conditions. In contrast, model temperatures are found robust close to the surface, with acceptable predictions of near-surface water temperatures even when the seasonal mixing regime is not reproduced. FLake can thus be a suitable tool to parameterize tropical lake water surface temperatures within atmospheric prediction models, but may be less appropriate, in its current form, to study complex limnological processes within tropical lakes. Furthermore, a study of different initial conditions showed that for tropical lakes lacking reliable initial data, a fully mixed, artificially warm initialisation is to be preferred, but only if the model is allowed to spin up until convergence is reached. Finally, FLake was used to attribute the seasonal mixing cycle at Lake Kivu to variations in the near-surface meteorological conditions. It was found that the annual mixing down to 60 m during the main dry season is primarily due to enhanced lake evaporation and secondarily due to the decreased incoming long wave radiation, both causing a significant heat loss from the lake surface and associated mixolimnion cooling.

  13. Circulation and mixing of lake water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yoshinori

    The results of the research on the circulation and the mixing of lake water were organized, and the perspective of the research was considered. The flow of lake water is divided into a horizontal flow and a vertical flow. A horizontal flow is chiefly caused by the wind shear stress. As for the research of the flow caused by the wind shear stress, a field observation, a model flume experiment, and a numerical experiment have been conducted. They provided a remarkable advancement from the 1970s to the 1980s. Hereafter, using a new technology such as GPS will be hoped in the flow observation. A vertical circulation is caused by the density difference of water due to the cooling on the lake surface and the wind shear stress. A vertical circulation causes the mixing of lake water. The mixing of lake water is investigated by observing the water quality distribution, especially there are a lot of researches that consider a vertical mixing making use of the profiles of the dissolved oxygen. In a tropical lake, there is a close relationship between the mixing of lake water and the heat balance on the lake surface, then the depth of vertical mixing is estimated by the amount of cooling on the lake surface. Therefore, it is considered that the clarification of the lake water mixing on a tropical lake contributes to the information about the global warming phenomenon. Moreover, some natural lakes are expected as a monitor of acid precipitation and the micro pollutant.

  14. Vertical distributions of bound saturated fatty acids and compound-specific stable carbon isotope compositions in sediments of two lakes in China: implication for the influence of eutrophication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifang; Xiong, Yongqiang; Wu, Fengchang; Li, Qiuhua; Lin, Tian; Giesy, John P

    2014-11-01

    Lakes Dianchi (DC) and Bosten (BST) were determined to be at different stages of eutrophication, by use of total organic carbon content, bulk carbon isotopic composition, bulk nitrogen isotopic composition, and bound saturated fatty acid (BSFA) concentrations in sediment cores. A rapid increase in the supply of organic matter (OM) to DC began after the 1950s, while the environment and trophic status of BST remained constant as indicated by characteristics of OM input to sediments. The BSFA ratios of nC14 + nC16 + nC18/nC24 + nC26 + nC28 increase upward from 7 to 13 in the DC core, which are significantly greater than those from BST (2 to 3). This result is consistent with algae or bacteria being the dominant contribution of the OM increase induced by eutrophication in DC. The positive shift of nC16 compound-specific δ (13)C in the upper section might be an indicator of excess algal productivity, which was observed in the two lakes. The positive shifts of compound-specific δ (13)C of other BSFAs were also observed in the upper section of the core only from DC. The observed trends of compound-specific δ(13)C of BSFA originated from different sources became more consistent, which reflected the intensified eutrophication had profoundly affected production and preservation of OM in DC. The results observed for BST indicated that accumulation of algae did not affect the entire aquatic ecosystem until now. PMID:24996939

  15. LAKE WATER TEMPERATURE SIMULATION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Functional relationships to describe surface wind mixing, vertical turbulent diffusion, convective heat transfer, and radiation penetration based on data from lakes in Minnesota have been developed. hese relationships have been introduced by regressing model parameters found eith...

  16. Recent results of monitoring of the vertical component of the electrical field in Lake Baikal on the surface-bed baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotaev, S. M.; Budnev, N. M.; Serdyuk, V. O.; Zurbanov, V. L.; Mirgazov, R. R.; Shneer, V. S.; Machinin, V. A.; Kiktenko, E. O.; Buzin, V. B.; Panfilov, A. I.

    2015-05-01

    The vertical component of the electrical field was monitored on the surface-bed baseline in the region of the Baikal Deep Underwater Neutrino Observatory from 2003 to 2010. This monitoring allowed us to obtain data on internal and external field sources. However, the insufficient accuracy and reliability of the measurement setup slowed the progress in interpreting the measurements. A novel setup, which was the first to provide the means to control the base potentials of electrodes, was designed in order to overcome these constraints. The setup in its final configuration started taking measurements in 2013. Analysis of the measurement results obtained in 2013 and 2014 does, on the one hand, confirm the conclusions drawn previously on the nature of variations of the vertical component of the electrical field, but, on the other hand, it raises new questions. The field induced by flows was compared to direct velocity measurements. The conclusion regarding the correlation between long-period current variations in the hydrosphere region of the global electric circuit and the solar activity variations was confirmed, but the considerable lag observed in this correlation stands in need of explanation. A nonlocal response of the electrode base potentials that preceded an impending earthquake by up to 12 days was revealed.

  17. ARE LAKES GETTING WARMER? REMOTE SENSING OF LARGE LAKE TEMPERATURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies (Levitus et al., 2000) suggest a warning of the world ocean over the past 50 years. Freshwater lakes could also be getting warmer but thermal measurements to determine this are lacking. Large lake temperatures are vertically and horizontally heterogeneous and vary ...

  18. The impact of the African Great Lakes on the regional climate in a dynamically downscaled CORDEX simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, Wim; Panitz, Hans-Jürgen; Davin, Edouard; van Lipzig, Nicole

    2014-05-01

    Owing to the strong contrast in albedo, roughness and heat capacity between land and water, lakes significantly influence the exchange of moisture, heat and momentum between the surface and the boundary layer. To investigate this two-way interaction, a correct representation of lakes within regional climate models is essential. To this end, the one-dimensional lake parameterisation scheme FLake was recently coupled to the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (CCLM). One region where lakes constitute a key component of the climate system is the African Great Lakes region. In this study, the CCLM CORDEX-Africa evaluation simulation is dynamically downscaled from 0.44° (50 km) to 0.0625° (7 km) over East-Africa, an unprecedented resolution for this region. The performance of different CCLM configurations are compared for the period 1999-2008: in particular, CCLM is tested for its sensitivity to the choice of the lake surface temperature description (SST, FLake, an improved version of FLake and Hostetler) and the land surface model (Terra and Community Land Model). Model results are evaluated in a three-step procedure. First, the atmospheric state variables near-surface temperature, precipitation, surface energy fluxes, fractional cloud cover and column precipitable water are evaluated using in-situ based and satellite-derived products. Second, a comprehensive set of in-situ water temperature profile observations serves to evaluate the temporal evolution of water temperatures at three sites: Lake Kivu (Ishungu), Lake Tanganyika's northern basin (Kigoma) and southern basin (Mpulungu). Finally, spatial variability of surface temperatures in Lake Kivu and Lake Tanganyika are evaluated on the basis of satellite-derived lake surface temperatures. Subsequently, the preferred model configuration is used to quantify and understand effects by lakes reported for other regions in the world, such as a dampened diurnal temperature range, enhanced evaporation, modified surface layer stability, increased downwind precipitation, stronger winds, and the formation of local circulation patterns. Particular attention is payed to the impact of lakes on extreme night-time convection over Lake Victoria. This is achieved through comparison to a model integration excluding lake effects.

  19. Lake Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4) "Spirit Lake"; (5) "Lake Manawa"; (6)…

  20. Pleistocene desiccation in East Africa bottlenecked but did not extirpate the adaptive radiation of Lake Victoria haplochromine cichlid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Elmer, Kathryn R.; Reggio, Chiara; Wirth, Thierry; Verheyen, Erik; Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

    2009-01-01

    The Great Lakes region of East Africa, including Lake Victoria, is the center of diversity of the mega-diverse cichlid fishes (Perciformes: Teleostei). Paleolimnological evidence indicates dramatic desiccation of this lake ca. 18,000–15,000 years ago. Consequently, the hundreds of extant endemic haplochromine species in the lake must have either evolved since then or refugia must have existed, within that lake basin or elsewhere, from which Lake Victoria was recolonized. We studied the population history of the Lake Victoria region superflock (LVRS) of haplochromine cichlids based on nuclear genetic analysis (12 microsatellite loci from 400 haplochomines) of populations from Lake Kivu, Lake Victoria, and the connected and surrounding rivers and lakes. Population genetic analyses confirmed that Lake Kivu haplochromines colonized Lake Victoria. Coalescent analyses show a 30- to 50-fold decline in the haplochromine populations of Lake Victoria, Lake Kivu, and the region ca. 18,000–15,000 years ago. We suggest that this coincides with drastic climatic and geological changes in the late Pleistocene. The most recent common ancestor of the Lake Victoria region haplochromines was estimated to have existed about 4.5 million years ago, which corresponds to the first radiation of cichlids in Lake Tanganyika and the origin of the tribe Haplochrominii. This relatively old evolutionary origin may explain the high levels of polymorphism still found in modern haplochromines. This degree of polymorphism might have acted as a “genetic reservoir” that permitted the explosive radiation of hundreds of haplochromines and their array of contemporary adaptive morphologies. PMID:19651614

  1. A pharyngeal jaw evolutionary innovation facilitated extinction in Lake Victoria cichlids.

    PubMed

    McGee, Matthew D; Borstein, Samuel R; Neches, Russell Y; Buescher, Heinz H; Seehausen, Ole; Wainwright, Peter C

    2015-11-27

    Evolutionary innovations, traits that give species access to previously unoccupied niches, may promote speciation and adaptive radiation. Here, we show that such innovations can also result in competitive inferiority and extinction. We present evidence that the modified pharyngeal jaws of cichlid fishes and several marine fish lineages, a classic example of evolutionary innovation, are not universally beneficial. A large-scale analysis of dietary evolution across marine fish lineages reveals that the innovation compromises access to energy-rich predator niches. We show that this competitive inferiority shaped the adaptive radiation of cichlids in Lake Tanganyika and played a pivotal and previously unrecognized role in the mass extinction of cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria after Nile perch invasion. PMID:26612951

  2. A Revised Holocene History of Lake Kivu, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votava, J. E.; Johnson, T. C.; Hecky, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    The great lakes of the East African Rift valley are a vast chain of lakes formed in a region of active tectonics. These large, deep lakes are relatively old and many (e.g. Tanganyika, Malawi, and Turkana) have greatly influenced our understanding of terrestrial, tropical East African paleoclimate. Lake Kivu (max depth, 485m) sits at the heart of these rift lakes, north of Lake Tanganyika between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda (roughly 250 km west of Lake Victoria). At over 1,400 meters in elevation, this 2,060 km2 mesotrophic lake has a complex stratification regime imposed by hydrothermal springs and deep waters supersaturated at STP in CO2 and CH4 gasses. The active Virunga Volcanoes to the north of the lake supply heated, high-salinity waters below 280 meters water depth maintaining the modern crenogenic meromixis. Based on detailed studies of diatom assemblages and bulk sedimentology, previous workers have suggested this hydrothermal activity began roughly 5,000 years BP. Unfortunately, dating and stratigraphic correlations of these original cores from the 1970 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's expedition have been problematic. Here we offer an improved chronology and new carbonate analyses from cores recovered in 2012 and 2013. Our AMS radiocarbon ages come from six terrigeneous macrofossils spanning the last 9,100 years (cal BP). These ages suggest a rather high sedimentation rate on the order of 70cm/kyr, and hence, our 8 m-long core provides us with a high-resolution lake history for the past 10,000 years. Most notable over the past 5,000 years in the lake history is the repeated onset and cessation of carbonate deposition, punctuated by organic-rich intervals. Earlier studies of the Woods Hole cores placed the onset of carbonate deposition at ca. 11,000 years BP suggesting changes in lake hydrology (i.e. closed to open), while the abrupt cessation of carbonate was dated at ca. 5,000 years BP and attributed to the beginning of significant hydrothermal activity in the lake. However our new chronology places these events much younger with the first major onset of carbonate deposition occurring around 4,300 years BP and ceasing ca. 2,700 years BP. Indeed much of central and northern Africa began to dry out at this time, following the African Humid Period ca. 15,000 to 5,000 years BP. Arid conditions could certainly favor carbonate precipitation and hence our revised ages of deposition agree well with regional paleoclimate studies. This new age model opens up the carbonate record of Lake Kivu for reinterpretation. We are investigating the extent to which the carbonate signal is influenced by internal changes and hydrothermal activity or by climate.

  3. Evolution of predator-prey interactions in ancient lakes: implications for coevolution in marine environments

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.

    1985-01-01

    Highly generalized predator-prey interrelationships are a hallmark of most lacustrine ecosystems where accommodation to the physical environment plays the major role in determining organismal distributions. Since the vast majority of lakes are ephemeral on a geological and evolutionary times scale, dispersal, rather than organism interaction, appears to be the dominant selective theme in lacustrine species evolution. In a few, very long lasting lakes, notably modern Lakes Tanganyika (Africa) and Baikal (USSR) and ancient lakes of the Brazilian Rift (Cretaceous) and Snake River Plain (Tertiary), invertebrates and fish occur which demonstrate the development of intense biological accommodation in coevolving predator-prey interactions. Shell crushing experiments on 2 endemic Tanganyikan gastropods, Lavigeria nassa and Spekia zonata show them to be comparable to warm temperature marine species in terms of grow load strength: 1-2 orders of magnitude stronger than confamilial cosmopolitan species from more ephemeral lakes in the same region of Africa. Shell repair is commonly observed in these and other Tanganyikan endemic snails although it is exceedingly rare inmost other lakes. The study of these early stages of evolutionary processes and rates in coevolving predator-prey systems in isolated lacustrine microcosms has important implications for those paleontologists concerned with marine invertebrates. It may shed considerable light on the interpretation of such events as the marine Mesozoic Revolution.

  4. THE VERTICAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albert, Stephen L.; Spencer, Jeffrey B.

    1994-01-01

    'THE VERTICAL' computer keyboard is designed to address critical factors which contribute to Repetitive Motion Injuries (RMI) (including Carpal Tunnel Syndrome) in association with computer keyboard usage. This keyboard splits the standard QWERTY design into two halves and positions each half 90 degrees from the desk. In order to access a computer correctly. 'THE VERTICAL' requires users to position their bodies in optimal alignment with the keyboard. The orthopaedically neutral forearm position (with hands palms-in and thumbs-up) reduces nerve compression in the forearm. The vertically arranged keypad halves ameliorate onset occurrence of keyboard-associated RMI. By utilizing visually-reference mirrored mylar surfaces adjustable to the user's eye, the user is able to readily reference any key indicia (reversed) just as they would on a conventional keyboard. Transverse adjustability substantially reduces cumulative musculoskeletal discomfort in the shoulders. 'THE VERTICAL' eliminates the need for an exterior mouse by offering a convenient finger-accessible curser control while the hands remain in the vertically neutral position. The potential commercial application for 'THE VERTICAL' is enormous since the product can effect every person who uses a computer anywhere in the world. Employers and their insurance carriers are spending hundreds of millions of dollars per year as a result of RMI. This keyboard will reduce the risk.

  5. Indian Ocean Climate event brings floods to East Africa's lakes and the Sudd Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, Charon; Murtugudde, Ragu; Allan, Tony

    During an El Niño, the expected rainfall increase over most of the Lake Victoria catchment area is ˜15-25%. However, due to anomalous warming of the western equatorial Indian Ocean during 1997, strong convection developed over parts of the Horn and eastern Africa. This resulted in a much larger 20-160% precipitation excess during the “short rainy” season. Satellite radar altimetry data reveals that not only did Lake Victoria rise by ˜1.7 m, but that the rainfall event similarly affected lakes Tanganyika, Malawi and Turkana. In addition, the seasonal level minima of the Sudd marshes and Lakes T'ana and Nasser continue to increase. Such a rainfall event will have severe, long-term consequences for the natural surface flows and storages along the White Nile. Based on the hydrological impacts of the historic 1961 East Africa event, we can expect the current high levels of Lake Victoria to be maintained for the remainder of this decade. In addition, we anticipate a major expansion of the permanent swamp regions of the Sudd marshes over the forthcoming seasons. Blue Nile flows, further enhanced by the above-average 1998 rainfall season, can also be expected to remain high, at least until early 1999.

  6. Lake level change and total water discharge in East Africa Rift Valley from satellite-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ayman A.; Jin, Shuanggen

    2014-06-01

    The measurement of total basin water discharge is important for understanding the hydrological and climatologic issues related to the water and energy cycles. Climatic extreme events are normal climatic occurrences in Africa. For example, extensive droughts are regular features in the last few decades in parts of East Africa, which suffers from a lack of in situ observations as well as a lack of regional hydrological models. In this study, multi-disciplinary different types of space-borne observations and global hydrological models are used to study total water discharge in the Great Rift Valley of East Africa (i.e. Lakes Victoria, Tanganyika, and Malawi) from January 2003 to December 2012. The data include the following: (1) total water storage (TWS) variations from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), (2) the lake level variations from Satellite Alimetric data, (3) rainfall from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) products, (4) soil moisture from WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM), and (5) water fluxes from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Results show that a significant decline in the average lake level is found for all of the three lakes between 2003 and 2006. GRACE TWS variations of the whole basin area show the same pattern of variation as the average lake level variations estimated from Altimetric data. The TWS in the basin area of Lakes Victoria and Malawi is governed by the surface water stored in each lake itself, while for Lake Tanganyika, it is governed by both surface water and the soil moisture content in the basin area. Furthermore, the effect of rainfall on TWS is also studied. A phase lag of ~ 2 months is found between TRMM rainfall and GRACE TWS (generally, rainfall precedes the GRACE TWS) for the three lakes. In addition, the regional evapotranspiration ET is estimated from the water balance equation using GRACE land-water solutions, rainfall data from TRMM and runoff values obtained as a fraction of rainfall. It is found that the computed ET represents approximately 90% of the rainfall over the study region.

  7. Lake Powell

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Lake Powell     View Larger Image ... (14.42 mb)   This true-color image over Lake Powell was acquired by Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) in late March 2000. Lake Powell was formed with the construction of the Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, on the ...

  8. CONNECTICUT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of named lakes in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes all lakes that are named on the U.S. Geologicial Survey (USGS) 7½ minute topographic quadrangle maps that cover the State of Connecticut, plus other officially named lakes i...

  9. CONNECTICUT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of named lakes in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes all lakes that are named on the U.S. Geologicial Survey (USGS) 7 minute topographic quadrangle maps that cover the State of Connecticut, plus other officially named lakes i...

  10. Lake Eyre

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...   View Larger Image Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. ... the effect of sunglint at the nadir camera view angle. Dry, salt encrusted parts of the lake appear bright white or gray. Purple areas have ...

  11. Transient Tsunamis in Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couston, L.; Mei, C.; Alam, M.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free-waves moving away from it coexist. On an open coast, these two types of waves would never interact, but because of the lake's finite dimensions, here we show that local inundation height maxima are due to wave superposition on the shoreline. These interactions can be dramatic near the lake's corners. For instance, in a rectangular lake delimited by two opposite and plane beaches and two vertical walls, we find that a landslide tsunami results in an inundation height at a corner 50% larger than anywhere else. The nonlinear and linear models produce different inundation maps, and here we show that maximum wave runups can be increased by up to 56% when nonlinear terms are included.

  12. Offline test of the CLM4-VRLS lake model at Lake Taihu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, B.; Lee, X.; Xiao, W.; Liu, S.; Shen, S.

    2011-12-01

    Lakes are an important surface type for atmospheric research. With the deployment of Taihu Eddy Flux Mesonet since 2010, Lake Taihu, a large shallow lake located in eastern China (~2500 km2 and 2 m deep), provides a unique testbed for models of lake-atmosphere interactions. In this study, we evaluated CLM4-VRLS, a state-of-the-art lake model developed by NCAR, against the observations made at Lake Taihu. CLM4-VRLS is an improved version of the earlier NCAR CLM4 lake model, and includes realistic representations of roughness length, vertical mixing and sediment layer. So far evaluation of the performance of CLM4-VRLS and other models of lake-atmosphere interactions has been restricted mostly to annual cycles of water temperature. In shallow lakes such as Lake Taihu, lake temperature also experiences strong diurnal variations, and it is not known if the model can adequately predict these variations. Furthermore, we are not aware of any studies that evaluate model-predicted surface fluxes of heat, water vapor and momentum against field observations. Accurate prediction of these fluxes is important for a number of reasons, one of which is that these fluxes serve as the lower boundary conditions for models of regional climate and weather prediction. Evaluating CLM4-VRLS at Lake Taihu provides novel insights on its performance, and lays the groundwork for our future study of the feedback between regional climate and Lake Taihu. Results show that CLM4-VRLS yields good estimations of the seasonal variations of the lake surface temperature (LST) at Lake Taihu. However, in terms of the diurnal variations of LST, which are important for the boundary layer processes, CLM4-VRLS does not perform well without the adoption of lake-specific parameters. Compared with the default values in CLM4-VRLS, Lake Taihu is characterized by smaller roughness lengths for heat and water vapor, and larger light extinction coefficient due to high turbidity. In addition, the eddy diffusivity was found to be two orders smaller than that of CLM4-VRLS. Adopting these lake-specific parameters can improve the performance of CLM4-VRLS, notably for the amplitude of the diurnal variations of LST. During nighttime when the lake water is vertically unstable and the passage of cold fronts, CLM4-VRLS with the lake-specific parameters tends to overestimate the LST. We suspect that the nighttime overestimation is attributed to the fact that instability enhances vertical mixing to a lesser extent than that predicted by CLM4-VRLS, while the overestimation during a front scenario is due to synoptic advection.

  13. Adaptive divergence between lake and stream populations of an East African cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Theis, Anya; Ronco, Fabrizia; Indermaur, Adrian; Salzburger, Walter; Egger, Bernd

    2014-11-01

    Divergent natural selection acting in different habitats may build up barriers to gene flow and initiate speciation. This speciation continuum can range from weak or no divergence to strong genetic differentiation between populations. Here, we focus on the early phases of adaptive divergence in the East African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, which occurs in both Lake Tanganyika (LT) and inflowing rivers. We first assessed the population structure and morphological differences in A. burtoni from southern LT. We then focused on four lake-stream systems and quantified body shape, ecologically relevant traits (gill raker and lower pharyngeal jaw) as well as stomach contents. Our study revealed the presence of several divergent lake-stream populations that rest at different stages of the speciation continuum, but show the same morphological and ecological trajectories along the lake-stream gradient. Lake fish have higher bodies, a more superior mouth position, longer gill rakers and more slender pharyngeal jaws, and they show a plant/algae and zooplankton-biased diet, whereas stream fish feed more on snails, insects and plant seeds. A test for reproductive isolation between closely related lake and stream populations did not detect population-assortative mating. Analyses of F1 offspring reared under common garden conditions indicate that the detected differences in body shape and gill raker length do not constitute pure plastic responses to different environmental conditions, but also have a genetic basis. Taken together, the A. burtoni lake-stream system constitutes a new model to study the factors that enhance and constrain progress towards speciation in cichlid fishes. PMID:25256664

  14. Vertical Propagation of Lakewide Internal Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Stephen; Harrison, John; Deemer, Bridget

    2013-04-01

    Internal seiches dominate flows in the interior of many lakes. Seiche dissipation generates turbulence, which is responsible for mixing heat, sediments, chemicals, organisms, and pollutants. We present observations of a new type of seiche-like internal wave propagating vertically in a small lake (main basin 3000m by 400m by 18m). Velocity and temperature profiles indicate that the observed waves, like seiches, had horizontal wavelengths exceeding the metalimnion length. However, the vertical propagation of the observed waves contrasts with the vertically-standing behavior of non-dissipative seiches. The observed propagation was predicted by a simple model for dissipation in the bottom boundary layer. The model and data indicate that the waves had small vertical group velocity, leading to a slow supply of energy to the lakebed, which could easily be dissipated rather than being reflected. Similar slow vertical propagation and boundary layer absorption is predicted in other short, deep lakes with strong near-bed stratification. The absence of upward-propagating energy precludes seiche resonance, limits focusing of waves toward attractors, and suggests that hypolimnion dissipation was limited by the supply of downward-propagating energy.

  15. Water quality of selected lakes in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, with respect to lake acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Turney, G.L.; Dion, N.P.; Sumioka, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Thirteen lakes in Mount Rainier National park were evaluated for general chemical characteristics, sensitivity to acidification by acidic precipitation, and degree of existing acidification. The lakes studies were Allen, one of the Chenuis group, Crescent, Crystal, Eleanor, Fan, one of the Golfen group, Marsh, Mowich, Mystic, Shriner, and two unnamed lakes. The lakes were sampled in August 1983. The major cations were calcium and sodium, and the major anion was bicarbonate. Alkalinity concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 9.0 mg/L in 12 of the lakes. Allen Lake was the exception, having an alkalinity concentration of 27 mg/L. The pH values for all of the lakes ranged from 5.8 to 6.5. In most of the lakes, vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance were relatively uniform. Exceptions to general water quality patterns were observed in three lakes. Allen Lake had a specific conductance value of 58 Microsiemens/cm. The lake of the Golfen group was anaerobic at the bottom and had relatively high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved metals, and a lower light transmission than the other lakes studied. One of the unnamed lakes had relatively high concentrations of phytoplankton and dissolved organic carbon and relatively low levels of light transmission. Comparisons of lake data to acid-sensitivity thresholds for specific conductance and alkalinity indicated that all of the lakes except Allen would be sensitive to acidic precipitation. The small sizes of the lakes, and their locations in basins of high precipitation and weathering-resistant rock types, enhance their sensitivity. None of the lakes in this study appeared to be presently acidified.

  16. Comparison of the hydrogeology and water quality of a ground-water augmented lake with two non-augmented lakes in northwest Hillsborough County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, Patricia A.; Sacks, Laura A.

    2002-01-01

    The hydrologic effects associated with augmenting a lake with ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer were examined in northwest Hillsborough County, Florida, from June 1996 through May 1999. The hydrogeology, ground-water flow patterns, water budgets, and water-quality characteristics were compared between a lake that has been augmented for more than 30 years (Round Lake) and two nearby non-augmented lakes (Dosson Lake and Halfmoon Lake). Compared to the other study lakes, Round Lake is in a more leakage-dominated hydrogeologic setting. The intermediate confining unit is thin or highly breached, which increases the potential for vertical ground-water flow. Round Lake has the least amount of soft, organic lake-bottom sediments and the lake bottom has been dredged deeper and more extensively than the other study lakes, which could allow more leakage from the lake bottom. The area around Round Lake has experienced more sinkhole activity than the other study lakes. During this study, three sinkholes developed around the perimeter of the lake, which may have further disrupted the intermediate confining unit. Ground-water flow patterns around Round Lake were considerably different than the non-augmented lakes. For most of the study, ground-water augmentation artificially raised the level of Round Lake to about 2 to 3 feet higher than the adjacent water table. As a result, lake water recharged the surficial aquifer around the entire lake perimeter, except during very wet periods when ground-water inflow occurred around part of the lake perimeter. The non-augmented lakes typically had areas of ground-water inflow and areas of lake leakage around their perimeter, and during wet periods, ground-water inflow occurred around the entire lake perimeter. Therefore, the area potentially contributing ground water to the non-augmented lakes is much larger than for augmented Round Lake. Vertical head loss within the surficial aquifer was greater at Round Lake than the other study lakes, which is additional evidence of the limited confinement at Round Lake. A comparison of the water quality and lake-bottom sediments at the three lakes indicate that Round Lake is strongly influenced by the addition of large quantities of calcium-bicarbonate enriched augmentation water. Round Lake had higher alkalinity, pH, calcium and dissolved oxygen concentrations, specific conductance, and water clarity than the two non-augmented lakes. Round Lake was generally saturated to supersaturated with respect to calcite, but was undersaturated when augmentation was low and after high rainfall periods. Calcium carbonate has accumulated in the lake sediments from calcite precipitation, from macrophytes such as Nitella sp., and from the deposition of carbonate-rich mollusk shells, such as Planerbella sp., both of which thrive in the high alkalinity lake water. Lake-bottom sediments and aquatic biota at Round Lake had some of the highest radium-226 activity levels measured in a Florida lake. The high radium-226 levels (27 disintegrations per minute per dry mass) can be atrributed to augmenting the lake with ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Although the ground water has relatively low levels of radium-226 (5.8 disintegrations per minute per liter), the large volumes of ground water added to the lake for more than 30 years have caused radium-226 to accumulate in the sediments and lake biota. The Round Lake basin had higher calcium and bicarbonate concentrations in the surficial aquifer than at the non-augmented lakes, which indicates the lateral leakage of calcium-bicarbonate enriched lake water into the surficial aquifer. Deuterium and oxygen-18 data indicated that water in well nests near the lake consists of as much as 100 percent lake leakage, and water from the augmentation well had a high percentage of recirculated lake water (between 59 and 73 percent lake leakage). The ground water surrounding Round Lake was undersaturated with resp

  17. LAKE FORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lake Fork of the Arkansas River Watershed has been adversely affected through mining, water diversion and storage projects, grazing, logging, and other human influences over the past 120 years. It is the goals of the LFWWG to improve the health of Lake fork by addressing th...

  18. Molecular archives of climatic history: exploring patterns of genomic differentiation in endemic species radiations of ancient lakes (MOLARCH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, K.

    2009-04-01

    Little is known about the evolutionary response of species to global climate change because time scales are too long to be directly studied. Recent phylogenetic studies on taxa inhabiting ancient lakes suggested that climate-induced environmental changes can be reconstructed by analyzing genetic patterns within and among species. In fact such evolutionary responses seem to coincide with climate driven lake level-fluctuations and to be concentrated within narrow periods of time. Yet, it remains unclear to what extent such changes occur simultaneously across taxonomic groups and ecological guilds. Our study combines phylogenetic and paleoclimate data to test how patterns of evolutionary diversification agree with predictions of three groups of hypotheses (i) the ‘turnover pulse' and ‘paleo-ecological incumbency' hypotheses, predicting that speciation pulses across major taxa coincide with times of major lake level changes; (ii) the ‘ecological locking' hypothesis, also predicts simultaneous speciation pulses but not necessarily at times of major lake level changes; (iii) the ‘individual response' hypothesis, predicts no correlation of speciation pulses across taxa. These hypotheses will be tested using mtDNA sequences from selected endemic taxa (fish, crustaceans) of Lakes Baikal and Tanganyika, the two oldest lakes on Earth. Patterns of intraspecific diversity (reflecting dynamics of population size changes) and of the synchrony of interspecific divergences across taxa are used to investigate the evolutionary effects of lake level changes on different time scales, in taxa occurring in different habitats, within lakes and across continents. Combined with paleoclimatic information this will elucidate the effects of global climatic induced changes on the more general dynamics of diversification, loss of variation, adaptive radiations and speciation events. Computer simulations of sequence evolution generated in various ecological scenarios will be used to investigate whether real sequence data of natural faunas can be used to evaluate and predict the impact of future climate change on these faunas.

  19. Construction of chromosome markers from the Lake Victoria cichlid Paralabidochromis chilotes and their application to comparative mapping.

    PubMed

    Kuroiwa, A; Terai, Y; Kobayashi, N; Yoshida, K; Suzuki, M; Nakanishi, A; Matsuda, Y; Watanabe, M; Okada, N

    2014-01-01

    Cichlid fishes in the African Great Lakes are known as a spectacular example of adaptive radiation in vertebrates. Four linkage maps have been constructed to identify the genes responsible for adaptation and speciation, and the genetic linkages of those genes are assumed to play an important role during adaptive evolution. However, it is difficult to analyze such linkages because the linkage groups of one species do not match well with those of the other species. Chromosome markers are a powerful tool for the direct identification of linkage homology between different species. We used information about the linkage map of the Lake Malawi cichlid (Labeotropheus fuelleborni/Metriaclima zebra) to isolate bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the BAC library of Paralabidochromis chilotes, Lake Victoria. We identified 18 of 22 P. chilotes chromosomes by single- and multi-color BAC fluorescence in situ hybridization using 19 BAC clones. Comparative mapping with the chromosome markers of P. chilotes in Astatotilapia burtoni (2n = 40) from Lake Tanganyika revealed the chromosome rearrangements that have occurred in this lineage. These chromosome markers will be useful for delineating the process of genome and chromosome evolution in African species. PMID:24217467

  20. Characterization of Lake Michigan coastal lakes using zooplankton assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Goodrich, Maria L.; Murphy, Paul C.; Davis, Bruce M.

    2004-01-01

    Zooplankton assemblages and water quality were examined bi-weekly from 17 April to 19 October 1998 in 11 northeastern Lake Michigan coastal lakes of similar origin but varied in trophic status and limnological condition. All lakes were within or adjacent to Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Michigan. Zooplankton (principally microcrustaceans and rotifers) from triplicate Wisconsin net (80 I?m) vertical tows taken at each lake's deepest location were analyzed. Oxygen-temperature-pH-specific conductivity profiles and surface water quality were concurrently measured. Bray-Curtis similarity analysis showed small variations among sample replicates but large temporal differences. The potential use of zooplankton communities for environmental lake comparisons was evaluated by means of BIOENV (Primer 5.1) and principal component analyses. Zooplankton analyzed at the lowest identified taxonomic level yielded greatest sensitivity to limnological variation. Taxonomic and ecological aggregations of zooplankton data performed comparably, but less well than the finest taxonomic analysis. Secchi depth, chlorophyll a, and sulfate concentrations combined to give the best correlation with patterns of variation in the zooplankton data set. Principal component analysis of these variables revealed trophic status as the most influential major limnological gradient among the study lakes. Overall, zooplankton abundance was an excellent indicator of variation in trophic status.

  1. Lake morphometry and wind exposure may shape the plankton community structure in acidic mining lakes

    PubMed Central

    Weithoff, Guntram; Moser, Michael; Kamjunke, Norbert; Gaedke, Ursula; Weisse, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Acidic mining lakes (pH <3) are specific habitats exhibiting particular chemical and biological characteristics. The species richness is low and mixotrophy and omnivory are common features of the plankton food web in such lakes. The plankton community structure of mining lakes of different morphometry and mixing type but similar chemical characteristics (Lake 130, Germany and Lake Langau, Austria) was investigated. The focus was laid on the species composition, the trophic relationship between the phago-mixotrophic flagellate Ochromonas sp. and bacteria and the formation of a deep chlorophyll maximum along a vertical pH-gradient. The shallow wind-exposed Lake 130 exhibited a higher species richness than Lake Langau. This increase in species richness was made up mainly by mero-planktic species, suggesting a strong benthic/littoral – pelagic coupling. Based on the field data from both lakes, a nonlinear, negative relation between bacteria and Ochromonas biomass was found, suggesting that at an Ochromonas biomass below 50 μg C L−1, the grazing pressure on bacteria is low and with increasing Ochromonas biomass bacteria decline. Furthermore, in Lake Langau, a prominent deep chlorophyll maximum was found with chlorophyll concentrations ca. 50 times higher than in the epilimnion which was build up by the euglenophyte Lepocinclis sp. We conclude that lake morphometry, and specific abiotic characteristics such as mixing behaviour influence the community structure in these mining lakes. PMID:23225914

  2. Pyramid Lake

    Pyramid Lake, Nevada, not only holds deep cultural connections for the Paiute Tribe and tribal member Dan Mosely (pictured), but also supports a tribal economy centered on fishing and recreational activities. ...

  3. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy

    MedlinePlus

    Gastrectomy - sleeve; Gastrectomy - greater curvature; Gastrectomy - parietal; Gastric reduction; Vertical gastroplasty ... been able to lose weight through diet and exercise. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy is not a quick fix ...

  4. Hydrogeochemical features of Lake Ngozi (SW Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delalande-Le Mouëllic, Manuëlla; Gherardi, Fabrizio; Williamson, David; Kajula, Stephen; Kraml, Michael; Noret, Aurélie; Abdallah, Issah; Mwandapile, Ezekiel; Massault, Marc; Majule, Amos; Bergonzini, Laurent

    2015-03-01

    Located on the triple rift junction hosting the Karonga-Usungu depression in Tanzania, Lake Ngozi is the second largest crater lake of the East African Rift. The lake has a number of peculiar features: it has a near constant water level, no permanent surface inlets and outlets, it is vertically well-mixed, with homogeneous distribution of temperature and chemical composition, and it is characterised by near neutral to slightly acid Na-Cl waters of comparatively high salinity and high P-CO2. Based on the different chemical signature of surface and ground waters (low-Cl type) from lake waters, mass balance methods have been applied to investigate lake dynamics. Water enters the lake mainly by precipitation and groundwater inflow, and leaves by groundwater outflow and evaporation. A large groundwater outflow of 2.4 m yr-1 has been estimated. The high salinity, Na-Cl signature of Lake Ngozi waters, together with 3He/4He ratios measured on dissolved gases (between 7 and 8.3 Ra) and high-PCO2 values estimated all along the water vertical column indicate the inflow of deep-seated fluids, likely magmatic in origin, into the lake. The existence of a hydrothermal system possibly at 250 °C in the root of the volcanic edifice is also hypothesised on the basis of solute geothermometry. Despite the current lack of vertical stratification, the lake is suspected to act as condenser for CO2 and other gases of deep magmatic origin, and should be then further monitored for the risk of limnic eruptions as well as for environmental and climatic concerns.

  5. SIMULATION OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN PROFILES IN A TRANSPARENT, DIMICTIC LAKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thrush Lake is a small, highly transparent lake in northeastern Minnesota. rom 1986 to 1991, vertical profiles of water temperature, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a concentration, underwater light irradiance, and Secchi depths were measured at monthly intervals during the ice-fre...

  6. Lake Powell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The white ring around Lake Powell tells the story. The surface is down 98 feet. This is critical, because Powell, Lake Mead, and other lakes along the Colorado River provide water for millions of people in five states. We are in the eighth year of a drought on the Colorado River. This year was the driest year ever reported in Southern California, and there is a severe drought in Northern California, down to less than 30-percent of snow pack. This ASTER image of part of Lake Powell was acquired in 2001. The gray area depicts the shrunken, reduced 2007 lake extent compared to the extended, larger black area in 2001.

    The image covers an area of 24 x 30 km, and is centered near 37.1 degrees north latitude, 111.3 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. The Morphometry of Lake Palmas, a Deep Natural Lake in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Gilberto F.; Gonçalves, Monica A.; Garcia, Fábio da C.

    2014-01-01

    Lake Palmas (A = 10.3km2) is located in the Lower Doce River Valley (LDRV), on the southeastern coast of Brazil. The Lake District of the LDRV includes 90 lakes, whose basic geomorphology is associated with the alluvial valleys of the Barreiras Formation (Cenozoic, Neogene) and with the Holocene coastal plain. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of morphometry and thermal pattern of a LDRV deep lake, Lake Palmas. A bathymetric survey carried out in 2011 and the analysis of hydrographic and wind data with a geographic information system allowed the calculation of several metrics of lake morphometry. The vertical profiling of physical and chemical variables in the water column during the wet/warm and dry/mild cold seasons of 2011 to 2013 has furnished a better understanding of the influence of the lake morphometry on its structure and function. The overdeepened basin has a subrectangular elongated shape and is aligned in a NW-SE direction in an alluvial valley with a maximum depth (Zmax) of 50.7m, a volume of 2.2×108 m3 (0.22km3) and a mean depth (Zmv) of 21.4m. These metrics suggest Lake Palmas as the deepest natural lake in Brazil. Water column profiling has indicated strong physical and chemical stratification during the wet/warm season, with a hypoxic/anoxic layer occupying one-half of the lake volume. The warm monomictic pattern of Lake Palmas, which is in an accordance to deep tropical lakes, is determined by water column mixing during the dry and mild cold season, especially under the influence of a high effective fetch associated with the incidence of cold fronts. Lake Palmas has a very long theoretical retention time, with a mean of 19.4 years. The changes observed in the hydrological flows of the tributary rivers may disturb the ecological resilience of Lake Palmas. PMID:25406062

  8. The morphometry of Lake Palmas, a deep natural lake in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Gilberto F; Gonçalves, Monica A; Garcia, Fábio da C

    2014-01-01

    Lake Palmas (A = 10.3km2) is located in the Lower Doce River Valley (LDRV), on the southeastern coast of Brazil. The Lake District of the LDRV includes 90 lakes, whose basic geomorphology is associated with the alluvial valleys of the Barreiras Formation (Cenozoic, Neogene) and with the Holocene coastal plain. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of morphometry and thermal pattern of a LDRV deep lake, Lake Palmas. A bathymetric survey carried out in 2011 and the analysis of hydrographic and wind data with a geographic information system allowed the calculation of several metrics of lake morphometry. The vertical profiling of physical and chemical variables in the water column during the wet/warm and dry/mild cold seasons of 2011 to 2013 has furnished a better understanding of the influence of the lake morphometry on its structure and function. The overdeepened basin has a subrectangular elongated shape and is aligned in a NW-SE direction in an alluvial valley with a maximum depth (Zmax) of 50.7 m, a volume of 2.2×10(8) m3 (0.22 km3) and a mean depth (Zmv) of 21.4m. These metrics suggest Lake Palmas as the deepest natural lake in Brazil. Water column profiling has indicated strong physical and chemical stratification during the wet/warm season, with a hypoxic/anoxic layer occupying one-half of the lake volume. The warm monomictic pattern of Lake Palmas, which is in an accordance to deep tropical lakes, is determined by water column mixing during the dry and mild cold season, especially under the influence of a high effective fetch associated with the incidence of cold fronts. Lake Palmas has a very long theoretical retention time, with a mean of 19.4 years. The changes observed in the hydrological flows of the tributary rivers may disturb the ecological resilience of Lake Palmas. PMID:25406062

  9. 78 FR 18480 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Chef Menteur Pass, at Lake Catherine, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Chef Menteur Pass, at Lake Catherine.... Highway 90 swing highway bridge across the Chef Menteur Pass, mile 2.8, at Lake Catherine, Orleans Parish..., mile 2.8, at Lake Catherine, Orleans, Parish, Louisiana. The bridge provides 10 feet vertical...

  10. Functional convergence among pelagic sculpins of Lake Baikal and deepwater ciscoes of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshenroder, Randy L.; Sideleva, Valentina G.; Todd, Thomas N.

    1999-01-01

    The vast, well-oxygenated hypolimnia of Lake Baikal and the Great Lakes were both dominated by endemic planktivorous fishes. These dominants, two species of sculpins (Comephorus, Comephoridae) in Lake Baikal and six species of deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus, Salmonidae) in the Great Lakes, although distant taxonomically, have morphologies suggesting a surprising degree of functional convergence. Here it is proposed that the same two buoyancy-regulation strategies observed in Baikal sculpins also arose in the deepwater ciscoes of the Great Lakes. One strategy favors hydrostatic lift (generated by low specific gravity) and is characterized by fatter, larger-bodied fish with smaller paired fins; the second strategy favors hydrodynamic lift (generated by swimming) and is characterized by leaner, smaller-bodied fish with larger paired fins. Both types likely evolved to feed on a single species of ecologically analogous, vertically migrating macrozooplankter: Macrohectopus branickii in Lake Baikal and Mysis relicta in the Great Lakes. It is suggested that Coregonus did not diversify and proliferate in Lake Baikal as they did in the Great Lakes because by the time Coregonus colonized Lake Baikal, pelagic sculpins were already dominant.

  11. Thermal, Chemical and Physical Investigations into Lake Deepening Processes on Spillway Lake, Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodyskyj, U. N.

    2014-12-01

    The Ngozumpa glacier is one of Nepal's largest and longest glaciers, fed by catchments on the slopes of Cho Oyu, the 6th highest peak in the world. Supraglacial lakes abound along its ~18-km-long ablation zone, but these are dwarfed in area and volume by Spillway lake, a terminal supraglacial lake that is currently expanding and deepening in the lowest kilometer of the glacier. This lake poses a potential future downstream flooding threat, hence there is a perceived need for continuous monitoring and for quantifying factors that lead to growth, deepening and potential instability. Point-interpolated depth surveys (2010/2012) by Thompson and others have revealed deepening hotspots in multiple locations within the lake. The current study reports University of Colorado surveys in 2013 and 2014 that quantify a) vertical water temperature variations in areas of deepening and shallowing; b) physical and chemical characteristics of dredged sediment samples from the lake floor; c) lake water chemistry; d) lake floor bathymetry imaged using high-resolution side-scan sonar and e) lake bottom hardness and roughness. These parameters are analyzed with a view to assessing their role in controlling lake floor deepening and growth.

  12. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, W.J.; Garn, H.S.; Goddard, G.L.; Marsh, S.B.; Olson, D.L.; Robertson, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical charac-teristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measure-ments of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series graphs of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during non-frozen periods are included for all lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive infor-mation for each lake includes: location of the lake, area of the lake's watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks.

  13. Recent Warming of Lake Kivu

    PubMed Central

    Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A.; Crowe, Sean A.; Hecky, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient. PMID:25295730

  14. Recent warming of lake Kivu.

    PubMed

    Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A; Crowe, Sean A; Hecky, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient. PMID:25295730

  15. Nitrogen enrichment alters the structure and function of oligotrophic alpine lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saros, J. E.; Slemmons, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that meltwater from alpine glaciers enriches high-elevation lakes with reactive nitrogen (Nr), making these systems useful models of the effects of Nr enrichment on lake ecosystems. We compared phytoplankton diversity and productivity in a set of glacially-fed (GSF, which have moderate Nr concentrations) and snowmelt-fed (SF, which have very low Nr concentrations) lakes situated in the central Rocky Mountains of North America to better understand the effects of nitrogen enrichment on the structure and function of lakes. In three lakes of each type, we determined the vertical distribution of the algal standing crop, measured primary productivity rates with 14C uptake experiments, and compared phytoplankton richness and community structure. Comparing the two lake types, primary productivity rates were higher in GSF lakes, but average (i.e., vertically-integrated) chlorophyll concentrations did not differ. However, algal biomass was higher in the epi- and metalimnion of GSF lakes while it was equivalent in the hypolimnion of both lake types, suggesting different vertical gradients of algal standing crop with Nr enrichment. Phytoplankton species richness was lower in GSF lakes compared to SF lakes, with SF lakes generally having a greater diversity of phyla represented as well. Our results suggest that even moderate Nr enrichment alters the productivity and diversity of oligotrophic lakes.

  16. Large-scale variability of wind erosion mass flux rates at Owens Lake 1. Vertical profiles of horizontal mass fluxes of wind-eroded particles with diameter greater than 50 μm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillette, Dale A.; Fryrear, D.W.; Xiao, Jing Bing; Stockton, Paul; Ono, Duane; Helm, Paula J.; Gill, Thomas E; Ley, Trevor

    1997-01-01

    A field experiment at Owens (dry) Lake, California, tested whether and how the relative profiles of airborne horizontal mass fluxes for >50-μm wind-eroded particles changed with friction velocity. The horizontal mass flux at almost all measured heights increased proportionally to the cube of friction velocity above an apparent threshold friction velocity for all sediment tested and increased with height except at one coarse-sand site where the relative horizontal mass flux profile did not change with friction velocity. Size distributions for long-time-averaged horizontal mass flux samples showed a saltation layer from the surface to a height between 30 and 50 cm, above which suspended particles dominate. Measurements from a large dust source area on a line parallel to the wind showed that even though the saltation flux reached equilibrium ∼650 m downwind of the starting point of erosion, weakly suspended particles were still input into the atmosphere 1567 m downwind of the starting point; thus the saltating fraction of the total mass flux decreased after 650 m. The scale length difference and ratio of 70/30 suspended mass flux to saltation mass flux at the farthest down wind sampling site confirm that suspended particles are very important for mass budgets in large source areas and that saltation mass flux can be a variable fraction of total horizontal mass flux for soils with a substantial fraction of <100-μm particles.

  17. Reconstructing paleo lake levels from relict shorelines along the Upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedke, Steve J.; Thompson, Todd A.; Johnston, John W.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    Shorelines of the upper Great Lakes include many embayments that contain strandplains of beach ridges. These former shoreline positions of the lakes can be used to determine changes in the elevation of the lakes through time, and they also provide information on the warping of the ground surface that is occurring in the Great Lakes after the weight of glacial ice was removed. Relative lake-level hydrographs can be created by coring the beach ridges to determine the elevation of basal foreshore (swash zone) deposits in each ridge and by obtaining radiocarbon dates of basal wetland sediments between ridges to generate an age model for the ridges. Because the relative-level hydrographs are the combination of lake-level change and vertical ground movement (isostatic rebound), the rebound must be removed to produce a graph that shows only the physical limits and timing of past lake-level fluctuations referenced to a common outlet. More than 500 vibracores of beach-ridge sediments were collected at five sites along Lake Michigan and four sites along Lake Superior. The cores showed a sequence of dune deposits overlying foreshore deposits that, in turn, overlie upper shoreface deposits. The base of the foreshore deposits is coarser and more poorly sorted than an overlying and underlying sediment and represents the plunge-point sediments at the base of the swash zone. The plunge-point deposits are a close approximation of the elevation of the lake when the beach ridge formed. More than 150 radiocarbon ages of basal wetland sediments were collected to produce age models for the sites. Currently, age models exist for all Lake Michigan sites and one Lake Superior site. By combining the elevation data with the age models, six relative lake-level hydrographs were created for the upper Great Lakes. An iterative approach was used to remove rebound from the five Lake Michigan relative hydrographs and merge the graphs into a single hydrograph. The resultant hydrograph shows long-term patterns of lake-level change for lakes Michigan and Huron and is referenced to the Port Huron outlet. When the age models are completed for the Lake Superior sites, a hydrograph will be created for the entire lake.

  18. Iceberg Lake

    On Iceberg Lake in Glacier National Park, ice from the glacier is breaking up and melting at a rapid rate.  Cold, glacier fed waters provide crucial habitat for native aquatic species such as trout, and as the ice is disappearing, so are the ideal habitats to sustain native ecosystems.  ...

  19. Erect floating stumps in Spirit Lake, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Harold G.

    1983-05-01

    The eruption of Mount St. Helens in May 1980 carried thousands of trees into Spirit Lake, where a giant log raft formed. Many of these broken stumps, especially those with roots, now float suspended vertically in the water. This phenomenon could have been responsible for erect petrified trees in other volcanic areas such as Yellowstone.

  20. Water quality of selected lakes in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington with respect to lake acidification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turney, G.L.; Dion, N.P.; Sumioka, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Thirteen lakes in Mount Rainier National Park were evaluated for general chemical characteristics, sensitivity to acidification by acidic precipitation, and degree of existing acidification. The lakes studies were Allen, one of the Chenuis group, Crescent , Crystal, Eleanor, Fan, one of the Golden group, Marsh, Mowich, Mystic, Shriner, and two unnamed lakes. The lakes were sampled in August 1983. Specific conductance values were generally 21 microsiemens/cm at 25 C or less, and dissolved solids concentrations were generally 20 mg/L or less. The major cations were calcium and sodium, and the major anion was bicarbonate. Alkalinity concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 9.0 mg/L in 12 of the lakes. Allen Lake was the exception, having an alkalinity concentration of 27 mg/L. The pH values for all of the lakes ranged from 5.8 to 6.5. In most of the lakes, vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance were relatively uniform. In the deeper lakes, temperature decreased with depth and dissolved-oxygen concentrations increased to about 20 feet, remained constant to 80 ft, then decreased with increasing depth. Exceptions to general water quality patterns were observed in three lakes. Allen Lake had a specific conductance value of 58 Microsiemens/cm. The lake of the Golden group was anaerobic at the bottom and had relatively high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved metals, and a lower light transmission than the other lakes studied. One of the unnamed lakes had relatively high concentrations of phytoplankton and dissolved organic carbon and relatively low levels of light transmission. Comparisons of lake data to acid-sensitivity thresholds for specific conductance and alkalinity indicated that all of the lakes except Allen would be sensitive to acidic precipitation. The small sizes of the lakes, and their locations in basins of high precipitation and weathering-resistant rock types, enhance their sensitivity. None of the lakes in this study appeared to be presently acidified. (Lantz-PTT)

  1. GREAT LAKES LIMNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The limnology program provides information on key environmental factors that influence the food chain and fish of the Great Lakes. The annual monitoring of the Great Lakes began in 1983 for Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie; in 1986 in Lake Ontario; and in 1992 for Lake Superior. T...

  2. LONG-TERM RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AT THE LAKE HARTWELL SUPERFUND SITE: PCB DECHLORINATION. 2. RATES AND EXTENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on extensive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorination measured in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) sediments. Vertical sediment cores were collected from 18 locations in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) and analyzed in 5-cm increments for PCB congeners...

  3. Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    The wild plants and animals and the natural systems that support them in the Great Lakes region are valuable resources of considerable local, regional, and national interest. They are also, in part, transboundary resources that the U.S. shares with its Canadian neighbors to the north. The way these resources are changing over time is inadequately known and is a concern for resource users and for those charged with managing and protecting these unique and valuable resources. This chapter describes the wild plants and animals and the systems that support them in the Great Lakes region; addresses their condition; and points out the gaps in our knowledge about them that, if filled, would aid in their conservation and appropriate use.

  4. Vertical bounce of two vertically aligned balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2007-11-01

    When a tennis ball rests on top of a basketball and both drop to the floor together, the tennis ball is projected vertically at high speed. A mass-spring model of the impact, as well as air track data, suggest that the tennis ball should be projected at relatively low speed. Measurements of the forces on each ball and the bounce of vertically aligned superballs are used to resolve the discrepancy.

  5. Vertical axis wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  6. Vertical axis wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Y.; Seki, K.; Shimizu, Y.

    1981-01-27

    Wind turbines are largely divided into vertical axis wind turbines and propeller (Horizontal axis) wind turbines. The present invention discloses a vertical axis high speed wind turbine provided with a starting and braking control system. This vertical axis wind turbine is formed by having blades of a proper airfoil fitted to respective supporting arms provided radially from a vertical rotary axis by keeping the blade span-wise direction in parallel with the axis and being provided with a low speed control windmill in which the radial position of each operating piece varies with a centrifugal force produced by the rotation of the vertical rotary axis.

  7. Bathymetry of Bonnie Doone Lake, Kornbow Lake, Mintz Pond, and Glenville Lake, Cumberland County, North Carolina, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giorgino, M.J.; Strain, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Bathymetric surveys were conducted at four water-supply impoundments of Little Cross Creek in Cumberland County, North Carolina. The surveys were conducted in April 1996 at Mintz Pond and Glenville Lake, and in January 1998 at Bonnie Doone Lake and Kornbow Lake. The resulting bathymetric maps are the first to cover the entire range in depth for these reservoirs and provide a framework for future evaluations of bathymetry and storage capacity. Bathymetric maps were constructed from depth and position data collected at each reservoir. A boat-mounted, research-grade fathometer was used to record water depths with a vertical accuracy of 0.1 foot. At Mintz Pond and Glenville Lake, position was measured by using a wide-band laser tracking system interfaced with a total station survey instrument. This positioning method required multiple land-based control points to be established and was hampered by line-of-sight restrictions between the control points and the boat. At Bonnie Doone Lake and Kornbow Lake, a global positioning system was used to collect differentially corrected location data. This positioning method enabled more rapid data collection, eliminated the need for land-based control points, and provided improved data coverage. Spillway elevations range from 172.8 feet above mean sea level at Bonnie Doone Lake to 113.1 feet at Glenville Lake. Surface area and storage volume were computed for each reservoir and were related to water-surface elevations at 1-foot intervals. The combined surface acreage of the four Little Cross Creek reservoirs at their full-pool elevations is 120.97 acres, consisting of 21.20 acres at Bonnie Doone Lake, 47.09 acres at Kornbow Lake, 15.56 acres at Mintz Pond, and 37.12 acres at Glenville Lake. The four reservoirs have a combined usable storage capacity of 674.91 acre-feet, which is the sum of 127.93 acre-feet in Bonnie Doone Lake, 320.62 acre-feet in Kornbow Lake, 53.25 acre-feet in Mintz Pond, and 173.11 acre-feet in Glenville Lake.

  8. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-04-01

    Blade fatigue life is an important element in determining the economic viability of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). VAWT-SAL Vertical Axis Wind Turbine- Stochastic Aerodynamic Loads Ver 3.2 numerically simulates the stochastic (random0 aerodynamic loads of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) created by the atomspheric turbulence. The program takes into account the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and assumed turbulence properties.

  9. Vertical axis wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Y.; Seki, K.; Shimizu, Y.

    1981-01-27

    Wind turbines are largely divided into vertical axis wind turbines and propeller (Horizontal axis) wind turbines. The present invention discloses a vertical axis high speed wind turbine provided with rotational speed control systems. This vertical axis wind turbine is formed by having blades of a proper airfoil fitted to respective supporting arms provided radially from a vertical rotating shaft by keeping the blade span-wise direction in parallel with the shaft and being provided with aerodynamic control elements operating manually or automatically to control the rotational speed of the turbine.

  10. Rediscovery of lake balls in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Hiltunen, Jarl K.; Owens, Randall W.

    1983-01-01

    For the first time in 70 years, the occurrence of a 'lake ball' in Lake Michigan is here reported in the literature. According to a published system of classification, the object we collected in 1978 was a 'false' lake ball. Dissection revealed that it was colonized by 5 chironomid larvae and 162 oligochaetes. The species and numerical proportions of the oligochaetes indicated that it was formed in or near the mouth of a eutrophic tributary rather than in the open waters of Lake Michigan where it was found. Because of their mobility, false lake balls may be ecologically important, serving as natural vehicles for the dispersal of invertebrates.

  11. Vertical axis windmill

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.S.

    1980-04-08

    A vertical axis windmill is described which involves a rotatable central vertical shaft having horizontal arms pivotally supporting three sails that are free to function in the wind like the main sail on a sail boat, and means for disabling the sails to allow the windmill to be stopped in a blowing wind.

  12. A microsatellite-based genetic linkage map and putative sex-determining genomic regions in Lake Victoria cichlids.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yu; Nikaido, Masato; Kondo, Azusa; Suzuki, Hikoyu; Yoshida, Kohta; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Okada, Norihiro

    2015-04-15

    Cichlid fishes in East Africa have undergone extensive adaptive radiation, which has led to spectacular diversity in their morphology and ecology. To date, genetic linkage maps have been constructed for several tilapias (riverine), Astatotilapia burtoni (Lake Tanganyika), and hybrid lines of Lake Malawi cichlids to facilitate genome-wide comparative analyses. In the present study, we constructed a genetic linkage map of the hybrid line of Lake Victoria cichlids, so that maps of cichlids from all the major areas of East Africa will be available. The genetic linkage map shown here is derived from the F2 progeny of an interspecific cross between Haplochromis chilotes and Haplochromis sauvagei and is based on 184 microsatellite and two single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Most of the microsatellite markers used in the present study were originally designed for other genetic linkage maps, allowing us to directly compare each linkage group (LG) among different cichlid groups. We found 25 LGs, the total length of which was 1133.2cM with an average marker spacing of about 6.09cM. Our subsequent linkage mapping analysis identified two putative sex-determining loci in cichlids. Interestingly, one of these two loci is located on cichlid LG5, on which the female heterogametic ZW locus and several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to adaptive evolution have been reported in Lake Malawi cichlids. We also found that V1R1 and V1R2, candidate genes for the fish pheromone receptor, are located very close to the recently detected sex-determining locus on cichlid LG5. The genetic linkage map study presented here may provide a valuable foundation for studying the chromosomal evolution of East African cichlids and the possible role of sex chromosomes in generating their genomic diversity. PMID:25639358

  13. Hydrogeologic setting of the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands, northern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, Donald I.

    1981-01-01

    Seven test holes drilled in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands indicate that the thickness of surficial materials along a north-south traverse parallel to Minnesota Highway 72 ranges from 163 feet near Blackduck, Minn., to 57 feet about 3 miles south of Upper Red Lake. Lenses of sand and gravel occur immediately above bedrock on the Itasca moraine and are interbedded with lake clay and till under the peatlands. Vertical head gradients measured in a piezometer nest near Blackduck on the moraine are downward, indicative of recharge to the regional ground-water-flow system. Vertical head gradients are upward in a piezometer nest on a sand beach ridge in the peatlands 12 miles north of Upper Red Lake. Numerical sectional models indicate that this discharge probably comes from local flow systems recharged from ground-water mounds located under large raised bogs. (USGS)

  14. Early observations on an emerging Great Lakes invader Hemimysis anomala in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Maureen G.; Lantry, Brian F.; Boscarino, Brent; Bowen, Kelly; Gerlofsma, Jocelyn; Schaner, Ted; Back, Richard; Questel, Jennifer; Smythe, A. Garry; Cap, Roberta; Goehle, Michael; Young, Bryan; Chalupnicki, Marc; Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Hemimysis anomala, a Ponto-Caspian littoral mysid, is an emerging Great Lakes invader that was discovered in Lakes Michigan and Ontario in 2006. Similar to the native mysid Mysis diluviana, Hemimysis exhibits a diel vertical migration pattern but generally inhabits shallower and warmer waters than M. diluviana. Because basic information on the distribution, habitat use, and biology of Hemimysis in the Great Lakes is scarce, the potential for food web disruption by Hemimysis cannot easily be predicted. Preliminary observations indicate widespread invasion of Hemimysis in Lake Ontario. In this study, we confirm the presence of Hemimysis at sites spanning the northern and southern shores of Lake Ontario and the presence of the individuals during winter months. In one horizontal tow in November 2007, over 26,000 individuals were collected with a length range of 4.4 to 9.0. mm and an average caloric density of 611. cal/g wet weight. The most effective methods for sampling Hemimysis were horizontal tows with either a zooplankton net in the water column or a benthic sled near the lake bottom. Although more quantitative data on the life history and distribution of this species is necessary, our preliminary observations support the prediction that the potential for Hemimysis to impact the nearshore food web in Lake Ontario appears high.

  15. Soil data at sites near Geneva Lake, Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, and Long Lake, near New Auburn, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, David J.; Greb, Steven R.

    2006-01-01

    The goals of this project are to describe how water moves through shallow soil and how vegetated buffers influence this flow. This was accomplished by using a series of soil-moisture probes which track the lateral and vertical movement of water during natural and artificial rainfall/runoff events. The purpose of this report is to summarize soil-moisture data collected at near-shore areas adjacent to two Wisconsin lakes.

  16. A theoretical analysis of vertical flow equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1992-01-01

    The assumption of Vertical Flow Equilibrium (VFE) and of parallel flow conditions, in general, is often applied to the modeling of flow and displacement in natural porous media. However, the methodology for the development of the various models is rather intuitive, and no rigorous method is currently available. In this paper, we develop an asymptotic theory using as parameter the variable R{sub L} = (L/H){radical}(k{sub V})/(k{sub H}). It is rigorously shown that present models represent the leading order term of an asymptotic expansion with respect to 1/R{sub L}{sup 2}. Although this was numerically suspected, it is the first time that is is theoretically proved. Based on the general formulation, a series of models are subsequently obtained. In the absence of strong gravity effects, they generalize previous works by Zapata and Lake (1981), Yokoyama and Lake (1981) and Lake and Hirasaki (1981), on immiscible and miscible displacements. In the limit of gravity-segregated flow, we prove conditions for the fluids to be segregated and derive the Dupuit and Dietz (1953) approximations. Finally, we also discuss effects of capillarity and transverse dispersion.

  17. Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.P.; Sommargren, G.E.; McConaghy, C.F.; Krulevitch, P.A.

    1999-10-19

    A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion, micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

  18. Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Sommargren, Gary E.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    1999-10-19

    A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

  19. Tracing and quantifying groundwater inflow into lakes using radon-222

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, T.; Ilmberger, J.; von Rohden, C.; Aeschbach-Hertig, W.

    2007-06-01

    Due to its high activities in groundwater, the radionuclide 222Rn is a sensitive natural tracer to detect and quantify groundwater inflow into lakes, provided the comparatively low activities in the lakes can be measured accurately. Here we present a simple method for radon measurements in the low-level range down to 3 Bq m-3, appropriate for groundwater-influenced lakes, together with a concept to derive inflow rates from the radon budget in lakes. The analytical method is based on a commercially available radon detector and combines the advantages of established procedures with regard to efficient sampling and sensitive analysis. Large volume (12 l) water samples are taken in the field and analyzed in the laboratory by equilibration with a closed air loop and alpha spectrometry of radon in the gas phase. After successful laboratory tests, the method has been applied to a small dredging lake without surface in- or outflow in order to estimate the groundwater contribution to the hydrological budget. The inflow rate calculated from a 222Rn balance for the lake is around 530 m3 per day, which is comparable to the results of previous studies. In addition to the inflow rate, the vertical and horizontal radon distribution in the lake provides information on the spatial distribution of groundwater inflow to the lake. The simple measurement and sampling technique encourages further use of radon to examine groundwater-lake interaction.

  20. Life history of lake herring of Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1956-01-01

    Although the lake herring has been an important contributor to the commercial fish production of Green Bay, little has been known about it. This study is based on field observations and data from about 6,500 lake herring collected over the period 1948 to 1952. Relatively nonselective commercial pound nets were a primary source of material for the study of age and growth. Commercial and experimental gill nets were used to obtain data on gear selectivity and vertical distribution. Scales were employed to investigate age and growth. Age group IV normally dominated commercial catches during the first half of the calendar year and age group III the last half. At these ages the fish averaged about 10.5 inches in length. The season's growth started in May, was most rapid in July, and terminated near the end of October. The sexes grew at the same rate. Selectivity of fishing gear was found to influence the estimation of growth. Geographical and annual differences in growth are shown. Factors that might contribute to discrepancies in calculated growth are evaluated. Possible real and apparent causes of growth compensation are given. The relation between length and weight is shown to vary with sex, season, year, and method of capture. Females were relatively more plentiful in commercial catches in February than in May through December. The percentage of females decreased with increase in age in pound-net catches but increased with age in gill-net samples. Within a year class the percentage of females decreased with increase in age. Most Green Bay lake herring mature during their second or third year of life. They are pelagic spawners with most intensive spawning over shallow areas. Spawning takes place between mid-November and mid-December, and eggs hatch in April and May. Lake herring ovaries contained from 3,500 to 11,200 eggs (averaged 6,375). Progress of spawning by age, sex, and length is given. Lake herring were distributed at all depths in Green Bay in early May, were concentrated within 30 feet of the surface in late May, moved to deeper water in June, and were restricted to depths greater than 30 feet in July when temperatures in shallower water became unfavorably high (greater than 18A?C.). In October, lake herring were again at all depths but were most abundant near the surface.

  1. The contribution of the GRAV-D airborne gravity to geoid determination in the Great Lakes region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Crowley, John W.; Holmes, Simon A.; Wang, Yan-Ming

    2016-05-01

    The current official North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) and the International Great Lakes Datum of 1985 (IGLD 85) will be replaced by a new geoid-based vertical datum in 2022. The Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) project collects high-quality airborne gravity data to improve the quality of the gravitational model that underpins the geoid model. This paper validates the contribution of GRAV-D data in the Great Lakes region. Using the lake surface height measured by satellite altimetry as an independent data set, Global Gravity Models (GGMs) with/without the GRAV-D data are compared. The comparisons show that the improvement reaches decimeters over Lake Michigan where the historic gravity data have significant errors. Over all lakes, except Lake Erie, the GRAV-D data improve the accuracy of the gravitational model to 1-3 cm.

  2. Lake Nasser and Toshka Lakes, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Nasser (center) and the Toshka Lakes (center left) glow emerald green and black in this MODIS true-color image acquired March 8, 2002. Located on and near the border of Egypt and Norther Sudan, these lakes are an oasis of water in between the Nubian (lower right) and Libyan Deserts (upper left). Also visible are the Red Sea (in the upper right) and the Nile River (running north from Lake Nasser). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  3. First record of Daphnia lumholtzi Sars in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muzinic, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    Adults of the cladoceran Daphnia lumholtzi, native to Australia, Africa, and parts of Asia, were first collected in August 1999 in Lake Erie. Individuals were collected near East Harbor State Park, Lakeside, Ohio from vertical plankton net tows. The average number of D. lumholtzi that were found (0.03/L) indicate that D. lumholtzi is beginning to establish itself in Lake Erie. The morphology of this Daphnia differs greatly from native species because of its elongated head and tail spine. This sighting is important because it acknowledges yet another exotic invader into the Great Lakes basin and it also shows that this, normally, warm water species continues to expand its range northward.

  4. The Nyanza Project: Interdisciplinary Research Training In Tropical Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, A. S.; Lezzar, K. E.; Michel, E.; O'Reilly, C. M.; Russell, J. M.; Nkotagu, H.; Kimirei, I.

    2005-12-01

    The Nyanza Project is a research training program for American and African students, run annually at Lake Tanganyika (LT), Tanzania. The Project`s objective is to provide undergraduates, graduate students and secondary school teachers with the skills to plan and conduct interdisciplinary research on various aspects of tropical lake studiees. At a time of rapid global change there is a pressing need for young scientists trained to investigate environmental processes in an interdisciplinary framework. Training students to understand long-term changes in water availability, water quality and the relationship of aquatic ecosystems to rapid climate change represents a critical element of this societal need. Waterbodies in the tropics are particularly useful proving grounds for training future researchers on the impacts of global change on natural waters, as they are very sensitive to environmental and climatic change. Moreover, they are likely to provide instructive bellwethers of changes to come in U.S. inland waters. Each year 17-22 undergraduates, 3-4 graduate students and one secondary school teacher are selected for the program from the US and Africa. To date (1998-2005), 89 undergraduate students, 24 graduate students, and 8 secondary school teachers from the US have participated through the Project`s NSF support and 58 African students (from Tanzania, Burundi, Zambia, Congo, Kenya, and Burkina Faso) have been funded to participate in the Nyanza Project through supporting grants from our non-NSF funding sources. The 7-week program comprises an initial two week intensive short course on all aspects of the LT system and project preparation period, followed by 5 weeks of directed research, written report preparation, and scientific meeting-styled presentations. Focal topics for Nyanza Project research include: 1) investigating East African paleoclimates using sediment cores and reflection seismic profiling, 2) mapping & interpreting the geologic structure and depositional processes on the lake`s floor and watersheds 3) studying the extremely diverse and largely endemic fish and invertebrate fauna found in the littoral zone of LT to understand species interactions, environmental controls on species distribution, and factors regulating species diversification, 4) understanding the linkages between short-term climate variability, internal circulation in the lake, nutrient availability, and productivity in the open water (pelagic) portion of LT, and 5) investigating the impacts of deforestation and soil erosion in the LT basin on lake and stream ecosystems. Given that the Nyanza Project primarily serves undergraduates it has been extremely productive in terms of research output, with 27 articles published/in press in peer reviewed journals/edited volumes, 73 presentations given at national or international scientific meetings (59% by student first authors) and 16 theses based on Nyanza work. Extended abstracts for all 100 student projects from 1998-2004 are available at our website. Alumni surveys indicate that the Nyanza Project has significantly changed past student`s approach to science and/or career directions.

  5. Physiological modifications by seston in response to physicochemical gradients within Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake Superior is a non-steady state and phosphorus (P) depleted ecosystem. In September 2011, the vertical distribution and composition of dissolved and particulate P-pools throughout the Lake were examined. Differences in seston P content were evident with depth, as average sest...

  6. GEOCHEMICAL FEATURES OF WATER-ROCK INTERACTIONS AT THE SULPHUR BANK MERCURY MINE, LAKE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine on the eastern shore of Clear Lake is the source of poor quality acid mine drainage seeping into Clear Lake. Lateral and vertical geochemical trends in ground water composition point to a number of redox reactions taking place as a function of subsu...

  7. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985-1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = -0.91, P < 0.01, N = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the state of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977-1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35-0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985-1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 Times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978-1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the lake, may be achieved.

  8. Lake Michigan Sand Waves

    Calm Lake Michigan morning while sampling dead and dying fish for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). This virus has recently emerged in the Great Lakes and caused severe epidemics in many fish species....

  9. Cladophora Along Lake Michigan

    Large patches of Cladophora, a green algae, lining the shore of Lake Michigan. Accumulation of Cladophora in shoreline waters is believed to be linked to avian botulism outbreaks, which have recently increased in the Great Lakes. ...

  10. Lakes Ecosystem Services Online

    EPA Science Inventory

    Northeastern lakes provide valuable ecosystem services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, however, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient ...

  11. Lake Effects: The Lake Superior Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Tom; And Others

    This curriculum guide was launched in response to a need for Lake Superior-specific educational materials and contains lessons and activities that can be used to teach about Lake Superior. The lessons in this book are divided into four sections. Each of the first three sections has a background section that provides basic information about Lake…

  12. A Killer Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake in Cameroon, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people in the surrounding area. This case study, developed for use in a limnology or aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts relating to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases.…

  13. Great Lakes: Chemical Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)

  14. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…

  15. Exploding Lakes in Cameroon

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, in the volcanic region of Cameroon, released a cloud of CO2 into the atmosphere, killing 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages. Since then, engineers have been artificially removing the gas from the lake through piping. This photo shows the Lake Nyos pipe ...

  16. Exploding Lakes in Cameroon

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, in the volcanic region of Cameroon, released a cloud of CO2 into the atmosphere, killing 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages. Since then, engineers have been artificially removing the gas from the lake through piping. A small CO2 cloud from Lake Monoun k...

  17. Lake Layers: Stratification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brothers, Chris; And Others

    This teacher guide and student workbook set contains two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on lake stratification and water quality. In the activities students model the seasonal temperature changes that occur in temperate lakes and observe the resulting stratification of lake waters. Students…

  18. A Killer Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake in Cameroon, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people in the surrounding area. This case study, developed for use in a limnology or aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts relating to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases.

  19. Numerical model of crater lake eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrissey, M.; Gisler, G.; Weaver, R.; Gittings, M.

    2010-12-01

    We present results from a numerical investigation of subaqueous eruptions involving superheated steam released through a lake mimicking the volcanic setting at Mt. Ruapehu. The simulations were conducted using an adaptive mesh, multi-material, hydrodynamics code with thermal conduction SAGE, (Simple Adaptive Grid Eulerian). Parameters investigated include eruption pressure, lake level and mass of superheated vapor. The simulations produced a spectrum of eruption styles from vapor cavities to radial jets that resulted in hazards that ranged from small-scale waves to high amplitude surges that reached and cascaded over the edge of the crater rim. There was an overall tendency for lake surface activity to increase (including wave amplitude) with increasing mass of superheated vapor and eruption pressure. Surface waves were induced by the formation and collapse of a gas cavity. The collapse of the cavity is considered to play a major role in the characteristic features observed during a subaqueous eruption. The additional mass of superheated vapor produced a larger cavity that displaced a larger area of the lake surface resulting in fast moving surges upon the collapse of the cavity. High lake levels (>90 m) appear to suppress the development of explosive jetting activity when eruption pressures are <10 MPa. At very large eruption pressures (>10 MPa), vertical jets and radial ejections of steam and water can occur in water depths >90 m. Less explosive eruption styles can produce hazardous events such as lahars by the outward movement of surface waves over the crater rim.

  20. Vertical flowline connector

    SciTech Connect

    Saliger, K. C.

    1985-10-01

    Several embodiments are disclosed of a vertical type of flowline connector for providing a fluid connection between a horizontal flowline and an additional subsea facility. The upper and lower portions of the connector can be properly positioned relative to each other by simply lowering an upper female portion of the connector onto a lower male portion thereof. The lower portion of the connector at the subsea facility is provided with at least two vertically positioned, upwardly facing male mandrel connectors. The upper portion of the connector assembly includes at least two vertically positioned, downwardly facing corresponding female connectors designed to be lowered onto the corresponding male mandrel connectors. At least one of the female connectors is mounted on the connector assembly by a free floating mounting. The free floating mounting allows for slight misalignments of the female connectors relative to the corresponding male connectors as the upper connector assembly is lowered onto, and passively positioned relative to, the lower connector assembly.

  1. Improved vertical scanning interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harasaki, Akiko

    2000-11-01

    Vertical scanning interferometers are routinely used for the measurement of optical fiber connectors. There are increasing needs for measurements of such items as machined surfaces, contact lenses, paint texture, cell structure, and integrated circuit devices, to name a few. These structures have too much depth, or are too rough, to measure with standard interferometry methods. Phase- measurement interferometry methods are limited to surfaces that do not have any discontinuities larger than one quarter of the operating wavelength. On the other hand, vertical scanning interferometers can be very effective, even though they have low height resolution compared to that of phase-measurement interferometers. Improving the height resolution of vertical scanning interferometers from the point of hardware improvement and signal processing has been one of the major research interests in the surface metrology area. This work provides a new algorithm, which called here ``PSI on the Fly'' technique, as a solution for improving height resolution of vertical scanning interferometers. This dissertation begins with a review of white-light interference microscopes. The height and lateral resolutions are derived based on scalar diffraction theory. Next, various well-established. algorithms for finding a topographic map of the small object surface are discussed. The work proceeds with a discussion of the phase change upon reflection and its influence on the coherence envelope. Then phase measurement interferometry methods are reviewed. The emphasis is in errors in phase measurement resulting from using a white light source instead of a monochromatic light source as in the usual case. The following chapter describes and examines an often- observed artifact of vertical-scanning interferometry when applied to step heights. The artifact is called ``bat wings'' because of its appearance. The physical cause of the ``bat wings'' artifact is discussed through a diffraction model. The next chapter proposes an improved vertical-scanning interferometry algorithm. The method, called here ``PSI on the Fly'' technique, has been developed by combining regular vertical-scanning interferometry and a monochromatic phase-shifting interferometry technique. The PSI on the Fly technique improves the surface height resolution of vertical scanning interferometry to that of a phase-shifting interferometry measurement. In addition to the resolution improvement, the algorithm also successfully removes the ``bat wings'' artifact.

  2. Food of lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dryer, William R.; Erkkila, Leo F.; Tetzloff, Clifford L.

    1965-01-01

    Stomachs were examined from 1,492 lake trout and 83 siscowets collected from Lake Superior. Data are given on the food of lake trout of legal size (17 inches or longer) by year, season, and depth of water, and on the relation between food and size among smaller lake trout. Fish contributed 96.7 to 99.9 per cent of the total volume of food in the annual samples. Ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) were most common (52.2 to 87.5 per cent of the volume) in 1950 to 1953 and American smelt ranked first (65.6 per cent of the volume) in 1963. Cottids were in 8.9 to 12.3 per cent of the stomachs in 1950 to 1953 but in only 4.3 per cent in 1963. Insects ranked second to fish in occurrence (9.6 per cent for the combined samples) and crustaceans followed at 3.9 per cent. The greatest seasonal changes in the food of lake trout were among fish caught at 35 fathoms and shallower. The occurrence of Coregonus increased from 34.6 per cent in February-March to 71.1 per cent in October-December. Smelt were in 76.9 per cent of the stomachs in February-March but in only 2.2 per cent in October-December. Cottids, Mysis relicta, and insects were most common in the July-September collections. Lake trout taken at depths greater than 35 fathoms had eaten a higher percentage of Cottidae and Coregonus than had those captured in shallower water. Smelt, ninespine sticklebacks, Mysis, and insects were more frequent in stomachs of lake trout from less than 35 fathoms. Crustaceans comprised more than 70 per cent of the total volume of food for 4.0- to 7.9-inch lake trout but their importance decreased as the lake trout grew larger. Pontoporeia affinis was the most common in the stomachs of 4.0- to 6.9-inch lake trout and Mysis held first rank at 7.0 to 12.9 inches. Ostracods were important only to 4.0- to 4.9-inch lake trout. As the lake trout became larger, the importance of fish grew from 4.4-per cent occurrence at 5.0 to 5.9 inches to 93.9 per cent at 16.0 to 16.9 inches. Smelt were most commonly eaten by undersize (less than 17 inches) lake trout.

  3. Decadal Heat Accumulation in Ice-Covered Lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooseff, M. N.; Priscu, J. C.; Doran, P. T.; Chiuchiolo, A.; Bernzott, E. D.; Obryk, M.

    2011-12-01

    Lakes integrate landscape processes and climate conditions. Most of the permanently ice-covered lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are closed basin, receiving glacial melt water from streams for 10-12 weeks per year and lacking advective outflow. We measured vertical profiles of water temperature three lakes in Taylor Valley since 1988. From these measurements, calculated heat contents indicate that these three lakes have been gaining heat since 2002. Analyses of lake ice thickness, meteorological conditions, and stream water heat loads indicate that the main source of heat to these lakes is from the glacially fed streams. These results indicate that McMurdo Dry Valley lakes are sensitive indicators of climate processes in this polar desert landscape and demonstrate the importance of long-term data sets when addressing the effects of climate on ecosystem processes.

  4. Geochemical and biochemical evidence of lake overturn and fish kill at Lake Averno, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliro, S.; Chiodini, G.; Izzo, G.; Minopoli, C.; Signorini, A.; Avino, R.; Granieri, D.

    2008-12-01

    Lake Averno is situated in the homonymous crater in the northwestern sector of the Campi Flegrei active volcanic system in Campania region, Italy. In February 2005 a fish kill event was observed in the lake, prompting a geochemical survey to ascertain the possible cause. In February 2005 a geochemical survey revealed that the lake water was unstratified chemically and isotopically, presumably, as a result of lake overturn. This fish kill phenomenon was recorded at least two other times in the past. In contrast to the February 2005 results, data collected in October 2005, shows the Lake Averno to be stratified, with an oxic epilimnion (surface to 6 m) and an anoxic hypolimnion (6 m to lake bottom at about 33 m). Chemical and isotopic compositions of Lake Averno waters suggest an origin by mixing of shallow waters with a Na-Cl hydrothermal component coupled with an active evaporation process. The isotopic composition of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon, as well as the composition of the non-reactive dissolved gas species again supports the occurrence of this mixing process. Decreasing levels of SO 4 and increasing levels of H 2S and CH 4 contents in lake water with depth, strongly suggests anaerobic bacterial processes are occurring through decomposition of organic matter under anoxic conditions in the sediment and in the water column. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis processes coexist and play a pivotal role in the anaerobic environment of the Lake Averno. The sulfate reducing bacterial activity has been estimated in the range of 14-22 μmol m - 2 day - 1 . Total gas pressure of dissolved gases ranges between 800 and 1400 mbar, well below the hydrostatic pressure throughout the water column, excluding the possibility, at least at the survey time, of a limnic eruption. Vertical changes in the density of lake waters indicate that overturn may be triggered by cooling of epilimnetic waters below 7 °C. This is a possible phenomenon in winter periods if atmospheric temperatures remain frosty for enough time, as occurred in February 2005. The bulk of these results strongly support the hypothesis that fish kill was caused by a series of events that began with the cooling of the epilimnetic waters with breaking of the thermal stratification, followed by lake overturn and the rise of toxic levels of H 2S from the reduced waters near the lake bottom.

  5. Limnology and fish ecology of sockeye salmon nursery lakes of the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, Wilbur L.; Burgner, R.L.

    1972-01-01

    Many important, recently glaciated oligotrophic lakes that lie in coastal regions around the northern rim of the Pacific Ocean produce anadromous populations of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka. This paper describes the limnology and fish ecology of two such lakes in British Columbia, five in Alaska, and one in Kamchatka. Then we discuss the following general topics: the biogenic eutrophication of nursery lakes from the nutrients released from salmon carcasses wherein during years of highest numbers of spawners, lake phosphate balances in Lakes Babine, Iliamna, and Dalnee are significantly affected; the use of nursery lakes by young sockeye that reveals five patterns related to size and configuration of lake basins and the distribution of spawning areas; the interactions between various life history stages of sockeye salmon and such resident predators, competitors, and prey as Arctic char, lake trout, Dolly Varden, cutthroat trout, lake whitefish, pygmy whitefish, pond smelt, sticklebacks, and sculpins; the self-regulation of sockeye salmon abundance in these nursery lakes as controlled by density-dependent processes; the interrelations between young sockeye salmon biomass and growth rates, and zooplankton abundance in Babine Lake; and finally, the diel, vertical, pelagial migratory behavior of young sockeye in Babine Lake and the new hypothesis dealing with bioenergetic conservation.

  6. Aiding Vertical Guidance Understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael; McCrobie, Daniel; Alkin, Martin; Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Palmer, Everett; McQuinn, Noreen

    1998-01-01

    A two-part study was conducted to evaluate modern flight deck automation and interfaces. In the first part, a survey was performed to validate the existence of automation surprises with current pilots. Results indicated that pilots were often surprised by the behavior of the automation. There were several surprises that were reported more frequently than others. An experimental study was then performed to evaluate (1) the reduction of automation surprises through training specifically for the vertical guidance logic, and (2) a new display that describes the flight guidance in terms of aircraft behaviors instead of control modes. The study was performed in a simulator that was used to run a complete flight with actual airline pilots. Three groups were used to evaluate the guidance display and training. In the training, condition, participants went through a training program for vertical guidance before flying the simulation. In the display condition, participants ran through the same training program and then flew the experimental scenario with the new Guidance-Flight Mode Annunciator (G-FMA). Results showed improved pilot performance when given training specifically for the vertical guidance logic and greater improvements when given the training and the new G-FMA. Using actual behavior of the avionics to design pilot training and FMA is feasible, and when the automated vertical guidance mode of the Flight Management System is engaged, the display of the guidance mode and targets yields improved pilot performance.

  7. Vertical shaft windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  8. Water balance of selected floodplain lake basins in the Middle Bug River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidek, J.; Ferencz, B.

    2013-08-01

    This study is the first attempt in the literature on the subject of comparing water balance equations for floodplain lake basins depending on the type of connection the lake has to its parent river. Where confluent lakes (upstream connections) were concerned, it was only possible to apply a classic water balance equation. When dealing with contrafluent lakes (downstream connections) as well as lakes with a complex recharge type (contrafluent-confluent) modified equations were created. The hydrological type of a lake is decided by high water flow conditions and, consequently, the duration of potamophase (connection with a river) and limnophase (the isolation of the lake), which determine the values of particular components and the proportion of the vertical to horizontal water exchange rate. Confluent lakes are characterised by the highest proportion of horizontal components (the inflow and runoff of river water) to the vertical ones (precipitation and evaporation). The smallest differences occur with respect to a contrafluent lake. In the case of confluent lakes, the relationship between water balance components resulted from the consequent water flow through the basin, consistent with the slope of the river channel and valley. The supplying channels of contrafluent lakes had an obsequent character, which is why the flow rate was lower. Lakes with a complex, contrafluent-confluent recharge type showed intermediate features. After a period of slow contrafluent recharge, the inflow of water through a downstream crevasse from the area of the headwater of the river was activated; this caused a radical change of flow conditions into confluent ones. The conditions of water retention in lake basins were also varied. Apart from hydrological recharge, also the orographic features of the catchment areas of the lakes played an important role here, for example, the distance from the river channel, the altitude at which a given catchment was located within the floodplain and the complexity of the channels of fluvial-water inflow.

  9. Responses of subepilimnetic primary producers to experimental lake acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Moffett, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    Subepilimnetic phytoplankton communities were found to increase in abundance during experimental acidification with sulfuric acid of two Canadian Shield lakes, Lake 223 and Lake 302S, at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in northwestern Ontario. As epilimnetic pH declined in Lake 223, small, edible species of phytoplankton increased more than larger, less edible taxa. Species diversity ultimately decreased when epilimnetic acidity reached the target pH 5.0. In Lake 302S algal populations, Chrysochromulina spp. and Chlamydomonas sp., reached [open quotes]bloom[close quotes] conditions below the epilimnion in the third and fourth summers, respectively, of sulfuric acid additions as pH declined from above pH 6 to pH 5.6 and 5.4. Meta- and hypolimnetic waters of these lakes did not experience similar declines in pH. All responses in Lake 223 and Lake 302S were in contrast to communities in 5-10 ELA lakes not undergoing acidification. Vertical depth profiles of chlorophyll fluorescence were used to follow trends in subepilimnetic communities during the first four years of sulfuric acid additions to Lake 302S. Fluorescence was found to reliably predict chlorophyll a concentrations (r[sup 2] = 0.80-0.94). Characteristics of subepilimnetic communities and the habitats in which they were located were studied at the ELA. Many were mixed with photosynthetic bacteria. Fluorometric techniques with DCMU (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dimethyl urea)) were used to determine which fluorescence maxima contained viable algal populations. In situ inorganic carbon uptake rates for the algal-dominated communities below the epilimnion were similar to rates by epilimnetic communities. Enclosure experiments demonstrated that growth and inorganic carbon uptake rates of subepilimnetic algal populations were light-limited.

  10. Surface heat flux variability of a large lake: Lake Geneva, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irani Rahaghi, A.; Lemmin, U.; Bouffard, D.; Riffler, M.; Wunderle, S.; Barry, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The heat budget of a lake is a fundamental component of physical limnology, and is strongly dependent on the surface heat flux. However, the surface energy exchange depends on several factors, making it difficult to estimate. In this study we employed several bulk formulas to estimate Lake Geneva's surface heat flux. Combination of different surface heat flux terms leads to a surface heat exchange model which requires various data. Different data sources were used in the heat flux estimates. Meteorological data were taken from an operational numerical weather prediction model, namely COSMO-2 (run by the Swiss meteorological service), while satellite imagery was used for the lake surface water temperature (LSWT). In order to find the best combination of the bulk formulas and to calibrate the model, the temporal evolution of the heat budget was estimated using long-term time series of vertical temperature profiles. Vertical temperature profiles at two points (one in the Lake Geneva's large basin and one in its small basin) were used. A sensitivity analysis was performed to find the key parameters, and more significantly the optimal combination of different heat flux terms. Finally, the spatio-temporal surface heat flux variation was calculated according to the proposed model. In addition, the relationship between variability of the surface heat flux and meteorological forcing was assessed. The different models, which are of differing complexity, gave reasonably consistent results, with differences attributed to simplifications inherent in them. The modeling results revealed that the LSWT and wind forcing are dominant factors underlying Lake Geneva surface heat flux spatial variation, while its temporal variability is mainly due to the global radiation and air temperature changes. In conclusion, the bulk heat balance approach is a useful tool to estimate various heat flux terms as well as their monthly or seasonally contributions. But, in large lakes where the LSWT is highly variable, the variable surface heat flux would be unavoidable.

  11. Consequences of thermal pollution from a nuclear plant on lake temperature and mixing regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillin, Georgiy; Shatwell, Tom; Kasprzak, Peter

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the combined effects of thermal pollution from a nuclear power plant (NPP) and regional climate warming on the thermal regime of a lake. For this purpose, we used the lake model FLake and analyzed 50 years of temperature data from Lake Stechlin, Germany, which served as the cooling water reservoir for the Rheinsberg NPP from 1966 until 1990. Both modeling and statistical data analysis revealed a strong influence of the NPP cooling water discharge on the lake water temperatures and the vertical stability of the water column. A remarkable effect of thermal pollution consisted of strong vertical mixing in winter produced by the discharge of warm water into the lake when ambient water temperatures were below 4 °C. This effect caused a significant increase in the deep hypolimnion temperatures and a corresponding decrease of the vertical stability in the summer. In turn, climate warming had the opposite effect on the summer stability by increasing lake surface temperatures. Both the thermal pollution and climate change increased the duration of the summer stratification period. Our results suggest that industrial thermal pollution in temperate lakes during winter is stored in the deep water column until the next winter, whereas heat added in the summer dissipates relatively rapidly into the atmosphere. Accordingly, the winter thermal pollution could have a long-lasting effect on the lake ecology by affecting benthic biogeochemical processes.

  12. View of Lake Sabrina Dam and Lake Sabrina from east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam and Lake Sabrina from east ridge showing spillway at photo center, view southwest - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  13. Vertical organic transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-01

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted.

  14. Hilly Surroundings (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree view of the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit was taken on the rover's 189th sol on Mars (July 15, 2004). It was assembled from images taken by the rover's navigation camera at a position referred to as Site 72, which is at the base of the 'West Spur' portion of the 'Columbia Hills.'' The view is presented in a vertical projection with geometrical seam correction.

  15. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-chuan (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A new read gate design for the vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory is disclosed which offers larger operating margin than the existing read gate designs. In the existing read gate designs, a current is applied to all the stripes. The stripes that contain a VBL pair are chopped, while the stripes that do not contain a VBL pair are not chopped. The information is then detected by inspecting the presence or absence of the bubble. The margin of the chopping current amplitude is very small, and sometimes non-existent. A new method of reading Vertical Bloch Line memory is also disclosed. Instead of using the wall chirality to separate the two binary states, the spatial deflection of the stripe head is used. Also disclosed herein is a compact memory which uses vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement in the form of stacks of VBL memory layers is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. High data transfer rate is achieved by operating all the layers in parallel. Using Hall effect sensing, and optical sensing via the Faraday effect to access the data from within the three-dimensional packages, an even higher data transfer rate can be achieved due to parallel operation within each layer.

  16. Origin and deformation of Holocene shoreline terraces, Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, G.A.; Locke, W.W.

    1986-08-01

    Geodetic surveys within the Yellowstone caldera have documented active uplift that is most likely caused by magmatic processes in the upper crust. Along the northeast shore of Yellowstone Lake, maximum relative uplift rates are 10 mm/yr for the period 1923-1975. However, information on deformation prior to historic instrumental records has been lacking. In this study, closely spaced data on elevations of postglacial shoreline terraces around the north end of Yellowstone Lake reveal complex tilting. Though most Holocene deformation is probably magma related, the pattern of shoreline tilting deviates significantly from the historic pattern of roughly symmetric inflation of the caldera. Along the northeast shore, where tilt directions of historic and shoreline deformation are similar, differential uplift of a > 2500-yr-old terrace is roughly 10 m; this gives a maximum uplift rate of 4 mm/yr. These unique Holocene terraces may exist due to episodic deformation because vertical movements affecting the lake outlet directly control lake level.

  17. Origins of rainbow smelt in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.

    1983-01-01

    The first rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) to enter Lake Ontario were probably migrants from an anadromous strain introduced into New York's Finger Lakes. Since the upper Great Lakes were originally stocked with a landlocked strain from Green Lake, Maine, subsequent migration to Lake Ontario from Lake Erie makes Lake Ontario unique among the Great Lakes in probably having received introductions from two distinct populations.

  18. Lake Mead, NV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Lake Mead, Nevada, (36.0N, 114.5E) where the water from the Colorado River empties after it's 273 mile journey through the Grand Canyon of Arizona is the subject of this photo. Other features of interest are Hoover Dam on the south shore of Lake Mead where cheap hydroelectric power is secondary to the water resources made available in this northern desert region and the resort city of Las Vegas, just to the west of Lake Mead.

  19. Lakes, Tibeten Plateau, Tibet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Pristine lakes in the high Tibeten plateau, (34.0N, 89.5E) one of the most remote regions of the world, are still partially frozen in this early spring photo. The lakes are almost the only source of water to support life in this harsh region and have been formed as a result of the Indian sub continent's incursion into the Asian continent, raising the water table and forming these many lakes in an otherwise barren landscape.

  20. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  1. Climatic change and evaporative processes in the development of Common Era hypersaline lakes, East Antarctica: A study of Lake Suribati

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, H.; Seto, K.; Katsuki, K.; Kaneko, H.; yamada, K.; Imura, S.; Dettman, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Antarctic continent was uplifted by glacioisostatic rebound due to the regression of ice sheets after the last glacial period. Today's saline lakes were formed in shallow basins originally below sea level. Antarctic hypersaline lakes are formed by concentration of isolated seawater bodies as affected by recent climate change. Many saline lakes are found in the ice-free area of the Soya coast, East Antarctica. Lake Suribati is located in Sukarvsnes on the Soya coast. It is a hypersaline lake with maximum salinity ~200 psu, and an observable stable halocline at 7~12m depth. This study uses Lake Suribati sediment core Sr4C-01, collected by the 46th Japanese Antarctica Research Expedition, to examine the relationship of climatic change to evaporative processes and solute concentration in Lake Suribati in the Common Era. Sr4C-01 core was collected at 9.53m water depth in Lake Suribati in 2005 (core length is 63cm). This core primarily consists of black mud and laminated black organic mud. In the interval from 10 to 24cm below the sediment surface evaporite crystals occur. The age of the Sr4C-01 core bottom is estimated to be ~3,500 cal yrs BP, based on AMS carbon-14 dating at 6 core horizons. The evaporite crystals were indentified as aragonite based on XRD. Total inorganic carbon (TIC) content is low, around 0.5%, throughout the Sr4C-01 core, with higher values, approximately 1~4%, in two intervals, 57~52cm and 29~10cm core depth. Variation in CaO content tracks TIC content. We suggest that synchronous change in CaO and TIC contents indicate the vertical change in the amount of aragonite. Two intervals of evaporite precipition imply two intervals of evaporation and concentration of lake water. Hypersaline lake conditions did not occur soon after the isolation from the sea, rather these occurred under repeated concentration and dilution of lake water. Dilution of saline lake water could occur through the inflow of melt water from local snow or ice, indicating a warm climate interval. During cool periods, local snow and ice sheet may have remained frozen. In this case, lake water volume would decrease by sublimation from the frozen lake surface, leading to salt concentration. Based on MgO and Na2O content data, we suggest that other Mg and Na evaporites occur in the core. If such evaporates can be identified, a detailed solute concentration process can be described. Analysis of evaporites in sediment core from Antarctic hypersaline lakes have great potential as proxy indicators for the study of climate change in Antarctica.

  2. Evidence of deep circulation in two perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tyler, S.W.; Cook, P.G.; Butt, A.Z.; Thomas, J.M.; Doran, P.T.; Lyons, W.B.

    1998-01-01

    The perennial ice covers found on many of the lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valley region of the Antarctic have been postulated to severely limit mixing and convective turnover of these unique lakes. In this work, we utilize chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) concentration profiles from Lakes Hoare and Fryxell in the McMurdo Dry Valley to determine the extent of deep vertical mixing occurring over the last 50 years. Near the ice-water interface, CFC concentrations in both lakes were well above saturation, in accordance with atmospheric gas supersaturations resulting from freezing under the perennial ice covers. Evidence of mixing throughout the water column at Lake Hoare was confirmed by the presence of CFCs throughout the water column and suggests vertical mixing times of 20-30 years. In Lake Fryxell, CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 were found in the upper water column; however, degradation of CFC-11 and CFC-12 in the anoxic bottom waters appears to be occurring with CFC-113 only present in these bottom waters. The presence of CFC-113 in the bottom waters, in conjunction with previous work detecting tritium in these waters, strongly argues for the presence of convective mixing in Lake Fryxell. The evidence for deep mixing in these lakes may be an important, yet overlooked, phenomenon in the limnology of perennially ice-covered lakes.

  3. Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Salt Lake City, situated near the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake, is host to the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, which open Friday, February 8. Venues for five of the scheduled events are at city (indoor) locations, and five in mountain (outdoor) facilities. All ten can be found within the area contained in these images. Some of the outdoor events take place at Ogden, situated north of Salt Lake City and at Park City, located to the east. Salt Lake City is surrounded by mountains including the Wasatch Range to the east, and the temperature difference between the Great Salt Lake and the overlying atmosphere enhances the moisture content of winter storms. These factors, in combination with natural cloud seeding by salt crystals from the lake, are believed to result in greater snowfall in neighboring areas compared to more distant locales. In addition to the obvious difference in snow cover between the winter and summer views, water color changes in parts of the Great Salt Lake are apparent in these images. The distinctly different coloration between the northern and southern arms of the Great Salt Lake is the result of a rock-filled causeway built in 1953 to support a permanent railroad. The causeway has resulted in decreased circulation between the two arms and higher salinity on the northern side. The southern part of the lake includes the large Antelope Island, and at full resolution a bridge connecting it to the mainland can be discerned. These images are natural color views acquired on February 8, 2001 and June 16, 2001, respectively. Each image represents an area of about 220 kilometers x 285 kilometers. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  4. Radionuclides and mercury in the salt lakes of the Crimea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoyeva, Natalya; Gulina, Larisa; Gulin, Sergey; Plotitsina, Olga; Stetsuk, Alexandra; Arkhipova, Svetlana; Korkishko, Nina; Eremin, Oleg

    2015-11-01

    90Sr concentrations, resulting from the Chernobyl NPP accident, were determined in the salt lakes of the Crimea (Lakes Kiyatskoe, Kirleutskoe, Kizil-Yar, Bakalskoe and Donuzlav), together with the redistribution between the components of the ecosystems. The content of mercury in the waters of the studied reservoirs was also established. Vertical distributions of natural radionuclide activities (238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 210Pb, 40K) and anthropogenic 137Cs concentrations (as radiotracers) were determined in the bottom sediments of the Koyashskoe salt lake (located in the south-eastern Crimea) to evaluate the longterm dynamics and biogeochemical processes. Radiochemical and chemical analysis was undertaken and radiotracer and statistical methods were applied to the analytical data. The highest concentrations of 90Sr in the water of Lake Kiyatskoe (350.5 and 98.0 Bq/m3) and Lake Kirleutskoe (121.3 Bq/m3) were due to the discharge of the Dnieper water from the North-Crimean Canal. The high content of mercury in Lake Kiyatskoe (363.2 ng/L) and in seawater near Lake Kizil-Yar (364 ng/L) exceeded the maximum permissible concentration (3.5 times the maximum). Natural radionuclides provide the main contribution to the total radioactivity (artificial and natural combined) in the bottom sediments of Lake Koyashskoe. The significant concentration of 210Pb in the upper layer of bottom sediments of the lake indicates an active inflow of its parent radionuclide—gaseous 222Rn from the lower layers of the bottom sediment. The average sedimentation rates in Lake Koyashskoe, determined using 210Pb and 137Cs data, were 0.117 and 0.109 cm per year, respectively.

  5. Hydrodynamic modeling of Lake Ontario: An intercomparison of three models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Anning; Rao, Yerubandi R.; Lu, Youyu; Zhao, Jun

    2010-12-01

    The solutions of three lake hydrodynamic models, namely, Princeton Ocean Model (POM), Canadian Version of Diecast Model, and Estuary, Lake, and Coastal Ocean Model, are compared with each other and with observations in Lake Ontario. The models have the same horizontal resolution and are forced with meteorological observations during mid-April to early October of 2006. The three models obtained qualitatively similar results, although they have differences in physical parameters, numerical scheme, and vertical discretization. Comparison with observations shows that the models can reproduce the time evolution of lake surface temperature reasonably well. All the models produced shallower mixed layers than observations at midlake stations, causing significant errors in simulating the temperatures in the thermocline but performed better near the coast. All the models also reproduced the characteristics of the time variability of the surface currents but quantitatively had substantial errors at subsurface levels. The three models all reproduced the observed spatial pattern of the summer mean near-surface temperatures, with upwelling (colder temperatures) along the north shore and downwelling (warmer temperatures) along the southeastern shore. The models simulated a lake-wide cyclonic circulation occupying a large portion of the lake, consistent with the observed climatology, but showed distinct differences in simulating the smaller gyre in the western corner of the lake. Although POM has half-vertical layers compared to z level models, its performance is comparable or slightly better than other models in most of the measures. During a strong easterly wind event, the performances of the models are similar in simulating the upwelling and downwelling processes in the lake and agree with the expected dynamic response to the strong wind forcing.

  6. Climate-induced changes in lake ecosystem structure inferred from coupled neo- and paleoecological approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saros, Jasmine E.; Stone, Jeffery R.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Slemmons, Krista; Spanbauer, Trisha; Schliep, Anna; Cahl, Douglas; Williamson, Craig E.; Engstrom, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Over the 20th century, surface water temperatures have increased in many lake ecosystems around the world, but long-term trends in the vertical thermal structure of lakes remain unclear, despite the strong control that thermal stratification exerts on the biological response of lakes to climate change. Here we used both neo- and paleoecological approaches to develop a fossil-based inference model for lake mixing depths and thereby refine understanding of lake thermal structure change. We focused on three common planktonic diatom taxa, the distributions of which previous research suggests might be affected by mixing depth. Comparative lake surveys and growth rate experiments revealed that these species respond to lake thermal structure when nitrogen is sufficient, with species optima ranging from shallower to deeper mixing depths. The diatom-based mixing depth model was applied to sedimentary diatom profiles extending back to 1750 AD in two lakes with moderate nitrate concentrations but differing climate settings. Thermal reconstructions were consistent with expected changes, with shallower mixing depths inferred for an alpine lake where treeline has advanced, and deeper mixing depths inferred for a boreal lake where wind strength has increased. The inference model developed here provides a new tool to expand and refine understanding of climate-induced changes in lake ecosystems.

  7. [Pollution Status and Migration of Mercury in the Sediments of Nansi Lake in Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Cao, Fei-fei; Yang, Li-yuan; Pang, Xu-gui; Wang, Bing-hua; Wang, Yun-qian

    2015-05-01

    The content of mercury and fractions were determined, in order to discuss the pollution situation and migration ability of mercury in inflow rivers and surface sediments of Nansi Lake. The average content of mercury in the sediments of the Nansi Lake was 0.046 mg · kg(-1), significantly higher than the environmental background values, which showed that Nansi Lake suffered from mercury pollution. Mercury in sediments existed mainly in the residual fraction, accounting for 65. 15%. The proportion of non-residual fractions was relatively small, in the order of organic bound fraction (30.61%), extractable fraction (2.93%), and Fe/Mn oxide (1.31%). The spatial change of non-residual fractions was that Weishan Lake and Nanyang Lake had higher non-residual mercury content than Zhaoyang Lake and Dushan Lake, and the non-residual mercury had a certain potential ecological harm on Weishan Lake and Nanyang Lake. From the horizontal view, the mercury content in the surface sediments of Nansi Lake had visible difference and the pollution degree was different among sub-lakes, so horizontal migration of mercury was obvious. Vertically, the mercury content showed a trend of increasing from the bottom to the top in core sediments, which might be associated with social and economic conditions in different periods. PMID:26314107

  8. Water balance of selected floodplain lake basins in the Middle Bug River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidek, J.; Ferencz, B.

    2014-04-01

    This study is the first attempt in the literature on the subject of comparing water balance components for floodplain lake basins, depending on the type of a lake connection to the parent river. Research was carried out in the Bug River valley in 2007-2011 water years. Four types of connections were distinguished in the area under study. Simple water balance equation could only be used with regard to the lakes connected to the main river via the upstream crevasses. Detailed and individual water balance equations were developed with reference to the other types of lakes. Water gains and losses varied significantly in the lakes under study. Values of horizontal water balance components (inflow and outflow) of the floodplain lake in Wola Uhruska considerably prevailed over the vertical ones (precipitation and evaporation). Inflow of the Bug River waters was diverse during the time period under study and amounted from 600 000 to 2 200 000 m3 yr-1. Volumes of precipitation and evaporation were rather stable and amounted to approx. 30 000 m3 yr-1. The lowest disparity between horizontal and vertical water balance components was observed in the inter-levee lake. Both upstream inflow of rivers water and outflow from the lake (ranged from 0 in 2008 to 35 000 m3 yr-1 in 2009) were usually an order of magnitude higher than precipitation and evaporation from the lake surface (700-800 m3 yr-1). Study showed that the values and the proportion between aforementioned vertical and horizontal water balance elements were determined by the type of a lake connection to the Bug River. Storage volume showed no relationship to the type of connection, but resulted from individual features of the lakes (location within the valley, precipitation and evaporation volume, difference between water inflow and outflow).

  9. Antarctic subglacial lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, Martin J.

    2000-05-01

    Antarctic subglacial lakes were first identified by Robin et al. (1970) after airborne radio-echo sounding (RES) investigations of the ice-sheet interior. Recently, satellite altimetry was used to measure anomalous near-flat regions on the ice-sheet surface that represent a manifestation of the subglacial lake beneath. Using RES and satellite altimetry, the location and extent of Antarctic subglacial lakes can be identified. The largest subglacial lake exists beneath Vostok Station, and is 14,000 km 2 in area. The combined area of additional subglacial lakes beneath Dome C is 15,000 km 2 and at least 15,000 km 2 of lake surface lies beneath the remainder of the ice sheet. The water depth of subglacial lakes can be estimated through seismic investigations (although data exist only for Lake Vostok) and consideration of the bedrock slopes that border subglacial lakes. The depths of many subglacial lakes are of the order of 10's-100's of metres. The total volume of water held beneath the ice sheet is estimated between 4000 and 12,000 km 3. To date, there are six known examples of radio-echo reflections from the lake floors (at a depth of no more than 20 m). Since e/m attenuation through water is related to the salinity, these data indicate that subglacial water is very pure and fresh. Some near-flat surface regions that usually occur over lakes have been observed where no lakes exist. Such features are may be caused by water-saturated basal sediments rather than subglacial lakes. Finally, the spatial variation in geothermal heat flux around the central regions of Antarctica can be established estimated by employing a simple thermal model of the ice sheet under an assumption that the basal ice temperature above subglacial lakes is equal to the pressure melting value. Calculations indicate that the geothermal heat flux varies spatially over the Antarctic Plate between 37 and 65 mW m -2.

  10. Sensitivity analysis of lake mass balance in discontinuous permafrost: the example of disappearing Twelvemile Lake, Yukon Flats, Alaska (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jepsen, S.M.; Voss, C.I.; Walvoord, M.A.; Rose, J.R.; Minsley, B.J.; Smith, B.D.

    2013-01-01

    Many lakes in northern high latitudes have undergone substantial changes in surface area over the last four decades, possibly as a result of climate warming. In the discontinuous permafrost of Yukon Flats, interior Alaska (USA), these changes have been non-uniform across adjacent watersheds, suggesting local controls on lake water budgets. Mechanisms that could explain the decreasing mass of one lake in Yukon Flats since the early 1980s, Twelvemile Lake, are identified via a scoping analysis that considers plausible changes in snowmelt mass and infiltration, permafrost distribution, and climate warming. Because predicted changes in evaporation (2 cmyr-1) are inadequate to explain the observed 17.5 cmyr-1 reduction in mass balance, other mechanisms are required. The most important potential mechanisms are found to involve: (1) changes in shallow, lateral groundwater flow to the lake possibly facilitated by vertical freeze-thaw migration of the permafrost table in gravel; (2) increased loss of lake water as downward groundwater flow through an open talik to a permeable subpermafrost flowpath; and (3) reduced snow meltwater inputs due to decreased snowpack mass and increased infiltration of snowmelt into, and subsequent evaporation from, fine-grained sediment mantling the permafrost-free lake basin.

  11. The vertical motion simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosein, Todd

    1988-01-01

    Today's flight simulators, such as NASA's multimillion dollar Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS), recreate an authentic aircraft environment, and reproduce the sensations of flight by mechanically generating true physical events. In addition to their application as a training tool for pilots, simulators have become essential in the design, construction, and testing of new aircraft. Simulators allow engineers to study an aircraft's flight performance and characteristics without the cost or risk of an actual test flight. Because of their practicality, simulators will become more and more important in the development and design of new, safer aircraft.

  12. 'Endurance' Untouched (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree view is presented in a vertical projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

  13. Lake Effect Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The lake effect is particularly clear in this Sea-viewing Wide field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) true-color image of the North American Great Lakes region, acquired December 5, 2000. Lakes Nipigon, Superior, and Michigan show striking contrasts between clear and cloudy air as the wind blows from the northwest across the lakes. As it flows across the relatively warm lakes, the cold dry air gathers heat and moisture from the surface. The warm moist air rises into the atmosphere and mixes vigorously with the cold dry air above. The layer of warm moist air deepens as it travels across the lake. Some of the evaporated water from the lake condenses into streamers of fog rising from the surface, while much of the moisture condenses to form a stratocumulus cloud in the upper half of the mixed layer. The cloud-forming water droplets may freeze into ice crystals and, due to accumulated water deposition over time, grow into snowflakes. This process can generate snowstorms that produce significant amounts of snowfall downwind. It is not uncommon for lake effect snowstorms to produce as much as two feet of snow within a 24-hour period in northwestern parts of New York and Pennsylvania. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  14. The Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  15. Lake Wobegon Dice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraleda, Jorge; Stork, David G.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce Lake Wobegon dice, where each die is "better than the set average." Specifically, these dice have the paradoxical property that on every roll, each die is more likely to roll greater than the set average on the roll, than less than this set average. We also show how to construct minimal optimal Lake Wobegon sets for all "n" [greater…

  16. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology

  17. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  18. Lake Darling Comparison

    The photo on the left was taken on April 18, 1997 by a USGS Personnel, of the new gates at Lake Darling. The photo to the right was taken on June 13, 2011 by Nathan A. Stroh (USGS), of Lake Darling....

  19. Great Lakes Beach Health

    As schools close for the year and summer weather beckons, many recreationalists head to the Great Lakes' public beaches. However, these coastal areas can become contaminated with disease-causing bacteria that threaten public health, disrupt water recreation, and pay a toll on the Great Lakes economi...

  20. Utah: Salt Lake City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... for the 2002 Winter Olympics, to be held in Salt Lake City, Utah. The mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for the dry, ... data from MISR's 46-degree forward-looking camera, and green and blue-band data from the nadir camera. In order to facilitate stereo ...

  1. Great Lakes: Great Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

    This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6) "Watering"; (7) "Soil Erosion by Water"; (8) "Soil…

  2. The lakes of Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stofan, E.R.; Elachi, C.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.D.; Stiles, B.; Mitchell, K.L.; Ostro, S.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Zebker, H.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Paganelli, F.; Radebaugh, J.; Wye, L.; Anderson, Y.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Paillou, P.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

    2007-01-01

    The surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for the presence of lakes on the surface of Titan, obtained during the Cassini Radar flyby of Titan on 22 July 2006 (T16). The radar imaging polewards of 70?? north shows more than 75 circular to irregular radar-dark patches, in a region where liquid methane and ethane are expected to be abundant and stable on the surface. The radar-dark patches are interpreted as lakes on the basis of their very low radar reflectivity and morphological similarities to lakes, including associated channels and location in topographic depressions. Some of the lakes do not completely fill the depressions in which they lie, and apparently dry depressions are present. We interpret this to indicate that lakes are present in a number of states, including partly dry and liquid-filled. These northern-hemisphere lakes constitute the strongest evidence yet that a condensable-liquid hydrological cycle is active in Titan's surface and atmosphere, in which the lakes are filled through rainfall and/or intersection with the subsurface 'liquid methane' table. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.

  3. Exploding Lakes in Cameroon

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, in the volcanic region of Cameroon, released a cloud of CO2 into the atmosphere, killing 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages. Since then, engineers have been artificially removing the gas from the lake through piping. This photo shows a pipe top and raft...

  4. Exploding Lakes in Cameroon

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, in the volcanic region of Cameroon, released a cloud of CO2 into the atmosphere, killing 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby towns and villages. Since then, engineers have been artificially removing the gas from the lake through piping. The gas burst in 1986 from the 200-m...

  5. Lessons from a Lake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goethals, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Describes a study that included classroom lessons on hydroelectric power, the history and construction of a nearby lake, data recording, the use of field guides, and methods of counting natural populations. The study culminated in a field trip to the lake. (JRH)

  6. Vertical organic transistors.

    PubMed

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-11

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted. PMID:26466388

  7. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  8. Testing the spatial and temporal framework of speciation in an ancient lake species flock: the leech genus Dina (Hirudinea: Erpobdellidae) in Lake Ohrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajanovski, S.; Albrecht, C.; Schreiber, K.; Schultheiß, R.; Stadler, T.; Benke, M.; Wilke, T.

    2010-07-01

    Ancient Lake Ohrid on the Balkan Peninsula is considered to be the oldest ancient lake in Europe with a suggested Plio-Pleistocene age. Its exact geological age, however, remains unknown. Therefore, molecular clock data of Lake Ohrid biota may serve as an independent constraint of available geological data, and may thus also help to refine age estimates. Such evolutionary data may also help unravel potential biotic and abiotic factors that promote speciation events. Here, mitochondrial sequencing data of one of the largest groups of endemic taxa in Lake Ohrid, the leech genus Dina, is used to test whether it represents an ancient lake species flock, to study the role of horizontal and vertical barriers in Lake Ohrid for evolutionary events, to estimate the onset of intralacustrine diversification in this group based on molecular clock analyses, and to compare this data with data from other endemic species for providing an approximate time frame for the origin of Lake Ohrid. Based on the criteria speciosity, monophyly and endemicity, it can be concluded that Lake Ohrid Dina, indeed, represents an ancient lake species flock. Lineage sorting of its species, however, does not seem to be complete. Analyses of population structures of Dina spp. in the Ohrid watershed indicate a horizontal zonation of haplotypes from spring and lake populations, corroborating the role of lake-side springs, particularly the southern feeder springs, for evolutionary processes in endemic Ohrid taxa. Vertical differentiation of lake taxa, however, appears to be limited, though differences between populations from the littoral and the profundal are apparent. Molecular clock analyses indicate that the most recent common ancestor of extant species of this flock is approximately 1.99±0.83 Ma old, whereas the split of the Lake Ohrid Dina flock from a potential sister taxon outside the lake is estimated at 8.30±3.60 Ma. Comparisons with other groups of endemic Ohrid species indicated that in all cases, intralacustrine diversification started ≤2 Ma ago. Thus, this estimate may provide information on a minimum age for the origin of Lake Ohrid. Maximum ages are less consistent and generally less reliable. But cautiously, a maximum age of 3 Ma is suggested. Interestingly, this time frame of approximately 2-3 Ma for the origin of Lake Ohrid, generated based solely on evolutionary data, well fits the time frame most often used in the literature by geologists. Future studies must show whether this concurrence holds true.

  9. Anaglyph, Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This anaglyph image provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter(approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 222 x 93.8 kilometers (138 x 58.2 miles) Location: 40.0 to 42.0 deg. North lat., 111.25 to 112.25.0 deg. West lon.(exactly) Orientation: North at top Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2, 1 as panchromatic grey. Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Thematic Mapper 30 meters (98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), 1990s (Landsat 5 image mosaic)

  10. Evidence of offshore lake trout reproduction in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Bowen, Charles A., II

    2003-01-01

    Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef, an offshore reef complex, was an historically important spawning area believed to represent some of the best habitat for the rehabilitation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since 1986, lake trout have been stocked on these offshore reefs to reestablish self-sustaining populations. We sampled with beam trawls to determine the abundance of naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout on these offshore reefs during May-July in 1994-1998 and 2000-2002. In total, 123 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at Six Fathom Bank, and 2 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at nearby Yankee Reef. Our findings suggest that this region of Lake Huron contains suitable habitat for lake trout spawning and offers hope that lake trout rehabilitation can be achieved in the main basin of Lake Huron.

  11. Methane metabolism in a stratified boreal lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykänen, Hannu; Peura, Sari; Kankaala, Paula; Jones, Roger

    2013-04-01

    Stratified lakes, typical of the boreal zone, are naturally anoxic from their bottoms. In these lakes methanogenesis can account for up to half of organic matter degradation. However, a major part of the methane (CH4) is oxidized in the water column before reaching the atmosphere. Since methanotrophs use CH4 as their sole carbon and energy source, much CH4-derived carbon is incorporated into their biomass. Microbially produced CH4 has strongly negative δ13C compared to other carbon forms in ecosystems, making it possible to follow its route in food webs. However, only a few studies have estimated the amount of this microbial biomass or its carbon stable isotopic composition due to difficulties in separating it from other biomass or from other carbon forms in the water column. We estimated methanotrophic biomass from measured CH4 oxidation, and δ13C of the biomass from measured δ13C values of CH4, DIC, POM and DOC. An estimate of the fraction of methanotrophs in total microbial biomass is derived from bacterial community composition measurements. The study was made in, Alinen Mustajärvi, a small (area 0.75 ha, maximum depth 6.5 m, mean depth 4.2 m,), oligotrophic, mesohumic headwater lake located in boreal coniferous forest in southern Finland. CH4 and DIC concentrations and their δ13C were measured over the deepest point of the lake at 1 m intervals. 13C of DOM and POM were analyzed from composite samples from epi-, meta-, and hypolimnion. Evasion of CH4 and carbon dioxide from the lake surface to the atmosphere was estimated with boundary layer diffusion equations. CH4oxidation was estimated by comparing differences between observed concentrations and CH4potentially transported by turbulent diffusion between different vertical layers in the lake and also by actual methanotrophy measurements and from vertical differences in δ13C-CH4. The estimate of CH4 production was based on the sum of oxidized and released CH4. Molecular microbiology methods were used to evaluate which bacteria might be participating in these processes. A substantial part of the CH4 produced was oxidized in the anoxic water column. Our results further show that production and oxidation of CH4 was important in microbial biomass production and also affected the δ13C of biota in the water column.

  12. Hydrologic setting of Williams Lake, Hubbard County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, Donald I.; Winter, Thomas C.

    1980-01-01

    The hydrology and geology of Williams Lake watershed was studied to evaluate the accuracy of various methods used to determine precipitation and evaporation in lake water-balance studies and to define a lake and ground-water system according to approaches suggested by theoretical modeling studies. Regression analysis between estimated and measured precipitation at the lake showed that the accuracy of regionalization techniques is dependent on the closeness of the data network to the lake. For individual storms, the average-value method was found to be better than either the weighted average or isohyetal methods of determining precipitation, but it was least accurate in estimating 14-day average precipitation. The amount of evaporation calculated by the mass-transfer method ranged from 2 to 7 inches per month from July to October 1978, depending on the method used to determine the mass-transfer coefficient. Test drilling indicated that 30 to 150 feet of sand and gravel overlies till in the Williams Lake watershed. A sand lens about 50 feet thick occurs within the till. The configuration of the water table and vertical-head gradients measured from July to December 1978 indicate that ground water moves into the lake from the south and east and moves from the lake into the ground-water reservoir to the west. Preliminary numerical models indicate that the sand lens within the till is effectively isolated from the flow system interacting with the lake and that both inseepage and outseepage were about 1.4 inches from mid-July to mid-October 1978. When estimated as a residual in a water balance, ground water showed a net outseepage only of 1.47 inches. (USGS)

  13. Polar lake circulation during ice break-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillin, Georgiy; Forrest, Alexander; Graves, Kelly; Laval, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    An extensive dataset on lake physical properties has been collected during the final stage of the ice-covered period in May-June 2013 in polar Lake Kilpisjärvi, Finland. The data reveal several important features of lake dynamics, which shed new light on the mechanism of ice cover break-up and ice melting in lakes and marginal seas. CTD transects with high spatial resolution showed up a 300m-wide upwelling zone in the center of the lake, driven by downslope converging flow of warm waters from open-water 'moat' along the lake shoreline. The resulting radial density gradient, balanced by the Coriolis force, created a lake-wide anti-cyclonically rotating gyre with a measured peak azimuthal velocity of 0.05 m/s. Appreciable marginal heating is driven in polar enclosed basins by high amount of solar radiation and by surface inflow of meltwater. Hence, quasi-geostrophic anticyclonic circulation is suggested to be a general feature of polar lakes, redistributing heat within a water body and potentially accelerating ice melting. In addition, high-resolution records of pressure, current velocities and water temperature revealed under-ice seiches with periods of 10 to 25 min. The ice breakup was associated with 10 times increase of seiche amplitudes under ice. The seiches decayed within 10-15 hours; during this short period, the previously ice-covered lake became ice-free. We suggest that seiche-driven vertical motions of the soft ice sheet contribute significantly to breaking and melting of seasonal ice in enclosed reservoirs.

  14. Local response of a glacier to annual filling and drainage of an ice-marginal lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, J.S.; Trabant, D.C.; Cunico, M.; Fountain, A.G.; Anderson, S.P.; Anderson, R. Scott; Malm, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ice-marginal Hidden Creek Lake, Alaska, USA, outbursts annually over the course of 2-3 days. As the lake fills, survey targets on the surface of the 'ice dam' (the glacier adjacent to the lake) move obliquely to the ice margin and rise substantially. As the lake drains, ice motion speeds up, becomes nearly perpendicular to the face of the ice dam, and the ice surface drops. Vertical movement of the ice dam probably reflects growth and decay of a wedge of water beneath the ice dam, in line with established ideas about jo??kulhlaup mechanics. However, the distribution of vertical ice movement, with a narrow (50-100 m wide) zone where the uplift rate decreases by 90%, cannot be explained by invoking flexure of the ice dam in a fashion analogous to tidal flexure of a floating glacier tongue or ice shelf. Rather, the zone of large uplift-rate gradient is a fault zone: ice-dam deformation is dominated by movement along high-angle faults that cut the ice dam through its entire thickness, with the sense of fault slip reversing as the lake drains. Survey targets spanning the zone of steep uplift gradient move relative to one another in a nearly reversible fashion as the lake fills and drains. The horizontal strain rate also undergoes a reversal across this zone, being compressional as the lake fills, but extensional as the lake drains. Frictional resistance to fault-block motion probably accounts for the fact that lake level falls measurably before the onset of accelerated horizontal motion and vertical downdrop. As the overall fault pattern is the same from year to year, even though ice is lost by calving, the faults must be regularly regenerated, probably by linkage of surface and bottom crevasses as ice is advected toward the lake basin.

  15. Vertical ramisection for prognathism.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, T R; Woolf, R M

    1977-11-01

    Forty-four patients with Class III malocclusion, who were operated on for prognathism, have been reviewed. In spite of the associated problems of pain, nausea, fear, relapse, additional orthodontia, lip numbness, lip weakness, and 8 weeks with their teeth wired together, only one patient of the 44 said he (or she) would decline this surgery if it were to be considered anew. The surgeon must make a strong effort to keep the vertical cut in the bony ramus posterior to the lingula, to avoid postoperative lip numbness. He should also keep traction on the soft tissues minimal, to avoid postoperative weakness of the lower lip. A significant relapse was uncommon in this series, and the facial symmetry was greatly enhanced. Most of these 44 patients (66 percent) said the improvement in their self-image and personal appearance was far more important to them than the improvement in their bite. PMID:918178

  16. Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Kwanyong; Wober, Munib; Steinvurzel, P.; Schonbrun, E.; Dan, Yaping; Ellenbogen, T.; Crozier, K. B.

    2011-04-13

    We demonstrate that vertical silicon nanowires take on a surprising variety of colors covering the entire visible spectrum, in marked contrast to the gray color of bulk silicon. This effect is readily observable by bright-field microscopy, or even to the naked eye. The reflection spectra of the nanowires each show a dip whose position depends on the nanowire radii. We compare the experimental data to the results of finite difference time domain simulations to elucidate the physical mechanisms behind the phenomena we observe. The nanowires are fabricated as arrays, but the vivid colors arise not from scattering or diffractive effects of the array, but from the guided mode properties of the individual nanowires. Each nanowire can thus define its own color, allowing for complex spatial patterning. We anticipate that the color filter effect we demonstrate could be employed in nanoscale image sensor devices.

  17. Investigating groundwater-lake interactions by hydraulic heads and a water balance.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, Sebastian; Lewandowski, Jörg; Nützmann, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Discharge of groundwater into lakes (lacustrine groundwater discharge, LGD) can play a major role in water balances of lakes. Unfortunately, studies often neglect this input path because of methodological difficulties in its determination. Direct measurements of LGD are labor-consuming and prone to error. The present study uses both spatially variable hydraulic-head data and meteorological data to estimate groundwater input by LGD and lake water output through infiltration. The study sites are two shallow, groundwater-fed lakes without any surface inflows or outflows. Horizontally interpolated groundwater heads were combined with lake water levels to obtain vertical hydraulic gradients between the aquifer and the lake, which are separated by a thick layer of lake bed sediment which has a much lower hydraulic conductivity than the underlying aquifer. By fitting the hydraulic gradient to the results of a simple mass balance and considering the process of clogging, we were able to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the lake bed sediments. We calculated groundwater inputs by LGD and lake water outputs by infiltration on an annual basis. Although our method requires several assumptions, the results are reasonable and provide useful information about the exchange between the aquifer and the lake, which can, for example, be used for the calculation of nutrient mass balances. PMID:24854019

  18. Differences in UV transparency and thermal structure between alpine and subalpine lakes: implications for organisms†

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Kevin C.; Williamson, Craig E.; Saros, Jasmine E.; Sommaruga, Ruben; Fischer, Janet M.

    2010-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a globally important abiotic factor influencing ecosystem structure and function in multiple ways. While UV radiation can be damaging to most organisms, several factors act to reduce UV exposure of organisms in aquatic ecosystems, the most important of which is dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In alpine lakes, very low concentrations of DOC and a thinner atmosphere lead to unusually high UV exposure levels. These high UV levels combine with low temperatures to provide a fundamentally different vertical structure to alpine lake ecosystems in comparison to most lowland lakes. Here, we discuss the importance of water temperature and UV transparency in structuring alpine lake ecosystems and the consequences for aquatic organisms that inhabit them. We present transparency data on a global data set of alpine lakes and nearby analogous subalpine lakes for comparison. We also present seasonal transparency data on a suite of alpine and subalpine lakes that demonstrate important differences in UV and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400–700 nm) transparency patterns even within a single region. These data are used to explore factors regulating transparency in alpine lakes, to discuss implications of future environmental change on the structure and function of alpine lakes, and ways in which the UV transparency of these lakes can be used as a sentinel of environmental change. PMID:19707613

  19. Yellowstone Lake Nanoarchaeota

    PubMed Central

    Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E.; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P.; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations. PMID:24062731

  20. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  1. Yellowstone lake nanoarchaeota.

    PubMed

    Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations. PMID:24062731

  2. Hydrography and circulation of ice-marginal lakes at Bering Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Josberger, E.G.; Shuchman, R.A.; Meadows, G.A.; Savage, S.; Payne, J.

    2006-01-01

    An extensive suite of physical oceanographic, remotely sensed, and water quality measurements, collected from 2001 through 2004 in two ice-marginal lakes at Bering Glacier, Alaska-Berg Lake and Vitus Lake-show that each has a unique circulation controlled by their specific physical forcing within the glacial system. Conductivity profiles from Berg Lake, perched 135 m a.s.l., show no salt in the lake, but the temperature profiles indicate an apparently unstable situation, the 4??C density maximum is located at 10 m depth, not at the bottom of the lake (90 m depth). Subglacial discharge from the Steller Glacier into the bottom of the lake must inject a suspended sediment load sufficient to marginally stabilize the water column throughout the lake. In Vitus Lake, terminus positions derived from satellite imagery show that the glacier terminus rapidly retreated from 1995 to the present resulting in a substantial expansion of the volume of Vitus Lake. Conductivity and temperature profiles from the tidally influenced Vitus Lake show a complex four-layer system with diluted (???50%) seawater in the bottom of the lake. This lake has a complex vertical structure that is the result of convection generated by ice melting in salt water, stratification within the lake, and freshwater entering the lake from beneath the glacier and surface runoff. Four consecutive years, from 2001 to 2004, of these observations in Vitus Lake show little change in the deep temperature and salinity conditions, indicating limited deep water renewal. The combination of the lake level measurements with discharge measurements, through a tidal cycle, by an acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) deployed in the Seal River, which drains the entire Bering system, showed a strong tidal influence but no seawater entry into Vitus Lake. The ADCP measurements combined with lake level measurements established a relationship between lake level and discharge, which when integrated over a tidal cycle, gives a tidally averaged discharge ranging from 1310 to 1510 m3 s-1. ?? 2006 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  3. Measurement of ultralow vertical emittance using a calibrated vertical undulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootton, K. P.; Boland, M. J.; Rassool, R. P.

    2014-11-01

    Very few experimental techniques are useful for the direct observation of ultralow vertical emittance in electron storage rings. In this work, quantitative measurements of ultralow (pm rad) electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator are presented. An undulator radiation model was developed using the measured magnetic field of the APPLE-II type undulator. Using calibrated experimental apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of ɛy=0.9 ±0.3 pm rad has been observed. These measurements could also inform modeling of the angular distribution of undulator radiation at high harmonics, for proposed diffraction-limited storage ring light sources.

  4. Lake Mead, NV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Lake Mead, Nevada, (36.0N, 114.5E) where the water from the Colorado River empties after it's 273 mile journey through the Grand Canyon of Arizona is the subject of this photo. Other features of interest are Hoover Dam on the south shore of Lake Mead where cheap hydroelectric power is secondary to the water resources made available in this northern desert region and the resort city of Las Vegas, just to the west of Lake Mead. In this harsh desert environment, color infrared photography readily penetrates haze, detects and portrays vegetation as shades of red.

  5. Lake level observations to detect crustal tilt: San Andreas Lake, California, 1979-1989

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, R.J.; Johnston, M.J.S.; Myren, G.D. ); Murray, T. )

    1989-07-01

    A pair precision lake level gauging stations, installed in 1978, have been monitoring differential crustal uplift (crustal tilt) at San Andreas lake, California, near the suspected epicenter on the San Andreas fault of the M = 8.3, 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The stations are installed in the lake with a 4.2 km station separation parallel to the San Andreas fault. The gauging stations use quartz pressure transducers that are capable of detecting intermediate to long-term vertical displacements greater than 0.4 mm relative to a fluid surface. Differencing data from the two sites reduces the noise contributed by atmospheric pressure, temperature, and density changes, and isolates the relative elevation changes between the ends of the lake. At periods less than 20 minutes, the differenced data are dominated by lake seiches which have a fundamental mode at a period of 13 {plus minus} 0.3 minutes. These seiche harmonics can be filtered or predicted and removed from the data. Wind shear, typically lasting several days, can generate apparent short term tilt of the lake and large seiche amplitudes. The tilt noise power spectrum obtained from these data decreases by about 15 dB/decade of frequency. Monthly averages of the data between 1979-1989 indicate a tilt rate of 0.02 {plus minus} 0.08 microradians/yr (down S34{degree}E). No measurable horizontal tilt has apparently occurred in this region of the San Andreas fault during the last decade, however, measurements of trilateration networks show this region to be undergoing a horizontal strain of 0.6 {plus minus} 0.2 {mu}strain/yr.

  6. Establishment of a vertical control network along the St. Croix River in New Brunswick and Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    Consistent elevations at stable benchmarks, referenced to a common datum, are important for measuring and comparing water levels and for computing flows throughout a watershed. Elevations are presented for 38 control points within the St. Croix River watershed, mostly along the main stem of the St. Croix River. Vertical control points are located at 7 dams, 3 Environment Canada (EC) lake monitoring gages, 1 EC streamflow monitoring gage, 2 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lake monitoring gages, and 4 USGS streamgages. At least one point at each location was determined through High Precision Global Positioning System observation. Elevations of remaining points were determined through differential leveling. Elevations are referenced to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988, Geoid 09 and to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929.

  7. Greenland supraglacial lake drainages triggered by hydrologically induced basal slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Laura A.; Behn, Mark D.; McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Das, Sarah B.; Joughin, Ian; Herring, Thomas; Shean, David E.; King, Matt A.

    2015-06-01

    Water-driven fracture propagation beneath supraglacial lakes rapidly transports large volumes of surface meltwater to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet. These drainage events drive transient ice-sheet acceleration and establish conduits for additional surface-to-bed meltwater transport for the remainder of the melt season. Although it is well established that cracks must remain water-filled to propagate to the bed, the precise mechanisms that initiate hydro-fracture events beneath lakes are unknown. Here we show that, for a lake on the western Greenland Ice Sheet, drainage events are preceded by a 6-12 hour period of ice-sheet uplift and/or enhanced basal slip. Our observations from a dense Global Positioning System (GPS) network allow us to determine the distribution of meltwater at the ice-sheet bed before, during, and after three rapid drainages in 2011-2013, each of which generates tensile stresses that promote hydro-fracture beneath the lake. We hypothesize that these precursors are associated with the introduction of meltwater to the bed through neighbouring moulin systems (vertical conduits connecting the surface and base of the ice sheet). Our results imply that as lakes form in less crevassed, interior regions of the ice sheet, where water at the bed is currently less pervasive, the creation of new surface-to-bed conduits caused by lake-draining hydro-fractures may be limited.

  8. Greenland supraglacial lake drainages triggered by hydrologically induced basal slip.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Laura A; Behn, Mark D; McGuire, Jeffrey J; Das, Sarah B; Joughin, Ian; Herring, Thomas; Shean, David E; King, Matt A

    2015-06-01

    Water-driven fracture propagation beneath supraglacial lakes rapidly transports large volumes of surface meltwater to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet. These drainage events drive transient ice-sheet acceleration and establish conduits for additional surface-to-bed meltwater transport for the remainder of the melt season. Although it is well established that cracks must remain water-filled to propagate to the bed, the precise mechanisms that initiate hydro-fracture events beneath lakes are unknown. Here we show that, for a lake on the western Greenland Ice Sheet, drainage events are preceded by a 6-12 hour period of ice-sheet uplift and/or enhanced basal slip. Our observations from a dense Global Positioning System (GPS) network allow us to determine the distribution of meltwater at the ice-sheet bed before, during, and after three rapid drainages in 2011-2013, each of which generates tensile stresses that promote hydro-fracture beneath the lake. We hypothesize that these precursors are associated with the introduction of meltwater to the bed through neighbouring moulin systems (vertical conduits connecting the surface and base of the ice sheet). Our results imply that as lakes form in less crevassed, interior regions of the ice sheet, where water at the bed is currently less pervasive, the creation of new surface-to-bed conduits caused by lake-draining hydro-fractures may be limited. PMID:26040890

  9. Depth and Differentiation of the Orientale Melt Lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, W. M.; Head, J. W.; Hess, P. C.; Wilson, L.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Impact melt emplacement and evolution in lunar multi-ring basins is poorly understood since impact melt deposits in basins are generally buried by mare basalt fill and obscured by subsequent impact cratering. The relatively young Orientale basin, which is only partially flooded with mare basalt, opens a rare window into basin-scale impact melts. We describe the geology of impact melt-related facies in Orientale and suggest that the central depression of Orientale may represent a solidified impact melt lake that vertically subsided shortly after basin formation due to solidification and cooling. We use Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data to measure the depth (approx. 1.75 km) and diameter (approx 350 km) of this central depression. If all the observed subsidence of the central depression is due to solidification and cooling, the melt lake should be approx 12.5-16 km deep, far more voluminous (approx 106 km3) than the largest known differentiated igneous intrusions on Earth. We investigate the possibility that the Orientale melt lake has differentiated and model 1) the bulk composition of the melt lake, 2) the operation of melt mixing in the melt lake, and 3) the chemical evolution of the resulting liquids on the An-Fo-Qz ternary in order to predict the lithologies that might be present in the solidified Orientale melt lake. Finally, we consider the possible significance of these lithologies.

  10. ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents on-line tools for proper vertical positioning of vertical sampling intervals during site assessment. Proper vertical sample interval selection is critical for generate data on the vertical distribution of contamination. Without vertical delineation, th...

  11. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for Hydrothermal Deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have, however, also confirmed that the uncertainty in the locations of the source and of the hydrophones could lower the quality of subsurface image. It is, therefore, strongly necessary to develop a total survey system that assures a accurate positioning and a deployment techniques. We have carried out two field surveys in FY2011. One is a 3D survey with a boomer for a high-resolution surface source and the other one for an actual field survey in the Izena Cauldron an active hydrothermal area in the Okinawa Trough. Through these surveys, the VCS will become a practical exploration tool for the exploration of seafloor hydrothermal deposits.

  12. GREAT LAKES PLANKTON PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton, which have short carbon turnover rates, are sensitive to water quality conditions and grazing by zooplankton, and thus respond rapidly to perturbations of the lake ecosystem. The determination of phytoplankton abundance and species composition is one method to tra...

  13. 4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe (VTL). Machining the fixture for GE Turboshroud. G.S. O'Brien, operator. - Juniata Shops, Machine Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Third Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  14. Is Lake Tahoe Terminal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, R. N.; Reuter, J.; Heyvaert, A.; Lewis, J.; Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, G.; Thorne, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Tahoe, an iconic ultra-oligotrophic lake in the central Sierra Nevada, has been studied intensively since 1968, with the goal of understanding and ultimately controlling its eutrophication and loss of clarity. Research on the lake has included a) periodic profiles of primary productivity, nutrients, temperature, and plankton; b) Secchi depth; c) nutrient limitation experiments; d) analysis of sediment cores; e) radiocarbon dating of underwater in-place tree stumps; g) analysis of long-term temperature trends. Work in its watershed has included a) monitoring of stream discharge, sediment and nutrients at up to 20 stream gaging stations; b) monitoring of urban runoff water quality at selected sites; c) development of a GIS data base, including soils, vegetation, and land use. Based on these studies, we know that a) primary productivity in the lake is limited by phosphorus, and continues to increase; b) the loss of clarity continues, but at a declining rate; c) the lake has been warming since 1970, and its resistance to deep mixing is increasing; d) historically the lake level drops below the outlet elevation about one year in seven; e) 6300 to 4300 yrs BP lake level was below the present outlet elevation long enough for large trees to grow; f) the date of the peak snowmelt runoff is shifting toward earlier dates; g) after accounting for annual runoff, loads of nutrients and suspended sediment have declined significantly in some basin streams since 1980. Downscaled outputs from GCM climatic models have recently been used to drive hydrologic models and a lake clarity model, projecting future trends in the lake and watersheds. Results show a) the temperature and thermal stability will likely continue to increase, with deep mixing shutting down in the latter half of this century; b) the lake may drop below the outlet for an extended period beginning about 2085; c) the annual snowpack will continue to decline, with earlier snowmelt and shift from snowfall to rain; d) the climatic water deficit will increase, especially at high elevations that will be most affected by the loss of snow, with likely consequences for existing vegetation and fire frequency. Hydrologically, Lake Tahoe is intermittently terminal; in a medical sense it is not yet terminal, but its condition—especially its valued clarity and deep blue color--is serious.

  15. Hydrologically Induced Basal Slip Triggers Greenland Supraglacial Lake Drainages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, L. A.; Behn, M. D.; McGuire, J. J.; Das, S. B.; Joughin, I. R.; Herring, T.; Shean, D. E.; King, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate what triggers the rapid drainage of a large supraglacial lake on the western margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet using a Network Inversion Filter (NIF) (Segall and Matthews, 1997) to invert a dense local network of GPS observations over three summers (2011-2013). The NIF is used to determine the spatiotemporal variability in ice sheet behavior (1) prior to lake drainage, and in response to (2) vertical hydro-fracture crack propagation and closure, (3) the opening of a horizontal cavity at the ice-sheet bed that accommodates the rapid injection of melt-water, and (4) extra basal slip due to enhanced lubrication. The NIF also allows us to infer the distribution of melt-water at the ice-sheet bed before, during, and after drainage. Our data show that the opening and propagation of each summer's lake-draining hydro-fracture is preceded by a local stress perturbation associated with ice sheet uplift and enhanced slip above pre-drainage background velocities. Within <1 day after the onset of each precursor, a vertical crack propagates through the lake basin and the lake drains rapidly (<5 hours). The NIF shows that the precursors are not associated with slow propagation of the lake draining hydrofracture, but rather pre-existing crevasses and/or moulins, which allow substantial amounts of melt-water to reach the bed and activate enhanced basal slip up to a day before hydro-fracture crack initiation. Identification of these precursors combined with the fact that drainages are observed to occur across a range of lake volumes and geometries, suggests that lakes do not spontaneously hydro-fracture once they surpass a specific threshold despite the numerous healed hydro-fracture cracks present within the lake basin from the prior years' drainage events. These results have implications for rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes in less crevassed, interior regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet, as well as the rapid collapse of Antarctic ice shelves through melt pond hydro-fracturing. Reference: P. Segall, M. Matthews, Time dependent inversion of geodetic data. J. Geophys. Res., 1-19 (1997).

  16. Turbulent production in an internal wave bottom boundary layer maintained by a vertically propagating seiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Stephen M.

    2016-04-01

    Internal seiches, which supply the energy responsible for mixing many lakes, are often modeled as vertically standing waves. However, recent observations of vertical seiche propagation in a small lake are inconsistent with the standard, vertically standing model. To examine the processes responsible for such propagation, drag and turbulent production in the bottom boundary layer of a small lake are related to the energy supplied by a propagating seiche (period 10-24 h). Despite complex and fluctuating stratification, which often inhibited mixing within 0.4 m of the bed, bottom stress was well represented by a simple drag coefficient model (drag coefficient 1.5 × 10-3). The net supply of seiche energy to the boundary layer was estimated by fitting a model for internal wave vertical propagation to velocity profiles measured above the boundary layer (1-4.5 m above lakebed). Fitted reflection coefficients ranged from 0.3 at 1 cycle/d frequency to 0.7 at 2.4 cycles/d (cf. near-unity coefficients of classical seiche theories). The net supply of seiche energy approximately balanced boundary layer turbulent production. Three of four peaks in production and energy flux occurred 0.8-2.2 days after strong oscillating winds, a delay comparable to the time required for seiche energy to propagate to the lakebed. A model based on the estimated drag coefficient predicted the observed frequency dependence of the seiche reflection coefficient. For flat-bed regions in narrow lakes, the model predicts that reflection is controlled by the ratio of water velocity to vertical wave propagation speed, with sufficiently large ratios leading to weak reflection, and clear vertical seiche propagation.

  17. Understanding Sediment Dynamics in a Shallow, Hypereutrophic Lake within the Middle St. Johns River: Lake Jesup, FL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S.; Anderson, W. T.; Corbett, D. R.; Fugate, D. C.; Scinto, L. J.; Thomas, S.; Brandt-Williams, S.

    2011-12-01

    Improved knowledge of sediment dynamics within a lake system is important for understanding lake water quality. This research was focused on an assessment of the vertical sediment flux in Lake Jesup, a shallow (1.3 m average depth) hypereutrophic lake of central Florida. Sediment dynamics were assessed at varying time scales (daily to weekly) to understand the transport of sediments from external forces; wind, waves, precipitation and/or runoff. Four stations were selected within the lake based on water depth and the thicknesses of unconsolidated (floc) and consolidated sediments. At each of these stations, a 10:1 high aspect ratio trap (STHA) was deployed to collect particulate matter for a one to two week period. The water and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for total carbon (TC), total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN). Mass accumulation rates (MAR) collected by the traps varied from 77 to 418 g m-2 d-1 over seven deployments. TN, TP and TC sediment concentrations collected by the traps were consistently higher than the sediments collected by coring the lake bottom and is most likely associated with water column biomass.

  18. Lake Chad, Chad, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Once a great inland lake, Lake Chad (13.0N, 14.0E) in the Sahara Desert at the intersection of the African nations of Chad, Niger, Nigeria and Cameroon, is now in decline. The larger northern lobe is almost totally dry and slowly filling in with encroaching sand dunes. The southern lobe, still retains some water in the lower center but the water surface area is less than 2000 square kilometers and sand dunes are filling in the north end.

  19. Lake Chad, Chad, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The fluctuating water levels of Lake Chad, (13.0N, 15.0E) at the intersection of the borders of Chad, Niger and Cameroon in the Sahara Desert, is an index of the drought in Africa. The lake level continues to decrease as indicated by the growing number and extent of emerging islands as previously submerged ancient sand dunes become visible. The water impounded between the dunes is probably because of local rainfall rather than a reversal of desertification.

  20. Dragon Lake, Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nicknamed 'Dragon Lake,' this body of water is formed by the Bratskove Reservoir, built along the Angara river in southern Siberia, near the city of Bratsk. This image was acquired in winter, when the lake is frozen. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on December 19, 1999. This is a natural color composite image made using blue, green, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  1. Lake Superior, Duluth, MN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This view shows the west end of Lake Superior and Duluth, MN (47.0N, 91.0W). Portions of Minnesota, Michigan and Ontario, Canada are in the scene. The Duluth metropolitan area is at the west end of the lake. The discoloration plume in the water at Duluth is the result of tailings from the iron ore smelters that process the iron ore from the nearby open pit mines seen near the upper left corner of the photo.

  2. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  3. Vertically reciprocating auger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etheridge, Mark; Morgan, Scott; Fain, Robert; Pearson, Jonathan; Weldi, Kevin; Woodrough, Stephen B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical model and test results developed for the Vertically Reciprocating Auger (VRA) are summarized. The VRA is a device capable of transporting cuttings that result from below surface drilling. It was developed chiefly for the lunar surface, where conventional fluid flushing while drilling would not be practical. The VRA uses only reciprocating motion and transports material through reflections with the surface above. Particles are reflected forward and land ahead of radially placed fences, which prevent the particles from rolling back down the auger. Three input wave forms are considered to drive the auger. A modified sawtooth wave form was chosen for testing, over a modified square wave or sine wave, due to its simplicity and effectiveness. The three-dimensional mathematical model predicted a sand throughput rate of 0.2667 pounds/stroke, while the actual test setup transported 0.075 pounds/stroke. Based on this result, a correction factor of 0.281 is suggested for a modified sawtooth input.

  4. View of Lake Mead and Las Vegas, Nevada area from Sklyab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Lake Mead and Las Vegas, Nevada area as photographed from Earth orbit by one of the six lenses of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment aboard the Skylab space station. Lake Mead is water of the Colorado River impounded by Hoover Dam. Most of the land in the picture is Nevada, however, a part of the northwest corner of Arizona can be seen.

  5. Schistosomiasis in Lake Malawi.

    PubMed

    Cetron, M S; Chitsulo, L; Sullivan, J J; Pilcher, J; Wilson, M; Noh, J; Tsang, V C; Hightower, A W; Addiss, D G

    1996-11-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection caused by trematodes. Humans are infected through skin contact with free-swimming cercariae which develop in freshwater snails. Schistosomiasis has been endemic to Malawi for several decades, but the open waters and shores of Lake Malawi have long been thought to be risk-free with regard to schistosomiasis transmission. However, in 1992, two US Peace Corps volunteers developed central nervous system schistosomiasis due to infection with Schistosoma haematobium following recreational water exposure at Cape Maclear on Lake Malawi. In light of these infections, a cross-sectional survey of resident expatriates and visitors to Malawi was subsequently conducted during March-April 1993 to determine the transmission potential and risk for acquiring schistosomiasis in the lake. 305 US citizens and 650 non-US foreign nationals participated in the study. Serological evidence of current or past schistosome infection was identified in 303 subjects. Indeed, seroprevalence was 32% among expatriates whose freshwater exposure was limited to Lake Malawi; S. haematobium antibodies were found in 135 of 141 seropositive specimens. The risk of seropositivity increased with the number of freshwater exposures at Lake Malawi resorts. While many resort areas in the southwestern lake region posed a significant risk, Cape Maclear was the location most strongly associated with seropositivity. Schistosome-infected Bulinus globosus, the snail vector of S. haematobium in Malawi, were found at Cape Maclear and other locations along the lakeshore. PMID:8909380

  6. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  7. Overview: Ancient Lake Creede

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bethke, Philip M.; Hay, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    Lake Creede was moderately saline closed-basin lake that developed in the 26.9 Ma Creede caldera in the San Juan Mountains in the southwest Colorado. The volcaniclastic sediments deposited within the late Oligocene lake were first described and named as the Creede Formation by Emmons and Larsen (1923). The lake and its sedimentary fill are of interest first as representatives of a caldera-hosted lake in a silicic volcanic terrane, and second because of the likely involvement of lake fluids or related pore waters in the deposition of the 25 Ma silver and base-metal ores of the Creede mining district north of the Creede caldera (Fig. 1), as proposed Bethke and Rye (1979). Much of the material presented in this volume is based on observation of core samples and on downhole geophysical measurements obtained as part of a U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program in the moat of the Creede caldera. These core and downhole studies are supplemented by outcrop studies, some initiated in support of the drilling program (Bethke and Lipman, 1987), and by conceptual studies of the evolution of the Creede caldera and its surrounding landscape. Not surprisingly, not all authors agree on all interpretation. Most disagreements are pointed out in this overview chapter, and may present opportunities for future study.

  8. Depth profiles of temperature, specific conductance and oxygen concentration in Lake Powell, Arizona-Utah, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marzolf, G. Richard; Hart, Robert J.; Stephens, Doyle W.

    1998-01-01

    The depth distribution of temperature in lakes and reservoirs establishes vertical-density gradients that regulate the distribution of a wide array of chemical and biological features. In Lake Powell, the depth at which inflowing river water enters the reservoir is controlled by the water temperature of the river compared to the vertical-thermal structure of the reservoir in late spring and early summer. The measurements reported here document the longitudinal and vertical pattern of temperature, specific conductance, and oxygen concentration on several dates in 1992, 1994, and 1995.

  9. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a veteran member of the East Bay Regional Park District, Hal MacLean, we realized that almost every lake goes through periods of slight eutrophication. Actually, this phenomenon of waxing and waning of nutrient levels is something many species have grown accustomed too. It's just the extreme cases where the water is actively being polluted by a nearby point source that cause so much damage. Overall, despite outward appearances, the lake is relatively healthy. It boasts high biodiversity in and around the lake, housing such species as dragonflies, eucalyptus, bald eagles, halibut, bass, and even tiny silver goldfish. It fluctuates in oxygen and nutrient content just like any other lake, but for now, it isn't cause for too much concern. It's a beloved element of the Castro Valley community and we hope it will remain so for many generations to come.

  10. Lake Hoare, Antarctica: sedimentation through a thick perennial ice cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, S. W.; Andersen, D. W.; Nedell, S. S.; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Hoare in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica is covered with a perennial ice cover more than 3 m thick, yet there is a complex record of sedimentation and of growth of microbial mats on the lake bottom. Rough topography on the ice covering the lake surface traps sand that is transported by the wind. In late summer, vertical conduits form by melting and fracturing, making the ice permeable to both liquid water and gases. Cross-sections of the ice cover show that sand is able to penetrate into and apparently through it by descending through these conduits. This is the primary sedimentation mechanism in the lake. Sediment traps retrieved from the lake bottom indicate that rates of deposition can vary by large amounts over lateral scales as small as 1 m. This conclusion is supported by cores taken in a 3 x 3 grid with a spacing of 1.5 m. Despite the close spacing of the cores, the poor stratigraphic correlation that is observed indicates substantial lateral variability in sedimentation rate. Apparently, sand descends into the lake from discrete, highly localized sources in the ice that may in some cases deposit a large amount of sand into the lake in a very short time. In some locations on the lake bottom, distinctive sand mounds have been formed by this process. They are primary sedimentary structures and appear unique to the perennially ice-covered lacustrine environment. In some locations they are tens of centimetres high and gently rounded with stable slopes; in others they reach approximately 1 m in height and have a conical shape with slopes at angle of repose. A simple formation model suggests that these differences can be explained by local variations in water depth and sedimentation rate. Rapid colonization of fresh sand surfaces by microbial mats composed of cyanobacteria, eukaryotic algae, and heterotrophic bacteria produces a complex intercalation of organic and sandy layers that are a distinctive form of modern stromatolites.

  11. The Gains from Vertical Scaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Domingue, Ben

    2013-01-01

    It is often assumed that a vertical scale is necessary when value-added models depend upon the gain scores of students across two or more points in time. This article examines the conditions under which the scale transformations associated with the vertical scaling process would be expected to have a significant impact on normative interpretations…

  12. Availability of lake trout reproductive habitat in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    A decades-long program to reestablish self-sustaining stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the four lower Great Lakes produced excellent fisheries supported by stocked fish. These fish spawned widely and small numbers of their offspring were collected intermittently from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario, but no self-sustaining stocks were established. Irt this paper we address habitat sufficiency as a factor in the failure of stocked lake trout to established self-sustaining populations in the four lower Great Lakes. We present the previously unpublished results of lake trout spawning habitat surveys conducted at seven sites in the Great Lakes since 1987 and we compare them with the published results of similar surveys conducted at 24 other sites in the four lower lakes since 1981. Our evaluation indicates all but two of these sites can support the production of viable fry from spawnings by the shallow-water strains of lake trout that are stocked in the Great Lakes. However, some of the best spawning, egg, and fry habitat in the lower Great Lakes seems to be at deeper offshore sites that may be unattractive to these shallow-water strains. Thus, we suggest also stocking the lower four lakes with strains from Lake Superior that might more fully exploit the best spawning habitat at these deeper, offshore sites.

  13. Contaminants in American alligator eggs from Lake Apopka, Lake Griffin, and Lake Okeechobee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Percival, H.F.; Jennings, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 16 elements were measured in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) eggs collected in 1984 from Lakes Apopka, Griffin, and Okeechobee in central and south Florida. Organochlorine pesticides were highest in eggs from Lake Apopka. None of the elements appeared to be present at harmful concentrations in eggs from any of the lakes. A larger sample of eggs was collected in 1985, but only from Lakes Griffin, a lake where eggs were relatively clean, and Apopka, where eggs were most contaminated. In 1985, hatching success of artificially incubated eggs was lower for Lake Apopka, and several organochlorine pesticides were higher than in eggs from Lake Griffin. However, within Lake Apopka, higher levels of pesticides in chemically analyzed eggs were not associated with reduced hatching success of the remaining eggs in the clutch. Therefore, it did not appear that any of the pesticides we measured were responsible for the reduced hatching of Lake Apopka eggs.

  14. Evidence of Lake Trout reproduction at Lake Michigan's mid-lake reef complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janssen, J.; Jude, D.J.; Edsall, T.A.; Paddock, R.W.; Wattrus, N.; Toneys, M.; McKee, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Mid-Lake Reef Complex (MLRC), a large area of deep (> 40 m) reefs, was a major site where indigenous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan aggregated during spawning. As part of an effort to restore Lake Michigan's lake trout, which were extirpated in the 1950s, yearling lake trout have been released over the MLRC since the mid-1980s and fall gill net censuses began to show large numbers of lake trout in spawning condition beginning about 1999. We report the first evidence of viable egg deposition and successful lake trout fry production at these deep reefs. Because the area's existing bathymetry and habitat were too poorly known for a priori selection of sampling sites, we used hydroacoustics to locate concentrations of large fish in the fall; fish were congregating around slopes and ridges. Subsequent observations via unmanned submersible confirmed the large fish to be lake trout. Our technological objectives were driven by biological objectives of locating where lake trout spawn, where lake trout fry were produced, and what fishes ate lake trout eggs and fry. The unmanned submersibles were equipped with a suction sampler and electroshocker to sample eggs deposited on the reef, draw out and occasionally catch emergent fry, and collect egg predators (slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus). We observed slimy sculpin to eat unusually high numbers of lake trout eggs. Our qualitative approaches are a first step toward quantitative assessments of the importance of lake trout spawning on the MLRC.

  15. Big lake records preserved in a little lake's sediment: An example from Silver Lake, Michigan, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, T.G.; Loope, W.L.; Pierce, W.; Jol, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    We reconstruct postglacial lake-level history within the Lake Michigan basin using soil stratigraphy, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), sedimentology and 14C data from the Silver Lake basin, which lies adjacent to Lake Michigan. Stratigraphy in nine vibracores recovered from the floor of Silver Lake appears to reflect fluctuation of water levels in the Lake Michigan basin. Aeolian activity within the study area from 3,000 years (cal yr. B.P.) to the present was inferred from analysis of buried soils, an aerial photograph sequence, and GPR. Sediments in and around Silver Lake appear to contain a paleoenvironmental record that spans the entire post-glacial history of the Lake Michigan basin. We suggest that (1) a pre-Nipissing rather than a Nipissing barrier separated Silver Lake basin from the Lake Michigan basin, (2) that the Nipissing transgression elevated the water table in the Silver Lake basin about 6,500 cal yr. B.P., resulting in reestablishment of a lake within the basin, and (3) that recent dune migration into Silver Lake is associated with levels of Lake Michigan.

  16. Tracing and quantifying groundwater inflow into lakes using a simple method for radon-222 analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, T.; Ilmberger, J.; von Rohden, C.; Aeschbach-Hertig, W.

    2007-09-01

    Due to its high activities in groundwater, the radionuclide 222Rn is a sensitive natural tracer to detect and quantify groundwater inflow into lakes, provided the comparatively low activities in the lakes can be measured accurately. Here we present a simple method for radon measurements in the low-level range down to 3 Bq m-3, appropriate for groundwater-influenced lakes, together with a concept to derive inflow rates from the radon budget in lakes. The analytical method is based on a commercially available radon detector and combines the advantages of established procedures with regard to efficient sampling and sensitive analysis. Large volume (12 l) water samples are taken in the field and analyzed in the laboratory by equilibration with a closed air loop and alpha spectrometry of radon in the gas phase. After successful laboratory tests, the method has been applied to a small dredging lake without surface in- or outflow in order to estimate the groundwater contribution to the hydrological budget. The inflow rate calculated from a 222Rn balance for the lake is around 530 m³ per day, which is comparable to the results of previous studies. In addition to the inflow rate, the vertical and horizontal radon distribution in the lake provides information on the spatial distribution of groundwater inflow to the lake. The simple measurement and sampling technique encourages further use of radon to examine groundwater-lake water interaction.

  17. The Role of Groundwater for Lake-Water Quality and Quantification of N Seepage.

    PubMed

    Kidmose, Jacob; Engesgaard, Peter; Ommen, Daniela A Oliveira; Nilsson, Bertel; Flindt, Mogens R; Andersen, Frede Ø

    2015-01-01

    The heterogeneous nature of both groundwater discharge to a lake (inflow) and nitrate concentrations in groundwater can lead to significant errors in calculations of nutrient loading. Therefore, an integrated approach, combining groundwater flow and transport modelling with observed nitrate and ammonium groundwater concentrations, was used to estimate nitrate loading from a catchment via groundwater to an oligotrophic flow-through lake (Lake Hampen, Denmark). The transport model was calibrated against three vertical nitrate profiles from multi-level wells and 17 shallow wells bordering a crop field near the lake. Nitrate concentrations in groundwater discharging to the lake from the crop field were on average 70 times higher than in groundwater from forested areas. The crop field was responsible for 96% of the total nitrate loading (16.2 t NO3 /year) to the lake even though the field only covered 4.5% of the catchment area. Consequently, a small change in land use in the catchment will have a large effect on the lake nutrient balance and possible lake restoration. The study is the first known attempt to estimate the decrease of nitrate loading via groundwater to a seepage lake when an identified catchment source (a crop field) is removed. PMID:25324021

  18. Interfacing Single Column Lake and Atmospheric Models: Application over Lake Geneva for Observed and Climate Warming Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyette, S.; Perroud, M.

    2008-12-01

    A single-column atmospheric model has been coupled to a single-column lake model to simulate present-day as well as future lake temperature profiles following global climate warming conditions. Results of multi-year climate simulations are shown for the case of the deep station SHL2 (309 m) of Lake Geneva, Switzerland. The atmospheric model termed FIZL, is a column version of a limited-area model developed for regional climate modelling based on an off-line downscaling of GCM simulations. It is physically-based and it requires outputs from a previous GCM integration. The issues of local lake climate is addressed by combining precomputed atmospheric large-scale transports of momentum, heat, and moisture, called "the dynamics," and recomputed subgrid-scale parameterized effect (solar and infrared radiation fluxes, and latent and sensible heat fluxes), called "the physics," with the explicit numerical computations of the evolving lower boundary conditions provided by the lake model. The lake model, called k-epsilon (k-e), combines a buoyancy-extended k-e model with a seiche excitation and damping model to predict the diffusivity below the surface mixed layer. In this model, the vertical turbulent diffusivities are determined from the turbulent kinetic energy and energy dissipation. Details of the atmospheric-lake interface module, and a sensitivity analysis of the simulated thermal profiles to this coupler parameters are presented. Finally statistics of the change in the lake thermal profiles is also shown for the case of an equilibrium 2xCO2 global climate warming scenario.

  19. Satellite view of Swim Lake and nearby lakes.

    Satellite view of Swim Lake (upper right) and nearby lakes in Polk County, Florida, surrounded by citrus groves. Courtesy Florida State University, 2008; Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2008....

  20. Fluctuations of Lake Eyre, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. However, this low-lying lake attracts run-off from one of the largest inland drainage systems in the world. The drainage basin is very responsive to rainfall variations, and changes dramatically with Australia's inter-annual weather fluctuations. When Lake Eyre fills,as it did in 1989, it is temporarily Australia's largest lake, and becomes dense with birds, frogs and colorful plant life. The Lake responds to extended dry periods (often associated with El Nino events) by drying completely.

    These four images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer contrast the lake area at the start of the austral summers of 2000 and 2002. The top two panels portray the region as it appeared on December 9, 2000. Heavy rains in the first part of 2000 caused both the north and south sections of the lake to fill partially and the northern part of the lake still contained significant standing water by the time these data were acquired. The bottom panels were captured on November 29, 2002. Rainfall during 2002 was significantly below average ( http://www.bom.gov.au/ ), although showers occurring in the week before the image was acquired helped alleviate this condition slightly.

    The left-hand panels portray the area as it appeared to MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera, and are false-color views comprised of data from the near-infrared, green and blue channels. Here, wet and/or moist surfaces appear blue-green, since water selectively absorbs longer wavelengths such as near-infrared. The right-hand panels are multi-angle composites created with red band data from MISR's 60-degree forward, nadir and 60-degree backward-viewing cameras, displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. In these multi-angle composites, color variations serve as a proxy for changes in angular reflectance, and indicate textural properties of the surface related to roughness and/or moisture content.Data from the two dates were processed identically to preserve relative variations in brightness between them. Wet surfaces or areas with standing water appear green due to the effect of sunglint at the nadir camera view angle. Dry, salt encrusted parts of the lake appear bright white or gray. Purple areas have enhanced forward scattering, possibly as a result of surface moistness. Some variations exhibited by the multi-angle composites are not discernible in the nadir multi-spectral images and vice versa, suggesting that the combination of angular and spectral information is a more powerful diagnostic of surface conditions than either technique by itself.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 5194 and 15679. The panels cover an area of 146 kilometers x 122 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 113 to 114 within World Reference System-2 path 100.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory,Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  1. Crater Lake revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, David W.; Dartnell, Peter; Bacon, Charles R.; Robinson, Joel E.; Gardner, James V.

    2003-01-01

    Around 500,000 people each year visit Crater Lake National Park in the Cascade Range of southern Oregon. Volcanic peaks, evergreen forests, and Crater Lake’s incredibly blue water are the park’s main attractions. Crater Lake partially fills the caldera that formed approximately 7,700 years ago by the eruption and subsequent collapse of a 12,000-foot volcano called Mount Mazama. The caldera-forming or climactic eruption of Mount Mazama drastically changed the landscape all around the volcano and spread a blanket of volcanic ash at least as far away as southern Canada. Prior to the climactic event, Mount Mazama had a 400,000 year history of cone building activity like that of other Cascade volcanoes such as Mount Shasta. Since the climactic eruption, there have been several less violent, smaller postcaldera eruptions within the caldera itself. However, relatively little was known about the specifics of these eruptions because their products were obscured beneath Crater Lake’s surface. As the Crater Lake region is still potentially volcanically active, understanding past eruptive events is important to understanding future eruptions, which could threaten facilities and people at Crater Lake National Park and the major transportation corridor east of the Cascades. Recently, the lake bottom was mapped with a high-resolution multibeam echo sounder. The new bathymetric survey provides a 2m/pixel view of the lake floor from its deepest basins virtually to the shoreline. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications, the bathymetry data can be visualized and analyzed to shed light on the geology, geomorphology, and geologic history of Crater Lake.

  2. Meteotsunami in Lake Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Bechle, A.; Schwab, D. J.; Anderson, E. J.; Roebber, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Meteotsunamis, or meteorological induced tsunamis, are meteorological in origin but exhibit long-period tsunami characteristics. Both meteotsunamis and seismic tsunamis have wave periods of 2 minutes to 2 hours and undergo resonant amplification that transforms relatively small waves in the open water into destructive forces at the coast. There are a number of amplification mechanisms including Proudman resonance, edge wave Greenspan resonance, as well as shoaling and harbor resonance. In this talk, we discuss several incidences of meteotsunamis in the Great Lakes. In Lake Michigan, an unexpected and destructive meteotsunami event occurred on June 26, 1954 when a 3 meter high wave struck the Chicago waterfront, resulting in seven fatalities. Ten days later on July 6, 1954, another meteotsunami event in southern Lake Michigan resulted in edge waves in excess of 1 m height. Nevertheless, these two events were generated by storms of vastly different size and propagation direction. More recently, in 2008 at least 25 meteotsunamis events with amplitudes of to 30 ~ 45 cm were observed in several major Lake Michigan harbors and were correlated with high-frequency pressure fronts passing along the west coast of Lake Michigan. Historical water level and meteorological records are analyzed to determine the mechanisms responsible for these meteotsunami events. Finally, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model is employed to simulate select events to further explore in detail the possible meteotsunami mechanisms in the Great Lakes. Our ultimate goal is to provide real-time warning system to assess the coastal hazard and risk areas associated with meteotsunamis in the Great Lakes.

  3. Lake Sarez, Tajikistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Sarez (top), deep in the Pamir mountains of Tajikistan, was created 90 years ago when a strong earthquake triggered a massive landslide that, in turn, became a huge dam along the Murghob River, now called the Usoi Dam. The resulting lake is perched above surrounding drainages at an elevation greater than 3000m, and is part of the watershed that drains the towering Akademi Nauk Range (see the regional image, lower). The lake is 61 km long and as deep as 500 m, and holds an estimated 17 cubic km of water. The area experiences considerable seismic activity, and scientists fear that part of the right bank may slump into the lake, creating a huge wave that will top over and possibly breach the natural dam. Such a wave would create a catastrophic flood downstream along the Bartang, Panj and Amu Darya Rivers, perhaps reaching all the way to the Aral Sea. Currently, central Asian governments, as well as the World Bank and the UN are monitoring the dam closely, and have proposed gradually lowering the lake level as a preventive measure. More information about the lake is available at the following web sites: Lake Sarez Study group, UN Report, Reliefweb Digital photograph numbers ISS002-E-7771 and ISS002-E-7479 were taken in the spring of 2001 from Space Station Alpha and are provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  4. The Wandering Lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In the area at the very far eastern corner of China's Taklimakan Desert, Lop Nor Lake was located up until some years ago. Lop Nor, also called the 'the heart of the heart' of Asia, was the place where the waters of the largest inner basin (i.e., not flowing into the sea) of the world-including the Tarim and Kum-daria Rivers-were collected. Depending on the balance between rainfall water yield and evaporation, both position and size of the lake were strongly variable, thus giving rise to the legend of the Wandering Lake. 'Lop City' was the place where Marco Polo took his last rest before facing the one-year long crossing of the Gobi Desert. Starting from the end of the 19th century, several explorers tried to find the legendary place. One such explorer was Sven Hedin, who was commissioned by the Governor of Nanjing to lead an expedition to find the lake. In 1937, the Swedish explorer published his book entitled The Wandering Lake. Comparing this very precise map from Sven Hedin's book with the above Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) false-color image (acquired on October 28, 2001), one can find a faint sign on the soil where the Lop Nor was located. This image, derived using a combination of MODIS' near-infrared and red channels (vegetation in red), shows where the Tarim River waters currently end their flow. The Wandering Lake does not exist anymore. The combination of climate change and human exploitation of water resources for agriculture caused the disappearance of the lake. This image was processed by Telespazio, Earth Observation division, new products development facility in Rome, Italy. The MODIS sensor flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft, launched in December 1999. Caption and image courtesy Luca Pietranera, Telespazio, Rome, Italy, based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  5. The Tintah-Campbell gap and implications for glacial Lake Agassiz drainage during the Younger Dryas cold interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breckenridge, Andy

    2015-06-01

    Reconstructions of glacial Lake Agassiz paleogeography and drainage have been an important contribution to formulating a hypothesis in which glacial Lake Agassiz drainage to the Atlantic Ocean initiated the Younger Dryas cold interval. This study evaluates the lake level and outlet history of Lake Agassiz as recorded by strandlines visible on lidar digital elevation models from North Dakota and Minnesota. The former lake levels are warped due to glacial isostatic adjustment. Older levels have experienced more uplift and therefore have more curvature. The strandline data establish that the Moorhead lowstand of Lake Agassiz was bracketed by the strongly diverging Campbell and Tintah lake levels, which creates a vertical gap between the former lake levels. This gap exists due to a lake level drop of ˜90 m when the Laurentide Ice Sheet retreat opened a lower outlet, which must have been a northwest outlet to the Arctic Ocean. By applying an exponential decay rebound model, this event dates to 12,180 ± 480 cal yr BP, post-dating the beginning of the Younger Dryas at 12,900 cal yr BP. Eastern drainage outlets to the Atlantic Ocean through the Laurentian Great Lakes that were contemporaneous with the onset of the Younger Dryas cannot be ruled out, but if these outlets existed, their duration of occupation was short-lived and not characterized by significant drawdown events within glacial Lake Agassiz.

  6. Examining indirect effects of lake trout recovery

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the recovery of lake trout populations in Lake Superior, there are indications of decreased forage fish abundance and density-dependence in lake trout. In Lake Superior, lean lake trout historically occupied depths < 60 m, and siscowet lake trout occupied depths > 60 m...

  7. Sensitivity of Lake-Enhanced Snowfall to Lake Ice Cover in the Great Lakes Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. M.; Posselt, D. J.; Steiner, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Great Lakes exert a significant influence on the regional climate of northern United States and southern Canada, including enhancement of cold-season precipitation on and downwind of the leeward shores. Lake-enhanced snowfall occurs when air that is significantly colder than the lake's surface temperature travels over the lake. Enhanced surface sensible and latent heat fluxes relative to the surrounding land surface result in moistening and destabilization of the atmosphere and subsequent development of low-level convection. In the Great Lakes region, lake-enhanced snow occurs during late fall through early winter, with decreasing numbers of events in the late winter due to the formation of widespread lake ice. Lake ice reduces both sensible and latent heat fluxes from the surface, thereby increasing atmospheric stability and reducing lake induced convection. The degree to which ice coverage may change in future climate scenarios is largely unknown, but it is clear that any change to the fraction and duration of lake ice coverage will have an effect on lake-atmosphere interaction and the development and intensity of lake-enhanced precipitation. This study uses the NCAR Weather, Research, and Forecasting (WRF) model to examine how changes in Great Lakes fractional ice coverage affect the presence, intensity, and quantity of lake-enhanced precipitation. Sensitivity studies are used to evaluate the evolution and change in intensity of lake-enhanced snowfall in the Great Lakes region for scenarios that include (1) lake ice cover obtained from analysis fields (control simulation), (2) ice-free lakes, and (3) 100% ice coverage. Distinct lake-effect snow bands were observed in both the control and ice-free simulations, with placement of these bands further to the south and propagating further inland in the ice-free case. Melted precipitation totals increased on the order of 10 mm for ice-free lakes along the southern edges of Lake Superior, Lake Erie, and the eastern coast of Lake Ontario, while complete ice coverage extinguished nearly all lake-effect snow bands.

  8. The Simulation of Heavy Lake-Effect Snowstorms across the Great Lakes Basin in the RegCM4 Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavrus, S. J.; Notaro, M.; Zarrin, A.

    2011-12-01

    Heavy lake-effect snowstorms (LES) cause severe societal impacts in the U.S.-Canadian Great Lakes region, but the response of these extreme events to recent and future warming trends is uncertain. In this study we employ a regional climate model (ICTP RegCM4) at 20-km resolution to simulate LES over this domain, with a particular interest in heavy snowfalls. When coupled to an interactive lake model and driven with atmospheric reanalysis data, RegCM4 is able to reproduce major characteristics of LES with reasonable accuracy, including total seasonal snowfall, lake ice cover, and occasional strong snowfall events. The model also realistically simulates the observed interannual variability of lake ice and its decline during the late 20th century (1977-2002). The timing and location of heavy LES are in general agreement with observations, but the magnitude of the snowfalls is usually undersimulated. To investigate the role of lake ice cover on heavy LES, we conduct a set of case studies in which the simulation of an observed event is compared with a companion simulation that has 100% ice concentration imposed on one or all of the Great Lakes. This collection of experiments quantifies the impact of ice cover from a particular lake on downstream snowfall and demonstrates that Lake Superior has the most widespread influence on heavy snowfall in the basin and Lakes Erie and Ontario the least. We find that the amount of ice cover strongly affects a wide range of atmospheric variables during heavy LES, including temperature, precipitable water, clouds, air pressure, and vertical motion. An interesting meteorological consequence is a weakening of lower tropospheric winds over the lakes when they are completely iced over, suggesting a secondary mechanism by which the presence of open water can enhance downstream snowfall.

  9. The distribution and relative abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valley, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voytek, M.A.; Priscu, J.C.; Ward, B.B.

    1999-01-01

    Marked differences in the concentrations of major ions and cations, macronutrient chemistry and general trophic status exist among the lakes of the McMurdo dry valleys in Antarctica. These differences have been attributed to both variations in stream inputs and in situ lake processes (Priscu, 1995; Lizotte et al., 1996, Spigel and Priscu, 1996). This study examines the role of nitrifying bacteria in nitrogen transformations in these lakes. Applying two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the 16S rRNA genes of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and the active site of the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA), the distribution of ammonia-oxidizers was examined in six Antarctic lakes: Lake Bonney, Lake Hoare, Lake Fryxell and Lake Joyce in the Taylor Valley, Lake Miers in the the Miers Valley and Lake Vanda in the Wright Valley. Using a two stage amplification procedure, ammonia-oxidizers from both the beta and gamma- subclasses of the Proteobacteria were detected and their relative abundances were determined in samples collected from all sites. Ammonia-oxidizers were detected in all lakes sampled. Members of the gamma subclass were only present in the saline lakes. In general, nitrifiers were most abundant at depths above the pycnocline and were usually associated with lower concentrations of NH4 and elevated concentrations of NO3 or NO2. The distribution of nitrifiers suggests that the primary N2O peak observed in most of the lakes was produced via nitrification. Preliminary data on the rate of nitrification (Priscu et al., 1996) support the occurrence of nitrification and the presence of nitrifiers at the depth intervals where nitrifiers were detected. In all lakes, except Lake Miers, the data indicate that nitrifying bacteria have an important role in the vertical distribution of nitrogen compounds in these systems.

  10. Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes located above the tree line attenuate UV-A radiation more strongly than typical temperate alpine lakes.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Ximena; Lazzaro, Xavier; Coronel, Jorge S

    2013-09-01

    Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes are physically harsh ecosystems. Located above the treeline (≥4000 m a.s.l.), they share common features with temperate alpine lakes, which impose extreme conditions on their aquatic organisms: e.g., strong winds, broad diel variations in water temperature, and intense solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, because of their latitude, they differ in two major ecological characteristics: they lack ice cover during the winter and they do not present summer water column stratification. We sampled 26 tropical high-altitude Andean lakes from three regions of the Bolivian Eastern Andes Cordillera during the wet period (austral summer). We performed an ordination to better describe the typology of Andean lakes in relation to the environmental variables, and we assessed the relationships among them, focussing on the UV-A transparency (360 nm) throughout the water column. We found a positive correlation between UV-A transparency calculated as Z(1%) (the depth which reaches 1% of the surface UV-A), the lake maximum depth and Secchi transparency (r = 0.61). Z(1%) of UV-A was smaller in shallow lakes than in deep lakes, indicating that shallow lakes are less transparent to UV-A than deep lakes. We hypothesize that, compared to shallow lakes, deep lakes (maximum depth > 10 m) may have lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations (that absorb UV radiation) due to lower temperature and reduced macrophyte cover. Based on our data, tropical high-altitude Andean lakes are less transparent to UV-A (K(d) range = 1.4-11.0 m(-1); Z(1%) depth range = 0.4-3.2 m) than typical temperate alpine lakes (1-6 m(-1), 3-45 m, respectively). Moreover, they differ in vertical profiles of UV-A, chlorophyll-a, and temperature, suggesting that they may have a distinct ecological functioning. Such peculiarities justify treating tropical high-altitude Andean lakes as a separate category of alpine lakes. Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes have been poorly studied. Thus they deserve more in-depth studies in the face of global changes regarding the use of their UV transparency as a sentinel proxy of climate changes, particularly global warming. PMID:23722356

  11. Evaporation and transport of water isotopologues from Greenland lakes: The lake size effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiahong; Lauder, Alex M.; Posmentier, Eric S.; Kopec, Ben G.; Virginia, Ross A.

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic compositions of evaporative flux from a lake are used in many hydrological and paleoclimate studies that help constrain the water budget of a lake and/or to infer changes in climate conditions. The isotopic fluxes of evaporation from a water surface are typically computed using a zero dimensional (0-D) model originally conceptualized by Craig and Gordon (1965). Such models generally have laminar and turbulent layers, assume a steady state condition, and neglect horizontal variations. In particular, the effect of advection on isotopic variations is not considered. While this classical treatment can be used for some sections of large open surface water bodies, such as an ocean or a large lake, it may not apply to relatively small water bodies where limited fetch does not allow full equilibration between air from land and the water surface. Both horizontal and vertical gradients in water vapor concentration and isotopic ratios may develop over a lake. These gradients, in turn, affect the evaporative fluxes of water vapor and its isotopic ratios, which is not adequately predicted by a 0-D model. We observed, for the first time, the vertical as well as horizontal components of vapor and isotopic gradients as relatively dry and isotopically depleted air advected over the surfaces of several lakes up to a 5 km fetch under winds of 1-5 m/s in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. We modeled the vapor and isotopic distribution in air above the lake using a steady state 2-D model, in which vertical diffusive transport balances horizontal advection. The model was verified by our observations, and then used to calculate evaporative fluxes of vapor and its isotopic ratios. In the special case of zero wind speed, the model reduces to 1-D. Results from this 1-D model are compared with those from the 2-D model to assess the discrepancy in isotopic fluxes between advection and no advection conditions. Since wind advection above a lake alters the concentrations, gradients, and evaporative fluxes of water isotopes, it alters the water balance and isotope ratios of the lake and the relationship between them. These effects are greatest for small lakes. If wind advection is neglected in the inference of water balance from lake isotopes, an error is thus introduced, the magnitude of which depends on lake size. We refer to this as the "lake size effect". For lakes less than 500 m in length along the wind direction, the average δ18O and δD of vapor flux are at least 2‰ lower than the corresponding flux values from the 1-D model. The magnitude of the resulting relative error in water balance calculations is much greater if using δ18O than δD in mass balance calculations; the former is about eight times the latter. This result argues that water balance calculated with δD is less sensitive to the difference in lake size and/or its change over time. The 1-D model result is also compared with that from a comparable 0-D model. Since vertical vapor and isotope gradients always exist (even under no advection conditions), one may not obtain correct flux values if the relative humidity and isotopic ratios in ambient air measured at an arbitrary height are used for the 0-D model calculation. Typically, the standard meteorological measurements at 2 or 10 m would result in an underestimate of the δ18O and δD values of the vapor flux. This work has provided the first quantification on the effect of advection on isotopic fluxes of evaporation. The method of mobile vapor analysis combined with 2-D modeling can be applied to other environmental settings, in which the size of advection effect on isotopic fluxes depends upon relationships among local meteorological and hydrological variables. Our results also suggest that incorporating isotopic vapor measurements can help constrain modeled evaporation rates, which is worth exploring further in future studies.

  12. 42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to peaks of Outter Lodge, completed in 1964. Construction of the lake got underway in 1964. Looking east-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  13. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  14. View of Lake Sabrina Dam and dry Lake Sabrina Basin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam and dry Lake Sabrina Basin with the upstream side of the outlet structure visible at photo center, view to north-northwest - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  15. Lake Nyos Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeth, S. J.

    Lake Nyos, or to be more precise, the upper 38 m of Lake Nyos, is held back by a natural dam (Figure 1) which, if it were to fail, would wreak havoc in the valleys to the north and cause a serious flood to surge down the Katsina Ala into Nigeria. Lockwood et al., [1987], who have been investigating the Lake Nyos gas disaster, which killed an estimated 1700 people in August 1986, presented a paper on the potential for disastrous failure of the Lake Nyos dam to the AGU Fall Meeting. Part of what they said was subsequently reported in New Scientist (December 10, 1987, p. 18). They have placed on record their view that the dam is only 400 years old and are reported to have stated that it is eroding away at the alarming rate of 1.5 m/yr. If their figures are correct, then surely the dam will fail within a decade or two at the most, and there is indeed cause for alarm and immediate action. However, teams from Cameroon, France, Italy, Japan , Switzerland, Britain, Nigeria, and Germany also visited Lake Nyos in the immediate aftermath of the gas disaster, and none of their reports have suggested that the dam is in itself an imminent threat.

  16. Recent sediment geochemistry of an alkaline lake: Lake Acigöl (Denizli), SW Anatolia Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budakoglu, M.; Karaman, M.; Karabel, S. B.; Geredeli, S. G.; Bulbul, A.; Kurt, H.; Uzasci, S.; Kan, A.; Akay, A. K.; Yilmaz, F. R.; Gumus, L.; Civas, M.; Sevis, C.; Kumral, M.

    2012-04-01

    Lake Acıgöl (Denizli) is one of the largest alkaline lake in Turkey. Surface, and shallow core samples was studied to determine the effects of riverine and aeolian processes on sediment physical properties and sediment geochemistry. Total organic carbon, total nitrogen content and major and minor element geochemistry of Lake Acıgöl sediments were investigated. Major (Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, Na, P, S) and trace elements (Mn, As, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, Pb) showed significant differences in bulk chemical composition between the surface and shallow core samples. Sediment properties were examined by water content, loss-on-ignition (LOI). While most of core samples characteristic with relative LOI increase from bottom towards sediment surface, limited core samples that were taken from eastern shore of the lake show increase of LOI values from sediment surface towards bottom, suggesting shallow water levels, aeolian and dentritic riverine inputs on a regional scale. The Fe/Mn ratio was calculated to study changes in the redox potential. Distribution of Fe, Mn, and S concentration were related to redox condition of lake sediment and are due to mobilization of these elements in the pore waters. Calculated two particulate ratios (C:N and N:P) indicate predominantly lacustrine origin. Vertical changes of heavy metals occur in the all shallow downcore profiles, although the concentrations keep to ppm levels. Principal components analysis (PCA) was also used to examine all studied parameters and intercorrelations among the variables.

  17. Importance of light, temperature, zooplankton and fish in predicting the nighttime vertical distribution of Mysis diluviana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boscarino, B.T.; Rusdtam, L.G.; Eillenberger, J.L.; O'Gorman, R.

    2009-01-01

    The opossum shrimp Mysis diluviana (formerly M. relicta) performs large amplitude diel vertical migrations in Lake Ontario and its nighttime distribution is influenced by temperature, light and the distribution of its predators and prey. At one location in southeastern Lake Ontario, we measured the vertical distribution of mysids, mysid predators (i.e. planktivorous fishes) and mysid prey (i.e. zooplankton), in addition to light and temperature, on 8 occasions from May to September, 2004 and 2005. We use these data to test 3 different predictive models of mysid habitat selection, based on: (1) laboratory-derived responses of mysids to different light and temperature gradients in the absence of predator or prey cues; (2) growth rate of mysids, as estimated with a mysid bioenergetics model, given known prey densities and temperatures at different depths in the water column; (3) ratio of growth rates (g) and mortality risk (??) associated with the distribution of predatory fishes. The model based on light and temperature preferences was a better predictor of mysid vertical distribution than the models based on growth rate and g:?? on all 8 occasions. Although mysid temperature and light preferences probably evolved as mechanisms to reduce predation while increasing foraging intake, the response to temperature and light alone predicts mysid vertical distribution across seasons in Lake Ontario. ?? Inter-Research 2009.

  18. Importance of light, temperature, zooplankton, and fish in predicting the nighttime vertical distribution of Mysis diluviana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Marilyn K.; Robert O'Gorman; Boscarino, Brent T.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Eillenberger, June L.

    2009-01-01

    The opossum shrimp Mysis diluviana (formerly M. relicta) performs large amplitude diel vertical migrations in Lake Ontario and its nighttime distribution is influenced by temperature, light and the distribution of its predators and prey. At one location in southeastern Lake Ontario, we measured the vertical distribution of mysids, mysid predators (i.e. planktivorous fishes) and mysid prey (i.e. zooplankton), in addition to light and temperature, on 8 occasions from May to September, 2004 and 2005. We use these data to test 3 different predictive models of mysid habitat selection, based on: (1) laboratoryderived responses of mysids to different light and temperature gradients in the absence of predator or prey cues; (2) growth rate of mysids, as estimated with a mysid bioenergetics model, given known prey densities and temperatures at different depths in the water column; (3) ratio of growth rates (g) and mortality risk (μ) associated with the distribution of predatory fishes. The model based on light and temperature preferences was a better predictor of mysid vertical distribution than the models based on growth rate and g:μon all 8 occasions. Although mysid temperature and light preferences probably evolved as mechanisms to reduce predation while increasing foraging intake, the response to temperature and light alone predicts mysid vertical distribution across seasons in Lake Ontario.

  19. Using time scales to characterize phytoplankton assemblages in a deep subalpine lake during the thermal stratification period: Lake Iseo, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, Clelia Luisa; Imberger, Jörg; Garibaldi, Letizia; Leoni, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    A combination of field observations and 3-D hydrodynamic simulations were used to identify the phytoplankton species and to estimate the various time scales of the dominant physical and biological processes in Lake Iseo, a deep subalpine lake located in northern Italy, during a stratified period (July 2010). By ordering the rate processes time scales, we derive a phytoplankton patch categorization and growth interpretation that provides a general framework for the spatial distribution of phytoplankton concentration in Lake Iseo and illuminates the characteristics of their ecological niches. The results show that the diurnal surface layer was well mixed, received strong diurnal radiation, had low phosphorus concentrations and the phytoplankton biomass was sustained by the green alga Sphaerocystis schroeterii. The vertical mixing time scales were much shorter than horizontal mixing time scales causing a depth-uniform chlorophyll a concentration. The horizontal patch scale was determined by horizontal dispersion balancing the phytoplankton growth time scale, dictating the success of the observed green algae. The strongly stratified nutrient-rich metalimnion had mild light conditions and Diatoma elongatum and Planktothrix rubescens made up the largest proportions of the total phytoplankton biomass at the intermediate and deeper metalimnetic layers. The vertical transport time scales were much shorter than horizontal transport and vertical dispersion leading to growth niche for the observed phytoplankton. The study showed that time-scale hierarchy mandates the essential phytoplankton attributes or traits for success in a particular section of the water column and/or water body.

  20. Simulating climate change impacts on lake stratification on a continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joehnk, Klaus; Straile, Dietmar

    2013-04-01

    Lake stratification is to a large extent determined by regional climatic conditions. Changes in climate patterns like increasing air temperature or wind speed will lead to a shift in lake characteristics, thus changing the physical basis for live in the aquatic system. A vertical one-dimensional hydrodynamic model supported by a simple ice cover model is used to simulate abiotic lake characteristics like thermocline depth, timings of the start and end of stratification, ice break-up dates, as well as biological characteristics linked to the physical environment like the timing of maximum Daphnia abundance. To account for hydrodynamic differences due to lake morphometry and trophic state, we use several model lakes differing in depth (from 5 m to 100 m) and light absorption coefficients (0.3 1/m for oligotrophic lakes to 2.4 1/m for eutrophic lakes), respectively. The model lakes are forced by mean meteorological data for the years 1961-1990 as well as for future climate scenarios prescribed on a 0.5 degree grid over Europe. This results in several tens of thousands of simulations of lake temperatures and turbulent diffusivities over several annual cycles, from which we extract cardinal events and values such as the onset of stratification, length of stratification period, thermocline depth or ice cover duration. Using the reference meteorological conditions our simulations describe differences in lake hydrodynamics and ecology, e.g. start of the algal spring bloom, length of the algal growing period, across latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal gradients. It also allows for the quantification of changes in lake characteristics due to climate change, e.g. increasing periods of stratification or earlier ice break up. This large scale simulation approach reveals physical and biological lake characteristics over a wide geographic range in Western Europe. It serves as a baseline for a comparative plankton ecology by setting up a physical frame to allow for cross regional comparison of plankton succession.

  1. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences. PMID:27104923

  2. Lake restoration by dredging

    SciTech Connect

    Gorini, R.F.

    1992-04-01

    This paper is a summary overview of the $17 million Vancouver Lake Restoration Project, the largest project of its type ever undertaken through the Federal Clean Lakes Program. It was funded jointly by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, and the Port of Vancouver. Although the project was conceived in 1965, a nationwide program to help fund such projects did not exist until 1976. Then, final approval was not received until 1981, after many volumes of studies and reviews. Construction was completed in June 1983, after 30 months--6 months ahead of schedule and underbudget. A great deal of time, money, and energy was expended to demonstrate to Federal and state environmental agencies that dredging was a key tool in effecting this lake's restoration.

  3. Viruses in Antarctic lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

  4. Michigan: The Great Lakes State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Sandra Lee; La Luzerne-Oi, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Although Michigan is often called the "Wolverine State," its more common nickname is the "Great Lakes State." This name comes from the fact that Michigan is the only state in the United States that borders four of the five Great Lakes. Also referred to as the "Water Wonderland," Michigan has 11,000 additional lakes, 36,000 miles of streams, and…

  5. Visualize Vertical Connectedness (Middle Ground).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Allen, Lanny

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the possibility of vertical connectedness in K-12 education through references to journal articles and the author's own reflections. Suggests that middle school teachers may be leaders in a movement toward eliminating redundancy and gaps between grade levels. (TB)

  6. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  7. Vertical transmission in chikungunya infection.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, M P; Senanayake, S M; Vidanage, K K; Gunasena, S; Lamabadusuriya, S P

    2009-06-01

    We report the pregnancy outcome and clinical and laboratory findings in infants born to women with chikungunya infection during pregnancy. There was evidence of vertical transmission and poor pregnancy outcome in some cases. PMID:19670548

  8. Ecological consequences of long-term browning in lakes

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Craig E.; Overholt, Erin P.; Pilla, Rachel M.; Leach, Taylor H.; Brentrup, Jennifer A.; Knoll, Lesley B.; Mette, Elizabeth M.; Moeller, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in terrestrially-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) have led to the browning of inland waters across regions of northeastern North America and Europe. Short-term experimental and comparative studies highlight the important ecological consequences of browning. These range from transparency-induced increases in thermal stratification and oxygen (O2) depletion to changes in pelagic food web structure and alteration of the important role of inland waters in the global carbon cycle. However, multi-decadal studies that document the net ecological consequences of long-term browning are lacking. Here we show that browning over a 27 year period in two lakes of differing transparency resulted in fundamental changes in vertical habitat gradients and food web structure, and that these responses were stronger in the more transparent lake. Surface water temperatures increased by 2–3 °C in both lakes in the absence of any changes in air temperature. Water transparency to ultraviolet (UV) radiation showed a fivefold decrease in the more transparent lake. The primary zooplankton grazers decreased, and in the more transparent lake were largely replaced by a two trophic level zooplankton community. These findings provide new insights into the net effects of the complex and contrasting mechanisms that underlie the ecosystem consequences of browning. PMID:26690504

  9. Ecological consequences of long-term browning in lakes.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Craig E; Overholt, Erin P; Pilla, Rachel M; Leach, Taylor H; Brentrup, Jennifer A; Knoll, Lesley B; Mette, Elizabeth M; Moeller, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Increases in terrestrially-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) have led to the browning of inland waters across regions of northeastern North America and Europe. Short-term experimental and comparative studies highlight the important ecological consequences of browning. These range from transparency-induced increases in thermal stratification and oxygen (O2) depletion to changes in pelagic food web structure and alteration of the important role of inland waters in the global carbon cycle. However, multi-decadal studies that document the net ecological consequences of long-term browning are lacking. Here we show that browning over a 27 year period in two lakes of differing transparency resulted in fundamental changes in vertical habitat gradients and food web structure, and that these responses were stronger in the more transparent lake. Surface water temperatures increased by 2-3 °C in both lakes in the absence of any changes in air temperature. Water transparency to ultraviolet (UV) radiation showed a fivefold decrease in the more transparent lake. The primary zooplankton grazers decreased, and in the more transparent lake were largely replaced by a two trophic level zooplankton community. These findings provide new insights into the net effects of the complex and contrasting mechanisms that underlie the ecosystem consequences of browning. PMID:26690504

  10. AN ESTIMATE OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF TITAN's LAKES

    SciTech Connect

    Cordier, Daniel; Mousis, Olivier; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Lavvas, Panayotis; Vuitton, Veronique

    2009-12-20

    Hundreds of radar-dark patches interpreted as lakes have been discovered in the north and south polar regions of Titan. We have estimated the composition of these lakes by using the direct abundance measurements from the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer aboard the Huygens probe and recent photochemical models based on the vertical temperature profile derived by the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument. Thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed between the atmosphere and the lakes, which are also considered nonideal solutions. We find that the main constituents of the lakes are ethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) (approx76%-79%), propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}) (approx7%-8%), methane (CH{sub 4}) (approx5%-10%), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) (approx2%-3%), butene (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}) (approx1%), butane (C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) (approx1%), and acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}) (approx1%). The calculated composition of lakes is then substantially different from what has been expected from models elaborated prior to the exploration of Titan by the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft.

  11. The TEXT upgrade vertical interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallock, G. A.; Gartman, M. L.; Li, W.; Chiang, K.; Shin, S.; Castles, R. L.; Chatterjee, R.; Rahman, A. S.

    1992-10-01

    A far-infrared interferometer has been installed on TEXT upgrade to obtain electron density profiles. The primary system views the plasma vertically through a set of large (60-cm radial×7.62-cm toroidal) diagnostic ports. A 1-cm channel spacing (59 channels total) and fast electronic time response is used, to provide high resolution for radial profiles and perturbation experiments. Initial operation of the vertical system was obtained late in 1991, with six operating channels.

  12. Reevaluation of lake trout and lake whitefish bioenergetics models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Kao, Yu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory and for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the laboratory and in the field. For lake trout, results showed that the bioenergetics model slightly overestimated food consumption by the lake trout when they were fed low and intermediate rations, whereas the model predicted food consumption by lake trout fed ad libitum without any detectable bias. The slight bias in model predictions for lake trout on restricted rations may have been an artifact of the feeding schedule for these fish, and we would therefore recommend application of the Wisconsin lake trout bioenergetics model to lake trout populations in the field without any revisions to the model. Use of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for coregonids resulted in overestimation of food consumption by lake whitefish both in the laboratory and in the field by between 20 and 30%, on average. This overestimation of food consumption was most likely due to overestimation of respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit to the observed consumption in our laboratory tanks. The adjusted model predicted the consumption in the laboratory and the field without any detectable bias. Until a detailed lake whitefish respiration study can be conducted, we recommend application of our adjusted version of the Wisconsin generalized coregonid bioenergetics model to lake whitefish populations in the field.

  13. Maturity schedules of lake trout in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Stedman, Ralph M.

    1998-01-01

    We determined maturity schedules of male and female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan from nearshore populations and from an offshore population on Sheboygan Reef, which is located in midlake. Gill nets and bottom trawls were used to catch lake trout in fall 1994 and 1995 from two nearshore sites and Sheboygan Reef. Each lake trout was judged immature or mature, based on visual examination of gonads. Probit analysis, coupled with relative potency testing, revealed that age-at-maturity and length-at-maturity were similar at the two nearshore sites, but that lake trout from the nearshore sites matured at a significantly earlier age than lake trout from Sheboygan Reef. However, length at maturity for the nearshore populations was nearly identical to that for the offshore population, suggesting that rate of lake trout maturation in Lake Michigan was governed by growth rather than age. Half of the lake trout males reached maturity at a total length of 580 mm, whereas half of the females were mature at a length of 640 mm. Over half of nearshore males were mature by age 5, and over half the nearshore females matured by age 6. Due to a slower growth rate, maturity was delayed by 2 years on Sheboygan Reef compared with the nearshore populations. Documentation of this delay in maturation may be useful in deciding stocking allocations for lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Michigan.

  14. Late Quaternary slip rate and seismic hazards of the West Klamath Lake fault zone near Crater Lake, Oregon Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, Charles R.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Champion, Duane E.

    1999-01-01

    Crater Lake caldera is at the north end of the Klamath graben, where this N10°W-trending major Basin and Range structure impinges upon the north-south trending High Cascades volcanic arc. East-facing normal faults, typically 10 15 km long, form the West Klamath Lake fault zone, which bounds the graben on its west side. The fault zone terminates on the south near the epicentral area of the September 1993 Klamath Falls earthquakes. It continues north past Crater Lake as the Annie Spring fault, which is within ˜1 km of the west caldera rim, and Red Cone Spring fault. We have determined a long-term vertical slip rate of 0.3 mm/yr for these two faults using high-precision K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar age measurements on offset lava flows ranging in age from ca. 35 to 300 ka. Holocene offset reported by Hawkins et al. and epicenters of eight MW 2 earthquakes in 1994 and 1995 indicate that the West Klamath Lake fault zone is active. Empirical relations between earthquake magnitudes and scarp heights or fault lengths suggest that the fault zone is capable of producing earthquakes as large as MW 7¼. Earthquakes on these or other faults of the zone could trigger landslides and rockfalls from the walls of the caldera, possibly resulting in large waves on Crater Lake.

  15. Ecosystem effects of thermal manipulation of a whole lake, Lake Breisjøen, southern Norway (THERMOS project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lydersen, E.; Aanes, K. J.; Andersen, S.; Andersen, T.; Brettum, P.; Baekken, T.; Lien, L.; Lindstræm, E. A.; Lævik, J. E.; Mjelde, M.; Oredalen, T. J.; Solheim, A. L.; Romstad, R.; Wright, R. F.

    2008-03-01

    We conducted a 3-year artificial deepening of the thermocline in the dimictic Lake Breisjøen, southern Norway, by means of a large submerged propeller. An adjacent lake served as untreated reference. The manipulation increased thermocline depth from 6 to 20 m, caused a significant increase in the heat content, and delayed ice-on by about 20 days. There were only minor changes in water chemistry. Concentrations of sulphate declined, perhaps due to greater reduction of sulphate at the sediment-water interface. Concentrations of particulate carbon and nitrogen decreased, perhaps due to increased sedimentation velocity. Water transparency increased. There was no significant change in concentration of phosphorus, the growth-limiting nutrient. There were few significant changes in principal biological components. Phytoplankton biomass and productivity did not change, although the chlorophyll-a concentration showed a small decrease. Phytoplankton species richness increased, and the species composition shifted. Growth of periphyton increased. There was no change in the macrophyte community. The manipulation did not affect the zooplankton biodiversity, but caused a significant shift in the relative abundance (measured as biomass) in the two major copepod species. The manipulation did not affect the individual density, but appeared to have changed the vertical distribution of zoobenthos. Fish populations were not affected. The lake is oligotrophic and clearwater and the manipulation did not change the supply of phosphorus, and thus there were only minor changes in lake chemistry and biology. Effects might be larger in eutrophic and dystrophic lakes in which internal processes are stronger.

  16. Ecosystem effects of thermal manipulation of a whole lake, Lake Breisjøen, southern Norway (THERMOS project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lydersen, E.; Aanes, K. J.; Andersen, S.; Andersen, T.; Brettum, P.; Baekken, T.; Lien, L.; Lindstrøm, E. A.; Løvik, J. E.; Mjelde, M.; Oredalen, T. J.; Solheim, A. L.; Romstad, R.; Wright, R. F.

    2007-09-01

    We conducted a 3-year artificial deepening of the thermocline in the dimictic Lake Breisjøen, southern Norway, by means of a large submerged propeller. An adjacent lake served as untreated reference. The manipulation increased thermocline depth from 6 to 20 m, caused a significant increase in the heat content, and delayed ice-on by about 20 days. There were only minor changes in water chemistry. Concentrations of sulphate declined, perhaps due to greater reduction of sulphate at the sediment-water interface. Concentrations of particulate carbon and nitrogen decreased, perhaps due to increased sedimantation velocity. Water transparency increased. There was no significant change in concentration of phosphorus, the growth-limiting nutrient. There were few significant changes in principal biological components. Phytoplankton biomass and productivity did not change, although the chlorophyll-a concentration showed a small decrease. Phytoplankton species richness increased, and the species composition shifted. Growth of periphyton increased. There was no change in the macrophyte community. The manipulation did not affect the zooplankton biodiversity, but caused a significant shift in the relative abundance (measured as biomass) in the two major copepod species. The manipulation did not affect the individual density, but appeared to have changed the vertical distribution of zoobenthos. Fish populations were not affected. The lake is oligotrophic and clearwater and the manipulation did not change the supply of phosphorus, and thus there were only minor changes in lake chemistry and biology. Effects might be larger in eutrophic and dystrophic lakes in which internal processes are stronger.

  17. Late Quaternary slip rate and seismic hazards of the West Klamath Lake fault zone near Crater Lake, Oregon Cascades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.; Lanphere, M.A.; Champion, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Crater Lake caldera is at the north end of the Klamath graben, where this N10??W-trending major Basin and Range structure impinges upon the north-south-trending High Cascades volcanic arc. East-facing normal faults, typically 10-15 km long, form the West Klamath Lake fault zone, which bounds the graben on its west side. The fault zone terminates on the south near the epicentral area of the September 1993 Klamath Falls earthquakes. It continues north past Crater Lake as the Annie Spring fault, which is within ~1 km of the west caldera rim, and Red Cone Spring fault. We have determined a long-term vertical slip rate of 0.3 mm/yr for these two faults using high-precision K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar age measurements on offset lava flows ranging in age from ca. 35 to 300 ka. Holocene offset reported by Hawkins et al. and epicenters of eight MW 2 earthquakes in 1994 and 1995 indicate that the West Klamath Lake fautl zone is active. Empirical relations between earthquake magnitudes and scarp heights or fault lengths suggest that the fault zone is capable of producing earthquakes as large as MW 7 1/4 . Earthquakes on these or other faults of the zone could trigger landslides and rockfalls from the walls of the caldera, possibly resulting in large waves on Crater Lake.

  18. Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

  19. Lake Huron Coast

    Great Lakes water availability studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey aim to help characterize how much water the Basin has now, how water availability is changing, and how much water it can expect to have in the future....

  20. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... content of winter storms. These factors, in combination with natural cloud seeding by salt crystals from the lake, are believed to result in ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  1. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  2. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and a…

  3. CONTOURITES IN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contour currents influence sedimentation in an area 15 km wide and 65 km long at the base of the slope off the Keweenaw Peninsula in Lake Superior, northwestern Michigan. Seismic-reflection profiles (3.5 kHz) from this area show distinct wavy reflectors in a scoured trough at a d...

  4. The People's Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Karen Townsend

    1975-01-01

    Citizen action to stop the disposal of taconite tailings into Lake Superior was unsuccessful when the courts settled in the favor of industry. Although citizen research revealed a form of asbestos, as well as other toxic chemicals in the discharged wastes, company representatives stated that there were no health hazards. (MA)

  5. Echoes of Bark Lake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duenkel, Nicky; Hemstreet, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    Two former staff members reflect on their feelings about the August 1995 closing of Bark Lake Leadership Centre (Ontario, Canada), which for 49 years had offered outdoor adventure and environmental education courses to youth and adults. They discuss their experiences as both students and teachers at the center, which helped shape their careers in…

  6. Lake and Stream Acidity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents trends in the percentage of lakes and streams in selected regions in the Northeast and mid-Atlantic states that have been considered chronically acidic between 1987 and 2007. This information describes how the extent of acidification, a serious danger t...

  7. LAKE TAHOE VISIBILITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Visibility monitoring and airborne particulate sampling in the Lake Tahoe Basin were used to document visual air quality levels and to assess the relative impacts of major contributing emission source categories. Visibility data were obtained by long path contrast and particle sc...

  8. Temperature Trends in Montane Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melack, J. M.; Sadro, S.; Jellison, R.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term temperature trends in lakes integrate hydrological and meteorological factors. We examine temperature trends in a small montane lake with prolonged ice-cover and large seasonal snowfall and in a large saline lake. Emerald Lake, located in the Sierra Nevada (California), is representative of high-elevation lakes throughout the region. No significant trend in outflow temperature was apparent from 1991to 2012. Snowfall in the watershed accounted for 93% of the variability in average summer lake temperatures. Mono Lake (California) lies in a closed, montane basin and is hypersaline and monomictic or meromictic. Temperature profiles have been collected from 1982 to 2010. In the upper water column, the July-August-September water temperatures increased 0.8-1.0°C over the 29 years. This rate of warming is less than published estimates based on satellite-derived skin temperatures and will discussed in the context of general limnological interpretation of temperature trends.

  9. Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Salt Lake City, situated near the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake, is host to the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, which open Friday, February 8. Venues for five of the scheduled events are at city (indoor) locations, and five in mountain (outdoor) facilities. All ten can be found within the area contained in these images. Some of the outdoor events take place at Ogden, situated north of Salt Lake City and at Park City, located to the east.

    Salt Lake City is surrounded by mountains including the Wasatch Range to the east, and the temperature difference between the Great Salt Lake and the overlying atmosphere enhances the moisture content of winter storms. These factors, in combination with natural cloud seeding by salt crystals from the lake, are believed to result in greater snowfall in neighboring areas compared to more distant locales.

    In addition to the obvious difference in snow cover between the winter and summer views, water color changes in parts of the Great Salt Lake are apparent in these images. The distinctly different coloration between the northern and southern arms of the Great Salt Lake is the result of a rock-filled causeway built in 1953 to support a permanent railroad. The causeway has resulted in decreased circulation between the two arms and higher salinity on the northern side. The southern part of the lake includes the large Antelope Island, and at full resolution a bridge connecting it to the mainland can be discerned.

    These images are natural color views acquired on February 8, 2001 and June 16, 2001, during Terra orbits 6093 and 7957, respectively. Each image represents an area of about 220 kilometers x 285 kilometers.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  10. Spatially explicit analysis of gastropod biodiversity in ancient Lake Ohrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Schreiber, K.; Birkhofer, K.; Trajanovski, S.; Wilke, T.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of spatial analyses of biodiversity is improved by (i) utilizing study areas with well defined physiogeographical boundaries, (ii) limiting the impact of widespread species, and (iii) using taxa with heterogeneous distributions. These conditions are typically met by ecosystems such as oceanic islands or ancient lakes and their biota. While research on ancient lakes has contributed significantly to our understanding of evolutionary processes, statistically sound studies of spatial variation of extant biodiversity have been hampered by the frequently vast size of ancient lakes, their limited accessibility, and the lack of scientific infrastructure. The European ancient Lake Ohrid provides a rare opportunity for such a reliable spatial study. The comprehensive horizontal and vertical sampling of a species-rich taxon, the Gastropoda, presented here, revealed interesting patterns of biodiversity, which, in part, have not been shown before for other ancient lakes. In a total of 284 samples from 224 different locations throughout the Ohrid Basin, 68 gastropod species, with 50 of them (= 73.5%) being endemic, could be reported. The spatial distribution of these species shows the following characteristics: (i) within Lake Ohrid, the most frequent species are endemic taxa with a wide depth range, (ii) widespread species (i.e. those occurring throughout the Balkans or beyond) are rare and mainly occur in the upper layer of the lake, (iii) while the total number of species decreases with water depth, the proportion of endemics increases, and (iv) the deeper layers of Lake Ohrid appear to have a higher spatial homogeneity of biodiversity. Moreover, gastropod communities of Lake Ohrid and its feeder springs are both distinct from each other and from the surrounding waters. The analysis also shows that community similarity of Lake Ohrid is mainly driven by niche processes (e.g. environmental factors), but also by neutral processes (e.g. dispersal limitation and evolutionary histories of species). For niche-based mechanisms it is shown that large scale effects such as type of water body or water depth are mainly responsible for the similarity of gastropod communities, whereas small scale effects like environmental gradients affect gastropod compositions only marginally. In fact, neutral processes appear to be more important than the small scale environmental factors, thus emphasizing the importance of dispersal capacities and evolutionary histories of species.

  11. Remote sensing approach for hydrologic assessments of complex lake systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhang, Kon Joon

    Lake studies play an important role in understanding water management, ecology, climatology, etc. because most of earth processes are strongly related to water dynamics. Because the studies have only used on-site gage readings, it is almost impossible to access individual lakes and to evaluate regional scale hydrology as a whole system. Especially in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America has millions of potholes and lakes. Measuring lake levels in this region is one of the critical issues in hydrology or other related sciences and applications. The remote sensing approach with the Geographic Information System (GIS) technique could be used to overcome the difficulty associated with on-site measurements. In this study, the SRTM data was used as a main topographic dataset because the dataset provides accurate and consistent elevation data on a worldwide basis. The first chapter introduced the whole idea of this study. In the second chapter, the elevation values of the C-band SRTM 30-meter DEM were compared with point-wise elevations from the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimetry for Otter Tail County, MN. The accuracy of SRTM DEM was measured as a function of land cover and geomorphologic characteristics. The typical mean vertical difference between the SRTM DEM and ICESat elevations in this study was determined for each classified land use type and the data properties were investigated. Also, the feasibility of using SRTM data for hydrologic applications, especially in a region of low relief exemplified by the Otter Tail basin in Minnesota, was examined in Chapter 3. For measuring lake levels, several lake-level estimation techniques using image processing and feature detection were tested with the Landsat imagery and SRTM data and the efficiency of the techniques were evaluated in Chapter 4. Lastly, the power law distribution of lake was simulated in Chapter 5. For the simulation, one-dimensional fractal landscapes were generated and precipitation and evaporation processes were added to the simulation algorithm to observe the effect of natural processes in lake formation. The simulation result for lake distribution was compared with real measurements and the lake distribution following the power law (linear scaling in logarithmic scale) distribution was shown.

  12. Evaluation of groundwater discharge into small lakes based on the temporal distribution of radon-222

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dimova, N.T.; Burnett, W.C.

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate groundwater discharge into small lakes we constructed a model that is based on the budget of 222Rn (radon t1/2 5 3.8 d) as a tracer. The main assumptions in our model are that the lake's waters are wellmixed horizontally and vertically; the only significant 222Rn source is via groundwater discharge; and the only losses are due to decay and atmospheric evasion. In order to evaluate the groundwater-derived 222Rn flux, we monitored the 222Rn concentration in lake water over periods long enough (usually 1-3 d) to observe changes likely caused by variations in atmospheric exchange (primarily a function of wind speed and temperature). We then attempt to reproduce the observed record by accounting for decay and atmospheric losses and by estimating the total 222Rn input flux using an iterative approach. Our methodology was tested in two lakes in central Florida: one of which is thought to have significant groundwater inputs (Lake Haines) and another that is known not to have any groundwater inflows but requires daily groundwater augmentation from a deep aquifer (Round Lake). Model results were consistent with independent seepage meter data at both Lake Haines (positive seepage of ??? 1.6 ?? 104 m3 d-1 in Mar 2008) and at Round Lake (no net groundwater seepage). ?? 2011, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  13. Space Radar Image of Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Salt Lake City, Utah, illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in the Utah Valley. Salt Lake City lies between the shores of the Great Salt Lake (the dark area on the left side of the image) and the Wasatch Front Range (the mountains in the upper half of the image). The Salt Lake City area is of great interest to urban planners because of the combination of lake, valley and alpine environments that coexist in the region. Much of the southern shore of the Great Salt Lake is a waterfowl management area. The green grid pattern in the right center of the image is Salt Lake City and its surrounding communities. The Salt Lake City airport is visible as the brown rectangle near the center of the image. Interstate Highway 15 runs from the middle right edge to the upper left of the image. The bright white patch east of Interstate 15 is the downtown area, including Temple Square and the state capitol. The University of Utah campus is the yellowish area that lies at the base of the mountains, east of Temple Square. The large reservoir in the lower left center is a mine tailings pond. The semi-circular feature in the mountains at the bottom edge of the image is the Kennecott Copper Mine. The area shown is 60 kilometers by 40 kilometers (37 miles by 25 miles) and is centered at 40.6 degrees north latitude, 112.0 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994. The colors in this image represent the following radar channels and polarizations: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  14. Temperate Lakes Discovered on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vixie, Graham; Barnes, Jason W.; Jackson, Brian; Wilson, Paul

    2012-04-01

    We have discovered two temperate lakes on Titan using Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Three key features help to identify these surface features as lakes: morphology, albedo, and specular reflection. The presence of lakes at the mid-latitudes mean liquid can accumulate and remain stable outside of the poles. We first identify a lake surface by looking for possible shorelines with a lacustrine morphology. Then, we apply a simple atmospheric correction that produces an approximate surface albedo. Next, we prepare cylindrical projection maps of the brightness of the sky as seen from any points on the surface to identify specular reflections. Our techniques can then be applied to other areas, such as Arrakis Planitia, to test for liquid. Currently, all the known lakes on Titan are concentrated at the poles. Lakes have been suggested in the tropic zone by Griffith et al. Our discovery of non-transient, temperate lakes has important implications for Titan's hydrologic cycle. Clouds have been recorded accumulating in the mid-latitudes and areas have been darkened by rainfall but later brightened after evaporation (Turtle et al. 2011). Stable temperate lakes would affect total rainfall, liquid accumulation, evaporation rates, and infiltration. Polaznik Macula (Figure 1) is a great candidate for lake filling, evaporation rates, and stability. References: Griffith, C., et al.: "Evidence for Lakes on Titan's Tropical Surface". AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts #42, Vol. 42, pp. 1077, 2010. Turtle, E. P., et al.: "Rapid and Extensive Surface Changes Near Titan's Equator: Evidence of April Showers". Science, Vol. 331, pp. 1414-, 2011. Figure 1: Polaznik Macula is the large, dark area central to the figure. The encircled dark blue areas represent positively identified lake regions in the T66 flyby. The light blue areas represent lake candidates still under analysis. The green circle marks a non-lake surface feature enclosed by a lake.

  15. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes.

    PubMed

    Antony, Chakkiath Paul; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-03-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence. PMID:23178675

  16. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes

    PubMed Central

    Paul Antony, Chakkiath; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-01-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence. PMID:23178675

  17. Testing the spatial and temporal framework of speciation in an ancient lake species flock: the leech genus Dina (Hirudinea: Erpobdellidae) in Lake Ohrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajanovski, S.; Albrecht, C.; Schreiber, K.; Schultheiß, R.; Stadler, T.; Benke, M.; Wilke, T.

    2010-11-01

    Ancient Lake Ohrid on the Balkan Peninsula is considered to be the oldest ancient lake in Europe with a suggested Plio-/Pleistocene age. Its exact geological age, however, remains unknown. Therefore, molecular clock data of Lake Ohrid biota may serve as an independent constraint of available geological data, and may thus help to refine age estimates. Such evolutionary data may also help unravel potential biotic and abiotic factors that promote speciation events. Here, mitochondrial sequencing data of one of the largest groups of endemic taxa in the Ohrid watershed, the leech genus Dina, is used to test whether it represents an ancient lake species flock, to study the role of potential horizontal and vertical barriers in the watershed for evolutionary events, to estimate the onset of diversification in this group based on molecular clock analyses, and to compare this data with data from other endemic species for providing an approximate time frame for the origin of Lake Ohrid. Based on the criteria speciosity, monophyly and endemicity, it can be concluded that Dina spp. from the Ohrid watershed, indeed, represents an ancient lake species flock. Lineage sorting of its species, however, does not seem to be complete and/or hybridization may occur. Analyses of population structures of Dina spp. in the Ohrid watershed indicate a horizontal zonation of haplotypes from spring and lake populations, corroborating the role of lake-side springs, particularly the southern feeder springs, for evolutionary processes in endemic Ohrid taxa. Vertical differentiation of lake taxa, however, appears to be limited, though differences between populations from the littoral and the profundal are apparent. Molecular clock analyses indicate that the most recent common ancestor of extant species of this flock is approximately 1.99 ± 0.83 million years (Ma) old, whereas the split of the Ohrid Dina flock from a potential sister taxon outside the lake is estimated at 8.30 ± 3.60 Ma. Comparisons with other groups of endemic Ohrid species indicated that in all cases, diversification within the watershed started ≤2 Ma ago. Thus, this estimate may provide information on a minimum age for the origin of Lake Ohrid. Maximum ages are less consistent and generally less reliable. But cautiously, a maximum age of 3 Ma is suggested. Interestingly, this time frame of approximately 2-3 Ma ago for the origin of Lake Ohrid, generated based on genetic data, well fits the time frame most often used in the literature by geologists.

  18. Genetic Diversity of Picocyanobacteria in Tibetan Lakes: Assessing the Endemic and Universal Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Anyi; Liu, Xiaobo; Chen, Feng; Yao, Tandong; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of picocyanobacteria in seven alkaline lakes on the Tibetan Plateau was analyzed using the molecular marker 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequence. A total of 1,077 environmental sequences retrieved from the seven lakes were grouped into seven picocyanobacterial clusters, with two clusters newly described here. Each of the lakes was dominated by only one or two clusters, while different lakes could have disparate communities, suggesting low alpha diversity but high beta diversity of picocyanobacteria in these high-altitude freshwater and saline lakes. Several globally distributed clusters were found in these Tibetan lakes, such as subalpine cluster I and the Cyanobium gracile cluster. Although other clusters likely exhibit geographic restriction to the plateau temporally, reflecting endemicity, they can indeed be distributed widely on the plateau. Lakes with similar salinities may have similar genetic populations despite a large geographic distance. Canonical correspondence analysis identified salinity as the only environmental factor that may in part explain the diversity variations among lakes. Mantel tests suggested that the community similarities among lakes are independent of geographic distance. A portion of the picocyanobacterial clusters appear to be restricted to a narrow salinity range, while others are likely adapted to a broad range. A seasonal survey of Lake Namucuo across 3 years did not show season-related variations in diversity, and depth-related population partitioning was observed along a vertical profile of the lake. Our study emphasizes the high dispersive potential of picocyanobacteria and suggests that the regional distribution may result from adaptation to specified environments. PMID:25281375

  19. Expansion of tubenose gobies Proterorhinus semilunaris into western Lake Erie and potential effects on native species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, P.M.; Tallman, J.A.; Jude, D.J.; Murphy, D.M.; Brown, J.E.; Stepien, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Eurasian freshwater tubenose goby Proterorhinus semilunaris (formerly Proterorhinus marmoratus) invaded the Laurentian Great Lakes in the 1990s, presumably via ballast water from transoceanic cargo ships. Tubenose gobies spread throughout Lake St. Clair, its tributaries, and the Detroit River system, and also are present in the Duluth-Superior harbor of Lake Superior. Using seines and bottom trawls, we collected 113 tubenose gobies between July 2007 and August 2009 at several locations in western Lake Erie. The number and range of sizes of specimens collected suggest that that tubenose gobies have become established and self-sustaining in the western basin of Lake Erie. Tubenose gobies reached maximum densities in sheltered areas with abundant macrophyte growth, which also is their common habitat in native northern Black Sea populations. The diet of tubenose gobies was almost exclusively invertebrates, suggesting dietary overlap with other benthic fishes, such as darters (Etheostoma spp. and Percina sp.), madtoms (Noturus spp.), and sculpins (Cottus spp.). A single mitochondrial DNA haplotype was identified, which is the most common haplotype found in the original colonization area in the Lake St. Clair region, suggesting a founder effect. Tubenose gobies, like round gobies Neogobius melanostomus, have early life stages that drift owing to vertical migration, which probably allowed them to spread from areas of colonization. The Lake St. Clair-Lake Erie corridor appears to have served as an avenue for them to spread to the western basin of Lake Erie, and abundance of shallow macrophyte-rich habitats may be a key factor facilitating their further expansion within Lake Erie and the remainder of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  20. Lake Levels in Northeastern South Dakota Reach Historical Maximum Elevations in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. T.; Driscoll, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    The hydroclimatic conditions in the winter and spring of 2011 in eastern South Dakota combined to raise lake levels to historical maximums in northeastern South Dakota. The high lake levels caused extensive damage to lakeside homes and the transportation grid of rural, county, and State roads. These lake levels are one more manifestation of long-term upward trends of precipitation and streamflow conditions for the area. For example, upward trends are evident in the annual streamflow records for the James and Big Sioux Rivers in eastern South Dakota (Anderson and others, 2008). Levels in Waubay Lake in Day County reached an elevation of 1805.36 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 on July 18, 2011, exceeding the previous maximum level that occurred in 1999 by 1.36 feet. Anecdotal evidence and measurements indicate that many other lakes also reached maximum levels in 2011, such as Bitter Lake (1802.98 feet), Blue Dog Lake (1805.80), and Rush Lake (1805.75). These lakes are within a closed basin, with Bitter Lake being the terminal lake. At an estimated elevation of about 1811 feet, water in the Waubay-Bitter Lake system would begin to flow into the Big Sioux River. Some areas of the glaciated terrain of eastern South Dakota have such low topographic relief, that comparatively small increases in lake levels can inundate large land areas. The valuable historical archive of freely available satellite imagery from the U.S. Geological Survey permits analysis of the areal extent of flooding. Landsat and France's SPOT (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre) imagery are coupled with lake-level hydrographs to clearly depict change in land-surface inundation over time. Image analysis will present the change in flooded acreage from minimum lake levels in 1976 to maximum levels in July 2011 for Day County. The hydroclimatic trends are indicating wetter conditions, which leaves open the possibility that lake levels may continue to rise in future years.

  1. Lake-Atmosphere Turbulent EXchanges (LATEX) field measurement campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bou-Zeid, E.; Huwald, H.; Lemmin, U.; Selker, J.; Parlange, M. B.

    2006-12-01

    High resolution measurements of surface fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer over water surfaces are less common than over land. Nevertheless, developing our understanding of air-water interaction is crucial for improving evaporation models, developing and testing surface parameterizations in meso-scale and global circulation models, and understanding local atmospheric dynamics over water. The Lake-Atmosphere Turbulent EXchanges (LATEX) field measurement campaign was designed to address these issues. The experiment took place on a platform in Lake Geneva in Switzerland (exposed to a 30 km long wind fetch) over the period extending from August through October of 2006. The primary instrumentation consisted of: 1) a vertical array of four sonic anemometers and four open-path H2O/CO2 analyzers, 2) a Raman scattering fiber- optic temperature profiler having a resolution of 4-mm vertically and 0.01 deg C in temperature (3 meter range: 1 meter above the water surface and 2 meters below), and 3) a lake current profiler. Additional supporting measurements included net radiation, surface temperature, relative humidity, wave height and speed, as well as several point-measurements of air and water temperature. We present results for fluxes of momentum, heat, water vapor, and CO2 and test flux-profiles relations (derived from Monin-Obukhov similarity) that are frequently used to estimate these fluxes. Different formulations for roughness and scalar lengths are tested for different lake surface conditions. Finally, we look at small scale turbulence over the lake by computing the eddy-viscosity, the turbulent Prandtl number, and turbulent Schmidt numbers for water vapor and CO2 at scales comparable to large eddy simulation (LES) grid scales; these results can be used to prescribe model coefficient a priori in LES or to test the performance of various dynamic models in reproducing the correct sub-grid scale fluxes.

  2. Assessing the effects of severe rainstorm-induced mixing on a subtropical, subalpine lake.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Nobuaki; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chiu, Chih-Yu; Kratz, T K

    2014-05-01

    Severe rainstorms cause vertical mixing that modifies the internal dynamics (e.g., internal seiche, thermal structure, and velocity filed) in warm polymictic lakes. Yuan Yang Lake (YYL), a subtropical, subalpine, and seasonally stratified small lake in the north-central region of Taiwan, is normally affected by typhoons accompanied with strong wind and heavy rainfall during the summer and fall. In this study, we used the field data, statistical analysis, spectral analysis, and numerical modeling to investigate severe rainstorm-induced mixing in the lake. Statistical determination of the key meteorological and environmental conditions underlying the observed vertical mixing suggests that the vertical mixing, caused by heat loss during severe rainstorms, was likely larger than wind-induced mixing and that high inflow discharge strongly increased heat loss through advection heat. Spectral analysis revealed that internal seiches at the basin scale occurred under non-rainstorm meteorological conditions and that the internal seiches under the rainstorm were modified on the increase of the internal seiche frequencies. Based upon observed frequencies of the internal seiches, a two-dimensional model was simulated and then appropriate velocity patterns of the internal seiches were determined under non-rainstorm conditions. Moreover, the model implemented with inflow boundary condition was conducted for rainstorm events. The model results showed that the severe rainstorms promoted thermal destratification and changed vertical circulation of the basin-scale, internal seiche motion into riverine flow. PMID:24415132

  3. Evidence for buoyancy regulation as a speciation mechanism in Great Lakes ciscoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshenroder, R.L.; Argyle, Ray L.; TeWinkel, Leslie M.

    1998-01-01

    We present evidence for a hypothesis that the deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) of the Laurentian Great Lakes were selected for buoyancy-regulation traits that facilitated planktivory on Mysis relict, a crustacean that undertakes extensive diel vertical migration (DVM). We assessed the vertical distribution and behavior of bloaters (C. hoyi) in Lake Michigan with bottom and mid-water trawls in late summer 1987 and with acoustics in August 1995. Biomass of bloaters on the lake bottom was reduced by 84% at night. Mean size of bloaters increased with depth as did the reduction in night biomass. Juvenile bloaters (<160 mm total length) occurred in both warm surface waters and in the hypolimnion where adults were aggregated. Hypolimnetic bloaters were 10 to 50 m above the bottom at night, but DVM was confined to the hypolimnion. The greater historical species diversity of deepwater ciscoes in Lakes Michigan and Huron compared with Lake Superior may be a function of reduced availability of mysids in Lake Superior.

  4. Bacterial Community Composition in Oligosaline Lake Bosten: Low Overlap of Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes with Freshwater Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiangming; Xie, Guijuan; Shao, Keqiang; Dai, Jiangyu; Chen, Yuangao; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Oligosaline lakes in arid regions provide indispensable water resources for humans; however, information on the bacterial community composition (BCC) of this ecosystem is limited. In the present study, we explored seasonal and vertical variations in BCC in Lake Bosten, a unique oligosaline lake (1.2‰ salinity) in arid, northwestern China, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We obtained 544 clones and 98 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from six clone libraries. The top 10 OTUs represented 59.4% of the entire bacterial community. Betaproteobacteria (22.1%), Gammaproteobacteria (19.9%), Bacteroidetes (18.8%), and Firmicutes (11.4%) dominated in Lake Bosten. Although seasonal variations were recorded in BCC, the vertical changes observed were not significant. Water temperature and salinity were the most important factors shaping the dynamics of BCC. A low degree of overlap was observed in BCC between Lake Bosten and freshwater ecosystems, especially for Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. An RDP seqmatch analysis showed that 169 sequences (31%) were novel bacterial sequences (<97% similarity to the closest sequences in GenBank), which suggested that specific indigenous bacteria inhabit this oligosaline environment. Our results support bacterial endemicity being more common than previously considered, particularly in oligosaline lakes. An analysis of these communities may reveal how bacteria respond to increases in salinity and nutrients in the early stage of salinization and eutrophication. PMID:25985930

  5. Potential strategies for recovery of lake whitefish and lake herring stocks in eastern Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldenburg, K.; Stapanian, M.A.; Ryan, P.A.; Holm, E.

    2007-01-01

    Lake Erie sustained large populations of ciscoes (Salmonidae: Coregoninae) 120 years ago. By the end of the 19th century, abundance of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) had declined drastically. By 1925, the lake herring (a cisco) population (Coregonus artedii) had collapsed, although a limited lake herring fishery persisted in the eastern basin until the 1950s. In the latter part of the 20th century, the composition of the fish community changed as oligotrophication proceeded. Since 1984, a limited recovery of lake whitefish has occurred, however no recovery was evident for lake herring. Current ecological conditions in Lake Erie probably will not inhibit recovery of the coregonine species. Recovery of walleye (Sander vitreus) and efforts to rehabilitate the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Erie will probably assist recovery because these piscivores reduce populations of alewife (Alosa psuedoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), which inhibit reproductive success of coregonines. Although there are considerable spawning substrates available to coregonine species in eastern Lake Erie, eggs and fry would probably be displaced by storm surge from most shoals. Site selection for stocking or seeding of eggs should consider the reproductive life cycle of the stocked fish and suitable protection from storm events. Two potential sites in the eastern basin have been identified. Recommended management procedures, including commercial fisheries, are suggested to assist in recovery. Stocking in the eastern basin of Lake Erie is recommended for both species, as conditions are adequate and the native spawning population in the eastern basin is low. For lake herring, consideration should be given to match ecophenotypes as much as possible. Egg seeding is recommended. Egg seeding of lake whitefish should be considered initially, with fingerling or yearling stocking suggested if unsuccessful. Spawning stocks of whitefish in the western basin of Lake Erie could be utilized.

  6. RHIC VERTICAL AC DIPOLE COMMISSIONING.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI,M.; DELONG,J.; HOFF,L.; PAI,C.; PEGGS,S.; PIACENTINO,J.; OERTER,B.; ODDO,P.; ROSER,T.; SATOGATA,T.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; ZALTSMAN,A.

    2002-06-02

    The RHIC vertical ac dipole was installed in the summer of 2001. The magnet is located in the interaction region between sector 3 and sector 4 common to both beams. The resonant frequency of the ac dipole was first configured to be around half of the beam revolution frequency to act as a spin flipper. At the end of the RHIC 2002 run, the ac dipole frequency was reconfigured for linear optics studies. A 0.35 mm driven betatron oscillation was excited with the vertical ac dipole and the vertical betatron functions and phase advances at each beam position monitor (BPM) around the RHIC yellow ring were measured using the excited coherence. We also recorded horizontal turn-by-turn beam positions at each BPM location to investigate coupling effects. Analysis algorithms and measurement results are presented.

  7. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Ishikawa, K.

    2012-12-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have carried out two field surveys in 2011. One is a 3D survey with a boomer for a high-resolution surface source and the other one for an actual field survey in the Izena Cauldron an active hydrothermal area in the Okinawa Trough. Through these surveys, we have confirmed that the uncertainty in the locations of the source and of the hydrophones in water could lower the quality of subsurface image. It is, therefore, strongly necessary to develop a total survey system that assures an accurate positioning and a deployment techniques. In case of shooting on sea surface, GPS navigation system are available, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging as requested for the SMS survey. We will incorporate the accurate LBL navigation systems with VCs. The LBL navigation system has been developed by IIS of the University of Tokyo. The error is estimated less than 10cm at the water depth of 3000m. Another approach is that the shot points can be calculated using the first break of the VCS after the VCS locations are estimated by slant-ranging from the sea surface. Our VCS system has been designed as a survey tool for hydrothermal deposit, but it will be also applicable for deep water site surveys or geohazard assessment such as active faults.

  8. Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake volume aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate lake volume (i.e. bathymetry) are usually only collected on a lake by lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. ...

  9. Great Salt Lake Breach at Lakeside, Utah

    A gage to measure lake water levels stands dry in the lake bed of the Great Salt Lake. For the first time since it was opened in 1984, water has stopped flowing through the Great Salt Lake causeway breach, an area that allows water to travel between the southern and northern parts of the lake....

  10. Lake Garda, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER image was acquired on July 29, 2000 and covers an area of 30 by 57 km in northern Italy. Lake Garda was formed by glaciers during the last Ice Age, and is Italy's largest lake. Lago di Garda lies in the provinces of Verona, Brescia, and Trento, and is 51 kilometers (32 miles) long and from 3 to 18 kilometers (2 to 11 miles) wide. The Sarca is its chief affluent, and the lake is drained southward by the Mincio, which discharges into the Po River. Many villas are situated on its shores. On the peninsula of Sirmione, at the southern end of the lake, are the ruins of a Roman villa and a castle of the Scaligers, an Italian family of the 16th century. The RIGHT image has the land area masked out, and a harsh stretch was applied to the lake values to display variations in sediment load. Also visible are hundreds of boats and their wakes, criss-crossing the lake.

    The image is centered at 45.6 degrees north latitude, 10.6 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface heat balance.

  11. Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Rotondo, M.

    2005-10-12

    We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

  12. Vertical motion simulator familiarization guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    The Vertical Motion Simulator Familiarization Guide provides a synoptic description of the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) and descriptions of the various simulation components and systems. The intended audience is the community of scientists and engineers who employ the VMS for research and development. The concept of a research simulator system is introduced and the building block nature of the VMS is emphasized. Individual sections describe all the hardware elements in terms of general properties and capabilities. Also included are an example of a typical VMS simulation which graphically illustrates the composition of the system and shows the signal flow among the elements and a glossary of specialized terms, abbreviations, and acronyms.

  13. Major and trace elements in 35 lake and reservoir sediment cores from across the United States, 1994-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Callender, Edward

    2006-01-01

    This report presents data on major and trace element concentrations in sediment cores collected from 35 lakes and reservoirs during 1994-2001. The lakes and reservoirs are located in or near 18 major urban areas across the United States and provide a geographically diverse coverage of urban land use for the country as well as some reference settings. Vertical intervals of the cores were analyzed for eight major elements and eight trace elements.

  14. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. (1) VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey in limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Because of autonomous recording system on sea floor, various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (GI gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom source. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN, in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. Seismic Interferometry technique is also applied. The results give much clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Seismic Interferometry technique is applied to obtain the high resolution image in the very shallow zone. Based on the feasibility study, we have developed the autonomous recording VCS system and carried out the trial experiment in actual ocean at the water depth of about 400m to establish the procedures of deployment/recovery and to examine the VC position or fluctuation at seabottom. The result shows that the VC position is estimated with sufficient accuracy and very little fluctuation is observed. Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo took the research cruise NT11-02 on JAMSTEC R/V Natsushima in February, 2011. In the cruise NT11-02, JGI carried out the second VCS survey using the autonomous VCS recording system with the deep towed source provided by Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo. It generates high frequency acoustic waves around 1kHz. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections and currently being processed for imaging the subsurface structure.

  15. Water quality and algal community dynamics of three deepwater lakes in Minnesota utilizing CE-QUAL-W2 models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Erik A.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality, habitat, and fish in Minnesota lakes will potentially be facing substantial levels of stress in the coming decades primarily because of two stressors: (1) land-use change (urban and agricultural) and (2) climate change. Several regional and statewide lake modeling studies have identified the potential linkages between land-use and climate change on reductions in the volume of suitable lake habitat for coldwater fish populations. In recent years, water-resource scientists have been making the case for focused assessments and monitoring of sentinel systems to address how these stress agents change lakes over the long term. Currently in Minnesota, a large-scale effort called “Sustaining Lakes in a Changing Environment” is underway that includes a focus on monitoring basic watershed, water quality, habitat, and fish indicators of 24 Minnesota sentinel lakes across a gradient of ecoregions, depths, and nutrient levels. As part of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, developed predictive water quality models to assess water quality and habitat dynamics of three select deepwater lakes in Minnesota. The three lakes (Lake Carlos in Douglas County, Elk Lake in Clearwater County, and Trout Lake in Cook County) were assessed under recent (2010–11) meteorological conditions. The three selected lakes contain deep, coldwater habitats that remain viable during the summer months for coldwater fish species. Hydrodynamics and water-quality characteristics for each of the three lakes were simulated using the CE-QUAL-W2 model, which is a carbon-based, laterally averaged, two-dimensional water-quality model. The CE-QUAL-W2 models address the interaction between nutrient cycling, primary production, and trophic dynamics to predict responses in the distribution of temperature and oxygen in lakes. The CE-QUAL-W2 models for all three lakes successfully predicted water temperature, on the basis of the two metrics of absolute mean error and root mean square error, using measured inputs of water temperature and nutrients. One of the main calibration tools for CE-QUAL-W2 model development was the vertical profile temperature data, available for all three lakes. For all three lakes, the absolute mean error and root mean square error were less than 1.0 degree Celsius and 1.2 degrees Celsius, respectively, for the different depth ranges used for vertical profile comparisons. In Lake Carlos, simulated water temperatures compared better to measured water temperatures in the epilimnion than in the hypolimnion. The reverse was true for the other two lakes, Elk Lake and Trout Lake, where the simulated results were slightly better for the hypolimnion than the epilimnion. The model also was used to approximate the location of the thermocline throughout the simulation periods, approximately April to November, in all three lake models. Deviations between the simulated and measured water temperatures in the vertical lake profile commonly were because of an offset in the timing of thermocline shifts rather than the simulated results missing thermocline shifts altogether.

  16. Nonperturbative vertices in supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, M. L.; Burden, C. J.

    1999-11-01

    We derive the complete set of supersymmetric Ward identities involving only two- and three-point proper vertices in supersymmetric QED. We also present the most general form of the proper vertices consistent with both the supersymmetric and U(1) gauge Ward identities. These vertices are the supersymmetric equivalent of the nonsupersymmetric Ball-Chiu vertices.

  17. Genetic diversity of Diporeia in the Great Lakes: comparison of Lake Superior to the other Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abundances of Diporeia have dropped drastically in the Great Lakes, except in Lake Superior, where data suggest that population counts actually have risen. Various ecological, environmental, or geographic hypotheses have been proposed to explain the greater abundance of Lake Supe...

  18. Optical closure in an ultraturbid lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, John T. O.; Oliver, Rod L.

    1995-07-01

    A study has been carried out to determine whether a previously derived relationship for an apparent optical property (the vertical attenuation coefficient for downward irradiance, Kd) of a water body as a function of inherent optical properties (absorption and scattering coefficients, a and b) of the water, applies to a surface water body at the extreme high-scattering end of the range of naturally occurring optical character, namely an ultraturbid lake in Australia. It was found that scattering by the very small clay particles responsible for the high turbidity of the water showed a very strong wavelength dependence in accordance with b ∝ (1/λ)226. When this wavelength dependency was taken into account, both in the laboratory determination of absorption coefficients, and in the calculation of attenuation of irradiance in the water body as a function of wavelength, then good agreement between the Kd(PAR), where PAR is photosynthetically available radiation, derived by calculation from measured a and b values and that obtained by measurement in the lake was found. Optical closure was thus achieved.

  19. Life history of lake herring in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dryer, William R.; Beil, Joseph

    1964-01-01

    The average annual commercial catch of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) in U.S. waters of Lake Superior was nearly 12 million pounds in 1929-61. This production contributed 62.4 percent of the total U.S. take of lake herring for the Great Lakes. About 90 percent of the annual catch is taken from small-mesh gill nets during the November-December spawning season. The life-history studies were based on 12,187 fish collected in 1950-62; past growth was computed for 3,779 specimens collected from commercial landings at: Duluth, Minn.; Bayfield, Wis.; and Portage Entry and Marquette, Mich.

  20. Aeolian sand preserved in Silver Lake: a new signal of Holocene high stands of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Timothy G.; Loope, Walter L.

    2005-01-01

    Aeolian sand within lake sediment from Silver Lake, Michigan can be used as a proxy for the timing of high lake levels of Lake Michigan.We demonstrate that the sand record from Silver Lake plotted as percent weight is in-phase with the elevation curve of Lake Michigan since the mid-Holocene Nipissing Phase. Because fluctuations in Lake Michigan's lake level are recorded in beach ridges, and are a response to climate change, the aeolian sand record within Silver Lake is also a proxy for climate change. It appears that increases in dune activity and lake sand are controlled by similar climatic shifts that drive fluctuations in lake level of Lake Michigan. High lake levels destabilize coastal bluffs that drive dune sand instability, and along with greater wintertime storminess, increase niveo-aeolian transport of sand across lake ice. The sand is introduced into the lake each spring as the ice cover melts.

  1. Archaea in Yellowstone Lake.

    PubMed

    Kan, Jinjun; Clingenpeel, Scott; Macur, Richard E; Inskeep, William P; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Gorby, Yuri; McDermott, Timothy R; Nealson, Kenneth

    2011-11-01

    The Yellowstone geothermal complex has yielded foundational discoveries that have significantly enhanced our understanding of the Archaea. This study continues on this theme, examining Yellowstone Lake and its lake floor hydrothermal vents. Significant Archaea novelty and diversity were found associated with two near-surface photic zone environments and two vents that varied in their depth, temperature and geochemical profile. Phylogenetic diversity was assessed using 454-FLX sequencing (~51,000 pyrosequencing reads; V1 and V2 regions) and Sanger sequencing of 200 near-full-length polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clones. Automated classifiers (Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and Greengenes) were problematic for the 454-FLX reads (wrong domain or phylum), although BLAST analysis of the 454-FLX reads against the phylogenetically placed full-length Sanger sequenced PCR clones proved reliable. Most of the archaeal diversity was associated with vents, and as expected there were differences between the vents and the near-surface photic zone samples. Thaumarchaeota dominated all samples: vent-associated organisms corresponded to the largely uncharacterized Marine Group I, and in surface waters, ~69-84% of the 454-FLX reads matched archaeal clones representing organisms that are Nitrosopumilus maritimus-like (96-97% identity). Importance of the lake nitrogen cycling was also suggested by >5% of the alkaline vent phylotypes being closely related to the nitrifier Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. The Euryarchaeota were primarily related to the uncharacterized environmental clones that make up the Deep Sea Euryarchaeal Group or Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group-6. The phylogenetic parallels of Yellowstone Lake archaea to marine microorganisms provide opportunities to examine interesting evolutionary tracks between freshwater and marine lineages. PMID:21544103

  2. Method for lake restoration

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, Gaynor W.; Mercer, Basil W.

    1979-01-01

    A process for removing pollutants or minerals from lake, river or ocean sediments or from mine tailings is disclosed. Magnetically attractable collection units containing an ion exchange or sorbent media with an affinity for a chosen target substance are distributed in the sediments or tailings. After a period of time has passed sufficient for the particles to bind up the target substances, a magnet drawn through the sediments or across the tailings retrieves the units along with the target substance.

  3. Archaea in Yellowstone Lake

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Jinjun; Clingenpeel, Scott; Macur, Richard E; Inskeep, William P; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Gorby, Yuri; McDermott, Timothy R; Nealson, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Yellowstone geothermal complex has yielded foundational discoveries that have significantly enhanced our understanding of the Archaea. This study continues on this theme, examining Yellowstone Lake and its lake floor hydrothermal vents. Significant Archaea novelty and diversity were found associated with two near-surface photic zone environments and two vents that varied in their depth, temperature and geochemical profile. Phylogenetic diversity was assessed using 454-FLX sequencing (?51?000 pyrosequencing reads; V1 and V2 regions) and Sanger sequencing of 200 near-full-length polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clones. Automated classifiers (Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and Greengenes) were problematic for the 454-FLX reads (wrong domain or phylum), although BLAST analysis of the 454-FLX reads against the phylogenetically placed full-length Sanger sequenced PCR clones proved reliable. Most of the archaeal diversity was associated with vents, and as expected there were differences between the vents and the near-surface photic zone samples. Thaumarchaeota dominated all samples: vent-associated organisms corresponded to the largely uncharacterized Marine Group I, and in surface waters, ?6984% of the 454-FLX reads matched archaeal clones representing organisms that are Nitrosopumilus maritimus-like (9697% identity). Importance of the lake nitrogen cycling was also suggested by >5% of the alkaline vent phylotypes being closely related to the nitrifier Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. The Euryarchaeota were primarily related to the uncharacterized environmental clones that make up the Deep Sea Euryarchaeal Group or Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group-6. The phylogenetic parallels of Yellowstone Lake archaea to marine microorganisms provide opportunities to examine interesting evolutionary tracks between freshwater and marine lineages. PMID:21544103

  4. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, “September of My Years” “Early Bird,” the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  5. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, "September of My Years;" "Early Bird," the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  6. Angora Fire, Lake Tahoe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On the weekend of June 23, 2007, a wildfire broke out south of Lake Tahoe, which stretches across the California-Nevada border. By June 28, the Angora Fire had burned more than 200 homes and forced some 2,000 residents to evacuate, according to The Seattle Times and the Central Valley Business Times. On June 27, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the burn scar left by the Angora fire. The burn scar is dark gray, or charcoal. Water bodies, including the southern tip of Lake Tahoe and Fallen Leaf Lake, are pale silvery blue, the silver color a result of sunlight reflecting off the surface of the water. Vegetation ranges in color from dark to bright green. Streets are light gray, and the customary pattern of meandering residential streets and cul-de-sacs appears throughout the image, including the area that burned. The burn scar shows where the fire obliterated some of the residential areas just east of Fallen Leaf Lake. According to news reports, the U.S. Forest Service had expressed optimism about containing the fire within a week of the outbreak, but a few days after the fire started, it jumped a defense, forcing the evacuation of hundreds more residents. Strong winds that had been forecast for June 27, however, did not materialize, allowing firefighters to regain ground in controlling the blaze. On June 27, authorities hoped that the fire would be completely contained by July 3. According to estimates provided in the daily report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the fire had burned 3,100 acres (about 12.5 square kilometers) and was about 55 percent contained as of June 28. Some mandatory evacuations remained in effect. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  7. Hydrocarbon lakes on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, Giuseppe; Showman, Adam P.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2007-02-01

    The Huygens Probe detected dendritic drainage-like features, methane clouds and a high surface relative humidity (∼50% ) on Titan in the vicinity of its landing site [Tomasko, M.G., and 39 colleagues, 2005. Nature 438, 765-778; Niemann, H.B., and 17 colleagues, 2005. Nature 438, 779-784], suggesting sources of methane that replenish this gas against photo- and charged-particle chemical loss on short (10-100) million year timescales [Atreya, S.K., Adams, E.Y., Niemann, H.B., Demick-Montelara, J.E., Owen, T.C., Fulchignoni, M., Ferri, F., Wilson, E.H., 2006. Planet. Space Sci. In press]. On the other hand, Cassini Orbiter remote sensing shows dry and even desert-like landscapes with dunes [Lorenz, R.D., and 39 colleagues, 2006a. Science 312, 724-727], some areas worked by fluvial erosion, but no large-scale bodies of liquid [Elachi, C., and 34 colleagues, 2005. Science 308, 970-974]. Either the atmospheric methane relative humidity is declining in a steady fashion over time, or the sources that maintain the relative humidity are geographically restricted, small, or hidden within the crust itself. In this paper we explore the hypothesis that the present-day methane relative humidity is maintained entirely by lakes that cover a small part of the surface area of Titan. We calculate the required minimum surface area coverage of such lakes, assess the stabilizing influence of ethane, and the implications for moist convection in the atmosphere. We show that, under Titan's surface conditions, methane evaporates rapidly enough that shorelines of any existing lakes could potentially migrate by several hundred m to tens of km per year, rates that could be detected by the Cassini orbiter. We furthermore show that the high relative humidity of methane in Titan's lower atmosphere could be maintained by evaporation from lakes covering only 0.002-0.02 of the whole surface.

  8. Hydrology of Lake County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Darwin D.; Hughes, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    Lake County includes a 1,150 square-mile area consisting of ridges, uplands, and valleys in central-peninsular Florida. About 32 percent of the county is covered by lakes, swamps, and marshes. Water requirements in 1970 averaged about 54 million gallons per day. About 85 percent of the water was obtained from wells; about 15 percent from lakes. The Floridan aquifer supplies almost all the ground water used in Lake County. Annual recharge to the Floridan aquifer averages about 7 inches over the county; runoff average 8.5 inches. The quality of ground and surface water in Lake County is in general good enough for most uses; however, the poor quality of Floridan-aquifer water in the St. John River Valley probably results from the upward movement of saline water along a fault zone. Surface water in Lake County is usually less mineralized than ground water but is more turbid and colored. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Spatially explicit analyses of gastropod biodiversity in ancient Lake Ohrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Schreiber, K.; Birkhofer, K.; Trajanovski, S.; Wilke, T.

    2010-07-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of biodiversity arises from evolutionary processes, constraints of environmental factors and the interaction of communities. The quality of such spatial analyses of biodiversity is improved by (i) utilizing study areas with well defined physiogeographical boundaries, (ii) limiting the impact of widespread species, and (iii) using taxa with heterogeneous distributions. These conditions are typically met by ecosystems such as oceanic islands or ancient lakes and their biota. While research on ancient lakes has contributed significantly to our understanding of evolutionary processes, statistically sound studies of spatial variation of extant biodiversity have been hampered by the frequently vast size of ancient lakes, their limited accessibility, and the lack of infrastructure around them. The small European ancient Lake Ohrid provides a rare opportunity for such a reliable spatial study. The comprehensive horizontal and vertical sampling of a species-rich taxon, the Gastropoda, presented here, revealed interesting patterns of biodiversity, which, in part, have not been shown before for other ancient lakes. In a total of 224 locations throughout the Ohrid Basin, representatives of 68 gastropod species with 50 of them being endemic (=73.5%) could be reported. The spatial distribution of these species shows the following characteristics: (i) within Lake Ohrid, the most frequent species are endemic taxa with a wide depth range, (ii) widespread species (i.e. those occurring throughout the Balkans or beyond) are rare and mainly occur in the upper layer of the lake, (iii) while the total number of species decreases with water depth, the share of endemics increases, (iv) the deeper layers of Lake Ohrid appear to have a higher spatial homogeneity of biodiversity and related environmental factors, (v) biotic interaction due to possible spillover effects may contribute to the establishment of hotspots, and (vi) eco-insularity within the Ohrid Basin occurs at two levels, at the level of the lake proper and at the level of the feeder-springs. It is also shown that large scale effects such as type of water body or water depth are mainly responsible for the distribution of biodiversity. In addition, small scale effects like environmental gradients or biotic interaction affect gastropod composition within a particular depth zone.

  10. Temporal and spatial changes of water quality and management strategies of Dianchi Lake in southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Zeng, W. H.; Wang, S. R.; Ni, Z. K.

    2014-04-01

    Temporal and spatial changes to the water quality of Dianchi Lake in southwest China were investigated using monthly monitoring data from 2005 to 2012. Dianchi Lake is divided into two parts, Caohai Lake and Waihai Lake, by a man-made dike. Caohai Lake lies at the north of Dianchi Lake, while Waihai Lake is the main water body of Dianchi Lake and accounts for 96.7% of the whole area of the lake. Based on the analysis of total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations, it was determined that, in Caohai Lake, the annual concentrations of these variables ranged from 0.19-1.46 mg L-1, 6.11-16.79 mg L-1, 0.06-0.14 mg L-1, respectively. In addition, the annual concentrations of TP, TN and Chl a in Waihai Lake ranged between 0.13 and 0.20 mg L-1, 1.82 and 3.01 mg L-1, and 0.04 and 0.09 mg L-1, respectively. Cluster analysis (CA) classified the 10 monitoring sites into two clusters (cluster A and cluster B) based on similarities of water quality characteristics. Our data revealed that the current status of water quality within Caohai Lake was much worse than that of Waihai Lake. Water quality was seriously degraded during the economic boom near the period of the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" (2005-2010), and gradually improved from 2010 to 2012 because of the "standard emission directive to industry". The main factors that influenced the spatial and temporal changes to water quality were natural factors including lake evolution and regional characteristic as well as human factors such as pollution load into the lake and management strategies that were already adopted. Some activities and regulations were implemented to enhance the lake environment by controlling wastewater emissions and establishing regulations to protect the lakes in the Yunnan Province. However, problems with institutional fragmentation (horizontal and vertical), simple treatment methods, low-intensity investment in pollution control, and lack of meaningful endogenous pollution control strategies were still present in the lake management strategy. To solve these problems, suitable control measures are needed, especially considering the current old-age status of Dianchi Lake. The fundamental improvement of the water quality within Caohai Lake was dependent on the measures taken in the upper reaches of the Caohai Watershed, including further recovery of submerged plants, resource utilization by floating plants and the reinforcement of sediment disposal. Management strategies for endogenous pollution in Waihai Lake were mainly dependent on restocking algae-eating fish and the ecological restoration of macrophytes. In this way, the swamping trend and the ageing process that is occurring in Dianchi Lake can be stunted. And the management strategies would be a contribution to the management of water conflicts between mankind and ecosystems in similar lakes.

  11. Landsat analysis of lake quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Fisher, L. T.; Holmquist, K. W.

    1979-01-01

    The trophic status of a number of inland lakes in Wisconsin has been assessed. The feasibility of using both photographic and digital representations of Landsat imagery was investigated during the lake classification project. The result of the investigation has been a semi-automatic data acquisition and handling system which, in conjunction with an analytical categorization scheme, can be used to classify all the significant lakes in the state.

  12. Lake Trout Sampling in Glacier National Park

    Montana Cooperative Fishery Research Unit – Sean Townsend paddles across Kintla Lake in Glacier National Park, sampling for invasive lake trout. Native bull trout are negatively affected by invasives such as lake trout and runoff from upstream glaciers....

  13. Hidden Lake in Glacier National Park, Montana

    Hidden Lake in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA, a high mountain lake in an alpine setting. This lake is kept full of water mainly from precipitation runoff from the surrounding hills and, in the spring, from snowmelt....

  14. Vertical Sextants give Good Sights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Mark

    Many texts stress the need for marine sextants to be held precisely vertical at the instant that the altitude of a heavenly body is measured. Several authors lay particular emphasis on the technique of the instrument in a small arc about the horizontal axis to obtain a good sight. Nobody, to the author's knowledge, however, has attempted to quantify the errors involved, so as to compare them with other errors inherent in determining celestial position lines. This paper sets out to address these issues and to pose the question: what level of accuracy of vertical alignment can reasonably be expected during marine sextant work at sea ?When a heavenly body is brought to tangency with the visible horizon it is particularly important to ensure that the sextant is held in a truly vertical position. To this end the instrument is rocked gently about the horizontal so that the image of the body describes a small arc in the observer's field of vision. As Bruce Bauer points out, tangency with the horizon must be achieved during the process of rocking and not a second or so after rocking has been discontinued. The altitude is recorded for the instant that the body kisses the visible horizon at the lowest point of the rocking arc, as in Fig. 2. The only other visual clue as to whether the sextant is vertical is provided by the right angle made by the vertical edge of the horizon glass mirror with the horizon. There may also be some input from the observer's sense of balance and his hand orientation.

  15. Progress toward lake trout restoration in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holey, Mark E.; Rybicki, Ronald W.; Eck, Gary W.; Brown, Edward H., Jr.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lavis, Dennis S.; Toneys, Michael L.; Trudeau, Tom N.; Horrall, Ross M.

    1995-01-01

    Progress toward lake trout restoration in Lake Michigan is described through 1993. Extinction of the native lake trout fishery by sea lamprey predation, augmented by exploitation and habitat destruction, resulted in an extensive stocking program of hatchery-reared lake trout that began in 1965. Sea lamprey abundance was effectively controlled using selective chemical toxicants. The initial stocking produced a measurable wild year class of lake trout by 1976 in Grand Traverse Bay, but failed to continue probably due to excessive exploitation. The overall lack of successful reproduction lakewide by the late 1970s led to the development and implementation in 1985 of a focused inter-agency lakewide restoration plan by a technical committee created through the Lake Committee structure of the Great Lakes Fishery Commission. Strategies implemented in 1985 by the plan included setting a 40% total mortality goal lakewide, creating two large refuges designed to encompass historically the most productive spawning habitat and protect trout stocked over their home range, evaluating several lake trout strains, and setting stocking priorities throughout the lake. Target levels for stocking in the 1985 Plan have never been reached, and are much less than the estimated lakewide recruitment of yearlings by the native lake trout stocks. Since 1985, over 90% of the available lake trout have been stocked over the best spawning habitat, and colonization of the historically productive offshore reefs has occurred. Concentrations of spawning lake trout large enough for successful reproduction, based on observations of successful hatchery and wild stocks, have developed at specific reefs. Continued lack of recruitment at these specific sites suggests that something other than stotk abundance has limited success. Poor survival of lake trout eggs, assumed to be related to contaminant burden, occurred in the late 1970s and early 1980s, but survival has since increased to equal survival in the hatchery. A recent increase in lamprey wounding rates in northern Lake Michigan appears to be related to the uncontrolled build-up of lampreys in the St. Marys River a tributary of Lake Huron. If left uncontrolled, further progress toward restoration in the Northern Refuge may be limited.

  16. The effect of loading efficiency on the groundwater response to water level changes in shallow lakes and streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The loading efficiency (sometimes called the tidal efficiency) is often neglected when simulating the head response in an aquifer to water level changes in lakes and streams. This is not appropriate when the lake or stream only partially penetrates the aquifer. In such cases, the aquifer extends below the lake or stream and is hydraulically connected through a semiconfining layer of lower permeability. The loading efficiency is the ratio between the instantaneous head response below a lake or stream and the water level change in the lake or stream. In sand and clay, whose particles are not cemented together, the instantaneous head response below a stream or lake is nearly equal to the stage change, and the loading efficiency is close to 1. New semianalytic solutions are presented for the groundwater response to water level changes in shallow lakes and streams that account for the loading efficiency of the aquifer. It is shown that the loading efficiency may have a significant effect on the head response. The effect is larger for larger values of the vertical resistance of the semiconfining layer and larger width of the stream and is much more pronounced in confined aquifers than in unconfined aquifers. The importance of the loading efficiency declines with time and with distance from the lake or stream. Graphs are presented that may be used to determine whether a certain combination of parameters gives a significant difference in the head at the lake shore or river bank when the loading efficiency is taken into account.

  17. Role of a groundwater-lake interface in controlling seepage of water and nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karan, S.; Kidmose, J.; Engesgaard, P.; Nilsson, B.; Frandsen, M.; Ommen, D. A. O.; Flindt, M. R.; Andersen, F. Ø.; Pedersen, O.

    2014-09-01

    The effects of the hydraulic characteristics of a groundwater-lake interface on discharge and nitrate loading to a lake were investigated. The interface is defined as the zone separating the adjacent aquifer (10's of m) and the lake bed (10's of cm) itself. The study combines field data using several tracers (water, oxygen isotopes, and nitrate) and numerical modeling. The hydraulic head distribution, a nitrate plume and seepage rates were observed over a two-year period along a ∼100 m long transect reaching from an agricultural field into the lake. The groundwater-lake interface system was simulated with a 2D steady state flow and nitrate transport model (FEFLOW). The observations showed that discharge to the lake was doubled-peaked, with a peak discharge near the shore line followed by an almost (classical) exponential decrease, and a second peak further off-shore. The nitrate plume also extended 60-80 m off-shore. By calibrating the model to measured discharge and the outline of the nitrate plume it was demonstrated that; (1) the ratio of horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity (anisotropy) was very important and on the order of 50 and (2) the lake bed acted as a hydraulic barrier by having a much lower hydraulic conductivity than that of the relatively homogeneous aquifer. We suggest that the barrier is formed by an extensive plant cover that can trap finer materials and produce a surface colmation layer. The simulation results show that when a barrier is present the total groundwater discharge to the lake can be up to a factor of two lower and that approximately 50% of the nitrate bypasses the barrier. This proportion of the nitrate loading will therefore also bypass the plant cover and discharge directly to the lake off-shore potentially leading to algal blooms under N-limited conditions in the lake water column.

  18. Lake Charles CCS Project

    SciTech Connect

    Leib, Thomas; Cole, Dan

    2015-06-30

    In late September 2014 development of the Lake Charles Clean Energy (LCCE) Plant was abandoned resulting in termination of Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project which was a subset the LCCE Plant. As a result, the project was only funded through Phase 2A (Design) and did not enter Phase 2B (Construction) or Phase 2C (Operations). This report was prepared relying on information prepared and provided by engineering companies which were engaged by Leucadia Energy, LLC to prepare or review Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) for the Lake Charles Clean Energy Project, which includes the Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project in Lake Charles, Louisiana. The Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project was to be a large-scale industrial CCS project intended to demonstrate advanced technologies that capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial sources into underground formations. The Scope of work was divided into two discrete sections; 1) Capture and Compression prepared by the Recipient Leucadia Energy, LLC, and 2) Transport and Sequestration prepared by sub-Recipient Denbury Onshore, LLC. Capture and Compression-The Lake Charles CCS Project Final Technical Report describes the systems and equipment that would be necessary to capture CO2 generated in a large industrial gasification process and sequester the CO2 into underground formations. The purpose of each system is defined along with a description of its equipment and operation. Criteria for selection of major equipment are provided and ancillary utilities necessary for safe and reliable operation in compliance with environmental regulations are described. Construction considerations are described including a general arrangement of the CCS process units within the overall gasification project. A cost estimate is provided, delineated by system area with cost breakdown showing equipment, piping and materials, construction labor, engineering, and other costs. The CCS Project Final Technical Report is based on a Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) study prepared by SK E&C, completed in [June] 2014. Subsequently, Fluor Enterprises completed a FEED validation study in mid-September 2014. The design analyses indicated that the FEED package was sufficient and as expected. However, Fluor considered the construction risk based on a stick-build approach to be unacceptable, but construction risk would be substantially mitigated through utilization of modular construction where site labor and schedule uncertainty is minimized. Fluor’s estimate of the overall EPC project cost utilizing the revised construction plan was comparable to SKE&C’s value after reflecting Fluor’s assessment of project scope and risk characteristic. Development was halted upon conclusion of Phase 2A FEED and the project was not constructed.Transport and Sequestration – The overall objective of the pipeline project was to construct a pipeline to transport captured CO2 from the Lake Charles Clean Energy project to the existing Denbury Green Line and then to the Hastings Field in Southeast Texas to demonstrate effective geologic sequestration of captured CO2 through commercial EOR operations. The overall objective of the MVA portion of the project was to demonstrate effective geologic sequestration of captured CO2 through commercial Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) operations in order to evaluate costs, operational processes and technical performance. The DOE target for the project was to capture and implement a research MVA program to demonstrate the sequestration through EOR of approximately one million tons of CO2 per year as an integral component of commercial operations.

  19. Grand Canyon, Lake Powell, and Lake Mead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A snowfall in the American West provides contrast to the landscape's muted earth tones and indicates changes in topography and elevation across (clockwise from top left) Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. In Utah, the southern ranges of the Wasatch Mountains are covered in snow, and the Colorado River etches a dark ribbon across the red rock of the Colorado Plateau. In the center of the image is the reservoir created by the Glen Canyon Dam. To the east are the gray-colored slopes of Navaho Mountain, and to the southeast, dusted with snow is the region called Black Mesa. Southwest of Glen Canyon, the Colorado enters the Grand Canyon, which cuts westward through Arizona. At a deep bend in the river, the higher elevations of the Keibab Plateau have held onto snow. At the end of the Grand Canyon lies another large reservoir, Lake Mead, which is formed by the Hoover Dam. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  20. Seasonal Variations in δ18O of Inflowing River Water, Lake Water, Sediment Trap Material and Ostracod Shells of Lake Nam Co and its Catchment (Tibet, China) — a Proxy Calibration Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daut, G.; Wang, J.; Ju, J.; Plessen, B.; Fürstenberg, S.; Baade, J.; Frenzel, P.; Haberzettl, T.; Maeusbacher, R.; Zhu, L.

    2014-12-01

    δ18O is a very common proxy used in palaeoclimate studies all over the world, but for most parts of the world and especially the Tibetan Plateau modern studies that trace the pathway of this isotope from sink to source are lacking. In this study, financed by the BMBF (German Ministry of Science and Education, Project CADY), we present data that fill this gap. The study was performed in the terminal lake Nam Co, the biggest lake on the central Tibetan Plateau and its catchment. Water of the main tributaries to the lake, lake water at three different stations and from different water depths, bulk carbonate collected from different water depths with sediment traps and shells of living ostracods were collected for one year at lake Nam Co in approx. monthly intervals and analyzed for their δ18O values. The inflowing river waters mainly reflect the precipitation and show regional as well as seasonal variations depending on their location and on Monsoon or Westerly season but are in general on the global meteoric waterline. The lake water shows only minor vertical and spatial variations and is clearly off the meteoric waterline due to strong evaporation effects in this terminal lake. δ18O values of the bulk carbonate of sediment collected in sediment traps show only minor vertical and spatial variations during the year and the δ18O offset compared to the lake water is with around 1 ‰ quite small. Most probably this is attributed to chemical fractionation during formation of monohydrocalcite in the water column. In contrast δ18O values of ostracod shells are significant heavier than the lake water indicating isotopic fractionation (vital effect) during shell formation. In addition a seasonal variability is visible. The data of this proxy calibration study give now for the first time the opportunity to validate δ18O proxy data measured on core material from Lake Nam Co for their palaeoclimatic significance.

  1. Glacial lake drainage in Patagonia (13-8 kyr) and response of the adjacent Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Neil F; Jansson, Krister N; Duller, Geoffrey A T; Singarayer, Joy; Holloway, Max; Harrison, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Large freshwater lakes formed in North America and Europe during deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum. Rapid drainage of these lakes into the Oceans resulted in abrupt perturbations in climate, including the Younger Dryas and 8.2 kyr cooling events. In the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere major glacial lakes also formed and drained during deglaciation but little is known about the magnitude, organization and timing of these drainage events and their effect on regional climate. We use 16 new single-grain optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates to define three stages of rapid glacial lake drainage in the Lago General Carrera/Lago Buenos Aires and Lago Cohrane/Pueyrredón basins of Patagonia and provide the first assessment of the effects of lake drainage on the Pacific Ocean. Lake drainage occurred between 13 and 8 kyr ago and was initially gradual eastward into the Atlantic, then subsequently reorganized westward into the Pacific as new drainage routes opened up during Patagonian Ice Sheet deglaciation. Coupled ocean-atmosphere model experiments using HadCM3 with an imposed freshwater surface "hosing" to simulate glacial lake drainage suggest that a negative salinity anomaly was advected south around Cape Horn, resulting in brief but significant impacts on coastal ocean vertical mixing and regional climate. PMID:26869235

  2. Backscatter from ice growing on shallow tundra lakes near Barrow, Alaska, winter 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffries, M. O.; Wakabayashi, H.; Weeks, W. F.; Morris, K.

    1993-01-01

    The timing of freeze-up and break-up of Arctic lake ice is a potentially useful environmental indicator that could be monitored using SAR. In order to do this, it is important to understand how the properties and structure of the ice during its growth and decay affect radar backscatter and thus lake ice SAR signatures. The availability of radiometrically and geometrically calibrated digital SAR data time series from the Alaska SAR Facility has made it possible for the first time to quantify lake ice backscatter intensity (sigma(sup o)) variations. This has been done for ice growing on shallow tundra lakes near Barrow, NW Alaska, from initial growth in September 1991 until thawing and decay in June 1992. Field and laboratory observations and measurements of the lake ice were made in late April 1992. The field investigations of the coastal lakes near Barrow confirmed previous findings that, (1) ice frozen to the lake bottom had a dark signature in SAR images, indicating weak backscatter, while, (2) ice that was floating had a bright signature, indicating strong backscatter. At all sites, regardless of whether the ice was grounded or floating, there was a layer of clear, inclusion-free ice overlaying a layer of ice with dense concentrations of vertically oriented tubular bubbles. At some sites, there was a third layer of porous, snow-ice overlaying the clear ice.

  3. Glacial lake drainage in Patagonia (13-8 kyr) and response of the adjacent Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Glasser, Neil F.; Jansson, Krister N.; Duller, Geoffrey A. T.; Singarayer, Joy; Holloway, Max; Harrison, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Large freshwater lakes formed in North America and Europe during deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum. Rapid drainage of these lakes into the Oceans resulted in abrupt perturbations in climate, including the Younger Dryas and 8.2 kyr cooling events. In the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere major glacial lakes also formed and drained during deglaciation but little is known about the magnitude, organization and timing of these drainage events and their effect on regional climate. We use 16 new single-grain optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates to define three stages of rapid glacial lake drainage in the Lago General Carrera/Lago Buenos Aires and Lago Cohrane/Pueyrredón basins of Patagonia and provide the first assessment of the effects of lake drainage on the Pacific Ocean. Lake drainage occurred between 13 and 8 kyr ago and was initially gradual eastward into the Atlantic, then subsequently reorganized westward into the Pacific as new drainage routes opened up during Patagonian Ice Sheet deglaciation. Coupled ocean-atmosphere model experiments using HadCM3 with an imposed freshwater surface “hosing” to simulate glacial lake drainage suggest that a negative salinity anomaly was advected south around Cape Horn, resulting in brief but significant impacts on coastal ocean vertical mixing and regional climate. PMID:26869235

  4. A gazetteer of surface-mine lakes, Eastern Interior Coal Province, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voelker, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Hundreds of lakes have been formed as a result of surface mining in Area 35 of the Eastern Interior Coal Province in Illinois. This gazetteer contains physical and chemical data from 107 surface-mine lakes sampled from June through August 1983. Information collected includes location, morphology, and vertical profile measurements of water quality of the lakes. Sampled lakes range in size from 8.8 to 210 acres, and are from 4.0 to 92.0 feet deep. Maximum widths range from 0.03 to 0.35 mile, and maximum lengths range from 0.27 to 3.08 miles. Some lake waters were stratified, whereas others were completely mixed. General water quality differed widely among the lakes. Specific conductances ranged from 130 to 7,800 micromhos per centimeter (at 25 degrees Celsius). Specific conductances of 2 ,000 to 5,000 micromhos per centimeter were most prevalent. The pH values ranged from 1.8 to 9.6 at the surface, whereas bottom measurements ranged from 2.0 to 8.5. Water temperatures near the surface ranged from 22.5 degrees Celsius in June to 34.5 degrees Celsius in August. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations differed greatly among the lakes; concentrations near the surface ranged from 6.0 to 13.2 milligrams per liter. Transparencies ranged from 0.3 to 35.4 feet. (USGS)

  5. Glacial lake drainage in Patagonia (13-8 kyr) and response of the adjacent Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, Neil F.; Jansson, Krister N.; Duller, Geoffrey A. T.; Singarayer, Joy; Holloway, Max; Harrison, Stephan

    2016-02-01

    Large freshwater lakes formed in North America and Europe during deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum. Rapid drainage of these lakes into the Oceans resulted in abrupt perturbations in climate, including the Younger Dryas and 8.2 kyr cooling events. In the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere major glacial lakes also formed and drained during deglaciation but little is known about the magnitude, organization and timing of these drainage events and their effect on regional climate. We use 16 new single-grain optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates to define three stages of rapid glacial lake drainage in the Lago General Carrera/Lago Buenos Aires and Lago Cohrane/Pueyrredón basins of Patagonia and provide the first assessment of the effects of lake drainage on the Pacific Ocean. Lake drainage occurred between 13 and 8 kyr ago and was initially gradual eastward into the Atlantic, then subsequently reorganized westward into the Pacific as new drainage routes opened up during Patagonian Ice Sheet deglaciation. Coupled ocean-atmosphere model experiments using HadCM3 with an imposed freshwater surface “hosing” to simulate glacial lake drainage suggest that a negative salinity anomaly was advected south around Cape Horn, resulting in brief but significant impacts on coastal ocean vertical mixing and regional climate.

  6. Lake Vostok: From a Continental Margin to a Subglacial Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studinger, M.; Bell, R. E.; KArner, G. D.; Tikku, A. A.; Levin, V.; Raymond, C. A.; Lerner-Lam, A.

    2002-05-01

    Subglacial ecosystems, in particular subglacial lakes, represent the most oligothrophic environments on Earth. The geologic origin of Lake Vostok is a critical boundary condition for both the stability of the lake and energy fluxes into the lake. Microbial life may use geothermal energy, similar to life discovered at deep sea hydrothermal vents. Significant geothermal anomalies are often associated with active faulting. The topographic depression which forms the craddle for Lake Vostok is part of a regional tectonic structure ranging from the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains to the Aurora Subglacial Basin. This geologic boundary was formed by emplacement of a thrust sheet from the east over a pre-existing passive continental margin beneath the present-day Lake Vostok. No data exist to directly date either the timing of passive margin formation or the subsequent crustal shortening. Minor extensional reactivation of the thrust sheet explains a simple mechanism to explain the formation of the Lake Vostok basin. The steep slopes bounding this depression are likley being fault-controlled. Our recent discovery of microseismic activity suggest that this faults might be active and could act as conduits for convecting fluids. The tectonic processes can have an important influence on the ecosystem within the lake.

  7. Gillnet selectivity for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Selgeby, James H.; Helser, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    Gillnet selectivity for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was estimated indirectly from catches in nets of 102-, 114-, 127-, 140-, and 152-mm stretch measure. Mesh selectivity was modeled as a nonlinear response surface that describes changes in the mean, standard deviation, and skewness of fish lengths across mesh sizes. Gillnet selectivity for lake trout was described by five parameters that explained 88% of the variation in wedged and entangled catches, 81% of the variation in wedged catches, and 82% of the variation in entangled catches. Combined catches of wedged and entangled lake trout were therefore described more parsimoniously than separate catches of wedged and entangled lake trout. Peak selectivity of wedged and entangled fish increased from 588 to 663 mm total length as mesh size increased from 102 to 152 mm, and relative selectivity peaked at a total length of 638 mm. The estimated lake trout population size-frequency indicated that gillnet catches were negatively biased toward both small and large lake trout. As a consequence of this bias, survival of Lake Superior lake trout across ages 9-11 was underestimated by about 20% when the catch curve was not adjusted for gillnet selectivity.

  8. Biology of young lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oosten, John; Eschmeyer, Paul H.

    1956-01-01

    Experimental fishing with gill nets of 5 mesh sizes (2 3/8 to 3 inches) in Lake Michigan in 1930-32 yielded more than 16,000 young lake trout. Data are presented here on age, growth, length-weight relationship, abundance, geographical and bathymetric distribution, and other details of their biology.

  9. The near extinction of lake trout in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.

    1957-01-01

    Comparisons in 1949 and 1950 of numbers of legal-sized lake trout caught in large-mesh nets with numbers of small fish taken in chub nets showed that both large and small lake trout declined over the same period, and that by these years the decline may have been greater among small than among legal-sized fish.

  10. Holocene lake-level fluctuations of Lake Aricota, Southern Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Placzek, C.; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Lacustrine deposits exposed around Lake Aricota, Peru (17?? 22???S), a 7.5-km2 lake dammed by debris flows, provide a middle to late Holocene record of lake-level fluctuations. Chronological context for shoreline deposits was obtained from radiocarbon dating of vascular plant remains and other datable material with minimal 14C reservoir effects (<350 yr). Diatomites associated with highstands several meters above the modern lake level indicate wet episodes. Maximum Holocene lake level was attained before 6100 14C yr B.P. and ended ???2700 14C yr B.P. Moderately high lake levels occurred at 1700 and 1300 14C yr B.P. The highstand at Lake Aricota during the middle Holocene is coeval with a major lowstand at Lake Titicaca (16?? S), which is only 130 km to the northeast and shares a similar climatology. Comparisons with other marine and terrestrial records highlight emerging contradictions over the nature of mid-Holocene climate in the central Andes. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  11. Geographical distributions of lake trout strains stocked in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Schaner, Ted

    1996-01-01

    Geographical distributions of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) stocked at seven locations in U.S. waters and at four locations in Canadian waters of Lake Ontario were determined from fish caught with gill nets in September in 17 areas of U.S. waters and at 10 fixed locations in Canadian waters in 1986-95. For fish of a given strain stocked at a given location, geographical distributions were not different for immature males and immature females or for mature males and mature females. The proportion of total catch at the three locations nearest the stocking location was higher for mature fish than for immature fish in all 24 available comparisons (sexes combined) and was greater for fish stocked as yearlings than for those stocked as fingerlings in all eight comparisons. Mature fish were relatively widely dispersed from stocking locations indicating that their tendency to return to stocking locations for spawning was weak, and there was no appreciable difference in this tendency among strains. Mature lake trout were uniformly distributed among sampling locations, and the strain composition at stocking locations generally reflected the stocking history 5 to 6 years earlier. Few lake trout moved across Lake Ontario between the north and south shores or between the eastern outlet basin and the main lake basin. Limited dispersal from stocking sites supports the concept of stocking different genetic strains in various parts of the lake with the attributes of each strain selected to match environmental conditions in the portion of the lake where it is stocked.

  12. Relationships between wind velocity and underwater irradiance in a shallow lake (Lake Okeechobee, Florida, USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanlon, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; McPherson, B.F.

    1998-01-01

    Relationships between wind velocity and the vertical light attenuation coefficient (K0) were determined at two locations in a large, shallow lake (Lake Okeechobee, Florida, USA). K0 was significantly correlated with antecedent wind conditions, which explained as much as 90 percent of the daily variation in K0. Sub-surface irradiance began to change within 60 to 90 minutes of the time when wind velocity exceeded or dropped below a threshold value. Maximum one hour changes in K0 were > 50 percent, however, 20 to 30 percent changes were more common. The magnitude of change in K0 varied spatially based on differences in sediment type. K0 never exceeded 2.8 at a location where bottom sediments were dominated by a mixture of coarse sand and shells. In comparison, K0 exceeded 9 during episodic wind events where the bottom sediment was comprised of fine grain mud. Underwater irradiance data can be used to determine threshold wind velocity and account for the influence sediment type has on K0. Once a threshold velocity has been established, the frequency, rate, and duration of expected change in underwater irradiance can be evaluated. This is critical information for scientists who are studying algal productivity or other light-related phenomena.Relationships between wind velocity and the vertical light attenuation coefficient (K0) were determined at two locations in a large, shallow lake (Lake Okeechobee, Florida, USA). K0 was significantly correlated with antecedent wind conditions, which explained as much as 90 percent of the daily variation in K0. Sub-surface irradiance began to change within 60 to 90 minutes of the time when wind velocity exceeded or dropped below a threshold value. Maximum one hour changes in K0 were >50 percent, however, 20 to 30 percent changes were more common. The magnitude of change in K0 varied spatially based on differences in sediment type. K0 never exceeded 2.8 at a location where bottom sediments were dominated by a mixture of coarse sand and shells. In comparison, K0 exceeded 9 during episodic wind events where the bottom sediment was comprised of fine grain mud. Underwater irradiance data can be used to determine threshold wind velocity and account for the influence sediment type has on K0. Once a threshold velocity has been established, the frequency, rate, and duration of expected change in underwater irradiance can be evaluated. This is critical information for scientists who are studying algal productivity or other light-related phenomena.

  13. Seasonal changes of methane concentration in boreal lakes of NW Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabelina, Svetlana; Desmukh, Chandrashekhar; Pokrovsky, Oleg; Savvichev, Alexander; Shirokova, Liudmila; Guerin, Frederic; Zakharova, Elena

    2010-05-01

    Methane (CH4), produced by methanogenic Archaea under strictly anoxic conditions in sediments, is an important atmospheric greenhouse gas, contributing to global warming. Besides, the importance of boreal lakes in global methane evaluation stem from the high coverage of arctic and subarctic land surface by lakes of glacial or thermokarst origin. The first step in the evaluation of methane biogeochemical cycle in high latitudes is the measurement of its concentration in the water column and bottom porewater sediments. In this work, we investigated several typical seasonally stratified lakes in Arkhnagelsk region of the NW Russia. Methane concentrations profiles were measured in the water column and sediment porewaters of two lakes of the Kenozersky National Park (KNP) (Lake Maselgskoe and Lake Vilno) located in the middle of taiga zone southwest from Arkhangelsk, and the lake Svjatoe located in the Geobiopsheric station "Rotkovetz" during the summer (2007, 2009) and winter (2008) stratification period. In addition, the lake Maselgskoe was studied during spring and autumn water overturn. During summer period, methane profiles in the lake Maselgskoe showed three zones with differed CH4 concentration: constant concentration around 0.22 µmol/L in the surface layer (0 to 6-7 m), then gradual decrease to 0.05 μmol/L (8 to 15 m) and significant increase to 80 μmol/L in near-bottom water. During autumn lake water overturn, mean СН4 concentration (0.31 µmol/L) in the water column of the lake Maselgskoe gradually but decreased insignificant from the surface to depth horizons. Stratified lake Svyatoe in 2007 and shallow lake Vilno in 2009 demonstrated similar features of CH4 concentration profile, however near-bottom concentration in lakes was an order of magnitude less than in Maselgskoe. The sediment porewaters of stratified lakes exhibit the concentration of methane ranging from 0.43 to 2.0 mmol/L in summer and from 1 to 2.4 mmol/L in winter in lake Maselgskoe and from 0.3 to 1.3 in summer and winter in lake Svyatoe. Such a high concentration indicates that the methane production carried out by anaerobic Archaea and process significant amount of organic matter competing with the bacterial sulphate reduction. Observed profiles result from a combination of several factors such as 1) the flux from the sediments to the water column, 2) spatially variable vertical mixing, and 3) aerobic and anaerobic microbial oxidation of methane in the water column. Note that at the oxic-anoxic interface in the water column or in the sediments, CH4-oxidizing bacteria transform CH4 carbon to bacterial biomass, microbial metabolite compounds and carbon dioxide. Therefore, CH4 has a potential of significant carbon source for the food web. Elevated methane concentrations in the subsurface water are not related solely to the methane fluxes from the sediments but probably result from microbial production of methane in the gut of zooplankton and higher aquatic organisms, as well as within the fecal pellets and detrital material at the anoxic microzone. Obtained results demonstrate the high importance of boreal aquatic ecosystems in methane biogeochemistry. There are more than 220 thousand of lakes in the Arkhangelsk region and these lakes are ice covered for about six months (November-April). In winter, the stratification period produces oxygen depletion and it can increase CH4 emissions from the lake to the atmosphere which will be essentially pronounced during spring ice thawing period. Today, there is no rigorous evaluation of methane fluxes associated with this seasonal process in NW of Russia. Because the allochtonous input of organic matter from adjacent wetlands is likely to increase both CH4 and CO2 production in lakes, this will have a direct impact on the greenhouse gas emissions from lakes.

  14. Hydrologic Data for Deep Creek Lake and Selected Tributaries, Garrett County, Maryland, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, William S.L.; Davies, William J.; Gellis, Allen C.; LaMotte, Andrew E.; McPherson, Wendy S.; Soeder, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Recent and ongoing efforts to develop the land in the area around Deep Creek Lake, Garrett County, Maryland, are expected to change the volume of sediment moving toward and into the lake, as well as impact the water quality of the lake and its many tributaries. With increased development, there is an associated increased demand for groundwater and surface-water withdrawals, as well as boat access. Proposed dredging of the lake bottom to improve boat access has raised concerns about the adverse environmental effects such activities would have on the lake. The Maryland Department of Natural Resources (MDDNR) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a cooperative study during 2007 and 2008 to address these issues. This study was designed to address several objectives to support MDDNR?s management strategy for Deep Creek Lake. The objectives of this study were to: Determine the current physical shape of the lake through bathymetric surveys; Initiate flow and sediment monitoring of selected tributaries to characterize the stream discharge and sediment load of lake inflows; Determine sedimentation rates using isotope analysis of sediment cores; Characterize the degree of hydraulic connection between the lake and adjacent aquifer systems; and Develop an estimate of water use around Deep Creek Lake. Summary of Activities Data were collected in Deep Creek Lake and in selected tributaries from September 2007 through September 2008. The methods of investigation are presented here and all data have been archived according to USGS policy for future use. The material presented in this report is intended to provide resource managers and policy makers with a broad understanding of the bathymetry, surface water, sedimentation rates, groundwater, and water use in the study area. The report is structured so that the reader can access each topic separately using any hypertext markup (HTML) language reader. In order to establish a base-line water-depth map of Deep Creek Lake, a bathymetric survey of the lake bottom was conducted in 2007. The data collected were used to generate a bathymetric map depicting depth to the lake bottom from a full pool elevation of 2,462 feet (National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929). Data were collected along about 90 linear miles across the lake using a fathometer and a differentially corrected global positioning system. As part of a long-term monitoring plan for all surface-water inputs to the lake, streamflow data were collected continuously at two stations constructed on Poland Run and Cherry Creek. The sites were selected to represent areas of the watershed under active development and areas that are relatively stable with respect to development. Twelve months of discharge data are provided for both streams. In addition, five water-quality parameters were collected continuously at the Poland Run station including pH, specific conductance, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity. Water samples collected at Poland Run were analyzed for sediment concentration, and the results of this analysis were used to estimate the annual sediment load into Deep Creek Lake from Poland Run. To determine sedimentation rates, cores of lake-bottom sediments were collected at 23 locations. Five of the cores were analyzed using a radiometric-dating method, allowing average rates of sedimentation to be estimated for the time periods 1925 to 2008, 1925 to 1963, and 1963 to 2008. Particle-size data from seven cores collected at locations throughout the study area were analyzed to provide information on the amount of fine material in lake-bed sediments. Groundwater levels were monitored continuously in four wells and weekly in nine additional wells during October, November, and December of 2008. Water levels were compared to recorded lake levels and precipitation during the same period to determine the effect of lake-level drawdown and recovery on the adjacent aquifer systems. Water use in the Deep Creek Lake wa

  15. Late summer CH4 and DIC concentrations and δ13C in small European lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinta, P.; Bastviken, D.; van Hardenbroek, M.; Leuenberger, M.; Schilder, J.; Stoetter, T.; Heiri, O.

    2013-12-01

    Lakes are a significant source of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. Furthermore, they are a source or sink of carbon dioxide (CO2) relevant for assessing the total greenhouse gas output of wetlands. However, only few datasets are available providing detailed information on CH4 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations in lakes from a range of different biogeographic and geological settings. Such large and methodological standardized datasets are needed for understanding which factors control the greenhouse gas dynamics in lakes and for future modelling of CH4 and CO2 emissions from lakes. We sampled CH4 and DIC concentrations, isotopic composition of carbon (δ13C) of CH4 and DIC in multiple depths in the water column and in the sediment of 32 small lakes in Europe in late summer. Additionally, we measured a range of physiochemical parameters of the lake. The lakes include boreal soft-water and temperate hard-water lakes with different size and trophic status. Variation in CH4 concentration and δ13C-CH4 along vertical profiles was closely associated with changes in DIC concentration and δ13C-DIC in all studied lakes. In stratified lakes with anoxic hypolimnia, concentration of CH4 and DIC generally increased from surface water to sediment as δ13C of CH4 and DIC decreased. In lakes with oxic bottom water, CH4 and DIC concentrations in surface water were similar to those in anoxic lakes but changes in vertical distribution of concentrations and δ13C of CH4 and DIC were minor. As expected, DIC concentrations and δ13C-DIC in the epilimnion and hypolimnion of temperate hard-water lakes were remarkably higher than those in boreal soft-water lakes. In contrast, no statistically significant difference in epilimnetic or hypolimnetic CH4 concentrations or δ13C-CH4 between boreal and temperate lakes was observed. In several stratified lakes, lowest CH4 concentration and δ13C-DIC and highest δ13C-CH4 were measured in the upper layer of the hypolimnion, suggesting hypolimnetic oxidation of CH4 and lateral transport of CH4 from littoral sediments or the watershed to the epilimnion. In some boreal soft-water lakes with anoxic hypolimnion, δ13C-DIC was higher in the hypolimnion compared to the epilimnion. In our dataset, hypolimnetic CH4 concentration clearly correlates with oxygen (R=-0.72) and nutrient concentration in hypolimnion (total nitrogen R=+0.86 and total phosphorus R=+0.73) as well as weakly but statistically significantly with stratification stability. Epilimnetic CH4 concentration is not related to hypolimnetic CH4 concentration but weakly to latitude (R=-0.56). Only weak relationships between CH4 concentration and morphometric parameters are detected. This study in multiple lakes across Europe has shown that CH4 dynamics in small lakes is closely coupled with processes affecting concentrations and δ13C of DIC. The findings suggest that concentrations of CH4 are strongly related to oxygenation and stratification stability and less to other environmental factors.

  16. The Lake Ohrid SCOPSCO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Bernd; Wilke, Thomas; Krastel, Sebastian; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Leng, Melanie J.; Francke, Alexander; Baumgarten, Henrike; Cvetkoska, Aleksandra; Giacco, Biagio; Lacey, Jack H.; Leicher, Niklas; Levkov, Zlatko; Lindhorst, Katja; Reed, Jane M.; Zhang, Xiaosen; Sadori, Laura; Vogel, Hendrik; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Wonik, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The ICDP SCOPSCO project at Lake Ohrid in Macedonia and Albania was one of the most successful lake drilling campaigns worldwide. Drilling took place from April to June 2013 and yielded more than 2000 m of sediments from four different sites in the lake. The maximum penetration was 569 m below lake floor and the overall recovery at all drill sites was > 95 %. Almost two years after the drilling operation, core opening and processing as well as biological and geological analyses are still ongoing. However, most of the cores from the main drill site, the so-called DEEP site in the centre of the lake, are meanwhile opened and reveal a unique record of lake history. The extraordinary quality of seismic, borehole logging and core data allows us to achieve the major goals of the SCOPSCO project. Seismic data, diatoms and coarse-grained sediments in the basal cores indicate that Lake Ohrid had no marine origin, as it was speculated in the past. The data show that Lake Ohrid established in a highly dynamic pull-apart basin with varying fluvial and shallow water conditions. On top of these basal sediments, borehole logging data, XRF scanning data, carbonate, and the amount of organic matter indicate a complete and high resolution succession of glacial / interglacial cycles and interspersed stadials and interstadials. This allows us to determine the establishment of Lake Ohrid by means of chronostratigraphic tuning to about 1.3 to 1.5 Ma ago. Additional, independent age control is given by paleomagnetic data and by numerous tephra layers, which can be correlated with well-dated proximal tephra deposits in Italy. The uppermost 350 m of the sediment record contain more than 30 tephras, which makes the Lake Ohrid record to the rosetta stone of distal Italian tephra deposits in the Balkan region. The unique sediment record of Lake Ohrid is fundamental to obtain crucial information on the overall goal of the SCOPSCO project, i.e. to clarify why Lake Ohrid has one of highest number of endemic taxa in lakes worldwide and what are the triggers of speciation. The results from our studies indicate that the long and continuous existence of Lake Ohrid and the lack of catastrophic events are the major preconditions for the unique fauna existing in Lake Ohrid today.

  17. Great Salt Lake sets record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    The level of the Great Salt Lake, Utah, broke its 1873 record on May 12, 1986, rising to 1283.7 m above mean sea level, according to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Heavy snowpack remains in the lake's drainage basin, and the lake is likely to continue rising into June. “It could well go up another foot [i.e., ˜0.3 m],” this season, according to Ted Arnow, USGS district chief in Utah.The Utah state legislature convened a special session on May 13 to discuss measures to control the flooding. Last year, the legislature began to consider funding a plan to pump water from the Great Salt Lake to form a large, shallow pond in the desert 48 km to the west. Because the lake's level was predicted to drop this year, however, the lawmakers postponed action on the issue (Eos, September 10, 1985, p. 641). The Rose Park area of Salt Lake City, which lies below the lake's current level, has been diked, but groundwater is backing up into Rose Park and has to be pumped out over the dikes, Arnow said. Also, trains that use the Southern Pacific railroad causeway, which crosses the lake, have had to be temporarily rerouted south of the lake during storms. The causeway has been progressively raised since 1983, but engineers now say that they can raise it no further because the added weight will make it sink into the lake, Arnow said. If the lake rises much higher, the interstate highway that runs by it might also have to shut down temporarily during storms, he added.

  18. Distribution and Diversity of Archaea Corresponding to the Limnological Cycle of a Hypersaline Stratified Lake (Solar Lake, Sinai, Egypt)

    PubMed Central

    Cytryn, Eddie; Minz, Dror; Oremland, Ronald S.; Cohen, Yehuda

    2000-01-01

    The vertical and seasonal distribution and diversity of archaeal sequences was investigated in a hypersaline, stratified, monomictic lake, Solar Lake, Sinai, Egypt, during the limnological development of stratification and mixing. Archaeal sequences were studied via phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences as well as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. The 165 clones studied were grouped into four phylogenetically different clusters. Most of the clones isolated from both the aerobic epilimnion and the sulfide-rich hypolimnion were defined as cluster I, belonging to the Halobacteriaceae family. The three additional clusters were all isolated from the anaerobic hypolimnion. Cluster II is phylogenetically located between the genera Methanobacterium and Methanococcus. Clusters III and IV relate to two previously documented groups of uncultured euryarchaeota, remotely related to the genus Thermoplasma. No crenarchaeota were found in the water column of the Solar Lake. The archaeal community in the Solar Lake under both stratified and mixed conditions was dominated by halobacteria in salinities higher than 10%. During stratification, additional clusters, some of which may possibly relate to uncultured halophilic methanogens, were found in the sulfide- and methane-rich hypolimnion. PMID:10919780

  19. Microbial activity and phylogeny in ice cores retrieved from Lake Paula, a newly detected freshwater lake in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattler, Birgit I.; Waldhuber, Sebastian; Fischer, Helgard; Semmler, Hans; Sipiera, Paul P.; Psenner, Roland

    2004-11-01

    A permanent ice covered water body, called Lake Paula, was detected in Patriot Hills in the West Antarctic and sampled for the first time ever for microbial life. The ice sheet measured approximately 2,5m thickness and the water body has a depth of about 10m. The lake is situated near a moraine which partly ablates from snow and provides meltwater from the slopes to the lake during austral summer. These running waters which are kept liquid by the heating up of the dark soil are penetrating the lower ice cover and thus softening up the lakeside part if the ice core. It is inoculated by nutrients, active microbes and diatoms of terrestrial origin. A distinct gradient concerning bacterial numbers, biomass and production which is 10 fold at the ice-water interface compared to the exposed part is observable. Temperature sensitivity of the embedded microbes reflect the gradient as well: Bacteria isolated from the upper part showed growth optima at 10°C, the lower part at 25°C, phylogenetic properties done by 16s rDNA reveal distinct communities depending on their vertical position, some clones are similar to those retrieved in Lake Vostok ice cores. These results offer the conclusion that even in this harsh environment like the Antarctic continent a dynamic system like microbial ice aggregates can be sustained as long as the supply of liquid water which is essential for an active bacterial metabolism is provided at least for a small time frame.

  20. Feeding competition between larval lake whitefish and lake herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for competition for food between larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and lake herring (C. artedi) 1- to 8-wk of age was explored in a series of 1-h laboratory feeding studies. Feeding started at 2-wk post-hatch. Learning and fish size appear to be more important than prey density at the onset of feeding. Species differed in their feeding behavior and consumption noticeably by 5-wk and substantially by 8-wk. Lake whitefish generally were more aggressive foragers than lake herring, attacking and capturing more prey. At high plankton density at 8-wk, lake herring feeding was depressed in mixed-fish treatments. This difference in competitive food consumption between the two coregonids occurs at a critical life stage, and when combined with other biotic and abiotic factors, may have a significant impact on recruitment.

  1. Daytime distribution of Pontoporeia affinis off bottom in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, LaRue

    1968-01-01

    The vertical migration of the amphipod Pontoporeia affinis in Lake Michigan has been well documented by Wells, Marzolf, and McNaught and Hasler. Wells and Marzolf observed Pontoporeia off bottom only at night. McNaught and Hasler, however, found Pontoporeia above the bottom shortly after noon in a 24-hr study on 12 June 1965, and some individuals were taken just below the thermocline in all daylight hours in a similar study on 19-20 August. This paper presents evidence that Pontoporeia regularly were present above bottom during the day from April-August 1964. The data for this report were collected during a study of seasonal and depth distribution of larval bloaters (Coregonus hoyi) in Lake Michigan. Sampling was conducted from the U.S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries RV Cisco off Saugatuck, Michigan, at intervals of about 10 days from 9 April to 14 August 1964. A few samples were taken on 22 August and 15 October.

  2. Forecasting Lake-Effect Snow in the Great Lakes Using NASA Satllite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipullo, Michelle; Molthan, Andrew; Shafer, Jackie; Case, Jonathan; Jedlovec, Gary

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the forecast of the lake effect snow in the Great Lakes region using models and infrared estimates of Great Lake Surface Temperatures (GLSTs) from the MModerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on Terra and Aqua satellites, and other satellite data. This study analyzes Lake Erie and Lake Ontario which produce storm total snowfall ranged from 8-18 inches off of Lake Ontario and 10-12 inches off of Lake Erie for the areas downwind.

  3. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Mattione

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  4. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning, and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. For the first time, Fermilab has organized a 3D MPW run, to which more than 25 different designs have been submitted by the consortium.

  5. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  6. Arsenic, Prokaryotes, and Closed Basin Soda Lakes of the Western USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oremland, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    A number of saline, alkaline soda lakes in the Great Basin and Mojave Desert of the United States have unusually high concentrations of inorganic arsenic dissolved in their brine-waters. The arsenic originates from natural rather than anthropogenic sources, namely volcanic hydrothermal inputs. When this influx is coupled with evapo-concentration and the unique chemical behavior of arsenic oxyanions in alkaline waters, it results in extremely elevated As concentrations. For example, the salinity and arsenate levels of 3 comparable soda lakes (pH 9.8) are: Big Soda Lake, NV (27 g/L; 20 uM), Mono Lake, CA (90 g/L; 200 uM), and Searles Lake, CA (340 g/L; 3,900 uM). The arsenic oxidation state changes from As5+ (arsenate) to As3+ (arsenite) with vertical transition from their oxygenated surface water to their anoxic bottom water. Similar phenomena occur in their littoral sediments. These lakes also harbor active populations of prokaryotes that achieve these As redox changes either by using arsenate as an electron acceptor for respiration, or by employing arsenite as a chemoautotrophic electron donor. Diverse microorganisms have been identified in these systems that are involved in the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic therein, and in situ studies made with radiotracer (73As) and other means showed that these redox reactions occur at rapid rates. However, other than their use for waterfowl hunting (Big Soda Lake), as a region of scenic beauty (Mono Lake), or as a resource for the chemical industry (Searles Lake), there is little concern about the arsenic in these systems because the waters are not potable and their chemistry is too extreme to allow for the presence of fish. Nonetheless, microbial processes that govern arsenic biogeochemistry can greatly influence the hydrologic mobility and toxicity of this element in freshwater systems, such as drinking water aquifers. Moreover, anthropogenic inputs of arsenic can also occur in closed basin lakes in this region, such as Walker Lake, NV. This lake's recreational fisheries are threatened as its salinity and pH increase (currently 14 g/L and 9.2), and it also has an elevated arsenic content (13 uM). Public Law 103 171 calls for identification of new water sources in neighboring watersheds than can be used to increase supply to the lake to counteract its shrinkage. However, because all Nevada watersheds are enriched in arsenic, considerations of water supply without concurrent assessments of water quality could result in a future higher arsenic burden to Walker Lake.

  7. Temporal and spatial changes of water quality and management strategies of Dianchi Lake in southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Zeng, W. H.; Wang, S. R.; Ni, Z. K.

    2013-12-01

    Temporal and spatial changes to the water quality of Dianchi Lake in Southwest China were investigated using monthly monitoring data from 2005 to 2012. Based on the analysis of total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations, it was determined that, in Caohai Lake, the annual concentrations of these variables ranged from 0.19-1.46, 6.11-16.79, 0.06-0.14 mg L-1, respectively. In addition, the annual concentrations of TP, TN and Chl a in Waihai Lake ranged between 0.13-0.20, 1.82-3.01, 0.04-0.09 mg L-1, respectively. Cluster Analysis (CA) classified the 10 monitoring sites into two groups (group A and group B) based on similarities of water quality characteristics. Our data revealed that the current status of water quality within Caohai Lake was much worse than that of Waihai Lake. Water quality was seriously degraded during the economic boom near the period of the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" (2005-2010), and gradually improved from 2010 to 2012 because of the "standard emission directive to industry". The main factors that influenced the spatial and temporal changes to water quality were natural factors including lake evolution and regional characteristic as well as human factors such as pollution load into the lake and management strategies that were already adopted. Some activities and regulations were implemented to enhance the lake environment by controlling wastewater emissions and establishing regulations to protect the lakes in the Yunnan Province. However, problems with institutional fragmentation (horizontal and vertical), simple treatment methods, low-intensity investment in pollution control, and lack of meaningful endogenous pollution control strategies were still present in the lake management strategy. To solve these problems, suitable control measures are needed, especially considering the current old-age status of Dianchi Lake. The fundamental improvement of the water quality within Caohai Lake was dependent on the measures taken in the upper reaches of the Caohai Watershed, including further recovery of submerged plants, resource utilization by floating plants and the reinforcement of sediment disposal. Management strategies for endogenous pollution in Waihai Lake were mainly dependent on restocking algae-eating fish and the ecological restoration of macrophytes. In this way, the swamping trend and the ageing process that is occurring in Dianchi Lake can be stunted.

  8. 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Schematic drawing of 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel. Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris describe the tunnel in NACA TR No. 387: 'The tunnel has an open jet, an open test chamber, and a closed return passage. ... The air passes through the test section in a downward direction then enters the exit cone and passes through the first set of guide vanes to a propeller. From here it passes, by way of the return passage, through the successive sets of guide vanes at the corners, then through the honeycomb, and finally through the entrance cone.' In an earlier report, NACA TR 387, Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris supply this description of the tunnel: 'The vertical open-throat wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ... was built mainly for studying the spinning characteristics of airplane models, but may be used as well for the usual types of wind-tunnel tests. A special spinning balance is being developed to measure the desired forces and moments with the model simulating the actual spin of an airplane. Satisfactory air flow has been attained with a velocity that is uniform over the jet to within 0.5%. The turbulence present in the tunnel has been compared with that of several other tunnels by means of the results of sphere drag tests and was found to average well with the values of those tunnels. Included also in the report are comparisons of results of stable autorotation and of rolling-moment tests obtained both in the vertical tunnel and in the old horizontal 5-foot atmospheric tunnel.' The design of a vertical tunnel having a 5-foot diameter jet was accordingly started by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in 1928. Actual construction of the new tunnel was completed in 1930, and the calibration tests were then made.'

  9. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  10. Water-quality data for selected sites on Reversed, Rush, and Alger Creeks and Gull and Silver Lakes, Mono County, California, April 1994 to March 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Rockwell, G.L.; Blodgett, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Water-quality data for selected sites on Reversed, Rush, and Alger Creeks and Gull and Silver Lakes, Mono County, California, were collected from April 1994 to March 1995. Water samples were analyzed for major ions and trace elements, nutrients, methylene blue active substances, and oil and grease. Field measurements were made for discharge, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, barometric pressure, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity. Additional data collected include vertical water profiles of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen collected at 3.3-foot intervals for Gull and Silver Lakes; chlorophyll-a and -b concentrations and Secchi depth for Gull and Silver Lakes; sediment interstitial- water nutrient concentrations in cores from Gull Lake; and lake surface and volume of Gull and Silver Lakes.

  11. 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel. The 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel was built to study spinning characteristics of aircraft. It was an open throat tunnel capable of a maximum speed of 80 mph. NACA engineer Charles H. Zimmerman designed the tunnel starting in 1928. Construction was completed in December 1929. It was one of two tunnels which replaced the original Atmospheric Wind Tunnel (The other was the 7x10-Foot Wind Tunnel.). In NACA TR 387 (p. 499), Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris report that 'the tunnel passages are constructed of 1/8-inch sheet iron, stiffened with angle iron and bolted together at the corners. The over-all dimensions are: Height 31 feet 2 inches; length, 20 feet 3 inches; width, 10 feet 3 inches.' The tunnel was partially constructed in the Langley hanger as indicated by the aircraft in the background. Published in NACA TR 387, 'The Vertical Wind Tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics,' by Carl J. Wenzinger and Thomas A. Harris, 1931.

  12. Lake-atmosphere exchanges: the LATEX field experimental campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bou-Zeid, E.; Vercauteren, N.; Huwald, H.; Lemmin, U.; Selker, J.; Parlange, M. B.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding the interaction of the atmosphere with underlying water surfaces is of great importance for a wide range of scientific fields such as water resources management, climate simulations and change impact studies, and regional weather forecasting in coastal areas. However, atmospheric dynamics over water surfaces have generally received less attention than land-atmosphere interactions, partially due to logistical difficulties in operating in-situ field studies. The Lake-Atmosphere Turbulent EXchanges (LATEX) field measurement was designed to address the issues of air-water interactions over lakes. The experiment was performed over Lake Geneva (Switzerland) on a 10 meter high tower situated 100 meters offshore. The main instrumentation consisted of a vertical array of four sonic anemometers and four open path gas analyzers measuring wind speed, temperature, and humidity at 20 Hz. Additional supporting measurements included net radiation, water surface temperature, relative humidity and temperature of air, and wave height and speed. The diurnal trends of momentum, heat, and water vapor fluxes for the whole experimental period are presented and several evaporation models of varying complexity are tested. A new model based on the Penman approach and sensible heat flux measurement is also proposed and tested. The roughness lengths of the surface (for momentum, heat, and water vapor) are investigated. The focus is then turned to the coherent structures over the lake and results from a quadrant analysis for momentum, heat and water vapor fluxes are analyzed. Under neutral and stable stratification, ejections and sweeps contribute equally to the vertical fluxes; as the atmospheric boundary layer turns to unstable, ejections begin to clearly dominate.

  13. The Great Lakes Food Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Marjane L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a play for students in grades four to nine that incorporates the scientific names, physical characteristics, feeding habits, interactions, and interdependence of the plants and animals that make up the Great Lakes food web to facilitate the learning of this complex system. Includes a Great Lakes food web chart. (AIM)

  14. PYRAMID LAKE RENEWEABLE ENERGY PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    HIGH DESERT GEOCULTURE, LLC

    2009-06-06

    The Pyramid Lake Renewable Energy Plan covers these areas: energy potential (primarily focusing on geothermal resource potential, but also more generally addressing wind energy potential); renewable energy market potential; transmission system development; geothermal direct use potential; and business structures to accomplish the development objectives of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe.

  15. Planktonic diatoms of Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinwand, Jerry F.

    1969-01-01

    The major species of diatoms in surface collections from Lake Ontario in September 1964 were Asterionella formosa, Fragilaria crotonensis, and Tabellaris fenestrata. Dominant species in the deep-water samples were Stephanodiscus astraea, S. astraea var. mintula, and F. crotonensis. The diatom flora in surface collections varied among several stations in the eastern end of the lake.

  16. "Lake Woebegone," Twenty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannell, John Jacob

    2006-01-01

    Almost 20 years ago, the author wrote--and then privately published--the two "Lake Woebegone" reports, named after Garrison Keillor's mythical Minnesota town where "all the women are strong, all the men are good-looking, and all the children are above average." The first "Lake Woebegone" report documented that all 50 states were testing above the…

  17. An urban lake remediation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Castelli, S.E.; Gardner, K.H.; Jennings, A.A.

    1998-07-01

    Circumstances provided the opportunity to study a small urban lake as the surrounding municipalities attempted to improve its aesthetic quality by dredging. This manuscript focuses primarily on the sediments in the system: accumulation rates, the expected dynamics of the lake bed drying process, and the influence of the sediments on water quality.

  18. NATIONAL LAKE ASSESSMENT MONITORING DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA designed the National Lake Assessment in 2005-6 with field sampling being completed in 2007. The objective of the assessment is to estimate the ecological condition of lakes and reservoirs nationally. The objective of this paper is to describe the national survey desi...

  19. Bacterial Inhibitors in Lake Water

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Theodore M.; Alexander, Martin

    1986-01-01

    The populations of six bacterial genera fell rapidly after their addition to sterile lake water but not after their addition to buffer. The decline in numbers of two species that were studied further, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Micrococcus flavus, occurred even when the buffer was added to sterile lake water. The inhibition of K. pneumoniae by substances in lake water varied with the season of the year, and the rate and extent of decline of both species were different in sterile samples of different lakes. The extent of reduction in the density of K. pneumoniae was independent of initial population size and was diminished by the addition of 10 μg of glucose per ml of lake water. The toxin was removed from lake water by dialysis and by a cation-exchange resin but not by an anion-exchange resin, and it was destroyed by heating. The inhibition of K. pneumoniae was not evident in lake water buffered at a pH value above 8.0. We suggest that toxins may be important in determining the composition of the bacterial community of lakes. PMID:16347097

  20. Operational estimates of lake evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, F. I.

    1983-10-01

    The complementary relationship between areal and potential evapotranspiration takes into account the changes in the temperature and humidity of the air as it passes from a land environment to a lake environment. Minor changes convert the latest version of the complementary relationship areal evapotranspiration (CRAE) models to a complementary relationship lake evaporation (CRLE) model. The ability of the CRLE model to produce reliable estimates of annual lake evaporation from monthly values of temperature, humidity and sunshine duration (or global radiation) observed in the land environment with no locally optimized coefficients is tested against comparable water-budget estimates for 11 lakes in North America and Africa. Maps of annual lake evaporation and annual net reservoir evaporation (i.e. the difference between lake evaporation and areal evapotranspiration) for the part of Canada to the east of the Pacific Divide and for the southern U.S.A. are presented. An approximate routing technique, which takes into account the effects of depth and salinity on the seasonal pattern of monthly lake evaporation, is formulated and tested against comparable water-budget estimates for 10 lakes in North America and Africa. The results indicate that the CRLE model, with its associated routing technique, is much superior to the other techniques in current use that rely on climatological or pan observations in the land environment.

  1. Pyramid Lake Renewable Energy Project

    SciTech Connect

    John Jackson

    2008-03-14

    The Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe is a federally recognized Tribe residing on the Pyramid Lake Reservation in western Nevada. The funding for this project was used to identify blind geothermal systems disconnected from geothermal sacred sites and develop a Tribal energy corporation for evaluating potential economic development for profit.

  2. GREAT LAKES CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated sediments are a significant problem in the Great Lakes basin. Although discharges of toxic substances to the Great Lakes have been reduced in the last 20 years, persistent high concentrations of contaminants in the bottom sediments of rivers and harbors have raised...

  3. Surface seiches in Flathead Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillin, G.; Lorang, M. S.; Lippmann, T. C.; Gotschalk, C. C.; Schimmelpfennig, S.

    2015-06-01

    Standing surface waves or seiches are inherent hydrodynamic features of enclosed water bodies. Their two-dimensional structure is important for estimating flood risk, coastal erosion, and bottom sediment transport, and for understanding shoreline habitats and lake ecology in general. In this work, we present analysis of two-dimensional seiche characteristics in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, a large intermountain lake known to have high seiche amplitudes. To examine spatial characteristics of different seiche modes, we used the original procedure of determining the seiche frequencies from the primitive equation model output with subsequent derivation of the spatial seiche structure at fixed frequencies akin to the tidal harmonic analysis. The proposed procedure revealed specific seiche oscillation features in Flathead Lake, including maximum surface level amplitudes of the first fundamental mode in straights around the largest island; several higher modes appearing locally in the vicinity of the river inflow; the "Helmholtz" open harbor mode, with the period approximately twice that of the longest seiche mode, generated by a large shallow bay connected to the main lake basin; and several rotating seiche modes potentially affecting the lake-wide circulation. We discuss lake management problems related to the spatial seiche distribution, such as shoreline erosion, floods, and transport of sediments and invasive species in Flathead Lake.

  4. Surface seiches in Flathead Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillin, G.; Lorang, M. S.; Lippmann, T. C.; Gotschalk, C. C.; Schimmelpfennig, S.

    2014-12-01

    Standing surface waves or seiches are inherent hydrodynamic features of enclosed water bodies. Their two-dimensional structure is important for estimating flood risk, coastal erosion and bottom sediment transport and for understanding shoreline habitats and lake ecology in general. In this work, we present analysis of two-dimensional seiche characteristics in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, a large intermountain lake known to have high seiche amplitudes. To examine spatial characteristics of different seiche modes we used the original procedure of determining the seiche frequencies from the primitive equation model output with subsequent derivation of the spatial seiche structure at fixed frequencies akin the tidal harmonic analysis. The proposed procedure revealed specific seiche oscillation features in Flathead Lake including maximum surface level amplitudes of the first fundamental mode in straights around the largest island; several higher modes appearing locally in the vicinity of the river inflow; the "Helmholtz" open harbor mode, with the period approximately twice that of the longest seiche mode, generated by a large shallow bay connected to the main lake basin; and several rotating seiche modes potentially affecting the lake-wide circulation. We discuss the lake management problems related to of the spatial seiche distribution, such as shoreline erosion, floods and transport of sediments and invasive species in Flathead Lake.

  5. TROPHIC EQUILIBRIUM OF LAKE WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage effluent was diverted progressively from Lake Washington during 1963-1968, and the chemical conditions changed in close relation to the amount of sewage entering. The total phosphorus content of the lake decreased rapidly to 1971 after which year it varied around a value o...

  6. Great Lakes Research Vessel Construction

    Two new additions to the U.S. Geological Survey Great Lakes Science Center's fleet of large research vessels are currently being constructed. The two new USGS research vessels will replace the aging vessels on lakes Erie and Ontario. They will provide safe and reliable platforms for scient...

  7. Great Lakes Research Vessel Construction

    Two new additions to the U.S. Geological Survey Great Lakes Science Center's fleet of large research vessels are currently being constructed. The two new USGS research vessels will replace the aging vessels on lakes Erie and Ontario. They will provide safe and reliable platforms for scientists, and ...

  8. Drilling in Cinder Lake, Arizona

    Boreholes being drilled at Cinder Lake as part of a U.S. Geological Survey study to determine the feature's floodwater storage capacity. Cinder Lake, which is located on the Coconino National Forest, has been used to store runoff from areas affected by the 2010 Schultz Fire outside of Flag...

  9. Europa's Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, B. E.; Blankenship, D. D.; Patterson, G. W.; Schenk, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    Unique to the surface of Europa, chaos terrain is diagnostic of the properties and dynamics of its icy shell. While models have suggested that partial melt within a thick shell or melt-through of a thin shell may form chaos, neither model has been able to definitively explain all observations of chaos terrain. However, we present a new model that suggests large melt lenses form within the shell and that water-ice interactions above and within these lenses drive the production of chaos. Our analysis of the geomorphology of Conamara Chaos and Thera Macula, was used to infer and test a four-stage lens-collapse chaos formation model: 1) Thermal plumes of warm, pure ice ascend through the shell melting the impure brittle ice above, producing a lake of briny water and surface down draw due to volume reduction. 2) Surface deflection and driving force from the plume below hydraulically seals the water in place. 3) Extension of the brittle ice lid generates fractures from below, allowing brines to enter and fluidize the ice matrix. 4) As the lens and now brash matrix refreeze, thermal expansion creates domes and raises the chaos feature above the background terrain. This new "lense-collapse" model indicates that chaos features form in the presence of a great deal of liquid water, and that large liquid water bodies exist within 3km of Europa's surface comparable in volume to the North American Great Lakes. The detection of shallow subsurface "lakes" implies that the ice shell is recycling rapidly and that Europa may be currently active. In this presentation, we will explore environments on Europa and their analogs on Earth, from collapsing Antarctic ice shelves to to subglacial volcanos in Iceland. I will present these new analyses, and describe how this new perspective informs the debate about Europa's habitability and future exploration.

  10. Genetic and tagging evidence for movement of walleyes between Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Thomas N.; Haas, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) from Lake Erie differed in allele frequencies from walleyes in Lake St. Clair (N = 1,680; 25 loci); however, only slight differences were found among walleyes from different spawning sites in each lake. Analyses of allele frequency data from samples of nonspawning walleyes taken in Lake St. Clair provided conditional maximum likelihood estimates that 86% of these walleyes were from Lake St. Clair and 14% from Lake Erie (SD = 19.7%) in 1983 and that 63% were from Lake St. Clair and 37% were from Lake Erie (SD = 20.0%) in 1984. About 30% of 1,159 recoveries of walleyes tagged in Lake Erie were taken from the Detroit River northward to southern Lake Huron, thus demonstrating extensive mixing of stocks from Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair. Additionally, tags recovered from the upper half of the St. Clair River provided an estimate of mixed stock composition of 76% Lake St. Clair fish and 24% Lake Erie fish. Analyses of tags returned during successive spawning seasons showed that walleyes strongly tended to return to suspected natal spawning areas. The tagging data thus corroborate the genetic evidence that walleye stocks from Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie are different, and that large numbers of Lake Erie walleyes enter Lake St. Clair during nonspawning seasons and return to their Lake Erie spawning sites each year. Western Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair walleyes should be considered as separate stocks for management purposes.

  11. Choking Lake Winnipeg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, J. M.; Little, L. J.; Dodgson, K. A.; MacDonald, R. J.; Graham, J.

    2009-12-01

    The problems of waterway eutrophication and coastal zone hypoxia are reaching epidemic proportions. Fresh water and coastal marine environments around the world are suffering unprecedented pollution loadings. We are developing an education program to address the dramatic need for public, community and K-12 education about the harsh impacts of elevated nutrient loads on fresh and marine water environments. The Lake Winnipeg watershed is adopted as the poster child of fresh water eutrophication in western North America. The watershed, one of the largest on the continent, is in rapid decline due to pollution, population pressures and water diversion. A concerted educatio