Sample records for lamellar bone formation

  1. Lamellar Spacing in Cuboid Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds Regulates Bone Formation by Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Afghani, Shahrzad; Franco, Jaime; Launey, Max; Marshall, Sally; Marshall, Grayson W.; Nissenson, Robert; Lee, Janice; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Saiz, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Background A major goal in bone engineering is the creation of large volume constructs (scaffolds and stem cells) that bear load. The scaffolds must satisfy two competing requirements—they need be sufficiently porous to allow nutrient flow to maintain cell viability, yet sufficiently dense to bear load. We studied the effect of scaffold macroporosity on bone formation and scaffold strength, for bone formed by human bone marrow stromal cells. Methods Rigid cubical hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate scaffolds were produced by robo-casting. The ceramic line thickness was held constant, but the distance between adjacent lines was either 50, 100, 200, 500, or 1000??m. Cultured human bone marrow stromal cells were combined with the scaffolds in vitro; transplants were placed into the subcutis of immunodeficient mice. Transplants were harvested 9, 18, 23, 38, or 50 weeks later. Bone formation and scaffold strength were analyzed using histology and compression testing. Results Sixty transplants were evaluated. Cortical bone increased with transplant age, and was greatest among 500??m transplants. In contrast, maximum transplant strength was greatest among 200??m transplants. Conclusions Lamellar spacing within scaffolds regulates the extent of bone formation; 500??m yields the most new bone, whereas 200??m yields the strongest transplants. PMID:21294634

  2. Rapid Establishment of Chemical and Mechanical Properties during Lamellar Bone Formation

    E-print Network

    significantly correlated with bone material stiffness, while the combination of all chemical parameters raisedRapid Establishment of Chemical and Mechanical Properties during Lamellar Bone Formation B. Busa,1 of the time course by which chemical properties define the stiffness of the material during primary

  3. Antagonizing the ?v?3 Integrin Inhibits Angiogenesis and Impairs Woven but Not Lamellar Bone Formation Induced by Mechanical Loading

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, Ryan E.; Schmieder, Anne H.; Quirk, James D.; Lanza, Gregory M.; Silva, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis and osteogenesis are critically linked, though the role of angiogenesis is not well understood in osteogenic mechanical loading. In this study, either damaging or non-damaging cyclic axial compression was used to generate woven bone formation (WBF) or lamellar bone formation (LBF), respectively, at the mid-diaphysis of the adult rat forelimb. ?v?3 integrin targeted nanoparticles or vehicle was injected intravenously following mechanical loading. ?3 integrin subunit expression on vasculature was maximal 7 days after damaging mechanical loading, but was still robustly expressed 14 days after loading. Accordingly, targeted nanoparticle delivery in WBF loaded limbs was increased compared to non-loaded limbs. Vascularity was dramatically increased after WBF loading (+700% on day 14) and modestly increased after LBF loading (+50% on day 14). This increase in vascularity was inhibited by nanoparticle treatment in both WBF and LBF loaded limbs at days 7 and 14 after loading. Decreased vascularity led to diminished woven, but not lamellar, bone formation. Decreased woven bone formation resulted in impaired structural properties of the skeletal repair, particularly in post-yield behavior. These results demonstrate that ?v?3 integrin mediated angiogenesis is critical for recovering fracture resistance following bone injury, but is not required for bone modeling after modest mechanical strain. PMID:24644077

  4. Patterned silk film scaffolds for aligned lamellar bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Lee W.; Gil, Eun Seok; Park, Sang-Hyug; Mandal, Biman B.; Kaplan, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Various porous biomaterial scaffolds have been utilized for bone tissue engineering; however, they are often limited in their ability to replicate the structural hierarchy and mechanics of native cortical bone. In this study, the alignment and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on patterned silk films (PF) was investigated as a bottom-up, biomimetic approach toward engineering cortical bone lamellae. Screening films cast with nine different micro and nano scale groove patterns showed that cellular alignment was mediated by an interplay between the width and depth of the patterns. MSCs were differentiated in osteogenic medium for four weeks on the PF that induced the highest degree of alignment, while flat films (FF) served as controls. Gene expression analysis and calcium quantification indicated that the PF supported osteogenic differentiation while also inducing robust lamellar alignment of cells and matrix deposition. A secondary alignment effect was noted on the PF where a new layer of aligned cells grew over the first layer, but rotated obliquely to the underlying pattern direction and first layer orientation. This layering and rotation of the aligned MSCs resembled the characteristic structural organization observed in native lamellar bone. The ability to control multilayered lamellar structural hierarchy from the interplay between a patterned 2D surface and cells suggests intriguing options for future biomaterial scaffolds designed to mimic native tissue structures. PMID:23070941

  5. Osteocyte lacunar properties in rat cortical bone: Differences between lamellar and central bone.

    PubMed

    Bach-Gansmo, Fiona Linnea; Weaver, James C; Jensen, Mads Hartmann; Leemreize, Hanna; Mader, Kevin Scott; Stampanoni, Marco; Brüel, Annemarie; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Birkedal, Henrik

    2015-07-01

    Recently, the roles of osteocytes in bone maintenance have gained increasing attention. Osteocytes reside in lacunae that are interconnected by canaliculi resulting in a vast cellular network within the mineralized bone matrix. As the structure of the lacuno-canalicular network is highly connected to osteocyte function, osteocyte lacunar properties such as volume, shape, orientation, and density are now frequently reported in studies investigating osteocyte activity. Despite this increasing interest in lacunar morphometrics, many studies show a large spread in such values, suggesting a large inter-species but also inter-site variation in lacunar properties. Here, osteocyte lacunae in rat cortical bone have been studied using synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography (SR ?CT) and backscattered electron (BE) microscopy. Quantitative lacunar geometric characteristics are reported based on the synchrotron radiation data, differentiating between circumferential lamellar bone and a central, more disordered bone type. From these studies, no significant differences were found in lacunar volumes between lamellar and central bone, whereas significant differences in lacunar orientation, shape and density values were observed. The 3D nature of the SR ?CT data sets furthermore revealed that lacunae in central bone, which appear to be poorly aligned in transverse 2D cross sections, are in fact highly aligned along the bone long axis. These results demonstrate the importance of using 3D methods to investigate anisotropic biological materials such as bone and that the appropriate choice of subregions for high resolution imaging is not trivial. PMID:26023043

  6. HIF-1? regulates bone formation after osteogenic mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Ryan E; Silva, Matthew J

    2015-04-01

    HIF-1 is a transcription factor typically associated with angiogenic gene transcription under hypoxic conditions. In this study, mice with HIF-1? deleted in the osteoblast lineage (?HIF-1?) were subjected to damaging or non-damaging mechanical loading known to produce woven or lamellar bone, respectively, at the ulnar diaphysis. By microCT, ?HIF-1? mice produced significantly less woven bone than wild type (WT) mice 7days after damaging loading. This decrease in woven bone volume and extent was accompanied by a significant decrease in vascularity measured by immunohistochemistry against vWF. Additionally, osteocytes, rather than osteoblasts, appear to be the main bone cell expressing HIF-1? following damaging loading. In contrast, 10days after non-damaging mechanical loading, dynamic histomorphometry measurements demonstrated no impairment in loading-induced lamellar bone formation in ?HIF-1? mice. In fact, both non-loaded and loaded ulnae from ?HIF-1? mice had increased bone formation compared with WT ulnae. When comparing the relative increase in periosteal bone formation in loaded vs. non-loaded ulnae, it was not different between ?HIF-1? mice and controls. There were no significant differences observed between WT and ?HIF-1? mice in endosteal bone formation parameters. The increases in periosteal lamellar bone formation in ?HIF-1? mice are attributed to non-angiogenic effects of the knockout. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that HIF-1? is a pro-osteogenic factor for woven bone formation after damaging loading, but an anti-osteogenic factor for lamellar bone formation under basal conditions and after non-damaging loading. PMID:25541207

  7. Peripheral Leptin Regulates Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Russell T.; Kalra, Satya P.; Wong, Carmen P.; Philbrick, Kenneth A.; Lindenmaier, Laurence B.; Boghossian, Stephane; Iwaniec, Urszula T.

    2012-01-01

    Substantial evidence does not support the prevailing view that leptin, acting through a hypothalamic relay, decreases bone accrual by inhibiting bone formation. To clarify the mechanisms underlying regulation of bone architecture by leptin, we evaluated bone growth and turnover in wild type (WT) mice, leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and ob/ob mice treated with leptin. We also performed hypothalamic leptin gene therapy to determine the effect of elevated hypothalamic leptin levels on osteoblasts. Finally, to determine the effects of loss of peripheral leptin signaling on bone formation and energy metabolism, we used bone marrow (BM) from WT or db/db donor mice to reconstitute the hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell compartments in lethally irradiated WT recipient mice. Decreases in bone growth, osteoblast-lined bone perimeter and bone formation rate were observed in ob/ob mice and greatly increased in ob/ob mice following subcutaneous administration of leptin. Similarly, hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast-lined bone perimeter in ob/ob mice. In spite of normal osteoclast-lined bone perimeter, db/db mice exhibited a mild but generalized osteopetrotic-like (calcified cartilage encased by bone) skeletal phenotype and greatly reduced serum markers of bone turnover. Tracking studies and histology revealed quantitative replacement of BM cells following BM transplantation. WT mice engrafted with db/db BM did not differ in energy homeostasis from untreated WT mice or WT mice engrafted with WT BM. Bone formation in WT mice engrafted with WT BM did not differ from WT mice, whereas bone formation in WT mice engrafted with db/db cells did not differ from the low rates observed in untreated db/db mice. In summary, our results indicate that leptin, acting primarily through peripheral pathways, increases osteoblast number and activity. PMID:22887758

  8. A Biomimetic Collagen-Apatite Scaffold with a Multi-Level Lamellar Structure for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Z.; Villa, M. M.; Wei, M.

    2014-01-01

    Collagen-apatite (Col-Ap) scaffolds have been widely employed for bone tissue engineering. We fabricated a Col-Ap scaffold with a unique multi-level lamellar structure consisting of co-aligned micro and macro pores. The basic building blocks of this scaffold are bone-like mineralized collagen fibers developed via a biomimetic self-assembly process in a collagen-containing modified simulated body fluid (m-SBF). This biomimetic method preserves the structural integrity and great tensile strength of collagen by reinforcing the collagen hydrogel with apatite nano-particles. Unidirectional aligned macro pores with a size of 63.8 to 344 ?m are created by controlling the freezing rate and direction. The thickness of Col-Ap lamellae can be adjusted in the range 3.6 to 23 ?m depending on the self-compression time. Furthermore, the multi-level lamellar structure has led to a twelve-fold increase in Young's modulus and a two-fold increase in the compression modulus along the aligned direction compared to a scaffold of the same composition with an isotropic equiaxed pore structure. Moreover, this novel lamellar scaffold supports the attachment and spreading of MC3T3-E1osteoblasts. Therefore, owing to the biomimetic composition, tunable structure, improved mechanical strength, and good biocompatibility of this novel scaffold, it has great potential to be used in bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:24999428

  9. Banding formation and eutectic lamellar growth in directional solidified Ni 50 Al 20 Fe 30 alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Chen; J. H. Lee; Y. T. Lee; Z. Q. Hut

    1998-01-01

    Banding formation and eutectic lamellar growth in a directionally solidified Ni50Al20Fe30 alloy were investigated. It was found that the banding area consists of two layers. The first layer is a ? layer, while the\\u000a subsequent one is a ? layer. The composition of various phases around the banding area changes with the solidification process.\\u000a The banding is formed by two

  10. Dilatational band formation in bone

    PubMed Central

    Poundarik, Atharva A.; Diab, Tamim; Sroga, Grazyna E.; Ural, Ani; Boskey, Adele L.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Vashishth, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Toughening in hierarchically structured materials like bone arises from the arrangement of constituent material elements and their interactions. Unlike microcracking, which entails micrometer-level separation, there is no known evidence of fracture at the level of bone’s nanostructure. Here, we show that the initiation of fracture occurs in bone at the nanometer scale by dilatational bands. Through fatigue and indentation tests and laser confocal, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies on human and bovine bone specimens, we established that dilatational bands of the order of 100 nm form as ellipsoidal voids in between fused mineral aggregates and two adjacent proteins, osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN). Laser microdissection and ELISA of bone microdamage support our claim that OC and OPN colocalize with dilatational bands. Fracture tests on bones from OC and/or OPN knockout mice (OC?/?, OPN?/?, OC-OPN?/?;?/?) confirm that these two proteins regulate dilatational band formation and bone matrix toughness. On the basis of these observations, we propose molecular deformation and fracture mechanics models, illustrating the role of OC and OPN in dilatational band formation, and predict that the nanometer scale of tissue organization, associated with dilatational bands, affects fracture at higher scales and determines fracture toughness of bone. PMID:23129653

  11. Nucleotides and nucleolipids derivatives interaction effects during multi-lamellar vesicles formation.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, Francesca; Lopez, Francesco; Angelico, Ruggero; Colafemmina, Giuseppe; Ceglie, Andrea

    2008-07-15

    In this paper a micellar interface, constituted by the cationic surfactant CTAB, in presence of 1,2-epoxydodecane and nucleotides was used for catanionic multi-lamellar vesicles (MLVs) formation. The micellar solution of CTAB is able to disperse the 1,2 epoxydodecane in the micellar core promoting the reaction of this reagent with the nucleotide attracted by the positive surface charge of the micellar aggregates. The alkylation of AMP and UMP nucleotides leads to the synthesis of nucleolipids. The behaviour of the supramolecular structures formed depends on the starting reagents (AMP, UMP and AMP+UMP) and on the assembly capabilities of the products. In particular nucleotides and nucleotides derivatives interaction effects are evaluated during the multi-lamellar vesicles formation. NMR spectroscopy and UV-vis measurements performed on MLVs showed strong aryl interactions. Interestingly, NMR spectra revealed prevailing stacking interactions between complementary nucleolipids. The assembly of complementary nucleotides affects the course of the reaction during the MLVs formation. Moreover the MLVs supramolecular stability has been tested by means of turbidity and UV-vis measurements. In particular, an enhanced stability has been found in systems prepared with complementary nucleotides confirming that in these systems the self-assembly process is influenced by nucleolipids interactions. Furthermore by following the hypocromic effect during the micellar catalysis, we showed that even in the earlier stages of the reaction significant differences are detectable. PMID:18337067

  12. Mechanical behavior of osteoporotic bone at sub-lamellar length scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Palomar, Ines; Shipov, Anna; Shahar, Ron; Barber, Asa

    2015-02-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease known to promote bone fragility but the effect on the mechanical properties of bone material, which is independent of geometric effects, is particularly unclear. To address this problem, micro-beams of osteoporotic bone were prepared using focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy and mechanically tested in compression using an atomic force microscope (AFM) while observing using in situ electron microscopy. This experimental approach was shown to be effective at measuring the subtle changes in the mechanical properties of bone material required to evaluate the effects of osteoporosis. Osteoporotic bone material was found to have lower elastic modulus and increased strain to failure when compared to healthy bone material, while the strength of osteoporotic and healthy bone was similar. A mechanism is suggested based on these results and previous literature that indicates degradation of the organic material in osteoporosis bone is responsible for resultant mechanical properties.

  13. Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein Induces Bone Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Wang; Vicki Rosen; Josephine S. D'Alessandro; Marc Bauduy; Paul Cordes; Tomoko Harada; David I. Israel; Rodney M. Hewick; Kelvin M. Kerns; Peter Lapan; Deborah H. Luxenberg; David McQuid; Ioannis K. Moutsatsos; John Nove; John M. Wozney

    1990-01-01

    We have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 mug of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day

  14. Bone formation by human postnatal bone marrow stromal stem cells is enhanced by telomerase expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Songtao Shi; Stan Gronthos; Shaoqiong Chen; Anand Reddi; Christopher M. Counter; Pamela G. Robey; Cun-Yu Wang

    2002-01-01

    Human postnatal bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSSCs) have a limited life-span and progressively lose their stem cell properties during ex vivo expansion. Here we report that ectopic expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in BMSSCs extended their life-span and maintained their osteogenic potential. In xenogenic transplants, hTERT-expressing BMSSCs (BMSSC-Ts) generated more bone tissue, with a mineralized lamellar bone

  15. Strontium ranelate inhibits bone resorption while maintaining bone formation in alveolar bone in monkeys ( Macaca fascicularis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Buehler; P Chappuis; J. L Saffar; Y Tsouderos; A Vignery

    2001-01-01

    Strontium ranelate (S12911) has previously been shown to stimulate bone formation and inhibit bone resorption in rats. To determine whether strontium ranelate affects normal bone remodeling, we studied the effect of strontium ranelate on alveolar bone in monkeys. Strontium ranelate, at dosages of 100, 275, and 750 mg\\/kg per day, or vehicle, were given by gavage to 31 normal adult

  16. Heterotrophic bone formation with bone marrow in the kidney parenchyme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mi Mi Oh; Je Jong Kim; Seok Ho Kang; Hong Seok Park; Du Geon Moon; Jae Hyun Bae

    2010-01-01

    Extraosseous metaplasia of the urinary tract is an uncommon condition first described in 1923 by Phemister. Bone formation\\u000a can occur anywhere along the urinary tract but most has been described in renal pelvis, calyx or along the urothelial layer.\\u000a We report a case of extraossesous bone formation within the kidney parenchyma appearing as a calcified multiseptated mass.

  17. Space flight and bone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, St B.

    2004-01-01

    Major physiological changes which occur during spaceflight include bone loss, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular and immune response alterations. When trying to determine the reason why bone loss occurs during spaceflight, one must remember that all these other changes in physiology and metabolism may also have impact on the skeletal system. For bone, however, the role of normal weight bearing is a major concern and we have found no adequate substitute for weight bearing which can prevent bone loss. During the study of this problem, we have learned a great deal about bone physiology and increased our knowledge about how normal bone is formed and maintained. Presently, we do not have adequate ground based models which can mimic the tissue loss that occurs in spaceflight but this condition closely resembles the bone loss seen with osteoporosis. Although a normal bone structure will respond to application of mechanical force and weight bearing by forming new bone, a weakened osteoporotic bone may have a tendency to fracture. The study of the skeletal system during weightless conditions will eventually produce preventative measures and form a basis for protecting the crew during long term space flight. The added benefit from these studies will be methods to treat bone loss conditions which occur here on earth.

  18. Hierarchical Formation of Fibrillar and Lamellar Self-Assemblies from Guanosine-Based Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Neviani, Paolo; Sarazin, Dominique; Schmutz, Marc; Blanck, Christian; Giuseppone, Nicolas; Spada, Gian Piero

    2010-01-01

    Here we investigate the supramolecular polymerizations of two lipophilic guanosine derivatives in chloroform by light scattering technique and TEM experiments. The obtained data reveal the presence of several levels of organization due to the hierarchical self-assembly of the guanosine units in ribbons that in turn aggregate in fibrillar or lamellar soft structures. The elucidation of these structures furnishes an explanation to the physical behaviour of guanosine units which display organogelator properties. PMID:20798860

  19. Teriparatide: A bone formation treatment for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Erik F; Robins, Deborah A

    2004-11-01

    Teriparatide is the recombinant human N-terminal fragment (1-34) of endogenous human parathyroid hormone, and it is the first bone anabolic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis. When given as once-daily subcutaneous injections, teriparatide can reverse the course of osteoporosis by stimulating formation of new bone and restoring lost architecture. Teriparatide (20 microg) treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women rapidly increased markers of bone formation and reduced the incidence of vertebral fractures by 65% and of nonvertebral fragility fractures by 53%. In addition, treatment with this compound increased spine bone mineral density by 10% and hip bone mineral density by 3% at study endpoint. Teriparatide is well tolerated and is not associated with any serious side effects. The compound has been approved in Europe and in the US for the treatment of osteoporosis. Duration of treatment is 18-24 months and the dose does not need to be adjusted for age or gender. PMID:15645006

  20. Phase-field modeling of the formation of lamellar nanostructures in diblock copolymer thin films under inplanar electric fields.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang-Fa; Dzenis, Yuris A

    2008-03-01

    Recent experiments show that external inplanar electric field can be employed to guide the molecular self-assembly in diblock copolymer (BCP) thin films to form lamellar nanostructures with potential applications in nanotechnology. We study this self-assembly process through a detailed coarse-grained phase-separation modeling. During the process, the free energy of the BCP films is modeled as the Ginzburg-Landau free energy with nonlocal interaction and electrostatic coupling. The resulting Cahn-Hilliard (CH) equation is solved using an efficient semi-implicit Fourier-spectral algorithm. Numerical results show that the morphology of order parameter formed in either symmetric or asymmetric BCP thin films is strongly influenced by the electric field. For symmetrical BCPs, highly ordered lamellar nanostructures evolved along the direction of the electric field. Phase nucleation and dislocation climbing in the BCP films predicted by the numerical simulation are in a good agreement with those observed in recent BCP electronanolithography. For asymmetrical BCPs, numerical simulation shows that nanodots are guided to align to the electric field. Furthermore, in the case of high electric field, nanodots formed in asymmetrical BCPs may further convert into highly ordered lamellar nanostructures (sphere-to-cylinder transition) parallel to the electric field. Effects of the magnitude of electric field, BCP asymmetry, and molecular interaction of BCPs on the self-assembly process are examined in detail using the numerical scheme developed in this study. The present study can be used for the prediction of the formation of nanostructures in BCP thin films and the quality control of BCP-based nanomanufacturing through optimizing the external electric fields. PMID:18517414

  1. The Effect of an Enamel Matrix Derivative (Emdogain) Combined with Bone Ceramic on Bone Formation in Mandibular Defects: A Histomorphometric and Immunohistochemical Study in the Canine

    PubMed Central

    Birang, Reza; Shah Abouei, Mohammad; Mohammad Razavi, Sayed; Zia, Peyaman; Soolari, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combination of an enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and an osteoconductive bone ceramic (BC) in improving bone regeneration. Materials and Methods. Four cylindrical cavities (6 × 6?mm) were prepared bilaterally in the mandible in three dogs. The defects were randomly assigned to four different treatments—filled with EMD/BC and covered with a nonresorbable membrane, filled with EMD/BC without membrane, membrane coverage only, or control (left untreated)—and healed for 2, 4, or 6 weeks. Harvested specimens were prepared for histologic, histomorphometric, and immunohistochemical analyses. Results. Sites treated with EMD/BC with or without membrane showed more total bone formation and lamellar bone formation than membrane-only and control defects. There were no statistically significant differences in total bone formation between EMD/BC with or without membrane. Conclusion. EMD with BC might improve bone formation in osseous defects more than membrane coverage alone; the use of a membrane had no significant additive effect on total bone formation. PMID:22619627

  2. Genetic and Transcriptional Control of Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Amjad; Chen, Haiyan; Ghori, Farah Y.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis An exquisite interplay of developmental cues, transcription factors, coregulatory and signaling proteins support formation of skeletal elements of the jaw during embryogenesis and the dynamic remodeling of alveolar bone in the post-natal life. These molecules promote initial condensation of the mesenchyme, commitment of the mesenchymal progenitor to osteogenic lineage cells, and differentiation of committed osteoblast to mature osteocyte within mineralized bone. Parallel regulatory network promote formation of the functional ostoclast from mononuclear cells to support continuous bone remodeling within the alveolar bone. With an ever expanding list of new regulatory factors, the complexities of the molecular mechanisms that control gene expression in skeletal cells are being further appreciated. This review examines the multifunctional roles of prominent nuclear proteins, cytokines, hormones and paracrine factors that control osteogenesis. PMID:20713262

  3. Novel Regulators of Bone Formation: Molecular Clones and Activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Wozney; Vicki Rosen; Anthony J. Celeste; Lisa M. Mitsock; Matthew J. Whitters; Ronald W. Kriz; Rodney M. Hewick; Elizabeth A. Wang

    1988-01-01

    Protein extracts derived from bone can initiate the process that begins with cartilage formation and ends in de novo bone formation. The critical components of this extract, termed bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), that direct cartilage and bone formation as well as the constitutive elements supplied by the animal during this process have long remained unclear. Amino acid sequence has been

  4. Bone Formation and Inflammation in Cardiac Valves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emile R. Mohler III; Francis Gannon; Carol Reynolds; Robert Zimmerman; Martin G. Keane; Frederick S. Kaplan

    2010-01-01

    Background—For nearly a century, the mechanical failure of calcified heart valves was attributed to a passive degenerative process. Recently, several case reports described bone formation in surgically excised heart valves and suggested an unexpected process of tissue repair. Methods and Results—We studied the prevalence and pathology of heterotopic ossification in 347 surgically excised heart valves (256 aortic, 91 mitral) in

  5. Mechanical regulation of localized and appositional bone formation around bone-interfacing implants

    E-print Network

    Simmons, Craig A.

    INTRODUCTION The clinical success of bone-interfacing implants for orthopedic and dental applicationsMechanical regulation of localized and appositional bone formation around bone-interfacing implants: The local mechanical environment around bone- interfacing implants determines, in large part, whether bone

  6. Osteopetrosis ('marble bone' disease).

    PubMed

    Manusov, E G; Douville, D R; Page, L V; Trivedi, D V

    1993-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a hereditary disorder in which pathologic alteration of osteoclast resorption of bone results in thickening of cortical and lamellar bone. Before bone marrow transplantation, the infantile recessive form was uniformly fatal within the first two decades of life as a result of invasion of the marrow space by abnormal bone formation. The adult autosomal dominant form causes minimal morbidity and is usually diagnosed incidentally on routine radiographs. Although osteopetrosis is an extremely rare disorder, the study of this disease can provide insights into the formation of bone and the inheritance of disease. PMID:8418580

  7. In situ micropillar compression reveals superior strength and ductility but an absence of damage in lamellar bone.

    PubMed

    Schwiedrzik, Jakob; Raghavan, Rejin; Bürki, Alexander; LeNader, Victor; Wolfram, Uwe; Michler, Johann; Zysset, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Ageing societies suffer from an increasing incidence of bone fractures. Bone strength depends on the amount of mineral measured by clinical densitometry, but also on the micromechanical properties of the hierarchical organization of bone. Here, we investigate the mechanical response under monotonic and cyclic compression of both single osteonal lamellae and macroscopic samples containing numerous osteons. Micropillar compression tests in a scanning electron microscope, microindentation and macroscopic compression tests were performed on dry ovine bone to identify the elastic modulus, yield stress, plastic deformation, damage accumulation and failure mechanisms. We found that isolated lamellae exhibit a plastic behaviour, with higher yield stress and ductility but no damage. In agreement with a proposed rheological model, these experiments illustrate a transition from a ductile mechanical behaviour of bone at the microscale to a quasi-brittle response driven by the growth of cracks along interfaces or in the vicinity of pores at the macroscale. PMID:24907926

  8. Modulating Bone Resorption and Bone Formation in Opposite Directions in the Treatment of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Appelman-Dijkstra, Natasha M; Papapoulos, Socrates E

    2015-07-01

    Bone remodeling, the fundamental process for bone renewal, is targeted by treatments of osteoporosis to correct the imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation and reduce the risk of fractures and associated clinical consequences. Currently available therapeutics affect bone resorption and bone formation in the same direction and either decrease (inhibitors of bone resorption) or increase (parathyroid hormone [PTH] peptides) bone remodeling. Studies of patients with rare bone diseases and genetically modified animal models demonstrated that bone resorption and bone formation may not necessarily be coupled, leading to identification of molecular targets in bone cells for the development of novel agents for the treatment of osteoporosis. Application of such agents to the treatment of women with low bone mass confirmed that bone resorption and bone formation can be modulated in different directions and so far two new classes of therapeutics for osteoporosis have been defined with distinct mechanisms of action. Such treatments, if combined with a favorable safety profile, will offer new therapeutic options and will improve the management of patients with osteoporosis. PMID:26056029

  9. Bone formation in vitro by stromal cells obtained from bone marrow of young adult rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Maniatopoulos; J. Sodek; A. H. Melcher

    1988-01-01

    Cells from fetal or neonatal skeleton can synthesize bone-like tissue in vitro. In contrast, formation of bone-like tissue in vitro by cells derived from adult animals has rarely been reported and has not been achieved using cells from bone marrow. We have explored development of bone-like tissue in vitro by bone marrow stromal cells. Marrow stromal cells obtained from 40–43-day-old

  10. Bone formation within a breast abscess.

    PubMed

    Mannu, Gurdeep Singh; Ahmed, Farid; Cunnick, Giles; Mungalsingh, Naren

    2014-01-01

    We present a rare case of osseous metaplasia in a poorly healing breast abscess. An 87-year-old woman was referred to the breast surgery clinic with a painful lump in her right breast. Initial imaging and core biopsy suggested a breast abscess. Despite several courses of antibiotics and repeated attempts at aspiration the painful lesion persisted. It was eventually surgically excised in its entirety and final histopathology showed the presence of bone formation within the abscess. The patient's symptoms subsequently resolved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature, of osseous metaplasia within a breast abscess in the absence of malignancy. PMID:25246453

  11. The hydration and ordering of lamellar block copolymer films prior to the formation of polymer vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, Yohei; Parnell, Andrew; Dennison, Andrew; Barker, Robert; Gutfreund, Philipp; Skoda, Maximilian; Mai, Shaomin; Jones, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Polymersomes -- vesicles based on self-assembled bilayers in turn composed of amphiphilic copolymers -- are good candidates for molecular delivery systems; hydrophilic molecules can be enclosed within the aqueous core, to be released by a trigger, which disrupts the vesicle's wall. The key to the use of these polymer vesicles as effective molecular delivery system is in the ability to efficiently encapsulate a molecular payload within the vesicle. To understand the formation mechanism of polymer vesicles via the thin film rehydration method, we have evaluated the hydration and ordering of PEO-PBO diblock copolymer thin films in a controlled water vapor atmosphere. We have performed Neutron Reflectivity, Ellipsometry and Atomic Force Microscopy measurements during the hydration process. These results show that the film swells slowly in the initial stage. It then swells rapidly at a certain critical point and makes ordered structure at the same time. The lamellae are gradually oriented parallel to the substrate with increasing water absorption.

  12. Polymer-ceramic composite that mimics bone formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn M. Dry

    1999-01-01

    Research was done on a biomimetic building material with the unique properties of bone. Bone, as well as other natural materials such as shell, obtains its toughness and strength as a result of utilizing optimum materials, structural form and carefully controlling the process of bone formation. The organic fibers are made first and the matrix grown around them as opposed

  13. The impact of skeletal unloading on bone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Sakata, Takeshi; Halloran, Bernard P.

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal unloading leads to decreased bone formation and decreased bone mass. Bone resorption is uncoupled from bone formation, contributing to the bone loss. During space flight bone is lost principally from the bones most loaded in the 1 g environment. Determining the mechanism(s) by which loading of bone is sensed and translated into a signal(s) controlling bone formation remains the holy grail in this field. It seems likely that matrix/cell interactions will underlie much of the mechanocoupling. Integrins are a prime mediator of such interactions. The role for systemic hormones such as PTH, GH and 1,25(OH)2D compared to locally produced factors such as IGF-I, PTHrP, BMPs and TGF beta in modulating the cellular response to load remains unclear. Our studies demonstrate that skeletal unloading leads to resistance to the anabolic actions of IGF-I on bone as a result of failure of IGF-I to activate its own signaling pathways. This is associated with a reduction in integrin expression, suggesting crosstalk between these two pathways. As the mechanism(s) by which bone responds to changes in mechanical load with changes in bone formation is further elucidated, applications of this knowledge to other etiologies of osteoporosis are likely to develop. Skeletal unloading provides a perturbation in bone mineral homeostasis that can be used to understand the mechanisms by which bone mineral homeostasis is maintained, and that such understanding will lead to effective treatment for disuse osteoporosis in addition to preventive measures for the bone loss that accompanies space travel.

  14. Lanthanum carbonate stimulates bone formation in a rat model of renal insufficiency with low bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Fumoto, Toshio; Ito, Masako; Ikeda, Kyoji

    2014-09-01

    Control of phosphate is important in the management of chronic kidney disease with mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), for which lanthanum carbonate, a non-calcium phosphate-binding agent, has recently been introduced; however, it remains to be determined whether it has any beneficial or deleterious effect on bone remodeling. In the present study, the effects of lanthanum carbonate were examined in an animal model that mimics low turnover bone disease in CKD, i.e., thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) and 5/6 nephrectomized (NX) rats undergoing a constant infusion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and thyroxine injections (TPTX-PTH-5/6NX). Bone histomorphometry at the second lumbar vertebra and tibial metaphysis revealed that both bone formation and resorption were markedly suppressed in the TPTX-PTH-5/6NX model compared with the sham-operated control group, and treatment with lanthanum carbonate was associated with the stimulation of bone formation but not an acceleration of bone resorption. Lanthanum treatment caused a robust stimulation of bone formation with an activation of osteoblasts on the endosteal surface of femoral diaphysis, leading to an increase in cortical bone volume. Thus, lanthanum carbonate has the potential to stimulate bone formation in cases of CKD-MBD with suppressed bone turnover. PMID:24126694

  15. Brief Review of Models of Ectopic Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Michelle A.; Levi, Benjamin; Askarinam, Asal; Nguyen, Alan; Rackohn, Todd; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic bone formation is a unique biologic entity—distinct from other areas of skeletal biology. Animal research models of ectopic bone formation most often employ rodent models and have unique advantages over orthotopic (bone) environments, including a relative lack of bone cytokine stimulation and cell-to-cell interaction with endogenous (host) bone-forming cells. This allows for relatively controlled in vivo experimental bone formation. A wide variety of ectopic locations have been used for experimentation, including subcutaneous, intramuscular, and kidney capsule transplantation. The method, benefits and detractions of each method are summarized in the following review. Briefly, subcutaneous implantation is the simplest method. However, the most pertinent concern is the relative paucity of bone formation in comparison to other models. Intramuscular implantation is also widely used and relatively simple, however intramuscular implants are exposed to skeletal muscle satellite progenitor cells. Thus, distinguishing host from donor osteogenesis becomes challenging without cell-tracking studies. The kidney capsule (perirenal or renal capsule) method is less widely used and more technically challenging. It allows for supraphysiologic blood and nutrient resource, promoting robust bone growth. In summary, ectopic bone models are extremely useful in the evaluation of bone-forming stem cells, new osteoinductive biomaterials, and growth factors; an appropriate choice of model, however, will greatly increase experimental success. PMID:22085228

  16. Leptin regulates bone formation via the sympathetic nervous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Levasseur, Regis; Liu, Xiuyun; Zhao, Liping; Parker, Keith L.; Armstrong, Dawna; Ducy, Patricia; Karsenty, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    We previously showed that leptin inhibits bone formation by an undefined mechanism. Here, we show that hypothalamic leptin-dependent antiosteogenic and anorexigenic networks differ, and that the peripheral mediators of leptin antiosteogenic function appear to be neuronal. Neuropeptides mediating leptin anorexigenic function do not affect bone formation. Leptin deficiency results in low sympathetic tone, and genetic or pharmacological ablation of adrenergic signaling leads to a leptin-resistant high bone mass. beta-adrenergic receptors on osteoblasts regulate their proliferation, and a beta-adrenergic agonist decreases bone mass in leptin-deficient and wild-type mice while a beta-adrenergic antagonist increases bone mass in wild-type and ovariectomized mice. None of these manipulations affects body weight. This study demonstrates a leptin-dependent neuronal regulation of bone formation with potential therapeutic implications for osteoporosis.

  17. Differential patterns of altered bone formation in different bone compartments in established osteoporosis.

    PubMed Central

    Byers, R J; Denton, J; Hoyland, J A; Freemont, A J

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the level of bone formation in the different bone compartments in cases of established osteoporosis, as previous work has concentrated on trabecular bone alone. METHODS: Bone formation rates were measured histomorphometrically, in the periosteal (P), cortical (C), subcortical (SC), and trabecular (T) compartments in iliac crest biopsies from 159 patients with established osteoporosis. The values were standardised using age and sex matched control data and patterns of differential change determined by analysis of parametric status (increased, normal, reduced). RESULTS: Mean bone formation was reduced in all four compartments. This was more marked (4.4/4.1 standard deviations below the mean in C/T, v 2.3/0.9 in P/SC) and more frequent (reduced in 81.5%/78.3% in T/C, v 43.3%/44% in P/SC) in the trabecular and cortical compartments than in the periosteal or subcortical bone. Parametric status was equal in trabecular and cortical bone in 85.4% of cases, and in periosteal and subcortical bone in 65.7%, but in all four compartments in only 35.1%, indicating differential alteration of bone formation in the two sets of compartments (T/C v P/SC). CONCLUSIONS: Altered trabecular bone formation is important in osteoporosis, but there are differential patterns of alteration in the other three compartments, emphasising the presence of different microenvironments in bone; thus the effect on the cortical compartment was similar to that on the trabecular, while the subcortical and periosteal compartments also showed linkage. The linkage between the two pairs was divergent, indicating different control of bone formation, with resultant different patterns of perturbation in osteoporosis. Images PMID:10343608

  18. A supra-cellular model for coupling of bone resorption to formation during remodeling: lessons from two bone resorption inhibitors affecting bone formation differently.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Pennypacker, Brenda L; Duong, Le T; Engelholm, Lars H; Delaissé, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-10

    The bone matrix is maintained functional through the combined action of bone resorbing osteoclasts and bone forming osteoblasts, in so-called bone remodeling units. The coupling of these two activities is critical for securing bone replenishment and involves osteogenic factors released by the osteoclasts. However, the osteoclasts are separated from the mature bone forming osteoblasts in time and space. Therefore the target cell of these osteoclastic factors has remained unknown. Recent explorations of the physical microenvironment of osteoclasts revealed a cell layer lining the bone marrow and forming a canopy over the whole remodeling surface, spanning from the osteoclasts to the bone forming osteoblasts. Several observations show that these canopy cells are a source of osteoblast progenitors, and we hypothesized therefore that they are the likely cells targeted by the osteogenic factors of the osteoclasts. Here we provide evidence supporting this hypothesis, by comparing the osteoclast-canopy interface in response to two types of bone resorption inhibitors in rabbit lumbar vertebrae. The bisphosphonate alendronate, an inhibitor leading to low bone formation levels, reduces the extent of canopy coverage above osteoclasts. This effect is in accordance with its toxic action on periosteoclastic cells. In contrast, odanacatib, an inhibitor preserving bone formation, increases the extent of the osteoclast-canopy interface. Interestingly, these distinct effects correlate with how fast bone formation follows resorption during these respective treatments. Furthermore, canopy cells exhibit uPARAP/Endo180, a receptor able to bind the collagen made available by osteoclasts, and reported to mediate osteoblast recruitment. Overall these observations support a mechanism where the recruitment of bone forming osteoblasts from the canopy is induced by osteoclastic factors, thereby favoring initiation of bone formation. They lead to a model where the osteoclast-canopy interface is the physical site where coupling of bone resorption to bone formation occurs. PMID:24333871

  19. Formation of lamellar cross bridges in the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc is a consequence of vascular regression

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lachlan J; Elliott, Dawn M

    2011-01-01

    Cross bridges are radial structures within the highly organized lamellar structure of the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc that connect two or more non-consecutive lamellae. Their origin and function are unknown. During fetal development, blood vessels penetrate deep within the AF and recede during postnatal growth. We hypothesized that cross bridges are the pathways left by these receding blood vessels. Initially, the presence of cross bridges was confirmed in cadaveric human discs aged 25 and 53 years. Next, L1-L2 intervertebral discs (n=4) from sheep ranging in age from 75 days fetal gestation to adult were processed for paraffin histology. Mid-sagittal sections were immunostained for endothelial cell marker PECAM-1. The anterior and posterior AF were imaged using differential interference contrast microscopy, and the following parameters were quantified: total number of cross bridges; percentage of cross bridges staining positive for PECAM-1; cross bridge penetration depth (% total lamellae); and PECAM-1 positive cross bridge penetration depth. Cross bridges were first observed at 100 days fetal gestation. The overall number peaked in neonates then remained relatively unchanged. The percentage of PECAM-1 positive cross bridges declined progressively from almost 100% at 100 days gestation to less than 10% in adults. Cross bridge penetration depth peaked in neonates then remained unchanged at subsequent ages. Depth of PECAM-1 positive cross bridges decreased progressively after birth. Findings were similar for both the anterior and posterior. The AF lamellar architecture is established early in development. It later becomes disrupted as a consequence of vascularization. Blood vessels then recede, perhaps due to increasing mechanical stresses in the surrounding matrix. In this study we present evidence that the pathways left by receding blood vessels remain as lamellar cross bridges. It is unclear whether the presence of cross bridges in the aging and degenerating intervertebral disc would be advantages or detrimental, and this question should be addressed by future studies. PMID:21504791

  20. Regulated secretion of multi-lamellar vesicles leads to formation of a tubulo-vesicular network in host-cell vacuoles occupied by Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Sibley, L D; Niesman, I R; Parmley, S F; Cesbron-Delauw, M F

    1995-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that actively invades virtually all types of nucleated cells, surviving within a specialized vacuole called the parasitophorous vacuole. Shortly after invasion, the parasite modifies this vacuole by secreting a variety of proteins from electron-dense storage granules. Additionally, the parasite forms a network of membranous tubules within the lumen of the vacuole and connecting with the vacuolar membrane. We have used immunolabeling and cell fractionation to examine the secretion of two dense granule proteins, GRA1 and GRA2, which are involved in formation of the intravacuolar network. Following host-cell invasion, GRA1 was secreted into the lumen of the vacuole as a soluble protein that subsequently became peripherally associated with the network. In addition to being secreted as a soluble protein from dense granules, GRA2 was secreted within multi-lamellar vesicles released from a specialized posterior invagination of the parasite. The multi-lamellar vesicles assemble to form the intravacuolar network, which contains an integral membrane form of GRA2. These findings indicate that Toxoplasma has a highly developed regulated exocytosis pathway that modifies the parasitophorous vacuole by secretion of soluble proteins and by a novel process of membrane secretion. PMID:7615684

  1. Pregnane X receptor knockout mice display osteopenia with reduced bone formation and enhanced bone resorption

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Kotaro; Casey, Stephanie C; Ito, Masako; Urano, Tomohiko; Horie, Kuniko; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Kirchner, Séverine; Blumberg, Bruce; Inoue, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) and its murine ortholog pregnane X receptor (PXR) are nuclear receptors that are expressed mainly in the liver and intestine where they function as xenobiotic sensors. In addition to its role as a xenobiotic sensor, previous studies in our laboratories and elsewhere have identified a role for SXR/PXR as a mediator of bone homeostasis. Here, we report that systemic deletion of PXR results in marked osteopenia with mechanical fragility in female mice as young as 4 months old. Bone mineral density (BMD) of PXR knockout (PXRKO) mice was significantly decreased compared with the BMD of wild-type (WT) mice. Micro-computed tomography analysis of femoral trabecular bones revealed that the three-dimensional bone volume fraction of PXRKO mice was markedly reduced compared with that of WT mice. Histomorphometrical analysis of the trabecular bones in the proximal tibia showed a remarkable reduction in bone mass in PXRKO mice. As for bone turnover of the trabecular bones, bone formation is reduced, whereas bone resorption is enhanced in PXRKO mice. Histomorphometrical analysis of femoral cortical bones revealed a larger cortical area in WT mice than that in PXRKO mice. WT mice had a thicker cortical width than PXRKO mice. Three-point bending test revealed that these morphological phenotypes actually caused mechanical fragility. Lastly, serum levels of phosphate, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase were unchanged in PXRKO mice compared with WT. Consistent with our previous results, we conclude that SXR/PXR promotes bone formation and suppresses bone resorption thus cementing a role for SXR/PXR as a key regulator of bone homeostasis. PMID:20876238

  2. Rethinking the nature of fibrolamellar bone: an integrative biological revision of sauropod plexiform bone formation.

    PubMed

    Stein, Koen; Prondvai, Edina

    2014-02-01

    We present novel findings on sauropod bone histology that cast doubt on general palaeohistological concepts concerning the true nature of woven bone in primary cortical bone and its role in the rapid growth and giant body sizes of sauropod dinosaurs. By preparing and investigating longitudinal thin sections of sauropod long bones, of which transverse thin sections were published previously, we found that the amount of woven bone in the primary complex has been largely overestimated. Using comparative cellular and light-extinction characteristics in the two section planes, we revealed that the majority of the bony lamina consists of longitudinally organized primary bone, whereas woven bone is usually represented only by a layer a few cells thin in the laminae. Previous arguments on sauropod biology, which have been based on the overestimated amount, misinterpreted formation process and misjudged role of woven bone in the plexiform bone formation of sauropod dinosaurs, are thereby rejected. To explain the observed pattern in fossil bones, we review the most recent advances in bone biology concerning bone formation processes at the cellular and tissue levels. Differentiation between static and dynamic osteogenesis (SO and DO) and the revealed characteristics of SO- versus DO-derived bone tissues shed light on several questions raised by our palaeohistological results and permit identification of these bone tissues in fossils with high confidence. By presenting the methods generally used for investigating fossil bones, we show that the major cause of overestimation of the amount of woven bone in previous palaeohistological studies is the almost exclusive usage of transverse sections. In these sections, cells and crystallites of the longitudinally organized primary bone are cut transversely, thus cells appear rounded and crystallites remain dark under crossed plane polarizers, thereby giving the false impression of woven bone. In order to avoid further confusion in palaeohistological studies, we introduce new osteohistological terms as well as revise widely used but incorrect terminology. To infer the role of woven bone in the bone formation of fast-growing tetrapods, we review some aspects of the interrelationships between the vascularity of bone tissues, basal metabolic rate, body size and growth rate. By putting our findings into the context of osteogenesis, we provide a new model for the diametrical limb bone growth of sauropods and present new implications for the evolution of fast growth in vertebrates. Since biomechanical studies of bone tissues suggest that predominant collagen fibre orientation (CFO) is controlled by endogenous, functional and perhaps phylogenetic factors, the relationship between CFO and bone growth rate as defined by Amprino's rule, which has been the basis for the biological interpretation of several osteohistological features, must be revised. Our findings draw attention to the urgent need for revising widely accepted basic concepts of palaeohistological studies, and for a more integrative approach to bone formation, biomechanics and bone microstructural features of extant and extinct vertebrates to infer life history traits of long extinct, iconic animals like dinosaurs. PMID:23647662

  3. Bone Formation Rate in Experimental Disuse Osteoporosis in Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cann, Christopher; Young, Donald R.

    1976-01-01

    Specific mechanisms underlying weightless and hypodynamic bone loss are obscure. A principal relationship which must be affected is the balance between bone formation and bone resorption rates. In order to better define the influence of those parameters on bone loss, and also to develop measurements in other species as a useful adjunct to human research, studies were undertaken with experimental monkeys. Tests were conducted with a total of 6 adult male monkeys, weighing 10-13 kg, and approximately 10-12 yrs. of age to evaluate specifically bone formation rate during the development of disuse osteoporosis and osteopenia. Three animals were restrained in a semi-recumbent position for six months; three animals served as normal caged controls. Food intake (Purina) was held relatively constant at 200g/day for each animal. Using a Norland Bone Mineral Analyzer, bone mineral losses of 3.5 to 6% were seen in the mid-shaft of the tibia and in the distal radius. Bone loss was confirmed radiographically, with observation of thinning of the proximal tibial cortex and trabeculae in the calcaneus. Bone formation rate was determined using standard Ca-47 kinetics under metabolic balance conditions. After six months of restraint, accretion was 7.2-13.2 mg Ca/kg/day, compared to 3.2-4.1 mg Ca/kg/day in caged controls and 3-8 mg Ca/kg/day in normal adult humans. Fecal and urine calcium was 25-40% higher in restrained animals than in controls. Dietary calcium absorption decreases during restraint, and calcium turnover increases, implying a rise in bone resorption rate concommitant with the observed rise in bone accretion rate. Further studies dealing specifically with bone resorption are underway to define this more fully.

  4. Burn Injury Enhances Bone Formation in Heterotopic Ossification Model

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jonathan R.; De La Rosa, Sara; Sun, Hongli; Eboda, Oluwatobi; Cilwa, Katherine E.; Donneys, Alexis; Morris, Michael; Buchman, Steven R.; Cederna, Paul S.; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Wang, Stewart C.; Levi, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the pro-osteogenic effect of burn injury on heterotopic bone formation using a novel burn ossicle in vivo model. Background Heterotopic ossification (HO), or the abnormal formation of bone in soft tissue, is a troubling sequela of burn and trauma injuries. The exact mechanism by which burn injury influences bone formation is unknown. The aim of this study was to develop a mouse model to study the effect of burn injury on heterotopic bone formation. We hypothesized that burn injury would enhance early vascularization and subsequent bone formation of subcutaneously implanted mesenchymal stem cells. Methods Mouse adipose-derived stem cells were harvested from C57/BL6 mice, transfected with a BMP-2 adenovirus, seeded on collagen scaffolds (ossicles), and implanted subcutaneously in the flank region of 8 adult mice. Burn and sham groups were created with exposure of 30% surface area on the dorsum to 60°C water or 30°C water for 18 seconds, respectively (n = 4/group). Heterotopic bone volume was analyzed in vivo by micro-computed tomography for 3 months. Histological analysis of vasculogenesis was performed with platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule staining. Osteogenic histological analysis was performed by Safranin O, Picrosirius red, and aniline blue staining. Qualitative analysis of heterotopic bone composition was completed with ex vivo Raman spectroscopy. Results Subcutaneously implanted ossicles formed heterotopic bone. Ossicles from mice with burn injuries developed significantly more bone than sham control mice, analyzed by micro-computed tomography at 1, 2, and 3 months (P < 0.05), and had enhanced early and late endochondral ossification as demonstrated by Safranin O, Picrosirius red, and aniline blue staining. In addition, burn injury enhanced vascularization of the ossicles (P < 0.05). All ossicles demonstrated chemical composition characteristic of bone as demonstrated by Raman spectroscopy. Conclusions Burn injury increases the predilection to osteogenic differentiation of ectopically implanted ossicles. Early differences in vascularity correlated with later bone development. Understanding the role of burn injury on heterotopic bone formation is an important first step toward the development of treatment strategies aimed to prevent unwanted and detrimental heterotopic bone formation. PMID:23673767

  5. Endochondral bone formation in embryonic mouse pre-metatarsals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klement, B. J.; Spooner, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    Long term exposure to a reduced gravitational environment has a deleterious effect on bone. The developmental events which occur prior to initial bone deposition will provide insight into the regulation of mature bone physiology. We have characterized a system in which the events preceding bone formation take place in an isolated in vitro organ culture environment. We show that cultured pre-metatarsal tissue parallels development of pre-metatarsal tissue in the embryo. Both undergo mesenchyme differentiation and morphogenesis to form a cartilage rod, which resembles the future bone, followed by terminal chondrocyte differentiation in a definite morphogenetic pattern. These sequential steps occur prior to osteoblast maturation and bone matrix deposition in the developing organism. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is a distinctive enzymatic marker for mineralizing tissues. We have measured this activity throughout pre-metatarsal development and show (a) where in the tissue it is predominantly found, and (b) that this is indeed the mineralizing isoform of the enzyme.

  6. Biomimetic matrices self-initiating the induction of bone formation.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, Ugo; Roden, Laura C; Ferretti, Carlo; Klar, Roland M

    2011-09-01

    The new strategy of tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine at large, is to construct biomimetic matrices to mimic nature's hierarchical structural assemblages and mechanisms of simplicity and elegance that are conserved throughout genera and species. There is a direct spatial and temporal relationship of morphologic and molecular events that emphasize the biomimetism of the remodeling cycles of the osteonic corticocancellous bone versus the "geometric induction of bone formation," that is, the induction of bone by "smart" concavities assembled in biomimetic matrices of macroporous calcium phosphate-based constructs. The basic multicellular unit of the corticocancellous bone excavates a trench across the bone surface, leaving in its wake a hemiosteon rather than an osteon, that is, a trench with cross-sectional geometric cues of concavities after cyclic episodes of osteoclastogenesis, eventually leading to osteogenesis. The concavities per se are geometric regulators of growth-inducing angiogenesis and osteogenesis as in the remodeling processes of the corticocancellous bone. The concavities act as a powerful geometric attractant for myoblastic/myoendothelial and/or endothelial/pericytic stem cells, which differentiate into bone-forming cells. The lacunae, pits, and concavities cut by osteoclastogenesis within the biomimetic matrices are the driving morphogenetic cues that induce bone formation in a continuum of sequential phases of resorption/dissolution and formation. To induce the cascade of bone differentiation, the soluble osteogenic molecular signals of the transforming growth factor ? supergene family must be reconstituted with an insoluble signal or substratum that triggers the bone differentiation cascade. By carving a series of repetitive concavities into solid and/or macroporous biomimetic matrices of highly crystalline hydroxyapatite or biphasic hydroxyapatite/?-tricalcium phosphate, we were able to embed smart biologic functions within intelligent scaffolds for tissue engineering of bone. The concavities assembled in the bioceramic constructs biomimetize the remodeling cycle of the corticocancellous bone and are endowed with multifunctional pleiotropic self-assembly capacities, initiating angiogenesis and bone formation by induction without the exogenous applications of the osteogenic-soluble molecular signals of the transforming growth factor ? supergene family. The incorporation of specific biologic activities into biomimetic matrices by manipulating the geometry of the substratum, defined as geometric induction of bone formation, is now helping to engineer therapeutic osteogenesis in clinical contexts. PMID:21959451

  7. Clay-Enriched Silk Biomaterials for Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Llamas, Jabier Gallego; Vaiana, Christopher A.; Kadakia, Madhavi P.; Naik, Rajesh R.; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of silk protein/clay composite biomaterials for bone tissue formation is described. Silk fibroin serves as an organic scaffolding material offering mechanical stability suitable for bone specific uses. Clay montmorillonite (Cloisite ® Na+) and sodium silicate are sources of osteoinductive silica-rich inorganic species, analogous to bioactive bioglass-like bone repair biomaterial systems. Different clay particle-silk composite biomaterial films were compared to silk films doped with sodium silicate as controls for support of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in osteogenic culture. The cells adhered and proliferated on the silk/clay composites over two weeks. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed increased transcript levels for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and collagen type 1 (Col I) osteogenic markers in the cells cultured on the silk/clay films in comparison to the controls. Early evidence for bone formation based on collagen deposition at the cell-biomaterial interface was also found, with more collagen observed for the silk films with higher contents of clay particles. The data suggest that the silk/clay composite systems may be useful for further study toward bone regenerative needs. PMID:21549864

  8. A Nude Mouse Model for Human Bone Formation in Unloaded Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Muraglia; I Martin; R Cancedda; R Quarto

    1998-01-01

    We describe an experimental model for human bone formation in unloaded conditions. Bone formation has been assessed by implanting in vivo human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) on porous hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramics subcutaneously in nude mice. In this system, human bone formation and remodeling occurs and can be studied in unloaded conditions, i.e., with no influence of muscle tension. Using

  9. The divalent strontium salt S12911 enhances bone cell replication and bone formation in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Canalis; M. Hott; P. Deloffre; Y. Tsouderos; P. J. Marie

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we have determined the effect of the divalent strontium salt S12911 on bone cell replication and bone formation in two culture systems. In the first series of experiments, half-calvariae of newborn rats were cultured with S12911 from 24 to 96 h and labeled with 3H-thymidine for the last 6 h of culture or treated with S12911 for

  10. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 potentiates bone morphogenetic protein-2 induced bone formation.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Kosaku; Viggeswarapu, Manjula; Bargouti, Maggie; Liu, Hui; Titus, Louisa; Boden, Scott D

    2011-02-01

    The mechanisms driving bone marrow stem cell mobilization are poorly understood. A recent murine study found that circulating bone marrow-derived osteoprogenitor cells (MOPCs) were recruited to the site of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-induced bone formation. Stromal cell-derived factor-1? (SDF-1?) and its cellular receptor CXCR4 have been shown to mediate the homing of stem cells to injured tissues. We hypothesized that chemokines, such as SDF-1, are also involved with mobilization of bone marrow cells. The CD45(-) fraction is a major source of MOPCs. In this report we determined that the addition of BMP-2 or SDF-1 to collagen implants increased the number of MOPCs in the peripheral blood. BMP-2-induced mobilization was blocked by CXCR4 antibody, confirming the role of SDF-1 in mobilization. We determined for the first time that addition of SDF-1 to implants containing BMP-2 enhances mobilization, homing of MOPCs to the implant, and ectopic bone formation induced by suboptimal BMP-2 doses. These results suggest that SDF-1 increases the number of osteoprogenitor cells that are mobilized from the bone marrow and then home to the implant. Thus, addition of SDF-1 to BMP-2 may improve the efficiency of BMPs in vivo, making their routine use for orthopaedic applications more affordable and available to more patients. PMID:21043834

  11. The effect of aging on bone formation in rats: Biochemical and histological evidence for decreased bone formation capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoru K. Nishimoto; Chung-Ho Chang; Elchonon Gendler; William F. Stryker; Marcel E. Nimni

    1985-01-01

    Summary  Ectopic bone formation by subcutaneously implanted demineralized bone matrix powder (DBM) was assessed biochemically and histologically\\u000a in Fischer 344 rats of different ages. The total calcium accumulated in implants was greatly depressed in older rats, as was\\u000a the rate of45Ca deposition. High alkaline phosphatase activity appeared later in the 10- and 16-month-old rats compared with 1-month-old\\u000a rats, and the magnitude

  12. Transgenic overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 11 propeptide in skeleton enhances bone formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Zicong; Zeng, Fang; Mitchell, Alva D; Kim, Yong Soo; Wu, Zhenfang; Yang, Jinzeng

    2011-12-16

    Bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP11) is a key regulatory protein in skeletal development. BMP11 propeptide has been shown to antagonize GDF11 activity in vitro. To explore the role of BMP11 propeptide in skeletal formation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice with skeleton-specific overexpression of BMP11 propeptide cDNA. The mice showed a transformation of the seventh cervical vertebra into a thoracic vertebra in our previous report. Presently, further characterizations of the transgenic mice indicated that ossification in calvatia was dramatically enhanced in transgenic fetuses at 16.5 dpc in comparison with their wild-type littermates. At 10 weeks of age, bone mineral content and bone mineral density were significantly (P<0.05) higher in transgenic mice than that in their wild-type littermates based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis. The relative trabecular bone volume measured by histological analysis was dramatically increased in transgenic mice compared with their wild-type littermates. The enhanced bone formations in the transgenic mice appear to result from increase osteoblast activities as the expressions of four osteoblast markers - ?1 type 1 collagen, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase and phex were significantly higher in transgenic fetuses than that in their wild-type littermates. These results suggest that over-expression of BMP11 propeptide stimulates bone formation by increasing osteoblast cell functions. PMID:22093826

  13. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears ( Ursus arctos horribilis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meghan E. McGee; Aaron J. Maki; Steven E. Johnson; O. Lynne Nelson; Charles T. Robbins; Seth W. Donahue

    2008-01-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and

  14. Inhibitory effects of ? -interferon on bradykinin-induced bone resorption and prostaglandin formation in cultured mouse calvarial bones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. H. Lerner; Ö. Ljunggren; M. Ransjö; K. Klaushofer; M. Peterlik

    1991-01-01

    The effects of mouse recombinant?-interferon (?-IFN) and indomethacin on bone resorption stimulated by bradykinin, Lys-bradykinin, Met-Lys-bradykinin, des-Arg9-bradykinin and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) have been studied using cultures of neonatal calvarial bones and analyzing the release of45Ca from prelabelled bones as a paramenter of bone resorption. In addition, the effects of?-IFN and indomethacin on formation of PGE2 in bone cultures stimulated by

  15. Effect of zinc supplementation on bone formation in hemodialysis patients with normal or low turnover bone.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Jun; Tagawa, Hitoshi; Izumi, Naoki; Higashikawa, Shingo; Kasahara, Hitoshi

    2015-02-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element, which has been shown to stimulate osteoblastic bone formation and to inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro. In thalassemia, major patients Zn supplementation was reported to increase whole-body bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density. Therefore, we investigated the effect of Zn supplementation on bone formation in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Nine male patients with age of 66 (35-78) years indicated by median (range), HD vintage of 57 (4-97) months and serum intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) of 113 (6-310) pg/mL were supplemented with polaprezinc containing 34?mg Zn/day for 18 months. Doses of vitamin D were not changed during supplementation. Blood was collected at baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. Serum Zn increased significantly from 58 (52-65)??g/dL to 71 (57-93) ?g/dL at three months and remained unchanged until 18 months. No changes were observed in serum intact PTH during supplementation. Although we found no changes in serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) during Zn supplementation analyzed by Friedman test and Scheffe post hoc test, a significant trend of increase in serum BAP was verified by Jonckheere-Terpstra test (p?=?0.0409). On the contrary, there was no trend in serum TRACP5b by Jonckheere-Terpstra test. Therefore, we suggested the effect of Zn supplementation on promoting bone formation, not affected by the status of PTH and vitamin D, in HD patients with normal or low turnover bone. PMID:25207792

  16. Shell Formation and Bone Strength Laying Hens

    E-print Network

    , Daidzein and Exogenous Estrogen Abstract In Sweden almost 3.8% of all eggs are ruined due to cracked was detected. An imbalance between estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and estrogen receptor beta (ER) in the shell and overview of egg formation 10 1.2.2 Calcium sources for shell formation 13 1.2.3 Shell gland and the process

  17. Role of muscle-derived growth factors in bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Hamrick, Mark W.; McNeil, Paul L.; Patterson, Stella L.

    2013-01-01

    Muscle and bone anabolism and catabolism are tightly coupled during growth, development, and aging, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms linking these two tissues are not well understood. Here we show that FGF-2 and IGF-1, two growth factors known to play a major role in regulating bone formation, are localized to muscle fibers along the muscle-bone interface of the mouse forelimb. Likewise, receptors for these growth factors are also abundant in periosteum adjacent to fleshy muscle attachments along the diaphysis of long bones. Growth factor levels were quantified from homogenized mouse forelimb muscles and IGF-1 was found to be the most abundant factor with FGF-2 also detected. Growth factor levels were also analyzed in conditioned medium from cultured myotubes, and IGF-1 and FGF-2 were again detected at significant levels. Mechanically wounding C2C12 myotubes increased the release of FGF-2 into conditioned medium, whereas IGF-1 was secreted at lower concentrations than FGF-2 following injury. Together these findings suggest that muscle is an important, local source of growth factors for bone tissue. Hence, the integrated growth and development of bone and muscle is likely to be regulated in part by paracrine mechanisms at the muscle-bone interface involving growth factor signaling. PMID:20190381

  18. Exposure to subcutaneously implanted uranium dioxide impairs bone formation.

    PubMed

    Díaz Sylvester, Paula L; López, Ricardo; Ubios, Angela M; Cabrini, Rómulo L

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of uranium particles into subcutaneous tissue is a risk that affects workers engaged in the extraction, purification, and manufacture of uranium, as well as soldiers who are wounded with uranium shrapnel. The authors evaluated the effect of an internal source of an insoluble form of uranium on bone. Uranium dioxide powder (0.125 gm/kg body weight) was implanted subcutaneously in rats. After 30 days, animals exposed to uranium weighed less than controls. Bone formation activity in endochondral ossification and bone growth were also lower in the experimental animals, as evidenced by histomorphometric and morphometric methods. This is the first study to report bone damage resulting from continuous, nonlethal exposure to an insoluble compound of uranium dioxide over a period of 30 days. PMID:12530598

  19. Collodion baby and lamellar ichthyosis.

    PubMed

    Sandler, B; Hashimoto, K

    1998-02-01

    It is important to differentiate the collodion baby from harlequin ichthyosis as the latter rarely survives past the first few days of life. Occasionally, babies share features of both disorders and defy a clinical diagnosis. We recently encountered such a baby who initially presented with harlequin-like features, but evolved into lamellar ichthyosis once the keratin cast was shed. Since the routine histology of all these ichthyoses is similar, we used electron microscopy to study serial biopsy specimens from the affected infant on days 7, 14, and 150, and compared them to our own other cases of harlequin ichthyosis and lamellar ichthyosis. Electron microscopic studies of our case revealed that the marginal band of cornified cells of the stratum corneum was absent when the baby exhibited collodion/harlequin ichthyosis features. Another biopsy taken when the clinical picture evolved into lamellar-like ichthyosis, showed a well-formed marginal band in the cornified cells. In harlequin ichthyosis, the marginal band is present at birth. It is suggested that electron microscopy can differentiate severe collodion baby from harlequin ichthyosis at birth using the absence of the marginal band. Previously reported features of harlequin ichthyosis, such as the presence of giant mitochondria and an abnormal formation of the marginal band in luminal villi of acrosyringeal eccrine duct, were absent in our case. PMID:9521501

  20. Sclerostin is a delayed secreted product of osteocytes that inhibits bone formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth E. S. Poole; Rutger L. van Bezooijen; Nigel Loveridge; Herman Hamersma; Socrates E. Papapoulos; Clemens W. Löwik; Jonathan Reeve

    2005-01-01

    Osteocytes are the most abundant cells in bone and are ideally located to influence bone turnover through their syncytial relationship with surface bone cells. Osteocyte-derived signals have remained largely enigmatic, but it was recently reported that human osteocytes secrete sclerostin, an inhibitor of bone formation. Absent sclerostin protein results in the high bone mass clinical disorder sclerosteosis. Here we report

  1. Immunolocalization of markers for bone formation during guided bone regeneration in osteopenic rats

    PubMed Central

    TERA, Tábata de Mello; NASCIMENTO, Rodrigo Dias; do PRADO, Renata Falchete; SANTAMARIA, Mauro Pedrine; JARDINI, Maria Aparecida Neves

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this paper was to evaluate the repair of onlay autogenous bone grafts covered or not covered by an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) membrane using immunohistochemistry in rats with induced estrogen deficiency. Material and Methods Eighty female rats were randomly divided into two groups: ovariectomized (OVX) and with a simulation of the surgical procedure (SHAM). Each of these groups was again divided into groups with either placement of an autogenous bone graft alone (BG) or an autogenous bone graft associated with an e-PTFE membrane (BGM). Animals were euthanized on days 0, 7, 21, 45, and 60. The specimens were subjected to immunohistochemistry for bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteonectin (ONC), and osteocalcin (OCC). Results All groups (OVX+BG, OVX+BMG, SHAM+BG, and SHAM+BMG) showed greater bone formation, observed between 7 and 21 days, when BSP and ONC staining were more intense. At the 45-day, the bone graft showed direct bonding to the recipient bed in all specimens. The ONC and OCC showed more expressed in granulation tissue, in the membrane groups, independently of estrogen deficiency. Conclusions The expression of bone forming markers was not negatively influenced by estrogen deficiency. However, the markers could be influenced by the presence of the e-PTFE membrane. PMID:25591022

  2. Red yeast rice stimulates bone formation in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloria E. Gutierrez; Benjamin Mundy; Gianni Rossini; I. Ross Garrett; Stephen T. Chen; Gregory R. Mundy

    2006-01-01

    Statins are a class of drugs commonly prescribed to decrease cholesterol levels that have recently been shown to also stimulate bone formation. Clinical data have emerged in the last few years that suggest statins may reduce the risk of fracture in patients taking these drugs for cholesterol lowering. Red yeast rice (RYR), rice that has been fermented by the red

  3. Synergistic effect of fibroblast growth factor-4 in ectopic bone formation induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Kubota; S Iseki; S Kuroda; S Oida; T Iimura; W. R Duarte; K Ohya; I Ishikawa; S Kasugai

    2002-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein family members (BMPs) are essential signaling molecules during limb development and, in this process, fibroblast growth factor family members (FGFs) cooperate with BMPs. FGFs also exert anabolic effects in bone when systemically or locally applied. Thus, it is likely that the cooperation with FGFs also occurs in BMP-induced ectopic bone formation and that the exogenous FGF application

  4. [Osteoplastic pneumopathy (disseminated bone formation in the lung)].

    PubMed

    Baranyay, F

    1981-01-01

    8 cases of pneumophathia osteoplastica (ppo) of branching type observed at patients having no vascular deformities and one case of a focal ppo at a patient with mitral stenosis are reported. Pathogenesis of the ppo of branching type in the majority of cases could not be clarified since the process appeared to be in the phase of definitive bone formation. Nevertheless in one of the cases in a septum of Y shape in addition to collagen fibres ending in bone tissue numerous elastic fibres have also been revealed. This fact, considering the presence of a normal bronchus in the area seems to evidence vascular origin of the lesion. The latter hypothesis could be verified by the bone-formation in the media of a vessel wall in another case. Further, in a case of primary chronic polyarthritis with ppo, bone-formation could be seen in the perivascular lung tissue with necrotizing pulmonal arteritis. Considering this finding the possibility of the primary role of necrotizing pulmonal arthritis in the pathogenesis of ppo have to be taken into account. Ppo should be classified as one of the alveolocapillary block syndromes. In some cases it may have clinico-pathological significance. It may lead to bronchietasis, emphyseme or cor pulmonale chronicum. PMID:6790943

  5. Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor Reduces Simvastatin-Induced Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Bone Formation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, J. D.; Cleverly, D. G.; Burns, A. M.; Helm, N. B.; Schmid, M. J.; Marx, D. B.; Cullen, D. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Simvastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug, also stimulates oral bone growth when applied topically, without systemic side effects. However, the mechanisms involved in vivo are not known. We hypothesized that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 are involved, based on prior in vitro evidence. Material and Methods: A rat bilateral mandible model, where 0.5 mg simvastatin in methylcellulose gel (SIM) was placed on one side and gel alone (GEL) on the other, was used to quantitate NO, COX-2 and BMP-2 (via tissue extraction, enzyme activity or immunoassay), and bone formation rate (BFR; via undecalcified histomorphometry). COX-2 and NOS inhibitors (N-398 and L-NAME, respectively) also were administered intraperitoneally. Results: SIM was found to stimulate local BMP-2, NO and regional BFR (p < 0.05), while NS-398 inhibited BMP-2 and BFR (p ? 0.05). Conclusion: These data suggest an association between simvastatin-induced BMP-2 and bone formation in the mandibular microenvironment, and the negative effect of COX-2 inhibitors on bone growth. PMID:17451547

  6. Ectopic bone formation by electroporatic transfer of bone morphogenetic protein-4 gene.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, K N; Watanabe, Y; Nakamura, H; Kokubun, S

    2002-08-01

    Orthopedic surgeons have long awaited the clinical application of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) for bone regeneration. However, such possible applications involving proteins or genes transferred with virus vectors have encountered many problems, including high cost, immunological reactions, viral infection, etc. We adopted a new gene transfer system of in vivo electroporation with a plasmid expression vector. A solution of plasmid DNA containing mouse BMP-4 (pMiw-BMP4) was injected into the gastrocnemius of BALB/cA mice, and electric pulses were applied through paired-needle electrodes inserted percutaneously. As a control plasmid, LacZ-containing plasmid (pMiwZ) was transferred by electroporation. A control group in which pMiw-BMP4 was injected and not electroporated was also introduced. In these groups, the gastrocnemius was harvested at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after electroporation (n = 6 in each). As nonplasmid controls, electroporation with saline injection (n = 6), electroporation without injection (n = 6), and saline injection only (n = 3) were prepared. In these groups, the mice were killed 7 days after experimentation. Ectopic calcification or ossification was examined by histology as well as soft X-ray. In all electroporated groups (pMiwZ, pMiw-BMP4, saline injection, and without injection), dystrophic calcification of muscle bundles and infiltration of mesenchymal cells were observed histologically. Ectopic bone formation was observed only in the pMiw-BMP4 electroporation group. At 7 days after pMiw-BMP4 electroporation, extracellular eosinophilic matrix in a collection of mesenchymal cells was observed. Between 14 and 28 days after electroporation, ectopic bone was observed in 44% of mice, and bone marrow-like cells observed in 22%. The newly formed bone was woven. Injection of pMiw-BMP4 or saline induced neither calcification nor ossification. Our findings indicate that BMP-4 transferred by electroporation can induce in vivo and in situ ectopic bone formation in skeletal muscle. PMID:12151088

  7. Biologic properties of nano-hydroxyapatite: An in vivo study of calvarial defects, ectopic bone formation and bone implantation.

    PubMed

    Pang, Kang-Mi; Lee, Jeong-Keun; Seo, Young-Kwon; Kim, Soung-Min; Kim, Myung-Jin; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the biologic properties of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) using the rat calvarial defect, ectopic bone formation, and rabbit tibia implant installation models. Animals were divided into two groups: those implanted with nHAp, and negative controls (Collagen). Eight weeks after creating an 8 mm calvarial defect, bone regeneration was evaluated radiographically and histologically. To investigate ectopic bone formation, materials were injected into the right thigh muscle and were evaluated after 8 weeks. nHAp coated implant and conventional titanium implant were placed bilaterally in rabbit tibias. After 4 weeks, bone-implant contact (BIC), new bone area inside the thread, and removal torque were measured. In the calvarial defect model, radiographic and histologic analysis showed more bone formation in the nHAp Group; particularly, histologically assessed bone area (p=0.034) and microcomputed tomography assessed bone mineral density (p=0.034). In the ectopic bone formation model, calcification and expression of osteogenic biomarkers were seen in the nHAp-injected samples but in none of the controls. nHAp coated implant resulted in increased BIC, new bone area, and increased removal torque, with statistical significance for BIC (p=0.034). This study suggests that nHAp has potential as a coating material for dental implant surfaces and as a bone graft material. PMID:25585978

  8. Control of bone formation by the serpentine receptor Frizzled-9

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Joachim; Schulze, Jochen; Beil, F. Timo; Gebauer, Matthias; Baranowsky, Anke; Keller, Johannes; Marshall, Robert P.; Wintges, Kristofer; Friedrich, Felix W.; Priemel, Matthias; Schilling, Arndt F.; Rueger, Johannes M.; Cornils, Kerstin; Fehse, Boris; Streichert, Thomas; Sauter, Guido; Jakob, Franz; Insogna, Karl L.; Pober, Barbara; Knobeloch, Klaus-Peter; Francke, Uta; Amling, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Although Wnt signaling in osteoblasts is of critical importance for the regulation of bone remodeling, it is not yet known which specific Wnt receptors of the Frizzled family are functionally relevant in this process. In this paper, we show that Fzd9 is induced upon osteoblast differentiation and that Fzd9?/? mice display low bone mass caused by impaired bone formation. Our analysis of Fzd9?/? primary osteoblasts demonstrated defects in matrix mineralization in spite of normal expression of established differentiation markers. In contrast, we observed a reduced expression of chemokines and interferon-regulated genes in Fzd9?/? osteoblasts. We also identified the ubiquitin-like modifier Isg15 as one potential downstream mediator of Fzd9 in these cells. Importantly, our molecular analysis further revealed that canonical Wnt signaling is not impaired in the absence of Fzd9, thus explaining the absence of a bone resorption phenotype. Collectively, our results reveal a previously unknown function of Fzd9 in osteoblasts, a finding that may have therapeutic implications for bone loss disorders. PMID:21402791

  9. Disruption of Scube2 Impairs Endochondral Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuh-Charn; Roffler, Steve R; Yan, Yu-Ting; Yang, Ruey-Bing

    2015-07-01

    Signal peptide-CUB-EGF domain-containing protein 2 (SCUBE2) belongs to a secreted and membrane-tethered multidomain SCUBE protein family composed of three members found in vertebrates and mammals. Recent reports suggested that zebrafish scube2 could facilitate sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling for proper development of slow muscle. However, whether SCUBE2 can regulate the signaling activity of two other hedgehog ligands (Ihh and Dhh), and the developmental relevance of the SCUBE2-induced hedgehog signaling in mammals remain poorly understood. In this study, we first showed that as compared with SCUBE1 or SCUBE3, SCUBE2 is the most potent modulator of IHH signaling in vitro. In addition, gain and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that SCUBE2 exerted an osteogenic function by enhancing Ihh-stimulated osteoblast differentiation in the mouse mesenchymal progenitor cells. Consistent with these in vitro studies and the prominent roles of Ihh in coordinating skeletogenesis, genetic ablation of Scube2 (-/-) caused defective endochondral bone formation and impaired Ihh-mediated chondrocyte differentiation and proliferation as well as osteoblast differentiation of -/- bone-marrow mesenchymal stromal-cell cultures. Our data demonstrate that Scube2 plays a key regulatory role in Ihh-dependent endochondral bone formation. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:25639508

  10. Title: Patterning Bone Regeneration In Silico Modeling of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) Driven bone formation

    E-print Network

    Wolper, Pierre

    to overdosing. Recently, in our laboratory, implantation of BMP-coated CaP carriers in a nude mouse model). Implantation of BMP-coated CaP carrier in a nude mouse model will be performed, and the location of bone tissue

  11. MicroRNA control of bone formation and homeostasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary S. Stein; Andre J. van Wijnen; Janet L. Stein; Mohammad Q. Hassan; Tripti Gaur; Ying Zhang; Jane B. Lian

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) repress cellular protein levels to provide a sophisticated parameter of gene regulation that coordinates a broad spectrum of biological processes. Bone organogenesis is a complex process involving the differentiation and crosstalk of multiple cell types for formation and remodeling of the skeleton. Inhibition of mRNA translation by miRNAs has emerged as an important regulator of developmental osteogenic signaling

  12. Local treatment of a bone graft by soaking in zoledronic acid inhibits bone resorption and bone formation. A bone chamber study in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bone grafts are frequently used in orthopaedic surgery. Graft remodelling is advantageous but can occur too quickly, and premature bone resorption might lead to decreased mechanical integrity of the graft. Bisphosphonates delay osteoclastic bone resorption but may also impair formation of new bone. We hypothesize that these effects are dose dependent. In the present study we evaluate different ways of applying bisphosphonates locally to the graft in a bone chamber model, and compare that with systemic treatment. Methods Cancellous bone grafts were placed in titanium chambers and implanted in the tibia of 50 male rats, randomly divided into five groups. The first group served as negative control and the grafts were rinsed in saline before implantation. In the second and third groups, the grafts were soaked in a zoledronic acid solution (0.5 mg/ml) for 5 seconds and 10 minutes respectively before being rinsed in saline. In the fourth group, 8 ?L of zoledronic acid solution (0.5 mg/ml) was pipetted onto the freeze-dried grafts without rinsing. The fifth group served as positive control and the rats were given zoledronic acid (0.1 mg/kg) systemically as a single injection two weeks after surgery. The grafts were harvested at 6 weeks and analysed with histomorphometry, evaluating the ingrowth distance of new bone into the graft as an equivalent to the anabolic osteoblast effect and the amount (bone volume/total volume; BV/TV) of remaining bone in the remodelled graft as equivalent to the catabolic osteoclast effect. Results In all chambers, almost the entire graft had been revascularized but only partly remodelled at harvest. The ingrowth distance of new bone into the graft was lower in grafts soaked in zoledronic acid for 10 minutes compared to control (p = 0.007). In all groups receiving zoledronic acid, the BV/TV was higher compared to control. Conclusions This study found a strong inhibitory effect on bone resorption by bisphosphonates but also a limited inhibition of the ingrowth of new bone. Local treatment at surgery resulted in stronger inhibition of both resorption and bone formation compared to systemic treatment. PMID:23217097

  13. Transgenic overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 11 propeptide in skeleton enhances bone formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zicong Li; Fang Zeng; Alva Mitchell; Yong Soo Kim; Zhenfang Wu; Jinzeng Yang

    Bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP11) is a key regulatory protein in skeletal development. BMP11 propeptide has been shown to antagonize GDF11 activity in vitro. To explore the role of BMP11 propeptide in skeletal formation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice with skeleton-specific overexpression of BMP11 propeptide cDNA. The mice showed a transformation of the seventh cervical vertebra into a thoracic

  14. OSTEOBLAST DIFFERENTIATION AND BONE FORMATION GENE EXPRESSION IN STRONTIUM-INDUCING BONE MARROW MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monnipha Sila-asna; Ahnond Bunyaratvej; Sakan Maeda; Hiromichi Kitaguchi; Narong Bunyaratavej

    2007-01-01

    Osteoblastic differentiation from human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs) is an important step of bone formation. We studied the in vitro induction of hMSCs by using strontium ranelate, a natural trace amount in water, food and human skeleton. The mRNA synthesis of various osteoblast specific genes was assessed by means of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the hMSCs culture,

  15. Hypothesis: Coupling between Resorption and Formation in Cancellous bone Remodeling is a Mechanically Controlled Event

    PubMed Central

    Erben, Reinhold G.

    2015-01-01

    Coupling is the process that links bone resorption to formation in a temporally and spatially coordinated manner within the remodeling cycle. In order to maintain skeletal integrity, it is of crucial importance that the amount of bone resorbed matches the amount of newly formed bone in each remodeling site. Although a number of different explanatory models have been developed, the mechanisms that couple bone resorption and formation in bone remodeling are still a matter of controversy. Here, I propose a model in which coupling is achieved by biomechanical strain sensed by osteocytes within the newly built bone package. In this model, the resorption cavity created by osteoclasts results in mechanical weakening of the structural element, and, thus, in increased strain under constant loading conditions. Subsequent bone formation is initiated by strain-sensitive osteocytes in the underlying bone matrix. After osteoblastic bone formation has started, the newly built osteocyte–osteoblast network detects strain. Once the mechanical strain within the newly built bone structural unit falls below a certain threshold, bone formation stops. In this biomechanical strain-driven model, osteoblasts do not need to “know” how much bone was previously resorbed in a given site. In addition, this model does not require the transfer of any information from bone-resorbing osteoclasts to bone-forming osteoblasts, because biomechanical strain “guides” osteoblasts through their job of re-filling the resorption cavity.

  16. Biglycan modulates angiogenesis and bone formation during fracture healing

    PubMed Central

    Berendsen, Agnes D.; Pinnow, Emily L.; Maeda, Azusa; Brown, Aaron C.; McCartney-Francis, Nancy; Kram, Vardit; Owens, Rick T.; Robey, Pamela G.; Holmbeck, Kenn; de Castro, Luis F.; Kilts, Tina M.; Young, Marian F.

    2014-01-01

    Matrix proteoglycans such as biglycan (Bgn) dominate skeletal tissue and yet its exact role in regulating bone function is still unclear. In this paper we describe the potential role of (Bgn) in the fracture healing process. We hypothesized that Bgn could regulate fracture healing because of previous work showing that it can affect normal bone formation. To test this hypothesis, we created fractures in femurs of 6-week-old male wild type (WT or Bgn+/0) and Bgn-deficient (Bgn-KO or Bgn?/0) mice using a custom-made standardized fracture device, and analyzed the process of healing over time. The formation of a callus around the fracture site was observed at both 7 and 14 days post-fracture in WT and Bgn-deficient mice and immunohistochemistry revealed that Bgn was highly expressed in the fracture callus of WT mice, localizing within woven bone and cartilage. Micro-computed tomography (?CT) analysis of the region surrounding the fracture line showed that the Bgn-deficient mice had a smaller callus than WT mice. Histology of the same region also showed the presence of less cartilage and woven bone in the Bgn-deficient mice compared to WT mice. Picrosirius red staining of the callus visualized under polarized light showed that there was less fibrillar collagen in the Bgn-deficient mice, a finding confirmed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies to type I collagen. Interestingly, real time RT-PCR of the callus at 7 days post-fracture showed a significant decrease in relative vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) gene expression by Bgn-deficient mice as compared to WT. Moreover, VEGF was shown to bind directly to Bgn through a solid-phase binding assay. The inability of Bgn to directly enhance VEGF-induced signaling suggests that Bgn has a unique role in regulating vessel formation, potentially related to VEGF storage or stabilization in the matrix. Taken together, these results suggest that Bgn has a regulatory role in the process of bone formation during fracture healing, and further, that reduced angiogenesis could be the molecular basis. PMID:24373744

  17. The homing of bone marrow MSCs to non-osseous sites for ectopic bone formation induced by osteoinductive calcium phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Song, Guodong; Habibovic, Pamela; Bao, Chongyun; Hu, Jing; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.; Yuan, Huipin; Chen, Wenchuan; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoinductive biomaterials are promising for bone repair. There is no direct proof that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) home to non-osseous sites and participate in ectopic bone formation induced by osteoinductive bioceramics. The objective of this study was to use a sex-mismatched beagle dog model to investigate BMSC homing via blood circulation to participate in ectopic bone formation via osteoinductive biomaterial. BMSCs of male dogs were injected into female femoral marrow cavity. The survival and stable chimerism of donor BMSCs in recipients were confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) granules were implanted in dorsal muscles of female dogs. Y chromosomes were detected in samples harvested from female dogs which had received male BMSCs. At 4 weeks, cells with Y-chromosomes were distributed in the new bone matrix throughout the BCP granule implant. At 6 weeks, cells with Y chromosomes were present in newly mineralized woven bone. TRAP positive osteoclast-like cells were observed in 4-week implants, and the number of such cells decreased from 4 to 6 weeks. These results show that osteoprogenitors were recruited from bone marrow and homed to ectopic site to serve as a cell source for calcium phosphate-induced bone formation. In conclusion, BMSCs were demonstrated to migrate from bone marrow through blood circulation to non-osseous bioceramic implant site to contribute to ectopic bone formation in a canine model. BCP induced new bone in muscles without growth factor delivery, showing excellent osteoinductivity that could be useful for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23298780

  18. Genetic and Environmental Correlations Between Bone Formation and Bone Mineral Density: A Twin Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Harris; T. V Nguyen; G. M Howard; P. J Kelly; J. A Eisman

    1998-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover are both heritable. Although bone turnover affects bone mass, it is not clear whether these parameters are under common genetic or environmental control. The relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the determination of an index of bone turnover, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), and the extent of common genetic regulation with

  19. Ibuprofen Administered Pre- or Post- Simulated Resistance Exercise Training Does Not Diminsh Gains in Bone Formation or Bone Mass 

    E-print Network

    Cunningham, David

    2012-02-14

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to suppress bone formation when administered before, but not if administered after, an acute bout of mechanical load in rats. The NSAID ibuprofen inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme...

  20. Ibuprofen Administered Pre- or Post- Simulated Resistance Exercise Training Does Not Diminsh Gains in Bone Formation or Bone Mass

    E-print Network

    Cunningham, David

    2012-02-14

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to suppress bone formation when administered before, but not if administered after, an acute bout of mechanical load in rats. The NSAID ibuprofen inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme...

  1. Effect of nickel–titanium shape memory metal alloy on bone formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Kapanen; Jorma Ryhänen; Anatoli Danilov; Juha Tuukkanen

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the biocompatibility of NiTi alloy on bone formation in vivo. For this purpose we used ectopic bone formation assay which goes through all the events of bone formation and calcification. Comparisons were made between Nitinol (NiTi), stainless steel (Stst) and titanium–aluminium (6%)–vanadium (4%) alloy (Ti–6Al–4V), which were implanted for 8 weeks under

  2. Bone expansion in facial rejuvenation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rómulo Guerrero Vicuña; Adriana Salazar Giottonini

    1994-01-01

    Soft tissues and bone structures of the face are both affected by aging, but the bone is the more important element in the three-dimensional contour and suspension of the soft tissue. Bone expansion augments bone volume in the midface. A lamellar split osteotomy of the midface is used for bone expansion, and cranial bone grafts fill spaces created by the

  3. Formation of liquid-crystalline structures in the bile salt-chitosan system and triggered release from lamellar phase bile salt-chitosan capsules.

    PubMed

    Tangso, Kristian J; Lindberg, Seth; Hartley, Patrick G; Knott, Robert; Spicer, Patrick; Boyd, Ben J

    2014-08-13

    Nanostructured capsules comprised of the anionic bile salt, sodium taurodeoxycholate (STDC), and the biocompatible cationic polymer, chitosan, were prepared to assess their potential as novel tailored release nanomaterials. For comparison, a previously studied system, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (polyDADMAC) was also investigated. Crossed-polarizing light microscopy (CPLM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) identified the presence of lamellar and hexagonal phase at the surfactant-polymer interface of the respective systems. The hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between the oppositely charged components were studied by varying temperature and salt concentration, respectively, and were found to influence the liquid-crystalline nanostructure formed. The hexagonal phase persisted at high temperatures, however the lamellar phase structure was lost above ca. 45 °C. Both mesophases were found to dissociate upon addition of 4% NaCl solution. The rate of release of the model hydrophilic drug, Rhodamine B (RhB), from the lamellar phase significantly increased in response to changes in the solution conditions studied, suggesting that modulating the drug release from these bile salt-chitosan capsules is readily achieved. In contrast, release from the hexagonal phase capsules had no appreciable response to the stimuli applied. These findings provide a platform for these oppositely charged surfactant and polymer systems to function as stimuli-responsive or sustained-release drug delivery systems. PMID:25050454

  4. Bisphosphonate treatment of type I diabetic mice prevents early bone loss but accentuates suppression of bone formation.

    PubMed

    Coe, Lindsay M; Tekalur, Srinivasan Arjun; Shu, Yutian; Baumann, Melissa J; McCabe, Laura R

    2015-08-01

    Type I (T1) diabetes is an autoimmune and metabolic disease associated with bone loss. Previous studies demonstrate that T1-diabetes decreases osteoblast activity and viability. Bisphosphonate therapy, commonly used to treat osteoporosis, is demonstrated to inhibit osteoclast activity as well as osteoblast apoptosis. Therefore, we examined the effect of weekly alendronate treatments on T1-diabetes induced osteoblast apoptosis and bone loss. Bone TUNEL assays identified that alendronate therapy prevents the diabetes-induced osteoblast death observed during early stages of diabetes development. Consistent with this, alendronate treatment for 40 days was able to prevent diabetes-induced trabecular bone loss. Alendronate was also able to reduce marrow adiposity in both control diabetic mice compared to untreated mice. Mechanical testing indicated that 40 days of alendronate treatment increased bone stiffness but decreased the work required for fracture in T1-diabetic and alendronate treated mice. Of concern at this later time point, bone formation rate and osteoblast markers, which were already decreased in diabetic mice, were further suppressed in alendronate-treated diabetic mice. Taken together, our results suggest that short-term alendronate treatment can prevent T1-diabetes-induced bone loss in mice, possibly in part by inhibiting diabetes onset associated osteoblast death, while longer treatment enhanced bone density but at the cost of further suppressing bone formation in diabetic mice. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 1944-1953, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25641511

  5. Carbon nanotubes functionalized with fibroblast growth factor accelerate proliferation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells and bone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Eri; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Venturelli, Enrica; Takita, Hiroko; Watari, Fumio; Bianco, Alberto; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2013-11-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and the advantages of their use as scaffolds for bone augmentation were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The activity of FGF was assessed by measuring the effect on the proliferation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (RBMSCs). The presence of FGF enhanced the proliferation of RBMSCs and the FGF covalently conjugated to the nanotubes (FGF-CNT) showed the same effect as FGF alone. In addition, FGF-CNT coated sponges were implanted between the parietal bone and the periosteum of rats and the formation of new bone was investigated. At day 14 after implantation, a larger amount of newly formed bone was clearly observed in most pores of FGF-CNT coated sponges. These findings indicated that MWCNTs accelerated new bone formation in response to FGF, as well as the integration of particles into new bone during its formation. Scaffolds coated with FGF-CNT could be considered as promising novel substituting materials for bone regeneration in future tissue engineering applications.

  6. Computational and experimental methodology for site-matched investigations of the influence of mineral mass fraction and collagen orientation on the axial indentation modulus of lamellar bone?

    PubMed Central

    Spiesz, Ewa M.; Reisinger, Andreas G.; Kaminsky, Werner; Roschger, Paul; Pahr, Dieter H.; Zysset, Philippe K.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between mineralization, collagen orientation and indentation modulus were investigated in bone structural units from the mid-shaft of human femora using a site-matched design. Mineral mass fraction, collagen fibril angle and indentation moduli were measured in registered anatomical sites using backscattered electron imaging, polarized light microscopy and nano-indentation, respectively. Theoretical indentation moduli were calculated with a homogenization model from the quantified mineral densities and mean collagen fibril orientations. The average indentation moduli predicted based on local mineralization and collagen fibers arrangement were not significantly different from the average measured experimentally with nanoindentation (p=0.9). Surprisingly, no substantial correlation of the measured indentation moduli with tissue mineralization and/or collagen fiber arrangement was found. Nano-porosity, micro-damage, collagen cross-links, non-collagenous proteins or other parameters affect the indentation measurements. Additional testing/simulation methods need to be considered to properly understand the variability of indentation moduli, beyond the mineralization and collagen arrangement in bone structural units. PMID:23994944

  7. Connexin 43 deficiency attenuates loss of trabecular bone and prevents suppression of cortical bone formation during unloading.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Shane A; Lewis, Gregory S; Zhang, Yue; Paul, Emmanuel M; Donahue, Henry J

    2012-11-01

    Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the most abundant gap junction protein in bone and has been demonstrated as an integral component of skeletal homeostasis. In the present study, we sought to further refine the role of Cx43 in the response to mechanical unloading by subjecting skeletally mature mice with a bone-specific deletion of Cx43 (cKO) to 3 weeks of mechanical unloading via hindlimb suspension (HLS). The HLS model was selected to recapitulate the effects of skeletal unloading due to prolonged bed rest, reduced activity associated with aging, and spaceflight microgravity. At baseline, the cortical bone of cKO mice displayed an osteopenic phenotype, with expanded cortices, decreased cortical thickness, decreased bone mineral density, and increased porosity. There was no baseline trabecular phenotype. After 3 weeks of HLS, wild-type (WT) mice experienced a substantial decline in trabecular bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular thickness, and trabecular tissue mineral density. These deleterious effects were attenuated in cKO mice. Conversely, there was a similar and significant amount of cortical bone loss in both WT and cKO. Interestingly, mechanical testing revealed a greater loss of strength and rigidity for cKO during HLS. Analysis of double-label quantitative histomorphometry data demonstrated a substantial decrease in bone formation rate, mineralizing surface, and mineral apposition rate at both the periosteal and endocortical surfaces of the femur after unloading of WT mice. This suppression of bone formation was not observed in cKO mice, in which parameters were maintained at baseline levels. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate that Cx43 deficiency desensitizes bone to the effects of mechanical unloading, and that this may be due to an inability of mechanosensing osteocytes to effectively communicate the unloading state to osteoblasts to suppress bone formation. Cx43 may represent a novel therapeutic target for investigation as a countermeasure for age-related and unloading-induced bone loss. PMID:22714552

  8. The effect of bovine whey protein on ectopic bone formation in young growing rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Owen Kelly; Siobhan Cusack; Kevin D. Cashman

    2003-01-01

    The beneficial effect of bovine whey protein (WP) on bone metabolism has been shown in adult human subjects and ovariectomised rats. However, its effect on bone formation in earlier life, particularly during periods of bone mineral accrual, has not been investigated. Twenty-one male rats (4 weeks old, Wistar strain) were randomised by weight into three groups of seven rats each

  9. Permian Bone Spring formation: Sandstone play in the Delaware basin. Part I - slope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott L. Montgomery

    1997-01-01

    New exploration in the Permian (Leonardian) Bone Spring formation has indicated regional potential in several sandstone sections across portions of the northern Delaware basin. Significant production has been established in the first, second, and third Bone Spring sandstones, as well as in a new reservoir interval, the Avalon sandstone, above the first Bone Spring sandstone. These sandstones were deposited as

  10. Stratigraphy and depositional history, Bone Spring Formation, Lea County, New Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mazzullo

    1987-01-01

    The Bone Spring formation of the northern Delaware basin in southeastern New Mexico produces oil in Lea County from foreshelf detrital carbonate facies, such as in Scharb field. Production there comes from several intervals. Stratigraphic correlations between the various Bone Springs units and equivalent Leonardian facies of the Northwest shelf in Lea County suggest that the Bone Spring is correlative

  11. Low Dose Parathyroid Hormone Maintains Normal Bone Formation in Adult Male Rats During Rapid Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.

    2011-01-01

    A persistent negative energy balance results in bone loss. It is not clear whether the bone loss associated with chronic negative energy balance can be prevented. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of intermittent low dose parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment in maintaining normal bone formation during severe energy restriction. Six-month-old male Fisher 344 rats were divided into 4 treatment groups: (1) baseline, (2) ad libitum (ad lib)-fed control, (3) energy-restricted (to consume 40% ad lib caloric intake), or (4) energy-restricted + low dose (1 ?g/kg/d) PTH. Severe energy restriction for 14 days decreased body weight and serum leptin levels. Compared to ad lib-fed controls, energy-restricted rats had lower cancellous bone formation, higher osteoclast perimeter/bone perimeter and higher bone marrow adiposity in the proximal tibial metaphysis. Also, the energy-restricted rats had a lower periosteal bone formation rate at the tibia-fibula synostosis. Administration of PTH to energy-restricted rats had no effect on weight loss or osteoclast perimeter/bone perimeter. In contrast, energy-restricted rats treated with PTH had higher rates of cancellous and cortical bone formation compared to energy-restricted rats, and did not differ from the ad lib-fed control animals. Furthermore, PTH treatment maintained normal bone marrow adiposity. In conclusion, rapid weight loss in adult male rats was accompanied by decreased bone formation and increased bone marrow adiposity and these changes were prevented by low dose PTH treatment. Taken together, the results suggest that the energy cost of bone formation in adult rats is low and PTH therapy is effective in preventing the reduced bone formation associated with rapid weight loss. PMID:21215827

  12. Wnt signaling in bone formation and its therapeutic potential for bone diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Hwan; Liu, Xing; Wang, Jinhua; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Hongyu; Kim, Stephanie H.; Cui, Jing; Li, Ruidong; Zhang, Wenwen; Kong, Yuhan; Zhang, Jiye; Shui, Wei; Lamplot, Joseph; Rogers, Mary Rose; Zhao, Chen; Wang, Ning; Rajan, Prashant; Tomal, Justin; Statz, Joseph; Wu, Ningning; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.

    2013-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role not only in embryonic development but also in the maintenance and differentiation of the stem cells in adulthood. In particular, Wnt signaling has been shown as an important regulatory pathway in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Induction of the Wnt signaling pathway promotes bone formation while inactivation of the pathway leads to osteopenic states. Our current understanding of Wnt signaling in osteogenesis elucidates the molecular mechanisms of classic osteogenic pathologies. Activating and inactivating aberrations of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in osteogenesis results in sclerosteosis and osteoporosis respectively. Recent studies have sought to target the Wnt signaling pathway to treat osteogenic disorders. Potential therapeutic approaches attempt to stimulate the Wnt signaling pathway by upregulating the intracellular mediators of the Wnt signaling cascade and inhibiting the endogenous antagonists of the pathway. Antibodies against endogenous antagonists, such as sclerostin and dickkopf-1, have demonstrated promising results in promoting bone formation and fracture healing. Lithium, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3?, has also been reported to stimulate osteogenesis by stabilizing ? catenin. Although manipulating the Wnt signaling pathway has abundant therapeutic potential, it requires cautious approach due to risks of tumorigenesis. The present review discusses the role of the Wnt signaling pathway in osteogenesis and examines its targeted therapeutic potential. PMID:23514963

  13. In vivo bone formation by human bone marrow stromal cells: effect of carrier particle size and shape.

    PubMed

    Mankani, M H; Kuznetsov, S A; Fowler, B; Kingman, A; Robey, P G

    2001-01-01

    Successful closure of bone defects in patients remains an active area of basic and clinical research. A novel and promising approach is the transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), which have been shown to possess a significant osteogenic potential. The extent and quality of bone formation by transplanted human BMSCs strongly depends on the carrier matrix with which cells are transplanted; to date, hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) supports far more osteogenesis than any other matrix tested. In order to further improve the technique of BMSC transplantation, we studied whether commercially available HA/TCP particles, clinically approved as an osteoconductive material and commercially available as particles measuring 0.5-1.0 mm diameter, is an optimum matrix for promoting bone development by BMSCs. HA/TCP and HA particles of varying size were sieved into a variety of size ranges, from <0.044 mm to 1.0-2.0 mm. Transplants were formed by mixing 40 mg aliquots of particles with cultured passaged human BMSCs. They were placed in subcutaneous pockets in immunocompromised Bg-Nu-XID mice and harvested 4 or 10 weeks later. The transplants were examined histologically; the presence of bone within each transplant was evaluated using histomorphometry or blindly scored on a semiquantitative scale. Transplant morphology and the amount of new bone varied in a consistent fashion based on particle size and shape. Transplants incorporating HA/TCP particles of 0.1-0.25 mm size demonstrated the greatest bone formation at both 4 and 10 weeks; larger or smaller particles were associated with less extensive bone formation, while a size of 0.044 mm represented a threshold below which no bone formation could be observed. Flat-sided HA particles measuring 0.1-0.25 mm formed no bone. The differences in bone formation were not attributable to the differences in cell attachment among the groups. Instead, the size and spatial and structural organization of the particles within BMSC transplants appear to determine the extent of bone formation. These findings provide necessary information for the successful clinical application of BMSC transplantation techniques. PMID:11084599

  14. Circulating Osteogenic Precursor Cells in Heterotopic Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Robin K.; Billings, Paul C.; Egan, Kevin P.; Kim, Jung-Hoon; McCarrick-Walmsley, Ruth; Glaser, David L.; Porter, David L.; Shore, Eileen M.; Pignolo, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Cells with osteogenic potential can be found in a variety of tissues. Here we show that circulating osteogenic precursor (COP) cells, a bone marrow-derived type I collagen+/CD45+ subpopulation of mononuclear adherent cells, are present in early pre-osseous fibroproliferative lesions in patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) and nucleate heterotopic ossification (HO) in a murine in vivo implantation assay. Blood samples from FOP patients with active episodes of HO contain significantly higher numbers of clonally-derived COP cell colonies than patients with stable disease or unaffected individuals. The highest level of COP cells was found in a patient just prior to the clinical onset of an HO exacerbation. Our studies show that even COP cells derived from an unaffected individual can contribute to HO in genetically susceptible host tissue. The possibility that circulating, hematopoietic-derived cells with osteogenic potential can seed inflammatory sites has tremendous implications and, to our knowledge, represents the first example of their involvement in clinical HO. Thus, bone formation is not limited to cells of the mesenchymal lineage, and circulating cells of hematopoietic origin can also serve as osteogenic precursors at remote sites of tissue inflammation. PMID:19522009

  15. Vitamin D3 metabolites and PTH synergistically stimulate bone formation of chick embryonic femur in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyoshi Endo; Mamoru Kiyoki; Kohtaro Kawashima; Tatsuyuki Naruchi; Yoshinobu Hashimoto

    1980-01-01

    Bone remodelling depends on a balance between formation and resorption. Little is known of the biological factors involved in bone formation, whereas there is much evidence that physiological factors, such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) and active metabolites of vitamin D3, influence resorption. Cells responsible for osteogenesis and osteoclasis occur in close proximity, suggesting that both might be controlled by the

  16. Myeloma cells suppress bone formation by secreting a soluble Wnt inhibitor, sFRP-2.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Takashi; Abe, Masahiro; Asano, Jin; Hara, Tomoko; Kitazoe, Kenichi; Sekimoto, Etsuko; Tanaka, Yoichi; Shibata, Hironobu; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Ozaki, Shuji; Kido, Shinsuke; Inoue, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2005-11-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) develops devastating bone destruction with enhanced bone resorption and suppressed bone formation. In contrast to enhanced osteoclastogenesis, little is known about the mechanism of impaired bone formation in MM. Because a canonical Wingless-type (Wnt) signaling pathway has recently been shown to play an important role in osteoblast differentiation, we examined whether MM cells affect a canonical Wnt pathway to suppress bone formation. Conditioned media from RPMI8226 and U266 MM cell lines and primary MM cells suppressed in vitro mineralization as well as alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoblasts induced by bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). These cell lines constitutively produced a soluble Wnt inhibitor, secreted Frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP-2), but not other Wnt inhibitors including sFRP-1, sFRP-3, and dickkopf 1 (DKK-1) at the protein level. Most MM cells from patients with advanced bone destructive lesions also expressed sFRP-2. Furthermore, exogenous sFRP-2 suppressed osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2, and immunodepletion of sFRP-2 significantly restored mineralized nodule formation in vitro, suggesting a predominant role for MM cell-derived sFRP-2 in the impairment of bone formation by MM. Thus, in addition to enhanced osteolysis, MM cells also suppress bone formation at least in part through an inhibition of the canonical Wnt pathway by secreting sFRP-2. PMID:16030194

  17. Programmed administration of parathyroid hormone increases bone formation and reduces bone loss in hindlimb-unloaded ovariectomized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Evans, G. L.; Cavolina, J. M.; Halloran, B.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1998-01-01

    Gonadal insufficiency and reduced mechanical usage are two important risk factors for osteoporosis. The beneficial effects of PTH therapy to reverse the estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in the laboratory rat are well known, but the influence of mechanical usage in this response has not been established. In this study, the effects of programed administration of PTH on cancellous bone volume and turnover at the proximal tibial metaphysis were determined in hindlimb-unloaded, ovariectomized (OVX), 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats. PTH was administered to weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded OVX rats with osmotic pumps programed to deliver 20 microg human PTH (approximately 80 microg/kg x day) during a daily 1-h infusion for 7 days. Compared with sham-operated rats, OVX increased longitudinal and radial bone growth, increased indexes of cancellous bone turnover, and resulted in net resorption of cancellous bone. Hindlimb unloading of OVX rats decreased longitudinal and radial bone growth, decreased osteoblast number, increased osteoclast number, and resulted in a further decrease in cancellous bone volume compared with those in weight-bearing OVX rats. Programed administration of PTH had no effect on either radial or longitudinal bone growth in weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded OVX rats. PTH treatment had dramatic effects on selected cancellous bone measurements; PTH maintained cancellous bone volume in OVX weight-bearing rats and greatly reduced cancellous bone loss in OVX hindlimb-unloaded rats. In the latter animals, PTH treatment prevented the hindlimb unloading-induced reduction in trabecular thickness, but the hormone was ineffective in preventing either the increase in osteoclast number or the loss of trabecular plates. Importantly, PTH treatment increased the retention of a baseline flurochrome label, osteoblast number, and bone formation in the proximal tibial metaphysis regardless of the level of mechanical usage. These findings demonstrate that programed administration of PTH is effective in increasing osteoblast number and bone formation and has beneficial effects on bone volume in the absence of weight-bearing and gonadal hormones. We conclude that the actions of PTH on cancellous bone are independent of the level of mechanical usage.

  18. Advanced Molecular Profiling in Vivo Detects Novel Function of Dickkopf-3 in the Regulation of Bone Formation

    E-print Network

    Domany, Eytan

    In the adult, endochondral bone formation or ossification is a major process involved in both long bone development(1) and fracture healing.(2) Endochondral bone formation is a multistep process that involves to verify and understand the complexity of endochondral bone forma- tion. In a rat fracture model, several

  19. Calcium ions and osteoclastogenesis initiate the induction of bone formation by coral-derived macroporous constructs

    PubMed Central

    Klar, Roland M; Duarte, Raquel; Dix-Peek, Therese; Dickens, Caroline; Ferretti, Carlo; Ripamonti, Ugo

    2013-01-01

    Coral-derived calcium carbonate/hydroxyapatite macroporous constructs of the genus Goniopora with limited hydrothermal conversion to hydroxyapatite (7% HA/CC) initiate the induction of bone formation. Which are the molecular signals that initiate pattern formation and the induction of bone formation? To evaluate the role of released calcium ions and osteoclastogenesis, 7% HA/CC was pre-loaded with either 500 ?g of the calcium channel blocker, verapamil hydrochloride, or 240 ?g of the osteoclast inhibitor, biphosphonate zoledronate, and implanted in the rectus abdominis muscle of six adult Chacma baboons Papio ursinus. Generated tissues on days 15, 60 and 90 were analysed by histomorphometry and qRT-PCR. On day 15, up-regulation of type IV collagen characterized all the implanted constructs correlating with vascular invasion. Zoledronate-treated specimens showed an important delay in tissue patterning and morphogenesis with limited bone formation. Osteoclastic inhibition yielded minimal, if any, bone formation by induction. 7% HA/CC pre-loaded with the Ca++ channel blocker verapamil hydrochloride strongly inhibited the induction of bone formation. Down-regulation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) together with up-regulation of Noggin genes correlated with limited bone formation in 7% HA/CC pre-loaded with either verapamil or zoledronate, indicating that the induction of bone formation by coral-derived macroporous constructs is via the BMPs pathway. The spontaneous induction of bone formation is initiated by a local peak of Ca++ activating stem cell differentiation and the induction of bone formation. PMID:24106923

  20. Bone marrow-derived osteoblast progenitor cells in circulating blood contribute to ectopic bone formation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuru, Satoru [Division of Gene Therapy Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tamai, Katsuto [Division of Gene Therapy Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail: tamai@gts.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yamazaki, Takehiko [Division of Gene Therapy Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kaneda, Yasufumi [Division of Gene Therapy Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2007-03-09

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of osteoblastic cells in the circulation, but the origin and role of these cells in vivo are not clear. Here, we examined how these cells contribute to osteogenesis in a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced model of ectopic bone formation. Following lethal dose-irradiation and subsequent green fluorescent protein-transgenic bone marrow cell-transplantation (GFP-BMT) in mice, a BMP-2-containing collagen pellet was implanted into muscle. Three weeks later, a significant number of GFP-positive osteoblastic cells were present in the newly generated ectopic bone. Moreover, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) from the BMP-2-implanted mouse were then shown to include osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) in culture. Passive transfer of the PBMNCs isolated from the BMP-2-implanted GFP-mouse to the BMP-2-implanted nude mouse led to GFP-positive osteoblast accumulation in the ectopic bone. These data provide new insight into the mechanism of ectopic bone formation involving bone marrow-derived OPCs in circulating blood.

  1. Lamellar eutectic growth with anisotropic interphase boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akamatsu, S.; Bottin-Rousseau, S.; Faivre, G.; Ghosh, S.; Plapp, M.

    2015-06-01

    We present a numerical study of the effect of a free-energy anisotropy of the solid- solid interphase boundaries on the formation of tilted lamellar microstructures during directional solidification of nonfaceted binary eutectic alloys. We used two different methods - phase-field (PF) and dynamic boundary-integral (BI) - to simulate the growth of periodic eutectic patterns in two dimensions. For a given Wulff plot of the interphase boundary, which characterizes a eutectic grain with a given relative orientation of the two solid phases, the lamellar tilt angle depends on the angle between the thermal axis z and a reference crystallographic axis. Both PF and BI results confirm the general validity of a recent approximate theory which assumes that, at the trijunctions, the surface tension vector of the interphase boundary is parallel to z. In particular, a crystallographic locking of the lamellae onto a direction close to a deep minimum in the Wulff plot is well reproduced in the simulations.

  2. Cadmium stimulates osteoclast-like multinucleated cell formation in mouse bone marrow cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Miyahara, Tatsuro; Takata, Masakazu; Miyata, Masaki; Nagai, Miyuki; Sugure, Akemi; Kozuka, Hiroshi; Kuze, Shougo (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan))

    1991-08-01

    Most of cadmium (Cd)-treated animals have been reported to show osteoporosis-like changes in bones. This suggests that Cd may promote bone loss by a direct action on bone. It was found that Cd stimulated prostaglandin E{sub 2}(PGE{sub 2}) production in the osteoblast-like cell, MC3T3-E1. Therefore, Cd stimulates bone resorption by increasing PGE{sub 2} production. Recently, several bone marrow cell culture systems have been developed for examining the formation of osteoclast-like multinucleated cells in vitro. As osteoblasts produce PGE{sub 2} by Cd-induced cyclooxygenase and may play an important role in osteoclast formation, the present study was undertaken to clarify the possibility that Cd might stimulate osteoclast formation in a mouse bone marrow culture system.

  3. Chinese red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus-fermented rice) promotes bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ricky WK; Rabie, Bakr

    2008-01-01

    Background Statin can induce the gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2. Red yeast rice (RYR, Hongqu), i.e. rice fermented with Monascus purpureus, contains a natural form of statin. This study demonstrates the effects of RYR extract on bone formation. Methods Bone defects were created in the parietal bones of two New Zealand white rabbits. In the test animal, two defects were grafted with collagen matrix mixed with RYR extract. In the control animal, two defects were grafted with collagen matrix alone. UMR 106 cell line was used to test RYR extract in vitro. In the control group, cells were cultured for three durations (24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours) without any intervention. In the RYR group, cells were cultured for the same durations with various concentrations of RYR extract (0.001 g/ml, 0.005 g/ml and 0.01 g/ml). Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay were performed to measure total protein, mitochondrial activity and bone cell formation respectively. Results The test animal showed more formation of new bone in the defects than the control animal. RYR significantly increased the optical density in the MTT assay and ALP activity in vitro. Conclusion RYR extract stimulated new bone formation in bone defects in vivo and increased bone cell formation in vitro. PMID:18373874

  4. High bone mass in adult mice with diet-induced obesity results from a combination of initial increase in bone mass followed by attenuation in bone formation; implications for high bone mass and decreased bone quality in obesity.

    PubMed

    Lecka-Czernik, B; Stechschulte, L A; Czernik, P J; Dowling, A R

    2015-07-15

    Obesity is generally recognized as a condition which positively influences bone mass and bone mineral density (BMD). Positive effect of high body mass index (BMI) on bone has been recognized as a result of increased mechanical loading exerted on the skeleton. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that obesity is associated with increased incidence of fractures. The results presented here offer a new perspective regarding the mechanisms which may be responsible for the increase of bone mass and concurrent decrease in bone quality. Two groups of 12 week old C57BL/6 males were fed either high fat diet (HFD) or regular diet (RD) for 11 weeks. Metabolic profile, bone parameters and gene expression were assessed in these groups at the end of the experiment. Additionally, bone status was evaluated in a third group of 12 week old animals corresponding to animals at the start of the feeding period. Administration of HFD resulted in development of a diet-induced obesity (DIO), glucose intolerance, alteration in energy metabolism, and impairment in WAT function, as compared to the age-matched control animals fed RD. The expression of adiponectin, FABP4/aP2, DIO2 and FoxC2 were decreased in WAT of DIO animals, as well as transcript levels for IGFBP2, the cytokine regulating both energy metabolism and bone mass. At the end of experiment, DIO mice had higher bone mass than both control groups on RD, however they had decreased bone formation, as assessed by calcein labeling, and increased marrow adipocyte content. This study suggests that the bone mass acquired in obesity is a result of a two-phase process. First phase would consist of either beneficial effect of fat expansion to increase bone mass by increased mechanical loading and/or increased production of bone anabolic adipokines and/or nutritional effect of fatty acids. This is followed by a second phase characterized by decreased bone formation and bone turnover resulting from development of metabolic impairment. PMID:25576855

  5. Heterotopic bone formation in the musculus latissimus dorsi of sheep using ?-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds: evaluation of an extended prefabrication time on bone formation and matrix degeneration.

    PubMed

    Spalthoff, S; Jehn, P; Zimmerer, R; Möllmann, U; Gellrich, N-C; Kokemueller, H

    2015-06-01

    We previously generated viable heterotopic bone in living animals and found that 3 months of intrinsic vascularization improved bone formation and matrix degeneration. In this study, we varied the pre-vascularization time to determine its effects on the kinetics of bone formation and ceramic degradation. Two 25-mm-long cylindrical ?-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds were filled intraoperatively with autogenous iliac crest bone marrow and implanted in the latissimus dorsi muscle in six sheep. To examine the effect of axial perfusion, one scaffold was surgically implanted with (group C) or without (group D) a central vascular bundle. All animals were sacrificed 6 months postoperatively and histomorphometric measurements were compared to previous results. All implanted scaffolds exhibited ectopic bone growth. However, bone growth was not significantly different between the 3-month (group A, 0.191±0.097 vs. group C, 0.237±0.075; P=0.345) and 6-month (group B, 0.303±0.105 vs. group D, 0.365±0.258; P=0.549) pre-vascularization durations, regardless of vessel supply; early differences between surgically and extrinsically vascularized constructs disappeared after 6 months. Here, we describe a reliable procedure for generating ectopic bone in vivo. A 3-month pre-vascularization duration appears sufficient and ceramic degradation proceeds in accordance with bone generation, supporting the hypothesis of cell-mediated resorption. PMID:25617952

  6. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves angiogenesis and bone formation in critical sized diaphyseal defects.

    PubMed

    Grassmann, J P; Schneppendahl, J; Hakimi, A R; Herten, M; Betsch, M; Lögters, T T; Thelen, S; Sager, M; Wild, M; Windolf, J; Jungbluth, P; Hakimi, M

    2015-04-01

    Besides the use of autologous bone grafting several osteoconductive and osteoinductive methods have been reported to improve bone healing. However, persistent non-union occurs in a considerable number of cases and compromised angiogenesis is suspected to impede bone regeneration. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) improves angiogenesis. This study evaluates the effects of HBO on bone defects treated with autologous bone grafting in a bone defect model in rabbits. Twenty-four New-Zealand White Rabbits were subjected to a unilateral critical sized diaphyseal radius bone defect and treated with autologous cancellous bone transplantation. The study groups were exposed to an additional HBO treatment regimen. Bone regeneration was evaluated radiologically and histologically at 3 and 6 weeks, angiogenesis was assessed by immunohistochemistry at three and six weeks. The additional administration of HBO resulted in a significantly increased new bone formation and angiogenesis compared to the sole treatment with autologous bone grafting. These results were apparent after three and six weeks of treatment. The addition of HBO therapy to autologous bone grafts leads to significantly improved bone regeneration. The increase in angiogenesis observed could play a crucial role for the results observed. PMID:25640997

  7. ?CT-based, in vivo dynamic bone histomorphometry allows 3D evaluation of the early responses of bone resorption and formation to PTH and alendronate combination therapy.

    PubMed

    de Bakker, Chantal M J; Altman, Allison R; Tseng, Wei-Ju; Tribble, Mary Beth; Li, Connie; Chandra, Abhishek; Qin, Ling; Liu, X Sherry

    2015-04-01

    Current osteoporosis treatments improve bone mass by increasing net bone formation: anti-resorptive drugs such as bisphosphonates block osteoclast activity, while anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) increase bone remodeling, with a greater effect on formation. Although these drugs are widely used, their role in modulating formation and resorption is not fully understood, due in part to technical limitations in the ability to longitudinally assess bone remodeling. Importantly, it is not known whether or not PTH-induced bone formation is independent of resorption, resulting in controversy over the effectiveness of combination therapies that use both PTH and an anti-resorptive. In this study, we developed a ?CT-based, in vivo dynamic bone histomorphometry technique for rat tibiae, and applied this method to longitudinally track changes in bone resorption and formation as a result of treatment with alendronate (ALN), PTH, or combination therapy of both PTH and ALN (PTH+ALN). Correlations between our ?CT-based measures of bone formation and measures of bone formation based on calcein-labeled histology (r=0.72-0.83) confirm the accuracy of this method. Bone remodeling parameters measured through ?CT-based in vivo dynamic bone histomorphometry indicate an increased rate of bone formation in rats treated with PTH and PTH+ALN, together with a decrease in bone resorption measures in rats treated with ALN and PTH+ALN. These results were further supported by traditional histology-based measurements, suggesting that PTH was able to induce bone formation while bone resorption was suppressed. PMID:25554598

  8. Gentamicin release from polymethylmethacrylate bone cements and Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilbrand van De Belt; Daniëlle Neut; Willem Schenk; Jim R van Horn; Henny C van Der Mei; Henk J Busscher

    2000-01-01

    We measured the formation of a Staphylo- coccus aureus biofilm in vitro on unloaded and gentami- cin-loaded bone cements (CMW3 and Palacos R) and re- lated the formation to antibiotic release rates. All experi- ments were done in triplicate. Microbial growth on gen- tamicin-loaded cements occurred despite the release of antibiotic. Biofilm formation on gentamicin loaded CMW3 bone cement was

  9. Short-term aluminum administration in the rat: reductions in bone formation without osteomalacia

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, W.G.

    1984-05-01

    Aluminum may be a pathogenic factor in dialysis-associated osteomalacia. To study the early effects of Al on bone, cortical bone growth was measured in pair-fed rats given Al and control rats over two consecutive intervals of 28 (period I) and 16 (period II) days, respectively, using tetracycline labeling of bone. Al (2 mg elemental Al per rat) was administered intraperitoneally for 5 days each week, except for the first week of study, when an incremental dose of Al was given. Control rats received saline vehicle only. For the entire 44-day study, bone and matrix formation were reduced from control values in rats given Al. Although bone and matrix formation remained at control levels during period I in rats given Al, both measurements decreased from control values during period II. During Al exposure, bone and matrix apposition at the periosteum were reduced from control levels in period II, but not in period I. Neither osteoid width nor mineralization front width increased from control values in rats given Al. These findings indicate that Al reduces bone and matrix formation early in the course of Al exposure and prior to the development of histologic osteomalacia. Rather than acting as an inhibitor of mineralization, the early effect of Al on bone is the suppression of matrix synthesis. Our results suggest that the state of low bone formation seen in dialysis-associated osteomalacia may be the consequence of a direct toxic effect of Al on the cellular activity of osteoblasts. 29 references, 3 tables.

  10. Adsorption properties of lamellar silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, B. V.; Lanin, S. N.; Rakhmanova, T. A.; Smirnov, V. V.; Tsodikov, M. V.; Tarasova, D. V.

    2007-05-01

    Isotherms and heats of adsorption of water, n-heptane, trimethylamine, and methanol (at 303 K) vapors and isotherms of adsorption of nitrogen (at 77 K) on the lamellar silica prepared by removing metals from natural mineral vermiculate were measured. The surface concentration of adsorption sites and their energetic characteristics were found to be similar to those of ordinary silicas. The distinction of the lamellar silica from ordinary silicas manifests itself through extended desorption branches, a feature that makes it possible to classify the lamellar silica under study as a limitedly swellable sorbent.

  11. Annulus fibrosus tissue engineering using lamellar silk scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Hyug; Gil, Eun Seok; Mandal, Biman B; Cho, Hongsik; Kluge, Jonathan A; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Kaplan, David L

    2012-12-01

    Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) represents a significant muscular skeletal disease. Recently, scaffolds composed of synthetic, natural and hybrid biomaterials have been investigated as options to restore the IVD; however, they lack the hallmark lamellar morphological features of annulus fibrosus (AF) tissue. The goal of regenerating the disc is to achieve anatomical morphology as well as restoration of mechanical and biological function. In this study, two types of scaffold morphology formed from silk fibroin were investigated towards the goal of AF tissue restoration. The first design mimics the lamellar features of the IVD that are associated with the AF region. The second is a porous spongy scaffold that serves as a control. Toroidal scaffolds were formed from the lamellar and porous silk material systems to generate structures with an outer diameter of 8 mm, inner diameter of 3.5 mm and a height of 3 mm. The inter-lamellar spacing in the lamellar scaffold was 150-250 µm and the average pore sizes in the porous scaffolds were 100-250 µm. The scaffolds were seeded with porcine AF cells and, after growth over defined time frames in vitro, histology, biochemical assays, mechanical testing and gene expression indicated that the lamellar scaffold generated results that were more favourable in terms of ECM expression and tissue function than the porous scaffold for AF tissue. Further, the seeded porcine AF cells supported the native shape of AF tissue in the lamellar silk scaffolds. The lamellar silk scaffolds were effective in the formation of AF-like tissue in vitro. PMID:22311816

  12. Silicon deprivation decreases collagen formation in wounds and bone, and ornithine transaminase enzyme activity in liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Seaborn; F. H. Nielsen

    2002-01-01

    We have shown that silicon (Si) deprivation decreases the collagen concentration in bone of 9-wk-old rats. Finding that Si\\u000a deprivation also affects collagen at different stages in bone development, collagen-forming enzymes, or collagen deposition\\u000a in other tissues would have implications that Si is important for both wound healing and bone formation. Therefore, 42 rats\\u000a in experiment 1 and 24 rats

  13. Cannabinoids Stimulate Fibroblastic Colony Formation by Bone Marrow Cells Indirectly via CB 2 Receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Scutt; E. M. Williamson

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 were shown to modulate bone formation and resorption in vivo, although little is known of the mechanisms underlying this. The effects of cannabinoids on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) recruitment\\u000a in whole bone marrow were investigated using either the fibroblastic colony-forming unit (CFU-f) assay or high-density cultures\\u000a of whole bone marrow. Levels of the

  14. Fibulin-1 is required for bone formation and Bmp-2-mediated induction of Osterix.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Marion A; Harikrishnan, Keerthi; Oppel, James A; Miler, Sloan F; Barth, Jeremy L; Haycraft, Courtney J; Reddy, Sakamuri V; Scott Argraves, W

    2014-12-01

    The extracellular matrix protein Fibulin-1 (Fbln1) has been shown to be involved in numerous processes including cardiovascular and lung development. Here we have examined the role of Fbln1 in bone formation. Alizarin red staining of skulls from Fbln1-deficient mice showed reduced mineralization of both membranous and endochondral bones. MicroCT (?CT) analysis of the calvarial bones (i.e., frontal, parietal and interparietal bones collectively) indicated that bone volume in Fbln1 nulls at neonatal stage P0 were reduced by 22% (p=0.015). Similarly, Fbln1 null frontal bones showed a 16% (p=0.035) decrease in bone volume, with a reduction in the interfrontal bone, and a discontinuity in the leading edge of the frontal bone. To determine whether Fbln1 played a role in osteoblast differentiation during bone formation, qPCR was used to measure the effects of Fbln1 deficiency on the expression of Osterix (Osx), a transcription factor essential for osteoblast differentiation. This analysis demonstrated that Osx mRNA was significantly reduced in Fbln1-deficient calvarial bones at developmental stages E16.5 (p=0.049) and E17.5 (p=0.022). Furthermore, the ability of Bmp-2 to induce Osx expression was significantly diminished in Fbln1-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts. Together, these findings indicate that Fbln1 is a new positive modulator of the formation of membranous bone and endochondral bone in the skull, acting as a positive regulator of Bmp signaling. PMID:25201465

  15. Osteoblast-Specific ?-Glutamyl Carboxylase-Deficient Mice Display Enhanced Bone Formation With Aberrant Mineralization.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Kotaro; Shiba, Sachiko; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Urano, Tomohiko; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Amizuka, Norio; Inoue, Satoshi

    2015-07-01

    Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that is necessary for blood coagulation. In addition, it has bone-protective effects. Vitamin K functions as a cofactor of ?-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX), which activates its substrates by carboxylation. These substrates are found throughout the body and examples include hepatic blood coagulation factors. Furthermore, vitamin K functions as a ligand of the nuclear receptor known as steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) and its murine ortholog, pregnane X receptor (PXR). We have previously reported on the bone-protective role of SXR/PXR signaling by demonstrating that systemic Pxr-knockout mice displayed osteopenia. Because systemic Ggcx-knockout mice die shortly after birth from severe hemorrhage, the GGCX-mediated effect of vitamin K on bone metabolism has been difficult to evaluate. In this work, we utilized Ggcx-floxed mice to generate osteoblast-specific GGCX-deficient (Ggcx(?obl/?obl) ) mice by crossing them with Col1-Cre mice. The bone mineral density (BMD) of Ggcx(?obl/?obl) mice was significantly higher than that of control Col1-Cre (Ggcx(+/+) ) mice. Histomorphometrical analysis of trabecular bones in the proximal tibia showed increased osteoid volume and a higher rate of bone formation in Ggcx(?obl/?obl) mice. Histomorphometrical analysis of cortical bones revealed a thicker cortical width and a higher rate of bone formation in Ggcx(?obl/?obl) mice. Electron microscopic examination revealed disassembly of mineralized nodules and aberrant calcification of collagen fibers in Ggcx(?obl/?obl) mice. The mechanical properties of bones from Ggcx(?obl/?obl) mice tended to be stronger than those from control Ggcx(+/+) mice. These results suggest that GGCX in osteoblasts functions to prevent abnormal mineralization in bone formation, although this function may not be a prerequisite for the bone-protective effect of vitamin K. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:25600070

  16. Lamellar Keratoplasty: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Espandar, Ladan; Carlson, Alan N.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of lamellar keratoplasty (LK) is not new. However, newer forms of lamellar keratoplasty techniques have emerged in the last decade or so revolving around the concept of targeted replacement of diseased corneal layers. These include anterior lamellar keratoplasty (ALK) techniques that aim to selectively replace diseased corneal stroma and endothelial keratoplasty techniques aiming to replaced damaged endothelium in endothelial disorders. Recent improvements in surgical instruments and introduction of new techniques as well as inherent advantages such as preservation of globe integrity and decreased graft rejection have resulted in the reintroduction of LK as an acceptable alternative to conventional PK. In this review, indications, benefits, limitations, and outcomes of various anterior and posterior lamellar keratoplasty techniques are discussed. PMID:24223301

  17. Suppressive effects of Anoectochilus formosanus extract on osteoclast formation in vitro and bone resorption in vivo.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Kikuko; Ikeuchi, Mayumi; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Woo, Je-Tae; Nishimura, Tomio; Yazawa, Kazunaga

    2008-01-01

    Anoectochilus formosanus, a plant native to Taiwan, is used as a folk medicine. It was found that oral administration of A. formosanus extract (AFE) (500 mg/kg) for 4 weeks suppressed bone weight loss and trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized mice, an experimental model of osteoporosis. Although AFE at 12.5 and 25 mug/ml inhibited osteoclast formation in co-culture of osteoblasts and bone marrow cells, AFE did not inhibit the formation of osteoclast progenitor cells and preosteoclast cells in bone marrow cells and RAW264 cells. However, AFE (at 12.5 and 25 microg/ml) decreased RANKL expression. These results suggested that AFE might suppress the bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency through suppression of RANKL expression required for osteoclast formation. PMID:18301967

  18. The reversal phase of the bone-remodeling cycle: cellular prerequisites for coupling resorption and formation

    PubMed Central

    Delaisse, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The reversal phase couples bone resorption to bone formation by generating an osteogenic environment at remodeling sites. The coupling mechanism remains poorly understood, despite the identification of a number of ‘coupling' osteogenic molecules. A possible reason is the poor attention for the cells leading to osteogenesis during the reversal phase. This review aims at creating awareness of these cells and their activities in adult cancellous bone. It relates cell events (i) on the bone surface, (ii) in the mesenchymal envelope surrounding the bone marrow and appearing as a canopy above remodeling surfaces and (iii) in the bone marrow itself within a 50-?m distance of this canopy. When bone remodeling is initiated, osteoprogenitors at these three different levels are activated, likely as a result of a rearrangement of cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions. Notably, canopies are brought under the osteogenic influence of capillaries and osteoclasts, whereas bone surface cells become exposed to the eroded matrix and other osteoclast products. In several diverse pathophysiological situations, including osteoporosis, a decreased availability of osteoprogenitors from these local reservoirs coincides with decreased osteoblast recruitment and impaired initiation of bone formation, that is, uncoupling. Overall, this review stresses that coupling does not only depend on molecules able to activate osteogenesis, but that it also demands the presence of osteoprogenitors and ordered cell rearrangements at the remodeling site. It points to protection of local osteoprogenitors as a critical strategy to prevent bone loss. PMID:25120911

  19. Circulating leptin is negatively associated with the isotopically-measured bone formation rate in pubertal adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Animal studies show that serum leptin (SL) is associated with decreased bone formation (BF) and increased bone resorption (BR) rates via its effects on the sympathetic nervous system. Pediatric data on these relationships are limited due to lack of accurate methodology for in vivo assess...

  20. An electronic device for accelerating bone formation in tissues surrounding a dental implant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong K. Song; Tae H. Cho; Hui Pan; Yoon M. Song; In S. Kim; Tae H. Lee; Soon J. Hwang; Sung J. Kim

    2009-01-01

    A dental implant is a unique structure which can be used with a noninvasive method because it is inserted into the bone in part and extended extracorporally. This study presents an electronic device that is temporarily connected with the dental implant, and reports its effect on accelerating bone formation in the surrounding tissues in a canine mandibular model. A small

  1. Substance P stimulates late-stage rat osteoblastic bone formation through neurokinin-1 receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Goto; K. Nakao; K. K. Gunjigake; M. A. Kido; S. Kobayashi; T. Tanaka

    2007-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a widely distributed neuropeptide that works as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. Recently, SP receptors, particularly neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1-Rs) that have a high affinity for SP, have been observed not only in neuron and immune cells, but also in other peripheral cells, including bone cells. To identify the role of SP in bone formation, we investigated the

  2. Heparanase expression and activity influences chondrogenic and osteogenic processes during endochondral bone formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Brown; M. Alicknavitch; S. S. D’Souza; T. Daikoku; C. B. Kirn-Safran; D. Marchetti; D. D. Carson; M. C. Farach-Carson

    2008-01-01

    Endochondral bone formation is a highly orchestrated process involving coordination among cell–cell, cell–matrix and growth factor signaling that eventually results in the production of mineralized bone from a cartilage template. Chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation occur in sequence during this process, and the temporospatial patterning clearly requires the activities of heparin binding growth factors and their receptors. Heparanase (HPSE) plays a

  3. BMP2 activity, although dispensable for bone formation, is required for the initiation of fracture healing

    E-print Network

    Tabin, Cliff

    BMP2 activity, although dispensable for bone formation, is required for the initiation of fracture capacity. Over 40 years ago, an intrinsic activity capable of initiating this reparative response was found has been shown to be the initiator of the endogenous bone repair response. Here we demonstrate

  4. Rat bone marrow stem cells isolation and culture as a bone formative experimental system

    PubMed Central

    Smajilagi?, Amer; Alji?evi?, Mufida; Redži?, Amira; Filipovi?, Selma; Lagumdžija, Alena C.

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal cells have been identified as a source of pluripotent stem cells with multipotential potential and differentiation in to the different cells types such as are osteoblast, chondroblast, adipoblast. In this research we describe pioneering experiment of tissue engineering in Bosnia and Herzegovina, of the isolation and differentiation rat bone marrow stromal cells in to the osteoblast cells lineages. Rat bone marrow stromal cells were isolated by method described by Maniatopulos using their plastic adherence capatibility. The cells obtained by plastic adherence were cultured and serially passaged in the osteoinductive medium to differentiate into the osteocytes. Bone marrow samples from rats long bones used for isolation of stromal cells (BMSCs). Under determinate culture conditions BMSCs were differentiated in osteogenic cell lines detected by Alizarin red staining three weeks after isolation. BMSCs as autologue cells model showed high osteogenetic potential and calcification capatibility in vitro. In future should be used as alternative method for bone transplantation in Regenerative Medicine. PMID:23448607

  5. Rat bone marrow stem cells isolation and culture as a bone formative experimental system.

    PubMed

    Smajilagi?, Amer; Alji?evi?, Mufida; Redži?, Amira; Filipovi?, Selma; Lagumdžija, Alena

    2013-02-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal cells have been identified as a source of pluripotent stem cells with multipotential potential and differentiation in to the different cells types such as are osteoblast, chondroblast, adipoblast. In this research we describe pioneering experiment of tissue engineering in Bosnia and Herzegovina, of the isolation and differentiation rat bone marrow stromal cells in to the osteoblast cells lineages. Rat bone marrow stromal cells were isolated by method described by Maniatopulos using their plastic adherence capatibility. The cells obtained by plastic adherence were cultured and serially passaged in the osteoinductive medium to differentiate into the osteocytes. Bone marrow samples from rats long bones used for isolation of stromal cells (BMSCs). Under determinate culture conditions BMSCs were differentiated in osteogenic cell lines detected by Alizarin red staining three weeks after isolation. BMSCs as autologue cells model showed high osteogenetic potential and calcification capatibility in vitro. In future should be used as alternative method for bone transplantation in Regenerative Medicine. PMID:23448607

  6. Metaplastic bone formation in the abdominal wall--an incidental finding in a patient with gastric cancer. Case report and hypothesis about its histogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gurzu, Simona; Bara, Tivadar; Bara, Tivadar; Jung, Ioan

    2013-12-01

    A 64-year-old man was hospitalized showing symptoms suggesting gastric cancer. The gastroscopy showed a 70 × 30-mm tumor. The intraoperatory findings indicated an inoperable gastric tumor located in the antrum and gastric body, which invaded the spleen and pancreas. The abdominal incision was closed without performing gastrectomy. Considering his general condition, after 1 month, he was transferred to our hospital. We decided to perform a total gastrectomy of necessity, spleno-pancreatectomy, and dissection of regional lymph nodes. The surgical incision was performed along to the previous one. At palpation, a well-defined nodule with hard consistency was observed in the surgical scar, which microscopically was composed by osteoblasts-lining mature lamellar bone intermingled with osteoid and cartilage in the intermediary layer and fibroblasts in the central area, without atypia. The final diagnosis was localized metaplastic bone formation. This is a rare condition which can be related to trauma or surgery and should be differentiated by foreign-body granuloma and osteosarcoma. PMID:24257191

  7. The circadian modulation of leptin-controlled bone formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mice with circadian gene Period and Cryptochrome mutations develop high bone mass early in life. Such a phenotype is accompanied by an increase in osteoblast numbers in mutant bone and cannot be corrected by leptin intracerebroventricular infusion. Thus, the molecular clock plays a key role in lepti...

  8. Regulation of bone resorption and formation by purines and pyrimidines

    E-print Network

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    an organic collagen matrix, and three major cell types: osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes (Table 1; Fig. Some osteoblasts become incorporated in the bone matrix they secrete, differentiating into osteocytes Differentiate into osteocytes (network of strain- detecting cells) when engulfed by bone matrix; p

  9. Up-regulation of glycolytic metabolism is required for HIF1?-driven bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jenna N.; Lim, Joohyun; Shi, Yu; Joeng, Kyu Sang; Arbeit, Jeffrey M.; Shohet, Ralph V.; Long, Fanxin

    2014-01-01

    The bone marrow environment is among the most hypoxic in the body, but how hypoxia affects bone formation is not known. Because low oxygen tension stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF?) proteins, we have investigated the effect of expressing a stabilized form of HIF1? in osteoblast precursors. Brief stabilization of HIF1? in SP7-positive cells in postnatal mice dramatically stimulated cancellous bone formation via marked expansion of the osteoblast population. Remarkably, concomitant deletion of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in the mouse did not diminish bone accrual caused by HIF1? stabilization. Thus, HIF1?-driven bone formation is independent of VEGFA up-regulation and increased angiogenesis. On the other hand, HIF1? stabilization stimulated glycolysis in bone through up-regulation of key glycolytic enzymes including pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1). Pharmacological inhibition of PDK1 completely reversed HIF1?-driven bone formation in vivo. Thus, HIF1? stimulates osteoblast formation through direct activation of glycolysis, and alterations in cellular metabolism may be a broadly applicable mechanism for regulating cell differentiation. PMID:24912186

  10. Dietary fish oil results in a greater bone mass and bone formation indices in aged ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Hiroshi; Barrios, Jill A; Shea, Jill E; Miller, Scott C

    2008-01-01

    Postmenopausal bone loss and the possible progression to osteoporosis is a major health concern. Until recently, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was the standard for preventing the development of osteoporosis and possible hip fractures following menopause. However, because of some adverse effects of HRT, new therapies, lifestyle habits, and nutritional interventions are being developed and better characterized in their ability to prevent bone loss after menopause. One such option is to increase the amount of fish oil consumed in the diet. The goal of the current research was to determine the impact of fish oil supplementation on bone mass, density, formation, and resorption in an aged ovariectomized rat model. Twelve-month-old female retired breeder Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control (Control) or fish oil (Fish) diet. Two weeks following the introduction of the diets, the rats were either sham-operated (Sham) or bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX). Ten weeks after surgery, indices of bone mass and bone histomorphometry were measured. Bone mineral content (BMC) of the whole femur was significantly higher in the Fish/OVX than in the Control/OVX, and the differences were most pronounced in the distal and proximal ends of the femur. However, the Fish/Sham and the Control/Sham did not differ in the measures of BMC. Although the Control/OVX had significantly lower cortical area and greater endosteal perimeter compared with the Control/Sham, the differences were not significant between the Fish/Sham and the Fish/OVX. In addition, the Fish/OVX had a significantly larger percent double-labeled surface and mineral apposition rate at the endocortical surface than the Control/OVX. Our findings suggest that fish oil supplementation has a positive effect on bone metabolism and might be a possible intervention to slow the loss of bone observed following menopause. PMID:18470664

  11. Pulsed electromagnetic fields partially preserve bone mass, microarchitecture, and strength by promoting bone formation in hindlimb-suspended rats.

    PubMed

    Jing, Da; Cai, Jing; Wu, Yan; Shen, Guanghao; Li, Feijiang; Xu, Qiaoling; Xie, Kangning; Tang, Chi; Liu, Juan; Guo, Wei; Wu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Maogang; Luo, Erping

    2014-10-01

    A large body of evidence indicates that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF), as a safe and noninvasive method, could promote in vivo and in vitro osteogenesis. Thus far, the effects and underlying mechanisms of PEMF on disuse osteopenia and/or osteoporosis remain poorly understood. Herein, the efficiency of PEMF on osteoporotic bone microarchitecture, bone strength, and bone metabolism, together with its associated signaling pathway mechanism, was systematically investigated in hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rats. Thirty young mature (3-month-old), male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally assigned to control, HU, and HU + PEMF groups. The HU + PEMF group was subjected to daily 2-hour PEMF exposure at 15 Hz, 2.4 mT. After 4 weeks, micro-computed tomography (µCT) results showed that PEMF ameliorated the deterioration of trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture. Three-point bending test showed that PEMF mitigated HU-induced reduction in femoral mechanical properties, including maximum load, stiffness, and elastic modulus. Moreover, PEMF increased serum bone formation markers, including osteocalcin (OC) and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP); nevertheless, PEMF exerted minor inhibitory effects on bone resorption markers, including C-terminal crosslinked telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX-I) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAcP5b). Bone histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that PEMF increased mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, and osteoblast numbers in cancellous bone, but PEMF caused no obvious changes on osteoclast numbers. Real-time PCR showed that PEMF promoted tibial gene expressions of Wnt1, LRP5, ?-catenin, OPG, and OC, but did not alter RANKL, RANK, or Sost mRNA levels. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of PEMF on disuse-induced osteopenia were further confirmed in 8-month-old mature adult HU rats. Together, these results demonstrate that PEMF alleviated disuse-induced bone loss by promoting skeletal anabolic activities, and imply that PEMF might become a potential biophysical treatment modality for disuse osteoporosis. PMID:24753111

  12. Acute effects of deflazacort and prednisone on rates of mineralization and bone formation.

    PubMed

    Lo Cascio, V; Kanis, J A; Beneton, M N; Bertoldo, F; Adami, S; Poggi, G; Zanolin, M E

    1995-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine (1) whether acute suppression of bone formation could be evaluated after the administration of corticosteroids in man by quantitative bone histomorphometry; and (2) whether there were significant differences between the effects of prednisone and its analog deflazacort. Thirteen patients who needed high-dose corticosteroid therapy were randomly allocated to two groups of treatment (prednisone or deflazacort). Quantitative bone histomorphometry, using the technique of triple labeling, and biochemical measurements of bone turnover were studied. There were no differences in biochemical indices of bone turnover between prednisone and deflazacort at the beginning and end of the 15 days of treatment course. During corticosteroid treatment, there were no significant changes in biochemical indices of bone turnover but a significant decline in total alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.01). Histomorphometric indices, as revealed by measurements of tetracycline interval and extent of labeling, showed no significant differences in either mineral apposition rate or bone formation rate in the two groups. We conclude that the acute glucocorticoid suppression of bone turnover by glucocorticoids is not detectable within the first 2 weeks of treatment by histomorphometric techniques. No differences in bone effects of prednisone and deflazacort were detected in this short-term study. PMID:7736317

  13. P2X7 receptors: role in bone cell formation and function.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ankita; Gartland, Alison

    2015-04-01

    The role of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is being explored with intensive interest in the context of normal bone physiology, bone-related diseases and, to an extent, bone cancer. In this review, we cover the current understanding of P2X7R regulation of bone cell formation, function and survival. We will discuss how the P2X7R drives lineage commitment of undifferentiated bone cell progenitors, the vital role of P2X7R activation in bone mineralisation and its relatively unexplored role in osteocyte function. We also review how P2X7R activation is imperative for osteoclast formation and its role in bone resorption via orchestrating osteoclast apoptosis. Variations in the gene for the P2X7R (P2RX7) have implications for P2X7R-mediated processes and we review the relevance of these genetic variations in bone physiology. Finally, we highlight how targeting P2X7R may have therapeutic potential in bone disease and cancer. PMID:25591582

  14. Sim1 inhibits bone formation by enhancing the sympathetic tone in male mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xunde; Wei, Wei; Zinn, Andrew R; Wan, Yihong

    2015-04-01

    Single-minded 1 (Sim1) is a basic helix-loop-helix Per-Arnt-Sim transcription factor that is important for neuronal development in the hypothalamus. Loss-of-function mutation of Sim1 causes early-onset obesity. However, it is unknown whether and how Sim1 regulates bone remodeling. In this study, we found that adult-onset Sim1 deletion increases bone formation, leading to high bone mass. In contrast, Sim1-overexpressing transgenic mice exhibit decreased bone formation and low bone mass. Sim1 does not directly regulate osteoblastogenesis, because bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from Sim1 mutant mice display a normal capacity for osteoblast differentiation. Instead, Sim1 inhibits bone formation via stimulating the sympathetic nervous system, because sympathetic tone is decreased by Sim1 deletion but increased by Sim1 overexpression. Treatment with the ?-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol effectively reverses the high bone mass in Sim1-knockout mice. These findings reveal Sim1 as a critical yet previously unrecognized modulator of skeletal homeostasis that functions through a central relay. PMID:25607894

  15. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, Peter S., E-mail: Peter.Gilmour@astrazeneca.com [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); O'Shea, Patrick J.; Fagura, Malbinder [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Pilling, James E. [Discovery Sciences, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Sanganee, Hitesh [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Wada, Hiroki [R and I IMed, AstraZeneca R and D, Molndal (Sweden); Courtney, Paul F. [DMPK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Kavanagh, Stefan; Hall, Peter A. [Safety Assessment, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Escott, K. Jane [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/?CT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused ?-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH{sub 1–34} or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/?CT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: • Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. • Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation produced by GSK-3 inhibition. • In rats, 3 GSK-3 inhibitors produced a unique serum bone turnover biomarker profile. • Enhanced bone formation was seen within 7 to 14 days of compound treatment in rats.

  16. Ichthyosis in Sjögren-Larsson syndrome reflects defective barrier function due to abnormal lamellar body structure and secretion.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, William B; S'Aulis, Dana; Jennings, M Anitia; Crumrine, Debra A; Williams, Mary L; Elias, Peter M

    2010-08-01

    Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is a genetic disease characterized by ichthyosis, mental retardation, spasticity and mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene coding for fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme necessary for oxidation of fatty aldehydes and fatty alcohols. We investigated the cutaneous abnormalities in 9 patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome to better understand how the enzymatic deficiency results in epidermal dysfunction. Histochemical staining for aldehyde oxidizing activity was profoundly reduced in the epidermis. Colloidal lanthanum perfusion studies showed abnormal movement of tracer into the extracellular spaces of the stratum corneum consistent with a leaky water barrier. The barrier defect could be attributed to the presence of abnormal lamellar bodies, many with disrupted limiting membranes or lacking lamellar contents. Entombed lamellar bodies were present in the cytoplasm of corneocytes suggesting blockade of lamellar body secretion. At the stratum granulosum-stratum corneum interface, non-lamellar material displaced or replaced secreted lamellar membranes, and in the stratum corneum, the number of lamellar bilayers declined and lamellar membrane organization was disrupted by foci of lamellar/non-lamellar phase separation. These studies demonstrate the presence of a permeability barrier abnormality in Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, which localizes to the stratum corneum interstices and can be attributed to abnormalities in lamellar body formation and secretion. PMID:20049467

  17. Ichthyosis in Sjögren–Larsson syndrome reflects defective barrier function due to abnormal lamellar body structure and secretion

    PubMed Central

    S’Aulis, Dana; Jennings, M. Anitia; Crumrine, Debra A.; Williams, Mary L.; Elias, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    Sjögren–Larsson syndrome is a genetic disease characterized by ichthyosis, mental retardation, spasticity and mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene coding for fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme necessary for oxidation of fatty aldehydes and fatty alcohols. We investigated the cutaneous abnormalities in 9 patients with Sjögren–Larsson syndrome to better understand how the enzymatic deficiency results in epidermal dysfunction. Histochemical staining for aldehyde oxidizing activity was profoundly reduced in the epidermis. Colloidal lanthanum perfusion studies showed abnormal movement of tracer into the extracellular spaces of the stratum corneum consistent with a leaky water barrier. The barrier defect could be attributed to the presence of abnormal lamellar bodies, many with disrupted limiting membranes or lacking lamellar contents. Entombed lamellar bodies were present in the cytoplasm of corneocytes suggesting blockade of lamellar body secretion. At the stratum granulosum–stratum corneum interface, non-lamellar material displaced or replaced secreted lamellar membranes, and in the stratum corneum, the number of lamellar bilayers declined and lamellar membrane organization was disrupted by foci of lamellar/non-lamellar phase separation. These studies demonstrate the presence of a permeability barrier abnormality in Sjögren–Larsson syndrome, which localizes to the stratum corneum interstices and can be attributed to abnormalities in lamellar body formation and secretion. PMID:20049467

  18. Requirement of alveolar bone formation for eruption of rat molars

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Gary E.; He, Hongzhi; Gutierrez, Dina L.; Ring, Sherry; Yao, Shaomian

    2011-01-01

    Tooth eruption is a localized event that requires a dental follicle (DF) to regulate the resorption of alveolar bone to form an eruption pathway. During the intra-osseous phase of eruption, the tooth moves through this pathway. The mechanism or motive force that propels the tooth through this pathway is controversial but many studies have shown that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt occurs during eruption. To determine if this bone growth (osteogenesis) was causal, experiments were designed in which the expression of an osteogenic gene in the DF, bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP6), was inhibited by injection of the 1st mandibular molar of the rat with an siRNA targeted against BMP6. The injection was followed by electroporation to promote uptake of the siRNA. In 45 first molars injected, eruption either was delayed or completely inhibited (7 molars). In the impacted molars, an eruption pathway formed but bone growth at the base of the crypt was greatly reduced as compared to the erupted first molar controls. These studies show that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt is required for tooth eruption and that BMP6 may be an essential gene for promoting this growth. PMID:21896048

  19. Modulating hydrogel crosslink density and degradation to control bone morphogenetic protein delivery and in vivo bone formation.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Julianne L; Ma, Henry; Rai, Reena; Burdick, Jason A

    2014-10-10

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) show promise in therapies for improving bone formation after injury; however, the high supraphysiological concentrations required for desired osteoinductive effects, off-target concerns, costs, and patient variability have limited the use of BMP-based therapeutics. To better understand the role of biomaterial design in BMP delivery, a matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-sensitive hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogel was used for BMP-2 delivery to evaluate the influence of hydrogel degradation rate on bone repair in vivo. Specifically, maleimide-modified HA (MaHA) macromers were crosslinked with difunctional MMP-sensitive peptides to permit protease-mediated hydrogel degradation and growth factor release. The compressive, rheological, and degradation properties of MaHA hydrogels were characterized as a function of crosslink density, which was varied through either MaHA concentration (1-5wt.%) or maleimide functionalization (10-40%f). Generally, the compressive moduli increased, the time to gelation decreased, and the degradation rate decreased with increasing crosslink density. Furthermore, BMP-2 release increased with either a decrease in the initial crosslink density or an increase in collagenase concentration (non-specific MMP degradation). Lastly, two hydrogel formulations with distinct BMP-2 release profiles were evaluated in a critical-sized calvarial defect model in rats. After six weeks, minimal evidence of bone repair was observed within defects left empty or filled with hydrogels alone. For hydrogels that contained BMP-2, similar volumes of new bone tissue were formed; however, the faster degrading hydrogel exhibited improved cellular invasion, bone volume to total volume ratio, and overall defect filling. These results illustrate the importance of coordinating hydrogel degradation with the rate of new tissue formation. PMID:24905414

  20. Teriparatide and bone turnover and formation in a hemodialysis patient with low-turnover bone disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Palcu, Patricia; Dion, Natalie; Ste-Marie, Louis-Georges; Goltzman, David; Radziunas, Ina; Miller, Paul D; Jamal, Sophie A

    2015-06-01

    Teriparatide, a recombinant form of parathyroid hormone, is an anabolic agent approved for use in women and men with osteoporosis. However, it is not well studied in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We report on a patient with stage 5 CKD treated with dialysis who presented to our clinic with multiple fractures, including bilateral nondisplaced pelvic fractures resulting in chronic pain and interfering with the patient's ability to work. Bone histomorphometry demonstrated low-turnover bone disease, and he was treated with 20?g of teriparatide (subcutaneous injection) every morning for 24 months. Within 6 months of initiating therapy, the patient's pain resolved and he was able to resume work. Serum calcium and phosphate levels remained within reference ranges throughout his treatment, and he sustained no further fractures. During 24 months of treatment, bone mineral density was maintained at the lumbar spine, and there was an increase of 4% at the femoral neck and total hip. A second transiliac bone biopsy demonstrated improvements in static and dynamic parameters of bone formation. In our patient, 24-month treatment with teriparatide was safe and effective; however, larger studies are needed to determine the efficacy of teriparatide in the dialysis-dependent CKD population. PMID:25843705

  1. Evidence that intermittent treatment with parathyroid hormone increases bone formation in adult rats by activation of bone lining cells.

    PubMed

    Dobnig, H; Turner, R T

    1995-08-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that intermittent treatment with PTH increases osteoblast number and bone formation in growing and adult rats. The cellular mechanism for this increase in osteoblast number was investigated in 16-month-old female rats. Continuous [3H]thymidine infusion over a 1-week intermittent PTH [human PTH-(1-34)] treatment period was performed to determine the percentage of newly formed osteoblasts that originate from progenitor cells. To verify increases in bone formation, we performed histomorphometry and Northern blot analysis of selected bone matrix proteins. PTH treatment resulted in dramatic increases in fluorochrome-labeled perimeter (727%), osteoid perimeter (735%), osteoblast number (626%), and steady state mRNA levels of osteocalcin (946%) and type 1 collagen (> 1000%). Autoradiographic analysis of metaphyseal sections revealed no difference in the percentage of [3H]thymidine-labeled osteoblasts between PTH- and vehicle-treated groups (4.3 +/- 1.3% vs. 5.7 +/- 2.7%, respectively). Similar changes were observed in PTH-treated ovariectomized rats. As the PTH-induced increase in osteoblast number did not require proliferation of progenitor cells we carried out an additional experiment in adult ovariectomized rats to determine the onset of PTH action. Incorporation of [3H]proline in the distal femoral epiphysis of PTH-treated adult ovariectomized rats was increased within 24 h. We conclude that the rapid PTH-induced rise in bone formation did not require cell proliferation and was most likely due to activation of preexisting bone lining cells to osteoblasts. PMID:7628403

  2. Estrogen receptor ? in osteocytes regulates trabecular bone formation in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Kondoh, Shino; Inoue, Kazuki; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Sugizaki, Hiroe; Shirode-Fukuda, Yuko; Inoue, Erina; Yu, Taiyong; Takeuchi, Jun K; Kanno, Jun; Bonewald, Lynda F; Imai, Yuuki

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are well known steroid hormones necessary to maintain bone health. In addition, mechanical loading, in which estrogen signaling may intersect with the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, is essential for bone maintenance. As osteocytes are known as the major mechanosensory cells embedded in mineralized bone matrix, osteocyte ER? deletion mice (ER??Ocy/?Ocy) were generated by mating ER? floxed mice with Dmp1-Cre mice to determine the role of ER? in osteocytes. Trabecular bone mineral density of female, but not male ER??Ocy/?Ocy mice was significantly decreased. Bone formation parameters in ER??Ocy/?Ocy were significantly decreased while osteoclast parameters were unchanged. This suggests that ER? in osteocytes exerts osteoprotective function by positively controlling bone formation. To identify potential targets of ER?, gene array analysis of Dmp1-GFP osteocytes sorted by FACS from ER??Ocy/?Ocy and control mice was performed. Gene expression microarray followed by gene ontology analyses revealed that osteocytes from ER??Ocy/?Ocy highly expressed genes categorized in ‘Secreted’ when compared to control osteocytes. Among them, expression of Mdk and Sostdc1, both of which are Wnt inhibitors, was significantly increased without alteration of expression of the mature osteocyte marker Sost or ?-catenin. Moreover, hindlimb suspension experiments showed that trabecular bone loss due to unloading was greater in ER??Ocy/?Ocy mice with no loss of cortical bone. These data suggest that ER? in osteocytes has osteoprotective functions in trabecular bone formation through regulating expression of Wnt antagonists, but conversely plays a negative role in cortical bone loss due to unloading. PMID:24333171

  3. A Computational Analysis of Bone Formation in the Cranial Vault in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chanyoung; Richtsmeier, Joan T.; Kraft, Reuben H.

    2015-01-01

    Bones of the cranial vault are formed by the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts on a surface that surrounds the brain, eventually forming mineralized bone. Signaling pathways causative for cell differentiation include the actions of extracellular proteins driven by information from genes. We assume that the interaction of cells and extracellular molecules, which are associated with cell differentiation, can be modeled using Turing’s reaction–diffusion model, a mathematical model for pattern formation controlled by two interacting molecules (activator and inhibitor). In this study, we hypothesize that regions of high concentration of an activator develop into primary centers of ossification, the earliest sites of cranial vault bone. In addition to the Turing model, we use another diffusion equation to model a morphogen (potentially the same as the morphogen associated with formation of ossification centers) associated with bone growth. These mathematical models were solved using the finite volume method. The computational domain and model parameters are determined using a large collection of experimental data showing skull bone formation in mouse at different embryonic days in mice carrying disease causing mutations and their unaffected littermates. The results show that the relative locations of the five ossification centers that form in our model occur at the same position as those identified in experimental data. As bone grows from these ossification centers, sutures form between the bones. PMID:25853124

  4. Palm Tocotrienol Supplementation Enhanced Bone Formation in Oestrogen-Deficient Rats

    PubMed Central

    Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Ming, Wang; Abu Bakar, Roshayati; Hashnan, Nursyahrina Atiqah; Mohd Ali, Hanif; Mohamed, Norazlina; Muhammad, Norliza; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the commonest cause of osteoporosis. It is associated with increased free radical activity induced by the oestrogen-deficient state. Therefore, supplementation with palm-oil-derived tocotrienols, a potent antioxidant, should be able to prevent this bone loss. Our earlier studies have shown that tocotrienol was able to prevent and even reverse osteoporosis due to various factors, including oestrogen deficiency. In this study we compared the effects of supplementation with palm tocotrienol mixture or calcium on bone biomarkers and bone formation rate in ovariectomised (oestrogen-deficient) female rats. Our results showed that palm tocotrienols significantly increased bone formation in oestrogen-deficient rats, seen by increased double-labeled surface (dLS/Bs), reduced single-labeled surface (sLS/BS), increased mineralizing surface (MS/BS), increased mineral apposition rate (MAR), and an overall increase in bone formation rate (BFR/BS). These effects were not seen in the group supplemented with calcium. However, no significant changes were seen in the serum levels of the bone biomarkers, osteocalcin, and cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen, CTX. In conclusion, palm tocotrienol is more effective than calcium in preventing oestrogen-deficient bone loss. Further studies are needed to determine the potential of tocotrienol as an antiosteoporotic agent. PMID:23150728

  5. Stratigraphy and depositional history, Bone Spring Formation, Lea County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzullo, L.J. (Nearburg Producing Co., Dallas, TX (USA))

    1987-02-01

    The Bone Spring formation of the northern Delaware basin in southeastern New Mexico produces oil in Lea County from foreshelf detrital carbonate facies, such as in Scharb field. Production there comes from several intervals. Stratigraphic correlations between the various Bone Springs units and equivalent Leonardian facies of the Northwest shelf in Lea County suggest that the Bone Spring is correlative to the Yeso Formation of the Northwest shelf. The shelf facies there are divided into lower, middle, and upper Yeso. The upper part of what has generally been considered to be Wolfcamp in some areas, beneath the lowermost Bone Spring sandstone, is inferred to be lower Leonardian (lower Yeso) throughout the area studied. A model is proposed for the sedimentologic and reservoir evolution of the Bone Spring Formation in Lea County. Permian-Pennsylvanian tectonic activity provided the initial substrate for the development of a high-energy shelf edge in early Yeso time. In early middle Yeso time, the basin filled with sediments of the 3rd and 2nd Bone Spring units, and the shelf to basin transition was more subtle. As the basin subsided with infilling, a high-energy shelf edge again developed in late middle Yeso time. With continued basin infilling by 1st Bone Springs facies, the shelf to basin transition again evolved into a more subtle feature. Continued basin subsidence caused infilling by a thick sequence of upper Yeso carbonate, which was capped by progradational shelf carbonates of the upper Yeso.

  6. Deletion of Nrf2 reduces skeletal mechanical properties and decreases load-driven bone formation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong-Xin; Li, Lei; Corry, Kylie A; Zhang, Pei; Yang, Yang; Himes, Evan; Mihuti, Cristina Layla; Nelson, Cecilia; Dai, Guoli; Li, Jiliang

    2015-05-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor expressed in many cell types, including osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. Nrf2 has been considered a master regulator of cytoprotective genes against oxidative and chemical insults. The lack of Nrf2 can induce pathologies in multiple organs. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Nrf2 in load-driven bone metabolism using Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice. Compared to age-matched littermate wild-type controls, Nrf2 KO mice have significantly lowered femoral bone mineral density (-7%, p<0.05), bone formation rate (-40%, p<0.05), as well as ultimate force (-11%, p<0.01). The ulna loading experiment showed that Nrf2 KO mice were less responsive than littermate controls, as indicated by reduction in relative mineralizing surface (rMS/BS, -69%, p<0.01) and relative bone formation rate (rBFR/BS, -84%, p<0.01). Furthermore, deletion of Nrf2 suppressed the load-driven gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and Wnt5a in cultured primary osteoblasts. Taken together, the results suggest that the loss-of-function mutation of Nrf2 in bone impairs bone metabolism and diminishes load-driven bone formation. PMID:25576674

  7. Ectopic Osteoid and Bone Formation by Three Calcium-Phosphate Ceramics in Rats, Rabbits and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liao; Zhang, Bi; Bao, Chongyun; Habibovic, Pamela; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Xingdong

    2014-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics with specific physicochemical properties have been shown to induce de novo bone formation upon ectopic implantation in a number of animal models. In this study we explored the influence of physicochemical properties as well as the animal species on material-induced ectopic bone formation. Three bioceramics were used for the study: phase-pure hydroxyapatite (HA) sintered at 1200°C and two biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics, consisting of 60 wt.% HA and 40 wt.% TCP (?-Tricalcium phosphate), sintered at either 1100°C or 1200°C. 108 samples of each ceramic were intramuscularly implanted in dogs, rabbits, and rats for 6, 12, and 24 weeks respectively. Histological and histomorphometrical analyses illustrated that ectopic bone and/or osteoid tissue formation was most pronounced in BCP sintered at 1100°C and most limited in HA, independent of the animal model. Concerning the effect of animal species, ectopic bone formation reproducibly occurred in dogs, while in rabbits and rats, new tissue formation was mainly limited to osteoid. The results of this study confirmed that the incidence and the extent of material-induced bone formation are related to both the physicochemical properties of calcium phosphate ceramics and the animal model. PMID:25229501

  8. Nacre protein fragment templates lamellar aragonite growth.

    PubMed

    Metzler, Rebecca A; Evans, John Spencer; Killian, Christopher E; Zhou, Dong; Churchill, Tyler H; Appathurai, Narayana P; Coppersmith, Susan N; Gilbert, P U P A

    2010-05-12

    Proteins play a major role in the formation of all biominerals. In mollusk shell nacre, complex mixtures and assemblies of proteins and polysaccharides were shown to induce aragonite formation, rather than the thermodynamically favored calcite (both aragonite and calcite are CaCO(3) polymorphs). Here we used N16N, a single 30 amino acid-protein fragment originally inspired by the mineral binding site of N16, a protein in the nacre layer of the Japanese pearl oysters (Pinctada fucata). In a calcite growth solution this short peptide induces in vitro biomineralization. This model biomineral was analyzed using X-ray PhotoElectron Emission spectroMicroscopy (X-PEEM) and found to be strikingly similar to natural nacre: lamellar aragonite with interspersed N16N layers. This and other findings combined suggest a hypothetical scenario in which in vivo three proteins (N16, Pif80, and Pif97) and a polysaccharide (chitin) work in concert to form lamellar nacre. PMID:20397648

  9. Low-Level Mechanical Vibrations can Reduce Bone Resorption and Enhance Bone Formation in the Growing Skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Xie,L.; Jacobsen, J.; Busa, B.; Donahue, L.; Miller, L.; Rubin, C.; Judex, S.

    2006-01-01

    Short durations of extremely small magnitude, high-frequency, mechanical stimuli can promote anabolic activity in the adult skeleton. Here, it is determined if such signals can influence trabecular and cortical formative and resorptive activity in the growing skeleton, if the newly formed bone is of high quality, and if the insertion of rest periods during the loading phase would enhance the efficacy of the mechanical regimen. Eight-week-old female BALB/cByJ mice were divided into four groups, baseline control (n = 8), age-matched control (n = 10), whole-body vibration (WBV) at 45 Hz (0.3 g) for 15 min day{sup -1} (n = 10), and WBV that were interrupted every second by 10 of rest (WBV-R, n = 10). In vivo strain gaging of two additional mice indicated that the mechanical signal induced strain oscillations of approximately 10 microstrain on the periosteal surface of the proximal tibia. After 3 weeks of WBV, applied for 15 min each day, osteoclastic activity in the trabecular metaphysis and epiphysis of the tibia was 33% and 31% lower (P < 0.05) than in age-matched controls. Bone formation rates (BFR{center_dot}BS{sup -1}) on the endocortical surface of the metaphysis were 30% greater (P < 0.05) in WBV than in age-matched control mice but trabecular and middiaphyseal BFR were not significantly altered. The insertion of rest periods (WBV-R) failed to potentiate the cellular effects. Three weeks of either WBV or WBV-R did not negatively influence body mass, bone length, or chemical bone matrix properties of the tibia. These data indicate that in the growing skeleton, short daily periods of extremely small, high-frequency mechanical signals can inhibit trabecular bone resorption, site specifically attenuate the declining levels of bone formation, and maintain a high level of matrix quality. If WBV prove to be efficacious in the growing human skeleton, they may be able to provide the basis for a non-pharmacological and safe means to increase peak bone mass and, ultimately, reduce the incidence of osteoporosis or stress fractures later in life.

  10. Analyses Using Micro-CT Scans and Tissue Staining on New Bone Formation and Bone Fusion According to the Timing of Cranioplasty via Frozen Autologous Bone Flaps in Rabbits : A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hee Sup; Lee, Deok-Won; Koh, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    Objective The timing of cranioplasty and method of bone flap storage are known risk factors of non-union and resorption of bone flaps. In this animal experimental study, we evaluated the efficacy of cranioplasty using frozen autologous bone flap, and examined whether the timing of cranioplasty after craniectomy affects bone fusion and new bone formation. Methods Total 8 rabbits (male, older than 16 weeks) were divided into two groups of early cranioplasty group (EG, 4 rabbits) and delayed cranioplasty group (DG, 4 rabbits). The rabbits of each group were performed cranioplasty via frozen autologous bone flaps 4 weeks (EG) and 8 weeks (DG) after craniectomy. In order to obtain control data, the cranioplasty immediate after craniectomy were made on the contralateral cranial bone of the rabbits (control group, CG).The bone fusion and new bone formation were evaluated by micro-CT scan and histological examination 8 weeks after cranioplasty on both groups. Results In the micro-CT scans, the mean values of the volume and the surface of new bone were 50.13±7.18 mm3 and 706.23±77.26 mm2 in EG, 53.78±10.86 mm3 and 726.60±170.99 mm2 in DG, and 31.51±12.84 mm3 and 436.65±132.24 mm2 in CG. In the statistical results, significant differences were shown between EG and CG and between DG and CG (volume : p=0.028 and surface : p=0.008). The histological results confirmed new bone formation in all rabbits. Conclusion We observed new bone formation on all the frozen autologous bone flaps that was stored within 8 weeks. The timing of cranioplasty may showed no difference of degree of new bone formation. Not only the healing period after cranioplasty but the time interval from craniectomy to cranioplasty could affect the new bone formation. PMID:25932290

  11. Permian Bone Spring formation: Sandstone play in the Delaware basin. Part I - slope

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, S.L. [Petroleum Consultant, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    New exploration in the Permian (Leonardian) Bone Spring formation has indicated regional potential in several sandstone sections across portions of the northern Delaware basin. Significant production has been established in the first, second, and third Bone Spring sandstones, as well as in a new reservoir interval, the Avalon sandstone, above the first Bone Spring sandstone. These sandstones were deposited as submarine-fan systems within the northern Delaware basin during periods of lowered sea level. The Bone Spring as a whole consists of alternating carbonate and siliciclastic intervals representing the downdip equivalents to thick Abo-Yeso/Wichita-Clear Fork carbonate buildups along the Leonardian shelf margin. Hydrocarbon exploration in the Bone Spring has traditionally focused on debris-flow carbonate deposits restricted to the paleoslope. Submarine-fan systems, in contrast, extend a considerable distance basinward of these deposits and have been recently proven productive as much as 40-48 km south of the carbonate trend.

  12. Geochemical and mineralogical studies of dinosaur bone from the Morrison Formation at Dinosaur Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modreski, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dinosaur bones first discovered in 1877 in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation at Morrison, Colorado were the first major find of dinosaur skeletons in the western U.S. and led to the recognition of four new dinosaur genera (Apatosaurus, Allosaurus, Diplodocus, and Stegosaurus). Eight articles dealing with these bones which appeared as research reports in the annual reports of the Friends of Dinosaur Ridge from 1990-1999 are condensed and summarized with some additional comments. Two of the articles are about the mineralogy and preservation of the bones; two are about the physical description of the bone occurrence; two are about the history of the site, and two are about use of novel instrumental methods (ground-penetrating radar and a directional scintillometer) to search for new bones.

  13. Dystrophic Cutaneous Calcification and Metaplastic Bone Formation due to Long Term Bisphosphonate Use in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tatl?, Ali Murat; Göksu, Sema Sezgin; Arslan, Deniz; Ba?sorgun, Cumhur ?brahim; Co?kun, Hasan ?enol

    2013-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are widely used in the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastases. We report a case of a female with breast cancer presented with a rash around a previous mastectomy site and a discharge lesion on her right chest wall in August 2010. Biopsy of the lesion showed dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation. The patient's history revealed a long term use of zoledronic acid for the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastasis. We stopped the treatment since we believed that the cutaneous dystrophic calcification could be associated with her long term bisphosphonate therapy. Adverse cutaneous events with bisphosphonates are very rare, and dystrophic calcification has not been reported previously. The dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation in this patient are thought to be due to long term bisphosphonate usage. PMID:23956898

  14. Osteoimmunology: oncostatin M as a pleiotropic regulator of bone formation and resorption in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Sims, Natalie A; Quinn, Julian M W

    2014-01-01

    Bone remodeling in health and disease is carried out by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which respectively produce bone matrix and resorb it. Endocrine and paracrine control of these cells can be direct, but they are also exerted indirectly, either by influencing progenitor cell differentiation or by stimulating paracrine signals from local accessory cells including osteocytes (which form a critical communication and regulation network within the bone matrix), macrophages and T lymphocytes. Here we review the osteotropic actions of the interleukin-6 family member cytokine oncostatin M (OSM), which is of particular interest because of its ability to stimulate bone accrual. OSM is produced within the bone microenvironment by cells of both mesenchymal and hematopoietic origin, including osteocytes, osteoblasts, macrophages and T lymphocytes, and can act via two receptor complexes: OSM receptor:gp130 and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR):gp130. Although OSM can directly stimulate osteoblast mineralization activity and differentiation, it can also stimulate mesenchymal stem cell osteoblastic commitment at the expense of adipogenesis. In osteocytes, OSM can suppress the production of the bone formation inhibitor sclerostin, an action that is mediated by LIFR:gp130. OSM also stimulates the production of receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand by osteoblasts and thereby drives the formation of osteoclasts particularly in pathological conditions. Thus, cellular effects of OSM on bone metabolism include direct and indirect actions mediated by two related receptor/ligand complexes. OSM therefore provides an example of paracrine and endocrine control mechanisms that regulate bone mass by controlling both bone formation and resorption. PMID:24876928

  15. Gentamicin release from polymethylmethacrylate bone cements and Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    van de Belt, H; Neut, D; Schenk, W; van Horn, J R; van der Mei, H C; Busscher, H J

    2000-12-01

    We measured the formation of a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm in vitro on unloaded and gentamicin-loaded bone cements (CMW3 and Palacos R) and related the formation to antibiotic release rates. All experiments were done in triplicate. Microbial growth on gentamicin-loaded cements occurred despite the release of antibiotic. Biofilm formation on gentamicin loaded CMW3 bone cement was one fourth to one fifth less than on the unloaded bone cement, while biofilm formation on Palacos R bone cement was not significantly affected by antibiotic loading. More gentamicin was released from CMW3 (79 mg) than from Palacos R (70 mg), but the percentage gentamicin released after one week relative to the total amount incorporated was significantly lower for CMW3 (4.7%) than for Palacos R (8.4%). After one day, subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics were eluted from the cements. We concluded that antibiotic-loaded bone cement does not necessarily inhibit the formation of an infectious biofilm in vitro. PMID:11145392

  16. 3D structure of lamellar domains in a surfactant solution below the Krafft temperature.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Youhei; Yashima, Hirohito; Kato, Tadashi

    2012-02-01

    We have studied the 3D structure of lamellar domains in aqueous solutions of nonionic surfactant C(16)E(6) and C(16)E(7) below the Krafft temperature by means of confocal microscopy. A new morphology of lamellar domains has been found in the C(16)E(6) system, which is the network of lamellar domains. In the C(16)E(7) system, we have confirmed that the spherical vesicles have a hollow including excess water. Furthermore, we have investigated the initial formation process of lamellar domains in those two systems. It has been found that initial lamellar domains of both systems are tiny and plate-like and that the domains are gradually curved in the C(16)E(7) system, while in the C(16)E(6) system, they spread to fuse together and form networks. PMID:22233223

  17. Effect of coating Straumann® Bone Ceramic with Emdogain on mesenchymal stromal cell hard tissue formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof Marek Mrozik; Stan Gronthos; Danijela Menicanin; Victor Marino; P. Mark Bartold

    Periodontal tissue engineering requires a suitable biocompatible scaffold, cells with regenerative capacity, and instructional\\u000a molecules. In this study, we investigated the capacity of Straumann® Bone Ceramic coated with Straumann® Emdogain, a clinical\\u000a preparation of enamel matrix protein (EMP), to aid in hard tissue formation by post-natal mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)\\u000a including bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and periodontal ligament fibroblasts

  18. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes enhance electrochemical properties of titanium to determine in situ bone formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sirinrath Sirivisoot; Thomas J. Webster

    2008-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) enhance osteoblast (bone-forming cell) calcium deposition compared to currently implanted materials (such as titanium). In this study, MWCNTs were grown out of nanopores anodized on titanium (MWCNT-Ti). The electrochemical responses of MWCNT-Ti were investigated in an attempt to ascertain if MWCNT-Ti can serve as novel in situ sensors of bone formation. For this purpose, MWCNT-Ti was

  19. WNT7B Promotes Bone Formation in part through mTORC1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianquan; Tu, Xiaolin; Esen, Emel; Joeng, Kyu Sang; Lin, Congxin; Arbeit, Jeffrey M.; Rüegg, Markus A.; Hall, Michael N.; Ma, Liang; Long, Fanxin

    2014-01-01

    WNT signaling has been implicated in both embryonic and postnatal bone formation. However, the pertinent WNT ligands and their downstream signaling mechanisms are not well understood. To investigate the osteogenic capacity of WNT7B and WNT5A, both normally expressed in the developing bone, we engineered mouse strains to express either protein in a Cre-dependent manner. Targeted induction of WNT7B, but not WNT5A, in the osteoblast lineage dramatically enhanced bone mass due to increased osteoblast number and activity; this phenotype began in the late-stage embryo and intensified postnatally. Similarly, postnatal induction of WNT7B in Runx2-lineage cells greatly stimulated bone formation. WNT7B activated mTORC1 through PI3K-AKT signaling. Genetic disruption of mTORC1 signaling by deleting Raptor in the osteoblast lineage alleviated the WNT7B-induced high-bone-mass phenotype. Thus, WNT7B promotes bone formation in part through mTORC1 activation. PMID:24497849

  20. Fibrillin-1 and -2 differentially modulate endogenous TGF-? and BMP bioavailability during bone formation.

    PubMed

    Nistala, Harikiran; Lee-Arteaga, Sui; Smaldone, Silvia; Siciliano, Gabriella; Carta, Luca; Ono, Robert N; Sengle, Gerhard; Arteaga-Solis, Emilio; Levasseur, Regis; Ducy, Patricia; Sakai, Lynn Y; Karsenty, Gerard; Ramirez, Francesco

    2010-09-20

    Extracellular regulation of signaling by transforming growth factor (TGF)-? family members is emerging as a key aspect of organ formation and tissue remodeling. In this study, we demonstrate that fibrillin-1 and -2, the structural components of extracellular microfibrils, differentially regulate TGF-? and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) bioavailability in bone. Fibrillin-2-null (Fbn2(-/-)) mice display a low bone mass phenotype that is associated with reduced bone formation in vivo and impaired osteoblast maturation in vitro. This Fbn2(-/-) phenotype is accounted for by improper activation of latent TGF-? that selectively blunts expression of osterix, the transcriptional regulator of osteoblast maturation, and collagen I, the structural template for bone mineralization. Cultured osteoblasts from Fbn1(-/-) mice exhibit improper latent TGF-? activation as well, but mature faster because of increased availability of otherwise matrix-bound BMPs. Additional in vitro evidence excludes a direct role of microfibrils in supporting mineral deposition. Together, these findings identify the extracellular microfibrils as critical regulators of bone formation through the modulation of endogenous TGF-? and BMP signaling. PMID:20855508

  1. FAD104, a Regulatory Factor of Adipogenesis, Acts as a Novel Regulator of Calvarial Bone Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Keishi; Nishizuka, Makoto; Katoh, Daiki; Kato, Ayumi; Osada, Shigehiro; Imagawa, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Osteogenesis is a complex process that is orchestrated by several growth factors, extracellular cues, signaling molecules, and transcriptional factors. Understanding the mechanisms of bone formation is pivotal for clarifying the pathogenesis of bone diseases. Previously, we reported that fad104 (factor for adipocyte differentiation 104), a novel positive regulator of adipocyte differentiation, negatively regulated the differentiation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts into osteocytes. However, the physiological role of fad104 in bone formation has not been elucidated. Here, we clarified the role of fad104 in bone formation in vivo and in vitro. fad104 disruption caused craniosynostosis-like premature ossification of the calvarial bone. Furthermore, analyses using primary calvarial cells revealed that fad104 negatively regulated differentiation and BMP/Smad signaling pathway. FAD104 interacted with Smad1/5/8. The N-terminal region of FAD104, which contains a proline-rich motif, was capable of binding to Smad1/5/8. We demonstrated that down-regulation of Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation by FAD104 is dependent on the N-terminal region of FAD104 and that fad104 functions as a novel negative regulator of BMP/Smad signaling and is required for proper development for calvarial bone. These findings will aid a comprehensive description of the mechanism that controls normal and premature calvarial ossification. PMID:24052261

  2. The effect of fresh bone marrow cells on reconstruction of mouse calvarial defect combined with calvarial osteoprogenitor cells and collagen/apatite scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaohua; Wang, Liping; Peng, Fei; Jiang, Xi; Xia, Zengmin; Huang, Jianping; Rowe, David; Wei, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Fresh bone marrow cells have already exhibited its advantages as osteogenic donor cells, but the combination between fresh bone marrow cells and other donor cells utilized for bone healing has not been fully explored. To highlight the impact of fresh bone marrow cells on scaffold-based bone regeneration, single or a combination of calvarial osteoprogenitor cells (OPC) and bone marrow cells (BMC) were used as donor cells combined with collagen/apatite scaffold for calravieal defect healing. The host and donor contributions to bone formation were assessed using histological and GFP imaging analysis. Although the amount of new bone formed by different cell sources did not show significant differences, the origin of the bone formation in the defects mainly depended on the types of donor cells employed: when only calvarial OPC were used as donor cells, a donor-derived bone healing instead of host-derived bone ingrowth was observed; when only fresh BMC were loaded, the host bone could grow into the defect along the lamellar structure of the scaffolds, but the amount of new bone formed was significantly lower than the defect loaded with calvarial OPC only. The combination of calvarial OPC and fresh BMC had similar amount of new bone formation as the group loaded with calvarial osteoprogenitors alone, but did not induce any host-derived bone formation. These results provide compelling evidence of the importance of fresh BMC to induce host-implant integration in bone tissue engineering. PMID:22473786

  3. The Novel Zinc Finger-Containing Transcription Factor Osterix Is Required for Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhisa Nakashima; Xin Zhou; Gary Kunkel; Zhaoping Zhang; Jian Min Deng; Richard R. Behringer; Benoit de Crombrugghe

    2002-01-01

    We have identified a novel zinc finger-containing transcription factor, called Osterix (Osx), that is specifically expressed in all developing bones. In Osx null mice, no bone formation occurs. In endochondral skeletal elements of Osx null mice, mesenchymal cells, together with osteoclasts and blood vessels, invade the mineralized cartilage matrix. However, the mesenchymal cells do not deposit bone matrix. Similarly, cells

  4. Beneath the Minerals, a Layer of Round Lipid Particles Was Identified to Mediate Collagen Calcification in Compact Bone Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaohua Xu; Jianqing J. Yu

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts lose 1–2% of their bone minerals per month during space flights. A systematic search for a countermeasure relies on a good understanding of the mechanism of bone formation at the molecular level. How collagen fibers, the dominant matrix protein in bones, are mineralized remains mysterious. Atomic force microscopy was carried out, in combination with immunostaining and Western blotting, on

  5. Perlecan modulates VEGF signaling and is essential for vascularization in endochondral bone formation.

    PubMed

    Ishijima, Muneaki; Suzuki, Nobuharu; Hozumi, Kentaro; Matsunobu, Tomoya; Kosaki, Keisuke; Kaneko, Haruka; Hassell, John R; Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri; Yamada, Yoshihiko

    2012-05-01

    Perlecan (Hspg2) is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed in basement membranes and cartilage. Perlecan deficiency (Hspg2(-/-)) in mice and humans causes lethal chondrodysplasia, which indicates that perlecan is essential for cartilage development. However, the function of perlecan in endochondral ossification is not clear. Here, we report the critical role of perlecan in VEGF signaling and angiogenesis in growth plate formation. The Hspg2(-/-) growth plate was significantly wider but shorter due to severely impaired endochondral bone formation. Hypertrophic chondrocytes were differentiated in Hspg2(-/-) growth plates; however, removal of the hypertrophic matrix and calcified cartilage was inhibited. Although the expression of MMP-13, CTGF, and VEGFA was significantly upregulated in Hspg2(-/-) growth plates, vascular invasion into the hypertrophic zone was impaired, which resulted in an almost complete lack of bone marrow and trabecular bone. We demonstrated that cartilage perlecan promoted activation of VEGF/VEGFR by binding to the VEGFR of endothelial cells. Expression of the perlecan transgene specific to the cartilage of Hspg2(-/-) mice rescued their perinatal lethality and growth plate abnormalities, and vascularization into the growth plate was restored, indicating that perlecan in the growth plate, not in endothelial cells, is critical in this process. These results suggest that perlecan in cartilage is required for activating VEGFR signaling of endothelial cells for vascular invasion and for osteoblast migration into the growth plate. Thus, perlecan in cartilage plays a critical role in endochondral bone formation by promoting angiogenesis essential for cartilage matrix remodeling and subsequent endochondral bone formation. PMID:22421594

  6. Circulating Bone Marrow Cells Can Contribute to Neointimal Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-lu Han; Gordon R. Campbell; Julie H. Campbell

    2001-01-01

    To examine the source of smooth muscle-like cells during vascular healing, C57BL\\/6 (Ly 5.2) female mice underwent whole body irradiation followed by transfusion with 106 nucleated bone marrow cells from congenic (Ly 5.1) male donors. Successful repopulation (88.4 ± 4.9%) by donor marrow was demonstrated in the female mice by flow cytometry with FITC-conjugated A20.1\\/Ly 5.1 monoclonal antibody after 4

  7. Bone formation by human umbilical cord perivascular cells.

    PubMed

    Kajiyama, Sohtaro; Ujiie, Yuko; Nishikawa, Sumio; Inoue, Kohji; Shirakawa, Satoshi; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Liddell, Robert; Davies, John E; Gomi, Kasuhiro

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the possibility of employing human umbilical perivascular cells (HUCPVCs) within the context of finding an alternative source of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) for bone tissue engineering. Since it has previously been reported that conditioned medium (CM) from osteogenic bone marrow (BM) MSCs can potentiate osteogenic differentiation in a secondary cell population, we also employed BM-MSCs to generate CM to stimulate osteogenesis in the HUCPVCs. The BM-MSCs were a commercially available immortalized human cell line. In vitro assays showed negligible levels of osteogenic gene expression in HUCPVCs compared to BM-MSC, but alkaline phosphatase was detected when HUCPVC were cultured in osteogenic medium in the presence of CM from BM-MSC. An in vivo assay employing a rat calvarial osteotomy defect, together with a collagen sponge scaffold, showed that HUCPVCs provided statistically significant bony repair compared to controls. BM-MSC loaded scaffolds were not statistically different from either controls or HUCPVCs. The addition of BM-MSC CM to HUCPVCs also produced no statistically significant difference to the bone formed by HUCPVCs alone. Our results demonstrate that the in vitro assays employed did not predict in vivo outcomes, and that the BM-MSC cell line employed, or CM from such cells, provided no osteogenic advantage over the use of HUCPVCs alone. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 2807-2814, 2015. PMID:25676366

  8. Apoptosis-associated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption in osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, Ian

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the destruction of bone tissue in osteomyelitis are only now being elucidated. While some of the tissue damage associated with osteomyelitis likely results from the direct actions of bacteria and infiltrating leukocytes, perhaps exacerbated by bacterial manipulation of leukocyte survival pathways, infection-induced bone loss predominantly results from an uncoupling of the activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Bacteria or their products can directly increase osteoclast formation and activity, and the inflammatory milieu at sites of infection can further promote bone resorption. In addition, osteoclast activity is critically regulated by osteoblasts that can respond to bacterial pathogens and foster both inflammation and osteoclastogenesis. Importantly, bone loss during osteomyelitis is also brought about by a decline in new bone deposition due to decreased bone matrix synthesis and by increased rates of osteoblast apoptosis. Extracellular bacterial components may be sufficient to reduce osteoblast viability, but the causative agents of osteomyelitis are also capable of inducing continuous apoptosis of these cells by activating intrinsic and extrinsic cell death pathways to further uncouple bone formation and resorption. Interestingly, bacterial internalization appears to be required for maximal osteoblast apoptosis, and cytosolic inflammasome activation may act in concert with autocrine/paracrine death receptor-ligand signaling to induce cell death. The manipulation of apoptotic pathways in infected bone cells could be an attractive new means to limit inflammatory damage in osteomyelitis. However, the mechanism that is the most important in bacterium-induced bone loss has not yet been identified. Furthermore, it remains to be determined whether the host would be best served by preventing osteoblast cell death or by promoting apoptosis in infected cells. PMID:24392356

  9. Effects of designed PLLA and 50:50PLGA scaffold architectures on bone formation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Eiji; Liao, Elly E.; Hu, Wei-Wen; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Hollister, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable porous scaffolds have been investigated as an alternative approach to current metal, ceramic, and polymer bone graft substitutes for lost or damaged bone tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the effects of scaffold architecture on bone formation, many of these scaffolds were fabricated using conventional methods, such as salt leaching and phase separation, and were constructed without designed architecture. To study the effects of both designed architecture and material on bone formation, we designed and fabricated three types of porous scaffold architecture from two biodegradable materials, poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and 50:50Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) using image based design and indirect solid freeform fabrication techniques, seeded them with bone morphogenic protein-7 transduced human gingival fibroblasts and implanted them subcutaneously into mice for 4 and 8 weeks. Micro-computed tomography data confirmed that the fabricated porous scaffolds replicated the designed architectures. Histological analysis revealed that the 50:50PLGA scaffolds degraded and did not maintain their architecture after 4 weeks. The PLLA scaffolds maintained their architecture at both time points and showed improved bone ingrowth which followed the internal architecture of the scaffolds. Mechanical properties of both PLLA and 50:50PLGA scaffolds decreased, but PLLA scaffolds maintained greater mechanical properties than 50:50PLGA after implantation. The increase of mineralized tissue helped to support mechanical properties of bone tissue and scaffold constructs from 4 to 8 weeks. The results indicated the importance of choice of scaffold materials and computationally designed scaffolds to control tissue formation and mechanical properties for desired bone tissue regeneration. PMID:22162220

  10. Heterotopic bone formation (myositis ossificans) and lower-extremity swelling mimicking deep-venous disease

    SciTech Connect

    Orzel, J.A.; Rudd, T.G.; Nelp, W.B.

    1984-10-01

    A quadriplegic patient with a swollen leg was suspected of having deep-venous thrombosis, and was studied with radionuclide venography (RNV) and contrast venography. Focal narrowing of the femoral vein, seen on RNV, was due to extrinsic compression. Although soft-tissue radiographs were normal, Tc-99m diphosphonate imaging established the diagnosis of early heterotopic bone formation (myositis ossificans), which was responsible for the venous compression. Clinically this inflammatory process can mimic deep-venous thrombosis, and should be considered in evaluating patients at risk for both heterotopic bone formation and deep-venous thrombosis.

  11. The Importance of the Prenyl Group in the Activities of Osthole in Enhancing Bone Formation and Inhibiting Bone Resorption In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Yuan-Kun; Pan, Ya-Lei; Niu, Yin-Bo; Li, Chen-Rui; Wu, Xiang-Long; Fan, Wu-Tu; Lu, Ting-Li; Mei, Qi-Bing; Xian, Cory J.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis treatment always aimed at keeping the balance of bone formation and bone resorption. Recently, prenyl group in natural products has been proposed as an active group to enhance the osteogenesis process. Osthole has both the prenyl group and bone-protective activities, but the relationship is still unknown. In this study we found that osthole exerted a potent ability to promote proliferation and osteogenic function of rat bone marrow stromal cells and osteoblasts, including improved cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, enhanced secretion of collagen-I, bone morphogenetic protein-2, osteocalcin and osteopontin, stimulated mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-1, runt-related transcription factor-2, osterix, OPG (osteoprotegerin), RANKL (receptor activator for nuclear factor-?B ligand), and the ratio of OPG/RANKL, as well as increasing the formation of mineralized nodules. However, 7-methoxycoumarin had no obvious effects. Osthole also inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption to a greater extent than 7-methoxycoumarin, as shown by a lower tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and lower number and smaller area of resorption pits. Our findings demonstrate that osthole could be a potential agent to stimulate bone formation and inhibit bone resorption, and the prenyl group plays an important role in these bone-protective effects. PMID:25147567

  12. Quantitative analysis of factors influencing tissue-engineered bone formation by detecting the expression levels of alkaline phosphatase and bone ?-carboxyglutamate protein 2

    PubMed Central

    SONG, ZEZHONG; WU, CHANGSHUN; SUN, SHUI; LI, HUIBO; WANG, DONG; GONG, JIANBAO; YAN, ZEXING

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering is a promising alternative approach that permits the efficient reconstruction of bone defects. There are four elements involved in bone tissue engineering technology, including the seed cells, growth factors, scaffolds and culture environment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of these factors on bone formation in tissue engineering technology by analyzing the expression of osteogenetic markers using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were extracted from the bone marrow of the bilateral tibial platform of New Zealand white rabbits. In addition, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) samples were prepared from blood extracted from the ear vein of the rabbits. A perfusion bioreactor was used to provide the culture environment, and ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) was used to build the scaffolds. The ?-TCP scaffolds were divided into five groups and each group was treated with a different combination of the factors. Next, the composites were implanted into the rabbits. After three months, the expression levels of the new bone formation markers, alkaline phosphatase and bone ?-carboxyglutamate protein 2, were detected using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis. The expression levels of the markers in the experimental groups were higher compared with the negative control group. Comparisons between the experimental groups also revealed statistical significance. Scanning electron microscopy revealed good adhesion and distribution of the BMSCs on the ?-TCP scaffold. In conclusion, the PCR results indicated that PRP, BMSCs and the bioreactor exhibited a promoting effect on bone formation. PMID:25780393

  13. Mechanisms of ectopic bone formation by human osteoprogenitor cells on CaP biomaterial carriers.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yoke Chin; Roberts, Scott J; Desmet, Eline; Kerckhofs, Greet; van Gastel, Nick; Geris, Liesbet; Carmeliet, Geert; Schrooten, Jan; Luyten, Frank P

    2012-04-01

    Stem cell-based strategies for bone regeneration, which use calcium phosphate (CaP)-based biomaterials in combination with developmentally relevant progenitor populations, have significant potential for clinical repair of skeletal defects. However, the exact mechanism of action and the stem cell-host-material interactions are still poorly understood. We studied if pre-conditioning of human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs) in vitro could enhance, in combination with a CaP-based biomaterial carrier, ectopic bone formation in vivo. By culturing hPDCs in a biomimetic calcium (Ca(2+)) and phosphate (P(i)) enriched culture conditions, we observed an enhanced cell proliferation, decreased expression of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers and upregulation of osteogenic genes including osterix, Runx2, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and BMP-2. However, the in vitro pre-conditioning protocols were non-predictive for in vivo ectopic bone formation. Surprisingly, culturing in the presence of Ca(2+) and P(i) supplements resulted in partial or complete abrogation of in vivo ectopic bone formation. Through histological, immunohistochemical and microfocus X-ray computed tomography (?CT) analysis of the explants, we found that in situ proliferation, collagen matrix deposition and the mediation of osteoclastic activity by hPDCs are associated to their ectopic bone forming capacity. These data were validated by the multivariate analysis and partial least square regression modelling confirming the non-predictability of in vitro parameters on in vivo ectopic bone formation. Our series of experiments provided further insights on the stem cell-host-material interactions that govern in vivo ectopic bone induction driven by hPDCs on CaP-based biomaterials. PMID:22269651

  14. In vivo stimulation of bone formation by aluminum and oxygen plasma surface-modified magnesium implants.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hoi Man; Zhao, Ying; Tam, Vivian; Wu, Shuilin; Chu, Paul K; Zheng, Yufeng; To, Michael Kai Tsun; Leung, Frankie K L; Luk, Keith D K; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Yeung, Kelvin W K

    2013-12-01

    A newly developed magnesium implant is used to stimulate bone formation in vivo. The magnesium implant after undergoing dual aluminum and oxygen plasma implantation is able to suppress rapid corrosion, leaching of magnesium ions, as well as hydrogen gas release from the biodegradable alloy in simulated body fluid (SBF). No released aluminum is detected from the SBF extract and enhanced corrosion resistance properties are confirmed by electrochemical tests. In vitro studies reveal enhanced growth of GFP mouse osteoblasts on the aluminum oxide coated sample, but not on the untreated sample. In addition to that a small amount (50 ppm) of magnesium ions can enhance osteogenic differentiation as reported previously, our present data show a low concentration of hydrogen can give rise to the same effect. To compare the bone volume change between the plasma-treated magnesium implant and untreated control, micro-computed tomography is performed and the plasma-treated implant is found to induce significant new bone formation adjacent to the implant from day 1 until the end of the animal study. On the contrary, bone loss is observed during the first week post-operation from the untreated magnesium sample. Owing to the protection offered by the Al2O3 layer, the plasma-treated implant degrades more slowly and the small amount of released magnesium ions stimulate new bone formation locally as revealed by histological analyses. Scanning electron microscopy discloses that the Al2O3 layer at the bone-implant interface is still present two months after implantation. In addition, no inflammation or tissue necrosis is observed from both treated and untreated implants. These promising results suggest that the plasma-treated magnesium implant can stimulate bone formation in vivo in a minimal invasive way and without causing post-operative complications. PMID:24060425

  15. Bone vascularization and trabecular bone formation are mediated by PKB alpha/Akt1 in a gene-dosage-dependent manner: in vivo and ex vivo MRI.

    PubMed

    Vandoorne, Katrien; Magland, Jeremy; Plaks, Vicki; Sharir, Amnon; Zelzer, Elazar; Wehrli, Felix; Hemmings, Brian A; Harmelin, Alon; Neeman, Michal

    2010-07-01

    PKBalpha/Akt1, a protein kinase, is a major mediator of angiogenic signaling. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of PKB alpha/Akt1 in bone vascularization and development. For that aim, macromolecular dynamic contrast enhanced MRI was applied to examine in vivo vascular changes in long bones of 40-day-old growing PKB alpha/Akt1-deficient, heterozygous, and wild-type mice. Ex vivo microMRI and microCT were applied to monitor the impact of PKB alpha/Akt1 gene dosage on trabecular bone formation during endochondral bone growth. PKB alpha/Akt1-deficient mice and, remarkably, also heterozygous mice showed significantly reduced blood volume fraction in the humerus compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, PKB alpha/Akt1-deficient mice showed a more severe vascular deficiency with reduced permeability. microCT and microMRI of trabeculae revealed impaired bone formation in both PKB alpha/Akt1-deficient and heterozygous mice, whereas cortical bone parameters were only reduced in PKB alpha/Akt1-deficient mice. Reduction of metaphyseal blood vessel invasion, concomitant with aberrant trabeculae and shorter long bones, demonstrates a gene-dose-dependent role for PKB alpha/Akt1 in regulation of overall size and endochondral bone growth. MRI proved to provide high sensitivity for in vivo detection of subtle gene dose effects leading to impaired bone vascularity and for uncovering changes in trabecular bone. PMID:20572141

  16. The effects of prostaglandin E2 in growing rats - Increased metaphyseal hard tissue and cortico-endosteal bone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jee, W. S. S.; Ueno, K.; Deng, Y. P.; Woodbury, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The role of in vivo prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in bone formation is investigated. Twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 223-267 g were injected subcutaneously with 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 mg of PGE2-kg daily for 21 days. The processing of the tibiae for observation is described. Radiographs and histomorphometric analyses are also utilized to study bone formation. Body weight, weights of soft tissues and bones morphometry are evaluated. It is observed that PGE2 depressed longitudinal bone growth, increased growth cartilage thickness, decreased degenerative cartilage cell size and cartilage cell production, and significantly increased proximal tibial metaphyseal hard tissue mass. The data reveal that periosteal bone formation is slowed down at higher doses of PGE2 and endosteal bone formation is slightly depressed less than 10 days post injection; however, here is a late increase (10 days after post injection) in endosteal bone formation and in the formation of trabecular bone in the marrow cavity of the tibial shaft. It is noted that the effects of PGE2 on bone formation are similar to the responses of weaning rats to PGE2.

  17. Nanoscale Confinement Controls the Crystallization of Calcium Phosphate: Relevance to Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cantaert, Bram; Beniash, Elia; Meldrum, Fiona C.

    2015-01-01

    A key feature of biomineralization processes is that they take place within confined volumes, in which the local environment can have significant effects on mineral formation. Herein, we investigate the influence of confinement on the formation mechanism and structure of calcium phosphate (CaP). This is of particular relevance to the formation of dentine and bone, structures of which are based on highly mineralized collagen fibrils. CaP was precipitated within 25–300 nm diameter, cylindrical pores of track etched and anodised alumina membranes under physiological conditions, in which this system enables systematic study of the effects of the pore size in the absence of a structural match between the matrix and the growing crystals. Our results show that the main products were polycrystalline hydroxapatite (HAP) rods, together with some single crystal octacalcium phosphate (OCP) rods. Notably, we demonstrate that these were generated though an intermediate amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) phase, and that ACP is significantly stabilised in confinement. This effect may have significance to the mineralization of bone, which can occur through a transient ACP phase. We also show that orientation of the HAP comparable, or even superior to that seen in bone can be achieved through confinement effects alone. Although this simple experimental system cannot be considered, a direct mimic of the in vivo formation of ultrathin HAP platelets within collagen fibrils, our results show that the effects of physical confinement should not be neglected when considering the mechanisms of formation of structures, such as bones and teeth. PMID:24115275

  18. In vivo regulation of matrix vesicle concentration and enzyme activity during primary bone formation.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Z; Swain, L; Sela, J; Gross, U; Amir, D; Kohavi, D; Muller-Mai, C; Boyan, B

    1992-05-01

    In vivo regulation of matrix vesicles (MV) during primary bone formation was examined using tibial marrow ablation in rats as the experimental model. The effects of bone-bonding and nonbonding implants on the number of MV/micron 2 of matrix and the alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) and phospholipase A2 (PA2) activities of MV-enriched microsomes (MVEM) isolated from the healing bone were studied. MV concentration, ALPase, and PA2 were increased by bone-bonding implants by day 3 post-surgery; a similar effect was seen in the contralateral limb, but at a lower magnitude. Nonbonding implants had no effect at day 3 and decreased MV concentration and PA2 activity at later time points; the same behavior was observed in the contralateral limb. These results demonstrate that MVs are influenced in a differential manner by implant materials, both locally and systemically, and can be regulated during primary mineralization. PMID:1611298

  19. Glucose Uptake and Runx2 Synergize to Orchestrate Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jianwen; Shimazu, Junko; Makinistoglu, Munevver P; Maurizi, Antonio; Kajimura, Daisuke; Zong, Haihong; Takarada, Takeshi; Lezaki, Takashi; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Hinoi, Eiichi; Karsenty, Gerard

    2015-06-18

    The synthesis of type I collagen, the main component of bone matrix, precedes the expression of Runx2, the earliest determinant of osteoblast differentiation. We hypothesized that the energetic needs of osteoblasts might explain this apparent paradox. We show here that glucose, the main nutrient of osteoblasts, is transported in these cells through Glut1, whose expression precedes that of Runx2. Glucose uptake favors osteoblast differentiation by suppressing the AMPK-dependent proteasomal degradation of Runx2 and promotes bone formation by inhibiting another function of AMPK. While RUNX2 cannot induce osteoblast differentiation when glucose uptake is compromised, raising blood glucose levels restores collagen synthesis in Runx2-null osteoblasts and initiates bone formation in Runx2-deficient embryos. Moreover, RUNX2 favors Glut1 expression, and this feedforward regulation between RUNX2 and Glut1 determines the onset of osteoblast differentiation during development and the extent of bone formation throughout life. These results reveal an unexpected intricacy between bone and glucose metabolism. PMID:26091038

  20. New bone formation in a bone defect associated to dental implant using absorbable or non-absorbable membrane in a dog model

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Maria de Almeida; Olate, Sergio; Lanata-Flores, Antonio; Pozzer, Leandro; Cavalieri-Pereira, Lucas; Cantín, Mario; Vásquez, Bélgica; de Albergaria-Barbosa, José

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the bone formation capacity in fenestration defects associated with dental implants using absorbable and non-absorbable membranes. Six dogs were used in the study. In both tibias of each animal 3 implants were installed, and around these 5 mm circular defects were created. The defects were covered with absorbable membranes (experimental group 1), non-absorbable membranes (experimental group 2), and the third defect was not covered (control group). At 3 and 8 weeks post-surgery, the animals were euthanized and the membranes with the bone tissue around the implants were processed for histological analysis. The statistical analysis was conducted with Tukey’s test, considering statistical significance when p<0.1. Adequate bone repair was observed in the membrane-covered defects. At 3 weeks, organization of the tissue, bone formation from the periphery of the defect and the absence of inflammatory infiltrate were observed in both experimental groups, but the defect covered with absorbable membrane presented statistically greater bone formation. At 8 weeks, both membrane-covered defects showed adequate bone formation without significant differences, although they did in fact present differences with the control defect in both periods (p>0.1). In the defects without membrane, continuous connective tissue invasions and bone repair deficiency were observed. There were no significant differences in the characteristics and volume of the neoformed bone in the defects around the implants covered by the different membranes, whereas the control defects produced significantly less bone. The use of biological membranes contributes to bone formation in three-wall defects. PMID:24228090

  1. Titanium nanotubes activate genes related to bone formation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pozio, Alfonso; Palmieri, Annalisa; Girardi, Ambra; Cura, Francesca; Carinci, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background: Titanium is used worldwide to make osseointegrable devices, thanks to its favorable characteristics as mechanical proprieties and biocompatibility, demonstrated by in vivo studies with animal models and clinical trials over a forty-year period. However, the exact genetic effect of the titanium layer on cells is still not well characterized. Materials and Methods: To investigate how titanium nanotubes stimulate osteoblasts differentiation and proliferation, some osteoblast genes (SP7, RUNX2, COL3A1, COL1A1, ALPL, SPP1 and FOSL1) were analyzed by quantitative Real Time RT- PCR. Results: After 15 days, osteoblasts cultivated on titanium naotube showed the up-regulation of bone related genes SP7, ENG, FOSL1 and SPP1 and the down-regulation of RUNX2, COL3A1, COL1A1, and ALPL. After 30 days of treatment, the bone related genes SP7, ENG, FOSL1 and RUNX2 were up-regulated while COL3A1, COL1A1, ALPL and SPP1 were down-regulated. Conclusions: Our results, demonstrates that titanium nanotubes can lead to osteoblast differentiation and extracellular matrix deposition and mineralization in dental pulp stem cells by the activation of osteoblast related genes SPP1, FOSL1 and RUNX2. PMID:23814577

  2. 3D analysis of bone formation around titanium implants using micro-computed tomography (?CT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Ricardo; Scharnweber, Dieter; Müller, Bert; Beckmann, Felix; Goebbels, Jürgen; Jansen, John; Schliephake, Henning; Worch, Hartmut

    2006-08-01

    The quantitative analysis of bone formation around biofunctionalised metallic implants is an important tool for the further development of implants with higher success rates. This is, nowadays, especially important in cases of additional diseases like diabetes or osteoporosis. Micro computed tomography (?CT), as non-destructive technique, offers the possibility for quantitative three-dimensional recording of bone close to the implant's surface with micrometer resolution, which is the range of the relevant bony structures. Within different animal models using cylindrical and screw-shaped Ti6Al4V implants we have compared visualization and quantitative analysis of newly formed bone by the use of synchrotron-radiation-based CT-systems in comparison with histological findings. The SR?CT experiments were performed at the beamline BW 5 (HASYLAB at DESY, Hamburg, Germany; at the BAMline (BESSY, Berlin, Germany). For the experiments, PMMA-embedded samples were prepared with diameters of about 8 mm, which contain in the center the implant surrounded by the bony tissue. To (locally) quantify the bone formation, models were developed and optimized. The comparison of the results obtained by SR?CT and histology demonstrates the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches, although the bone formation values for the different biofunctionalized implants are identical within the error bars. SR?CT allows the clear identification of fully mineralized bone around the different titanium implants. As hundreds of virtual slices were easily generated for the individual samples, the quantification and interactive bone detection led to conclusions of high precision and statistical relevance. In this way, SR?CT in combination with interactive data analysis is proven to be more significant with respect to classical histology.

  3. Role of WNT16 in the regulation of periosteal bone formation in female mice.

    PubMed

    Wergedal, Jon E; Kesavan, Chandrasekhar; Brommage, Robert; Das, Subhashri; Mohan, Subburaman

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we evaluated the role of WNT16 in regulating bone size, an important determinant of bone strength. Mice with targeted disruption of the Wnt16 gene exhibited a 24% reduction in tibia cross-sectional area at 12 weeks of age compared with that of littermate wild-type (WT) mice. Histomorphometric studies revealed that the periosteal bone formation rate and mineral apposition rate were reduced (P < .05) by 55% and 32%, respectively, in Wnt16 knockout (KO) vs WT mice at 12 weeks of age. In contrast, the periosteal tartrate resistant acid phosphatase-labeled surface was increased by 20% in the KO mice. Because mechanical strain is an important physiological regulator of periosteal bone formation (BF), we determined whether mechanical loading-induced periosteal BF is compromised in Wnt16 KO mice. Application of 4800-?e strain to the right tibia using a 4-point bending loading method for 2 weeks (2-Hz frequency, 36 cycles per day, 6 days/wk) produced a significant increase in cross-sectional area (11% above that of the unloaded left tibia, P < .05, n = 6) in the WT but not in the KO mice (-0.2% change). Histomorphometric analyses revealed increases in the periosteal bone formation rate and mineral apposition rate in the loaded bones of WT but not KO mice. Wnt16 KO mice showed significant (20%-70%) reductions in the expression levels of markers of canonical (?-catenin and Axin2) but not noncanonical (Nfatc1 and Tnnt2) WNT signaling in the periosteum at 5 weeks of age. Our findings suggest that WNT16 acting via canonical WNT signaling regulates mechanical strain-induced periosteal BF and bone size. PMID:25521583

  4. Effects of static magnetic fields on bone formation in rat osteoblast cultures.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Ohsaki, Y; Goto, T; Nakasima, A; Iijima, T

    2003-12-01

    Although the promotional effects on osteoblasts of pulsed electromagnetic fields have been well-demonstrated, the effects of static magnetic fields (SMF) remain unclear; nevertheless, magnets have been clinically used as a 'force source' in various orthodontic treatments. We undertook the present investigation to study the effects of SMF on osteoblastic differentiation, proliferation, and bone nodule formation using a rat calvaria cell culture. During a 20-day culture, the values of the total area and the number and average size of bone nodules showed high levels in the presence of SMF. In the matrix development and mineralization stages, the calcium content in the matrix and two markers of osteoblastic phenotype (alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin) also showed a significant increase. Accordingly, these findings suggest that SMF stimulates bone formation by promoting osteoblastic differentiation and/or activation. PMID:14630895

  5. Thrombospondin 1 promotes synaptic formation in bone marrow-derived neuron-like cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yun; Lu, Mingnan; Guo, Weitao; Zeng, Rong; Wang, Bin; Wang, Huaibo

    2013-04-01

    In this study, a combination of growth factors was used to induce bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into neuron-like cells, in a broader attempt to observe the role of thrombospondin 1 in synapse formation. Results showed that there was no significant difference in the differentiation rate of neuron-like cells between bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with thrombospondin induction and those without. However, the cell shape was more complex and the neurites were dendritic, with unipolar, bipolar or multipolar morphologies, after induction with thrombospondin 1. The induced cells were similar in morphology to normal neurites. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the number of positive cells for postsynaptic density protein 95 and synaptophysin 1 protein was significantly increased after induction with thrombospondin 1. These findings indicate that thrombospondin 1 promotes synapse formation in neuron-like cells that are differentiated from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:25206378

  6. Non-lamellar lipid liquid crystalline structures at interfaces.

    PubMed

    Chang, Debby P; Barauskas, Justas; Dabkowska, Aleksandra P; Wadsäter, Maria; Tiberg, Fredrik; Nylander, Tommy

    2014-11-15

    The self-assembly of lipids leads to the formation of a rich variety of nano-structures, not only restricted to lipid bilayers, but also encompassing non-lamellar liquid crystalline structures, such as cubic, hexagonal, and sponge phases. These non-lamellar phases have been increasingly recognized as important for living systems, both in terms of providing compartmentalization and as regulators of biological activity. Consequently, they are of great interest for their potential as delivery systems in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic applications. The compartmentalizing nature of these phases features mono- or bicontinuous networks of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains. To utilize these non-lamellar liquid crystalline structures in biomedical devices for analyses and drug delivery, it is crucial to understand how they interact with and respond to different types of interfaces. Such non-lamellar interfacial layers can be used to entrap functional biomolecules that respond to lipid curvature as well as the confinement. It is also important to understand the structural changes of deposited lipid in relation to the corresponding bulk dispersions. They can be controlled by changing the lipid composition or by introducing components that can alter the curvature or by deposition on nano-structured surface, e.g. vertical nano-wire arrays. Progress in the area of liquid crystalline lipid based nanoparticles opens up new possibilities for the preparation of well-defined surface films with well-defined nano-structures. This review will focus on recent progress in the formation of non-lamellar dispersions and their interfacial properties at the solid/liquid and biologically relevant interfaces. PMID:25435157

  7. Lymphangiosarcoma with bone formation of the auricle in a dog

    PubMed Central

    MINESHIGE, Takayuki; SUGAHARA, Go; OHMURO, Tamio; KAMIIE, Junichi; SHIROTA, Kinji

    2015-01-01

    A 12-year-old mixed-breed neutered female dog was referred with cutaneous tumors at the left auricle. Histologically, the cutaneous tumor located in the dermis comprised numerous clefts and cavernous channels lined by neoplastic endothelial cells with no erythrocytes. Bone tissue without direct contact with neoplastic cells was seen in the well-developed stromal connective tissue. The neoplastic endothelial cells exhibited mild to moderate atypia. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin and negative for cytokeratin and factor VIII-related antigen. Basement membrane around the neoplastic lumens was positive for laminin in a linear or granular pattern. Ultrastructural examination revealed discontinuous basement membrane beneath the tumor cells. Histopathological features of this case were consistent with lymphangiosarcoma, and stromal ossification was characteristic. PMID:25716121

  8. Lymphangiosarcoma with bone formation of the auricle in a dog.

    PubMed

    Mineshige, Takayuki; Sugahara, Go; Ohmuro, Tamio; Kamiie, Junichi; Shirota, Kinji

    2015-07-01

    A 12-year-old mixed-breed neutered female dog was referred with cutaneous tumors at the left auricle. Histologically, the cutaneous tumor located in the dermis comprised numerous clefts and cavernous channels lined by neoplastic endothelial cells with no erythrocytes. Bone tissue without direct contact with neoplastic cells was seen in the well-developed stromal connective tissue. The neoplastic endothelial cells exhibited mild to moderate atypia. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin and negative for cytokeratin and factor VIII-related antigen. Basement membrane around the neoplastic lumens was positive for laminin in a linear or granular pattern. Ultrastructural examination revealed discontinuous basement membrane beneath the tumor cells. Histopathological features of this case were consistent with lymphangiosarcoma, and stromal ossification was characteristic. PMID:25716121

  9. Assessment of bone formation and bone resorption in osteoporosis: a comparison between tetracycline-based iliac histomorphometry and whole body /sup 85/Sr kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Reeve, J.; Arlot, M.E.; Chavassieux, P.M.; Edouard, C.; Green, J.R.; Hesp, R.; Tellez, M.; Meunier, P.J.

    1987-12-01

    Bone formation and resorption have been measured in patients with idiopathic osteoporosis by histomorphometry of 7.5-mm trephine biopsies and in the whole body by 85Sr radiotracer methodology and calcium balances. The studies were synchronized and most were preceded by double in vivo tetracycline labeling. Correlations between histological and kinetic bone formation indices were better when better when based on the extent of double tetracycline labels than on measurements of osteoid by visible light microscopy. Correction of the kinetic data for long-term exchange, using 5 months' serial whole body counting of retained 85Sr, improved the fit of the kinetic to the histological data. A statistical analysis of the measurement uncertainties showed that the residual scatter in the best correlations (between exchange-corrected bone formation rates and double-labeled osteoid surface indices) could be attributed to measurement imprecision alone. The exchange-corrected resorption rate correlated fairly well with iliac trabecular resorption surfaces, and using a volume referent rather than a surface referent for the histological index improved the statistical fit when patients with therapeutically accelerated bone turnover were included. A much better correlation was obtained by including osteoid volume acting as an independent predictor of bone resorption in a bivariate regression with a resorption surface index. The residual errors could then be accounted for by known measurement uncertainties. Whereas osteoid taking a double label closely predicted the kinetic rate of bone formation, further analysis suggested that osteoid that took no label or a single label was more closely related to bone resorption, presumably as a secondary result of the coupling of bone formation to bone resorption.

  10. Osteochondrosis Can Lead to Formation of Pseudocysts and True Cysts in the Subchondral Bone of Horses.

    PubMed

    Olstad, K; Ostevik, L; Carlson, C S; Ekman, S

    2014-11-26

    Osteochondrosis arises as a result of focal failure of the blood supply to growth cartilage. The current aim was to examine the pathogenesis of pseudocysts and true cysts in subchondral bone following failure of the blood supply to the articular-epiphyseal cartilage complex in horses. Cases were recruited based on identification of lesions (n = 17) that were considered likely to progress to or to represent pseudocysts or true cysts in epiphyseal bone in histological sections and included 10 horses ranging in age from 48 days to 5 years old. Cases comprised 3 warmbloods, 3 Standardbreds, 1 Quarter horse and 1 Arabian with spontaneous lesions and 2 Fjord ponies with experimentally induced lesions. Seven lesions consisted of areas of ischemic chondronecrosis and were compatible with pseudocysts. Two lesions were located at intermediate depth in epiphyseal growth cartilage, 2 lesions were located in the ossification front, 2 lesions were located in epiphyseal bone and 1 lesion was located in the metaphyseal growth plate (physis). Ten lesions contained dilated blood vessels and were compatible with true cysts. In 2 lesions the dilated blood vessels were located within the lumina of failed cartilage canals. In the 8 remaining lesions areas of ischemic chondronecrosis were associated with granulation tissue in the subjacent bone and dilated vessels were located within this granulation tissue. Failure of the blood supply and ischemic chondronecrosis can lead to formation of pseudocysts or dilatation of blood vessels and formation of true cysts in the epiphyseal bone of horses. PMID:25428408

  11. Tenascin-W inhibits proliferation and differentiation of preosteoblasts during endochondral bone formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Hiroaki [Department of Orthopaedics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Akiyama, Haruhiko [Department of Orthopaedics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)]. E-mail: hakiyama@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Nakamura, Takashi [Department of Orthopaedics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Crombrugghe, Benoit de [Department of Molecular Genetics, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2007-05-18

    We identified a cDNA encoding mouse Tenascin-W (TN-W) upregulated by bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp)2 in ATDC5 osteo-chondroprogenitors. In adult mice, TN-W was markedly expressed in bone. In mouse embryos, during endochondral bone formation TN-W was localized in perichondrium/periosteum, but not in trabecular and cortical bones. During bone fracture repair, cells in the newly formed perichondrium/periosteum surrounding the cartilaginous callus expressed TN-W. Furthermore, TN-W was detectable in perichondrium/periosteum of Runx2-null and Osterix-null embryos, indicating that TN-W is expressed in preosteoblasts. In CFU-F and -O cells, TN-W had no effect on initiation of osteogenesis of bone marrow cells, and in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells TN-W inhibited cell proliferation and Col1a1 expression. In addition, TN-W suppressed canonical Wnt signaling which stimulates osteoblastic differentiation. Our results indicate that TN-W is a novel marker of preosteoblasts in early stage of osteogenesis, and that TN-W inhibits cell proliferation and differentiation of preosteoblasts mediated by canonical Wnt signaling.

  12. Antibody formation by bone marrow cells in irradiated mice

    PubMed Central

    Playfair, J. H. L.; Purves, Elizabeth C.

    1971-01-01

    Bone marrow-thymus cooperation experiments were carried out in lethally irradiated mice with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as the antigen and direct plaque-forming cells (PFC) as the end point. Various parameters were altered, with the following results: (1) Above 800 rad, the response by marrow cells alone, as well as the increase due to added thymus cells, was independent of irradiation dose. (2) The response of marrow cells was greatest at high SRBC concentrations, but the co-operative effect of thymus cells was most evident at lower SRBC levels, and completely absent at high levels. (3) Increasing the number of marrow cells, without thymus, gave increasing numbers of PFC, but the dose-response curve did not suggest cell synergism. (4) Thymectomy and antithymocyte serum treatment of host or donor did not prevent the response by marrow cells alone. It was concluded that this was a true IgM response by antibody-forming precursors from the marrow, unaided by thymus-derived cells. PMID:4934135

  13. OBIF, an osteoblast induction factor, plays an essential role in bone formation in association with osteoblastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mizuhashi, Koji; Kanamoto, Takashi; Ito, Masako; Moriishi, Takeshi; Muranishi, Yuki; Omori, Yoshihiro; Terada, Koji; Komori, Toshihisa; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2012-05-01

    In vertebrate bone formation, the functional mechanisms of transcription factors in osteoblastic differentiation have been relatively well elucidated; however, the exact roles of cell-extrinsic molecules are less clear. We previously identified human and mouse Obif, an osteoblast induction factor, also known as Tmem119, which encodes a single transmembrane protein. OBIF is predominantly expressed in osteoblasts in mouse. While exogenous Obif expression stimulated osteoblastic differentiation, knockdown of Obif inhibits the osteoblastic differentiation of pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. In order to investigate an in vivo role of OBIF in bone formation, we generated Obif-deficient mice by targeted gene disruption. Analyses of micro-computed tomography (mCT) revealed that Obif(-/-) mice exhibit significantly reduced cortical thickness in the mid-shaft of the femur at postnatal day 14 (P14). Furthermore, progressive bone hypoplasia is observed after 8 weeks. The expression levels of osteoblast marker genes, Collagen 1a1, Osteopontin, Runx2, and Osterix, in the calvaria were decreased in Obif(-/-) mice at P4. These data indicate that Obif plays an essential role in bone formation through regulating osteoblastogenesis. PMID:22416756

  14. Inhibiting Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) removes suppression of bone formation and prevents the development of osteolytic bone disease in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Heath, Deborah J; Chantry, Andrew D; Buckle, Clive H; Coulton, Les; Shaughnessy, John D; Evans, Holly R; Snowden, John A; Stover, David R; Vanderkerken, Karin; Croucher, Peter I

    2009-03-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is associated with the development of osteolytic bone disease, mediated by increased osteoclastic bone resorption and impaired osteoblastic bone formation. Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1), a soluble inhibitor of wingless/int (Wnt) signaling and osteoblastogenesis, is elevated in patients with MM and correlates with osteolytic bone disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of inhibiting Dkk1 on the development of osteolytic lesions in the 5T2MM murine model of myeloma. We showed that Dkk1 is expressed by murine 5T2MM myeloma cells. Injection of 5T2MM cells into C57BL/KaLwRij mice resulted in the development of osteolytic bone lesions (p < 0.05), mediated by increased osteoclast numbers (p < 0.001) and a decrease in osteoblast numbers (p < 0.001) and mineralizing surface (p < 0.05). Mice bearing 5T2MM cells were treated with an anti-Dkk1 antibody (BHQ880, 10 mg/kg, IV, twice weekly for 4 wk) from time of paraprotein detection. Anti-Dkk1 treatment prevented 5T2MM-induced suppression of osteoblast numbers (p < 0.001) and surface (p < 0.001). Treatment increased mineralizing surface by 28% and bone formation rate by 25%; however, there was no change in mineral apposition rate. Inhibiting Dkk1 had no effect on osteoclast numbers. muCT analysis showed that anti-Dkk1 treatment significantly protected against 5T2MM-induced trabecular bone loss (p < 0.05) and reduced the development of osteolytic bone lesions (p < 0.05). Treatment had no significant effect on tumor burden. These data suggest that inhibiting Dkk1 prevents the suppression of bone formation and in doing so is effective in preventing the development of osteolytic bone disease in myeloma, offering an effective therapeutic approach to treating this clinically important aspect of myeloma. PMID:19016584

  15. Novel EP4 receptor agonist-bisphosphonate conjugate drug (C1) promotes bone formation and improves vertebral mechanical properties in the ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal bone loss.

    PubMed

    Liu, Careesa C; Hu, Sally; Chen, Gang; Georgiou, John; Arns, Steve; Kumar, Nag S; Young, Robert N; Grynpas, Marc D

    2015-04-01

    Current treatments for postmenopausal osteoporosis aim to either promote bone formation or inhibit bone resorption. The C1 conjugate drug represents a new treatment approach by chemically linking the antiresorptive compound alendronate (ALN) with the anabolic agent prostanoid EP4 receptor agonist (EP4a) through a linker molecule (LK) to form a conjugate compound. This enables the bone-targeting ability of ALN to deliver EP4a to bone sites and mitigate the systemic side effects of EP4a, while also facilitating dual antiresorptive and anabolic effects. In vivo hydrolysis is required to release the EP4a and ALN components for pharmacological activity. Our study investigated the in vivo efficacy of this drug in treating established bone loss using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of postmenopausal osteopenia. In a curative experiment, 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were OVX, allowed to lose bone for 7 weeks, then treated for 6 weeks. Treatment groups consisted of C1 conjugate at low and high doses, vehicle-treated OVX and sham, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), and mixture of unconjugated ALN-LK and EP4a to assess the effect of conjugation. Results showed that weekly administration of C1 conjugate dose-dependently increased bone volume in trabecular bone, which partially or completely reversed OVX-induced bone loss in the lumbar vertebra and improved vertebral mechanical strength. The conjugate also dose-dependently stimulated endocortical woven bone formation and intracortical resorption in cortical bone, with high-dose treatment increasing the mechanical strength but compromising the material properties. Conjugation between the EP4a and ALN-LK components was crucial to the drug's anabolic efficacy. To our knowledge, the C1 conjugate represents the first time that a combined therapy using an anabolic agent and the antiresorptive compound ALN has shown significant anabolic effects which reversed established osteopenia. PMID:25284325

  16. Teriparatide Increases Bone Formation and Bone Mineral Density in Adult Women With Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Irene S.; Miller, Karen K.; Herzog, David B.; Misra, Madhusmita; Lee, Hang; Finkelstein, Joel S.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Context: Anorexia nervosa (AN), a prevalent psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting women, is characterized by self-induced starvation and low body weight. Increased clinical fractures are common, and most women have low bone mineral density (BMD). Previously investigated treatments have led to no or modest increases in BMD in AN. Objective: Our objective was to investigate the effect of teriparatide (TPT; human PTH[1–34]), an anabolic agent, on low bone mass in women with AN. Design, Setting, and Patients: This randomized, placebo-controlled trial at a clinical research center included 21 women with AN: 10 (mean age ± SEM, 47 ± 2.7 years) treated with TPT and 11 (47.1 ± 2.3 years) treated with placebo. Interventions: TPT (20 ?g SC) or placebo was administered for 6 months. Main Outcome Measures: Our primary outcome measure was change in BMD of the spine and hip by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcome measures included changes in serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP), C-terminal collagen cross-links, sclerostin, and IGF-1 levels. Results: At 6 months, spine BMD increased significantly more with TPT (posteroanterior spine, 6.0% ± 1.4%; lateral spine, 10.5% ± 2.5%) compared with placebo (posteroanterior spine, 0.2% ± 0.7%, P < .01; lateral spine, ?0.6% ± 1.0%; P < .01). The results remained significant after controlling for baseline body mass index, P1NP, and IGF-1. Changes in femoral neck (P = .4) and total hip (P = 0.8) BMD were comparable in both groups, as were changes in weight. Serum P1NP levels increased after 3 months of TPT treatment and remained at this higher level at 6 months, whereas P1NP levels were unchanged in the placebo group (P = .02). TPT was well-tolerated by all subjects. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that TPT administration increases spine BMD substantially after only 6 months of therapy in women with AN. PMID:24456286

  17. Craniosynostosis-Associated Fgfr2C342Y Mutant Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Exhibit Cell Autonomous Abnormalities in Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, J.; Kwon, T.-G.; Nam, H. K.; Hatch, N. E.

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that cranial bones of Fgfr2C342Y/+ craniosynostotic mice are diminished in density when compared to those of wild type mice, and that cranial bone cells isolated from the mutant mice exhibit inhibited late stage osteoblast differentiation. To provide further support for the idea that craniosynostosis-associated Fgfr mutations lead to cell autonomous defects in osteoblast differentiation and mineralized tissue formation, here we tested bone marrow stromal cells isolated from Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice for their ability to differentiate into osteoblasts. Additionally, to determine if the low bone mass phenotype of Crouzon syndrome includes the appendicular skeleton, long bones were assessed by micro CT. Fgfr2C342Y/+ cells showed increased osteoblastic gene expression during early osteoblastic differentiation but decreased expression of alkaline phosphatase mRNA and enzyme activity, and decreased mineralization during later stages of differentiation, when cultured under 2D in vitro conditions. Cells isolated from Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice also formed less bone when allowed to differentiate in a 3D matrix in vivo. Cortical bone parameters were diminished in long bones of Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice. These results demonstrate that marrow stromal cells of Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice have an autonomous defect in osteoblast differentiation and bone mineralization, and that the Fgfr2C342Y mutation influences both the axial and appendicular skeletons. PMID:23762837

  18. In Vivo Ectopic Bone Formation by Devitalized Mineralized Stem Cell Carriers Produced Under Mineralizing Culture Condition

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Yoke Chin; Geris, Liesbet; Bolander, Johanna; Pyka, Grzegorz; Van Bael, Simon; Luyten, Frank P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Functionalization of tissue engineering scaffolds with in vitro–generated bone-like extracellular matrix (ECM) represents an effective biomimetic approach to promote osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro. However, the bone-forming capacity of these constructs (seeded with or without cells) is so far not apparent. In this study, we aimed at developing a mineralizing culture condition to biofunctionalize three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds with highly mineralized ECM in order to produce devitalized, osteoinductive mineralized carriers for human periosteal-derived progenitors (hPDCs). For this, three medium formulations [i.e., growth medium only (BM1), with ascorbic acid (BM2), and with ascorbic acid and dexamethasone (BM3)] supplemented with calcium (Ca2+) and phosphate (PO43?) ions simultaneously as mineralizing source were investigated. The results showed that, besides the significant impacts on enhancing cell proliferation (the highest in BM3 condition), the formulated mineralizing media differentially regulated the osteochondro-related gene markers in a medium-dependent manner (e.g., significant upregulation of BMP2, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and Wnt5a in BM2 condition). This has resulted in distinguished cell populations that were identifiable by specific gene signatures as demonstrated by the principle component analysis. Through devitalization, mineralized carriers with apatite crystal structures unique to each medium condition (by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis) were obtained. Quantitatively, BM3 condition produced carriers with the highest mineral and collagen contents as well as human-specific VEGF proteins, followed by BM2 and BM1 conditions. Encouragingly, all mineralized carriers (after reseeded with hPDCs) induced bone formation after 8 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in nude mice models, with BM2-carriers inducing the highest bone volume, and the lowest in the BM3 condition (as quantitated by nano-computed tomography [nano-CT]). Histological analysis revealed different bone formation patterns, either bone ossicles containing bone marrow surrounding the scaffold struts (in BM2) or bone apposition directly on the struts' surface (in BM1 and BM3). In conclusion, we have presented experimental data on the feasibility to produce devitalized osteoinductive mineralized carriers by functionalizing 3D porous scaffolds with an in vitro cell-made mineralized matrix under the mineralizing culture conditions. PMID:25469312

  19. Follistatin-like 3 is a mediator of exercise-driven bone formation and strengthening.

    PubMed

    Nam, J; Perera, P; Gordon, R; Jeong, Y H; Blazek, A D; Kim, D G; Tee, B C; Sun, Z; Eubank, T D; Zhao, Y; Lablebecioglu, B; Liu, S; Litsky, A; Weisleder, N L; Lee, B S; Butterfield, T; Schneyer, A L; Agarwal, S

    2015-09-01

    Exercise is vital for maintaining bone strength and architecture. Follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3), a member of follistatin family, is a mechanosensitive protein upregulated in response to exercise and is involved in regulating musculoskeletal health. Here, we investigated the potential role of FSTL3 in exercise-driven bone remodeling. Exercise-dependent regulation of bone structure and functions was compared in mice with global Fstl3 gene deletion (Fstl3-/-) and their age-matched Fstl3+/+ littermates. Mice were exercised by low-intensity treadmill walking. The mechanical properties and mineralization were determined by ?CT, three-point bending test and sequential incorporation of calcein and alizarin complexone. ELISA, Western-blot analysis and qRT-PCR were used to analyze the regulation of FSTL3 and associated molecules in the serum specimens and tissues. Daily exercise significantly increased circulating FSTL3 levels in mice, rats and humans. Compared to age-matched littermates, Fstl3-/- mice exhibited significantly lower fracture tolerance, having greater stiffness, but lower strain at fracture and yield energy. Furthermore, increased levels of circulating FSTL3 in young mice paralleled greater strain at fracture compared to the lower levels of FSTL3 in older mice. More significantly, Fstl3-/- mice exhibited loss of mechanosensitivity and irresponsiveness to exercise-dependent bone formation as compared to their Fstl3+/+ littermates. In addition, FSTL3 gene deletion resulted in loss of exercise-dependent sclerostin regulation in osteocytes and osteoblasts, as compared to Fstl3+/+ osteocytes and osteoblasts, in vivo and in vitro. The data identify FSTL3 as a critical mediator of exercise-dependent bone formation and strengthening and point to its potential role in bone health and in musculoskeletal diseases. PMID:25937185

  20. Effects of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on New Trabecular Bone during Bone–Tendon Junction Healing in a Rabbit Model: A Synchrotron Radiation Micro-CT Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hongbin; Zheng, Cheng; Wang, Zhanwen; Chen, Can; Chen, Huabin; Hu, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on bone regeneration during the bone–tendon junction healing process and to explore the application of synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography in three dimensional visualization of the bone–tendon junction to evaluate the microarchitecture of new trabecular bone. Twenty four mature New Zealand rabbits underwent partial patellectomy to establish a bone–tendon junction injury model at the patella–patellar tendon complex. Animals were then divided into low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment (20 min/day, 7 times/week) and placebo control groups, and were euthanized at week 8 and 16 postoperatively (n = 6 for each group and time point). The patella–patellar tendon specimens were harvested for radiographic, histological and synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography detection. The area of the newly formed bone in the ultrasound group was significantly greater than that of control group at postoperative week 8 and 16. The high resolution three dimensional visualization images of the bone–tendon junction were acquired by synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment promoted dense and irregular woven bone formation at week 8 with greater bone volume fraction, number and thickness of new trabecular bone but with lower separation. At week 16, ultrasound group specimens contained mature lamellar bone with higher bone volume fraction and thicker trabeculae than that of control group; however, there was no significant difference in separation and number of the new trabecular bone. This study confirms that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment is able to promot bone formation and remodeling of new trabecular bone during the bone–tendon junction healing process in a rabbit model, and the synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography could be applied for three dimensional visualization to quantitatively evaluate the microarchitecture of new bone in bone–tendon junction. PMID:25874957

  1. The Wnt Antagonist Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein1 Is a Negative Regulator of Trabecular Bone Formation in Adult Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER V. N. BODINE; WEIGUANG ZHAO; YOGENDRA P. KHARODE; FREDERICK J. BEX; ANDRE-JEAN LAMBERT; MARY BETH GOAD; TRIPTI GAUR; GARY S. STEIN; JANE B. LIAN; BARRY S. KOMM

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have associated activation of ca- nonical Wnt signaling in osteoblasts with elevated bone formation. Here we report that deletion of the murine Wnt antagonist, secreted frizzled-related protein (sFRP)-1, prolongs and enhances trabecu- lar bone accrual in adult animals. sFRP-1 mRNA was expressed in bones and other tissues of \\/ mice but was not observed in \\/ animals. Despite

  2. Effects of Bone CS-Proteoglycans, DS-Decorin, and DS-Biglycan on Hydroxyapatite Formation in a Gelatin Gel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Boskey; L. Spevak; S. B. Doty; L. Rosenberg

    1997-01-01

    .   The small leucine-rich bone proteoglycans, biglycan and decorin, can be purified by chromatography on hydroxyapatite columns,\\u000a demonstrating their potential affinities for bone apatite. To determine their effects on in vitro apatite formation and growth, a mixture of the chondroitin-sulfate (CS) bone proteoglycans, or purified fractions of the\\u000a dermatan sulfate (DS) containing proteoglycans, DS-decorin and DS-biglycan obtained from skin and

  3. Ectopic bone formation using an injectable biphasic calcium phosphate\\/Si-HPMC hydrogel composite loaded with undifferentiated bone marrow stromal cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Trojani; Florian Boukhechba; Jean-Claude Scimeca; Fanny Vandenbos; Jean-François Michiels; Guy Daculsi; Pascal Boileau; Pierre Weiss; Georges F. Carle; Nathalie Rochet

    2006-01-01

    We have used a new synthetic injectable composite constituted of hydroxyapatite\\/tricalcium phosphate (HA\\/TCP) particles in suspension in a self-hardening Si–hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) hydrogel. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo the biocompatibility and the new bone formation efficacy of this scaffold loaded with undifferentiated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). This biomaterial was mixed extemporaneously with BMSCs prepared from

  4. Enhancement of ectopic bone formation by bone morphogenetic protein-2 released from a heparin-conjugated poly( l-lactic- co-glycolic acid) scaffold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oju Jeon; Su Jin Song; Sun-Woong Kang; Andrew J. Putnam; Byung-Soo Kim

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a heparin-conjugated poly(l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (HP-PLGA) scaffold was developed for the sustained delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and then used to address the hypothesis that BMP-2 delivered from this scaffold could enhance ectopic bone formation. We found the amount of heparin conjugated to the PLGA scaffolds could be increased up to 3.2-fold by using scaffolds made from

  5. Nutrition and bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail Goldberg

    2004-01-01

    Throughout life the skeleton is continually renewed. Old, worn out bone is broken down and new bone tissue is formed. During infancy, childhood and adolescence, bone formation is higher than breakdown. At about 30–35 years old adults achieve their peak bone mass. The rate of bone breakdown is equal to the rate of bone formation and bone mass is maintained.

  6. Glycation of Human Cortical and Cancellous Bone Captures Differences in the Formation of Maillard Reaction Products between Glucose and Ribose

    PubMed Central

    Sroga, Gra?yna E.; Siddula, Alankrita; Vashishth, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    To better understand some aspects of bone matrix glycation, we used an in vitro glycation approach. Within two weeks, our glycation procedures led to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) at the levels that corresponded to approx. 25–30 years of the natural in vivo glycation. Cortical and cancellous bones from human tibias were glycated in vitro using either glucose (glucosylation) or ribose (ribosylation). Both glucosylation and ribosylation led to the formation of higher levels of AGEs and pentosidine (PEN) in cancellous than cortical bone dissected from all tested donors (young, middle-age and elderly men and women). More efficient glycation of bone matrix proteins in cancellous bone most likely depended on the higher porosity of this tissue, which facilitated better accessibility of the sugars to the matrix proteins. Notably, glycation of cortical bone from older donors led to much higher AGEs levels as compared to young donors. Such efficient in vitro glycation of older cortical bone could result from aging-related increase in porosity caused by the loss of mineral content. In addition, more pronounced glycation in vivo would be driven by elevated oxidation processes. Interestingly, the levels of PEN formation differed pronouncedly between glucosylation and ribosylation. Ribosylation generated very high levels of PEN (approx. 6- vs. 2.5-fold higher PEN level than in glucosylated samples). Kinetic studies of AGEs and PEN formation in human cortical and cancellous bone matrix confirmed higher accumulation of fluorescent crosslinks for ribosylation. Our results suggest that in vitro glycation of bone using glucose leads to the formation of lower levels of AGEs including PEN, whereas ribosylation appears to support a pathway toward PEN formation. Our studies may help to understand differences in the progression of bone pathologies related to protein glycation by different sugars, and raise awareness for excessive sugar supplementation in food and drinks. PMID:25679213

  7. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation on different gentamicin-loaded polymethylmethacrylate bone cements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilbrand van de Belt; Daniëlle Neut; Willem Schenk; Jim R van Horn; Henny C van der Mei; Henk J Busscher

    2001-01-01

    In this in vitro study, the formation of a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on six gentamicin-loaded bone cements (CMW1, CMW3, CMW Endurance, CMW2000, Palacos, and Palamed) was determined in a modified Robbins device over a 3 days time span and related with previously (Van de Belt et al., Biomaterials 21 (2000) 1981) measured kinetics of antibiotic release by these cement brands.

  8. Effect of icariin on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis in the rabbit mandible

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Wei; L. Zili; C. Yuanlu; Y. Biao; L. Cheng; W. Xiaoxia; L. Yang; W. Xing

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of icariin on bone formation during mandibular distraction. 40 Rabbits were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Mandibular distraction was performed 5 days after unilateral mandibular osteotomy using a custom-made external distractor at a rate of 0.5mm\\/12h for 10 days. From the first day of distraction, icariin (2.5mg\\/kg·day) was

  9. The Contribution of Bone Marrow-Derived Cells to Cerebrovascular Formation and Integrity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kobiler; John Glod

    The contribution of bone marrow-derived circulating cells to the formation and maintenance of the vasculature, and the cerebrovasculature\\u000a in particular, has been established. It is becoming evident that several different populations of cells including early progenitor-like\\u000a cells, monocytic cells, and perhaps mesenchymal stem cells are responsible for the reported actions of “endothelial progenitor\\u000a cells.” Large variation in the relative contribution

  10. Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Msx Genes during Root Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yamashiro; M. Tummers; I. Thesleff

    2003-01-01

    Like crown development, root formation is also regulated by interactions between epithelial and mesenchymml tissues. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), together with the transcription factors Msx1 and Msx2, play important roles in these interactions during early tooth morphogenesis. To investigate the involvement of this signaling pathway in root development, we analyzed the expression patterns of Bmp2, Bmp3, Bmp4, and Bmp7 as

  11. Evaluation of a Thiolated Chitosan Scaffold for Local Delivery of BMP-2 for Osteogenic Differentiation and Ectopic Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Bae, In-Ho; Jeong, Byung-Chul; Kim, Sun-Hun; Koh, Jeong-Tae

    2013-01-01

    Thiolated chitosan (Thio-CS) is a well-established pharmaceutical excipient for drug delivery. However, its use as a scaffold for bone formation has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of Thio-CS in bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) delivery and bone formation. In vitro study showed that BMP-2 interacted with the Thio-CS and did not affect the swelling behavior. The release kinetics of BMP-2 from the Thio-CS was slightly delayed (70%) within 7 days compared with that from collagen gel (Col-gel, 85%), which is widely used in BMP-2 delivery. The BMP-2 released from Thio-CS increased osteoblastic cell differentiation but did not show any cytotoxicity until 21 days. Analysis of the in vivo ectopic bone formation at 4 weeks of posttransplantation showed that use of Thio-CS for BMP-2 delivery induced more bone formation to a greater extent (1.8 fold) than that of Col-gel. However, bone mineral density in both bones was equivalent, regardless of Thio-CS or Col-gel carrier. Taken together, Thio-CS system might be useful for delivering osteogenic protein BMP-2 and present a promising bone regeneration strategy. PMID:24024213

  12. Tilting of lamellar domains on neutral random copolymer brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Indranil; Mahadevapuram, Nikhila; Strzalka, Joseph; Stein, Gila E.

    2015-03-01

    Thin films of lamellar poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-PMMA) block copolymers were prepared on brushed silicon substrates with a range of thicknesses. The brushes are expected to eliminate preferential interactions at the substrate, thereby enabling perpendicular domain orientations relative to the interfaces. Using a combination of surface microscopy and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, we demonstrate that i) the brushed substrates are weakly preferential to PMMA; and ii) the average lamellar domain orientation is perpendicular to the substrate, but some domains are mis-oriented by up to 40º. We propose that PMMA domains deform to increase their contact area at the slightly preferential substrate, and this behavior drives the formation of out-of-plane defects such as bent or tilted domains. These outcomes suggest that depth-resolved measurements are needed to fully optimize materials and processes for block copolymer lithography.

  13. Ion-exchange polymer nanofibers for enhanced osteogenic differentiation of stem cells and ectopic bone formation.

    PubMed

    Shabani, Iman; Haddadi-Asl, Vahid; Soleimani, Masoud; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Hashemi, Seyed Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Nanofibrous scaffolds with specific modifications have shown promising potential for bone tissue engineering applications. In the present study, poly(ether sulfone) (PES) and sulfonated PES (SPES) nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning. Calcium ions were then incorporated in SPES by immersion in a Ca(OH)2 solution. The calcium-ion-exchanged SPES (Ca-SPES), PES, and SPES nanofibers were characterized and then evaluated for their osteogenic capacity: both in vitro using stem cell culture and in vivo after subcutaneous implantation in mice. After 7 days of immersion in simulated body fluid, the formation of an apatite layer was only observed on Ca-SPES nanofibers. According to the MTT results, an increasing stem cell population was detected on all scaffolds during the period of study. Using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium content assays, it was demonstrated that the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells was higher on Ca-SPES scaffolds in comparison with PES and SPES nanofibers. Interestingly, Ca-SPES scaffolds were shown to induce ectopic bone formation after 12 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in mice. This was confirmed by mineralization and the production of collagen fibers using van Kossa and Masson's trichrome staining, respectively. Taken together, it was demonstrated that the incorporation of calcium ions into the ion-exchange nanofibrous scaffolds not only gives them the ability to enhance osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro but also to induce ectopic bone formation in vivo. PMID:24328219

  14. Sequential application of steady and pulsatile medium perfusion enhanced the formation of engineered bone.

    PubMed

    Correia, Cristina; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Sousa, Rui A; Reis, Rui L; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-05-01

    In native bone, cells experience fluctuating shear forces that are induced by pulsatile interstitial flow associated with habitual loading. We hypothesized that the formation of engineered bone can be augmented by replicating such physiologic stimuli to osteogenic cells cultured in porous scaffolds using bioreactors with medium perfusion. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of fluid flow regime on in vitro bone-like tissue development by human adipose stem cells (hASC) cultivated on porous three-dimensional silk fibroin scaffolds. To this end, we varied the sequential relative durations of steady flow (SF) and pulsatile flow (PF) of culture medium applied over a period of 5 weeks, and evaluated their effect on early stages of bone formation. Porous silk fibroin scaffolds (400-600??m pore size) were seeded with hASC (30×10(6) cells/mL) and cultured in osteogenic medium under four distinct fluid flow regimes: (1) PF for 5 weeks; (2) SF for 1 week, PF for 4 weeks; (3) SF for 2 weeks, PF for 3 weeks; (4) SF for 5 weeks. The PF was applied in 12?h intervals, with the interstitial velocity fluctuating between 400 and 1200??m/s at a 0.5?Hz frequency for 2?h, followed by 10?h of SF. In all groups, SF was applied at 400??m/s. The best osteogenic outcomes were achieved for the sequence of 2 weeks of SF and 3 weeks of PF, as evidenced by gene expression (including the PGE2 mechanotransduction marker), construct compositions, histomorphologies, and biomechanical properties. We thus propose that osteogenesis in hASC and the subsequent early stage bone development involve a mechanism, which detects and responds to the level and duration of hydrodynamic shear forces. PMID:23259605

  15. Heparanase expression and activity influences chondrogenic and osteogenic processes during endochondral bone formation.

    PubMed

    Brown, A J; Alicknavitch, M; D'Souza, S S; Daikoku, T; Kirn-Safran, C B; Marchetti, D; Carson, D D; Farach-Carson, M C

    2008-10-01

    Endochondral bone formation is a highly orchestrated process involving coordination among cell-cell, cell-matrix and growth factor signaling that eventually results in the production of mineralized bone from a cartilage template. Chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation occur in sequence during this process, and the temporospatial patterning clearly requires the activities of heparin binding growth factors and their receptors. Heparanase (HPSE) plays a role in osteogenesis, but the mechanism by which it does so is incompletely understood. We used a combination of ex vivo and in vitro approaches and a well described HPSE inhibitor, PI-88 to study HPSE in endochondral bone formation. In situ hybridization and immunolocalization with HPSE antibodies revealed that HPSE is expressed in the peri-chondrium, peri-osteum, and at the chondro-osseous junction, all sites of key signaling events and tissue morphogenesis. Transcripts encoding Hpse also were observed in the pre-hypertrophic zone. Addition of PI-88 to metatarsals in organ culture reduced growth and suggested that HPSE activity aids the transition from chondrogenic to osteogenic processes in growth of long bones. To study this, we used high density cultures of ATDC5 pre-chondrogenic cells grown under conditions favoring chondrogenesis or osteogenesis. Under chondrogenic conditions, HPSE/Hpse was expressed at high levels during the mid-culture period, at the onset of terminal chondrogenesis. PI-88 addition reduced chondrogenesis and accelerated osteogenesis, including a dramatic up-regulation of osteocalcin levels. In normal growth medium, addition of PI-88 reduced migration of ATDC-5 cells, suggesting that HPSE facilitates cartilage replacement by bone at the chondro-osseous junction by removing the HS component of proteoglycans, such as perlecan/HSPG2, that otherwise prevent osteogenic cells from remodeling hypertrophic cartilage. PMID:18589009

  16. A reversal phase arrest uncoupling the bone formation and resorption contributes to the bone loss in glucocorticoid treated ovariectomised aged sheep.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, Christina M; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren; Bollen, Peter; Andersen, Thomas L

    2015-06-01

    Large animals as sheep are often used as models for human osteoporosis. Our aim was therefore to determine how glucocorticoid treatment of ovariectomised sheep affects the cancellous bone, determining the cellular events within the bone remodelling process that contributes to their bone loss. Twenty female sheep were assigned for two groups; an untreated control group and an ovariectomised group treated with glucocorticoids (0.6 mg/kg/day, 5 times weekly) for 7 months. At 7 months the glucocorticoid-treated ovariectomised sheep showed a significant change in the bone microstructure revealed by a decreased trabecular bone volume and thickness compared to the control sheep. The treatment led to a temporary elevation of the bone resorption marker CTX (c-terminal collagen telopeptide), while the bone formation marker osteocalcin remained suppressed all 7 months. Histomorphometrically, the treated sheep had a complete absence of osteoid surfaces, and a 5-fold increase in the extent of eroded/reversal surfaces after 7 months. Most of these reversal surfaces were actually arrested reversal surfaces, defined as reversal surfaces without the presence of neighbouring osteoid surfaces or osteoclasts, which is classically observed next to active reversal surfaces. As in humans, these arrested reversal surfaces had compared to active reversal surfaces a reduced canopy coverage, a significantly decreased cell density, and a decreased immunoreactivity for the osteoblastic markers osterix, runx2 and smooth muscle actin in the mononuclear reversal cells colonising the surfaces. In conclusion, glucocorticoid treatment of ovariectomised sheep induced a significant bone loss, caused by an arrest of the reversal phase, resulting in an uncoupling of the bone formation and resorption during the reversal phase, as recently demonstrated in postmenopausal women with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. This supports the relevance of the sheep model to the pathophysiology of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, making it a relevant preclinical model for orthopaedic implant and biomaterial research. PMID:25689083

  17. Erythropoietin stimulates bone formation, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis in a femoral segmental defect model in mice.

    PubMed

    Holstein, J H; Orth, M; Scheuer, C; Tami, A; Becker, S C; Garcia, P; Histing, T; Mörsdorf, P; Klein, M; Pohlemann, T; Menger, M D

    2011-11-01

    The glycoprotein erythropoietin (EPO) has been demonstrated to stimulate fracture healing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of EPO treatment on bone repair in a femoral segmental defect model. Bone repair was analyzed in mice which were treated by EPO (500IE/kg/d intraperitoneally; n=38) and in mice which received the vehicle for control (n=40). Two and 10 weeks after creating a 1.8mm femoral segmental defect, bone repair was studied by micro-CT, histology, and Western blot analysis. At 10 weeks, micro-CT and histomorphometric analyses showed a significantly higher bridging rate of the bone defects in EPO-treated animals than in controls. This was associated by a significantly higher bone volume within the segmental defects of the EPO-treated animals. At 2 weeks, Western blot analyses revealed a significantly higher expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in EPO-treated animals compared to controls. Accordingly, the number of blood vessels was significantly increased in the EPO group at 2 weeks. At 10 weeks, we found a significantly higher expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in EPO-treated animals when compared to controls. Western blot analyses showed no significant differences between the groups in the expression of the endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthases (eNOS and iNOS) and the angiopoietin receptor Tie-2. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the results of the Western blot analyses, demonstrating a significantly higher number of VEGF- and PCNA-positive cells in EPO-treated animals than in controls at 2 and 10 weeks, respectively. We conclude that EPO is capable of stimulating bone formation, cell proliferation and VEGF-mediated angiogenesis in a femoral segmental defect model. PMID:21851867

  18. Increased Resistance during Jump Exercise Does Not Enhance Cortical Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Boudreaux, Ramon D.; Swift, Joshua M.; Gasier, Heath G.; Wiggs, Michael P.; Hogan, Harry A.; Fluckey, James D.; Bloomfield, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This study sought to elucidate the effects of a low- and high-load jump resistance exercise (RE) training protocol on cortical bone of the tibia and femur mid-diaphyses. METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 6-mos-old) were randomly assigned to high-load RE (HRE; n = 16), low-load RE (LRE; n = 15) or cage control (CC; n = 11) groups. Animals in the HRE and LRE groups performed 15 sessions of jump RE for 5 weeks. Load in the HRE group was progressively increased from 80g added to a weighted vest (50 repetitions) to 410g (16 repetitions). The LRE rats completed the same protocol as the HRE group (same number of repetitions) with only a 30g vest applied. RESULTS Low- and high-load jump RE resulted in 6–11% higher cortical bone mineral content (BMC) and cortical bone area compared to controls as determined by in vivo pQCT measurements. In the femur, however, only LRE demonstrated improvements in cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD; +11%) and cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI; +20%) versus CC group. Three-point bending to failure revealed a marked increase in tibial max force (25–29%), stiffness (19–22%), and energy to max force (35–55%), and a reduction in elastic modulus (?11–14%) in both LRE and HRE compared to controls. Dynamic histomorphometry assessed at the tibia mid-diaphysis determined that both LRE and HRE resulted in 20–30% higher periosteal mineralizing surface versus CC group. Mineral apposition rate (MAR) and bone formation rate (BFR) were significantly greater in LRE animals (27%, 39%) than in the HRE group. CONCLUSION These data demonstrate that jump training with minimal loading is equally, and sometimes more, effective at augmenting cortical bone integrity compared to overload training in skeletally mature rats. PMID:24743108

  19. Bone marrow colony-formation in vitro after infection of genetically defined inbred mice with Candida albicans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siripen Wanasaengsakul; Robert B. Ashman

    2004-01-01

    The effect of C. albicans infection on the production of haematopoietic precursor cells in the bone marrow of CBA\\/CaH and BALB\\/c mice was evaluated by assay of colony formation in vitro. In immunocompetent mice, neither systemic nor oral infection induced significant alterations in colony formation by bone marrow from the two mouse strains, and Candida infection did not alter the

  20. Updating the Lamellar Hypothesis of Hippocampal Organization

    PubMed Central

    Sloviter, Robert S.; Lømo, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Andersen et al. (1971) proposed that excitatory activity in the entorhinal cortex propagates topographically to the dentate gyrus, and on through a “trisynaptic circuit” lying within transverse hippocampal “slices” or “lamellae.” In this way, a relatively simple structure might mediate complex functions in a manner analogous to the way independent piano keys can produce a nearly infinite variety of unique outputs. The lamellar hypothesis derives primary support from the “lamellar” distribution of dentate granule cell axons (the mossy fibers), which innervate dentate hilar neurons and area CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons within the confines of a thin transverse hippocampal segment. Following the initial formulation of the lamellar hypothesis, anatomical studies revealed that unlike granule cells, hilar mossy cells, CA3 pyramidal cells, and Layer II entorhinal cells all form axonal projections that are more divergent along the longitudinal axis than the clearly “lamellar” mossy fiber pathway. The existence of pathways with “translamellar” distribution patterns has been interpreted, incorrectly in our view, as justifying outright rejection of the lamellar hypothesis (Amaral and Witter, 1989). We suggest that the functional implications of longitudinally projecting axons depend not on whether they exist, but on what they do. The observation that focal granule cell layer discharges normally inhibit, rather than excite, distant granule cells suggests that longitudinal axons in the dentate gyrus may mediate “lateral” inhibition and define lamellar function, rather than undermine it. In this review, we attempt a reconsideration of the evidence that most directly impacts the physiological concept of hippocampal lamellar organization. PMID:23233836

  1. Dual growth factor delivery and controlled scaffold degradation enhance in vivo bone formation by transplanted bone marrow stromal cells

    E-print Network

    Simmons, Craig A.

    by transplanted bone marrow stromal cells Craig A. Simmons,a,b,1 Eben Alsberg,a,1 Susan Hsiong,c Woo J. Kim bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transplanted ectopically in SCID mice using alginate hydrogels Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Alginate; Mesenchymal stem cells; Bone morphogenetic protein-2

  2. Bone chip-filled burrows associated with bored dinosaur bone in floodplain paleosols of the Cretaceous Hasandong Formation, Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In Sung Paik

    2000-01-01

    Borings in dinosaur bone, which are intimately associated with subjacent burrows filled with bone chips, are recognized from a Lower Cretaceous floodplain vertic–calcic paleosol, Dapyeongri, Korea. The bored bone is an in situ weathered scapula of herbivore. The borings are ubiquitous within and on scapula, and have diverse orientations. They are mostly solitary with diameters from a few millimeters to

  3. Homeobox genes d11-d13 and a13 control mouse autopod cortical bone and joint formation.

    PubMed

    Villavicencio-Lorini, Pablo; Kuss, Pia; Friedrich, Julia; Haupt, Julia; Farooq, Muhammed; Türkmen, Seval; Duboule, Denis; Hecht, Jochen; Mundlos, Stefan

    2010-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms that govern bone and joint formation are complex, involving an integrated network of signaling pathways and gene regulators. We investigated the role of Hox genes, which are known to specify individual segments of the skeleton, in the formation of autopod limb bones (i.e., the hands and feet) using the mouse mutant synpolydactyly homolog (spdh), which encodes a polyalanine expansion in Hoxd13. We found that no cortical bone was formed in the autopod in spdh/spdh mice; instead, these bones underwent trabecular ossification after birth. Spdh/spdh metacarpals acquired an ovoid shape and developed ectopic joints, indicating a loss of long bone characteristics and thus a transformation of metacarpals into carpal bones. The perichondrium of spdh/spdh mice showed abnormal morphology and decreased expression of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), which was identified as a direct Hoxd13 transcriptional target. Hoxd11-/-Hoxd12-/-Hoxd13-/- triple-knockout mice and Hoxd13-/-Hoxa13+/- mice exhibited similar but less severe defects, suggesting that these Hox genes have similar and complementary functions and that the spdh allele acts as a dominant negative. This effect was shown to be due to sequestration of other polyalanine-containing transcription factors by the mutant Hoxd13 in the cytoplasm, leading to their degradation. These data indicate that Hox genes not only regulate patterning but also directly influence bone formation and the ossification pattern of bones, in part via Runx2. PMID:20458143

  4. Copal bone cement is more effective in preventing biofilm formation than Palacos R-G.

    PubMed

    Ensing, Geert T; van Horn, Jim R; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J; Neut, Daniëlle

    2008-06-01

    Bone cements loaded with combinations of antibiotics are assumed more effective in preventing infection than bone cements with gentamicin as a single drug. Moreover, loading with an additional antibiotic may increase interconnectivity between antibiotic particles to enhance release. We hypothesize addition of clindamycin to a gentamicin-loaded cement yields higher antibiotic release and causes larger inhibition zones against clinical isolates grown on agar and stronger biofilm inhibition. Antibiotic release after 672 hours from Copal bone cement was more extensive (65% of the clindamycin and 41% of the gentamicin incorporated) than from Palacos R-G (4% of the gentamicin incorporated). The higher antibiotic release from Copal resulted in a stronger and more prolonged inhibition of bacterial growth on agar. Bacterial colony counting and confocal laser scanning microscopy of biofilms grown on the bone cements suggest antibiotic release reduced bacterial viability, most notably close to the cement surface. The gentamicin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus formed gentamicin-resistant small colony variants on Palacos R-G and therefore Copal more effectively decreased biofilm formation than Palacos R-G. PMID:18338216

  5. Long-term imatinib therapy promotes bone formation in CML patients.

    PubMed

    Fitter, Stephen; Dewar, Andrea L; Kostakis, Panagiota; To, L Bik; Hughes, Timothy P; Roberts, Marion M; Lynch, Kevin; Vernon-Roberts, Barrie; Zannettino, Andrew C W

    2008-03-01

    Imatinib inhibits tyrosine kinases important in osteoclast (c-Fms) and osteoblast (platelet-derived growth factor receptor [PDGF-R], c-Abl) function, suggesting that long-term therapy may alter bone homeostasis. To investigate this question, we measured the trabecular bone volume (TBV) in iliac crest bone biopsies taken from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients at diagnosis and again after 2 to 4 years of imatinib therapy. Half the patients (8 of 17) showed a substantive increase in TBV (> 2-fold), after imatinib therapy, with the TBV in the posttreatment biopsy typically surpassing the normal upper limit for the patient's age group. Imatinib-treated patients exhibited reduced serum calcium and phosphate levels with hypophosphatemia evident in 53% (9 of 17) of patients. In vitro, imatinib suppressed osteoblast proliferation and stimulated osteogenic gene expression and mineralized-matrix production by inhibiting PDGF receptor function. In PDGF-stimulated cultures, imatinib dose-dependently inhibited activation of Akt and Crk-L. Using pharmacologic inhibitors, inhibition of PI3-kinase/Akt activation promoted mineral formation, suggesting a possible molecular mechanism for the imatinib-mediated increase in TBV in vivo. Further investigation is required to determine whether the increase in TBV associated with imatinib therapy may represent a novel therapeutic avenue for the treatment of diseases that are characterized by generalized bone loss. PMID:18042796

  6. Effect of estrogen/gestagen and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 therapy on bone formation in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, K.; Riis, B.; Christiansen, C.

    1986-12-01

    The effect of two different estrogen/gestagen regimens and 24R,25-(OH)2-cholecalciferol on bone formation was studied in a randomized trial with 144 healthy postmenopausal women. Urinary excretion (UE) of /sup 99m/technetium-diphosphonate and serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) was determined before and then once a year for 2 years of treatment. Both estimates of bone formation showed highly significant decreases (p less than .001) to normal premenopausal levels in women receiving unopposed 17 beta-estradiol or in a sequential combination with progestagen, whereas unchanged high values were found in the groups receiving 24R,25-(OH)2D3 and placebo. The data show that bone turnover increases in early postmenopausal women concomitantly with the loss of bone mass, and that hormonal substitutional therapy normalizes the total skeletal turnover as well as preventing bone loss.

  7. Histological assessment in grafts of highly purified beta-tricalcium phosphate (OSferion) in human bones.

    PubMed

    Ogose, Akira; Kondo, Naoki; Umezu, Hajime; Hotta, Tetsuo; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Tokunaga, Kunihiko; Ito, Tomoyuki; Kudo, Naoko; Hoshino, Makiko; Gu, Wenguang; Endo, Naoto

    2006-03-01

    Prominent osteoconductive activity and the biodegradable nature of commercially available beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP, OSferion) have been documented in animal experiments. We analyzed four cases of involving grafted OSferion in human bone with respect to histological features by routine hematoxylin and eosin staining, silver impregnation, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. OSferion affords early bioresorption by osteoclasts, vascular invasion of macropores and osteoblastic cell attachment on the surface on the ceramic surface 14 days after grafting. Prominent bone formation and direct bone connection between preexisting bone and OSferion were evident 28 days after grafting. Nearly the entire TCP surface was covered by lamellar bone; additionally, active osteoblastic lining and attachment of the osteoclast-like giant cells were not observed 72 weeks after grafting. Silver impregnation revealed the presence of collagen fibrils within probable micropores of OSferion. PMID:16165205

  8. The effects of 3D bioactive glass scaffolds and BMP-2 on bone formation in rat femoral critical size defects and adjacent bones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wai-Ching; Robu, Irina S; Patel, Rikin; Leu, Ming C; Velez, Mariano; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    Reconstruction of critical size defects in the load-bearing area has long been a challenge in orthopaedics. In the past, we have demonstrated the feasibility of using a biodegradable load-sharing scaffold fabricated from poly(propylene fumarate)/tricalcium phosphate (PPF/TCP) loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) to successfully induce healing in those defects. However, there is limited osteoconduction observed with the PPF/TCP scaffold itself. For this reason, 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds with local BMP-2 delivery were investigated in this study for inducing segmental defect repairs in a load-bearing region. Furthermore, a recent review on BMP-2 revealed greater risks in radiculitis, ectopic bone formation, osteolysis and poor global outcome in association with the use of BMP-2 for spinal fusion. We also evaluated the potential side effects of locally delivered BMP-2 on the structures of adjacent bones. Therefore, cylindrical 13-93 glass scaffolds were fabricated by indirect selective laser sintering with side holes on the cylinder filled with dicalcium phosphate dehydrate as a BMP-2 carrier. The scaffolds were implanted into critical size defects created in rat femurs with and without 10 ?g of BMP-2. The x-ray and micro-CT results showed that a bridging callus was found as soon as three weeks and progressed gradually in the BMP group while minimal bone formation was observed in the control group. Degradation of the scaffolds was noted in both groups. Stiffness, peak load and energy to break of the BMP group were all higher than the control group. There was no statistical difference in bone mineral density, bone area and bone mineral content in the tibiae and contralateral femurs of the control and BMP groups. In conclusion, a 13-93 bioactive glass scaffold with local BMP-2 delivery has been demonstrated for its potential application in treating large bone defects. PMID:25065552

  9. Dual Delivery of rhPDGF-BB and Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Expressing the BMP2 Gene Enhance Bone Formation in a Critical-Sized Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shin-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Hwa; Shin, Seung-Yun; Koo, Ki-Tae; Lee, Yong-Moo

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue healing is a dynamic, orchestrated process that relies on multiple growth factors and cell types. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is released from platelets at wound sites and induces cellular migration and proliferation necessary for bone regeneration in the early healing process. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), the most potent osteogenic differentiation inducer, directs new bone formation at the sites of bone defects. This study evaluated a combinatorial treatment protocol of PDGF-BB and BMP-2 on bone healing in a critical-sized defect model. To mimic the bone tissue healing process, a dual delivery approach was designed to deliver the rhPDGF-BB protein transiently during the early healing phase, whereas BMP-2 was supplied by rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transfected with an adenoviral vector containing the BMP2 gene (AdBMP2) for prolonged release throughout the healing process. In in vitro experiments, the dual delivery of rhPDGF-BB and BMP2 significantly enhanced cell proliferation. However, the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs was significantly suppressed even though the amount of BMP-2 secreted by the AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs was not significantly affected by the rhPDGF-BB treatment. In addition, dual delivery inhibited the mRNA expression of BMP receptor type II and Noggin in BMSCs. In in vivo experiments, critical-sized calvarial defects in rats showed enhanced bone regeneration by dual delivery of autologous AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs and rhPDGF-BB in both the amount of new bone formed and the bone mineral density. These enhancements in bone regeneration were greater than those observed in the group treated with AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs alone. In conclusion, the dual delivery of rhPDGF-BB and AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs improved the quality of the regenerated bone, possibly due to the modulation of PDGF-BB on BMP-2-induced osteogenesis. PMID:23901900

  10. Dietary emu oil supplementation suppresses 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy-induced inflammation, osteoclast formation, and bone loss.

    PubMed

    Raghu Nadhanan, Rethi; Abimosleh, Suzanne M; Su, Yu-Wen; Scherer, Michaela A; Howarth, Gordon S; Xian, Cory J

    2012-06-01

    Cancer chemotherapy can cause osteopenia or osteoporosis, and yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, and currently, no preventative treatments are available. This study investigated damaging effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on histological, cellular, and molecular changes in the tibial metaphysis and potential protective benefits of emu oil (EO), which is known to possess a potent anti-inflammatory property. Female dark agouti rats were gavaged orally with EO or water (1 ml·day(-1)·rat(-1)) for 1 wk before a single ip injection of 5-FU (150 mg/kg) or saline (Sal) was given. The treatment groups were H(2)O + Sal, H(2)O + 5-FU, EO + 5-FU, and EO + Sal. Oral gavage was given throughout the whole period up to 1 day before euthanasia (days 3, 4, and 5 post-5-FU). Histological analysis showed that H(2)O + 5-FU significantly reduced heights of primary spongiosa on days 3 and 5 and trabecular bone volume of secondary spongiosa on days 3 and 4. It reduced density of osteoblasts slightly and caused an increase in the density of osteoclasts on trabecular bone surface on day 4. EO supplementation prevented reduction of osteoblasts and induction of osteoclasts and bone loss caused by 5-FU. Gene expression studies confirmed an inhibitory effect of EO on osteoclasts since it suppressed 5-FU-induced expression of proinflammatory and osteoclastogenic cytokine TNF?, osteoclast marker receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B, and osteoclast-associated receptor. Therefore, this study demonstrated that EO can counter 5-FU chemotherapy-induced inflammation in bone, preserve osteoblasts, suppress osteoclast formation, and potentially be useful in preventing 5-FU chemotherapy-induced bone loss. PMID:22436700

  11. Osteoclasts on bone and dentin in vitro: mechanism of trail formation and comparison of resorption behavior.

    PubMed

    Rumpler, M; Würger, T; Roschger, P; Zwettler, E; Sturmlechner, I; Altmann, P; Fratzl, P; Rogers, M J; Klaushofer, K

    2013-12-01

    The main function of osteoclasts in vivo is the resorption of bone matrix, leaving behind typical resorption traces consisting of pits and trails. The mechanism of pit formation is well described, but less is known about trail formation. Pit-forming osteoclasts possess round actin rings. In this study we show that trail-forming osteoclasts have crescent-shaped actin rings and provide a model that describes the detailed mechanism. To generate a trail, the actin ring of the resorption organelle attaches with one side outside the existing trail margin. The other side of the ring attaches to the wall inside the trail, thus sealing that narrow part to be resorbed next (3–21 lm). This 3D configuration allows vertical resorption layer-by-layer from the surface to a depth in combination with horizontal cell movement. Thus, trails are not just traces of a horizontal translation of osteoclasts during resorption. Additionally, we compared osteoclastic resorption on bone and dentin since the latter is the most frequently used in vitro model and data are extrapolated to bone. Histomorphometric analyses revealed a material-dependent effect reflected by an 11-fold higher resorption area and a sevenfold higher number of pits per square centimeter on dentin compared to bone. An important material-independent aspect was reflected by comparable mean pit area (?m²) and podosome patterns. Hence, dentin promotes the generation of resorbing osteoclasts, but once resorption has started, it proceeds independently of material properties. Thus, dentin is a suitable model substrate for data acquisition as long as osteoclast generation is not part of the analyses. PMID:24022329

  12. Clonal distribution of osteoprogenitor cells in cultured chick periostea: Functional relationship to bone formation

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, C.A.; Fair, C.A.; Tenenbaum, H.C.; Limeback, H.; Homareau, R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-08-01

    Folded explants of periosteum from embryonic chick calvaria form bone-like tissue when grown in the presence of ascorbic acid, organic phosphate, and dexamethasone. All osteoblast-like cells in these cultures arise de novo by differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells present in the periosteum. To study the spatial and functional relationships between bone formation and osteoprogenitor cells, cultures were continuously labeled with (3H)thymidine for periods of 1-5 days. Radioautographs of serial 2-microns plastic sections stained for alkaline phosphatase (AP) showed maximal labeling of 30% of fibroblastic (AP-negative) cells by 3 days while osteogenic cells (AP-positive) exhibited over 95% labeling by 5 days. No differential shifts in labeling indices, grain count histograms of fibroblastic and osteogenic cells or numbers of AP-positive cells were observed, indicating no significant recruitment of cells from the fibroblastic to the osteogenic compartment. Despite the continuous presence of (3H)thymidine, less than 35% of both osteoblasts and osteocytes were labeled at 5 days, indicating that only one-third of the osteoprogenitor cells had cycled prior to differentiation. Spatial clustering of (3H)thymidine-labeled cells was measured by computer-assisted morphometry and application of the Poisson distribution to assess contagion. Cluster size and number of labeled cells per cluster did not vary between 1-3 days, but the number of clusters increased 20-fold between Day 1 and Day 3. Three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections showed that clusters formed long, tubular arrays of osteogenic cells up to eight cells in length and located within 2-3 cell layers from the bone surface. Selective killing of S-phase cells with two pulse labels of high specific activity (3H)thymidine at 1 and 2 days of culture completely blocked bone formation.

  13. Sustained Modeling-Based Bone Formation During Adulthood in Cynomolgus Monkeys May Contribute to Continuous BMD Gains With Denosumab.

    PubMed

    Ominsky, Michael S; Libanati, Cesar; Niu, Qing-Tian; Boyce, Rogely W; Kostenuik, Paul J; Wagman, Rachel B; Baron, Roland; Dempster, David W

    2015-07-01

    Denosumab (DMAb) administration to postmenopausal women with osteoporosis is associated with continued bone mineral density (BMD) increases and low fracture incidence through 8 years, despite persistently reduced bone turnover markers and limited fluorochrome labeling in iliac crest bone biopsies. BMD increases were hypothesized to result from additional accrual of bone matrix via modeling-based bone formation-a hypothesis that was tested by examining fluorochrome labeling patterns in sections from ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys (cynos) treated with DMAb for 16 months. Mature OVX or Sham cynos were treated monthly with vehicle for 16 months, whereas other OVX cynos received monthly 25 or 50?mg/kg DMAb. DMAb groups exhibited very low serum bone resorption and formation biomarkers and near-absent fluorochrome labeling in proximal femur cancellous bone. Despite these reductions, femoral neck dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) BMD continued to rise in DMAb-treated cynos, from a 4.6% increase at month 6 to 9.8% above baseline at month 16. Further examination of cortical bone in the proximal femur demonstrated consistent and prominent labeling on the superior endocortex and the inferior periosteal surface, typically containing multiple superimposed labels from month 6 to 16 over smooth cement lines, consistent with continuous modeling-based bone formation. These findings were evident in all groups. Quantitative analysis at another modeling site, the ninth rib, demonstrated that DMAb did not alter the surface extent of modeling-based labels, or the cortical area bound by them, relative to OVX controls, while significantly reducing remodeling-based bone formation and eroded surface. This conservation of modeling-based formation occurred concomitantly with increased femoral neck strength and, when coupled with a reduction in remodeling-based bone loss, is likely to contribute to increases in bone mass with DMAb treatment. Thus, this study provides preclinical evidence for a potential mechanism that could contribute to the clinical observations of continued BMD increases and low fracture rates with long-term DMAb administration. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:25684625

  14. Lamellar Self-Assembly Nanostructured Magnetic Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Hamdoun

    2004-01-01

    Synthesis of lamellar self-assemblies symmetric polystyrene–polybutylmethacrylate (PS–PBMA) copolymers, doped by magnetic nanoparticles was described. Self-assembly is a spontaneous process by which molecules and nanophase entities may materialize into organized aggregates or networks. As soon as particles are coated by a grafted PS layer, they can be confined in the PS layer of the polymeric smectic. The lamellar order was maintained

  15. BMP-2 gene modified canine bMSCs promote ectopic bone formation mediated by a nonviral PEI derivative

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Kaige; Zeng, Dengliang; Zhang, Yilin; Xia, Lunguo; Xu, Ling; Kaplan, David L.; Jiang, Xinquan; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2012-01-01

    The study was to explore the effects of BMP-2 gene modified canine bone marrow stromal cells (bMSCs) mediated by a nonviral PEI derivative (GenEscort™ II) in promoting bone formation in vitro and in vivo. Canine bMSCs were cultured and transfected with plasmids containing bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene (pBMP-2) or enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (pEGFP). Gene transfection conditions were initially optimized by varying GenEscort™ II/plasmid ratios. Osteogenic differentiation of gene modified bMSCs was investigated via alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis in vitro. The bone formation ability of pBMP-2 transfected bMSCs combined with apatite-coated silk scaffolds (mSS) was explored and compared with pEGFP transfected bMSCs/mSS or untreated bMSCs/mSS at 8, 12 weeks after operation. Results showed that gene transfection efficiency reached up to 36.67 ± 4.12% as demonstrated by EGFP expression. ALP staining and activity assay were stronger with pBMP-2 gene transfection, and the mRNA expression of BMP-2, bone sialoprotein (BSP), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx-2) and osteopontin (OPN) up-regulated in bMSCs 3, 6, 9 days in pBMP-2 group. Besides, the tissue-engineered bone complex with pBMP-2 modified bMSCs achieved significantly increased de novo bone formation compared with control groups (P<0.01). We conclude that pBMP-2 transfection mediated by GenEscort™ II could enhance the osteogenic differentiation of canine bMSCs and promote the ectopic new bone formation in nude mice. GenEscort™ II mediated pBMP-2 gene transfer appears to be a safe and effective nonviral method for gene enhanced bone tissue engineering. PMID:21347550

  16. The role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Wronski, T. J.; GLOBUS. R.; Levens, M. J.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1983-01-01

    Skeletal unloading results in osteopenia. To examine the involvement of vitamin D in this process, the rear limbs of growing rats were unloaded and alterations in bone calcium and bone histology were related to changes in serum calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus (P sub i), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D. Acute skeletal unloading induced a transitory inhibition of Ca accumulation in unloaded bones. This was accompanied by a transitory rise in serum Ca, a 21% decrease in longitudinal bone growth (P 0.01), a 32% decrease in bone surface lined with osteoblasts (P .05), no change in bone surface lined with osteoclasts and a decrease in circulating (1,25(OH)2D. No significant changes in the serum concentrations of P sub i, 25-OH-D or 24,25(OH)2D were observed. After 2 weeks of unloading, bone Ca stabilized at approximately 70% of control and serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D returned to control values. Maintenance of a constant serum 1,25(OH)2D concentration by chronic infusion of 1,25(OH)2D (Alza osmotic minipump) throughout the study period did not prevent the bone changes induced by acute unloading. These results suggest that acute skeletal unloading in the growing rat produces a transitory inhibition of bone formation which in turn produces a transitory hypercalcemia.

  17. Effect of Different rhBMP-2 and TG-VEGF Ratios on the Formation of Heterotopic Bone and Neovessels

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wei Xin; Li, Chun Lei; Ehrbar, Martin; Weber, Franz E.; Zwahlen, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Bioengineered bone substitutes might represent alternatives to autologous bone grafts in medically compromised patients due to reduced operation time and comorbidity. Due to the lack of an inherent vascular system their dimension is limited to the size of critical bone size defect. To overcome this shortcoming, the experiment tried to create heterotopic bone around vessels. In vivo, a two-component fibrin and thrombin gel containing recombinant bone morphogenic protein (rhBMP-2) and transglutamate vascular endothelial growth factor (TG-VEGF) in different ratios, respectively, was injected into a dimensionally stable membrane tube, wrapped around the femoral vessel bundle in twelve New Zealand white rabbits. Sacrifice occurred eight weeks postoperatively. Microcomputed tomography of the specimens showed significantly increased bone volume in the rhBMP-2 to TG-VEGF ratio of 10 to 1 group. Histology showed new bone formation in close proximity to the vessel bundle. Immunohistochemistry detected increased angiogenesis within the newly formed bone in the rhBMP-2 to TG-VEGF ratios of 3 to 1 and 5 to 1. Heterotopic bone was engineered in vivo around vessels using different rhBMP-2 and TG-VEGF ratios in a fibrin matrix injected into a dimensionally stable membrane tube which prevented direct contact with skeletal muscles. PMID:24783213

  18. Osteopontin functionalization of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in a PDLLA matrix promotes bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, T.; Baas, J.; Dolathshahi-Pirouz, A.; Jacobsen, T.; Singh, G.; Nygaard, J. V.; Foss, M.; Bechtold, J.; Bünger, C.; Besenbacher, F.; Søballe, K.

    2015-01-01

    We studied the osteoconductive tissue response of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles functionalized with osteopontin (OPN) in a matrix of poly-d,l-lactic-acid (PDLLA). In a canine endosseus 0.75-mm gap implant model, we tested the osteointegrative impact of the OPN functionalized composite as an implant coating, and a non-functionalized composite was used as reference control. During the four weeks of observation, the OPN functionalized composite coating significantly increased the formation of new bone in the porosities of the implant, but no differences were observed in the gap. The study provides evidence of its potential use either alone or in combination with other osteoconductive compounds. PMID:21800419

  19. Effect of biological implant surface coatings on bone formation, applying collagen, proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans and growth factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Stadlinger; Eckart Pilling; Ronald Mai; Susanne Bierbaum; Ricardo Berhardt; Dieter Scharnweber; Uwe Eckelt

    2008-01-01

    Objectives  The aim of the present study was to evaluate six different implant surface coatings with respect to bone formation. Being\\u000a major structural components of the extracellular matrix, collagen, the non-collagenous components decorin\\/chondroitin sulphate\\u000a (CS) and the growth factors TGF-?1\\/BMP-4 served in different combinations as coatings of experimental titanium implants.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Eight miniature pigs received each six implants in the

  20. Local Controlled Release of Polyphenol Conjugated with Gelatin Facilitates Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yoshitomo; Tanaka, Tomonari; Tokuda, Tomoko; Kashiwagi, Takahiro; Kaida, Koji; Hieda, Ayato; Umezaki, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Imai, Koichi; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Baba, Shunsuke; Shimizutani, Kimishige

    2015-01-01

    Catechins are extensively used in health care treatments. Nevertheless, there is scarce information about the feasibility of local administration with polyphenols for bone regeneration therapy, possibly due to lack of effective delivery systems. Here we demonstrated that the epigallocatechin-3-gallate-conjugated gelatin (EGCG/Gel) prepared by an aqueous chemical synthesis using 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-morpholinium chloride (DMT-MM) gradually disintegrated with time and facilitated bone formation in a critical size defect of a mouse calvaria. Conjugation of EGCG with the Gel generated cross-linking between the two molecules, thereby leading to a retardation of the degradation of the EGCG/Gel and to a delayed release of EGCG. The prepared EGCG/Gels represented significant osteogenic capability compared with that of the uncross-linked Gel and the cross-linked Gel with uncombined-EGCG. In vitro experiments disclosed that the EGCG/Gel induced osteoblastogenesis of a mouse mesenchymal stem cell line (D1 cells) within 14 days. Using fluorescently-labeled EGCG/Gel, we found that the fraction of EGCG/Gel adsorbed onto the cell membrane of the D1 cells possibly via a Gel-cell interaction. The interaction might confer the long-term effects of EGCG on the cells, resulting in a potent osteogenic capability of the EGCG/Gel in vivo. These results should provide insight into local controlled release of polyphenols for bone therapy. PMID:26110386

  1. Local Controlled Release of Polyphenol Conjugated with Gelatin Facilitates Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Yoshitomo; Tanaka, Tomonari; Tokuda, Tomoko; Kashiwagi, Takahiro; Kaida, Koji; Hieda, Ayato; Umezaki, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Imai, Koichi; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Baba, Shunsuke; Shimizutani, Kimishige

    2015-01-01

    Catechins are extensively used in health care treatments. Nevertheless, there is scarce information about the feasibility of local administration with polyphenols for bone regeneration therapy, possibly due to lack of effective delivery systems. Here we demonstrated that the epigallocatechin-3-gallate-conjugated gelatin (EGCG/Gel) prepared by an aqueous chemical synthesis using 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-morpholinium chloride (DMT-MM) gradually disintegrated with time and facilitated bone formation in a critical size defect of a mouse calvaria. Conjugation of EGCG with the Gel generated cross-linking between the two molecules, thereby leading to a retardation of the degradation of the EGCG/Gel and to a delayed release of EGCG. The prepared EGCG/Gels represented significant osteogenic capability compared with that of the uncross-linked Gel and the cross-linked Gel with uncombined-EGCG. In vitro experiments disclosed that the EGCG/Gel induced osteoblastogenesis of a mouse mesenchymal stem cell line (D1 cells) within 14 days. Using fluorescently-labeled EGCG/Gel, we found that the fraction of EGCG/Gel adsorbed onto the cell membrane of the D1 cells possibly via a Gel-cell interaction. The interaction might confer the long-term effects of EGCG on the cells, resulting in a potent osteogenic capability of the EGCG/Gel in vivo. These results should provide insight into local controlled release of polyphenols for bone therapy. PMID:26110386

  2. Relative bone mass decreased in mice fed high dietary fat despite an increase in body mass and bone formation markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis and obesity are interrelated health disorders. Osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from common mesenchymal stem cells and age-related osteoporosis is associated with increased bone marrow adipogenesis. To determine whether bone mass and osteoblast number and activity are affected by ...

  3. PTHrP 1-141 and 1-86 Increase In Vitro Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hildreth, Blake Eason; Werbeck, Jillian L.; Thudi, Nandu K.; Deng, Xiyun; Rosol, Thomas J.; Toribio, Ramiro E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) has anabolic effects in bone, which has led to the clinical use of N-terminal fragments of PTHrP and PTH. Since 10-20% of fractures demonstrate healing complications and osteoporosis continues to be a debilitating disease, the development of bone-forming agents is of utmost importance. Due to evidence that regions of PTHrP other than the N-terminus may have bone-forming effects, this study was designed to compare the effects of full-length PTHrP 1-141 to N-terminal PTHrP 1-86 on in vitro bone formation. Materials and methods MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were treated once every 6 days for 36 days with 5, 25, and 50 pM of PTHrP 1-141 or 1-86 for 1 or 24 hours. Cells were also treated after blocking the N-terminus, the nuclear localization sequence (NLS), and the C-terminus of PTHrP, individually and in combination. Area of mineralization, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin (OCN) were measured. Results PTHrP 1-141 and 1-86 increased mineralization after 24-hr treatments, but not 1-hr. PTHrP 1-141 was more potent than 1-86. Treatment with PTHrP 1-141 for 24-hr, but not 1-86, resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in ALP, with no effect after 1-hr. Exposure to both peptides for 1- or 24-hrs induced a concentration-dependent increase in OCN, with 24-hr exceeding 1-hr. Antibody blocking revealed that the NLS and C-terminus are anabolic. Conclusions Both PTHrP 1-141 and 1-86 increased in vitro bone formation; however, PTHrP 1-141 was more effective. The NLS and C-terminus have anabolic effects distinct from the N-terminus. This demonstrates the advantage of PTHrP 1-141 as a skeletal anabolic agent. PMID:20538301

  4. Low-level laser therapy improves bone formation: stereology findings for osteoporosis in rat model.

    PubMed

    Scalize, Priscilla Hakime; de Sousa, Luiz Gustavo; Regalo, Simone Cecílio Hallak; Semprini, Marisa; Pitol, Dimitrius Leonardo; da Silva, Giselle Aparecida; de Almeida Coelho, Jéssica; Coppi, Antônio Augusto; Laad, Aliny A B Lobo; Prado, Karina Fittipaldi Bombonato; Siessere, Selma

    2015-07-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) benefits bone metabolism, but its use needs to be standardized. We evaluated the effects of LLLT on bone defects in calvaria of ovariectomized rats. Stereology was used to calculate tissue repair volume (V tr ), density of trabecular bone volume (Vv t ), total volume of newly formed trabecular bone (Vtot), and the area occupied by collagen fibers (A C ). Fifty-four Wistar rats were submitted to bilateral ovariectomy, and bone defects were created in calvaria after 150 days. The animals were divided into nine groups (n?=?6), and 24 h after defects, the treatment started with a 780-nm low-intensity GaAlAs laser: G1, G2, and G3 received 3 sessions of 0, 20, and 30 J/cm(2) respectively; G4, G5, and G6 received 6 sessions of 0, 20, and 30 J/cm(2), respectively; and G7, G8, and G9 received 12 sessions of 0, 20, and 30 J/cm(2), respectively. A normal distribution was found for all of the data. The test used to verify the normality was the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS, p?>?0.05). The one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test was used for data processing. A difference of p?bone formation in the groups that received 20 and 30 J/cm(2) when compared to control groups, but over time, the dose of 30 J/cm(2) showed better stereological parameters when compared to 20 J/cm(2). PMID:26037661

  5. Heat and Radiofrequency Plasma Glow Discharge Pretreatment of a Titanium Alloy Promote Bone Formation and Osseointegration

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Daniel E.; Rapuano, Bruce E.; Vyas, Parth; Lane, Joseph M.; Meyers, Kathleen; Wright, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic and dental implants manifest increased failure rates when inserted into low density bone. We determined whether chemical pretreatments of a titanium alloy implant material stimulated new bone formation to increase osseointegration in vivo in trabecular bone using a rat model. Titanium alloy rods were untreated or pretreated with heat (600°C) or radiofrequency plasma glow discharge (RFGD). The rods were then coated with the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (1 nM) or left uncoated and surgically implanted into the rat femoral medullary cavity. Animals were euthanized 3 or 6 weeks later, and femurs were removed for analysis. The number of trabeculae in contact with the implant surface, surface contact between trabeculae and the implant, and the length and area of bone attached to the implant were measured by histomorphometry. Implant shear strength was measured by a pull-out test. Both pretreatments and fibronectin enhanced the number of trabeculae bonding with the implant and trabeculae-to-implant surface contact, with greater effects of fibronectin observed with pretreated compared to untreated implants. RFGD pretreatment modestly increased implant shear strength, which was highly correlated (r2 = 0.87 – 0.99) with measures of trabecular bonding for untreated and RFGD-pretreated implants. In contrast, heat pretreatment increased shear strength 3 to 5-fold for both uncoated and fibronectin-coated implants at 3 and 6 weeks, suggesting a more rapid increase in implant-femur bonding compared to the other groups. In summary, our findings suggest that the heat and RFGD pretreatments can promote the osseointegration of a titanium alloy implant material. PMID:23649564

  6. Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A Increases Osteoblast Proliferation in Vitro and Bone Formation in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xuezhong; Wergedal, Jon E.; Rehage, Mark; Tran, Kiet; Newton, Jacqueline; Lam, Paggie; Baylink, David J.; Mohan, Subburaman

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein (PAPP)-A, a protease for IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-2, -4, and -5, may enhance IGF action by increasing its bioavailability. Here we have determined the role and mechanism of action of PAPP-A in the regulation of osteoblast proliferation in vitro and bone metabolism in vivo. Recombinant PAPP-A (100 ng/ml) significantly increased osteoblast proliferation and free IGF-I concentration. These effects were abolished by noncleavable IGFBP-4, suggesting that PAPP-A promotes osteoblast proliferation by increasing IGF bioavailability. To determine whether PAPP-A exerts an anabolic effect on bone in vivo, we developed transgenic mice that overexpress PAPP-A in osteoblasts using the 2.3-kb rat type I collagen promoter. Consistent with the increase in IGFBP-4 proteolysis, free IGF-I concentration was significantly increased in the conditioned medium of cultured osteoblasts derived from transgenic mice compared with the wild-type littermates. Calvarial bone thickness, bone marrow cavity, and skull bone mineral density were significantly increased in transgenic mice. Bone size-related parameters in femur and tibia such as total bone area and periosteal circumference as determined by peripheral quantitated computed tomography and histological analysis were significantly increased in transgenic mice. Bone formation rate and osteoid surface were increased by more than 2-fold, whereas bone resorbing surface was unaffected. These anabolic effects were sustained with aging. These findings provide strong evidence that PAPP-A acts as a potent anabolic factor in the regulation of bone formation. Thus, enhancing IGF bioavailability by PAPP-A can be a powerful strategy in the treatment of certain metabolic diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:16946002

  7. An orally active calcium-sensing receptor antagonist that transiently increases plasma concentrations of PTH and stimulates bone formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay Kumar; Christopher J. Matheny; Sandra J. Hoffman; Robert W. Marquis; Maggie Schultz; Xiaoguang Liang; Janice A. Vasko; George B. Stroup; Vernal R. Vaden; Hyking Haley; John Fox; Eric G. DelMar; Edward F. Nemeth; Amparo M. Lago; James F. Callahan; Pradip Bhatnagar; William F. Huffman; Maxine Gowen; Bingming Yi; Theodore M. Danoff; Lorraine A. Fitzpatrick

    2010-01-01

    Daily subcutaneous administration of exogenous parathyroid hormone (PTH) promotes bone formation in patients with osteoporosis. Here we describe two novel, short-acting calcium-sensing receptor antagonists (SB-423562 and its orally bioavailable precursor, SB-423557) that elicit transient PTH release from the parathyroid gland in several preclinical species and in humans. In an ovariectomized rat model of bone loss, daily oral administration of SB-423557

  8. Experimental study on low intensity ultrasound and tissue engineering to repair segmental bone defects.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fagang; Xia, Changsuo; Xia, Renyun

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the efficacy of low intensity ultrasound and tissue engineering technique to repair segmental bone defects, the rabbit models of 1.5-cm long rabbit radial segmental osteoperiosteum defects were established and randomly divided into 2 groups. All defects were implanted with the composite of calcium phosphate cement and bone mesenchymal stem cells, and additionally those in experimental group were subjected to low intensity ultrasound exposure, while those in control group to sham exposure. The animals were killed on the postoperative week 4, 8 and 12 respectively, and specimens were harvested. By using radiography and the methods of biomechanics, histomorphology and bone density detection, new bone formation and material degradation were observed. The results showed that with the prolongation of time after operation, serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP) levels in both groups were gradually increased, especially in experimental group, reached the peak at 6th week (experimental group: 1.26 mmol/L; control group: 0.58 mmol/L), suggesting the new bone formation in both two group, but the amount of new bone formation was greater and bone repairing capacity stronger in experimental group than in control group. On the 4th week in experimental group, chondrocytes differentiated into woven bone, and on the 12th week, remodeling of new lamellar bone and absorption of the composite material were observed. The mechanical strength of composite material and new born density in experimental group were significantly higher than in control group, indicating that low intensity ultrasound could not only effectively increase the formation of new bone, but also accelerate the calcification of new bone. It was concluded that low intensity ultrasound could evidently accelerate the healing of bone defects repaired by bone tissue engineering. PMID:17219979

  9. Evaluating apatite formation and osteogenic activity of electrospun composites for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Patlolla, Ajitha; Arinzeh, Treena Livingston

    2014-05-01

    Significant interest has been in examining calcium phosphate ceramics, specifically ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) (Ca3 (PO4)2 ) and synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) (Ca10 (PO4)6 (OH)2 ), in composites and more recently, in fibrous composites formed using the electrospinning technique for bone tissue engineering applications. Calcium phosphate ceramics are sought because they can be bone bioactive, which means an apatite forms on their surface that facilitates bonding to bone tissue, and are osteoconductive. However, studies examining the bioactivity of electrospun composites containing calcium phosphates and their corresponding osteogenic activity have been limited. In this study, electrospun composites consisting of (20/80) HA/TCP nanoceramics and poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL) were fabricated. Solvent and solvent combinations were evaluated to form scaffolds with a maximum concentration and dispersion of ceramic and pore sizes large enough for cell infiltration and tissue growth. PCL was dissolved in either methylene chloride (Composite-MC) or a combination of methylene chloride (80%) and dimethylformamide (20%; Composite-MC?+?DMF). Composites were evaluated in vitro for degradation, apatite formation, and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with an emphasis on temporal gene expression of osteogenic markers and the pluripotent gene Sox-2. Apatite formation and the osteogenic differentiation was the greatest for Composite-MC as determined by gene expression, protein production and biochemical markers, even without the presence of osteoinductive factors in the media, in comparison to Composite-MC?+?DMF and unfilled PCL mats. Sox-2 levels also reduced over time. The results of this study demonstrate that the solvent or solvent combination used in preparing the electrospun composite mats plays a critical role in determining their bioactivity which may, in turn, affect cell behavior. PMID:24264603

  10. Serum levels of biomarkers of bone and cartilage destruction and new bone formation in different cohorts of patients with axial spondyloarthritis with and without tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocker treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heiner Appel; Louise Janssen; Joachim Listing; René Heydrich; Martin Rudwaleit; Joachim Sieper

    2008-01-01

    Introduction  Recent data about radiographic progression during treatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) blocker agents in patients\\u000a with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have prompted an intensive discussion about the link between inflammation\\/bone destruction\\u000a and new bone formation and the order of events. Therefore, we analysed parameters of cartilage degradation, neoangiogenesis,\\u000a and new bone formation in different cohorts of patients with axial spondyloarthritis

  11. Hypoxia induces giant osteoclast formation and extensive bone resorption in the cat.

    PubMed

    Muzylak, M; Price, J S; Horton, M A

    2006-11-01

    Dental disease due to osteoclast (OC) overactivity reaches epidemic proportions in older domestic cats and has also been reported in wild cats. Feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions (FORL) involve extensive resorption of the tooth, leaving it liable to root fracture and subsequent loss. The etiopathogenesis of FORL remains unclear. Here, we explore the hypothesis that FORL is associated with hypoxia in the oral microenvironment, leading to increased OC activity. To investigate this, we developed a method of generating OCs from cat blood. Reducing O2 from 20% to 2% increased the mean area of OC eightfold from 0.01 to 0.08 mm2. In hypoxic cultures, very large OCs containing several hundred nuclei were evident (reaching a maximum size of approximately 14 mm2). Cultures exposed to 2% O2 exhibited an increase of approximately 13-fold in the area of bone slices covered by resorption lacunae. In line with this finding, there was a significant increase in cells differentiating under hypoxic conditions, reflected in increased expression of cathepsin K and proton pump enzymes. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that oxygen tension is a major regulator of OC formation in the cat. However, in this species, hypoxia induces the formation of "giant" OCs, which can be so large as to be visible with the naked eye and yet also actively resorb. This suggests that local hypoxia is likely to play a key role in the pathogenesis of FORL and other inflammatory conditions that are associated with bone resorption in cats. PMID:17048066

  12. Effect of Host Sex and Sex Hormones on Muscle-Derived Stem Cell-Mediated Bone Formation and Defect Healing

    PubMed Central

    Meszaros, Laura B.; Usas, Arvydas; Cooper, Gregory M.

    2012-01-01

    Muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) are known to exhibit sexual dimorphism, by donor sex, of osteogenic, chondrogenic, and myogenic differentiation potential in vitro. Moreover, host sex differences in the myogenic capacity of MDSCs in vivo are also observed. This study investigated the role of host sex and host sex hormones in MDSC-mediated bone formation and healing. Using unaltered male, castrated male, unaltered female, and ovariectomized female mice, both MDSC-mediated ectopic bone formation and cranial defect healing were examined. Male hosts, whether unaltered or castrated, form significantly larger volumes of MDSC-mediated ectopic bone than female hosts (either unaltered or ovariectomized), and no differences in ectopic bone volume were found between hosts of the same sex. In a cranial defect healing model, similar results were found—unaltered and castrated male hosts display larger volumes of bone formed when compared with unaltered and ovariectomized female hosts. However, in this healing model, some volume differences were found between hosts of the same sex. In both models, these differences were attributed to varying rates of endochondral bone formation in male and female hosts. PMID:22712541

  13. miR-124 negatively regulates osteogenic differentiation and in vivo bone formation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Abdul S; Um, Soyoun; Lee, Heesu; Baek, Kyunghwa; Seo, Byoung Moo; Lee, Gene; Kim, Gwan-Shik; Woo, Kyung Mi; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo; Baek, Jeong-Hwa

    2015-05-01

    MicroRNAs are novel key regulators of cellular differentiation. Dlx transcription factors play an important role in osteoblast differentiation, and Dlx5 and Dlx2 are known targets of miR-124. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the regulatory effects of miR-124 on the osteogenic differentiation and in vivo bone formation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). During osteogenic induction by BMP2, the expression levels of miR-124 were inversely correlated with those of osteogenic differentiation marker genes in human and mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs, MC3T3-E1 cells and C2C12 cells. The overexpression of a miR-124 mimic significantly decreased the expression levels of Dlx5, Dlx3, and Dlx2, whereas the silencing of miR-124 with hairpin inhibitors significantly increased the expression of these Dlx genes. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-124 directly targets the 3'UTRs of Dlx3, Dlx5, and Dlx2. The overexpression of a miR-124 mimic suppressed the osteogenic marker gene expression levels, alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization, which were all significantly increased by the overexpression of a miR-124 inhibitor. When ectopic bone formation was induced by the subcutaneous transplantation of human bone marrow-derived MSCs in nude mice, MSCs overexpressing a miR-124 inhibitor significantly enhanced woven bone formation compared with control MSCs. However, MSCs overexpressing a miR-124 mimic exhibited increased adipocyte differentiation at the expense of ectopic bone formation. These results suggest that miR-124 is a negative regulator of osteogenic differentiation and in vivo bone formation and that the targeting of Dlx5, Dlx3, and Dlx2 genes partly contributes to this inhibitory effect exerted by miR-124. PMID:25424317

  14. Bone tissue formation with human mesenchymal stem cells and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics: the local implication of osteoclasts and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gamblin, Anne-Laure; Brennan, Meadhbh A; Renaud, Audrey; Yagita, Hideo; Lézot, Frédéric; Heymann, Dominique; Trichet, Valérie; Layrolle, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) have immunomodulative properties and, associated with calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics, induce bone tissue repair. However, the mechanisms of osteoinduction by hMSC with CaP are not clearly established, in particular the role of osteoclasts and macrophages. Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) particles were implanted with or without hMSC in the paratibial muscles of nude mice. hMSC increased osteoblastic gene expression at 1 week, the presence of macrophages at 2 and 4 weeks, osteoclastogenesis at 4 and 8 weeks, and osteogenesis at 4 and 8 weeks. hMSC disappeared from the implantation site after 2 weeks, indicating that hMSC were inducers rather than effectors of bone formation. Induced blockage of osteoclastogenesis by anti-Rankl treatment significantly impaired bone formation, revealing the pivotal role of osteoclasts in bone formation. In summary, hMSC positively influence the body foreign reaction by attracting circulating haematopoietic stem cells and inducing their differentiation into macrophages M1 and osteoclasts, thus favouring bone formation. PMID:25176068

  15. Impaired bone formation in male idiopathic osteoporosis: further reduction in the presence of concomitant hypercalciuria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerwekh, J. E.; Sakhaee, K.; Breslau, N. A.; Gottschalk, F.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    We present iliac bone histomorphometric data and related biochemical data from 16 nonalcoholic men (50 +/- 11 (SD) years) referred for evaluation of spontaneous skeletal and/or appendicular fractures and reduced spinal bone density. All men were eugonadal and had no known underlying disorder associated with osteopenia. For the group, mean serum chemistry values were within normal limits including immunoreactive parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D]. Nine men demonstrated hypercalciuria (greater than or equal to 0.1 mmol/kg per day) while on a constant metabolic diet of 20 mmol/day Ca. Their 24-hour urinary calcium was significantly greater than that for the remaining 7 men (7.4 +/- 1.6 vs. 5.0 +/- 0.8 mmol/day, p = 0.003), as was their calciuric response to a 1 g oral calcium load (0.23 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.15 +/- 0.05 Ca/creatinine, p = 0.042). Serum parameters (including parathyroid hormone and 1,25(OH)2D) of hypercalciuric and normocalciuric men were not significantly different. Histomorphometric indices for cancellous bone demonstrated significant differences between the entire group of osteoporotic men and age-adjusted normal values for bone volume (11.4 +/- 4.0% vs. 23.2 +/- 4.4%), osteoid surface (5.6 +/- 3.9% vs. 12.1 +/- 4.6%), osteoblastic surface (2.0 +/- 2.3% vs. 3.9 +/- 1.9%), and mineralizing surface (1.9 +/- 2.4% vs. 5.1 +/- 2.7%); there were also significant differences in bone formation rate (total surface referent) (0.004 +/- 0.001 vs. 0.011 +/- 0.006 mm3/mm2 per year). Compared with the normocalciuric group the 9 hypercalciuric men had significantly lower osteoblastic surfaces (1.6 +/- 1.9% vs. 2.5 +/- 2.6%) and mineralizing surfaces (1.4 +/- 1.5% vs. 2.7 +/- 3.2%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  16. Delayed osteon formation in long-bone diaphysis of an 11-year-old giant cow with dermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Mori, R; Kodaka, T; Naito, Y

    1999-02-01

    The transverse sections of radius diaphysis in an 11-year-old giant Holstein cow with dermal dysplasia of a collagen disorder-related skin fragility (Cow 1), probably based on increasing turnover of the dermal collagen as reported previously, were morphologically and physico-chemically investigated. Cow 1 had about one and a half times as much as the body weight of normal Holstein cows, aged 5 to 6.5 years with stabilized growth. The bone samples were compared with those of a 12-year-old Holstein cow as controls (Cow 2). It has been reported that the long-bone diaphysis of young calves and some herbivorous dinosaurs are occupied with laminar bone showing a concentric appositional formation, and that such a laminar bone is characteristically seen during the growing period of some farm animals and large dogs that show very rapid growth rates. Cow 1 had a smaller number of osteons than Cow 2 in the outer-half layer of the diaphysis, and showed an intermediate type between Cow 2 and a 1-year-old Holstein ox in the entire layers, although their bone volumes were similar among them. There were no significant differences in Ca and P concentrations and the Vickers microhardness values between the bone matrix of Cow 1 and Cow 2. The bone-collagen fibrils of Cow 1 showed uneven diameters and a disordered arrangement. Thus, there may be some relation in collagen formation between the bone matrix of Cow 1 and the dermis. From the remaining volume of laminar bone, Cow 1, aged 11 years, had probably shown growth until quite recently, so that we consider that Cow 1 became a giant animal, in the same way as some herbivorous dinosaurs. PMID:10081745

  17. Low Magnitude and High Frequency Mechanical Loading Prevents Decreased Bone Formation Responses

    E-print Network

    at-risk for fractures during long term space travel. On average, astronauts lose 1­2% of bone mass since it is at first asymptomatic but can lead to severe fractures of bones, typically those in the hip effectively mitigate this bone loss. It has long been regarded that mechanical stimuli are anabolic to bone

  18. Incorporation of chitosan in acrylic bone cement: effect on antibiotic release, bacterial biofilm formation and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Tunney, M M; Brady, A J; Buchanan, F; Newe, C; Dunne, N J

    2008-04-01

    Bacterial infection remains a significant problem following total joint replacement. Efforts to prevent recurrent implant infection, including the use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement for implant fixation at the time of revision surgery, are not always successful. In this in vitro study, we investigated whether the addition of chitosan to gentamicin-loaded Palacos R bone cement increased antibiotic release and prevented bacterial adherence and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus spp. clinical isolates. Furthermore, mechanical tests were performed as a function of time post-polymerisation in pseudo-physiological conditions. The addition of chitosan to gentamicin-loaded Palacos R bone cement significantly decreased gentamicin release and did not increase the efficacy of the bone cement at preventing bacterial colonisation and biofilm formation. Moreover, the mechanical performance of cement containing chitosan was significantly reduced after 28 days of saline degradation with the compressive and bending strengths not in compliance with the minimum requirements as stipulated by the ISO standard for PMMA bone cement. Therefore, incorporating chitosan into gentamicin-loaded Palacos R bone cement for use in revision surgery has no clinical antimicrobial benefit and the detrimental effect on mechanical properties could adversely affect the longevity of the prosthetic joint. PMID:18266082

  19. Ameloblastin expression and putative autoregulation in mesenchymal cells suggest a role in early bone formation and repair

    PubMed Central

    Tamburstuen, Margareth V.; Reseland, Janne E.; Spahr, Axel; Brookes, Steven J.; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Slaby, Ivan; Snead, Malcolm L.; Lyngstadaas, S. Petter

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastin is mainly known as a dental enamel protein, synthesized and secreted into developing enamel matrix by the enamel-forming ameloblasts. The function of ameloblastin in tooth development remains unclear, but it has been suggested to be involved in processes varying from regulating crystal growth to activity as a growth factor or partaking in cell signaling. Recent studies suggest that some enamel matrix proteins also might have important functions outside enamel formation. In this context ameloblastin has recently been reported to induce dentin and bone repair, as well as being present in the early bone and cartilage extracellular matrices during embryogenesis. However, what cells express ameloblastin in these tissues still remain unclear. Thus, the expression of ameloblastin was examined in cultured primary mesenchymal cells and in vivo during healing of bone defects in a “proof of concept” animal study. The real time RT-PCR analysis revealed human ameloblastin (AMBN) mRNA expression in human mesenchymal stem cells and primary osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Expression of AMBN mRNA was also confirmed in human CD34 positive cells and osteoclasts. Western and dot blot analysis of cell lysates and medium confirmed the expression and secretion of ameloblastin from mesenchymal stem cells, primary human osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Expression of ameloblastin was also detected in newly formed bone in experimental bone defects in adult rats. Together these findings suggest a role of this protein in early bone formation and repair. PMID:20854943

  20. Expanding the scope of lamellar keratoplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Rich, L F

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether applications of current technology, such as cryolathe and excimer laser, might improve outcomes and increase use of lamellar keratoplasty. METHODS: Six studies were performed, beginning with animals and progressing to human subjects. The first study compared cryolathed with hand-dissected rabbit corneas to ascertain which created a smoother donor interface. The second animal pilot study was done to determine whether thickness of donor cornea resection could be accurately predicted with the cryolathe. A prospective animal trial was then undertaken to compare lamellar keratoplasty outcomes using cryolathed versus hand-dissected tissue. The fourth work extrapolated previous animal findings to lamellar keratoplasty in human disease. Finally, two ongoing studies are described. The first explores the possibility of sutureless lamellar keratoplasty. The second utilizes the excimer laser to dissect the recipient stromal bed. RESULTS: The initial animal pilot study demonstrated a clearer stromal surface in cryolathed versus hand-dissected corneal tissue. The second pilot showed that plano-powered donor tissue could be generated to predetermined thickness. The prospective animal trial revealed that clear grafts of intended thickness could be obtained with cryolathing. Human studies suggested that lamellar keratoplasty using cryolathe-prepared donor tissue may offer superior results to free-hand dissection. Finally, one ongoing study indicates that sutureless lamellar keratoplasty is untenable, and the other shows that clear grafts can be obtained by combining cryolathed donor tissue with recipient photoablation. CONCLUSION: This body of work demonstrates that use of new lamellar keratoplasty technology may offer expanded scope and better outcomes than traditional lamellar keratoplasty techniques. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4A FIGURE 4B FIGURE 8A FIGURE 8B FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 10B FIGURE 11A FIGURE 11B FIGURE 12A FIGURE 12B FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14A FIGURE 14B FIGURE 15A FIGURE 15B FIGURE 15C FIGURE 16A FIGURE 16B FIGURE 18A FIGURE 18B FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 PMID:10703145

  1. The Impact of Immune System in Regulating Bone Metastasis Formation by Osteotropic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    D'Amico, Lucia; Roato, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Bone metastases are frequent and debilitating consequence for many tumors, such as breast, lung, prostate, and kidney cancer. Many studies report the importance of the immune system in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis. Indeed, bone and immune system are strictly linked to each other because bone regulates the hematopoietic stem cells from which all cells of the immune system derive, and many immunoregulatory cytokines influence the fate of bone cells. Furthermore, both cytokines and factors produced by immune and bone cells promote the growth of tumor cells in bone, contributing to supporting the vicious cycle of bone metastasis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the interactions among bone, immune, and tumor cells aiming to provide an overview of the osteoimmunology field in bone metastasis from solid tumors.

  2. Effect of vitamin D deficiency on bone formation in the chick.

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, I R; Kodicek, E

    1979-01-01

    1. The process of diaphyseal bone formation can be investigated by studying the rate of incorporation of radioactive precursors, administered in vivo into bone fractions of increasing density. 2. In the 4-week-old vitamin D-treated chick most of the osteoid becomes calcified within 12h and almost all within 2 days. The low-density calcified phase that is formed is converted into a higher density form and within 7 days the greater proportion of the calcified tissue is in the higher density form. 3. In the vitamin D-deficient chick of similar age the rate of calcification of osteoid is decreased, as is the rate of conversion into the higher density phase with the resultant accumulation of the lower density calcified form. 4. The higher density phase probably corresponds to hydroxyapatite and the lower density one to the ACP-pase described by Termine & Posner [(1967) Calcif. Tissue Res. 1, 8--23]. 5. The disorder in the process of calcification seems to be unrelated to the alteration in blood Ca2+ and phosphate concentrations, but related to the presence or absence of cholecalciferol. PMID:228653

  3. Does Metformin Treatment Influence Bone Formation in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease?

    PubMed

    Soifer, E; Gavish, D; Shargorodsky, M

    2015-07-01

    Antidiabetic drug metformin that improves insulin sensitivity and used in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), may affect the bone health. Our study was designed to investigate a possible effect of metformin on bone formation marker, procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) in patients with NAFLD.In a randomized, placebo controlled study, 63 patients with NAFLD were assigned to one of 2 groups: Group 1 received daily metformin and Group 2 received placebo. Metabolic parameters, insulin resistance markers, and P1NP were determined.Although circulating P1NP levels did not differ significantly between the groups at baseline, at the end of the study, P1NP was significantly lower in patients treated with metformin than in the placebo group (p<0.007). Within-group analysis indicated that P1NP levels significantly decreased (p=0.023) in patients receiving metformin during 4-month follow-up period, while no change in P1NP was observed in placebo group (p=0.359). In general linear model metformin treatment was the only significant independent predictor of endpoint P1NP.Metformin treatment was associated with decrease in P1NP levels in patients with NAFLD. The effect on P1NP was independent of glucose lowering effect and caused from exposure to metformin per se. PMID:25671801

  4. Calcium Plasma Implanted Titanium Surface with Hierarchical Microstructure for Improving the Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mengqi; Qiao, Yuqin; Wang, Qi; Jin, Guodong; Qin, Hui; Zhao, Yaochao; Peng, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xianlong; Liu, Xuanyong

    2015-06-17

    Introducing hierarchical microstructure and bioactive trace elements simultaneously onto the surface of titanium implant is a very effective way to improve the osseointegration between bone and implant. In this work, hierarchical topography was prepared on Ti surface via acid etching and sandblasting (SLA) to form micropits and microcavities then underwent Ca plasma immersion ion implantation (Ca-PIII) process. The surface wettability and roughness did not change obviously before and after Ca-PIII process. The in vitro evaluations including cell adhesion, activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteogenic genes (Runx2, OSX, ALP, BSP, Col1a1, OPN, and OC), and protein (BSP, Col1a1, OPN, and OC) expressions revealed that the introduction of Ca ions onto the surface of SLA-treated Ti can promote greater osteoblasts adhesion, spread and proliferation, which in return further accelerated the maturation and mineralization of osteoblasts. More importantly, in vivo evaluations including Micro-CT evaluation, histological observations, push-out test, sequential fluorescent labeling and histological observations verified that Ca-SLA-treated Ti implants could efficiently promote new bone formation in early times. These promising results suggest that Ca-SLA-treated Ti has the potential for future application in orthopedic field. PMID:26020570

  5. Dentine matrix protein 1 (DMP-1) is a marker of bone formation and mineralisation in soft tissue tumours.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Y; Kashima, T G; Hookway, E S; Tanaka, Y; Hassan, A B; Oppermann, U; Athanasou, N A

    2015-04-01

    Dentine matrix protein 1 (DMP-1) is a non-collagenous matrix protein found in dentine and bone. It is highly expressed by osteocytes and has been identified in primary benign and malignant osteogenic bone tumours. Bone formation and matrix mineralisation are seen in a variety of benign and malignant soft tissue tumours and tumour-like lesions, and in this study, we analysed immunohistochemically the DMP-1 expression in a wide range of soft tissue lesions (n?=?254) in order to assess whether DMP-1 expression is useful in the histological diagnosis of soft tissue tumours. Matrix staining of DMP-1 was seen in all cases of myositis ossificans, fibro-osseous tumour of the digits, extraskeletal soft tissue osteosarcoma and in most cases of ossifying fibromyxoid tumour. DMP-1 was also noted in dense collagenous connective tissue of mineralising soft tissue lesions such as tumoural calcinosis, dermatomyositis and calcific tendinitis. DMP-1 was expressed in areas of focal ossification and calcification in synovial sarcoma and other soft tissue tumours. With few exceptions, DMP-1 was not expressed in other benign and malignant soft tissue tumours. Our findings indicate that DMP-1 is a matrix marker of bone formation and mineralisation in soft tissue tumours. DMP-1 expression should be particularly useful in distinguishing extraskeletal osteosarcoma and ossifying fibromyxoid tumour from other sarcomas and in identifying areas of osteoid/bone formation and mineralisation in soft tissue tumours. PMID:25630512

  6. Single-Dose Local Simvastatin Injection Improves Implant Fixation via Increased Angiogenesis and Bone Formation in an Ovariectomized Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jie; Yang, Ning; Fu, Xin; Cui, Yueyi; Guo, Qi; Ma, Teng; Yin, Xiaoxue; Leng, Huijie; Song, Chunli

    2015-01-01

    Background Statins have been reported to promote bone formation. However, taken orally, their bioavailability is low to the bones. Implant therapies require a local repair response, topical application of osteoinductive agents, or biomaterials that promote implant fixation. Material/Methods The present study evaluated the effect of a single local injection of simvastatin on screw fixation in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. Results Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, micro-computed tomography, histology, and biomechanical tests revealed that 5 and 10 mg simvastatin significantly improved bone mineral density by 18.2% and 22.4%, respectively (P<0.05); increased bone volume fraction by 51.0% and 57.9%, trabecular thickness by 16.4% and 18.9%, trabeculae number by 112.0% and 107.1%, and percentage of osseointegration by 115.7% and 126.3%; and decreased trabeculae separation by 34.1% and 36.6%, respectively (all P<0.01). Bone mineral apposition rate was significantly increased (P<0.01). Furthermore, implant fixation was significantly increased (P<0.05), and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) expression was markedly increased. Local injection of a single dose of simvastatin also promoted angiogenesis. Vessel number, volume, thickness, surface area, and vascular volume per tissue volume were significantly increased (all P<0.01). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-2, von Willebrand factor, and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 expression were enhanced. Conclusions A single local injection of simvastatin significantly increased bone formation, promoted osseointegration, and enhanced implant fixation in ovariectomized rats. The underlying mechanism appears to involve enhanced BMP2 expression and angiogenesis in the target bone. PMID:25982481

  7. Unusual presentation of glomus tympanicum tumour: New bone formation in the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gaurav; Andreou, Zenon; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Owa, Anthony

    2014-09-16

    The objective of this study is to increase awareness of the rare presentation, diagnostic difficulties and management of glomus tympanicum of the middle ear. A 49 years old male, with a background of hypertension and epilepsy, presented with a two month history of left sided conductive hearing loss, pulsatile tinnitus and headache. Clinically and radiologically a diagnosis of glomus tympanicum was made. Intraoperatively, extensive osteogenesis of the middle ear resulting in ossicular fixation and erosion was found. This patient required a two stage operation for full clearance of disease. A stapedectomy drill was used to drill off the bony overgrowth surrounding the ossicles resulting in improved hearing thresholds and full clearance of the disease at two year follow up. Glomus tympanicum can result in new bone formation in the middle ear with resultant ossicular fixation and conductive hearing loss. This can be effectively treated surgically with restoration of hearing. PMID:25232551

  8. JMJD3 promotes chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy during endochondral bone formation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Xu, Longyong; Xu, Longxia; Xu, Qing; Li, Dangsheng; Yang, Yingzi; Karsenty, Gerard; Chen, Charlie Degui

    2015-01-01

    JMJD3 (KDM6B) is an H3K27me3 demethylase and counteracts polycomb-mediated transcription repression. However, the function of JMJD3 in vivo is not well understood. Here we show that JMJD3 is highly expressed in cells of the chondrocyte lineage, especially in prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes, during endochondral ossification. Homozygous deletion of Jmjd3 results in severely decreased proliferation and delayed hypertrophy of chondrocytes, and thereby marked retardation of endochondral ossification in mice. Genetically, JMJD3 associates with RUNX2 to promote proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocytes. Biochemically, JMJD3 associates with and enhances RUNX2 activity by derepression of Runx2 and Ihh transcription through its H3K27me3 demethylase activity. These results demonstrate that JMJD3 is a key epigenetic regulator in the process of cartilage maturation during endochondral bone formation. PMID:25587042

  9. MRI evaluation of tibial tunnel wall cortical bone formation after platelet-rich plasma applied during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Rupreht, Mitja; Vogrin, Matjaž; Hussein, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Background After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, formation of cortical sclerotic bone encircling the femoral and tibial tunnel is a part of intratunnel graft healing. During the physiological cascades of soft tissue healing and bone growth, cellular and hormonal factors play an important role. The purpose of this study was to non-invasively but quantitatively assess the effect of intraoperatively applied platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the formation of cortical bone encircling the tibial tunnel. Patients and methods In fifty patients, standard arthroscopic ACL reconstructions were performed. The PRP group (n = 25) received a local application of PRP while the control group (n = 25) did not receive PRP. The proximal tibial tunnel was examined by MRI in the paraxial plane where the portion of the tibial tunnel wall circumference consisting of sclerotic cortical bone was assessed with testing occurring at one, two and a half and six months after surgery. Results At one month after surgery, differences between the groups in the amount of cortical sclerotic bone encircling the tunnel were not significant (p = 0.928). At two and a half months, the sclerotic portion of the tunnel wall in the PRP group (36.2%) was significantly larger than in the control (22.5%) group (p = 0.004). At six months, the portion of sclerotic bone in the PRP group (67.1%) was also significantly larger than in the control (53.5%) group (p = 0.003). Conclusions Enhanced cortical bone formation encircling the tibial tunnel at 2.5 and 6 months after ACL graft reconstruction results from locally applied platelet-rich plasma. PMID:23801907

  10. DICKKOPF-1 (DKK-1) STIMULATED PROSTATE CANCER GROWTH AND METASTASIS AND INHIBITED BONE FORMATION IN OSTEOBLASTIC BONE METASTASES

    PubMed Central

    Thudi, Nanda K.; Martin, Chelsea K.; Murahari, Sridhar; Shu, Sherry S.; Lanigan, Lisa G.; Werbeck, Jillian L.; Keller, Evan T.; McCauley, Laurie K.; Pinzone, Joseph J.; Rosol, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Osteoblastic bone metastasis is the predominant phenotype observed in prostate cancer patients and is associated with high patient mortality and morbidity. However, the mechanisms determining the development of this phenotype are not well understood. Prostate cancer cells secrete several osteogenic factors including Wnt proteins, which are not only osteoinductive but also oncogenic. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate the contribution of the Wnt signaling pathway in prostate cancer growth, incidence of bone metastases and osteoblastic phenotype of bone metastases. The strategy involved overexpressing the Wnt antagonist, DKK-1, in the mixed osteoblastic and osteolytic Ace-1 prostate cancer cells. Methods Ace-1 prostate cancer cells stably expressing human DKK-1 or empty vector were established and transduced with lentiviral yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-luciferase (Luc). The Ace-1/vectorYFP-LUC and Ace-1/DKK-1YFP-LUC cells were injected subcutaneously, intratibially, or in the left cardiac ventricle in athymic mice. Results Unexpectedly, DKK-1 significantly increased Ace-1 subcutaneous tumor mass and the incidence of bone metastases after intracardiac injection of Ace-1 cells. DKK-1 increased Ace-1 tumor growth associated with increased phospho46 JNK by the Wnt noncanonical pathway. As expected, DKK-1 decreased the Ace-1 osteoblastic phenotype of bone metastases, as confirmed by radiographic, histopathological, and microcomputer tomographic analysis. DKK-1 decreased osteoblastic activity via the Wnt canonical pathway evidenced by an inhibition of T-cell factor (TCF) activity in murine osteoblast precursor ST2 cells. Conclusion The present study showed that DKK-1 is a potent inhibitor of bone growth in prostate cancer-induced osteoblastic metastases. PMID:20957670

  11. Effect of lamellar spacing on microstructural instability and creep behavior of a lamellar TiAl alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanliang Zhu; D. Y. Seo; K. Maruyama; P. Au

    2006-01-01

    Finer lamellar spacing in the lamellar structure of a Ti–45Al–2Nb–2Mn+0.8vol.%TiB2 (45XD) alloy does improve the primary creep resistance. However, the unstable nature of the fine plate contributes largely to the degradation of the lamellar structure and a rapid increase in the tertiary creep rate, indicating that a fine lamellar structure has a detrimental effect on the long-term creep.

  12. Long-Term Symptoms Onset and Heterotopic Bone Formation around a Total Temporomandibular Joint Prosthesis: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Guarda-Nardini, Luca; Manfredini, Daniele; Ferronato, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The literature on total alloplastic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) reconstructions is encouraging, and studies on total alloplastic TMJ replacements outcomes showed acceptable improvements in terms of both pain levels and jaw function. Nevertheless, some adverse events, such as heterotopic bone formation around the implanted prosthesis, may occur. In consideration of that, the present manuscript describes a case of heterotopic bone formation around a total temporomandibular joint prosthesis, which occurred several years after the implant. Methods The present manuscript describes a case of heterotopic bone formation around a total TMJ prosthesis, which occurred several years after the implant in patients, who previously underwent multiple failed TMJ surgeries. Results Ten years after the surgical TMJ replacement to solve an ankylotic bone block, the patient came to our attention again referring a progressive limitation in mouth opening. A computerized tomography showed evidence of marked heterotopic bone formation in the medial aspects of the joint, where a new-born ankylotic block occupied most part of the gap created by resecting the coronoid process at the time of the TMJ prosthesis insertion. Conclusions Despite this adverse event has been sometimes described in the literature, this is the first case in which its occurrence happened several years after the temporomandibular joint replacement. It can be suggested that an accurate assessment of pre-operative risk factors for re-ankylosis (e.g., patients with multiple failed temporomandibular joint surgeries) and within-intervention prevention (e.g., strategies to keep the bone interfaces around the implant separated) should be better standardized and define in future studies. PMID:24800055

  13. Licochalcone A up-regulates of FasL in mesenchymal stem cells to strengthen bone formation and increase bone mass

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Leiguo; Jin, Fang; Huang, Ping; Luo, Hailang; Liu, Wenjia; Zhang, Leilei; Yuan, Wei; Zhang, Yongjie; Jin, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The role of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells(BMSCs)in the pathogenesis and therapy of osteoporosis has drawn increasing attention in recent years. In the development of osteoporosis, it has been demonstrated that many changes occurred in the behavior of BMSCs. For example, the biological system of FasL pathways mediated differentiation of ERK and GSK-3?-catenin pathway was damaged. Here we found that 0.35?mg/L Licochalcone A (L-A) had a strong effect in increasing the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of BMSCs both in vivo and in vitro by up-regulating FasL and further playing a role in regulating the ERK and GSK-3?-catenin systems. It has also demonstrated that the administration of L-A could restore the biological function of the damaged BMSCs differentiation by recovering or protecting bone mass in a disease state through activating the endosteal bone formation and partially inhibiting bone resorption in acute estrogen deficiency model. Results of our study suggested that careful titration of MSC was response to L-A and up-regulated FasL pathways mediating differentiation of ERK and GSK-3?-catenin biological systems under disease state in vivo, restore the impaired function, is one of the ways of L-A relieve or treatment osteoporosis. PMID:25428397

  14. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Perichondrium Express Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule and Participate in Bone Marrow Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fumio Arai; Osamu Ohneda; Takeshi Miyamoto; Xiu Qin Zhang; Toshio Suda

    Perichondrium in fetal limb is composed of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. However, the multipotency of cells in this region and the role of perichondrium in bone marrow formation are not well understood. In this report, we purified and characterized perichondrial cells using a monoclonal antibody against activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) and in- vestigated the role of perichondrial cells in

  15. LAMELLAR MAGNETISM ASSOCIATED WITH NANOSCALE EXSOLUTION

    E-print Network

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    LAMELLAR MAGNETISM ASSOCIATED WITH NANOSCALE EXSOLUTION IN THE ILMENITE-HEMATITE SOLID SOLUTION-hematite (FeTiO3-Fe2O3) solid solution is one of the most important magnetic phases in nature. Unusual magnetic, magnetic ordering, and exsolution. This presentation describes how this interaction leads to the phenomenon

  16. Muramyl Dipeptide Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption through Increased RANKL Expression in Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Masahiko; Kimura, Keisuke; Sugisawa, Haruki; Aonuma, Tomo; Takada, Haruhiko; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is bacterial cell wall component capable of inducing osteoclast formation and pathological bone resorption. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP), the minimal essential structural unit responsible for the immunological activity of peptidoglycans, is ubiquitously expressed by bacterium. In this study, we investigated the effect of MDP in LPS-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption. LPS was administered with or without MDP into the supracalvariae of mice. The number of osteoclasts, the level of mRNA for cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), the ratio of the bone destruction area, the level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase form 5b (TRACP 5b), and C-terminal telopeptides fragments of type I collagen as a marker of bone resorption in mice administrated both LPS and MDP were higher than those in mice administrated LPS or MDP alone. On the other hand, MDP had no effect on osteoclastogenesis in parathyroid hormone administrated mice. MDP enhanced LPS-induced receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) expression and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in vivo and in stromal cells in vitro. MDP also enhanced LPS-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, including ERK, p38, and JNK, in stromal cells. These results suggest that MDP might play an important role in pathological bone resorption in bacterial infection diseases. PMID:26000311

  17. Influence of synthetic polyethylene glycol hydrogels on new bone formation during mandibular augmentation procedures in Goettingen minipigs.

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, Phillipp; Kramer, Katharina; Krohn, Sebastian; Kauffmann, Philipp; Mauth, Corinna; Dard, Michel; Schliephake, Henning; Gruber, Rudolf Matthias

    2015-06-01

    Polyethylene glycol hydrogels (PEG) have been used as slow release carrier for osteoinductive growth factors in order to achieve a retarded delivery. However, there have been concerns about negative effects on bone regeneration. This study aims to test whether PEG hydrogels themselves affect new bone formation (NBF), when used as a carrier during mandibular augmentation procedures. In a randomized split-mouth design, bilateral mandibular bone defects were surgically created in 12 Goettingen minipigs, and subsequently augmented, using PEG hydrogel on one side of the mandible. The contralateral sides, without PEG, served as controls. After 4 and 12 weeks, bone formation was evaluated in six animals each. A comparison of the data, using a three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), revealed a significant effect of the healing time and the region of the graft on the distribution and enhancement of NBF (P < .0001, respectively). Although a 0.3 % (95 %-CI [-5.5; 4.8]) lower volume density of newly formed bone could be observed over all PEG hydrogel sections, in contrast to the contralateral controls, the analysis revealed no clinically significant effects of the PEG hydrogel treatment on the total level (P = 0.90), and the distribution of NBF (P = 0.54). In conclusion, PEG hydrogels do not affect NBF when used as a carrier for osteoinductive growth factors during mandibular augmentation procedures. PMID:26032116

  18. Bone formation in vivo induced by Cbfa1-carrying adenoviral vectors released from a biodegradable porous ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Toshimasa; Kojima, Hiroko

    2011-06-01

    Overexpression of Cbfa1 (a transcription factor indispensable for osteoblastic differentiation) is expected to induce the formation of bone directly and indirectly in vivo by accelerating osteoblastic differentiation. Adenoviral vectors carrying the cDNA of Cbfa1/til-1(Adv-Cbf1) were allowed to be adsorbed onto porous blocks of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP), a biodegradable ceramic, which were then implanted subcutaneously and orthotopically into bone defects. The adenoviral vectors were released sustainingly by biodegradation, providing long-term expression of the genes. Results of the subcutaneous implantation of Adv-Cbfa1-adsorbed ?-TCP/osteoprogenitor cells suggest that a larger amount of bone formed in the pores of the implant than in the control material. Regarding orthotopic implantation into bone defects, the released Adv-Cbfa1 accelerated regeneration in the cortical bone, whereas it induced bone resorption in the marrow cavity. A safer gene transfer using a smaller amount of the vector was achieved using biodegradable porous ?-TCP as a carrier.

  19. The induction of bone formation by smart biphasic hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate biomimetic matrices in the non-human primate Papio ursinus

    PubMed Central

    Ripamonti, U; Richter, P W; Nilen, R W N; Renton, L

    2008-01-01

    Long-term studies in the non-human primate Chacma baboon Papio ursinus were set to investigate the induction of bone formation by biphasic hydroxyapatite/p-tricalcium phosphate (HA/?-TCP) biomimetic matrices. HA/?-TCP biomimetic matrices in a pre-sinter ratio (wt%) of 40/60 and 20/80, respectively, were sintered and implanted in the rectus abdominis and in calvarial defects of four adult baboons. The post-sinter phase content ratios were 19/81 and 4/96, respectively. Morphological analyses on day 90 and 365 showed significant induction of bone formation within concavities of the biomimetic matrices with substantial bone formation by induction and resorption/dissolution of the implanted matrices. One year after implantation in calvarial defects, 4/96 biphasic biomimetic constructs showed prominent induction of bone formation with significant dissolution of the implanted scaffolds. The implanted smart biomimetic matrices induce de novo bone formation even in the absence of exogenously applied osteogenic proteins of the transforming growth factor-?(TGF-?) superfamily. The induction of bone formation biomimetizes the remodelling cycle of the cortico-cancellous bone of primates whereby resorption lacunae, pits and concavities cut by osteoclastogenesis are regulators of bone formation by induction. The concavities assembled in HA/?-TCP biomimetic bioceramics are endowed with multifunctional pleiotropic self-assembly capacities initiating and promoting angiogenesis and bone formation by induction. Resident mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblastic cell lines expressing, secreting and embedding osteogenic soluble molecular signals of the TGF-? superfamily within the concavities of the biomimetic matrices initiating bone formation as a secondary response. PMID:18363843

  20. Osteogenic differentiation and ectopic bone formation of canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in injectable thermo-responsive polymer hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Liao, Han-Tsung; Chen, Chien-Tzung; Chen, Jyh-Ping

    2011-11-01

    This study describes an injectable, thermo-responsive hyaluronic acid-g-chitosan-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (HA-CPN) copolymer for bone tissue engineering. The wettability, temperature-dependent change of water content, and volume of HA-CPN hydrogel were measured, together with its biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo. The dried hydrogel morphology shows a three-dimensional, porous structure with interconnected pores. Canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (cBMSCs) were encapsulated in HA-CPN hydrogel and osteoinduction was assessed by comparing samples with different osteogenic differentiation induction times but with the same total cell culture time. Cell proliferation and time-dependent osteogenic differentiation, evident from secretion of extracellular matrix and formation of mineral deposits, were observed. The cells showed better proliferation in HA-CPN hydrogel than on tissue culture polystyrene after osteo-induced for 21 days and higher alkaline phosphatase activity regardless of osteo-induction times. Mineralization extent of cBMSCs in HA-CPN followed by Alizarin red stains showed positive stained nodules after osteo-induced longer than 7 days. The cells/hydrogel construct also showed increased mechanical strength and elasticity after osteogenic differentiation, and the increase could be correlated with osteo-induction time. In vivo studies confirmed the biocompatibility and bioresorption of the HA-CPN hydrogel and ectopic bone formation when the hydrogel was used as a cell carrier for osteo-induced cBMSCs and implanted in nude mice subcutaneously. Taken together, the results indicate the feasibility and efficacy of HA-CPN hydrogel as an injectable bone tissue engineering scaffold with cBMSCs. PMID:21870942

  1. Recapitulation of signals regulating embryonic bone formation during postnatal growth and in fracture repair

    E-print Network

    Tabin, Cliff

    that regulate embryonic endochondral ossification are also expressed during postnatal bone growth and fracture Ireland Ltd. Keywords: Ihh; Parathyroid hormone-related protein; Fracture repair; Bone; Endochondral ossification 1. Introduction During embryogenesis, the development of the long bones takes place by a process

  2. Effects of Polycaprolactone-Tricalcium Phosphate, Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Dog Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Bone Formation: Pilot Study in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Jong; Kim, Myung-Rae; Oh, Jin-Sub; Han, Inho

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival, proliferation, and bone formation of dog mesenchymal stem cells (dMSCs) in the graft material by using Polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP), auto-fibrin glue (AFG), recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), and dMSCs after a transplantation to the scapula of adult beagle dogs. Materials and Methods The subjects were two beagle dogs. Total dose of rhBMP-2 on each block was 10 µg with 50 µg/mg concentration. The cortical bone of the scapula of the dog was removed which was the same size of PCL-TCP block (Osteopore International Pte, Singapore; 5.0×5.0×8.0 mm in size), and the following graft material then was fixed with orthodontic mini-implant, Dual-top® (Titanium alloy, Jeil Co. Seoul, Korea). Four experimental groups were prepared for this study, Group 1: PCL-TCP + aFG; Group 2: PCL-TCP + aFG + dMSCs; Group 3: PCL-TCP + aFG + dMSCs + rhBMP-2; Group 4: PCL-TCP + aFG + dMSCs + rhBMP-2 + PCL membrane. The survival or proliferation of dMSCs cells was identified with an extracted tissue through a fluorescence microscope, H-E staining and Von-Kossa staining in two weeks and four weeks after the transplantation. Results The survival and proliferation of dMSCs were identified through a fluorescence microscope from both Group 1 and Group 2 in two weeks and four weeks after the transplantation. Histological observation also found that the injected cells were proliferating well in the G2, G3, and G4 scaffolds. Conclusion This study concluded that bone ingrowth occurred in PCL-TCP scaffold which was transplanted with rhBMP-2, and MSCs did not affect bone growth. More sufficient healing time would be needed to recognize effects of dMSCs on bone formation. PMID:20046425

  3. Inhibition of osteoclast-like cell formation by bisphosphonates in long-term cultures of human bone marrow.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, D E; MacDonald, B R; Russell, R G; Gowen, M

    1989-01-01

    Bisphosphonates inhibit bone resorption in vivo and in vitro by unknown mechanisms. The effect of bisphosphonates on the formation of osteoclasts from their mononuclear hematopoietic precursors was investigated using human long-term marrow cultures in which multinucleated cells form that express most of the known features of the osteoclast phenotype (e.g., bone resorption, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin responsiveness, and reactivity with specific MAbs). The five bisphosphonates that were tested strongly inhibited 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-stimulated formation of these cells with the same relative potencies as they inhibit bone resorption in vivo. Two representative compounds (3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate and dichloromethylene bisphosphonate) failed to inhibit the proliferation of precursors of the osteoclast-like cells. However, these compounds decreased the proportion of mononuclear and multinucleated cells expressing an osteoclast antigen, thus suggesting a degree of specificity for cells of the osteoclast lineage. We conclude that bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of osteoclast-like cell formation in long-term human marrow cultures, and that this may be related to their ability to inhibit bone resorption in vivo. Images PMID:2524504

  4. In vitro induction of E-rosette formation in human bone marrow cells by the thymic proteins LSHr and LSHh.

    PubMed

    Pierschbacher, M D; Kalden, J R; Luckey, T D

    1979-07-01

    Two thymic factors, LSHh and LSHr, were found to be active in the induction of E-rosette formation. In vitro incubation of human bone marrow cells, isolated by Ficoll gradient centrifugation, with subnanogram quantities of either of these LSH proteins increased the number of E-rosette-forming cells in the bone marrow cultures by a factor of two. Kidney extract and bovine serum albumin did not show significant activity when tested as controls. Commercial thymopoietin II peptide was found to be active in the assay at comparable concentrations. The data allow a comparison of LHS proteins with other preparations tested in this manner. PMID:262453

  5. Bone formation by three-dimensional stromal osteoblast culture in biodegradable polymer scaffolds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishaug, S. L.; Crane, G. M.; Miller, M. J.; Yasko, A. W.; Yaszemski, M. J.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Bone formation was investigated in vitro by culturing stromal osteoblasts in three-dimensional (3-D), biodegradable poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) foams. Three polymer foam pore sizes, ranging from 150-300, 300-500, and 500-710 microns, and two different cell seeding densities, 6.83 x 10(5) cells/cm2 and 22.1 x 10(5) cells/cm2, were examined over a 56-day culture period. The polymer foams supported the proliferation of seeded osteoblasts as well as their differentiated function, as demonstrated by high alkaline phosphatase activity and deposition of a mineralized matrix by the cells. Cell number, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineral deposition increased significantly over time for all the polymer foams. Osteoblast foam constructs created by seeding 6.83 x 10(5) cells/cm2 on foams with 300-500 microns pores resulted in a cell density of 4.63 x 10(5) cells/cm2 after 1 day in culture; they had alkaline phosphatase activities of 4.28 x 10(-7) and 2.91 x 10(-6) mumol/cell/min on Days 7 and 28, respectively; and they had a cell density that increased to 18.7 x 10(5) cells/cm2 by Day 56. For the same constructs, the mineralized matrix reached a maximum penetration depth of 240 microns from the top surface of the foam and a value of 0.083 mm for mineralized tissue volume per unit of cross sectional area. Seeding density was an important parameter for the constructs, but pore size over the range tested did not affect cell proliferation or function. This study suggests the feasibility of using poly(alpha-hydroxy ester) foams as scaffolding materials for the transplantation of autogenous osteoblasts to regenerate bone tissue.

  6. The effect of rhBMP-2 and PRP delivery by biodegradable ?-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds on new bone formation in a non-through rabbit cranial defect model

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyun-Pil; Mercado-Pagan, Angel E.; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Kang, Seong-Soo; Choi, Taek-Hue; Bishop, Julius; Koh, Jeong-Tae; Maloney, William; Lee, Kwang-Min; Yang, Yunzhi; Park, Sang-Won

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the combination of biodegradable ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffolds with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) could accelerate bone formation and increase bone height using a rabbit non-through cranial bone defect model. Four non-through cylindrical bone defects with a diameter of 8-mm were surgically created on the cranium of rabbits. ?-TCP scaffolds in the presence and absence of impregnated rhBMP-2 or PRP were placed into the defects. At 8 and 16 weeks after implantation, samples were dissected and fixed for analysis by microcomputed tomography and histology. Only defects with rhBMP-2 impregnated ?-TCP scaffolds showed significantly enhanced bone formation compared to non-impregnated ?-TCP scaffolds (p<0.05). Although new bone was higher than adjacent bone at 8 weeks after implantation, vertical bone augmentation was not observed at 16 weeks after implantation, probably due to scaffold resorption occurring concurrently with new bone formation. PMID:23779152

  7. Intermittent parathyroid hormone treatment increases osteoblast number, steady state messenger ribonucleic acid levels for osteocalcin, and bone formation in tibial metaphysis of hypophysectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, I U; Dobnig, H; Turner, R T

    1995-11-01

    The effects of GH and PTH on cancellous histomorphometry were determined in the proximal tibial metaphysis of hypophysectomized (HYPOX) sexually mature female rats. HYPOX resulted in uterine atrophy and a loss in body weight. Longitudinal bone growth ceased and bone formation was greatly reduced. There were decreases in cancellous bone area, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness. Intermittent treatment with GH did not influence uterine weight in HYPOX rats. However, GH resulted in resumption of whole body weight gain, as well as maintenance of normal longitudinal bone growth. Additionally, GH partially maintained bone formation in HY POX rats and did not have a significant effect on steady state messenger RNA levels for osteocalcin. Intermittent treatment with PTH had no effect on whole body weight gain, uterine weight, or longitudinal bone growth. In contrast, PTH increased bone formation compared with the baseline, HYPOX, and GH-treated HYPOX rats, and dramatically increased osteocalcin messenger RNA levels compared with the latter two groups. The increased bone formation was primarily due to an increase in osteoblast number; the mineral apposition rate, an index of osteoblast activity, was increased compared with control and GH-treated rats but not compared with baseline values. Interestingly, neither treatment influenced indices of bone resorption. PMID:7588250

  8. Nanohydroxyapatite shape and its potential role in bone formation: an analytical study

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Priya; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Fan, Jian Ping; Warley, Alice; Di Silvio, Lucy; Huang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Bone cells (osteoblasts) produce a collagen-rich matrix called osteoid, which is mineralized extracellularly by nanosized calcium phosphate (CaP). Synthetically produced CaP nanoparticles (NPs) have great potential for clinical application. However few studies have compared the effect of CaP NPs with different properties, such as shape and aspect ratio, on the survival and behaviour of active bone-producing cells, such as primary human osteoblasts (HOBs). This study aimed to investigate the biocompatibility and ultrastructural effects of two differently shaped hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] nanoparticles (HA NPs), round- (aspect ratio 2.12, AR2) and rice-shaped (aspect ratio 3.79, AR4). The ultrastructural response and initial extracellular matrix (ECM) formation of HOBs to HA NPs were observed, as well as matrix vesicle release. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-based X-ray microanalytical technique was used to measure cytoplasmic ion levels, including calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na) and potassium (K). K/Na ratios were used as a measure of cell viability. Following HA NP stimulation, all measured cytoplasmic ion levels increased. AR2 NPs had a greater osteogenic effect on osteoblasts compared with AR4 NPs, including alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix vesicle release. However, they produced only a moderate increase in intracellular Ca and P levels compared with AR4. This suggests that particular Ca and P concentrations may be required for, or indicative of, optimal osteoblast activity. Cell viability, as measured by Na and K microanalysis, was best maintained in AR2. Initial formation of osteoblast ECM was altered in the presence of either HA NP, and immuno-TEM identified fibronectin and matrilin-3 as two ECM proteins affected. Matrilin-3 is here described for the first time as being expressed by cultured osteoblasts. In summary, this novel and in-depth study has demonstrated that HA NP shape can influence a range of different parameters related to osteoblast viability and activity. PMID:24478288

  9. Effects of strontium ranelate on bone formation in the mid-palatal suture after rapid maxillary expansion

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuya; Wang, Xuxia; Li, Na; Chen, Yun; Su, Yuran; Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of strontium ranelate on bone regeneration in the mid-palatal suture in response to rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Methods Thirty-six male 6-week-old Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, ie, an expansion only (EO) group, an expansion plus strontium ranelate (SE) group, and a control group. An orthodontic appliance was set between the right and left upper molars of rats with an initial expansive force of 0.98 N. Rats in the SE group were administered strontium ranelate (600 mg/kg body weight) and then euthanized in batches on days 4, 7, and 10. Morphological changes in the mid-palatal suture were investigated using micro-computed tomography and hematoxylin and eosin staining after RME. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression in the suture was also examined to evaluate bone formation in the mid-palatal suture. Image-Pro Plus software was then used to determine the mean optical density of the immunohistochemical images. Analysis of variance was used for statistical evaluation at the P<0.05 level. Results With expansive force, the mid-palatal suture was expanded, but there was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) between the SE and EO groups. The bone volume of the suture decreased after RME, but was higher in the SE group than in the EO group on days 7 and 10. Further, expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the SE group was higher than in the other two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Strontium ranelate may hasten new bone formation in the expanded mid-palatal suture, which may be therapeutically beneficial in prevention of relapse and shortening the retention period after RME.

  10. Optimal lamellar arrangement in fish gills

    PubMed Central

    Park, Keunhwan; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2014-01-01

    Fish respire through gills, which have evolved to extract aqueous oxygen. Fish gills consist of filaments with well-ordered lamellar structures, which play a role in maximizing oxygen diffusion. It is interesting that when we anatomically observe the gills of various fish species, gill interlamellar distances (d) vary little among them, despite large variations in body mass (Mb). Noting that the small channels formed by densely packed lamellae cause significant viscous resistance to water flow, we construct and test a model of oxygen transfer rate as a function of the lamellar dimensions and pumping pressure, which allows us to predict the optimal interlamellar distance that maximizes the oxygen transfer rate in the gill. Comparing our theory with biological data supports the hypothesis that fish gills have evolved to form the optimal interlamellar distances for maximizing oxygen transfer. This explains the weak scaling dependence of d on Mb: d ? Mb1/6. PMID:24847065

  11. Divergent Resorbability and Effects on Osteoclast Formation of Commonly Used Bone Substitutes in a Human In Vitro-Assay

    PubMed Central

    Busse, Björn; Schilling, Arndt F.; Schinke, Thorsten; Amling, Michael; Lange, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive bone substitute materials are a valuable alternative to autologous bone transplantations in the repair of skeletal defects. However, clinical studies have reported varying success rates for many commonly used biomaterials. While osteoblasts have traditionally been regarded as key players mediating osseointegration, increasing evidence suggests that bone-resorbing osteoclasts are of crucial importance for the longevity of applied biomaterials. As no standardized data on the resorbability of biomaterials exists, we applied an in vitro-assay to compare ten commonly used bone substitutes. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were differentiated into osteoclasts in the co-presence of dentin chips and biomaterials or dentin alone (control) for a period of 28 days. Osteoclast maturation was monitored on day 0 and 14 by light microscopy, and material-dependent changes in extracellular pH were assessed twice weekly. Mature osteoclasts were quantified using TRAP stainings on day 28 and their resorptive activity was determined on dentin (toluidin blue staining) and biomaterials (scanning electron microscopy, SEM). The analyzed biomaterials caused specific changes in the pH, which were correlated with osteoclast multinuclearity (r?=?0.942; p?=?0.034) and activity on biomaterials (r?=?0.594; p?=?0.041). Perossal led to a significant reduction of pH, nuclei per osteoclast and dentin resorption, whereas Tutogen bovine and Tutobone human strikingly increased all three parameters. Furthermore, natural biomaterials were resorbed more rapidly than synthetic biomaterials leading to differential relative resorption coefficients, which indicate whether bone substitutes lead to a balanced resorption or preferential resorption of either the biomaterial or the surrounding bone. Taken together, this study for the first time compares the effects of widely used biomaterials on osteoclast formation and resorbability in an unbiased approach that may now aid in improving the preclinical evaluation of bone substitute materials. PMID:23071629

  12. Ectopic bone formation cannot occur by hydroxyapatite/?-tricalcium phosphate bioceramics in green fluorescent protein chimeric mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lijia; Duan, Xin; Xiang, Zhou; Shi, Yujun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Ye, Feng; Bu, Hong

    2012-12-01

    Many studies have shown that calcium phosphate ceramics (CP) have osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties; however, the exact mechanism of bone induction has not yet been reported. This study was performed to investigate if destroying immunological function will influence osteogenesis, to explain the mechanism which is unclear. In this study, twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups (n = 10), in group 1, a hydroxyapatite/?-tricalcium phosphate (HA/?-TCP) ceramic was implanted into both the left and right leg muscles of each mouse; in group 2, ten mice experienced lethal irradiation, then were injected bone marrow (BM) cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice by tail veil, after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and muscle were harvested for biological analysis, after the GFP chimera model was established successfully, the same HA/?-TCP ceramic was implanted into both leg muscles of each mouse immediately after irradiation. 45 and 90 days after implantation, the ceramics of the two groups were harvested to perform with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining; the results showed that there was no bone formation in group 2, while new bone tissues were detected in group 1. Our findings suggest that the BM cell from GFP transgenic mice is a good biomarker and it could set a good platform for chimera model; it also shows that BM cell is one of cell resources of bone induction, and destruction of immune function will impede osteoinduction by CP. Overall, our results may shed light on clear mechanism study of bone induction in the future.

  13. Administration of a tropomyosin receptor kinase inhibitor attenuates sarcoma-induced nerve sprouting, neuroma formation and bone cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Pain often accompanies cancer and most current therapies for treating cancer pain have significant unwanted side effects. Targeting nerve growth factor (NGF) or its cognate receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) has become an attractive target for attenuating chronic pain. In the present report, we use a mouse model of bone cancer pain and examine whether oral administration of a selective small molecule Trk inhibitor (ARRY-470, which blocks TrkA, TrkB and TrkC kinase activity at low nm concentrations) has a significant effect on cancer-induced pain behaviors, tumor-induced remodeling of sensory nerve fibers, tumor growth and tumor-induced bone remodeling. Early/sustained (initiated day 6 post cancer cell injection), but not late/acute (initiated day 18 post cancer cell injection) administration of ARRY-470 markedly attenuated bone cancer pain and significantly blocked the ectopic sprouting of sensory nerve fibers and the formation of neuroma-like structures in the tumor bearing bone, but did not have a significant effect on tumor growth or bone remodeling. These data suggest that, like therapies that target the cancer itself, the earlier that the blockade of TrkA occurs, the more effective the control of cancer pain and the tumor-induced remodeling of sensory nerve fibers. Developing targeted therapies that relieve cancer pain without the side effects of current analgesics has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life and functional status of cancer patients. PMID:21138586

  14. Synergistic effects of high dietary calcium and exogenous parathyroid hormone in promoting osteoblastic bone formation in mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuxu; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Qunhu; Liu, Huan; Xu, Yong; Shu, Lei; Zhang, Jue; Miao, Dengshun; Ren, Yongxin

    2015-03-28

    In the present study, we investigated whether high dietary Ca and exogenous parathyroid hormone 1-34 fragments (PTH 1-34) have synergistic effects on bone formation in adult mice, and explored the related mechanisms. Adult male mice were fed a normal diet, a high-Ca diet, a PTH-treated diet, or a high-Ca diet combined with subcutaneously injected PTH 1-34 (80 ?g/kg per d) for 4 weeks. Bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, osteoblast number, alkaline phosphatase (ALP)- and type I collagen-positive areas, and the expression levels of osteoblastic bone formation-related genes and proteins were increased significantly in mice fed the high-Ca diet, the PTH-treated diet, and, even more dramatically, the high-Ca diet combined with PTH. Osteoclast number and surface and the ratio of receptor activator for nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL):osteoprotegerin (OPG) were decreased in the high-Ca diet treatment group, increased in the PTH treatment group, but not in the combined treatment group. Furthermore, third-passage osteoblasts were treated with high Ca (5 mM), PTH 1-34 (10?? M) or high Ca combined with PTH 1-34. Osteoblast viability and ALP activity were increased in either the high Ca-treated or PTH-treated cultures and, even more dramatically, in the cultures treated with high Ca plus PTH, with consistent up-regulation of the expression levels of osteoblast proliferation and differentiation-related genes and proteins. These results indicate that dietary Ca and PTH play synergistic roles in promoting osteoblastic bone formation by stimulating osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. PMID:25744000

  15. Synergistic induction of early stage of bone formation by combination of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 and epidermal growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Jang, Soo-Jeong; Baek, Hae-Ri; Lee, Kyung Mee; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates whether the combination of the rhBMP-2 and various types of growth factors including EGF, FGF, PDGF and VEGF increases osteoinductivity compared to the single use of rhBMP-2 through in vitro and in vivo study. Cultured human MSCs were treated with rhBMP-2 only or in combination with growth factors. For in vivo evaluation, rhBMP-2 only or with growth factors was implanted into the calvarial defect made on SD rats. Both EGF and PDGF significantly increased both ALP activity and expression level in hMSCs when treated in combination with rhBMP-2 at 3 and 7 days of differentiation and significantly raised the accumulation of the calcium at day 14. Furthermore, micro-CT scanning revealed that the EGF an FGF groups show significantly increased new bone surface ratio compared to the rhBMP-2 only group and, the EGF treatment significantly up regulated percent bone volume and trabecular number at two weeks after the surgery. VEGF treatment also significantly raised trabecular number and FGF treatment significantly increased the trabecular thickness. Histological examination revealed that the EGF combination group showed enhanced bone regeneration than the rhBMP-2 only group two weeks after the implantation. Even though the treatment of rhBMP-2 with PDGF and FGF failed to show enhanced osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo simultaneously, these results suggest that the positive effect of the combination of EGF and rhBMP-2 is expected to induce the bone formation earlier compared to the single use of rhBMP-2 in vitro and in vivo. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:24764222

  16. Ethane 1-hydroxy-1, 1-diphosphonate (EHDP) counteracts the inhibitory effect of uranyl nitrate on bone formation.

    PubMed

    Ubios, A M; Guglielmotti, M B; Cabrini, R L

    1990-01-01

    The beneficial effect of ethane 1-hydroxy-1, 1-diphosphonate (EHDP) in restoring the inhibition of bone formation in cases of acute uranium intoxication is presented. Bone formation was studied histomorphometrically in a model of alveolar bone healing. After tooth extraction, 40 rats were divided into 4 groups that received (1) no further treatment, (2) 10 daily intraperitoneal injections of 7.5 mg/kg of body weight of EHDP, (3) an intraperitoneal injection of 2.0 mg/kg of body weight of uranyl nitrate, and (4) the same treatment as was provided rats in groups 2 and 3. The results showed that the healing of bone did not occur in exposed animals, whereas healing in EHDP-treated exposed animals did not differ from that of nonexposed controls. This effect might result from a blocking and/or competitive action of EHDP and/or the stimulation that EHDP elicits at the doses and in the administration period studied. PMID:2125406

  17. Total extract of Korean red ginseng facilitates human bone marrow hematopoietic colony formation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Gyung; Bae, Sung Hwa; Kim, Seong-Mo; Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Min Ji; Jang, Hae-Bong

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of CD34+ cells in a peripheral blood stem cell collection is the key factor in predicting successful treatment of hematologic malignancies. Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is the most popular medicinal herb in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of KRG on hematopoietic colony formation. Methods Bone marrow (BM) samples were obtained from 8 human donors after acquiring informed consent. BM mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated, and CD34+ cells were sorted using magnetic beads. The sorted CD34+ cells were incubated with or without total extract of KRG (50 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL) or Ginsenoside Rg1 (100 µg/mL), and the hematopoietic colony assay was performed using methylcellulose semisolid medium. The CD34+ cell counts were measured by a single platform assay using flow cytometry. Results The numbers of human BM-MNCs and CD34+ cells obtained after purification were variable among donors (5.6×107 and 1.3-48×107 and 8.9×104 and 1.8-80×104, respectively). The cells expanded 1,944 times after incubation for 12 d. Total extract of KRG added to the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-specific medium increased CD34+ cell counts 3.6 times compared to 2.6 times when using HSC medium alone. Total numbers of hematopoietic colonies in KRG medium were more than those observed in conventional medium, especially that of erythroid colonies such as burst forming unit-erythroid. Conclusion Total extract of KRG facilitated CD34+ cell expansion and hematopoietic colony formation, especially of the erythroid lineage. PMID:25325037

  18. Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells Contributed to the Neointimal Formation after Arterial Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mincai; Li, Suqin; Yu, Liangzhu; Wu, Jiliang; She, Tonghui; Gan, Yaping; Hu, Zhenwu; Liao, Wenli; Xia, Hongli

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Recent findings suggest that in response to repair-to-injury bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) participate in the process of angiogenesis. It is unclear what role BMSCs play in the structure of the vessel wall. In present study, we aimed to determine whether BMSCs had the capacity of endothelial cells (ECs). Methods BMSCs were separated and cultured. FACS and RT-PCR analysis confirmed the gene expression phenotype. The capacity of migration and adhesion and the ultrastructure of BMSCs were examined. The effect of BMSCs transplantation on the vascular repair was investigated in a murine carotid artery-injured model. Results BMSCs could express some markers and form the tube-like structure. The migration and adhesion capacity of BMSCs increased significantly after stimulated. In addition, BMSCs had the intact cell junction. In vivo the local transfer of BMSCs differentiated into neo-endothelial cells in the injury model for carotid artery and contributed to the vascular remodeling. Conclusion These results showed that BMSCs could contribute to neointimal formation for vascular lesion and might be associated with the differentiation into ECs, which indicated the important therapeutic implications for vascular diseases. PMID:24349351

  19. An evaluation of several biochemical markers for bone formation and resorption in a protocol utilizing cyclical parathyroid hormone and calcitonin therapy for osteoporosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hodsman, A B; Fraher, L J; Ostbye, T; Adachi, J D; Steer, B M

    1993-01-01

    Female patients (n = 20) with osteoporosis, aged 66 +/- 5 yr were studied during a 24-h infusion of parathyroid hormone (PTH [1-34]) at a rate of 0.5 IU equivalents/kg.h, and then during a 28-d period of subcutaneous injections, at a dose of 800 IU equivalents per day. Thereafter half the patients received subcutaneous injections of calcitonin, 75 U/d for 42 d, and all patients were followed to the end of a 90-d cycle. Biochemical markers of bone formation (serum alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and the carboxy-terminal extension peptide of pro-collagen 1) and bone resorption (fasting urine calcium, hydroxyproline, and deoxypyridinoline) were compared during treatment by the intravenous and subcutaneous route of PTH administration, and subsequently during calcitonin therapy. During intravenous PTH infusion there were significant reductions in all three bone formation markers, despite expected rises in urinary calcium and hydroxyproline. By contrast, the circulating markers of bone formation increased rapidly by > 100% of baseline values during daily PTH injections (P < 0.001). Significant increases in bone resorption markers were only seen at the end of the 28 d of injections, but were < 100% over baseline values, (P < 0.05). Quantitative bone histomorphometry from biopsies obtained after 28 d of PTH treatment confirmed that bone formation at both the cellular and tissue levels were two to five times higher than similar indices measured in a control group of biopsies from untreated osteoporotic women. Subsequent treatment of these patients with calcitonin showed no significant changes in the biochemical markers of bone formation and only a modest attenuation of bone resorption. Thus, PTH infusion may inhibit bone formation, as judged by circulating biochemical markers, whereas daily injections confirm the potent anabolic actions of the hormone. Sequential calcitonin therapy does not appear to act synergistically with PTH in cyclical therapeutic protocols. PMID:8450043

  20. Comparison of effect of BMP2, -4, and -6 on in vitro cartilage formation of human adult stem cells from bone marrow stroma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ichiro Sekiya; Benjamin L. Larson; Jussi T. Vuoristo; Roxanne L. Reger; Darwin J. Prockop

    2005-01-01

    The human adult stem cells from bone marrow stroma referred to as mesenchymal stem cells or marrow stromal cells (MSCs) are of interest because they are easily isolated and expanded and are capable of multipotential differentiation. Here, we examined the ability of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, -4, and -6 to enhance in vitro cartilage formation of MSCs. Human

  1. A histomorphometric study of the effect of doxycycline and erythromycin on bone formation in dental alveolar socket of rat

    PubMed Central

    Shahabooei, Mohammad; Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Birang, Reza; Behfarnia, Parichehr; Yaghini, Jaber; Naghsh, Narges; Ghalayani, Parichehr; Hajisadeghi, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether subantimicrobial doses of doxycycline (DOX) and erythromycin (EM) used for the treatment of peri-implant osteolysis due to their anti-osteoclastogenesis can interfere with the osseous wound healing process in rat alveolar socket. Materials and Methods: Forty-five male Wistar rats had their first maxillary right molar extracted and were divided into three groups. DOX and EM at the doses of 5 mg/kg/day orally (p.o.) and 2 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally (i.p.) were administered respectively to two separate groups for 7 days after operation. In the control group the animals received normal saline (5 ml/kg). Five rats were sacrificed at 7, 14 and 21 days post-extraction in each study group. A histomorphometric analysis was used to evaluate new bone formation inside the alveolar socket. Significant level was set at 0.05. Results: The findings showed that the percentage of new bone formation (NBF) enhanced significantly on days 7 and 14. There was no significant difference in the NBF between DOX and EM groups. Conclusion: Short-term treatment with both DOX and EM enhanced new bone formation without any advances in favor of each drug. PMID:25878996

  2. Effects of JSOG-6 on protection against bone loss in ovariectomized mice through regulation of osteoblast differentiation and osteoclast formation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background JSOG-6 is used as a traditional medicine to relieve the symptoms associated with inflammation, rheumatism, and osteoporosis in Korea. In the present study, we investigated the effects of JSOG-6 on bone loss prevention both in in vitro and in vivo as well as its underlying mechanism of action. Methods Protection against bone loss was assessed in an ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model. Bone microarchitecture was measured using a micro-computed tomography to detect the parameters of three-dimensional structure of a trabecular bone. Serum biomarkers were also evaluated in an OVX-induced model. Osteoclasts derived from mouse bone marrow cells (BMCs) and osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were also employed to investigate the mechanism of action. Results Oral administration of JSOG-6 significantly increased the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur in OVX mice in vivo. Especially, the reduced Tb.No (trabecular bone number) in the OVX group was significantly recovered by JSOG-6 treatment. The serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, biomarkers of bone resorption, were significantly elevated in OVX mice, but JSOG-6 effectively inhibited the increase in OVX mice. JSOG-6 was also found to enhance the osteoblastic differentiation and maturation with the increase of the density and ALP activity, a marker of osteoblastic differentiation, as well as calcium deposition, a marker of osteoblastic maturation in MC3T3-E1 cells. The effects of JSOG-6 on osteoblastic differentiation were also associated in part with the increase of ALP and OPN mRNA expressions and the decrease of RANKL mRNA expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that JSOG-6 induced protection against bone loss in OVX mice, and its anti-osteoporotic property might be, in part, a function of the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation and the inhibition of osteoclast formation. These findings suggest that JSOG-6 might be an applicable therapeutic traditional medicine for the regulation of the osteoporotic response. PMID:24903150

  3. The effect of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals on early bone formation surrounding dental implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Svanborg; M. Hoffman; M. Andersson; F. Currie; P. Kjellin; A. Wennerberg

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge of how nanostructures might affect early bone healing and osseointegration is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate if nanometer thick coatings of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals applied on a moderately rough surface might enhance early bone healing on screw-shaped dental implants and to evaluate if the thickness of the coat influences healing. Sandblasted and acid etched titanium

  4. Local delivery of siRNA using a biodegradable polymer application to enhance BMP-induced bone formation.

    PubMed

    Manaka, Tomoya; Suzuki, Akinobu; Takayama, Kazushi; Imai, Yuuki; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Takaoka, Kunio

    2011-12-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is useful tool for specific and efficient knockdown of disease-related genes. However, in vivo applications of siRNA are limited due to difficulty in its efficient delivery to target cells. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a biodegradable hydrogel, poly-d,l-lactic acid-p-dioxanone-polyethylene glycol block co-polymer (PLA-DX-PEG), as a siRNA carrier. PLA-DX-PEG pellets with or without fluorescein-labeled dsRNA were implanted into mouse dosal muscle pouches. The cellular uptake of dsRNA surround the polymer was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy. The fluorescence intensity was dose-dependent of the dsRNA, and exhibited a time-dependent decrease. To investigate its biological efficiency, noggin (antagonoist to BMPs) gene-silencing with siRNA (siRNA/Noggin) was examined by the amount of suppression of BMP-2-induced noggin expression and the level of performance of BMP, indicated by ectopic bone formation. Noggin gene expression induced by BMP-2 was suppressed by addition of siRNA/Noggin to the implant, and the ectopic bone formation induced by implants with both BMP-2 and siRNA/Noggin was significantly greater than those induced by implants with BMP-2 alone. These results indicate the efficacy of local delivery of siRNAs by PLA-DX-PEG polymer, which intensified bone-inducing effects of BMP and promoted new bone formation by suppressing gene expression of Noggin. PMID:21963281

  5. Inhibition of cathepsin K increases modeling-based bone formation, and improves cortical dimension and strength in adult ovariectomized monkeys.

    PubMed

    Pennypacker, Brenda L; Chen, Charles M; Zheng, Helen; Shih, Mei-Shu; Belfast, Mary; Samadfam, Rana; Duong, Le T

    2014-08-01

    Treatment with the cathepsin K (CatK) inhibitor odanacatib (ODN) protects against bone loss and maintains normal biomechanical properties in the spine and hip of ovariectomized (OVX) preclinical models. Here, we characterized the effects of ODN on the dynamics of cortical modeling and remodeling, and dimension and strength of the central femur in adult OVX-rhesus monkeys. Animals were treated with vehicle or ODN (6 or 30?mg/kg, once per day [q.d., p.o.]) in prevention mode for 21 months. Calcein and tetracycline double-labeling were given at 12 and 21 months, and the femoral cross-sections were subjected to dynamic histomorphometric and cement line analyses. ODN treatment significantly increased periosteal and endocortical bone formation (BFR/BS), accompanied with an increase in endocortical mineralizing surface (102%, p?bone mineral content (BMC) (r(2) ?=?0.9057, p?bone formation, ODN significantly improved cortical dimension and strength in OVX monkeys. This novel mechanism of CatK inhibition in stimulating cortical formation suggests that ODN represents a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:24591096

  6. Antagonizing the parathyroid calcium receptor stimulates parathyroid hormone secretion and bone formation in osteopenic rats.

    PubMed

    Gowen, M; Stroup, G B; Dodds, R A; James, I E; Votta, B J; Smith, B R; Bhatnagar, P K; Lago, A M; Callahan, J F; DelMar, E G; Miller, M A; Nemeth, E F; Fox, J

    2000-06-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an effective bone anabolic agent, but it must be administered parenterally. An orally active anabolic agent would provide a valuable alternative for treating osteoporosis. NPS 2143 is a novel, selective antagonist (a "calcilytic") of the parathyroid cell Ca(2+) receptor. Daily oral administration of NPS 2143 to osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats caused a sustained increase in plasma PTH levels, provoking a dramatic increase in bone turnover but no net change in bone mineral density. Concurrent oral administration of NPS 2143 and subcutaneous infusion of 17beta-estradiol also resulted in increased bone turnover. However, the antiresorptive action of estrogen decreased the extent of bone resorption stimulated by the elevated PTH levels, leading to an increase in bone mass compared with OVX controls or to either treatment alone. Despite the sustained stimulation to the parathyroid gland, parathyroid cells did not undergo hyperplasia. These data demonstrate that an increase in endogenous PTH secretion, induced by antagonism of the parathyroid cell Ca(2+) receptor with a small molecule, leads to a dramatic increase in bone turnover, and they suggest a novel approach to the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:10841518

  7. Antagonizing the parathyroid calcium receptor stimulates parathyroid hormone secretion and bone formation in osteopenic rats

    PubMed Central

    Gowen, Maxine; Stroup, George B.; Dodds, Robert A.; James, Ian E.; Votta, Bart J.; Smith, Brian R.; Bhatnagar, Pradip K.; Lago, Amparo M.; Callahan, James F.; DelMar, Eric G.; Miller, Michael A.; Nemeth, Edward F.; Fox, John

    2000-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an effective bone anabolic agent, but it must be administered parenterally. An orally active anabolic agent would provide a valuable alternative for treating osteoporosis. NPS 2143 is a novel, selective antagonist (a “calcilytic”) of the parathyroid cell Ca2+ receptor. Daily oral administration of NPS 2143 to osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats caused a sustained increase in plasma PTH levels, provoking a dramatic increase in bone turnover but no net change in bone mineral density. Concurrent oral administration of NPS 2143 and subcutaneous infusion of 17?-estradiol also resulted in increased bone turnover. However, the antiresorptive action of estrogen decreased the extent of bone resorption stimulated by the elevated PTH levels, leading to an increase in bone mass compared with OVX controls or to either treatment alone. Despite the sustained stimulation to the parathyroid gland, parathyroid cells did not undergo hyperplasia. These data demonstrate that an increase in endogenous PTH secretion, induced by antagonism of the parathyroid cell Ca2+ receptor with a small molecule, leads to a dramatic increase in bone turnover, and they suggest a novel approach to the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:10841518

  8. Bone Formation with Two Types of Grafting Materials: A Histologic and Histomorphometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Rokn, Amir Reza; Khodadoostan, Mohammad Amin; Reza Rasouli Ghahroudi, Amir Ali; Motahhary, Puria; Kharrazi Fard, Mohammad Javad; Bruyn, Hugo De; Afzalifar, Rose; Soolar, Ehsan; Soolari, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although autogenous bone grafts are considered the gold standard for bone regeneration, they have certain limitations, including patient morbidity at the harvest site. Synthetic bone substitutes have been developed to overcome some of these limitations. The present study aimed to compare the osteogenic properties of Straumann Bone Ceramic (SBC), which is a biphasic calcium phosphate, with Bio-Oss, an inorganic bovine bone material, in an animal model. Methods: Thirteen rabbits were included in this study. In each rabbit, four 6.5-mm-diameter identical defects were prepared on the calvarium. One site was filled with Bio-Oss, the second site was treated with small-particle SBC, the third site was treated with large-particle SBC, and the fourth site was left as an untreated control. After 4 and 8 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and histologic and histomorphometric examinations were performed. The data were analyzed using Friedman and multiple-comparison Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the amount of bone fill between the four groups. L-SBC showed more inflammation and foreign-body reactions than the other bone substitutes. Conclusion: No statistically significant differences were found between groups. Further studies on this issue seem necessary. PMID:21760862

  9. Bony defect repair in rabbit using hybrid rapid prototyping polylactic-co-glycolic acid/?-tricalciumphosphate collagen I/apatite scaffold and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Long; Hao, Wei; Jiang, Ming; Huang, Jianguo; Yan, Yongnian; Hu, Yunyu

    2013-01-01

    Background: In bone tissue engineering, extracellular matrix exerts critical influence on cellular interaction with porous biomaterial and the apatite playing an important role in the bonding process of biomaterial to bone tissue. The aim of this study was to observe the therapeutic effects of hybrid rapid prototyping (RP) scaffolds comprising polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), ?-tricalciumphosphate (?-TCP), collagen I and apatite (PLGA/?-TCP-collagen I/apatite) on segmental bone defects in conjunction with combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Materials and Methods: BMSCs were seeded into the hybrid RP scaffolds to repair 15 mm defect in the radius of rabbits. Radiograph, microcomputed tomography and histology were used to evaluate new bone formation. Results: Radiographic analysis done from 12 to 36 weeks postoperative period demonstrated that new bone formed at the radial defect site and continues to increase until the medullary cavity is recanalized and remodelling is complete. The bone defect remained unconnected in the original RP scaffolds (PLGA/?-TCP) during the whole study. Histological observations conformed to the radiographic images. In hybrid RP scaffold group, woven bone united the radial defect at 12 weeks and consecutively remodeled into lamellar bone 24 weeks postoperation and finally matured into cortical bone with normal marrow cavity after another 12 weeks. No bone formation but connective tissue has been detected in RP scaffold at the same time. Conclusion: Collagen I/apatite sponge composite coating could improve new bone formation in vivo. The hybrid RP scaffold of PLGA/?-TCP skeleton with collagen I/apatite sponge composite coating is a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23960284

  10. Overexpression of H1 Calponin in Osteoblast Lineage Cells Leads to a Decrease in Bone Mass by Disrupting Osteoblast Function and Promoting Osteoclast Formation

    PubMed Central

    Su, Nan; Chen, Maomao; Chen, Siyu; Li, Can; Xie, Yangli; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Yaozong; Zhao, Ling; He, Qifen; Du, Xiaolan; Chen, Di; Chen, Lin

    2013-01-01

    H1 calponin (CNN1) is known as a smooth muscle-specific, actin-binding protein which regulates smooth muscle contractive activity. Although previous studies have shown that CNN1 has effect on bone, the mechanism is not well defined. To investigate the role of CNN1 in maintaining bone homeostasis, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Cnn1 under the control of the osteoblast-specific 3.6-kb Col1a1 promoter. Col1a1-Cnn1 transgenic mice showed delayed bone formation at embryonic stage and decreased bone mass at adult stage. Morphology analyses showed reduced trabecular number, thickness and defects in bone formation. The proliferation and migration of osteoblasts were decreased in Col1a1-Cnn1 mice due to alterations in cytoskeleton. The early osteoblast differentiation of Col1a1-Cnn1 mice was increased, but the late stage differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts derived from Col1a1-Cnn1 mice were significantly decreased. In addition to impaired bone formation, the decreased bone mass was also associated with enhanced osteoclastogenesis. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining revealed increased osteoclast numbers in tibias of 2-month-old Col1a1-Cnn1 mice, and increased numbers of osteoclasts co-cultured with Col1a1-Cnn1 osteoblasts. The ratio of RANKL to OPG was significantly increased in Col1a1-Cnn1 osteoblasts. These findings reveal a novel function of CNN1 in maintaining bone homeostasis by coupling bone formation to bone resorption. PMID:23044709

  11. Alpha-Lipoic Acid Promotes Osteoblastic Formation in H2 O2 -Treated MC3T3-E1 Cells and Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chao; Xu, Dong; Wang, Chang-Yuan; Jin, Yue; Liu, Qi; Meng, Qiang; Liu, Ke-Xin; Sun, Hui-Jun; Liu, Mo-Zhen

    2015-09-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), a naturally occurring compound and dietary supplement, has been established as a potent antioxidant that is a strong scavenger of free radicals. Recently, accumulating evidences has indicated the relationship between oxidative stress and osteoporosis (OP). Some studies have investigated the possible beneficial effects of ALA on OP both in vivo and in vitro; however, the precise mechanism(s) underlying the bone-protective action of ALA remains unclear. Considering this, we focused on the anti-oxidative capacity of ALA to exert bone-protective effects in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the effects of ALA on osteoblastic formation in H2 O2 -treated MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts and ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in rats were investigated. The results showed that ALA promoted osteoblast differentiation, mineralization and maturation and inhibited osteoblast apoptosis, thus increasing the OPG/receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) ligand (RANKL) ratio and leading to enhanced bone formation in vitro and inhibited bone loss in vivo. Further study revealed that ALA exerted its bone-protective effects by inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by down-regulating Nox4 gene expression and protein synthesis and attenuating the transcriptional activation of NF-?B. In addition, ALA might exert its bone-protective effects by activating the Wnt/Lrp5/?-catenin signaling pathway. Taken together, the present study indicated that ALA promoted osteoblastic formation in H2 O2 -treated MC3T3-E1 cells and prevented OVX-induced bone loss in rats by regulating Nox4/ROS/NF-?B and Wnt/Lrp5/?-catenin signaling pathways, which provided possible mechanisms of bone-protective effects in regulating osteoblastic formation and preventing bone loss. Taken together, the results suggest that ALA may be a candidate for clinical OP treatment. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 2184-2201, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25655087

  12. A Study of Micronucleus Induction with Methyl Formate and 2-Methylbutane in Bone Marrow Cells of Male ICR Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Kang, Min-Gu; Kim, Jong-Kyu; Chung, Yong-Hyun; Yang, Jeong-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the genotoxicity of two chemicals, methyl formate and 2-methylbutane, using male ICR mice bone marrow cells for the screening of micronucleus induction. Although these two chemicals have already been tested numerous times, a micronucleus test has not been conducted and the amounts used have recently been increased. Methods 7 week male ICR mice were tested at dosages of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg for methyl formate and 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg for 2-methlybutane, respectively. After 24 hours of oral administration with the two chemicals, the mice were sacrificed and their bone marrow cells were prepared for smearing slides. Results As a result of counting the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (MNPCE) of 2,000 polychromatic erythrocytes, all treated groups expressed no statistically significant increase of MNPCE compared to the negative control group. There were no clinical signs related with the oral exposure of these two chemicals. Conclusion It was concluded that the two chemicals did not induce micronucleus in the bone marrow cells of ICR mice, and there was no direct proportion with dosage. These results indicate that the two chemicals have no mutagenic potential under each study condition. PMID:22953166

  13. Chain confinement, phase transitions, and lamellar structure in semicrystalline polymers, polymer blends and polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huipeng

    Recent studies suggest that there are three phase fractions in semicrystalline polymers, the crystalline, the mobile amorphous and the rigid amorphous phases. Due to the distinct properties of the rigid amorphous fraction, RAF, it has been investigated for more than twenty years. In this thesis, a general method using quasi-isothermal temperature-modulated differential scaning calorimetry, DSC, is provided for the first time to obtain the temperature dependent RAF and the other two fractions, crystalline fraction and mobile amorphous fraction, MAF. For poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, our results show RAF was vitrified during quasi-isothermal cooling after crystallization had been completed and became totally devitrified during quasi-isothermal heating before the start of melting. Several years after people initially discovered the existence of RAF, another issue arose relating to the physical location of RAF and mobile amorphous fraction, MAF, within a lamellar stack model. Two very different models to describe the location of RAF were proposed. In the Heterogeneous Stack Model, HET, RAF is located outside the lamellar stacks. In the Homogeneous Stack Model, HSM, RAF was located inside the lamellar stacks. To determine the lamellar structure of semicrystalline polymers comprising three phase, a general method is given in this thesis by using a combination of the DSC and small angle X-ray scattering, SAXS techniques. It has been applied to Nylon 6, isotactic polystyrene, iPS, and PET. It was found for all of these materials, the HSM model is correct to describe the lamellar structure. In addition to the determination of lamellar structures, this method can also provide the exact fraction of MAF inside and outside lamellar stacks for binary polymer blends. For binary polymer blends, MAF, normally is located partially inside and partially outside the lamellar stacks. However, the quantification of the MAF inside and outside the lamellar stacks has now been provided and is applied to the iPS/atactic polystyrene, aPS, blends. The fractions of MAF inside and outside the lamellar stacks were quantified for the first time. For A/B binary polymer blends, it has been reported that if B is already crystalline, the crystalline fraction would serve as a restriction on the subsequent growth of the crystallizable partner A, while amorphous fraction could be diffused from the crystalline growth front of the crystallizing A component. Considering the effect of RAF on binary blends, a new concept is provided: like the crystals, the RAF of one polymer component may inhibit the growth of crystals of the other blend partner. The non-isothermal crystallization of PET/poly(lactic acid), PLA, blends were investigated and the results confirmed the new concept is correct: PET forms a large amount of RAF and inhibits crystal formation in PLA. Then, we broadened the concept of RAF and investigated the RAF in recent 'hot' materials, polymer nanocomposites. It was found the fraction of RAF greatly increased with a small amount of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, MWCNT, loading in PET electrospun, ES, fibers. A general model is given for polymer ES fibers with MWCNTs: the addition of MWCNTs causes polymer chains in the ES fibers to become more extended, (ie, more stretched), resulting in more confinement of PET chains and an increase in the RAF.

  14. Stability and Three-Dimensional Analysis of Bone Formation in Longitudinally Fluted Miniscrew Implants 

    E-print Network

    Truong, An Van

    2014-04-22

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of longitudinal flutes on mini-screw implant (MSI) bone healing and stability. Using 11 skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits, 33 longitudinally fluted and ...

  15. In vitro and in vivo studies of surface-structured implants for bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Lu; Feng, Bo; Wang, Peizhi; Ding, Siyang; Liu, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Rong

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods Micronanoscale topologies play an important role in implant osteointegration and determine the success of an implant. We investigated the effect of three different implant surface topologies on osteoblast response and bone regeneration. In this study, implants with nanotubes and micropores were used, and implants with flat surfaces were used as the control group. Results Our in vitro studies showed that the nanostructured topologies improved the proliferation, differentiation, and development of the osteoblastic phenotype. Histological analysis further revealed that the nanotopology increased cell aggregation at the implant-tissue interfaces and enhanced bone-forming ability. Pushout testing indicated that the nanostructured topology greatly increased the bone-implant interfacial strength within 4 weeks of implantation. Conclusion Nanotopography may improve regeneration of bone tissue and shows promise for dental implant applications. PMID:23028216

  16. Overexpression of ?FosB transcription factor(s) increases bone formation and inhibits adipogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Sabatakos; N. A. Sims; J. Chen; K. Aoki; M. B. Kelz; M. Amling; Y. Bouali; K. Mukhopadhyay; K. Ford; E. J. Nestler; R. Baron

    2000-01-01

    Members of the AP-1 family of transcription factors participate in the regulation of bone cell proliferation and differentiation. We report here a potent AP-1-related regulator of osteoblast function: ?FosB, a naturally occurring truncated form of FosB that arises from alternative splicing of the fosB transcript and is expressed in osteoblasts. Overexpression of ?FosB in transgenic mice leads to increased bone

  17. Copal Bone Cement Is More Effective in Preventing Biofilm Formation than Palacos RG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geert T. Ensing; Jim R. van Horn; Henny C. van der Mei; Henk J. Busscher; Daniëlle Neut

    2008-01-01

    Bone cements loaded with combinations of antibiotics are assumed more effective in preventing infection than bone cements\\u000a with gentamicin as a single drug. Moreover, loading with an additional antibiotic may increase interconnectivity between antibiotic\\u000a particles to enhance release. We hypothesize addition of clindamycin to a gentamicin-loaded cement yields higher antibiotic\\u000a release and causes larger inhibition zones against clinical isolates grown

  18. Effects of 1-week head-down tilt bed rest on bone formation and the calcium endocrine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Whalen, Robert T.; Fung, Paul; Sherrard, Donald J.; Maloney, Norma

    1992-01-01

    The -6-deg head-down tilt (HDT) is employed in the study of 8 subjects to determine early responses in human bone and calcium endocrines during spaceflight. The average rates of bone formation in the iliac crest are determined by means of a single-dose labeling schedule and are found to decrease in 6 of the subjects. The decrease varies directly with walking miles, and increased excretion of urinary Ca and Na are observed preceding increased levels of ionized serum calcium on a bed-rest day late in the week. Reduced phosphorous excretions are also followed by increased serum phosphorous on day six, and reductions are noted in parathyroid hormone and vitamin D by the end of the experiment. The data demonstrate the responsiveness of the skeletal system to biomechanical stimuli such as the HDT.

  19. Topochemical Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Perovskites from Lamellar Precursors

    E-print Network

    Topochemical Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Perovskites from Lamellar Precursors Raymond E. Schaak-dimensional perovskites from lamellar Dion-Jacobson and Ruddlesden-Popper precursors was demonstrated. The method involves) and reduced in hydrogen to form the SrTiO3-type perovskites AEu2Ti2NbO9. Similarly, K2Eu2Ti3O10, a three

  20. Load transfer in bovine plexiform bone determined by synchrotron x-ray diffraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Akhtar, R.; Daymond, M.; Almer, J.; Mummery, P.; The Univ. of Manchester; Queen's Univ.

    2008-02-01

    High-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) has been used to quantify load transfer in bovine plexiform bone. By using both wide-angle and small-angle XRD, strains in the mineral as well as the collagen phase of bone were measured as a function of applied compressive stress. We suggest that a greater proportion of the load is borne by the more mineralized woven bone than the lamellar bone as the applied stress increases. With a further increase in stress, load is shed back to the lamellar regions until macroscopic failure occurs. The reported data fit well with reported mechanisms of microdamage accumulation in bovine plexiform bone.

  1. Shear alignment of a disordered lamellar mesophase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaran, V.; Raman, D. S. S.

    2011-03-01

    The shear alignment of an initially disordered lamellar phase is examined using lattice Boltzmann simulations of a mesoscopic model based on a free-energy functional for the concentration modulation. For a small shear cell of width 8?, the qualitative features of the alignment process are strongly dependent on the Schmidt number Sc=?/D (ratio of kinematic viscosity and mass diffusion coefficient). Here, ? is the wavelength of the concentration modulation. At low Schmidt number, it is found that there is a significant initial increase in the viscosity, coinciding with the alignment of layers along the extensional axis, followed by a decrease at long times due to the alignment along the flow direction. At high Schmidt number, alignment takes place due to the breakage and reformation of layers because diffusion is slow compared to shear deformation; this results in faster alignment. The system size has a strong effect on the alignment process; perfect alignment takes place for a small systems of width 8? and 16?, while a larger system of width 32? does not align completely even at long times. In the larger system, there appears to be a dynamical steady state in which the layers are not perfectly aligned—where there is a balance between the annealing of defects due to shear and the creation due to an instability of the aligned lamellar phase under shear. We observe two types of defect creation mechanisms: the buckling instability under dilation, which was reported earlier, as well as a second mechanism due to layer compression.

  2. Effects of prostaglandin F2 alpha on bone formation and resorption in cultured neonatal mouse calvariae: Role of prostaglandin E2 production

    SciTech Connect

    Raisz, L.G.; Alander, C.B.; Fall, P.M.; Simmons, H.A. (Univ. of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Although most studies show that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most potent and effective of the prostanoids in bone, recent data in cell culture suggest that PGF2 alpha may have unique effects, particularly on cell replication. The present study was undertaken to compare the effects of PGF2 alpha and PGE2 in cultured neonatal mouse parietal bones by simultaneous measurement of bone resorption as release of previously incorporated 45Ca, bone formation as incorporation of (3H)proline into collagenase-digestible (CDP) and noncollagen protein, and DNA synthesis as incorporation of (3H)thymidine. PGF2 alpha was less effective than PGE2 as a stimulator of bone resorption, and its effects were partially inhibited by indomethacin and markedly inhibited by glucocorticoids. In contrast, the resorptive response to PGE2 was unaffected by indomethacin and only partially inhibited by cortisol. PGF2 alpha had little effect on bone formation, in contrast to the biphasic effect of PGE2, which inhibited labeling of CDP in the absence of cortisol and stimulated CDP labeling in the presence of cortisol. PGF2 alpha increased thymidine incorporation into DNA, but the effect was smaller than that of PGE2 and was inhibited by indomethacin. These observations suggested that PGF2 alpha might act in part by stimulating PGE2 production. By RIA, PGE2 concentrations were increased in the medium of bones treated with PGF2 alpha, and this increase was blocked by indomethacin. By HPLC, bones prelabeled with (3H)arachidonic acid showed an increase in labeled PGE2 release, and RIA showed an increase in PGE2 after PGF2 alpha treatment. These results indicate that PGF2 alpha is a relatively weak agonist in bone compared to PGE2 and that some of the effects of PGF2 alpha on bone resorption, formation, and cell replication may be mediated by an increase in endogenous PGE2 production.

  3. Pharmacological Inhibition of Protein Kinase G1 Enhances Bone Formation by Human Skeletal Stem Cells Through Activation of RhoA-Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Abbas; Siersbaek, Majken S; Chen, Li; Qanie, Diyako; Zaher, Walid; Abdallah, Basem M; Kassem, Moustapha

    2015-07-01

    Development of novel approaches to enhance bone regeneration is needed for efficient treatment of bone defects. Protein kinases play a key role in regulation of intracellular signal transduction pathways, and pharmacological targeting of protein kinases has led to development of novel treatments for several malignant and nonmalignant conditions. We screened a library of kinase inhibitors to identify small molecules that enhance bone formation by human skeletal (stromal or mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC). We identified H-8 (known to inhibit protein kinases A, C, and G) as a potent enhancer of ex vivo osteoblast (OB) differentiation of hMSC, in a stage- and cell type-specific manner, without affecting adipogenesis or osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, we showed that systemic administration of H-8 enhances in vivo bone formation by hMSC, using a preclinical ectopic bone formation model in mice. Using functional screening of known H-8 targets, we demonstrated that inhibition of protein kinase G1 (PRKG1) and consequent activation of RhoA-Akt signaling is the main mechanism through which H-8 enhances osteogenesis. Our studies revealed PRKG1 as a novel negative regulator of OB differentiation and suggest that pharmacological inhibition of PRKG1 in hMSC implanted at the site of bone defect can enhance bone regeneration. Stem Cells 2015;33:2219-2231. PMID:25858613

  4. In situ controlled release of rhBMP-2 in gelatin-coated 3D porous poly(?-caprolactone) scaffolds for homogeneous bone tissue formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingchun; Tan, Ke; Zhang, Yan; Ye, Zhaoyang; Tan, Wen-Song; Lang, Meidong

    2014-01-13

    In tissue engineering, incorporation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) into biomaterial scaffolds is an attractive strategy to stimulate bone repair. However, suboptimal release of BMP-2 remains a great concern, which may cause unfavorable bone formation as well as severe inflammation. In this study, genipin-cross-linked gelatin entrapped with recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) was exploited to decorate the interior surface of three-dimensional porous poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds. With gelatin-coating, PCL scaffolds demonstrated enhanced water uptake and improved compressive moduli. Intriguingly, a unique release profile of rhBMP-2 composed of a transient burst release followed by a sustained release was achieved in coated scaffolds. These coated scaffolds well supported growth and osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in vitro, indicating the retaining of rhBMP-2 bioactivity. When hMSCs-seeded scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice for 4 weeks, better bone formation was observed in gelatin/rhBMP-2-coated scaffolds. Specifically, the spatial distribution of newly formed bone was more uniform in gelatin-coated scaffolds than in uncoated scaffolds, which displayed preferential bone formation at the periphery. These results collectively demonstrated that gelatin-coating of porous PCL scaffolds is a promising approach for delivering rhBMP-2 to stimulate improved bone regeneration. PMID:24266740

  5. The Role of Scaffold Architecture and Composition on the Bone Formation by Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Declercq, Heidi A.; Desmet, Tim; Dubruel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Scaffold architecture and composition are crucial parameters determining the initial cell spatial distribution and consequently bone tissue formation. Three-dimensional poly-?-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with a 0/90° lay-down pattern were plotted and subjected to (1) an oxygen plasma (PCL O) or (2) a postargon plasma modification with gelatin and fibronectin (PCL Fn). These scaffolds with an open pore structure were compared with more compact scaffolds fabricated by conventional processing techniques: oxidized polylactic acid (LA O) and collagen (COL) scaffolds. Human adipose tissue-derived stem cell/scaffold interactions were studied. The study revealed that the biomimetic surface modification of plotted scaffolds did not increase the seeding efficiency. The proliferation and colonization was superior for PCL Fn in comparison with PCL O. The plotted PCL Fn was completely colonized throughout the scaffold, whereas conventional scaffolds only at the edge. Protein-based scaffolds (PCL Fn and COL) enhanced the differentiation, although plotted scaffolds showed a delay in their differentiation compared with compact scaffolds. In conclusion, protein modification of plotted PCL scaffolds enhances uniform tissue formation, but shows a delayed differentiation in comparison with compact scaffolds. The present study demonstrates that biomimetic PCL scaffolds could serve as a guiding template to obtain a uniform bone tissue formation in vivo. PMID:23998529

  6. The effect of Lycii Radicis Cortex extract on bone formation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunkuk; Jin, Hyun-Seok; Cho, Doo-Yeoun; Kim, Jeonghyun; Kim, Mun-Chang; Choi, Chun Whan; Jin, Yilan; Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Jin-Hyok; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Huh, Dam; Jeong, Seon-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disease caused by decreased bone mass; it enhances the risk of bone fracture. This study aimed to discover novel herbal extract(s) for the treatment of osteoporosis. We screened 64 ethanol extracts of edible plants native to Korea for their ability to increase the cellular proliferation and differentiation of two osteoblastic cell lines: C3H10T1/2 and MC3T3-E1. We selected a Lycii Radicis Cortex (LRC), Lycium Chinese root bark as the primary candidate. Treatment with LRC extract showed enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and increased expression of bone metabolic markers Alpl, Runx2, and Bglap genes in both osteoblastic cell lines. There was no effect on the osteoclastic differentiation of primary-cultured monocytes from the mouse bone marrows. Furthermore, the study examined the effect of LRC extract in vivo in ovariectomizd (OVX) mice for 8 weeks and 16 weeks, respectively. Bone mineral density (BMD) was significantly higher in LRC extract-administered group than in the non-LRC-administered OVX control group. The results indicated that LRC extract prevented the OVX-induced BMD loss in mice via promoting the differentiation of osteoblast linage cells. These results suggest that LRC extract may be a good natural herbal medicine candidate for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:25432011

  7. Bone Regeneration by the Combined Use of Tetrapod-Shaped Calcium Phosphate Granules with Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Binding Ion Complex Gel in Canine Segmental Radial Defects

    PubMed Central

    HONNAMI, Muneki; CHOI, Sungjin; LIU, I-li; KAMIMURA, Wataru; TAGUCHI, Tetsushi; HOJO, Hironori; SHIMOHATA, Nobuyuki; OHBA, Shinsuke; KOYAMA, Hiroyuki; NISHIMURA, Ryohei; CHUNG, Ung-il; SASAKI, Nobuo; MOCHIZUKI, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effect of tetrapod-shaped alpha tricalcium phosphate granules (Tetrabones® [TB]) in combination with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-binding ion complex gel (f-IC gel) on bone defect repair was examined. Bilateral segmental defects 20-mm long were created in the radius of 5 dogs, stabilized with a plate and screws and implanted with 1 of the following: TB (TB group), TB and bFGF solution (TB/f group), and TB and f-IC gel (TB/f-IC group). Dogs were euthanized 4 weeks after surgery. Radiographs showed well-placed TB granules in the defects and equal osseous callus formation in all the groups. Histomorphometry revealed that the number of vessels and volume of new bone in the TB/f-IC group were significantly higher than those in the other groups. However, no significant differences in neovascularization and new bone formation were observed between the TB/f and TB groups. Furthermore, no significant difference in the lamellar bone volume or rate of mineral apposition was observed among groups. These results suggest that increased bone formation might have been because of the promotion of neovascularization by the f-IC gel. Therefore, the combinatorial method may provide a suitable scaffold for bone regeneration in large segmental long bone defects. PMID:24670963

  8. Small intestine submucosa sponge for in vivo support of tissue-engineered bone formation in the presence of rat bone marrow stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyung Sook Kim; Ju Young Lee; Yun Mi Kang; E. Sle Kim; Gyeong Hae Kim; Sang Dal Rhee; Hyae Gyeong Cheon; Jae Ho Kim; Byoung-Hyun Min; Hai Bang Lee; Moon Suk Kim

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to visualize new bone formed in vivo on a small intestine submucosa (SIS) sponge used as a tissue-engineered scaffold for the repair of damaged bone. The SIS sponge provided a three-dimensional pore structure, and supported good attachment and viability of rat bone marrow stem cells (rBMSCs). To examine bone regeneration, we prepared full-thickness

  9. Osteoblast maturation and new bone formation in response to titanium implant surface features are reduced with age.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Raines, Andrew L; Hyzy, Sharon L; Park, Jung Hwa; Hutton, Daphne L; Cochran, David L; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi

    2012-08-01

    The surface properties of materials contribute to host cellular response and play a significant role in determining the overall success or failure of an implanted biomaterial. Rough titanium (Ti) surface microtopography and high surface free energy have been shown to enhance osteoblast maturation in vitro and increase bone formation in vivo. Whereas the surface properties of Ti are known to affect osteoblast response, host bone quality also plays a significant role in determining successful osseointegration. One factor affecting host bone quality is patient age. We examined both in vitro and in vivo whether response to Ti surface features was affected by animal age. Calvarial osteoblasts isolated from 1-, 3-, and 11-month-old rats all displayed a reduction in cell number and increases in alkaline phosphatase-specific activity and osteocalcin in response to increasing Ti surface microtopography and surface energy. Further, osteoblasts from the three ages examined displayed increased production of osteocalcin and local factors osteoprotegerin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and active transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 in response to increasing Ti surface roughness and surface energy. Latent TGF-?1 only increased in cultures of osteoblasts from 1- and 3-month-old rats. Treatment with the systemic osteotropic hormone 1?,25(OH)(2)D(3) further enhanced the response of osteoblasts to Ti surface features for all three age groups. However, osteoblasts derived from 11-month-old animals had a reduced response to 1?,25(OH)(2)D(3) compared to osteoblasts derived from 1- or 3-month-old animals. These results were confirmed in vivo. Ti implants placed in the femoral intramedullary canal of old (9-month-old) mice yielded lower bone-to-implant contact and neovascularization in response to Ti surface roughness and energy compared to younger (2-month-old) mice. These results show that rodent osteoblast maturation in vitro as well as new bone formation in vivo is reduced with age. Whether comparable age differences exist in humans needs to be determined. PMID:22492532

  10. ACM Reference Format Le, B., Deng, Z. 2012. Smooth Skinning Decomposition with Rigid Bones. ACM Trans. Graph. 31 6,

    E-print Network

    Azevedo, Ricardo

    bone-vertex weight map. Formulated as a constrained optimization problem where the least squared error. Every vertex is associated with the bones via a bone-vertex weight map which quantifies the influence: A set of example poses are decomposed into rigid bone transformations B and a sparse, convex bone-vertex

  11. Biodegradable chitin conduit tubulation combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treatment of spinal cord injury by reducing glial scar and cavity formation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Feng; Wu, Er-Jun; Zhang, Pei-Xun; Li-Ya, A; Kou, Yu-Hui; Yin, Xiao-Feng; Han, Na

    2015-01-01

    We examined the restorative effect of modified biodegradable chitin conduits in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation after right spinal cord hemisection injury. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that biological conduit sleeve bridging reduced glial scar formation and spinal muscular atrophy after spinal cord hemisection. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells survived and proliferated after transplantation in vivo, and differentiated into cells double-positive for S100 (Schwann cell marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (glial cell marker) at 8 weeks. Retrograde tracing showed that more nerve fibers had grown through the injured spinal cord at 14 weeks after combination therapy than either treatment alone. Our findings indicate that a biological conduit combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation effectively prevented scar formation and provided a favorable local microenvironment for the proliferation, migration and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the spinal cord, thus promoting restoration following spinal cord hemisection injury. PMID:25788929

  12. Biodegradable chitin conduit tubulation combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treatment of spinal cord injury by reducing glial scar and cavity formation

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Feng; Wu, Er-jun; Zhang, Pei-xun; Li-ya, A; Kou, Yu-hui; Yin, Xiao-feng; Han, Na

    2015-01-01

    We examined the restorative effect of modified biodegradable chitin conduits in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation after right spinal cord hemisection injury. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that biological conduit sleeve bridging reduced glial scar formation and spinal muscular atrophy after spinal cord hemisection. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells survived and proliferated after transplantation in vivo, and differentiated into cells double-positive for S100 (Schwann cell marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (glial cell marker) at 8 weeks. Retrograde tracing showed that more nerve fibers had grown through the injured spinal cord at 14 weeks after combination therapy than either treatment alone. Our findings indicate that a biological conduit combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation effectively prevented scar formation and provided a favorable local microenvironment for the proliferation, migration and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the spinal cord, thus promoting restoration following spinal cord hemisection injury. PMID:25788929

  13. Wavelet element method for lamellar gratings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhangyi; Wu, Jiu Hui; Shen, Li

    2013-05-01

    A wavelet element method is developed for analyzing lamellar diffraction gratings or grating stacks. The eigenmodes of the grating layers are accurately calculated by this method, and then the diffraction efficiencies of the gratings are calculated by the S-matrix algorithm. The method proposed in this paper consists in mapping each homogeneous layer to a wavelet element, and then matching them according to the boundary conditions between the layers. By this method the boundary conditions are satisfied rigorously and the Gibbs phenomenon in the Fourier modal method (FMM) can be avoided. The method performs better than the standard FMM for gratings involving metals. It can also be applied to analyze other discontinuous structures. PMID:23695336

  14. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide-depleted mice show abnormal epiphyseal cartilage development and altered endochondral bone formation

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    To elucidate the role of PTHrP in skeletal development, we examined the proximal tibial epiphysis and metaphysis of wild-type (PTHrP-normal) 18- 19-d-old fetal mice and of chondrodystrophic litter mates homozygous for a disrupted PTHrP allele generated via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells (PTHrP-depleted). In the PTHrP-normal epiphysis, immunocytochemistry showed PTHrP to be localized in chondrocytes within the resting zone and at the junction between proliferative and hypertrophic zones. In PTHrP-depleted epiphyses, a diminished [3H]thymidine-labeling index was observed in the resting and proliferative zones accounting for reduced numbers of epiphyseal chondrocytes and for a thinner epiphyseal plate. In the mutant hypertrophic zone, enlarged chondrocytes were interspersed with clusters of cells that did not hypertrophy, but resembled resting or proliferative chondrocytes. Although the overall content of type II collagen in the epiphyseal plate was diminished, the lacunae of these non-hypertrophic chondrocytes did react for type II collagen. Moreover, cell membrane-associated chondroitin sulfate immunoreactivity was evident on these cells. Despite the presence of alkaline phosphatase activity on these nonhypertrophic chondrocytes, the adjacent cartilage matrix did not calcify and their persistence accounted for distorted chondrocyte columns and sporadic distribution of calcified cartilage. Consequently, in the metaphysis, bone deposited on the irregular and sparse scaffold of calcified cartilage and resulted in mixed spicules that did not parallel the longitudinal axis of the tibia and were, therefore, inappropriate for bone elongation. Thus, PTHrP appears to modulate both the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes and its absence alters the temporal and spatial sequence of epiphyseal cartilage development and of subsequent endochondral bone formation necessary for normal elongation of long bones. PMID:8089190

  15. The effect of devitalized trabecular bone on the formation of osteochondral tissue-engineered constructs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric G. Lima; Pen-hsiu Grace Chao; Gerard A. Ateshian; B. Sonny Bal; James L. Cook; Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic; Clark T. Hung

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, evidence is presented demonstrating that devitalized trabecular bone has an inhibitory effect on in vitro chondral tissue development when used as a base material for the tissue-engineering of osteochondral constructs for cartilage repair. Chondrocyte-seeded agarose hydrogel constructs were cultured alone or attached to an underlying bony base in a chemically defined medium formulation that has been

  16. The effect of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) on bone formation: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Rathe; Rüdiger Junker; Betsy M. Chesnutt; John A. Jansen

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review focused on the question, if and to what extent enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) [EMD]) promotes the regeneration of bone. The influence of combinations with other biomaterials was additionally evaluated. Twenty histomorphometric studies were included in this systematic review. Main results of the reviewed articles were (i) guide tissue regeneration (GTR) of infrabony defects seems to result in

  17. Stability and Three-Dimensional Analysis of Bone Formation in Longitudinally Fluted Miniscrew Implants

    E-print Network

    Truong, An Van

    2014-04-22

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of longitudinal flutes on mini-screw implant (MSI) bone healing and stability. Using 11 skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits, 33 longitudinally fluted and 33 non-fluted MSIs were...

  18. Stimulation of New Bone Formation by Direct Transfer of Osteogenic Plasmid Genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianming Fang; Yao-Yao Zhu; Elizabeth Smiley; Jeffrey Bonadio; Jeffrey P. Rouleau; Steven A. Goldstein; Laurie K. McCauley; Beverly L. Davidson; Blake J. Roessler

    1996-01-01

    Degradable matrices containing expression plasmid DNA [gene-activated matrices (GAMs)] were implanted into segmental gaps created in the adult rat femur. Implantation of GAMs containing beta -galactosidase or luciferase plasmids led to DNA uptake and functional enzyme expression by repair cells (granulation tissue) growing into the gap. Implantation of a GAM containing either a bone morphogenetic protein-4 plasmid or a plasmid

  19. Lrp5-independent activation of Wnt signaling by lithium chloride increases bone formation

    E-print Network

    in these mice. SAMP6 mice have accelerated osteoporosis due to inadequate osteoblast renewal. Lithium lithium should determine whether it also improves bone mass in humans. anabolic osteoporosis therapy the Osteoporosis­Pseudoglioma syndrome (OPPG), an autosomal re- cessive disorder characterized by extremely low

  20. Analysis of load redistribution in diaphyseal bone following staged screw removal from bone plates

    E-print Network

    Nixon, Joseph Craig

    1987-01-01

    channels, through which blood enters and leaves (3). The hollow cavity inside the bone is the marrow cavity which contains plates of lamellar bone called trabecula, oriented parallel to the major loads on the bone (3). The external surface of each bone... the microstructure (2). IN rods are inserted into the marrow of a long bone to stabilize it during healing (1). The rod should be as tight fitting in the marrow cavity as possible. Different configurations have been tried to anchor the rod in the endosteum...

  1. Parathyroid Hormone Stimulates TRANCE and Inhibits Osteoprotegerin Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Expression in Murine Bone Marrow Cultures: Correlation with Osteoclast-Like Cell Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUN-KYEONG LEE; JOSEPH A. LORENZO

    1999-01-01

    We studied the effects of PTH on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE), osteoprote- gerin (OPG), and receptor activator of NF kB (RANK) messenger RNA (mRNA) in cultured murine bone marrow, calvaria, and osteoblasts. TRANCE, OPG, and RANK are recently identified regulators of os- teoclast formation. Bone marrow cells were cultured with or without PTH(1-34) for 6

  2. Biosilica-glass formation using enzymes from sponges [silicatein]: Basic aspects and application in biomedicine [bone reconstitution material and osteoporosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shun-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Gan, Lu; Wiens, Matthias; Schröder, Heinz C.; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2011-09-01

    In the last 15 years biomineralization, in particular biosilicification (i.e., the formation of biogenic silica, SiO2), has become an exciting source of inspiration for the development of novel bionic approaches, following "Nature as model". Among the silica forming organisms there are the sponges that have the unique property to catalyze their silica skeletons by a specific enzyme termed silicatein. In the present review we summarize the present state of knowledge on silicatein-mediated "biosilica" formation in marine sponges, the involvement of further molecules in silica metabolism and their potential application in biomedicine. Recent advancements in the production of bone replacement material and in the potential use as a component in the treatment of osteoporosis are highlighted.

  3. Long bone maturation is driven by pore closing: A quantitative tomography investigation of structural formation in young C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Bortel, Emely L; Duda, Georg N; Mundlos, Stefan; Willie, Bettina M; Fratzl, Peter; Zaslansky, Paul

    2015-08-01

    During mammalian growth, long bones undergo extensive structural reorganization, transforming from primitive shapes in the limb buds into mature bones. Here we shed light on the steps involved in structural formation of the mineralized tissue in midshafts of C57BL/6 femurs, shortly after birth. By combining 3D micrometer-resolution X-ray microtomography with 2D histology, we study the transformation of the tissue from a partially-mineralized scaffold into a compact bone structure. We identify three growth phases that take place during murine long bone maturation: During a patterning phase (I) mineralized struts form a loosely connected foam-like cortical network. During a transitioning phase (II), the extensive non-mineralized tracts vanish, transforming the foam into a fully continuous mass, by 14days of age. Concomitantly, closed porosity increases to about ?1.4%, and stays at this level, also found in maturity. During a shaping phase (III), the bones gradually attain their characteristic intricate adult form. Architectured mineral depositioning - first in open foamy scaffolds, and later into solid bone material - is presumably a compromise between the mechanical needs of providing support to the body, and the biological requirements of vascularization and extensive nutritional needs in the early stages of bone formation. PMID:25829108

  4. Orientation selection in lamellar phases by oscillatory shears

    E-print Network

    Zhi-Feng Huang; Jorge Vinals

    2006-01-17

    In order to address the selection mechanism that is responsible for the unique lamellar orientation observed in block copolymers under oscillatory shears, we use a constitutive law for the dissipative part of the stress tensor that respects the uniaxial symmetry of a lamellar phase. An interface separating two domains oriented parallel and perpendicular to the shear is shown to be hydrodynamically unstable, a situation analogous to the thin layer instability of stratified fluids under shear. The resulting secondary flows break the degeneracy between parallel and perpendicular lamellar orientation, leading to a preferred perpendicular orientation in certain ranges of parameters of the polymer and of the shear.

  5. Role of shear in the isotropic-to-lamellar transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cates, M. E.; Milner, S. T.

    1989-04-01

    In the isotropic-to-lamellar transition, nonlinear fluctuation terms lower the transition temperature ?c and drive the transition first order. Here we show that steady shear, by suppressing the fluctuations, raises ?c in a certain temperature range the lamellar phase can be induced by applying shear. A study ofo the effective potential indicates that the transition remains first order, though becoming very weak at high shear rate. We argue heuristically that the lamellar ordering first occurs with wave vector normal to both the velocity and the velocity gradient.

  6. Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis with prominent appendicular bone proliferation in a dog

    PubMed Central

    OH, Juyeon; LEE, Ju-Hwan; CHO, Kyoung-Oh; CHOI, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    This report described radiographic and CT features of atypical diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in a 5 year-old, female Shih-tzu showing marked proliferative bone lesions in the appendicular skeleton with minor spinal changes. Continuous or flowing bony bridge formation of vertebrae is used as the gold standard for diagnosing diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. However, this criterion seems not to be suitable for appendicular type diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, as in the present case. Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis is a progressive skeletal disease, and thus, enthesophytosis and the multiple bony proliferations at insertion sites of ligaments and tendons to appendicular bones in a lamellar or trabecular pattern were considered diagnostic features of the appendicular type of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. PMID:25648674

  7. Normalizing the bone marrow microenvironment with p38 inhibitor reduces multiple myeloma cell proliferation and adhesion and suppresses osteoclast formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Aaron N. [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Stebbins, Elizabeth G. [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Henson, Margaret [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); O'Young, Gilbert [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Choi, Sun J. [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Quon, Diana [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Damm, Debby [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Reddy, Mamatha [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Ma, Jing Y. [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Haghnazari, Edwin [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Kapoun, Ann M. [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Medicherla, Satyanarayana [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Protter, Andy [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Schreiner, George F. [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Kurihara, Noriyoshi [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Anderson, Judy [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Roodman, G. David [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Va Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Navas, Tony A. [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Higgins, Linda S. [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States)]. E-mail: lhiggin3@scius.jnj.com

    2006-06-10

    The multiple myeloma (MM) bone marrow (BM) microenvironment plays a critical role in supporting tumor growth and survival as well as in promoting formation of osteolytic lesions. Recent results suggest that the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is an important factor in maintaining this activated environment. In this report, we demonstrate that the p38{alpha} MAPK inhibitor, SCIO-469, suppresses secretion of the tumor-supportive factors IL-6 and VEGF from BM stromal cells (BMSCs) as well as cocultures of BMSCs with MM cells, resulting in reduction in MM cell proliferation. Additionally, we show that SCIO-469 prevents TNF{alpha}-induced adhesion of MM cells to BMSCs through an ICAM-1- and VCAM-1-independent mechanism. Microarray analysis revealed a novel set of TNF{alpha}-induced chemokines in BMSCs that is strongly inhibited by SCIO-469. Furthermore, reintroduction of chemokines CXCL10 and CCL8 to BMSCs overcomes the inhibitory effect of SCIO-469 on TNF{alpha}-induced MM adhesion. Lastly, we show that SCIO-469 inhibits secretion and expression of the osteoclast-activating factors IL-11, RANKL, and MIP-1{alpha} as well as prevents human osteoclast formation in vitro. Collectively, these results suggest that SCIO-469 treatment can suppress factors in the bone marrow microenvironment to inhibit MM cell proliferation and adhesion and also to alleviate osteolytic activation in MM.

  8. Focal Adhesion Kinase Plays a Role in Osteoblast Mechanotransduction In Vitro but Does Not Affect Load-Induced Bone Formation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Alesha B.; Blundo, Jennifer T.; Chen, Julia C.; Lee, Kristen L.; Yereddi, Nikitha Reddy; Jang, Eugene; Kumar, Shefali; Tang, W. Joyce; Zarrin, Sarah; Kim, Jae-Beom; Jacobs, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    A healthy skeleton relies on bone's ability to respond to external mechanical forces. The molecular mechanisms by which bone cells sense and convert mechanical stimuli into biochemical signals, a process known as mechanotransduction, are unclear. Focal adhesions play a critical role in cell survival, migration and sensing physical force. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that controls focal adhesion dynamics and can mediate reparative bone formation in vivo and osteoblast mechanotransduction in vitro. Based on these data, we hypothesized that FAK plays a role in load-induced bone formation. To test this hypothesis, we performed in vitro fluid flow experiments and in vivo bone loading studies in FAK?/? clonal lines and conditional FAK knockout mice, respectively. FAK?/? osteoblasts showed an ablated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) response to fluid flow shear. This effect was reversed with the re-expression of wild-type FAK. Re-expression of FAK containing site-specific mutations at Tyr-397 and Tyr-925 phosphorylation sites did not rescue the phenotype, suggesting that these sites are important in osteoblast mechanotransduction. Interestingly, mice in which FAK was conditionally deleted in osteoblasts and osteocytes did not exhibit altered load-induced periosteal bone formation. Together these data suggest that although FAK is important in mechanically-induced signaling in osteoblasts in vitro, it is not required for an adaptive response in vivo, possibly due to a compensatory mechanism that does not exist in the cell culture system. PMID:23028449

  9. Effects of acoustic and EHF impulses on multipotent stromal cells during formation of bone marrow containing heterotopic organs in tissue engineered constructions.

    PubMed

    Chaikhalyan, R K; Yusupov, V I; Gorskaya, Yu F; Kuralesova, A I; Gerasimov, Yu V; Sviridov, A P; Tambiev, A Kh; Vorob'eva, N N; Shishkova, A G Grosheva V V; Moskvina, I L; Bagratashvili, V N

    2015-03-01

    We studied the effects of physical factors (acoustic impulses of laser-induced hydrodynamics, AILIH, and EHF-radiation) on the formation of heterotopic bone marrow organs. Suspension of precipitated mouse bone marrow cells was exposed to AILIH and EHF or their combinations (AILIH+EHF, EHF+AILIH). The developed tissue engineering constructions (gelatin sponges containing 107 nucleated bone marrow cells exposed to physical factors) were transplanted under the renal capsule of syngeneic mice. Analysis of newly formed hemopoietic organs was performed after 3 and 5 months. The total amount of hemopoietic cells, number of multipotent stromal cells, efficiency of colony formation from these cells, and weight of bone capsule of the transplants were measured. Microscopic study showed that 5-month transplants were significantly larger than 3-month transplants and contained 3-fold more hemopoietic cells (20-fold in the AILIH+EHF group). The number of multipotent stromal cells was maximum in EHF+AILIH group (by 2.2 times higher than in the control) and minimum in AILIH+EHF group. Exposure to EHF+AILIH had most pronounced effect on the formation of the bone marrow transplants. The weight of bone capsules more rapidly increased in gelatin sponges of 3-month transplants of EHF+AILIH and AILIH groups. These data suggest that the studied physical factors can be used for acceleration of rehabilitation process. PMID:25778661

  10. BMP-Non-Responsive Sca1+CD73+CD44+ Mouse Bone Marrow Derived Osteoprogenitor Cells Respond to Combination of VEGF and BMP-6 to Display Enhanced Osteoblastic Differentiation and Ectopic Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Madhu, Vedavathi; Li, Ching-Ju; Dighe, Abhijit S.; Balian, Gary; Cui, Quanjun

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials on fracture repair have challenged the effectiveness of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) but suggest that delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) might be beneficial. It has also been reported that BMPs could not increase mineralization in several MSCs populations, which adds ambiguity to the use of BMPs. However, an exogenous supply of MSCs combined with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and BMPs is reported to synergistically enhance fracture repair in animal models. To elucidate the mechanism of this synergy, we investigated the osteoblastic differentiation of cloned mouse bone marrow derived MSCs (D1 cells) in vitro in response to human recombinant proteins of VEGF, BMPs (-2, -4, -6, -9) and the combination of VEGF with BMP-6 (most potent BMP). We further investigated ectopic bone formation induced by MSCs pre-conditioned with VEGF, BMP-6 or both. No significant increase in mineralization, phosphorylation of Smads 1/5/8 and expression of the ALP, COL1A1 and osterix genes was observed upon addition of VEGF or BMPs alone to the cells in culture. The lack of CD105, Alk1 and Alk6 expression in D1 cells correlated with poor response to BMPs indicating that a greater care in the selection of MSCs is necessary. Interestingly, the combination of VEGF and BMP-6 significantly increased the expression of ALP, COL1A1 and osterix genes and D1 cells pre-conditioned with VEGF and BMP-6 induced greater bone formation in vivo than the non-conditioned control cells or the cells pre-conditioned with either VEGF or BMP-6 alone. This enhanced bone formation by MSCs correlated with higher CADM1 expression and OPG/RANKL ratio in the implants. Thus, combined action of VEGF and BMP on MSCs enhances osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs and increases their bone forming ability, which cannot be achieved through use of BMPs alone. This strategy can be effectively used for bone repair. PMID:25048464

  11. BMP-non-responsive Sca1+ CD73+ CD44+ mouse bone marrow derived osteoprogenitor cells respond to combination of VEGF and BMP-6 to display enhanced osteoblastic differentiation and ectopic bone formation.

    PubMed

    Madhu, Vedavathi; Li, Ching-Ju; Dighe, Abhijit S; Balian, Gary; Cui, Quanjun

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials on fracture repair have challenged the effectiveness of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) but suggest that delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) might be beneficial. It has also been reported that BMPs could not increase mineralization in several MSCs populations, which adds ambiguity to the use of BMPs. However, an exogenous supply of MSCs combined with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and BMPs is reported to synergistically enhance fracture repair in animal models. To elucidate the mechanism of this synergy, we investigated the osteoblastic differentiation of cloned mouse bone marrow derived MSCs (D1 cells) in vitro in response to human recombinant proteins of VEGF, BMPs (-2, -4, -6, -9) and the combination of VEGF with BMP-6 (most potent BMP). We further investigated ectopic bone formation induced by MSCs pre-conditioned with VEGF, BMP-6 or both. No significant increase in mineralization, phosphorylation of Smads 1/5/8 and expression of the ALP, COL1A1 and osterix genes was observed upon addition of VEGF or BMPs alone to the cells in culture. The lack of CD105, Alk1 and Alk6 expression in D1 cells correlated with poor response to BMPs indicating that a greater care in the selection of MSCs is necessary. Interestingly, the combination of VEGF and BMP-6 significantly increased the expression of ALP, COL1A1 and osterix genes and D1 cells pre-conditioned with VEGF and BMP-6 induced greater bone formation in vivo than the non-conditioned control cells or the cells pre-conditioned with either VEGF or BMP-6 alone. This enhanced bone formation by MSCs correlated with higher CADM1 expression and OPG/RANKL ratio in the implants. Thus, combined action of VEGF and BMP on MSCs enhances osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs and increases their bone forming ability, which cannot be achieved through use of BMPs alone. This strategy can be effectively used for bone repair. PMID:25048464

  12. Plumbagin attenuates cancer cell growth and osteoclast formation in the bone microenvironment of mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wei; Wang, Ting-yu; Fan, Qi-ming; Du, Lin; Xu, Jia-ke; Zhai, Zan-jing; Li, Hao-wei; Tang, Ting-ting

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of plumbagin, a naphthoquinone derived from the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica, on human breast cancer cell growth and the cancer cell-induced osteolysis in the bone microenvironment of mice. Methods: Human breast cancer cell subline MDA-MB-231SA with the ability to spread and grow in the bone was tested. The cell proliferation was determined using the CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis was detected with Annexin V/PI double-labeled flow cytometry. Red fluorescent protein-labeled MDA-MB-231SArfp cells were injected into the right tibia of female BALB/c-nu/nu mice. Three days after the inoculation, the mice were injected with plumbagin (2, 4, or 6 mg/kg, ip) 5 times per week for 7 weeks. The growth of the tumor cells was monitored using an in vivo imaging system. After the mice were sacrificed, the hind limbs were removed for radiographic and histological analyses. Results: Plumbagin (2.5–20 ?mol/L) concentration-dependently inhibited the cell viability and induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231SA cells in vitro (the IC50 value of inhibition of cell viability was 14.7 ?mol/L). Administration of plumbagin to breast cancer bearing mice delayed the tumor growth by 2–3 weeks and reduced the tumor volume by 44%–74%. The in vivo imaging study showed that plumbagin dose-dependently inhibited MDA-MB-231SArfp cell growth in bone microenvironment. Furthermore, X-ray images and micro-CT study demonstrated that plumbagin reduced bone erosion area and prevented a decrease in bone tissue volume. Histological studies showed that plumbagin dose-dependently inhibited the breast cancer cell growth, enhanced the cell apoptosis and reduced the number of TRAcP-positive osteoclasts. Conclusion: Plumbagin inhibits the cell growth and induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells in mice bone microenvironment, leading to significant reduction in osteolytic lesions caused by the tumor cells. PMID:24384612

  13. Fatigue crack propagation in titanium alloys with lamellar and bilamellar microstructures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Schroeder; J Albrecht; G Luetjering

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the fatigue crack propagation behavior of bi-lamellar titanium microstructures in comparison with conventional lamellar microstructures. While the bi-lamellar condition showed a higher resistance to microcrack propagation, the differences in macro-crack propagation behavior of the lamellar and the bi-lamellar condition were found to be relatively small as a result of the superposition of counteracting contributions. In vacuum

  14. Effect of gentamicin loaded PMMA bone cement on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KA Poelstra; HJ Busscher; W. Schenk; JR van Horn; HC van der Mei

    1999-01-01

    PMMA (poly?methyl?methacrylate) bone cement is widely used in prosthetic implant surgery and is currently prepared with vacuum?mixing for improved mechanical properties. Revision of implants due to infection occurs in about 1% of cases, mostly involving staphylococcal strains. Antibiotic loaded cement is often used in this revision?setting. The aims of this study were to determine in a modified Robbins device whether

  15. Enhanced endothelialization and microvessel formation in polyester grafts seeded with CD341 bone marrow cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vishwanath Bhattacharya; Peter A. McSweeney; Qun Shi; Benedetto Bruno; Atsushi Ishida; Richard Nash; Rainer F. Storb; Lester R. Sauvage; William P. Hammond; Moses Hong-De Wu

    12-cm composite grafts had a 4-cm PET graft in the center and 4-cm standard ePTFE grafts at each end. The entire composite was coated with silicone rub- ber to make it impervious; thus, the PET segment was shielded from perigraft and pannus ingrowth. There were 5 study grafts and 5 control grafts. On the day before surgery, 120 mL bone

  16. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) Regulates Hematopoiesis and Bone Formation In Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Shen; Ingrid G. Winkler; Valerie Barbier; Natalie A. Sims; Jean Hendy; Jean-Pierre Lévesque

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundTissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) inhibits matrix metalloproteinases and membrane-bound sheddases. TIMP-3 is associated with the extracellular matrix and is expressed in highly remodeling tissues. TIMP-3 function in the hematopoietic system is unknown.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe now report that TIMP-3 is highly expressed in the endosteal region of the bone marrow (BM), particularly by osteoblasts, endothelial and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells which

  17. Formation and preclinical evaluation of a new alloplastic injectable bone substitute material.

    PubMed

    Bojar, Witold; Kucharska, Martyna; Bubak, Grzegorz; Ciach, Tomasz; Koperski, ?ukasz; Jastrz?bski, Zenon; Gruber, Beata M; Krzyszto?-Russjan, Jolanta; Marczewska, Jadwiga; Anuszewska, El?bieta L; Drozd, Ewa; Brynk, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Alloplastic bone substitute materials are raising some more interest as an alternative for autologic transplants and xenogenic materials especially in oral surgery over the last few years. These non-immunogenic and completely resorbable biomaterials are the basis for complete and predictable guided bone regeneration. In the majority of cases, such a material is chosen because of its convenient application by surgeons. The main objective of our project was to design and fabricate an osteoconductive, injectable and readily tolerable by human tissues biomaterial for guided bone regeneration. For this purpose, a self-setting composite consisting of chitosan/tricalcium phosphate microparticles and sodium alginate was made. The material obtained was characterized by microsphere and agglomerate morphology and microstructure. Its features relating to setting time and mechanical properties were precisely investigated. Our material was also evaluated according to PN-EN ISO 10993 Biological evaluation of medical devices, i.e., the in vitro tests for genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were conduced. Then, the following examinations were performed: subchronic systemic toxicity, skin sensitization, irritation and delayed-type hypersensitivity and local effects after implantation. The material tested showed a high degree of cytocompatibility, fulfilled the requirements of International Standards and seemed to be a "user friendly" material for oral surgeons. PMID:22742431

  18. Multifunctional surfaces with biomimetic nanofibres and drug-eluting micro-patterns for infection control and bone tissue formation.

    PubMed

    Chen, X N; Gu, Y X; Lee, J H; Lee, W Y; Wang, H J

    2012-01-01

    For long-term orthopaedic implants, the creation of a surface that is repulsive to bacteria while adhesive to tissue cells represents a promising strategy to control infection. To obtain such multifunctional surfaces, two possible approaches were explored to incorporate a model antibiotic, rifampicin (Rf), into the osteogenic polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan (CHS) biomimetic nanofibre meshes by (1) blending Rf into the electrospinning solutions and then electrospinning into nanofibres (i.e., Rf-incorporating fibres), or (2) depositing Rf-containing poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) micro-patterns onto the PCL/chitosan nanofibre meshes via ink-jet printing (i.e., Rf-eluting micro-pattern/fibre). Rapid release of Rf from both meshes was measured even though a relatively slower release rate was obtained from the Rf-eluting micro-pattern ones. Antibacterial assay with Staphylococcus epidermidis showed that both mesh surfaces could effectively kill bacteria and prevent biofilm formation. However, only Rf-eluting micro-pattern meshes favoured the attachment, spreading and metabolic activity of preosteoblasts in the cell culture study. Furthermore, the Rf-eluting micro-pattern meshes could better support the osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblasts by up-regulating the gene expression of bone markers (type I collagen and alkaline phosphatase). Clearly, compared to Rf-incorporating nanofibre meshes, Rf-eluting micro-patterns could effectively prevent biofilm formation without sacrificing the osteogenic properties of PCL/chitosan nanofibre surfaces. This finding provides an innovative avenue to design multifunctional surfaces for enhancing bone tissue formation while controlling infection. PMID:23007909

  19. Shear-induced collapse in a lyotropic lamellar phase.

    PubMed

    Porcar, L; Warr, G G; Hamilton, W A; Butler, P D

    2005-08-12

    An entropically stabilized cetylpyridinium chloride, hexanol, and heavy brine lyotropic lamellar phase subjected to shear flow has been observed here by small angle neutron scattering to undergo collapse of smectic order above a threshold shear rate. The results are compared with theories predicting that such a lamellar phase sheared above a critical rate should lose its stability by a loss of resistance to compression due to the suppression of membrane fluctuations. PMID:16196832

  20. Loss of chaotic trabecular structure in OPG-deficient juvenile Paget's disease patients indicates a chaogenic role for OPG in nonlinear pattern formation of trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Phil

    2004-05-01

    The RANK-RANKL-OPG system of osteoclast regulation may play a key role in determining chaotic structure in trabecular bone. Iliac trabecular bone from juvenile Paget's disease patients deficient in functional OPG shows parallel, anisotropic structure instead of normal chaotic structure. Evidence from experimental systems suggests that RANK-RANKL-OPG controls key nonlinear "chaogenic" parameters, such as friction, forcing frequency, feedback, and boundary forcing. The RANK-RANKL-osteoprotegerin (OPG) system of osteoclast regulation may play a key role in determining chaotic structure in trabecular bone. Iliac trabecular bone from juvenile Paget's disease (JPD) patients deficient in functional OPG shows parallel, anisotropic structure instead of normal chaotic structure. Evidence from experimental systems suggests that RANK-RANKL-OPG controls key nonlinear "chaogenic" parameters, such as friction, forcing frequency, feedback, and boundary forcing. The Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction-diffusion system, the catalytic oxidation of CO on platinum surfaces, and thermal diffusion in liquid helium allow visualization of nonlinear emergent patterns such as labyrinthine structures, turbulence, and cellular structures, all of which bear some resemblance to trabecular bone. In JPD, the gene for OPG (TNFRSF11B) is subject to an inactivating mutation, leading to increased resorption and accelerated remodeling. Histomorphometric images of iliac crest trabecular bone from teenagers suffering from JPD show a highly unusual array of parallel, regular trabecular plates, instead of the typical chaotic, fractal patterns of normal trabecular bone. Loss of OPG function is associated with a change from chaotic to regular structure, suggesting that the RANK-RANKL-OPG system is controlling key nonlinear "chaogenic" parameters. Looking at trabecular bone from the perspective of nonlinear pattern formation may help understand other phenomena, such as the marked dependence of trabecular bone's architectural and mechanical quality on remodeling rate independent of the trabecular bone mass. PMID:15068491

  1. Probable Ankylosaur Ossicles from the Middle Cenomanian Dunvegan Formation of Northwestern Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Michael E.; Vavrek, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    A sample of six probable fragmentary ankylosaur ossicles, collected from Cenomanian deposits of the Dunvegan Formation along the Peace River, represent one of the first dinosaurian skeletal fossils reported from pre-Santonian deposits in Alberta. Specimens were identified as ankylosaur by means of a palaeohistological analysis. The primary tissue is composed of zonal interwoven structural fibre bundles with irregularly-shaped lacunae, unlike the elongate lacunae of the secondary lamellar bone. The locality represents the most northerly Cenomanian occurrence of ankylosaur skeletal remains. Further fieldwork in under-examined areas of the province carries potential for additional finds. PMID:24816807

  2. Probable ankylosaur ossicles from the middle Cenomanian Dunvegan formation of northwestern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Burns, Michael E; Vavrek, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    A sample of six probable fragmentary ankylosaur ossicles, collected from Cenomanian deposits of the Dunvegan Formation along the Peace River, represent one of the first dinosaurian skeletal fossils reported from pre-Santonian deposits in Alberta. Specimens were identified as ankylosaur by means of a palaeohistological analysis. The primary tissue is composed of zonal interwoven structural fibre bundles with irregularly-shaped lacunae, unlike the elongate lacunae of the secondary lamellar bone. The locality represents the most northerly Cenomanian occurrence of ankylosaur skeletal remains. Further fieldwork in under-examined areas of the province carries potential for additional finds. PMID:24816807

  3. Novel analysis model for implant osseointegration using ectopic bone formation via the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2/macroporous biphasic calcium phosphate block system in rats: a proof-of-concept study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Chul; Lee, Jong-Bin; Daculsi, Guy; Oh, Sang-Yeop; Cho, Kyoo-Sung; Im, Gun-Il; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The osseointegration around titanium mini-implants installed in macroporous biphasic calcium phosphate (MBCP) blocks was evaluated after incubation with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in an ectopic subcutaneous rat model. Methods Mini-implants (?1.8×12 mm) were installed in MBCP blocks (bMBCPs, 4×5×15 mm) loaded with rhBMP-2 at 0.1 mg/mL, and then implanted for 8 weeks into subcutaneous pockets of male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10). A histomorphometric analysis was performed, and the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone density were evaluated. Results Significant osteoinductive activity was induced in the rhBMP-2/bMBCP group. The percentage of BIC was 41.23±4.13% (mean±standard deviation), while bone density was 33.47±5.73%. In contrast, no bone formation was observed in the bMBCP only group. Conclusions This model represents a more standardized tool for analyzing osseointegration and bone healing along the implant surface and in bMBCPs that excludes various healing factors derived from selected animals and defect models. PMID:22977743

  4. Carbonic anhydrase I (CA1) is involved in the process of bone formation and is susceptible to ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is characterized by abnormal bone formation in the spine and the sacroiliac joints. In vitro assays demonstrate that carbonic anhydrase I (CA1) promotes calcium precipitation. This study investigated the function of CA1 for bio-mineralization and determined if common polymorphisms in the CA1 gene might contribute to AS risk. Methods Calcification was induced in Saos-2 cells, a human osteosarcoma cell line, with ascorbic acid and ?-glycerophosphate. Calcification was determined by Alizarin Red-S (AR-S) staining. Expressions of CA1, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteocalcin (OCN), osterix (OSX) and runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) were determined by real-time PCR and western blotting. The cells were also treated with acetazolamide, an anti-carbonic anhydrase drug. Genotyping was performed using Illumina VeraCode microarray in a case-control study including 51 AS patients, 267 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and 160 healthy controls. The result was confirmed by Taqman assay, including 258 AS patients, 288 RA patients and 288 healthy controls. Results Following the induction of calcification, Saos-2 cells produced large amounts of calcium-rich deposits. Increased transcriptions of CA1, ALP, BSP, OCN, OSX and Runx2, essential genes for ossification, were detected in the cultured cells. Following treatmen with acetazolamide, the expression of CA1 obviously declined and mineralized nodule formation was also decreased. Illumina microarray indicates that SNP at rs7841425 also showed significant differences in allelic frequency (P = 0.01396) and genotypic frequency (P = 0.005902) between AS cases and controls. In addition, SNP at rs7827474 showed significant differences in allelic frequency (P = 5.83E-04) and genotypic frequency (P = 0.000186) between RA cases and controls (P values were adjusted to multiple comparisons). The Taqman assay revealed that rs725605 demonstrated statistically significant evidence of allele frequency (P = 0.022307) and gene frequency (P = 0.007731) for association with AS. This SNP did not show significant differences in allelic frequencies and gene frequencies between RA patients and controls. Conclusions CA1 may play an essential role in bio-mineralization and new bone formation. The gene encoding CA1 is susceptible to AS. PMID:22838845

  5. Enhanced healing of rat calvarial critical size defect with selenium-doped lamellar biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Lv, Peng; Ma, Zhe; Zhang, Jingcheng

    2013-10-01

    A 3D porous lamellar selenium-containing nano-hydroxyapatite (SeHAN)/chitosan (CS) biocomposite was synthesized. The selenium-containing hydroxyapatite (HA) grains of 150~200 nm in length and 20~30 nm in width were observed by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. A combination of X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and SEM indicated that HA particles were uniformly dispersed in chitosan matrix and there was a chemical interaction between chitosan and HA. Then, a standard critical size calvarial bone defect was created in Wistar rats. In group 1, no implant was made in the defect. In groups 2 and 3, HA nanoparticles (HAN)/CS biocomposite and SeHAN/CS biocomposite were implanted into the defect, respectively. After 4 weeks, the histological assessment clearly exhibited no significant changes, only found some living cells anchored in the periphery of the implants. After 8 and 12 weeks, most newly formed osteoid tissue was found in the SeHAN/CS implant group. Additionally, the newly formed osteoid tissue, both at the edge and in the center of implants, was bioactive and neovascularized. Microfocus computerized tomography measurements also confirmed the much better quality of the newly formed bone tissue in SeHAN/CS implant group than that in HAN/CS implant group (p < 0.01). Collectively, the SeHAN/CS biocomposite, as a bioactive bone grafting substitute, significantly enhanced the repair of bone defect. PMID:23892698

  6. Human histologic evaluation of the use of the dental putty for bone formation in the maxillary sinus: case series.

    PubMed

    Kim, David M; Nevins, Myron; Camelo, Marcelo; Nevins, Marc L; Schupbach, Peter; Rodrigues, Vinicius S; Fiorellini, Joseph P

    2012-08-01

    A proof-of-principle study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of dental putty as an alternative sinus augmentation biomaterial. Six healthy patients requiring a total of 10 sinus augmentations received sinus augmentations. All patients volunteered and signed an informed consent based on the Helsinki declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. The sinus augmentation was performed under local anesthesia with a mucoperiosteal flap elevated to expose the buccal wall of the maxillary sinus. The space was then filled with the dental putty in several increments, and the window was covered with an absorbable collagen membrane. Biopsies were harvested from all 10 treated sinuses using a 3-mm trephine bur at the time of implant placement at either 6 or at 9 months after sinus augmentation. All patients completed the study without complications, except for 1 patient who reported fistulas at 1 and 2 months after the surgery. Clinical reentry revealed that regenerated bone on the osteotomy site was soft and immature. The ground sections of the biopsied cores revealed minimum amounts of trabeculation surrounded by an abundant array of irregular-shaped residual alloplastic particles embedded in loose connective tissue. The present study's findings revealed inadequate bone formation, although the material appears to be bioinert as there is no elicitation of inflammatory response. PMID:21767203

  7. Znf385C mediates a novel p53-dependent transcriptional switch to control timing of facial bone formation.

    PubMed

    Hochgreb-Hägele, Tatiana; Koo, Daniel E S; Bronner, Marianne E

    2015-04-01

    Jaw formation involves an intricate series of molecular events, whereby a chondrogenic scaffold precedes osteogenesis. The mechanisms coupling timing of cartilage maturation to onset of bone differentiation are poorly understood, particularly for neural crest-derived bones of the head. Here we present a novel zebrafish gene/protein-trap Citrine-fusion line that reveals transient expression of the zinc-finger protein Znf385C in maturing chondrocytes of the jaw. Functional analysis shows that loss of Znf385C disrupts a distinct peak of p21(cip1/waf1) expression in the chondrocytes, as well as causes premature ossification of the zebrafish jaw. We find that Znf385C is expressed as two splice variants which act differentially to activate p21(cip1/waf1) and/or interact with p53 in subcellular compartments. Taken together, the results suggest that Znf385C acts as a developmental switch for p53 function that modulates cell cycle arrest of chondrocytes and regulates timing of jaw cartilage maturation and ossification. PMID:25636963

  8. Effects of Cell-Attachment and Extracellular Matrix on Bone Formation In Vivo in Collagen-Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Max M.; Wang, Liping; Rowe, David W.; Wei, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Cell-based tissue engineering can be used to replace missing or damaged bone, but the optimal methods for delivering therapeutic cells to a bony defect have not yet been established. Using transgenic reporter cells as a donor source, two different collagen-hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds, and a critical-size calvarial defect model, we investigated the effect of a cell-attachment period prior to implantation, with or without an extracellular matrix-based seeding suspension, on cell engraftment and osteogenesis. When quantitatively compared, the in-house scaffold implanted immediately had a higher mean radiopacity than in-house scaffolds incubated overnight. Both scaffold types implanted immediately had significantly higher area fractions of donor cells, while the in-house collagen-HA scaffolds implanted immediately had higher area fractions of the mineralization label compared with groups incubated overnight. When the cell loading was compared in vitro for each delivery method using the in-house scaffold, immediate loading led to higher numbers of delivered cells. Immediate loading may be preferable in order to ensure robust bone formation in vivo. The use of a secondary ECM carrier improved the distribution of donor cells only when a pre-attachment period was applied. These results have improved our understanding of cell delivery to bony defects in the context of in vivo outcomes. PMID:25329879

  9. Effects of Glucosinolates from Turnip (Brassica rapa L.) Root on Bone Formation by Human Osteoblast-Like MG-63 Cells and in Normal Young Rats.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jaehoon; Park, Heajin; Hyun, Hanbit; Kim, Jihye; Kim, Haesung; Oh, Hyun Il; Hwang, Hye Seong; Kim, Dae Kyong; Kim, Ha Hyung

    2015-06-01

    Turnip (Brassica rapa L.) root ethanol extract (TRE) was prepared, and its chemical constituents were characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Thirteen glucosinolates (GSLs) were identified, comprising eight aliphatic, four indolic, and one aromatic compounds. The effects of these GSLs on bone formation were investigated in vitro by incubating human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells with TRE and then analyzing their viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen content, and mineralization and in vivo by administering TRE orally to normal young rats (500?mg/kg/day) and assessing subsequent changes in serum osteocalcin and bone microstructure in these animals. No TRE-related toxicity was found, and the levels of cell viability, ALP activity, collagen synthesis, and mineralization were significantly increased relative to the negative control. In particular, stimulatory effects on the differentiation of MG-63 cells were strongly enhanced as compared with a positive control (daidzein). Serum osteocalcin was also significantly increased, and some important bone microstructural parameters were improved in TRE-administered rats compared with their saline-administered counterparts. GSLs therefore appear to have a stimulatory effect on bone formation in both MG-63 cells and normal young rats. This is the first report on the usefulness of turnip root and its GSL compounds for bone formation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25809011

  10. High cholesterol diet increases osteoporosis risk via inhibiting bone formation in rats

    PubMed Central

    You, Li; Sheng, Zheng-yan; Tang, Chuan-ling; Chen, Lin; Pan, Ling; Chen, Jin-yu

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of high cholesterol diet on the development of osteoporosis and the underlying mechanisms in rats. Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into 3 groups: (1) the high cholesterol fed rats were fed a high cholesterol diet containing 77% normal diet food, 3% cholesterol and 20% lard for 3 months; (2) ovariectomised (OVX) rats were bilaterally ovariectomised and fed a standard diet; and (3) the control rats were fed the standard diet. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the rats was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum levels of oestradiol (E2), osteocalcin (BGP) and carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX) were measured using ELISA. Gene expression profile was determined with microarray. Mouse osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) were used for in vitro study. Proliferation, differentiation and oxidative stress of the osteoblasts were investigated using MTT, qRT-PCR and biochemical methods. Results: In high cholesterol fed rats, the femur BMD and serum BGP level were significantly reduced, while the CTX level was significantly increased. DNA microarray analysis showed that 2290 genes were down-regulated and 992 genes were up-regulated in this group of rats. Of these genes, 1626 were also down-regulated and 1466 were up-regulated in OVX rats. In total, 370 genes were up-regulated in both groups, and 976 genes were down-regulated. Some of the down-regulated genes were found to code for proteins involved in the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?)/bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and Wnt signaling pathways. The up-regulated genes were found to code for IL-6 and Ager with bone-resorption functions. Treatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with cholesterol (12.5-50 ?g/mL) inhibited the cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. The treatment also concentration-dependently reduced the expression of BMP2 and Cbfa1, and increased the oxidative injury in MC3T3-E1 cells. Conclusion: The results suggest a close correlation between hypercholesterolaemia and osteoporosis. High cholesterol diet increases the risk of osteoporosis, possible via inhibiting the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. PMID:22036861

  11. Catabolic Effects of Continuous Human PTH (1-38) in Vivo Is Associated with Sustained Stimulation of RANKL and Inhibition of Osteoprotegerin and Gene-Associated Bone Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YANFEI L. MA; RICK L. CAIN; DAVID L. HALLADAY; XUHAO YANG; QINGQANG ZENG; REBECCA R. MILES; SRINIVASAN CHANDRASEKHAR; T. JOHN MARTIN; JUDE E. ONYIA

    2001-01-01

    Continuous infusion of PTH in vivo results in active bone resorption. To investigate the molecular basis of the catabolic effect of PTH in vivo, we evaluated the role of OPG and RANKL, which are known to influence osteoclast formation and function. Weanling rats fed a calcium-free diet were par- athyroidectomized and infused with PTH via an Alzet pump to examine:

  12. Evolutionary patterns of bone histology and bone compactness in xenarthran mammal long bones.

    PubMed

    Straehl, Fiona R; Scheyer, Torsten M; Forasiepi, Analía M; MacPhee, Ross D; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua), with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness. PMID:23874932

  13. Histological assessment of tissue from large human bone defects repaired with ?-tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Kucera, Tomas; Sponer, Pavel; Urban, Karel; Kohout, Ales

    2014-12-01

    This report describes the histological characteristics of large human bone defects that were implanted with ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP). Samples were obtained longer after the primary operation than in the earlier studies. We assessed a total of nine biopsies taken 33-208 weeks after implantation. The tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for general observation, with Gomori stain to visualize the reticulin fibers, and with an antibody against tartrate-resistant alkaline phosphatase (TRAP) to characterize the cells. Ongoing bone remodeling was observed even 208 weeks after implantation as determined by the presence of osteoclasts and active osteoblasts and new woven and lamellar bone. We observed multinuclear giant cells phagocytosing the biomaterial and the attachment of osteoclasts to the ?-TCP. The osteoclasts showed intense TRAP positivity, while the giant cells showed variable TRAP positivity. There was a zonal pattern in the original defects: The central regions showed granules and fibrous septa, while peripheral areas showed a layer of new bone formation. These data demonstrate ongoing bone remodeling long after implantation in the peripheral regions of the original defects as well as fibrous changes in the central regions and phagocytosis of biomaterial by multinuclear giant cells. PMID:24091824

  14. ERK1 and ERK2 regulate chondrocyte terminal differentiation during endochondral bone formation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijun; Yue, Susan X; Zhou, Guang; Greenfield, Edward M; Murakami, Shunichi

    2015-05-01

    Chondrocytes in the epiphyseal cartilage undergo terminal differentiation prior to their removal through apoptosis. To examine the role of ERK1 and ERK2 in chondrocyte terminal differentiation, we generated Osterix (Osx)-Cre; ERK1(-/-) ; ERK2(flox/flox) mice (conditional knockout Osx [cKOosx]), in which ERK1 and ERK2 were deleted in hypertrophic chondrocytes. These cKOosx mice were grossly normal in size at birth, but by 3 weeks of age exhibited shorter long bones. Histological analysis in these mice revealed that the zone of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate was markedly expanded. In situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (Mmp13) and Osteopontin expression was significantly decreased, indicating impaired chondrocyte terminal differentiation. Moreover, Egr1 and Egr2, transcription factors whose expression is restricted to the last layers of hypertrophic chondrocytes in wild-type mice, were also strongly downregulated in these cKOosx mice. In transient transfection experiments in the RCS rat chondrosarcoma cell line, the expression of Egr1, Egr2, or a constitutively active mutant of MEK1 increased the activity of an Osteopontin promoter, whereas the MEK1-induced activation of the Osteopontin promoter was inhibited by the coexpression of Nab2, an Egr1 and Egr2 co-repressor. These results suggest that MEK1-ERK signaling activates the Osteopontin promoter in part through Egr1 and Egr2. Finally, our histological analysis of cKOosx mice demonstrated enchondroma-like lesions in the bone marrow that are reminiscent of human metachondromatosis, a skeletal disorder caused by mutations in PTPN11. Our observations suggest that the development of enchondromas in metachondromatosis may be caused by reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK MAPK) signaling. PMID:25401279

  15. Death Receptor 3 (TNFRSF25) Increases Mineral Apposition by Osteoblasts and Region Specific New Bone Formation in the Axial Skeleton of Male DBA/1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Collins, Fraser L; Williams, Jessica O; Bloom, Anja C; Stone, Michael D; Choy, Ernest; Wang, Eddie C Y; Williams, Anwen S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Genome wide association studies identified TNFSF member TNF-like protein 1A (TL1A, TNFSF15) as a potential modulator of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). TL1A is the only confirmed TNFSF ligand of death receptor 3 (DR3, TNFRSF25); however, its role in disease pathology is not characterised. We evaluated DR3's role in controlling osteoblast- (OB-) dependent bone formation in vitro and in vivo. Methods. Osteoprogenitor cells and OB were cultured from male DR3-deficient (DR3(ko)) and wild-type (DR3(wt)) DBA/1 mice. DR3 and RANKL expression were tested by flow cytometry. Alkaline phosphatase and mineralization were quantified. Osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, and pro MMP-9 were measured by ELISA. A fluorescent probe (BoneTag) was used to measure in vivo mineralization in 10-month-old mice. Results. DR3 was expressed on osteoprogenitors and OB from DR3(wt) mice. Alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and mineral apposition were significantly elevated in DR3(wt) cultures. Levels of RANKL were comparable whilst osteoprotegerin was significantly increased in DR3(wt) cultures. In vivo incorporation of BoneTag was significantly lower in the thoracic vertebrae of 10-month-old DR3(ko) mice. Conclusions. These data identify new roles for DR3 in regulating OB-dependent bone mineral apposition. They potentially begin to explain the atypical pattern of new bone formation observed in the axial skeleton of grouped, aging DBA/1 mice. PMID:26065008

  16. Death Receptor 3 (TNFRSF25) Increases Mineral Apposition by Osteoblasts and Region Specific New Bone Formation in the Axial Skeleton of Male DBA/1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Fraser L.; Williams, Jessica O.; Bloom, Anja C.; Stone, Michael D.; Choy, Ernest; Wang, Eddie C. Y.; Williams, Anwen S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Genome wide association studies identified TNFSF member TNF-like protein 1A (TL1A, TNFSF15) as a potential modulator of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). TL1A is the only confirmed TNFSF ligand of death receptor 3 (DR3, TNFRSF25); however, its role in disease pathology is not characterised. We evaluated DR3's role in controlling osteoblast- (OB-) dependent bone formation in vitro and in vivo. Methods. Osteoprogenitor cells and OB were cultured from male DR3-deficient (DR3ko) and wild-type (DR3wt) DBA/1 mice. DR3 and RANKL expression were tested by flow cytometry. Alkaline phosphatase and mineralization were quantified. Osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, and pro MMP-9 were measured by ELISA. A fluorescent probe (BoneTag) was used to measure in vivo mineralization in 10-month-old mice. Results. DR3 was expressed on osteoprogenitors and OB from DR3wt mice. Alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and mineral apposition were significantly elevated in DR3wt cultures. Levels of RANKL were comparable whilst osteoprotegerin was significantly increased in DR3wt cultures. In vivo incorporation of BoneTag was significantly lower in the thoracic vertebrae of 10-month-old DR3ko mice. Conclusions. These data identify new roles for DR3 in regulating OB-dependent bone mineral apposition. They potentially begin to explain the atypical pattern of new bone formation observed in the axial skeleton of grouped, aging DBA/1 mice.

  17. Expression of Genes Associated with Bone Resorption is Increased and Bone Formation is Decreased in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying XiaoJue; Jue Cui; Ya-Xin Li; Yong-Hui Shi; Guo-Wei Le

    2010-01-01

    A high-fat diet (HFD) leads to an increased risk of osteoporosis-related fractures, but the molecular mechanisms for its effects\\u000a on bone metabolism have rarely been addressed. The present study investigated the possible molecular mechanisms for the dyslipidemic\\u000a HFD-induced bone loss through comparing femoral gene expression profiles in HFD-fed mice versus the normal diet-fed mice during\\u000a the growth stage. We used

  18. Tissue growth controlled by geometric boundary conditions: a simple model recapitulating aspects of callus formation and bone healing.

    PubMed

    Fischer, F Dieter; Zickler, Gerald A; Dunlop, John W C; Fratzl, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The shape of tissues arises from a subtle interplay between biochemical driving forces, leading to cell growth, division and extracellular matrix formation, and the physical constraints of the surrounding environment, giving rise to mechanical signals for the cells. Despite the inherent complexity of such systems, much can still be learnt by treating tissues that constantly remodel as simple fluids. In this approach, remodelling relaxes all internal stresses except for the pressure which is counterbalanced by the surface stress. Our model is used to investigate how wettable substrates influence the stability of tissue nodules. It turns out for a growing tissue nodule in free space, the model predicts only two states: either the tissue shrinks and disappears, or it keeps growing indefinitely. However, as soon as the tissue wets a substrate, stable equilibrium configurations become possible. Furthermore, by investigating more complex substrate geometries, such as tissue growing at the end of a hollow cylinder, we see features reminiscent of healing processes in long bones, such as the existence of a critical gap size above which healing does not occur. Despite its simplicity, the model may be useful in describing various aspects related to tissue growth, including biofilm formation and cancer metastases. PMID:26018964

  19. Sclerostin Is an Osteocyte-expressed Negative Regulator of Bone Formation, But Not a Classical BMP Antagonist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rutger L. van Bezooijen; Bernard A. J. Roelen; Annemieke Visser; Lianne van der Wee-Pals; Edwin de Wilt; Marcel Karperien; Herman Hamersma; Socrates E. Papapoulos; Clemens W. G. M. Löwik

    2004-01-01

    Sclerosteosis, a skeletal disorder characterized by high bone mass due to increased osteoblast activity, is caused by loss of the SOST gene product, sclerostin. The localization in bone and the mechanism of action of sclerostin are not yet known, but it has been hypothesized that it may act as a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist. We show here that SOST

  20. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Suppresses In Vivo Proliferation of Bone Marrow Stem Cells through Reactive Oxygen Species Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuqi; Jia, Fengpeng; He, Jianfeng; Xie, Xiaoyun; Li, Zhihong; Fu, Minghuan; Hao, Hong; Liu, Ying; Liu, Dylan Z.; Cowan, Peter J.; Zhu, Hua; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Aims Some environmental insults, such as fine particulate matter (PM) exposure, significantly impair the function of stem cells. However, it is unknown if PM exposure could affect the population of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). The present study was to investigate the effects of PM on BMSCs population and related mechanism(s). Main Metheods PM was intranasally distilled into male C57BL/6 mice for one month. Flow cytometry with antibodies for BMSCs, Annexin V and BrdU ware used to determine the number of BMSCs and the levels of their apoptosis and proliferation in vivo. Phosphorylated Akt (P-Akt) level was determined in the BM cells with western blotting. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was quantified using flow cytometry analysis. To determine the role of PM-induced ROS in BMSCs population, proliferation, and apotosis, experiments were repeated using N-acetylcysteine (NAC)-treated wild type mice or a triple transgenic mouse line with overexpression of antioxidant network (AON) composed of superoxide dismutase (SOD)1, SOD3, and glutathione peroxidase-1 with decreased in vivo ROS production. Key Findings PM treatment significantly reduced BMSCs population in association with increased ROS formation, decreased P-Akt level, and inhibition of proliferation of BMSCs without induction of apoptosis. NAC treatment or AON overexpression with reduced ROS formation effectively prevented PM-induced reduction of BMSCs population and proliferation with partial recovery of P-Akt level. Significance PM exposure significantly decreased the population of BMSCs due to diminished proliferation via ROS-mediated mechanism (could be partially via inhibition of Akt signaling). PMID:26058063

  1. Signaling by Bone Morphogenetic Proteins directs formation of an ectodermal signaling center that regulates craniofacial development

    PubMed Central

    Foppiano, Silvia; Hu, Diane; Marcucio, Ralph S.

    2008-01-01

    We previously described a signaling center, the Frontonasal Ectodermal Zone (FEZ) that regulates growth and patterning of the frontonasal process (FNP). The FEZ is comprised of FNP ectoderm flanking a boundary between Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) expression domains. Our objective was to examine BMP signaling during formation of the FEZ. We blocked BMP signaling throughout the FNP prior to FEZ formation by infecting chick embryos at stage 10 (HH10) with a replication competent avian retrovirus encoding the BMP antagonist Noggin. We assessed gene expression patterns in the FNP 72 hours after infection (~HH22) and observed that Shh expression was reduced or absent. In the mesenchyme we observed that Bmp2 transcripts were absent while the Bmp4 expression domain was expanded proximally. In addition to the molecular changes, infected embryos also exhibited facial malformations at 72 and 96 hours after infection suggesting that the FEZ did not form. Our data indicate that reduced cell proliferation, but not apoptosis, in the mesenchyme contributed to the phenotype that we observed. Additionally, adding exogenous SHH into the mesenchyme of RCAS-Noggin infected embryos did not restore Bmp2 and Bmp4 to a normal pattern of expression. These data indicate that BMP signaling mediates interactions between tissues in the FNP that regulate FEZ formation; and that the correct pattern of Bmp2 and Bmp4, but not Bmp7, expression in the FNP mesenchyme requires signaling by the BMP pathway. PMID:18028903

  2. Effect of additives on distributions of lamellar structures in sheared polymer: a study of synchrotron small-angle x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Peng-Wei; Edward, Graham; Nichols, Lance

    2009-12-01

    The effects of additives on the distributions of lamellar morphology and orientation in sheared isotactic polypropylene were investigated using the small beam of synchrotron small-angle x-ray scattering. The Cu-phthalocyanine can template the lamellar orientation even under low shear rates, whereas the ultramarine blue cannot. The surface contact is suggested to play a role in stabilizing the formation of oriented nuclei which subsequently direct the growth of oriented lamellae. The additives have no notable effects on the long spacing in the shear region. However, at high shear rates, they decrease the thickness of crystalline lamellae or increase the thickness of amorphous lamellae. Since the additives increase the degree of volume crystalline in the shear region, the number of crystalline lamellae should be increased. The results are helpful in designing and selecting suitable additives for controlling lamellar morphology and orientation.

  3. Correlated internal motions and nuclear spin relaxation in lamellar mesophase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caniparoli, J. P.; Grassi, A.; Chachaty, C.

    A model of correlated internal motions has been developed for investigating, by nuclear spin relaxation, the dynamical behaviour of a small flexible molecule solubilized in a lamellar mesophase. This model, which involves the population of the molecular conformers and the transition rates among them, has been illustrated by the deuteron longitudinal relaxation of a diluted perdeuterated butanol solution in the sodium dibutylphosphate/water lamellar phase. Having derived the conformer populations from the quadrupolar splittings, the reorientational diffusion coefficients were obtained by a minimization procedure from the temperature dependence of the deuteron T1 relaxation times at 46 and 77 MHz.

  4. Fluctuations and Defects in Lamellar Stacks of Amphiphilic Bilayers

    E-print Network

    Claire Loison; Michel Mareschal; Friederike Schmid

    2005-01-05

    We review recent molecular dynamics simulations of thermally activated undulations and defects in the lamellar $L_\\alpha$ phase of a binary amphiphile-solvent mixture, using an idealized molecular coarse-grained model: Solvent particles are represented by beads, and amphiphiles by bead-and-spring tetramers. We find that our results are in excellent agreement with the predictions of simple mesoscopic theories: An effective interface model for the undulations, and a line tension model for the (pore) defects. We calculate the binding rigidity and the compressibility modulus of the lamellar stack as well as the line tension of the pore rim. Finally, we discuss implications for polymer-membrane systems.

  5. Swelling and shrinking kinetics of a lamellar gel phase

    E-print Network

    David J Fairhurst; Mark E Baker; Neil Shaw; Stefan U. Egelhaaf

    2008-04-07

    We investigate the swelling and shrinking of L_beta lamellar gel phases composed of surfactant and fatty alcohol after contact with aqueous poly(ethylene-glycol) solutions. The height change $\\Delta h(t)$ is diffusion-like with a swelling coefficient, S: $\\Delta h = S \\sqrt{t}$. On increasing polymer concentration we observe sequentially slower swelling, absence of swelling, and finally shrinking of the lamellar phase. This behavior is summarized in a non-equilibrium diagram and the composition dependence of S quantitatively described by a generic model. We find a diffusion coefficient, the only free parameter, consistent with previous measurements.

  6. Adenosine and Bone Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mediero, Aránzazu; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2013-01-01

    Bone is a dynamic organ that undergoes continuous remodeling whilst maintaining a balance between bone formation and resorption. Osteoblasts, which synthesize and mineralize new bone, and osteoclasts, the cells that resorb bone, act in concert to maintain bone homeostasis. In recent years, there has been increasing appreciation of purinergic regulation of bone metabolism. Adenosine, released locally, mediates its physiologic and pharmacologic actions via interactions with G-protein coupled receptors and recent work has indicated that these receptors are involved in the regulation of osteoclast differentiation and function, as well as osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Moreover, adenosine receptors also regulate chondrocyte and cartilage homeostasis. These recent findings underscore the potential therapeutic importance of adenosine receptors in regulating bone physiology and pathology. PMID:23499155

  7. Important role of EP4, a subtype of prostaglandin (PG) E receptor, in osteoclast-like cell formation from mouse bone marrow cells induced by PGE2.

    PubMed

    Ono, K; Akatsu, T; Murakami, T; Nishikawa, M; Yamamoto, M; Kugai, N; Motoyoshi, K; Nagata, N

    1998-09-01

    Of various PGs, PGE1 and PGE2 are shown to be the most potent stimulators of osteoclastogenesis in vitro. PGE receptors have been classified into four subtypes, EP1-EP4. Little is known about PGE receptors functioning in bone cells. In this study, using mouse marrow culture, we investigated which PGE receptors are important in osteoclast-like cell (OCL) formation induced by PGE. 11-deoxy-PGE1 (EP2, EP3 and EP4 agonist) stimulated OCL formation potently. Butaprost (EP2 agonist) stimulated it slightly, while sulprostone (EP1 and EP3 agonist) and ONO-AP-324-01 (EP3 agonist) did not. AH23848B (EP4 antagonist) inhibited PGE2-induced OCL formation in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of EP4 mRNA in mouse bone marrow was confirmed by RT-PCR. The results indicate an important role of EP4 in PGE2-induced OCL formation in marrow cultures and suggest therapeutic potential of EP4 antagonists in some clinical conditions with accelerated bone resorption. PMID:9846175

  8. Carboxyl-modified single-wall carbon nanotubes improve bone tissue formation in vitro and repair in an in vivo rat model

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos-Durán, Antonio; Carpenter, Ellen M; zur Nieden, Nicole I; Malinin, Theodore I; Rodríguez-Manzaneque, Juan Carlos; Zanello, Laura P

    2014-01-01

    The clinical management of bone defects caused by trauma or nonunion fractures remains a challenge in orthopedic practice due to the poor integration and biocompatibility properties of the scaffold or implant material. In the current work, the osteogenic properties of carboxyl-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH–SWCNTs) were investigated in vivo and in vitro. When human preosteoblasts and murine embryonic stem cells were cultured on coverslips sprayed with COOH–SWCNTs, accelerated osteogenic differentiation was manifested by increased expression of classical bone marker genes and an increase in the secretion of osteocalcin, in addition to prior mineralization of the extracellular matrix. These results predicated COOH–SWCNTs’ use to further promote osteogenic differentiation in vivo. In contrast, both cell lines had difficulties adhering to multi-walled carbon nanotube-based scaffolds, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. While a suspension of SWCNTs caused cytotoxicity in both cell lines at levels >20 ?g/mL, these levels were never achieved by release from sprayed SWCNTs, warranting the approach taken. In vivo, human allografts formed by the combination of demineralized bone matrix or cartilage particles with SWCNTs were implanted into nude rats, and ectopic bone formation was analyzed. Histological analysis of both types of implants showed high permeability and pore connectivity of the carbon nanotube-soaked implants. Numerous vascularization channels appeared in the formed tissue, additional progenitor cells were recruited, and areas of de novo ossification were found 4 weeks post-implantation. Induction of the expression of bone-related genes and the presence of secreted osteopontin protein were also confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunofluorescence, respectively. In summary, these results are in line with prior contributions that highlight the suitability of SWCNTs as scaffolds with high bone-inducing capabilities both in vitro and in vivo, confirming them as alternatives to current bone-repair therapies. PMID:25246785

  9. Carboxyl-modified single-wall carbon nanotubes improve bone tissue formation in vitro and repair in an in vivo rat model.

    PubMed

    Barrientos-Durán, Antonio; Carpenter, Ellen M; Zur Nieden, Nicole I; Malinin, Theodore I; Rodríguez-Manzaneque, Juan Carlos; Zanello, Laura P

    2014-01-01

    The clinical management of bone defects caused by trauma or nonunion fractures remains a challenge in orthopedic practice due to the poor integration and biocompatibility properties of the scaffold or implant material. In the current work, the osteogenic properties of carboxyl-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-SWCNTs) were investigated in vivo and in vitro. When human preosteoblasts and murine embryonic stem cells were cultured on coverslips sprayed with COOH-SWCNTs, accelerated osteogenic differentiation was manifested by increased expression of classical bone marker genes and an increase in the secretion of osteocalcin, in addition to prior mineralization of the extracellular matrix. These results predicated COOH-SWCNTs' use to further promote osteogenic differentiation in vivo. In contrast, both cell lines had difficulties adhering to multi-walled carbon nanotube-based scaffolds, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. While a suspension of SWCNTs caused cytotoxicity in both cell lines at levels >20 ?g/mL, these levels were never achieved by release from sprayed SWCNTs, warranting the approach taken. In vivo, human allografts formed by the combination of demineralized bone matrix or cartilage particles with SWCNTs were implanted into nude rats, and ectopic bone formation was analyzed. Histological analysis of both types of implants showed high permeability and pore connectivity of the carbon nanotube-soaked implants. Numerous vascularization channels appeared in the formed tissue, additional progenitor cells were recruited, and areas of de novo ossification were found 4 weeks post-implantation. Induction of the expression of bone-related genes and the presence of secreted osteopontin protein were also confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunofluorescence, respectively. In summary, these results are in line with prior contributions that highlight the suitability of SWCNTs as scaffolds with high bone-inducing capabilities both in vitro and in vivo, confirming them as alternatives to current bone-repair therapies. PMID:25246785

  10. Osteocyte Signaling in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Schaffler, Mitchell B.; Kennedy, Oran D.

    2012-01-01

    Osteocytes, the cells residing within the bone matrix and comprising 90% to 95% of the all bone cells, have long been considered quiescent bystander cells compared to the osteoblasts and osteoclasts whose activities cause bone gain and loss, and whose dysfunction lead to growth defects and osteoporosis. However, recent studies show that osteocytes play a crucial, central role in regulating the dynamic nature of bone in all its diverse functions. Osteocytes are now known to be the principal sensors for mechanical loading of bone. They produce the soluble factors that regulate the onset of both bone formation and resorption. Osteocytes regulate local mineral deposition and chemistry at the bone matrix level, and they also function as endocrine cells producing factors that target distant organs such as the kidney to regulate phosphate transport. Osteocytes appear to be the major local orchestrator of many of bone’s functions. PMID:22552701

  11. Pre-incubation of chemically crosslinked hyaluronan-based hydrogels, loaded with BMP-2 and hydroxyapatite, and its effect on ectopic bone formation.

    PubMed

    Stenfelt, Sonya; Hulsart-Billström, Gry; Gedda, Lars; Bergman, Kristoffer; Hilborn, Jöns; Larsson, Sune; Bowden, Tim

    2014-04-01

    The effects of pre-incubation of hyaluronan hydrogels, for different lengths of time after the initiation of chemical crosslinking and prior to injection, were explored both by investigating the in vitro BMP-2 release kinetics from the hydrogel and by studying the ectopic bone formation in rats. From the curing profile, obtained from rheological analysis, appropriate pre-incubation times (1 min, 5 h and 3 days) were selected, to prepare slightly, moderately and fully cured hydrogels. Comparable release profiles were observed for all three test groups in vitro. Furthermore, radiography, pQCT and histology of the explanted grafts showed cancellous bone formation in all groups after 5 weeks in vivo. However, longer pre-incubation times gave rise to an increase in bone volume, but a decrease in bone density. Moreover, the 5 h and the 3 days grafts appeared to be more ordered and resistant to deformation from the surrounding tissue than the 1 min grafts. The observed variations in mechanical and biological properties could potentially be used to adapt the treatment for a specific indication. PMID:24477873

  12. Calcified Rheumatic Valve Neoangiogenesis Is Associated With Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression and Osteoblast-Like Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Rajamannan, Nalini M.; Nealis, Thomas B.; Subramaniam, Malayannan; Pandya, Sanjay; Stock, Stuart R.; Ignatiev, Constatine I.; Sebo, Thomas J.; Rosengart, Todd K.; Edwards, William D.; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Bonow, Robert O.; Spelsberg, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rheumatic heart disease is the most common cause of valvular disease in developing countries. Despite the high prevalence of this disease, the cellular mechanisms are not well known. We hypothesized that rheumatic valve calcification is associated with an osteoblast bone formation and neoangiogenesis. Methods and Results To test this hypothesis, we examined human rheumatic valves replaced at surgery (n=23), normal human valves (n=20) removed at cardiac transplantation, and degenerative mitral valve leaflets removed during surgical valve repair (n=15). Microcomputed tomography was used to assess mineralization fronts to reconstruct the extents of mineralization. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize osteopontin protein, ?-actin, osteocalcin, vascular endothelial growth factor, von Willebrand factor, and CD68 (human macrophage). Microcomputed tomography demonstrated complex calcification developing within the heavily calcified rheumatic valves, not in the degenerative mitral valves and control valves. Immunohistochemistry localized osteopontin and osteocalcin to areas of smooth muscle cells within microvessels and proliferating myofibroblasts. Vascular endothelial growth factor was present in areas of inflammation and colocalized with the CD68 stain primarily in the calcified rheumatic valves. Alizarin red, osteopontin, and osteocalcin protein expression was upregulated in the calcified rheumatic valves and was present at low levels in the degenerative mitral valves. Conclusions These findings support the concept that rheumatic valve calcification is not a random passive process but a regulated, inflammatory cellular process associated with the expression of osteoblast markers and neoangiogenesis. PMID:15956138

  13. Electron Microscopy of Molluscan Crossed-Lamellar Microstructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. V. Wilmot; D. J. Barber; J. D. Taylor; A. L. Graham

    1992-01-01

    The morphology of the molluscan shell microstructure cross-lamellar structure (XLM) was studied by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of a variety of species (Patella vulgata, Littorina littorea, L. nigrolineata, L. obtusata, L. saxatilis, Oliva sayana, Conus litteratus, C. magus, Pomatias elegans, Acanthopleura brevispinosa, and Arca tetragona). Two of the gastropod species (O. sayana and L. littorea) were also examined

  14. Epidermal Lamellar Granules Transport Different Cargoes as Distinct Aggregates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akemi Ishida-Yamamoto; Michel Simon; Mari Kishibe; Yuki Miyauchi; Hidetoshi Takahashi; Shigetaka Yoshida; Timothy J O'Brien; Guy Serre; Hajime Iizuka

    2004-01-01

    Lamellar granules (LG) of the epidermis appear as discrete round or oblong shaped granules in classical transmission electron micrographs, but a recent cryo-transmission electron microscopy study has claimed that LG are in fact branched tubular structures. LG contain various cargoes including lipids, hydrolytic enzymes, and several other proteins. It is not known whether there are any differences in the timing

  15. Cataract progression and treatment following posterior lamellar keratoplasty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marianne O Price; Francis W Price

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development and treatment of cataracts following posterior lamellar keratoplasty (PLK) in phakic eyes with Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy.Setting: Price Vision Group, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on 47 PLK cases performed by a single surgeon between June 2001 and December 2002 in a tertiary care setting. Four of the eyes were phakic at

  16. Swelling and shrinking kinetics of a lamellar gel phase 

    E-print Network

    Egelhaaf, Stefan U; Baker, M.E.; Shaw, N.; Fairhurst, David John

    2008-05-01

    We investigate the swelling and shrinking of L-beta lamellar gel phases composed of surfactant and fatty alcohol after contact with aqueous poly(ethyleneglycol) solutions. The height change Delta h(t) is diffusionlike with a swelling coefficient S...

  17. Lamellar eutectic growth at large thermal gradient: I. Stationary patterns

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'inclinaison ». Abstract. 2014 We study stationary front profiles of directionally solidified lamellar eutectics. We show, Classification Physics Abstracts 61.50C - 64.60 - 64.70D - 81.30F 1. Introduction. Directional solidification rod patterns parallel to the common (Oz) direction of the pulling velocity V and of the external

  18. A Suite of Dermestid Beetle Traces on Dinosaur Bone from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, Wyoming, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brooks B. Britt; Rodney D. Scheetz; Anne Dangerfield

    2008-01-01

    Most studies of insect traces on fossil bone deal with one or two trace morphs found on isolated bone fragments, making it difficult to identify the trace-maker and its behavior. We report the discovery of a suite of insect traces on an articulated Camptosaurus dinosaur skeleton that permits the identification of the trace-maker and interpretations of its behavior. The traces

  19. Icariin recovers the osteogenic differentiation and bone formation of bone marrow stromal cells from a rat model of estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhiqiang; Liu, Minglu; Sun, Likun; Rui, Feilong

    2015-07-01

    A number of recent studies have suggested that icariin (ICA), a class of phytochemical with numerous biological activities, may exert protective effects against postmenopausal bone loss. However, it remains unclear whether ICA regulates or improves the osteoblastic function of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. In the present study, the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs from ovariectomy (OVX) rats was found to be significantly decreased in vitro compared with that in rats that had undergone a sham operation. Treatment with ICA at a dose of 10-5 M was shown to restore the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in OVX rats. The results indicated that ICA restored the differentiation and mineralization capacity of OVX-BMSCs, which had been induced by estrogen deficiency. The effects of this compound on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition were also measured at various time points. The number of colonies and areas that stained positive for ALP expression, and mineralized bone nodules were analyzed histochemically at 14 and 21 days after the osteogenic induction. The expression of the runt-related transcription factor 2 and osterix bone metabolism biomarker proteins and genes were detected by western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The expression of factors involved in the estrogen signaling pathway, estrogen receptor ? (ER?), progesterone receptor (PR) and trefoil factor 1 (PS-2), was also detected by western blotting and RT-qPCR. ICA enhanced the expression of ER?, PR, PS-2 in OVX?BMSCs, but this effect was abrogated when ICI 182780, an ER antagonist was added. Transplantation of BMSCs into nude mice demonstrated that ICA restored the osteogenic capability of OVX?BMSCs in vivo. Therefore, it may be that ICA acts through the estrogen pathway in order to improve and restore the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of OVX?BMSCs, which are inhibited by estrogen deficiency and increasing age. PMID:25695835

  20. Crystallographic characterization of the crossed lamellar structure in the bivalve Meretrix lamarckii using electron beam techniques.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Akiko; Yokoo, Naoki; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Tomoaki; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2011-10-01

    To understand the formation mechanism of crossed lamellar structures in molluskan shells, the crystallographic structural features in the shell of a bivalve, Meretrix lamarckii, were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy with a focused ion beam sample preparation technique. Approximately 0.5 ?m-thick lamellae (the second-order units) are piled up obliquely toward the growth direction to form the first-order unit and the obliquity is inverted between adjacent units along the shell thickness direction. The first-order units originate around the center of the shell, initially growing parallel to the shell and subsequently curving toward the inner or outer surfaces. The lamellae consist of aragonite granular and columnar layers, which group together to adopt the same crystal orientation forming crystallographic units (crystallites). Multiple {110} twins are common both in the granular and columnar layers. The crystallite c-axis is parallel to the columns and is inclined at angles 0-50° from the lamellar normal (dispersing among individual lamellae), toward the shell growth direction. Probably, the directions of the a- and b-axes are random in the lamellae, showing no specific orientation. PMID:21763427

  1. Lamellar magnetism in the haematite-ilmenite series as an explanation for strong remanent magnetization.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Peter; Harrison, Richard J; McEnroe, Suzanne A; Hargraves, Robert B

    2002-08-01

    Magnetic anomalies associated with slowly cooled igneous and metamorphic rocks are commonly attributed to the presence of the mineral magnetite. Although the intermediate members of the ilmenite-haematite mineral series can also carry a strong ferrimagnetic remanence, it is preserved only in rapidly cooled volcanic rocks, where formation of intergrowths of weakly magnetic haematite and paramagnetic ilmenite is suppressed. But the occurrence of unusually large and stable magnetic remanence in rocks containing such intergrowths has been known for decades, and has recently been the subject of intense investigation. These unmixed oxide phases have been shown to contain pervasive exsolution lamellae with thickness from 100 microm down to about 1 nm (one unit cell). These rocks, many of which contain only a few per cent of such oxides, show natural remanent magnetizations up to 30 A m(-1) --too strong to be explained even by pure haematite in an unsaturated state. Here we propose a new ferrimagnetic substructure created by ferrous-ferric 'contact layers' that reduce charge imbalance along lamellar contacts between antiferromagnetic haematite and paramagnetic ilmenite. We estimate that such a lamellar magnetic material can have a saturation magnetization up to 55 kA m(-1) --22 times stronger than pure haematite-- while retaining the high coercivity and thermal properties of single-domain haematite. PMID:12152075

  2. Inhibition of BMP2-induced bone formation by the p65 subunit of NF-?B via an interaction with Smad4.

    PubMed

    Hirata-Tsuchiya, Shizu; Fukushima, Hidefumi; Katagiri, Takenobu; Ohte, Satoshi; Shin, Masashi; Nagano, Kenichi; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Morotomi, Takahiko; Sugiyama, Goro; Nakatomi, Chihiro; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Doi, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Ohya, Keiichi; Terashita, Masamichi; Hirata, Masato; Kitamura, Chiaki; Jimi, Eijiro

    2014-09-01

    Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) stimulate bone formation in vivo and osteoblast differentiation in vitro via a Smad signaling pathway. Recent findings revealed that the activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) inhibits BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation. Here, we show that NF-?B inhibits BMP signaling by directly targeting the Smad pathway. A selective inhibitor of the classic NF-?B pathway, BAY11-770682, enhanced BMP2-induced ectopic bone formation in vivo. In mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) prepared from mice deficient in p65, the main subunit of NF-?B, BMP2, induced osteoblastic differentiation via the Smad complex to a greater extent than that in wild-type MEFs. In p65(-/-) MEFs, the BMP2-activated Smad complex bound much more stably to the target element than that in wild-type MEFs without affecting the phosphorylation levels of Smad1/5/8. Overexpression of p65 inhibited BMP2 activity by decreasing the DNA binding of the Smad complex. The C-terminal region, including the TA2 domain, of p65 was essential for inhibiting the BMP-Smad pathway. The C-terminal TA2 domain of p65 associated with the MH1 domain of Smad4 but not Smad1. Taken together, our results suggest that p65 inhibits BMP signaling by blocking the DNA binding of the Smad complex via an interaction with Smad4. Our study also suggests that targeting the association between p65 and Smad4 may help to promote bone regeneration in the treatment of bone diseases. PMID:25029242

  3. Inhibition of osteolysis and increase of bone formation after local administration of siRNA-targeting RANK in a polyethylene particle-induced osteolysis model.

    PubMed

    Córdova, L A; Trichet, V; Escriou, V; Rosset, P; Amiaud, J; Battaglia, S; Charrier, C; Berreur, M; Brion, R; Gouin, F; Layrolle, P; Passuti, N; Heymann, D

    2015-02-01

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) and RANK-ligand are relevant targets for the treatment of polyethylene particle-induced osteolysis. This study assessed the local administration of siRNA, targeting both human RANK and mouse Rank transcripts in a mouse model. Four groups of mice were implanted with polyethylene (PE) particles in the calvaria and treated locally with 2.5, 5 and 10 ?g of RANK siRNA or a control siRNA delivered by the cationic liposome DMAPAP/DOPE. The tissues were harvested at day 9 after surgery and evaluated by micro-computed tomography, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) immunohistochemistry for macrophages and osteoblasts, and gene relative expression of inflammatory and osteolytic markers. 10 ?g of RANK siRNA exerted a protective effect against PE particle-induced osteolysis, decreasing the bone loss and the osteoclastogenesis, demonstrated by the significant increase in the bone volume (P<0.001) and by the reduction in both the number of TRAP(+) cells and osteoclast activity (P<0.01). A bone anabolic effect demonstrated by the formation of new trabecular bone was confirmed by the increased immunopositive staining for osteoblast-specific proteins. In addition, 5 and 10 ?g of RANK siRNA downregulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (P<0.01) without depletion of macrophages. Our findings show that RANK siRNA delivered locally by a synthetic vector may be an effective approach for reducing osteolysis and may even stimulate bone formation in aseptic loosening of prosthetic implants. PMID:25462844

  4. Cholesterol expels ibuprofen from the hydrophobic membrane core and stabilizes lamellar phases in lipid membranes containing ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Alsop, Richard J; Armstrong, Clare L; Maqbool, Amna; Toppozini, Laura; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-06-28

    There is increasing evidence that common drugs, such as aspirin and ibuprofen, interact with lipid membranes. Ibuprofen is one of the most common over the counter drugs in the world, and is used for relief of pain and fever. It interacts with the cyclooxygenase pathway leading to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. From X-ray diffraction of highly oriented model membranes containing between 0 and 20 mol% ibuprofen, 20 mol% cholesterol, and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), we present evidence for a non-specific interaction between ibuprofen and cholesterol in lipid bilayers. At a low ibuprofen concentrations of 2 mol%, three different populations of ibuprofen molecules were found: two in the lipid head group region and one in the hydrophobic membrane core. At higher ibuprofen concentrations of 10 and 20 mol%, the lamellar bilayer structure is disrupted and a lamellar to cubic phase transition was observed. In the presence of 20 mol% cholesterol, ibuprofen (at 5 mol%) was found to be expelled from the membrane core and reside solely in the head group region of the bilayers. 20 mol% cholesterol was found to stabilize lamellar membrane structure and the formation of a cubic phase at 10 and 20 mol% ibuprofen was suppressed. The results demonstrate that ibuprofen interacts with lipid membranes and that the interaction is strongly dependent on the presence of cholesterol. PMID:25915907

  5. Effect of osteogenic periosteal distraction by a modified Hyrax device with and without platelet-rich fibrin on bone formation in a rabbit model: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pripatnanont, P; Balabid, F; Pongpanich, S; Vongvatcharanon, S

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a modified Hyrax device and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on osteogenic periosteal distraction (OPD). Twelve adult male New Zealand white rabbits were separated into two main groups (six in each) according to the duration of the consolidation period (4 or 8 weeks). In each main group, the animals underwent OPD of the left and right sides of the mandible and were divided into four subgroups (three animals per group): device vs. device+PRF, and PRF vs. sham. Radiographic, histological, histomorphometric, and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analyses were performed. New bone formation was observed on the lateral and vertical sides of the mandible of all groups. Micro-CT and histomorphometry showed that the device+PRF group presented the highest percentages of bone volume and bone area at 4 weeks (56.67 ± 12.67%, 41.37 ± 7.57%) and at 8 weeks (49.67 ± 8.33%, 55.46 ± 10.67%; significantly higher than the other groups, P<0.001), followed by the device group at 4 weeks (33.00 ± 1.73%, 33.21 ± 11.00%) and at 8 weeks (30.00 ± 3.00%, 23.25 ± 5.46%). In conclusion, the modified Hyrax device was used successfully for OPD in a rabbit model to gain vertical ridge augmentation, and greater bone maturation was achieved with the addition of PRF. PMID:25563525

  6. BMP signaling mediated by constitutively active Activin type 1 receptor (ACVR1) results in ectopic bone formation localized to distal extremity joints.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shailesh; Loder, Shawn J; Brownley, Cameron; Eboda, Oluwatobi; Peterson, Jonathan R; Hayano, Satoru; Wu, Bingrou; Zhao, Bin; Kaartinen, Vesa; Wong, Victor C; Mishina, Yuji; Levi, Benjamin

    2015-04-15

    BMP signaling mediated by ACVR1 plays a critical role for development of multiple structures including the cardiovascular and skeletal systems. While deficient ACVR1 signaling impairs normal embryonic development, hyperactive ACVR1 function (R206H in humans and Q207D mutation in mice, ca-ACVR1) results in formation of heterotopic ossification (HO). We developed a mouse line, which conditionally expresses ca-ACVR1 with Nfatc1-Cre(+) transgene. Mutant mice developed ectopic cartilage and bone at the distal joints of the extremities including the interphalangeal joints and hind limb ankles as early as P4 in the absence of trauma or exogenous bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) administration. Micro-CT showed that even at later time points (up to P40), cartilage and bone development persisted at the affected joints most prominently in the ankle. Interestingly, this phenotype was not present in areas of bone outside of the joints - tibia are normal in mutants and littermate controls away from the ankle. These findings demonstrate that this model may allow for further studies of heterotopic ossification, which does not require the use of stem cells, direct trauma or activation with exogenous Cre gene administration. PMID:25722188

  7. Morphogenesis of the compartmentalizing bone around the molar primordia in the mouse mandible during dental developmental stages between lamina, bell-stage, and root formation (E13-P20).

    PubMed

    Radlanski, Ralf J; Renz, Herbert; Zimmermann, Camilla A; Mey, Robert; Matalova, Eva

    2015-07-01

    Despite increasing knowledge of the basic molecular aspects of bone formation and its regulation, the mechanisms of bone morphogenesis leading to a topologically specific shape remain unknown. The formation of the alveolar bone, which houses the dental primordia and later, the dental roots, may serve as a model to understand the formation of bone form in general. Thirty-eight heads of mice (C57 Bl/6J) ranging from stages E13-P20 were used to prepare histological serial sections. For each stage, virtual 3D-reconstructions were made in order to study the morphogenesis of the mandibular molar primordia concomitantly with their surrounding bone. Special focus was given to recording the remodeling pattern. It has been shown that, in early stages (E13, E14), bone formation is characterized by apposition only. In stage E15, the bony crypt around the dental primordia is remodeled mostly by resorption of bone. In stage E18, the bone remodeling pattern shows resorption all along the bony gutter, which houses the molar primordia. The medial and lateral margins are characterized by apposition. At birth (stage P0), a bony septum has begun to form between the primordium m1 and of m2, arising from both sides and characterized by pure apposition of bone. In stage P4, the crypts of m1 and m2, and also that of m3, show bone resorption inside, while the medial and lateral bony margins show apposition of bone throughout. Generally, during development, the bone gradually encapsulates the dental primordia, in such a way that the bone reaches over the dental primordia and leaves only a continuous longish opening of about 200?m width. The opening at the occlusal surface of m1, at the time of eruption, starting at stage P14, appears to have increased in size again. The distance between bone and dental primordium undergoes change during development. In erupted molars, it is around 100?m, during early developmental stages, it may be as less as 20?m. These data show the inevitability of bone remodeling. PMID:25723515

  8. Lamellar Biogels: Fluid-Membrane-Based Hydrogels Containing Polymer Lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warriner, Heidi E.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.; Slack, Nelle L.; Davidson, Patrick; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    1996-02-01

    A class of lamellar biological hydrogels comprised of fluid membranes of lipids and surfactants with small amounts of low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol)-derived polymer lipids (PEG-lipids) were studied by x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, and rheometry. In contrast to isotropic hydrogels of polymer networks, these membrane-based birefringent liquid crystalline biogels, labeled L?,g, form the gel phase when water is added to the liquid-like lamellar L_? phase, which reenters a liquid-like mixed phase upon further dilution. Furthermore, gels with larger water content require less PEG-lipid to remain stable. Although concentrated (~50 weight percent) mixtures of free PEG (molecular weight, 5000) and water do not gel, gelation does occur in mixtures containing as little as 0.5 weight percent PEG-lipid. A defining signature of the L?,g regime as it sets in from the fluid lamellar L_? phase is the proliferation of layer-dislocation-type defects, which are stabilized by the segregation of PEG-lipids to the defect regions of high membrane curvature that connect the membranes.

  9. PRESERVATION OF MYELIN LAMELLAR STRUCTURE IN THE ABSENCE OF LIPID

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Leonard; Lebaron, Francis; Scaletti, Joseph

    1967-01-01

    The fine structure of myelin was studied in glutaraldehyde-fixed rat sciatic nerves depleted of lipid by acetone, chloroform:methanol (2:1 v/v), and chloroform:methanol:concentrated HCl (200:100:1, v/v/v). One portion of each of these nerves, plus the extracts, was saponified and analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography for fatty acids. The remainder of each nerve was stained in osmium tetroxide in CCl4 (5g/100cc) and was embedded in Epon 812. Thin sections, examined in the electron microscope, revealed the preservation of myelin lamellar structure with a 170 A periodicity in nerves depleted of 98% of their lipids. Preservation of myelin lamellar structure depended on glutaraldehyde fixation and the introduction of osmium tetroxide in a nonpolar vehicle (CCl4) after the lipids had been extracted. It is concluded that the periodic lamellar structure in electron micrographs of myelin depleted of lipid results from the complexing of osmium tetroxide, plus uranyl and lead stains, with protein. PMID:4167505

  10. Surface modification of nano-silica on the ligament advanced reinforcement system for accelerated bone formation: primary human osteoblasts testing in vitro and animal testing in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mengmeng; Wang, Shiwen; Jiang, Jia; Sun, Jiashu; Li, Yuzhuo; Huang, Deyong; Long, Yun-Ze; Zheng, Wenfu; Chen, Shiyi; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-04-01

    The Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS) has been considered as a promising graft for ligament reconstruction. To improve its biocompatibility and effectiveness on new bone formation, we modified the surface of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) ligament with nanoscale silica using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and silica polymerization. The modified ligament is tested by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Human osteoblast testing in vitro exhibits an ~21% higher value in cell viability for silica-modified grafts compared with original grafts. Animal testing in vivo shows that there is new formed bone in the case of a nanoscale silica-coated ligament. These results demonstrate that our approach for nanoscale silica surface modification on LARS could be potentially applied for ligament reconstruction.The Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS) has been considered as a promising graft for ligament reconstruction. To improve its biocompatibility and effectiveness on new bone formation, we modified the surface of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) ligament with nanoscale silica using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and silica polymerization. The modified ligament is tested by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Human osteoblast testing in vitro exhibits an ~21% higher value in cell viability for silica-modified grafts compared with original grafts. Animal testing in vivo shows that there is new formed bone in the case of a nanoscale silica-coated ligament. These results demonstrate that our approach for nanoscale silica surface modification on LARS could be potentially applied for ligament reconstruction. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01439e

  11. Synthesis, characterization and reaction behaviour of lamellar AFm phases with aliphatic sulfonate-anions

    SciTech Connect

    Poellmann, Herbert [University of Halle, Faculty for Geosciences, Mineralogy/Geochemistry, Von Seckendorffplatz 3, 06120 Halle (Germany)]. E-mail: Herbert.poellmann@geo.uni-halle.de; Stefan, Stoeber [University of Halle, Faculty for Geosciences, Mineralogy/Geochemistry, Von Seckendorffplatz 3, 06120 Halle (Germany); Stern, Edda [University of Halle, Faculty for Geosciences, Mineralogy/Geochemistry, Von Seckendorffplatz 3, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    The addition of alkanesulfonates as admixtures to cementitious materials allows the formation of new lamellar phases (AFm), which was proofed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The course of hydration was investigated by heat flow calorimetry. The layered structures of AFm phases are composed of brucite-like main layers and interlayers containing alkanesulfonate ions and additional H{sub 2}O molecules. These structural not necessary H{sub 2}O molecules release gradually at definite steps with increasing temperature. With varying relative humidity the layer thickness c' of short aliphatic chained calcium aluminate alkanesulfonate hydrates changes considerably, whereas large organic molecules dominate the layer thickness of those with longer aliphatic chains. By means of the increase of layer thickness with increasing chain lengths it is possible to determine the tilt angles of the aliphatic chains in the interlayers.

  12. Histopathological features of bone regeneration in a canine segmental ulnar defect model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Today, finding an ideal biomaterial to treat the large bone defects, delayed unions and non-unions remains a challenge for orthopaedic surgeions and researchers. Several studies have been carried out on the subject of bone regeneration, each having its own advantages. The present study has been designed in vivo to evaluate the effects of cellular auto-transplantation of tail vertebrae on healing of experimental critical bone defect in a dog model. Methods Six indigenous breeds of dog with 32?±?3.6 kg average weight from both sexes (5 males and 1 female) received bilateral critical-sized ulnar segmental defects. After determining the health condition, divided to 2 groups: The Group I were kept as control I (n?=?1) while in Group II (experimental group; n?=?5) bioactive bone implants were inserted. The defects were implanted with either autogeneic coccygeal bone grafts in dogs with 3-4 cm diaphyseal defects in the ulna. Defects were stabilized with internal plate fixation, and the control defects were not stabilized. Animals were euthanized at 16 weeks and analyzed by histopathology. Results Histological evaluation of this new bone at sixteen weeks postoperatively revealed primarily lamellar bone, with the formation of new cortices and normal-appearing marrow elements. And also reformation cortical compartment and reconstitution of marrow space were observed at the graft-host interface together with graft resorption and necrosis responses. Finally, our data were consistent with the osteoconducting function of the tail autograft. Conclusions Our results suggested that the tail vertebrae autograft seemed to be a new source of autogenous cortical bone in order to supporting segmental long bone defects in dogs. Furthermore, cellular autotransplantation was found to be a successful replacement for the tail vertebrae allograft bone at 3-4 cm segmental defects in the canine mid- ulna. Clinical application using graft expanders or bone autotransplantation should be used carefully and requires further investigation. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2028232688119271. PMID:24636669

  13. Enhanced bone formation in large segmental radial defects by combining adipose-derived stem cells expressing bone morphogenetic protein 2 with nHA\\/RHLC\\/PLA scaffold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Hao; Jinlei Dong; Ming Jiang; Junwei Wu; Fuzhai Cui; Dongsheng Zhou

    2010-01-01

    In this study, rabbit adipose-derived stem cells (rASCs) were isolated, cultured in vitro, and transfected with recombinant\\u000a adenovirus vector containing human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Ad-hBMP2). These cells were combined with a nano-hydroxyapatite\\/recombinant\\u000a human-like collagen\\/poly(lactic acid) scaffold (nHA\\/RHLC\\/PLA) to fabricate a new biocomposite (hBMP2\\/rASCs-nHA\\/RHLC\\/PLA, group\\u000a 1) and cultured in osteogenic medium. Non-transfected rASCs mixed with nHA\\/RHLC\\/PLA (rASCs-nHA\\/RHLC\\/PLA, group 2) and

  14. Benzene-induced micronuclei formation in mouse fetal liver blood, peripheral blood, and maternal bone marrow cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Hansun (Univ. of California, Davis (United States) Ministry of Railways, Beijing (China)); Kado, N.Y. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States) California Air Resources Board, Sacramento (United States)); Kuzmicky, P.A.; Hsieh, D.P.H. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The transplacental cytogenetic effects of benzene were studied by using the micronucleus test of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) found in both fetal liver and fetal peripheral blood, and were compared with PCE from maternal bone marrow. Timed-pregnant mice received single intraperitoneal doses of benzene on the 14th day of gestation and were sacrificed 21 hours after injection. Benzene elicited a significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) in fetal liver blood cells at doses of 219 to 874 mg/kg, and in fetal peripheral blood cells and maternal bone marrow cells at doses of 437 and 874 mg/kg. The data demonstrate that benzene is a moderate transplacental clastogenic agent, and that the mouse transplacental micronucleus test using fetal liver blood cells is a potentially more sensitive indicator of the genotoxicity of benzene than either fetal peripheral blood or maternal bone marrow cells.

  15. Panostotic expansile bone disease with massive jaw tumor formation and a novel mutation in the signal peptide of RANK.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Anne L; Mumm, Steven; El-Sayed, Ivan; McAlister, William H; Horvai, Andrew E; Tom, Andrea M; Hsiao, Edward C; Schaefer, Frederick V; Collins, Michael T; Anderson, Mark S; Whyte, Michael P; Shoback, Dolores M

    2014-04-01

    Precise regulation of bone resorption is critical for skeletal homeostasis. We report a 32-year-old man with a panostotic expansile bone disease and a massive hemorrhagic mandibular tumor. Originally from Mexico, he was deaf at birth and became bow-legged during childhood. There was no family history of skeletal disease. Puberty occurred normally, but during adolescence he experienced difficulty straightening his limbs, sustained multiple fractures, and developed a bony tumor on his chin. By age 18 years, all limbs were misshapen. The mandibular mass grew and protruded from the oral cavity, extending to the level of the lower ribs. Other bony defects included a similar maxillary mass and serpentine limbs. Upon referral at age 27 years, biochemical studies showed serum alkaline phosphatase of 1760?U/L (Nl: 29-111) and other elevated bone turnover markers. Radiography of the limbs showed medullary expansion and cortical thinning with severe bowing. Although the jaw tumors were initially deemed inoperable, mandibular mass excision and staged partial maxillectomy were eventually performed. Tumor histopathology showed curvilinear trabeculae of woven bone on a background of hypocellular fibrous tissue. Fibrous dysplasia of bone was suspected, but there was no mutation in codon 201 of GNAS in samples from blood or tumor. His clinical and radiographic findings, elevated serum markers, and disorganized bone morphology suggested amplified receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK) signaling, even though his disorder differed from conditions with known constitutive activation of RANK signaling (eg, familial expansile osteolysis). We found a unique 12-base pair duplication in the signal peptide of TNFRSF11A, the gene that encodes RANK. No exon or splice site mutations were found in the genes encoding RANK ligand or osteoprotegerin. Alendronate followed by pamidronate therapies substantially decreased his serum alkaline phosphatase activity. This unique patient expands the phenotypes and genetic basis of the mendelian disorders of RANK signaling activation. PMID:24014458

  16. Surface Modification of Biomedical and Dental Implants and the Processes of Inflammation, Wound Healing and Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Clark M.

    2010-01-01

    Bone adaptation or integration of an implant is characterized by a series of biological reactions that start with bone turnover at the interface (a process of localized necrosis), followed by rapid repair. The wound healing response is guided by a complex activation of macrophages leading to tissue turnover and new osteoblast differentiation on the implant surface. The complex role of implant surface topography and impact on healing response plays a role in biological criteria that can guide the design and development of future tissue-implant surface interfaces. PMID:20162020

  17. Bone Density

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bones Your response to osteoporosis treatment Low bone mass that is not low enough to be osteoporosis is sometimes called osteopenia. Causes of low bone mass include family history, not developing good bone mass ...

  18. Mechanisms of Action and Therapeutic Potential of Strontium in Bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Marie; P. Ammann; G. Boivin; C. Rey

    2001-01-01

    The processes of bone resorption and formation are tightly governed by a variety of systemic and local regulatory agents. In addition, minerals and trace elements affect bone formation and resorption through direct or indirect effects on bone cells or bone mineral. Some trace elements closely chemically related to calcium, such as strontium (Sr), have pharmacological effects on bone when present

  19. Chondroitin sulfate and sulfated hyaluronan-containing collagen coatings of titanium implants influence peri-implant bone formation in a minipig model.

    PubMed

    Korn, P; Schulz, M C; Hintze, V; Range, U; Mai, R; Eckelt, U; Schnabelrauch, M; Möller, S; Becher, J; Scharnweber, D; Stadlinger, B

    2014-07-01

    An improved osseous integration of dental implants in patients with lower bone quality is of particular interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of artificial extracellular matrix implant coatings on early bone formation. The coatings contained collagen (coll) in conjunction with either chondroitin sulfate (CS) or sulfated hyaluronan (sHya). Thirty-six screw-type, grit-blasted, and acid-etched titanium implants were inserted in the mandible of 6 minipigs. Three surface states were tested: (1) uncoated control (2) coll/CS (3) coll/sHya. After healing periods of 4 and 8 weeks, bone implant contact (BIC), bone volume density (BVD) as well as osteoid related parameters were measured. After 4 weeks, control implants showed a BIC of 44% which was comparable to coll/CS coated implants (48%) and significantly higher compared to coll/sHya coatings (37%, p?=?0.012). This difference leveled out after 8 weeks. No significant differences could be detected for BVD values after 4 weeks and all surfaces showed reduced BVD values after 8 weeks. However, at that time, BVD around both, coll/CS (30%, p?=?0.029), and coll/sHya (32%, p?=?0.015), coatings was significantly higher compared to controls (22%). The osteoid implant contact (OIC) showed no significant differences after 4 weeks. After 8 weeks OIC for controls was comparable to coll/CS, the latter being significantly higher compared to coll/sHya (0.9% vs. 0.4%, p?=?0.012). There were no significant differences in osteoid volume density. In summary, implant surface coatings by the chosen organic components of the extracellular matrix showed a certain potential to influence osseointegration in vivo. PMID:23946280

  20. Glucocorticoids Act Directly on Osteoblasts and Osteocytes to Induce Their Apoptosis and Reduce Bone Formation and Strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHARLES A. O'BRIEN; DAN JIA; LILIAN I. PLOTKIN; TERESITA BELLIDO; CARA C. POWERS; SCOTT A. STEWART; STAVROS C. MANOLAGAS; ROBERT S. WEINSTEIN

    2003-01-01

    Whether the negative impact of excess glucocorticoids on the skeleton is due to direct effects on bone cells, indirect effects on extraskeletal tissues, or both is unknown. To determine the contribution of direct effects of glucocorticoids on osteoblas- tic\\/osteocytic cells in vivo, we blocked glucocorticoid action on these cells via transgenic expression of 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, an enzyme that

  1. [Osteostimulating effect of bone xenograft on bone tissue regeneration].

    PubMed

    Balin, V N; Balin, D V; Iordanishvili, A K; Musikin, M I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of experimental case-control study performed in 28 dogs divided in 2 groups was to assess local tissue reactions on bone xenograft transplantation; dynamics of bone remodeling and formation at the site of bone defect wall contacting with bone xenograft; dynamics and mechanisms of xenograft remodeling. Transplantation of xenograft in conventional bone defects did not cause inflammatory of destructive reactions because of high biocompatibility of the material. At transplantation site active fibrous bone trabeculae formation filling the spaces between xenograft participles was observed. On the 90th day newly formed bone showed lammelar structure. Simultaneously from the 42d day the invasion of cell elements from recipient bed into the material was seen leading to xenograft resorption. The observed dynamics may be assessed as gradual substitution of xenograft with newly formed host bone structures. PMID:26145467

  2. Analyzing the behavior of a porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66) composite for healing of bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yan; Ren, Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Hongsheng; Lang, Yun; Min, Li; Zhang, Wenli; Pei, Fuxing; Yan, Yonggang; Li, Hong; Mo, Anchun; Tu, Chongqi; Duan, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the behavior of the porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66) composite grafted for bone defect repair through a series of biological safety experiments, animal experiments, and a more than 5-year long clinical follow-up. The biological safety experiments, carried out in accordance with the Chinese Guo Biao and Tolerancing (GB/T)16886 and GB/T16175, revealed that porous n-HA/PA66 composite had no cytotoxicity, no sensitization effect, no pyrogenic reaction, and that its hemolysis rate was 0.59% (less than 5%). Rabbit models of tibia defects with grafted porous n-HA/PA66 composite were established. After 2 weeks, the experiment showed that osteogenesis was detected in the porous n-HA/PA66 composite; the density of new bone formation was similar to the surrounding host bone at 12 weeks. After 26 weeks, the artificial bone rebuilt to lamellar bone completely. In the clinical study, a retrospective review was carried out for 21 patients who underwent serial radiographic assessment after treatment with porous n-HA/PA66 composite grafts following bone tumor resection. All wounds healed to grade A. No postoperative infections, delayed deep infection, nonspecific inflammation, rejection, or fractures were encountered. At a mean follow-up of 5.3 years, the mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society’s (MSTS) 93 score was 29.3 points (range: 28–30 points) and mean radiopaque density ratio was 0.77±0.10. The radiologic analysis showed that porous n-HA/PA66 composite had been completely incorporated with the host bone about 1.5 years later. In conclusion, this study indicated that the porous n-HA/PA66 composite had biological safety, and good biocompatibility, osteoinduction, and osseointegration. Thus, the porous n-HA/PA66 composite is an ideal artificial bone substitute and worthy of promotion in the field. PMID:24531621

  3. COMPOUND HETEROZYGOUS LOSS OF Ext1 AND Ext2 IS SUFFICIENT FOR FORMATION OF MULTIPLE EXOSTOSES IN POSTNATAL MOUSE LONG BONES IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Beverly M.; Schuksz, Manuela; Koyama, Eiki; Mundy, Christina; Wells, Daniel E.; Yamaguchi, Yu; Pacifici, Maurizio; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple Hereditary Exostoses (MHE) syndrome is caused by haploinsufficiency in Golgi-associated heparan sulfate polymerases EXT1 or EXT2 and is characterized by formation of exostoses next to growing long bones and other skeletal elements. Recent mouse studies have indicated that formation of stereotypic exostoses requires a complete loss of Ext expression, suggesting that a similar local loss of EXT function may underlie exostosis formation in patients. To further test this possibility and gain greater insights into pathogenic mechanisms, we created heterozygous Ext1+/? and compound Ext1+/?/Ext2+/? mice. Like Ext2+/? mice described previously (Stickens et al. Development 132:5055), Ext1+/? mice displayed rib-associated exostosis-like outgrowths only. However, compound heterozygous mice had nearly twice as many outgrowths and, more importantly, displayed stereotypic growth plate-like exostoses along their long bones. Ext1+/?Ext2+/? exostoses contained very low levels of immuno-detectable heparan sulfate, and Ext1+/?Ext2+/? chondrocytes, endothelial cells and fibroblasts in vitro produced shortened heparan sulfate chains compared to controls and responded less vigorously to exogenous factors such as FGF-18. We also found that rib outgrowths formed in Ext1f/+Col2Cre and Ext1f/+Dermo1Cre mice, suggesting that ectopic skeletal tissue can be induced by conditional Ext ablation in local chondrogenic and/or perichondrial cells. The study indicates that formation of stereotypic exostoses requires a significant, but not complete, loss of Ext expression and that exostosis incidence and phenotype are intimately sensitive to, and inversely related to, Ext expression. The data also indicate that the nature and organization of ectopic tissue may be influenced by site-specific anatomical cues and mechanisms. PMID:21310272

  4. Combining femtosecond laser ablation and diode laser welding in lamellar and endothelial corneal transplants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, Roberto; Rossi, Francesca; Matteini, Paolo; Ratto, Fulvio; Menabuoni, Luca; Lenzetti, Ivo; Yoo, Sonia H.; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2008-02-01

    Based on our previous clinical experiences in minimally invasive diode laser-induced welding of corneal tissue in penetrating keratoplasty (PK), i.e. full-thickness transplant of the cornea, we combined this technique with the use of a femtosecond laser for applications in lamellar (LK) and endothelial (EK) keratoplasty. In LK, the femtosecond laser was used to prepare donor button and recipient corneal bed; the wound edges were stained with a water solution of Indocyanine Green (ICG) and then irradiated with a diode laser emitting in CW mode to induce stromal welding. Intraoperatory observations and follow-up results up to 6 months indicated the formation of a smooth stromal interface, total absence of edema as well as inflammation, and reduction of post-operative astigmatism, as compared with conventional suturing procedures. In EK the femtosecond laser was used for the preparation of a 100 ?m thick, 8.5mm diameter donor corneal endothelium flap. The flap stromal side was stained with ICG. After stripping the recipient Descemet's membrane and endothelium, the donor flap was positioned in the anterior chamber on the inner face of the cornea by an air bubble and secured to the recipient cornea by diode laser pulses delivered by means of a fiberoptic contact probe introduced in the anterior chamber, which produced welding spots of 200 ?m diameter. Femtosecond laser sculpturing of the donor cornea provided lamellar and endothelial flaps of preset and constant thickness. Diode laserinduced welding showed a unique potential to permanently secure the donor flap in place, avoiding postoperative displacement and inflammation reaction.

  5. Thermodynamics and phase behavior of the lamellar Zwanzig model

    E-print Network

    L. Harnau; D. G. Rowan; J. -P. Hansen

    2002-07-02

    Binary mixtures of lamellar colloids represented by hard platelets are studied within a generalization of the Zwanzig model for rods, whereby the square cuboids can take only three orientations along the $x$, $y$ or $z$ axes. The free energy is calculated within Rosenfeld's ''Fundamental Measure Theory'' (FMT) adapted to the present model. In the one-component limit, the model exhibits the expected isotropic to nematic phase transition, which narrows as the aspect ratio $\\zeta=L/D$ ($D$ is the width and $L$ the thickness of the platelets) increases. In the binary case the competition between nematic ordering and depletion-induced segregation leads to rich phase behaviour.

  6. Osteoporosis associated with pulmonary silicosis in an equine bone fragility syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arens, A M; Barr, B; Puchalski, S M; Poppenga, R; Kulin, R M; Anderson, J; Stover, S M

    2011-05-01

    California horses incur a bone fragility syndrome manifested by pathologic fractures. This study investigated gross, radiographic, and histologic features of the disorder as well as relationships with silicosis and levels of heavy metals and trace minerals through a postmortem study of 9 affected and 3 unaffected horses. Bones and soft tissues were evaluated grossly and histologically. Bones, lymph nodes, and lung tissue were evaluated radiographically. Tissues were evaluated for silicon levels, intracytoplasmic crystals, heavy metals, and trace minerals. All 9 affected horses had osteoporosis and clinical or subclinical pulmonary disease due to silicosis (8/9) or pneumoconiosis (1/9). All affected horses had radiographic findings consistent with osteopenia and histologic evidence of osteoporosis characterized by osteopenia, numerous resorption cavities, cement lines, and a mosaic lamellar pattern indicative of multiple remodeling events. Silicosis was characterized by widespread pulmonary granuloma formation with fibrosis; variable tracheobronchiolar and mediastinal granulomatous lymphadenitis; intracellular crystals within lung and lymph node macrophages; and pronounced lymph node fibrosis, focal necrosis, and dystrophic calcification. Crystals in lung (6/9) and lymph node (8/9) tissues were identified as cytotoxic silica dioxide polymorphs. Lung and liver tissue from affected horses had elevated levels of elemental silicon. Osteoporosis was highly correlated (r = 0.8, P < .01) with silicosis. No abnormalities in heavy metal or trace minerals were detected. This evaluation indicated that horses with bone fragility disorder have systemic osteoporosis associated with fibrosing pulmonary silicosis. The etiopathogenesis of the bone fragility syndrome is unknown; however, this study provides circumstantial evidence for a silicate associated osteoporosis. PMID:21097716

  7. Osteocyte-derived insulin-like growth factor I is essential for determining bone mechanosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lau, K-H William; Baylink, David J; Zhou, Xiao-Dong; Rodriguez, Denise; Bonewald, Lynda F; Li, Zihui; Ruffoni, Davide; Müller, Ralph; Kesavan, Chandrasekhar; Sheng, Matilda H-C

    2013-07-15

    This study sought to determine whether deficient Igf1 expression in osteocytes would affect loading-induced osteogenic response. Tibias of osteocyte Igf1 conditional knockout (KO) mice (generated by cross-breeding Igf1 floxed mice with Dmp1-Cre transgenic mice) and wild-type (WT) littermates were subjected to four-point bending for 2 wk. Microcomputed tomography confirmed that the size of tibias of conditional mutants was smaller. Loading with an equivalent loading strain increased periosteal woven bone and endosteal lamellar bone formation in WT mice but not in conditional KO mice. Consistent with the lack of an osteogenic response, the loading failed to upregulate expression of early mechanoresponsive genes (Igf1, Cox-2, c-fos) or osteogenic genes (Cbfa-1, and osteocalcin) in conditional KO bones. The lack of osteogenic response was not due to reduced osteocyte density or insufficient loading strain. Deficient osteocyte Igf1 expression reduced the loading-induced upregulation of expression of canonical Wnt signaling genes (Wnt10b, Lrp5, Dkk1, sFrp2). The loading also reduced (by 40%) Sost expression in WT mice, but the loading not only did not reduce but upregulated (~1.5-fold) Sost expression in conditional KO mice. Conditional disruption of Igf1 in osteocytes also abolished the loading-induced increase in the bone ?-catenin protein level. These findings suggest an impaired response in the loading-induced upregulation of the Wnt signaling in conditional KO mice. In summary, conditional disruption of Igf1 in osteocytes abolished the loading-induced activation of the Wnt signaling and the corresponding osteogenic response. In conclusion, osteocyte-derived IGF-I plays a key determining role in bone mechanosensitivity. PMID:23715728

  8. An in vitro bone tissue regeneration strategy combining chondrogenic and vascular priming enhances the mineralization potential of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro while also allowing for vessel formation.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Fiona E; Haugh, Matthew G; McNamara, Laoise M

    2015-04-01

    Chondrogenic priming (CP) of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and coculture of MSCs with human umbilical vein endothelial stem cells (HUVECs) both have been shown to significantly increase the potential for MSCs to undergo osteogenic differentiation and mineralization in vitro and in vivo. Such strategies mimic cartilage template formation or vascularization that occur during endochondral ossification during early fetal development. However, although both chondrogenesis and vascularization are crucial precursors for bone formation by endochondral ossification, no in vitro bone tissue regeneration strategy has sought to incorporate both events simultaneously. The objective of this study is to develop an in vitro bone regeneration strategy that mimics critical aspects of the endochondral ossification process, specifically (1) the formation of a cartilage template and (2) subsequent vascularization of this template. We initially prime the MSCs with chondrogenic growth factors, to ensure the production of a cartilage template, and subsequently implement a coculture strategy involving MSC and HUVECs. Three experimental groups were compared; (1) CP for 21 days with no addition of cells; (2) CP for 21 days followed by coculture of HUVECs (250,000 cells); (3) CP for 21 days followed by coculture of HUVECs and MSCs (250,000 cells) at a ratio of 1:1. Each group was cultured for a further 21 days in osteogenic media after the initial CP period. Biochemical (DNA, Alkaline Phosphatase Activity, Calcium, and Vessel Endothelial Growth Factor) and histological analyses (Alcian blue, alizarin red, CD31(+), and collagen type X) were performed 1, 2, and 3 weeks after the media switch. The results of this study show that CP provides a cartilage-like template that provides a suitable platform for HUVEC and MSC cells to attach, proliferate, and infiltrate for up to 3 weeks. More importantly we show that the use of the coculture methodology, rudimentary vessels are formed within this cartilage template and enhanced the mineralization potential of MSCs. Taken together these results indicate for the first time that the application of both chondrogenic and vascular priming of MSCs enhances the mineralization potential of MSCs in vitro while also allowing the formation of immature vessels. PMID:25588588

  9. Regional intravenous limb perfusion compared to systemic intravenous administration for marimastat delivery to equine lamellar tissue.

    PubMed

    Underwood, C; Collins, S N; Mills, P C; Van Eps, A W; Allavena, R E; Medina Torres, C E; Pollitt, C C

    2015-08-01

    Pharmaceutical agents with potential for laminitis prevention have been identified. Many of these, including the MMP inhibitor marimastat, are impractical for systemic administration. This study compared local delivery of marimastat by regional limb perfusion (RLP) to systemic intravenous bolus dosing (SIVB), and established whether RLP results in local lamellar drug delivery. Six adult horses received 0.23 mg/kg of marimastat by RLP followed by 0.23 mg/kg marimastat by SIVB, with a 24-h washout period. Lamellar ultrafiltration probes sampled lamellar interstitial fluid as lamellar ultrafiltrate (LUF). LUF and plasma marimastat concentrations (LUF[M] and P[M] , respectively) were measured for 24 h after each treatment. Regional pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental analyses. The LUF Cmax following RLP was 232 [34-457] times that following SIVB. LUF[M] after RLP were higher than those obtained after SIVB for 18 h (P < 0.03). Median LUF[M] were > IC90 of equine lamellar MMP-2 and MMP-9 for 9 h after tourniquet removal. RLP appeared superior to SIVB for lamellar marimastat delivery (higher LUF Cmax,, AUC and T > IC90 of lamellar MMPs). However, frequent dosing is necessary to achieve therapeutic lamellar concentrations. RLP could be used to investigate whether marimastat prevents experimentally induced laminitis. Further refinement of the technique and dosing interval is necessary before clinical application. PMID:25641095

  10. Reduced Skin Barrier Function Parallels Abnormal Stratum Corneum Lipid Organization in Patients with Lamellar Ichthyosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana P M Lavrijsen; Joke A Bouwstra; Gert S Gooris; Arij Weerheim; Harry E Boddé; Maria Ponec

    1995-01-01

    Most patients with autosomal recessive lamellar ichthyosis are known to have markedly impaired skin barrier function. We hypothesize that this may be due to imperfections in the composition and fine structure of the intercellular stratum corneum lipids. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis. To characterize the barrier properties in three female patients with lamellar ichthyosis,

  11. Stress response and structural transitions in sheared gyroidal and lamellar amphiphilic mesophases: Lattice-Boltzmann simulations

    E-print Network

    Harting, Jens

    Stress response and structural transitions in sheared gyroidal and lamellar amphiphilic mesophases and lamellar amphiphilic mesophases to steady shear simulated using a bottom-up lattice-Boltzmann model for amphiphilic fluids and sliding periodic Lees-Edwards bound- ary conditions. We study the gyroid per se above

  12. Fatigue crack growth behavior of equiaxed, duplex and lamellar microstructure ?-base titanium aluminides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gnanamoorthy; Y. Mutoh; Y. Mizuhara

    1996-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth behavior of binary and chromium\\/niobium alloyed ?-base titanium aluminides with lamellar, duplex and equiaxed microstructures were investigated. Materials with lamellar microstructure exhibited superior fatigue crack growth properties compared with duplex microstructure material, which in turn were superior to equiaxed microstructure material. Addition of chromium or niobium, which refined the grain size, had no significant influence on the

  13. Conversion of lamellar body membranes into tubular myelin in alveoli of fetal rat lungs

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Fluid-filled lumina of fetal rat lungs contain lamellar bodies (LBs) as well as tubular myelin (TM), both of which are thought to be stores of phospholipid-rich pulmonary surfactant. The alveolar epithelium is believed to secrete LBs, but neither the origin nor the mechanism of TM formation is entirely certain. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between secreted LBs and TM and to define membrane phenomena which occur during TM formation. I examined lung tissues of 20-21 day-old fetuses (day 22 = term) using transmission and high voltage transmission electron microscopy and cytochemistry. My findings indicate that secreted LBs, identified by the presence of an acid-phosphatase reactive core, are the precursor of TM. Secreted LBs are highly organized structures which contain structurally specialized areas, one of which is a "mini-lattice" structure similar to TM. During TM formation, fuzzes or 8.0-nm diameter particles appear on transition membranes, although LB membranes appear to lack both structures. Similar particles are present on TM membranes and are generally associated with membrane intersections. My results provide evidence that TM is formed from LBs within the alveolar lumen by mechanisms which may be complex. PMID:833198

  14. The use of carbon nanotubes to induce osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived MSCs in vitro and ectopic bone formation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Haifeng; Niu, Xufeng; Yu, Bo; Fan, Yubo; Feng, Qingling; Cui, Fu-zhai; Watari, Fumio

    2012-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), one of the most concerned nanomaterials, with unique electrical, mechanical and surface properties, have been shown suitable for biomedical application. In this study, we evaluated attachment, proliferation, osteogenic gene expression, ALP/DNA, protein/DNA and mineralization of human adipose-derived stem cells cultured in vitro on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and graphite (GP) compacts with the same dimension. Moreover, we assessed the effect of these two kinds of compacts on ectopic bone formation in vivo. First of all, higher ability of the MWNTs compacts to adsorb proteins, comparing with the GP compacts, was shown. During the conventional culture, it was shown that MWNTs could induce the expression of ALP, cbfa1 and COLIA1 genes while GP could not. Furthermore, alkaline phosphatase (ALP)/DNA and protein/DNA of the cell on the MWNTs compacts, was significantly higher than those of the cells on the GP compacts. With the adsorption of the proteins in culture medium with 50% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in advance, the increments of the ALP/DNA and protein/DNA for the MWNTs compacts were found respectively significantly more than the increments of those for the GP compacts, suggesting that the larger amount of protein adsorbed on the MWNTs was crucial. More results showed that ALP/DNA and protein/DNA of the cells on the two kinds of compacts pre-soaked in culture medium having additional rhBMP-2 were both higher than those of the cells on the samples re-soaked in culture medium with 50% FBS, and that those values for the MWNTs compacts increased much more. Larger mineral content was found on the MWNTs compacts than on the GP compacts at day 7. In vivo experiment showed that the MWNTs could induce ectopic bone formation in the dorsal musculature of ddy mice while GP could not. The results indicated that MWNTs might stimulate inducible cells in soft tissues to form inductive bone by concentrating more proteins, including bone-inducing proteins. PMID:22483242

  15. Interphase anisotropy effects on lamellar eutectics: a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Supriyo; Choudhury, Abhik; Plapp, Mathis; Bottin-Rousseau, Sabine; Faivre, Gabriel; Akamatsu, Silvère

    2015-02-01

    In directional solidification of binary eutectics, it is often observed that two-phase lamellar growth patterns grow tilted with respect to the direction z of the imposed temperature gradient. This crystallographic effect depends on the orientation of the two crystal phases ? and ? with respect to z. Recently, an approximate theory was formulated that predicts the lamellar tilt angle as a function of the anisotropy of the free energy of the solid(?)-solid(?) interphase boundary. We use two different numerical methods-phase field (PF) and dynamic boundary integral (BI)-to simulate the growth of steady periodic patterns in two dimensions as a function of the angle ?(R) between z and a reference crystallographic axis for a fixed relative orientation of ? and ? crystals, that is, for a given anisotropy function (Wulff plot) of the interphase boundary. For Wulff plots without unstable interphase-boundary orientations, the two simulation methods are in excellent agreement with each other and confirm the general validity of the previously proposed theory. In addition, a crystallographic "locking" of the lamellae onto a facet plane is well reproduced in the simulations. When unstable orientations are present in the Wulff plot, it is expected that two distinct values of the tilt angle can appear for the same crystal orientation over a finite ?(R) range. This bistable behavior, which has been observed experimentally, is well reproduced by BI simulations but not by the PF model. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. PMID:25768518

  16. Effect of fatty acyl chain length and structure on the lamellar gel to liquid-crystalline and lamellar to reversed hexagonal phase transitions of aqueous phosphatidylethanolamine dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.N.A.H.; Mannock, D.A.; McElhaney, R.N.; Turner, D.C.; Gruner, S.M. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1989-01-24

    The lamellar gel/liquid-crystalline and the lamellar liquid-crystalline/reversed hexagonal phase transitions of aqueous dispersions of a number of synthetic phosphatidylethanolamines containing linear saturated, branched chain, and alicyclic fatty acyl chains of varying length were studied by differential scanning calorimetry, {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. For any given homologous series of phosphatidylethanolamines containing a single chemical class of fatty acids, the lamellar gel/liquid-crystalline phase transition temperature increases and the lamellar liquid-crystalline/reversed hexagonal phase transition temperature decreases with increases in hydrocarbon chain length. For a series of phosphatidylethanolamines of the same hydrocarbon chain length but with different chemical structures, both the lamellar gel/liquid-crystalline and the lamellar liquid-crystalline/reversed hexagonal phase transition temperatures vary markedly and in the same direction. These results suggest that for any given hydrocarbon chain length, there may be a critical thickness at which the liquid-crystalline phosphatidylethanolamine bilayer becomes unstable with respect to inverted nonbilayer phases such as the H{sub II} phase and that the temperature at which this critical thickness is reached is dependent upon that bilayers proximity to the hydrocarbon chain-melting phase transition temperature.

  17. Bone anabolics in osteoporosis: Actuality and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Montagnani, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral and nonvertebral fractures prevention is the main goal for osteoporosis therapy by inhibiting bone resorption and/or stimulating bone formation. Antiresorptive drugs decrease the activation frequency, thereby determining a secondary decrease in bone formation rate and a low bone turnover. Bisphosphonates are today’s mainstay among antiresorptive treatment of osteoporosis. Also, oral selective estrogen receptor modulators and recently denosumab have a negative effect on bone turnover. Agents active on bone formation are considered a better perspective in the treatment of severe osteoporosis. Recombinant-human parathyroid hormone (PTH) has showed to increase bone formation and significantly decrease vertebral fractures in severe patients, but with a modest effect on nonvertebral fractures. The study of Wnt signaling pathway, that induces prevalently an osteoblastic activity, opens large possibilities to antagonists of Wnt-inhibitors, such as sclerostin antibodies and dickkopf-1 antagonists, with potential effects not only on trabecular bone but also on cortical bone. PMID:25035827

  18. Role of carotenoid ?-cryptoxanthin in bone homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Bone homeostasis is maintained through a balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. Aging induces bone loss due to decreased osteoblastic bone formation and increased osteoclastic bone resorption. Osteoporosis with its accompanying decrease in bone mass is widely recognized as a major public health problem. Nutritional factors may play a role in the prevention of bone loss with aging. Among various carotenoids (carotene and xanthophylls including beta (?)-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, ?-carotene, astaxanthin, and rutin), ?-cryptoxanthin, which is abundant in Satsuma mandarin orange (Citrus unshiu MARC.), has been found to have a stimulatory effect on bone calcification in vitro. ?-cryptoxanthin has stimulatory effects on osteoblastic bone formation and inhibitory effects on osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro, thereby increasing bone mass. ?-cryptoxanthin has an effect on the gene expression of various proteins that are related osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resororption in vitro. The intake of ?-cryptoxanthin may have a preventive effect on bone loss in animal models for osteoporosis and in healthy human or postmenopausal women. Epidemiological studies suggest a potential role of ?-cryptoxanthin as a sustainable nutritional approach to improving bone health of human subjects. ?-Cryptoxanthin may be an osteogenic factor in preventing osteoporosis in human subjects. PMID:22471523

  19. Improvement of bone formation biomarkers after 1-year consumption with milk fortified with eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, and selected vitamins.

    PubMed

    Martin-Bautista, Elena; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel; Fonolla, Juristo; Quesada, Miguel; Poyatos, Antonio; Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo

    2010-05-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that the replacement of regular milk with fortified milk in hyperlipidemic adults for 1 year would improve bone biomarkers. The fortified milk contained eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from fish oils, oleic acid, vitamins A, B(6), and E, as well as folic acid. We believe that the fortified milk will improve the blood fatty acid profile and vitamin status in subjects to benefit bone health biomarkers. From the 84 patients who accepted to participate, 11 of these were excluded for the presence of metabolic diseases and 1 was excluded for noncompliance with the protocol. Seventy-two hyperlipidemic patients (35-65 years) were randomly divided between 2 study groups. The supplement group (E; n = 39) consumed 0.5 L/d of fortified milk that contained fish oil, oleic acid, and vitamins. The control group (C; n = 33) consumed 0.5 L/d of semiskimmed milk containing the same amount of total fat. Blood samples were taken at T(0), T(3), T(6), and T(12) months to determine plasma fatty acids, vitamins B(6), E, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and serum folate, calcium, soluble osteoprotegerin (OPG), soluble receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), osteocalcin, parathormone, type I collagen carboxy-terminal telopeptide, and malondialdehyde. After 1 year, the E group showed a significant increase in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (42%), docosahexaenoic acid (60%), vitamin B6 (38%), OPG (18%), RANKL (7%), OPG/RANKL (10%), red blood cell folate (21%), serum folate (53%), calcium (4%), vitamin D (11%), and osteocalcin (22%). Dietary supplementation with the fortified milk drink improved nutritional status and bone formation markers in adult hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:20579524

  20. A blue-violet laser irradiation stimulates bone nodule formation of mesenchymal stromal cells by the control of the circadian clock protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2007-02-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells, which are present in adult bone marrow, that can replicate as undifferentiated cells and that have the potential to differentiate to lineages of mesenchymal tissues, including bone, cartilage, fat, tendon, and muscle. Their rapid and selective differentiation should provide the potential of new therapeutic approaches for the restoration of damaged or diseased tissue. However, several fundamental questions must be answered before it will be feasible to usefully predict and control MSCs responses to exogenous cytokines or genes. In particular, a better understanding of how specific factor may alter the fate of differentiation of MSCs is needed. In recent reports, circadian clock protein controls osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Here we show that a stimulation of a blue-violet laser irradiation regulates the differentiation of mouse MSCs to osteoblasts by change of the localization of a circadian rhythm protein, mouse Cryptochrome 1 (mCRY1). We found that a blue laser irradiation accelerated osteogenesis of MSCs. After laser irradiation, mCRY1 protein was translocated from cytoplasm to nucleus and mCRY1 mRNA level was downregulated thereafter. These results indicate that mCRY1, a blue-violet-light receptor and a master regulator of circadian rhythm, plays important roles in the regulation of the differentiation of MSCs. Since the differentiation of MSCs was easily regulated only by a laser irradiation, the potential of new therapeutic approaches for the restoration of damaged or diseased tissue is anticipated. Furthermore, our results obtained in this study may prove an excellent opportunity to gain insights into cross-talk between circadian rhythms and bone formation.

  1. Bone scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is done to see if you have a bone infection, images may be taken shortly after the radioactive ... feet or legs, or spine fractures) Diagnose a bone infection (osteomyelitis) Diagnose or determine the cause of bone ...

  2. Incorporation of large amounts of gentamicin sulphate into acrylic bone cement: effect on handling and mechanical properties, antibiotic release, and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Dunne, N J; Hill, J; McAfee, P; Kirkpatrick, R; Patrick, S; Tunney, M

    2008-04-01

    Bacterial infection remains a significant complication following total joint replacement. If infection is suspected when revision surgery is being performed, a large dose of antibiotic, usually gentamicin sulphate, is often blended with the acrylic bone cement powder in an attempt to reduce the risk of recurrent infection. In this in-vitro study the effect of small and large doses of gentamicin sulphate on the handling and mechanical properties of the cement, gentamicin release from the cement, and in-vitro biofilm formation by clinical Staphylococcus spp. isolates on the cement was determined. An increase in gentamicin loading of 1, 2, 3, or 4 g, in a cement powder mass of 40 g, resulted in a significant decrease in the compressive and four-point bending strength, but a significant increase in the amount of gentamicin released over a 72h period. When overt infection was modelled, using Staphylococcus spp. clinical isolates at an inoculum of 1 x 10(7) colony-forming units/ml, an increase in the amount of gentamicin (1, 2, 3, or 4 g) added to 40 g of poly(methyl methacrylate) cement resulted in an initial decrease in bacterial colonization but this beneficial effect was no longer apparent by 72 h, with the bacterial strains forming biofilms on the cements despite the release of high levels of gentamicin. The findings suggest that orthopaedic surgeons should carefully consider the clinical consequences of blending large doses (1 g or more per 40 g of poly(methyl methacrylate)) of gentamicin into Palacos R bone cement for use in revision surgery as the increased gentamicin loading does not prevent bacterial biofilm formation and the effect on the mechanical properties could be important to the longevity of the prosthetic joint. PMID:18491704

  3. Deflazacort increases osteoclast formation in mouse bone marrow culture and the ratio of RANKL/OPG mRNA expression in marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, H.; Kang, Y. S.; Hwang, C. S.; Moon, I. K.; Yim, C. H.; Choi, K. H.; Han, K. O.; Jang, H. C.; Yoon, H. K.; Han, I. K.

    2001-01-01

    Information on precise effects of deflazacort on bone cell function, especially osteoclasts, is quite limited. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to test effects of deflazacort on osteoclast-like cell formation in mouse bone marrow cultures and on the regulation of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and its ligand (RANKL) mRNA expressions by RT-PCR in the ST2 marrow stromal cells. TRAP-positive mononuclear cells increased after the treatment of deflazacort at 10(-9) to 10(-7) M alone for 6 days in a dose-dependent manner. Number of TRAP-positive multi-nucleated cells (MNCs) increased significantly with combined treatment of deflazacort at 10(-7) M and 1,25-(OH)2D3 at 10(-9) M compared to that of cultures treated with 1,25-(OH)2D3 alone (p<0.05). Exposure to deflazacort at 10(-7) M in the presence of 1,25-(OH)2D3 at 10(-9) M in the last 3-day culture had greater stimulatory effect on osteoclast-like cell formation than that of the first 3-day culture did. Deflazacort at 10(-10) -10(-6) M downregulated OPG and upregulated RANKL in mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. These observations suggest that deflazacort stimulate osteoclast precursor in the absence of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and enhance differentiation of osteoclasts in the presence of 1,25-(OH)2D3. These effects are, in part, thought to be mediated by the regulation of the expression of OPG and RANKL mRNA in marrow stromal cells. PMID:11748360

  4. Novel transglutaminase 1 mutations in patients affected by lamellar ichthyosis

    PubMed Central

    Terrinoni, A; Serra, V; Codispoti, A; Talamonti, E; Bui, L; Palombo, R; Sette, M; Campione, E; Didona, B; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, M; Zambruno, G; Melino, G; Candi, E

    2012-01-01

    Lamellar Ichthyosis (LI) is a form of congenital ichthyosis that is caused by mutations in the TGM1 gene that encodes for the transglutaminase 1 (TG1) enzyme. Functional inactivation of TG1 could be due to mutations, deletion or insertions. In this study, we have screened 16 patients affected by LI and found six new mutations: two transition/transversion (R37G, V112A), two nonsense mutations and two putative splice site both leading to a premature stop codon. The mutations are localized in exons 2 (N-terminal domain), 5, 11 (central catalytic domain), and none is located in the two beta-barrel C-terminal domains. In conclusion, this study expands the current knowledge on TGM1 mutation spectrum, increasing the characterization of mutations would provide more accurate prenatal genetic counselling for parents at-risk individuals. PMID:23096117

  5. Defect-mediated lamellar-isotropic transition of amphiphile bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Antara; Pabst, Georg; Raghunathan, V. A.

    We report the observation of a novel isotropic phase of amphiphile bilayers in a mixed system consisting of the ionic surfactant, sodium docecylsulphate (SDS), and the organic salt p-toludine hydrochloride (PTHC). This system forms a collapsed lamellar ($L_\\alpha$) phase over a wide range of water content, which transforms into an isotropic phase on heating. This transition is not observed in samples without excess water, where the $L_\\alpha$ phase is stable at higher temperatures. Our observations indicate that the $L_\\alpha$ - isotropic transition is driven by the unbinding of edge dislocation loops and that the isotropic phase in the present attraction-dominated system is the analogue of the sponge phase usually seen in amphiphile systems dominated by interbilayer steric repulsion.

  6. A defect mediated lamellar to isotropic transition of amphiphile bilayers

    E-print Network

    Antara Pal; Georg Pabst; V. A. Raghunathan

    2011-11-25

    We report the observation of a novel isotropic phase of amphiphile bilayers in a mixed system consisting of the ionic surfactant, sodium docecylsulphate (SDS), and the organic salt p-toludine hydrochloride (PTHC). This system forms a collapsed lamellar ($L_\\alpha$) phase over a wide range of water content, which transforms into an isotropic phase on heating. This transition is not observed in samples without excess water, where the $L_\\alpha$ phase is stable at higher temperatures. Our observations indicate that the $L_\\alpha$ - isotropic transition is driven by the unbinding of edge dislocation loops and that the isotropic phase in the present attraction-dominated system is the analogue of the sponge phase usually seen in amphiphile systems dominated by interbilayer steric repulsion.

  7. Novel transglutaminase 1 mutations in patients affected by lamellar ichthyosis.

    PubMed

    Terrinoni, A; Serra, V; Codispoti, A; Talamonti, E; Bui, L; Palombo, R; Sette, M; Campione, E; Didona, B; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, M; Zambruno, G; Melino, G; Candi, E

    2012-01-01

    Lamellar Ichthyosis (LI) is a form of congenital ichthyosis that is caused by mutations in the TGM1 gene that encodes for the transglutaminase 1 (TG1) enzyme. Functional inactivation of TG1 could be due to mutations, deletion or insertions. In this study, we have screened 16 patients affected by LI and found six new mutations: two transition/transversion (R37G, V112A), two nonsense mutations and two putative splice site both leading to a premature stop codon. The mutations are localized in exons 2 (N-terminal domain), 5, 11 (central catalytic domain), and none is located in the two beta-barrel C-terminal domains. In conclusion, this study expands the current knowledge on TGM1 mutation spectrum, increasing the characterization of mutations would provide more accurate prenatal genetic counselling for parents at-risk individuals. PMID:23096117

  8. Breast cancer metastasis to the bone: mechanisms of bone loss

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer frequently metastasizes to the skeleton, interrupting the normal bone remodeling process and causing bone degradation. Osteolytic lesions are the end result of osteoclast activity; however, osteoclast differentiation and activation are mediated by osteoblast production of RANKL (receptor activator for NF?B ligand) and several osteoclastogenic cytokines. Osteoblasts themselves are negatively affected by cancer cells as evidenced by an increase in apoptosis and a decrease in proteins required for new bone formation. Thus, bone loss is due to both increased activation of osteoclasts and suppression of osteoblasts. This review summarizes the current understanding of the osteolytic mechanisms of bone metastases, including a discussion of current therapies. PMID:21176175

  9. The effect of an amphiphilic self-assembled lipid lamellar phase on the relief of dry skin.

    PubMed

    Pennick, G; Chavan, B; Summers, B; Rawlings, A V

    2012-12-01

    Humectant and occlusive technologies have traditionally been used for the treatment of dry skin. Originally, non-lamellar-forming ingredients were used such as petrolatum but recent research has shown the advantage of using lamellar-forming ingredients such as ceramides, pseudoceramides and phospholipids in the relief of dry skin. Nevertheless, the importance of using lipid-phase transition inducers, such as long-chain fatty acids, has not been studied clinically. The evaluation of a novel complex of lipophilic ingredients was of interest: cetyl alcohol, isostearyl isostearate, potassium cetyl phosphate, cetyl behenate and behenic acid. The combination of all these ingredients was shown to be more effective than any single component in water vapour transmission rate studies. This was thought to be owing to the formation of a unique structural organization of the lipids upon dry-down from an O/W emulsion as was examined by X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. When evaluated clinically in a randomized double-blind and vehicle-controlled moisturization efficacy trial, this novel blend of ingredients was shown to not only improve the visible signs of skin dryness to a significantly greater extent than a comparable mineral oil-containing vehicle but also then maintain a better skin condition during the regression no-treatment phase of the study. This combination of ingredients offers a new technology option for the treatment of dry skin. PMID:22882126

  10. Creating Extremely Asymmetric Lamellar Structures via Fluctuation-Assisted Unbinding of Miktoarm Star Block Copolymer Alloys.

    PubMed

    Shi, Weichao; Hamilton, Andrew L; Delaney, Kris T; Fredrickson, Glenn H; Kramer, Edward J; Ntaras, Christos; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Lynd, Nathaniel A

    2015-05-20

    We report the creation of highly asymmetric lamellar structures with a well-designed miktoarm star block copolymer of the S(IS')3 type, where S and S' are polystyrenes of different lengths and I is poly(isoprene). The domain spacing can be tuned continuously from 37 nm to over 300 nm when the miktoarm star block copolymer is blended with suitable molecular weight polystyrene homopolymers. Beyond the unbinding transition of the lamellar phase, extremely asymmetric lamellar structures were obtained with up to 97 wt % polystyrene, remarkably leaving the poly(isoprene) layers intact at only 3 wt %! PMID:25915769

  11. FGFR1 signaling in hypertrophic chondrocytes is attenuated by the Ras-GAP neurofibromin during endochondral bone formation.

    PubMed

    Karolak, Matthew R; Yang, Xiangli; Elefteriou, Florent

    2015-05-01

    Aberrant fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) signaling disrupts chondrocyte proliferation and growth plate size and architecture, leading to various chondrodysplasias or bone overgrowth. These observations suggest that the duration, intensity and cellular context of FGFR signaling during growth plate chondrocyte maturation require tight, regulated control for proper bone elongation. However, the machinery fine-tuning FGFR signaling in chondrocytes is incompletely defined. We report here that neurofibromin, a Ras-GAP encoded by Nf1, has an overlapping expression pattern with FGFR1 and FGFR3 in prehypertrophic chondrocytes, and with FGFR1 in hypertrophic chondrocytes during endochondral ossification. Based on previous evidence that neurofibromin inhibits Ras-ERK signaling in chondrocytes and phenotypic analogies between mice with constitutive FGFR1 activation and Nf1 deficiency in Col2a1-positive chondrocytes, we asked whether neurofibromin is required to control FGFR1-Ras-ERK signaling in maturing chondrocytes in vivo. Genetic Nf1 ablation in Fgfr1-deficient chondrocytes reactivated Ras-ERK1/2 signaling in hypertrophic chondrocytes and reversed the expansion of the hypertrophic zone observed in mice lacking Fgfr1 in Col2a1-positive chondrocytes. Histomorphometric and gene expression analyses suggested that neurofibromin, by inhibiting Rankl expression, attenuates pro-osteoclastogenic FGFR1 signaling in hypertrophic chondrocytes. We also provide evidence suggesting that neurofibromin in prehypertrophic chondrocytes, downstream of FGFRs and via an indirect mechanism, is required for normal extension and organization of proliferative columns. Collectively, this study indicates that FGFR signaling provides an important input into the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 signaling axis in chondrocytes, and that this input is differentially regulated during chondrocyte maturation by a complex intracellular machinery, of which neurofibromin is a critical component. PMID:25616962

  12. Composite bone substitutes prepared by two methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hoe Y.

    A variety of ceramics and polymers exists that can be used as bone substitute materials with desirable properties such as biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. A key feature missing in these bone substitutes, or scaffolds, is the ability to bear loads. This work explored two methods for solving this problem. The first used cancellous bone taken from bovine femoral bone to create a natural scaffold through a heat treating process that eliminated the organic components and sintered the bone minerals, known as hydroxyapatite, together. The strength and Young's modulus of the natural scaffold were greatly improved after polymer infiltration with polymethylmethacrylate. Unfortunately, compression testing revealed that there was not a good interfacial bond between the mineral and polymer phases. The second method employed a freeze-casting technique to create synthetic hydroxyapatite scaffolds that have an aligned lamellar microstructure. By varying the amount of hydroxyapatite in the initial slurry mixture and the cooling rate, synthetic scaffolds with a range of porosities and strengths was produced. The highest solid loading and fastest cooling rate produced a scaffold with a strength and modulus approaching that of cortical bone. Further study is required to produce a two phase composite that is chemically bonded together for optimal performance. The synthetic scaffolds, with their tunable mechanical properties and ease of fabrication, make them a promising material for a load-bearing bone substitute.

  13. Bone tissue engineering with human stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darja Marolt; Miomir Knezevic; Gordana Vunjak Novakovic

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of extensive bone defects requires autologous bone grafting or implantation of bone substitute materials. An attractive\\u000a alternative has been to engineer fully viable, biological bone grafts in vitro by culturing osteogenic cells within three-dimensional scaffolds, under conditions supporting bone formation. Such grafts\\u000a could be used for implantation, but also as physiologically relevant models in basic and translational studies of

  14. Diabetes, Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover, Diabetes Control, and Bone

    PubMed Central

    Starup-Linde, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is known to have late complications including micro vascular and macro vascular disease. This review focuses on another possible area of complication regarding diabetes; bone. Diabetes may affect bone via bone structure, bone density, and biochemical markers of bone turnover. The aim of the present review is to examine in vivo from humans on biochemical markers of bone turnover in diabetics compared to non-diabetics. Furthermore, the effect of glycemic control on bone markers and the similarities and differences of type 1- and type 2-diabetics regarding bone markers will be evaluated. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, Cinahl, and SveMed+ with the search terms: “Diabetes mellitus,” “Diabetes mellitus type 1,” “Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus,” “Diabetes mellitus type 2,” “Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus,” “Bone,” “Bone and Bones,” “Bone diseases,” “Bone turnover,” “Hemoglobin A Glycosylated,” and “HbA1C.” After removing duplicates from this search 1,188 records were screened by title and abstract and 75 records were assessed by full text for inclusion in the review. In the end 43 records were chosen. Bone formation and resorption markers are investigated as well as bone regulating systems. T1D is found to have lower osteocalcin and CTX, while osteocalcin and tartrate-resistant acid are found to be lower in T2D, and sclerostin is increased and collagen turnover markers altered. Other bone turnover markers do not seem to be altered in T1D or T2D. A major problem is the lack of histomorphometric studies in humans linking changes in turnover markers to actual changes in bone turnover and further research is needed to strengthen this link. PMID:23482417

  15. Rubber Bones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-09

    Over 1 or 2 days, learners use vinegar to remove the calcium from a chicken bone. They then explore how the bones have changed. An accompanying video with Mr. O further explores the relationship between cartilage and bone and explains how bones grow.

  16. Nonenzymatic Transformation of Amorphous CaCO3 into Calcium Phosphate Mineral after Exposure to Sodium Phosphate in Vitro: Implications for in Vivo Hydroxyapatite Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Neufurth, Meik; Huang, Jian; Wang, Kui; Feng, Qingling; Schröder, Heinz C; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Muñoz-Espí, Rafael; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-06-15

    Studies indicate that mammalian bone formation is initiated at calcium carbonate bioseeds, a process that is driven enzymatically by carbonic anhydrase (CA). We show that amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) and bicarbonate (HCO3 (-) ) cause induction of expression of the CA in human osteogenic SaOS-2 cells. The mineral deposits formed on the surface of the cells are rich in C, Ca and P. FTIR analysis revealed that ACC, vaterite, and aragonite, after exposure to phosphate, undergo transformation into calcium phosphate. This exchange was not seen for calcite. The changes to ACC, vaterite, and aragonite depended on the concentration of phosphate. The rate of incorporation of phosphate into ACC, vaterite, and aragonite, is significantly accelerated in the presence of a peptide rich in aspartic acid and glutamic acid. We propose that the initial CaCO3 bioseed formation is driven by CA, and that the subsequent conversion to calcium phosphate/calcium hydroxyapatite (exchange of carbonate by phosphate) is a non-enzymatic exchange process. PMID:25871446

  17. SOST is a target gene for PTH in bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hansjoerg Keller; Michaela Kneissel

    2005-01-01

    Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) application is an established pharmacological principle to stimulate bone formation. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying this bone anabolic action are not fully understood. Recently, SOST (sclerostin) was identified as a potent osteocyte expressed negative regulator of bone formation in vitro, in murine models and in patients with the bone overgrowth disorders Sclerosteosis and Van Buchem disease.

  18. The effects of lamellar orientation and bridging ligaments on the fracture and fatigue of fully lamellar Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb

    SciTech Connect

    Wissuchek, D.J.; Lucas, G.E. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Materials Dept.; Evans, A.G. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Division of Applied Sciences

    1995-12-31

    The fracture behavior of a fully lamellar Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy has been studied under both monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. Crack tip deformations and crack bridging were studied in an attempt to quantify their effects on fracture and fatigue. Crack tip surface strains were determined from in-situ fracture experiments and were used to determine crack tip stress intensities, K{sub tip}, as well as the bridging ligament contribution to fracture toughness, K{sub b}. Both K{sub tip} in monotonic loading and the threshold {Delta}K in fatigue had a strong dependence on lamellar orientation, with K values obtained for cracks parallel to lamellar interfaces {approx} 60% of those for perpendicular cracks. The presence of bridging ligaments increased crack growth resistance during monotonic loading and reduced crack propagation rates during cyclic loading.

  19. Diffuse lamellar keratitis related to endotoxins released from sterilizer reservoir biofilms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon P Holland; Richard G Mathias; Douglas W Morck; Jonathan Chiu; Stephen G Slade

    2000-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the risk factors and control mechanisms used to control the outbreak of diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) associated with laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and examine the relationship between DLK and endotoxins released from sterilizer biofilm reservoirs.

  20. Numerical Simulations of Coarsening of Lamellar Structures: Applications to Pervoskite and Magnesiowüstite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Khozondar, R. J.; El-Khozondar, H. J.

    2002-12-01

    Understanding the microstructural evolution in rocks is essential to theories of the dynamics of the solid interior of the Earth. The eutectoid transformation at 660 km depth produces alternating thin lamellae of pervoskite and magnesiowüstite. We performed numerical simulations of coarsening of lamellar structures using Monte Carlo Potts model. We find that an isotropic lamellar structure degenerates via edge spheroidization and termination migration into nearly equiaxed grains with a diameter which is 2 to 3 times larger than the original lamellar spacing. The duration of this process is comparable with the time it would take Ostwald ripening to produce grains of the same size. After degeneration of lamellar structure, grain growth quickly reaches the asymptotic regime of coarsening described by a power-law function of time. Lamellae with anisotropic grain boundaries coarsen more slowly and via discontinuous coarsening mechanism. This produces larger grains upon degeneration of lamellae.

  1. Diffusion Coefficients in a Lamellar Lyotropic Phase: Evidence for Defects Connecting the Surfactant Structure

    E-print Network

    Doru Constantin; Patrick Oswald

    2015-04-09

    We measure diffusion coefficients in the lamellar phase of the nonionic binary system C$_{12}$EO$_6$/H$_2$O using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. The diffusion coefficient across the lamellae shows an abrupt increase upon approaching the lamellar-isotropic phase transition. We interpret this feature in terms of defects connecting the surfactant structure. An estimation of the defect density and of the variation in defect energy close to the transition is given in terms of a simple model.

  2. Critical behavior at the nematic to lamellar phase transitions: A synchrotron x-ray scattering study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Shin; J. D. Brock; Mark Sutton; J. D. Litster; Satyendra Kumar

    1998-01-01

    The nematic (N) to lamellar (Lalpha) phase transition in binary mixtures of cesium-perfluoro-octanoate (CsPFO) and water has been studied by high-resolution synchrotron x-ray scattering at 46.6 weight % CsPFO. The longitudinal correlation length xi|| and the susceptibility sigma associated with the lamellar phase fluctuations in the N phase, measured over three decades of reduced temperature, diverge with critical exponents nu||=0.86+\\/-0.04

  3. Derivation of inter-lamellar behaviour of the intervertebral disc annulus.

    PubMed

    Mengoni, Marlène; Luxmoore, Bethany J; Wijayathunga, Vithanage N; Jones, Alison C; Broom, Neil D; Wilcox, Ruth K

    2015-08-01

    The inter-lamellar connectivity of the annulus fibrosus in the intervertebral disc has been shown to affect the prediction of the overall disc behaviour in computational models. Using a combined experimental and computational approach, the inter-lamellar mechanical behaviour of the disc annulus was investigated under conditions of radial loading. Twenty-seven specimens of anterior annulus fibrosus were dissected from 12 discs taken from four frozen ovine thoracolumbar spines. Specimens were grouped depending on their radial provenance within the annulus fibrosus. Standard tensile tests were performed. In addition, micro-tensile tests under microscopy were used to observe the displacement of the lamellae and inter-lamellar connections. Finite elements models matching the experimental protocols were developed with specimen-specific geometries and boundary conditions assuming a known lamellar behaviour. An optimisation process was used to derive the interface stiffness values for each group. The assumption of a linear cohesive interface was used to model the behaviour of the inter-lamellar connectivity. The interface stiffness values derived from the optimisation process were consistently higher than the corresponding lamellar values. The interface stiffness values of the outer annulus were from 43% to 75% higher than those of the inner annulus. Tangential stiffness values for the interface were from 6% to 39% higher than normal stiffness values within each group and similar to values reported by other investigators. These results reflect the intricate fibrous nature of the inter-lamellar connectivity and provide values for the representation of the inter-lamellar behaviour at a continuum level. PMID:25955558

  4. Formation process of bilayer gel structure in a nonionic surfactant solution.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Youhei; Matsuno, Akimi; Shinoda, Tomoaki; Kato, Tadashi

    2009-04-30

    We investigated the structure and formation process of lamellar domains below the Krafft temperature in two nonionic surfactants, the C(16)E(7)/water and C(16)E(6)/water systems, using an optical microscope and small-angle X-ray scattering. We found that vesicles and long leek-like lamellar domain structures are formed in the C(16)E(7) and C(16)E(6) systems, respectively. This large difference between the lamellar domain structures of the systems can be explained by the elastic properties of bilayers in the structural formation process. PMID:19344101

  5. Formation of bone-like tissue by dental follicle cells co-cultured with dental papilla cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yudi Bai; Yuxiang Bai; Kenichi Matsuzaka; Sadamitsu Hashimoto; Eitoyo Kokubu; Xiaojing Wang; Takashi Inoue

    2010-01-01

    During tooth root formation, dental follicle cells (DFCs) differentiate into osteoblasts\\/cementoblasts when they are in contact\\u000a with pre-existing dentin. Since some factors of dentin matrix were also produced by dental papilla cells (DPCs) and could\\u000a induce DFCs differentiation, we hypothesized that DPCs can directly promote DFCs differentiation and that differentiation\\u000a could occur in a co-culture model. To test this hypothesis,

  6. [Biological activities of bone morphological protein in bone regeneration].

    PubMed

    Smajilagi?, Amer; Redzic, Amira; Filipovi?, S; Hadzihasanovi?, B

    2005-01-01

    Bone matrix contents various development factors which control structuring and absorption and those factors play important role in bone and cartilage development. Bone morphological proteins are members of TGF-beta super family and their activity is certain becoming from the bone. This activity leads to the serial development processes which include chemo taxis, proliferation and differentiation which results in trans resistant formation of cartilage as well as production of life cells of a bone tissue. Biological activities of re combinative human bone morphogenetic protein 7 (rhBMP-7). induction bone formation of non critical size mandible defect of New Zealand rabbits were researched in the study. Markers of osteoblastic differential in the study included ALP specific activity. Histological analysis performed 7, 14, 30, 60 postoperative days, C-T analysis with determination Bone Mineral Density value of new structured tissue within the defect was done 30 days. Results indicate that ectopic bone formation has been inducted with rhBMP-7 and histological analysis shown mature bone with collagen and ostheociti 60th day. Early 7 day granulocyte tissue with angiogenesis was detected, and after 30 days ostheoblastsis shown with a lot of vascular and mezenhimal tissue. Ostheogenetic processes were characteristic for typical inter membraneous ossification without cartilage tissue. ALP activity was significantly increased 21 days. C-T and Bone Mineral Density value shown density of new structured tissue determinate as bone (413 mg/cm3 and 519 mg/cm3). Studies showed that concentration of 100 mg rhBMP-7 in collagen as career had strong ostheo inductive capacity. Conditions which module BMP depend ostheo induction should be considered in the future. Information could lead to improvements of rhBMP as substitution for bone graft in clinical practice. PMID:15875464

  7. Effect of Microstructure on Fatigue Strength of Bovine Compact Bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong Heon; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Akahori, Toshikazu; Takeda, Junji; Toda, Hiroyuki

    Despite its clinical importance in developing artificial bone, limited information is available regarding the microstructure with respect to the fatigue characteristics of bones. In this study, the fatigue characteristics of the bovine humerus and femur were investigated with respect to microstructures. Fatigue tests were conducted on the bovine humerus and femur at a stress ratio of 0.1 and a frequency of 10Hz. The fatigue strength of the plexiform bone is slightly greater than that of the haversian bone. This is because the volume fraction of voids in the haversian bone, which is the site of stress concentration, is higher than that of voids in the plexiform bone. Several microcracks are observed on the fatigue fracture surface of the haversian bone. The microcracks are short and their propagation directions are random. However, the number of the microcracks in the plexiform bone is very small. The microcracks are relatively long and their propagation directions are parallel to the longitudinal direction of the lamellar bone. Therefore, the crack requires relatively more energy to propagate across the lamella in the plexiform bone.

  8. MicroRNAs regulate bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Xu, Dan; Li, Yi; Zhang, Jiangyan; Liu, Tingting; Ji, Yinli; Wang, Jufang; Zhou, Guangming; Xie, Xiaodong

    2014-05-01

    Osteoporosis is caused by an unbalance between bone formation and bone resorption. Bone homeostasis is regulated by intricate mechanisms. Recently, a novel class of regulatory factors termed microRNAs (miRNAs) has been found to play a crucial role in cell cycle control, apoptosis and other cellular processes including metabolism and differentiation. Published data have shown that some miRNAs regulate bone homeostasis, including bone formation, resorption, remodeling, repair and bone-related disease, by regulating the expression of certain cytokines and transcription factors. This review highlights the current knowledge of miRNAs and their involvement in the regulation of bone formation, bone resorption and the pathways regulating the progression of osteoporosis. PMID:24311309

  9. Mechanistic aspects of fracture and R-curve behavior in elk antler bone

    SciTech Connect

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Chen, Po-Yu; McKittrick, Joanna; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2009-11-23

    Bone is an adaptative material that is designed for different functional requirements; indeed, bones have a variety of properties depending on their role in the body. To understand the mechanical response of bone requires the elucidation of its structure-function relationships. Here, we examine the fracture toughness of compact bone of elk antler which is an extremely fast growing primary bone designed for a totally different function than human (secondary) bone. We find that antler in the transverse (breaking) orientation is one of the toughest biological materials known. Its resistance to fracture is achieved during crack growth (extrinsically) by a combination of gross crack deflection/twisting and crack bridging via uncracked 'ligaments' in the crack wake, both mechanisms activated by microcracking primarily at lamellar boundaries. We present an assessment of the tou