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1

Rapid Establishment of Chemical and Mechanical Properties During Lamellar Bone Formation  

SciTech Connect

The development of prophylaxes and treatments of bone diseases that can effectively increase the strength of bone as a structure necessitates a better understanding of the time course by which chemical properties define the stiffness of the material during primary and secondary mineralization. It was hypothesized that these processes would be relatively slow in the actively growing skeleton. Seven-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats (n = 8) were injected with multiple fluorochrome labels over a time span of 3 weeks and killed. Chemical and mechanical properties of the tibial mid-diaphysis were spatially characterized between the endocortical and periosteal surface by in situ infrared microspectroscopy and nanoindentation. The phosphate-to-protein ratio of bone 2-6 days old was 20% smaller at the periosteal surface and 22% smaller at the endocortical surface (P < 0.05 each) compared to older intracortical regions. The ratios of carbonate to protein, crystallinity, type A/type B carbonate, collagen cross-linking, and bone elastic modulus did not differ significantly between bone 2-6, 10-14, and 8-22 days old and intracortical regions. Intracortical properties of 10-week-old rats, except for the carbonate-to-protein ratio which was 23% smaller (P < 0.01), were not significantly different from intracortical matrix properties of young adult rats (5 months, n = 4). Spatially, the phosphate-to-protein ratio (R{sup 2} = 0.33) and the phosphate-to-carbonate ratio (R{sup 2} = 0.55) were significantly correlated with bone material stiffness, while the combination of all chemical parameters raised the R{sup 2} value to 0.83. These data indicate that lamellar bone has the ability to quickly establish its mechanical and chemical tissue properties during primary and secondary mineralization even when the skeleton experiences rapid growth.

Busa,B.; Miller, L.; Rubin, C.; Qin, Y.; Judex, S.

2005-01-01

2

Comparing histological, vascular and molecular responses associated with woven and lamellar bone formation induced by mechanical loading in the rat ulna  

PubMed Central

Osteogenesis occurs by formation of woven or lamellar bone. Little is known about the molecular regulation of these two distinct processes. We stimulated periosteal bone formation at the ulnar mid-diaphysis of adult rats using a single bout of forelimb compression. We hypothesized that loading that stimulates woven bone formation induces higher over-expression of genes associated with cell proliferation, angiogenesis and osteogenesis compared to loading that stimulates lamellar bone formation. We first confirmed that a single bout of 100 cycles of loading using either a rest-inserted (0.1 Hz) or haversine (2 Hz) waveform (15 N peak force) was non-damaging and increased lamellar bone formation (LBF loading). Woven bone formation (WBF loading) was stimulated using a previously described, damaging fatigue loading protocol (2 Hz, 1.3 mm disp., 18 N peak force). There were dramatic differences in gene expression levels (based on qRT-PCR) between loading protocols that produced woven and lamellar bone. In contrast, gene expression levels were not different between LBF loading protocols using a rest-inserted or haversine waveform. Cell proliferation markers Hist4 and Ccnd1 were strongly upregulated (5- to 17-fold) 1 and 3 days after WBF loading, prior to woven bone formation, but not after LBF loading. The angiogenic genes Vegf and Hif1a were upregulated within 1 hr after WBF loading and were strongly up on days 1-3 (3- to 15-fold). In sharp contrast, we observed only a modest increase (< 2-fold) in Vegfa and Hif1a expression on day 3 following LBF loading. Consistent with these relative differences in gene expression, vascular perfusion 3 days after loading revealed significant increases in vessel number and volume following WBF loading, but not after LBF loading. Lastly, bone formation markers (Runx2, Osx, Bsp) were more strongly upregulated for woven (4- to 89-fold) than for lamellar bone (2-fold), consistent with the differences in new bone volume observed 10 days after loading. In summary, robust early increases both molecularly and histologically for cell proliferation and angiogenesis precede woven bone formation, whereas lamellar bone formation is associated with only a modest upregulation of molecular signals at later timepoints.

McKenzie, Jennifer A.; Silva, Matthew J.

2010-01-01

3

Aging diminishes lamellar and woven bone formation induced by tibial compression in adult C57BL/6.  

PubMed

Aging purportedly diminishes the ability of the skeleton to respond to mechanical loading, but recent data show that old age did not impair loading-induced accrual of bone in BALB/c mice. Here, we hypothesized that aging limits the response of the tibia to axial compression over a range of adult ages in the commonly used C57BL/6. We subjected the right tibia of old (22month), middle-aged (12month) and young-adult (5month) female C57BL/6 mice to peak periosteal strains (measured near the mid-diaphysis) of -2200?? and -3000?? (n=12-15/age/strain) via axial tibial compression (4Hz, 1200cycles/day, 5days/week, 2weeks). The left tibia served as a non-loaded, contralateral control. In mice of every age, tibial compression that engendered a peak strain of -2200?? did not alter cortical bone volume but loading to a peak strain of -3000?? increased cortical bone volume due in part to woven bone formation. Both loading magnitudes increased total volume, medullary volume and periosteal bone formation parameters (MS/BS, BFR/BS) near the cortical midshaft. Compared to the increase in total volume and bone formation parameters of 5-month mice, increases were less in 12- and 22-month mice by 45-63%. Moreover, woven bone incidence was greatest in 5-month mice. Similarly, tibial loading at -3000?? increased trabecular BV/TV of 5-month mice by 18% (from 0.085mm(3)/mm(3)), but trabecular BV/TV did not change in 12- or 22-month mice, perhaps due to low initial BV/TV (0.032 and 0.038mm(3)/mm(3), respectively). In conclusion, these data show that while young-adult C57BL/6 mice had greater periosteal bone formation following loading than middle-aged or old mice, aging did not eliminate the ability of the tibia to accrue cortical bone. PMID:24836737

Holguin, Nilsson; Brodt, Michael D; Sanchez, Michelle E; Silva, Matthew J

2014-08-01

4

Ultrastructural observation of electron irradiation damage of lamellar bone.  

PubMed

The ultrastructure of murine femoral lamellar bone and the effect of electron irradiation (200 kV) on collagen and mineral features were investigated using in situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Bands of collagen fibrils were mostly aligned parallel to the long axis of the bones, with some bands of fibrils inclined in longitudinal sections. The similarity of the ultrastructure between the longitudinal and transverse sections supports the rotated plywood structure of the lamellar bone. The collagen fibrils appeared damaged and the mineral crystals were coarsened after electron irradiation. Continuous diffraction rings became spotty and the contrast between rings and the background became sharper, further suggesting coarsening of apatite crystals and increased crystallinity after irradiation. No new phases were observed after irradiation. Both the damage to collagen and coarsening of apatite crystals can deteriorate the strength and integrity of bone, and may provide insight into fracture in patients who have undergone radiation therapy. PMID:19034616

Hong, S I; Hong, S K; Wallace, J M; Kohn, D H

2009-04-01

5

Lamellar reaction phenomena: from intercalation to nanomaterials formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lamellar reaction processes govern the formation and properties of a wide range of materials of fundamental and technological interest, offering the potential to control the structure, composition and dimension of materials down to the nanoscale. Environmental transmission electron microscopy, complementary investigations, and atomistic modeling have been combined to explore the mechanisms that control these processes. Model transition metal disulfide (e.g. TS2, T=Ti,Ta) intercalation/deintercalation and lamellar hydroxide (e.g. Mg(OH)2) dehydroxylation/rehydroxylation reaction processes are compared to probe the effect of relatively strong and weak/transitory intralayer bonding on lamellar reaction processes. Intriguing similarities are observed even though the hydroxide lamella are destroyed and reform during dehydroxylation and rehydroxylation processes, respectively. Deintercalation and dehydroxylation occur via analogous empty gallery and oxide layer formation. Both processes generally progress via lamellar nucleation and growth, with growth progressing away from the lamellar nucleation site. Similarities extend to stage formation, with random/‘stage-2-like’ oxide and hydroxide layer ordering occurring in the lamellar oxyhydroxide regions that form. In contrast to stable host layers associated with intercalation processes, relatively weak/transitory intralayer bonding associated with lamellar dehydroxylation/rehydroxylation processes facilitates layer delamination, shearing, cracking, and nanoreconstruction during dehydroxylation, and, nanocrystal formation, intergrowth and the rapid ‘annealing out’ of lamellar defects that form during rehydroxylation.

McKelvy, Michael J.; Sharma, Renu; Chizmeshya, Andrew V. G.

2006-05-01

6

Patterned silk film scaffolds for aligned lamellar bone tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Various porous biomaterial scaffolds have been utilized for bone tissue engineering; however, they are often limited in their ability to replicate the structural hierarchy and mechanics of native cortical bone. In this study, the alignment and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on patterned silk films (PF) was investigated as a bottom-up, biomimetic approach toward engineering cortical bone lamellae. Screening films cast with nine different micro and nano scale groove patterns showed that cellular alignment was mediated by an interplay between the width and depth of the patterns. MSCs were differentiated in osteogenic medium for four weeks on the PF that induced the highest degree of alignment, while flat films (FF) served as controls. Gene expression analysis and calcium quantification indicated that the PF supported osteogenic differentiation while also inducing robust lamellar alignment of cells and matrix deposition. A secondary alignment effect was noted on the PF where a new layer of aligned cells grew over the first layer, but rotated obliquely to the underlying pattern direction and first layer orientation. This layering and rotation of the aligned MSCs resembled the characteristic structural organization observed in native lamellar bone. The ability to control multilayered lamellar structural hierarchy from the interplay between a patterned 2D surface and cells suggests intriguing options for future biomaterial scaffolds designed to mimic native tissue structures.

Tien, Lee W.; Gil, Eun Seok; Park, Sang-Hyug; Mandal, Biman B.; Kaplan, David L.

2013-01-01

7

Poorly Ordered Bone as an Endogenous Scaffold for the Deposition of Highly Oriented Lamellar Tissue in Rapidly Growing Ovine Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties of bone are known to depend on its structure at all length scales. In large animals, such as sheep, cortical bone grows very quickly and it is known that this occurs in 2 stages whereby a poorly ordered (mostly woven) bone structure is initially deposited and later augmented and partially replaced by parallel fibered and lamellar bone

Michael Kerschnitzki; Wolfgang Wagermaier; Yifei Liu; Paul Roschger; Georg N. Duda; Peter Fratzl

2011-01-01

8

Multiscale damage and strength of lamellar bone modeled by cohesive finite elements.  

PubMed

A computational multiscale model of damage mechanisms and strength of lamellar bone is presented. The analysis incorporates the hierarchical structure of bone spanning the nanoscale (mineralized collagen fibril), the sub-microscale (single lamella) and the microscale (lamellar structure) levels. Due to the presence of several constituents (collagen, hydroxyapatite minerals, and non-collagenous proteins) and the different microstructural features at each scale, various deformation and failure mechanisms occur in bone at its several levels of hierarchy. The model takes into account the dominant damage mechanisms at the above mentioned three scales and predicts the strength of bone by using a cohesive finite element method. Elastic moduli of bone at these three different scales are also obtained as part of these calculations. The obtained modeling results compare well with other theoretical and experimental data available in the literature. PMID:23973769

Hamed, Elham; Jasiuk, Iwona

2013-12-01

9

Kinetics of lamellar formation on sparsely stripped patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical epitaxy based on the self-assembly of block copolymers is viewed as a promising technique to achieve ordered patterns on a large scale. Herein, we study the kinetics of lamellar formation of block copolymers under the direction of sparsely stripped patterns using cell dynamics simulations of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory. First, a scaling law is unveiled with the ordering time of lamellae, tp, with respect to the multiples between the periods of lamellae and stripe patterns, which is consistent with the power law evolution of the correlation length existing in the bulk phase of lamellae. Second, the tolerative windows of perfect order, with deviation from integer multiples, are also estimated from the aspect of kinetics. The results of the ordering time and tolerative windows are of great interest for relevant experiments or applications. Finally, a two-stage evolution is explored during the pattern formation of chemical epitaxy by probing into the evolution of defects, which is of fundamental interest for us to understand the coarsening kinetics of block copolymers under the direction of chemical patterns.

Xie, Nan; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Hongdong; Qiu, Feng; Shi, An-Chang

2013-11-01

10

Homogenized stiffness matrices for mineralized collagen fibrils and lamellar bone using unit cell finite element models.  

PubMed

Mineralized collagen fibrils have been usually analyzed like a two-phase composite material where crystals are considered as platelets that constitute the reinforcement phase. Different models have been used to describe the elastic behavior of the material. In this work, it is shown that when Halpin-Tsai equations are applied to estimate elastic constants from typical constituent properties, not all crystal dimensions yield a model that satisfy thermodynamic restrictions. We provide the ranges of platelet dimensions that lead to positive definite stiffness matrices. On the other hand, a finite element model of a mineralized collagen fibril unit cell under periodic boundary conditions is analyzed. By applying six canonical load cases, homogenized stiffness matrices are numerically calculated. Results show a monoclinic behavior of the mineralized collagen fibril. In addition, a 5-layer lamellar structure is also considered where crystals rotate in adjacent layers of a lamella. The stiffness matrix of each layer is calculated applying Lekhnitskii transformations, and a new finite element model under periodic boundary conditions is analyzed to calculate the homogenized 3D anisotropic stiffness matrix of a unit cell of lamellar bone. Results are compared with the rule-of-mixtures showing in general good agreement. PMID:23793930

Vercher, Ana; Giner, Eugenio; Arango, Camila; Tarancón, José E; Fuenmayor, F Javier

2014-04-01

11

Central control of bone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrates constantly remodel bone to maintain a constant bone mass. Bone remodeling comprises two phases: bone resorption\\u000a by the osteoclasts followed by bone formation by the osteoblasts. Although the prevailing view about the control of bone remodeling\\u000a is that it is an autocrine\\/paracrine phenomenon, the bone resorption arm of bone remodeling is under a tight endocrine control.\\u000a To date little

Shu Takeda; Gerard Karsenty

2001-01-01

12

Assessment of lamellar level properties in mouse bone utilizing a novel spherical nanoindentation data analysis method.  

PubMed

In this work, we demonstrate the viability of using our recently developed data analysis procedures for spherical nanoindentation in conjunction with Raman spectroscopy for studying lamellar-level correlations between the local composition and local mechanical properties in mouse bone. Our methodologies allow us to convert the raw load-displacement datasets to much more meaningful indentation stress-strain curves that accurately capture the loading and unloading elastic moduli, the indentation yield points, as well as the post-yield characteristics in the tested samples. Using samples of two different inbred mouse strains, A/J and C57BL/6J (B6), we successfully demonstrate the correlations between the mechanical information obtained from spherical nanoindentation measurements to the local composition measured using Raman spectroscopy. In particular, we observe that a higher mineral-to-matrix ratio correlated well with a higher local modulus and yield strength in all samples. Thus, new bone regions exhibited lower moduli and yield strengths compared to more mature bone. The B6 mice were also found to exhibit lower modulus and yield strength values compared to the more mineralized A/J strain. PMID:22842281

Pathak, Siddhartha; Vachhani, Shraddha J; Jepsen, Karl J; Goldman, Haviva M; Kalidindi, Surya R

2012-09-01

13

Bone formation by cancer metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of heterotopic bone tissue in malignant tumors or in their metastases is extremely rare. In a 60 years old male patient with bronchogenic carcinoma (adenocarcinoma) extensive bone formation was observed within multiple metastases in the skeletal muscles. On the basis of the microscopic findings, the mechanism of bone formation by malignant tumors is discussed. Obviously, proliferation of local

U. Bettendorf; W. Remmele; H. Laaff

1976-01-01

14

Physiological variables affecting surface film formation by native lamellar body-like pulmonary surfactant particles.  

PubMed

Pulmonary surfactant (PS) is a surface active complex of lipids and proteins that prevents the alveolar structures from collapsing and reduces the work of breathing by lowering the surface tension at the alveolar air-liquid interface (ALI). Surfactant is synthesized by the alveolar type II (AT II) cells, and it is stored in specialized organelles, the lamellar bodies (LBs), as tightly packed lipid bilayers. Upon secretion into the alveolar lining fluid, a large fraction of these particles retain most of their packed lamellar structure, giving rise to the term lamellar body like-particles (LBPs). Due to their stability in aqueous media, freshly secreted LBPs can be harvested from AT II cell preparations. However, when LBPs get in contact with an ALI, they quickly and spontaneously adsorb into a highly organized surface film. In the present study we investigated the adsorptive capacity of LBPs at an ALI under relevant physiological parameters that characterize the alveolar environment in homeostatic or in pathological conditions. Adsorption of LBPs at an ALI is highly sensitive to pH, temperature and albumin concentration and to a relatively lesser extent to changes in osmolarity or Ca(2+) concentrations in the physiological range. Furthermore, proteolysis of LBPs significantly decreases their adsorptive capacity confirming the important role of surfactant proteins in the formation of surface active films. PMID:24582711

Hobi, Nina; Siber, Gerlinde; Bouzas, Virginia; Ravasio, Andrea; Pérez-Gil, Jesus; Haller, Thomas

2014-07-01

15

Formation of monolayers and bilayer foam films from lamellar, inverted hexagonal and cubic lipid phases.  

PubMed

This study revealed large distinctions between the lamellar and non-lamellar liquid crystalline lipid phases in their spreading at the air/water interface and propensity to form bilayer foam films. Comparative measurements were made for the lamellar L(alpha), the inverted hexagonal H(II) and the bicontinuous cubic Pn3m phases of the phospholipid dipalmitoleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPoPE). With regard to monolayer formation, followed as the decrease of surface tension with time, the best spreading (lowest surface tension) was observed for the L(alpha) phase, and poorest spreading (highest surface tension) was recorded for the H(II) phase. The cubic Pn3m phase of DPoPE, induced by temperature cycling, retained an intermediate position between the L(alpha) and H(II) phases. According to their ability to lower surface tension and disintegrate at the air/water interface, the three phases thus order as L(alpha)>Pn3m>H(II). Clearly expressed threshold (minimum) bulk lipid concentrations, C(t), required for formation of stable foam bilayers from these phases, were determined and their values were found to correlate well with the bulk lipid phase behaviour. The C(t) values for L(alpha) and H(II) substantially increase with the temperature. Their Arrhenius plots, ln C(t) versus 1/ T, are linear and intersect at approximately 36-37 degrees C, coinciding with the onset of the bulk L(alpha)-->H(II) phase transition, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. However, the C(t) value for the Pn3m phase, equal to 30 micro g/mL, was found to be constant over the whole range investigated between 20 degrees C and 50 degrees C. The horizontal C(t) versus T plot for the Pn3m phase crosses the respective plot for the L(alpha) phase at the temperature bounding from below the hysteretic loop of the L(alpha)<-->H(II) transition (approximately 26 degrees C), thus providing a certain insight about the thermodynamic stability of the Pn3m phase relative to the L(alpha) phase. The established strong effect of the particular lipid phase on the formation of monolayers and stable black foam films should be of importance in various in vitro and in vivo systems, where lipid structures are in contact with interfaces and disintegrate there to different extents. PMID:12582822

Jordanova, Albena; Lalchev, Zdravko; Tenchov, Boris

2003-02-01

16

Dilatational band formation in bone  

PubMed Central

Toughening in hierarchically structured materials like bone arises from the arrangement of constituent material elements and their interactions. Unlike microcracking, which entails micrometer-level separation, there is no known evidence of fracture at the level of bone’s nanostructure. Here, we show that the initiation of fracture occurs in bone at the nanometer scale by dilatational bands. Through fatigue and indentation tests and laser confocal, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies on human and bovine bone specimens, we established that dilatational bands of the order of 100 nm form as ellipsoidal voids in between fused mineral aggregates and two adjacent proteins, osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN). Laser microdissection and ELISA of bone microdamage support our claim that OC and OPN colocalize with dilatational bands. Fracture tests on bones from OC and/or OPN knockout mice (OC?/?, OPN?/?, OC-OPN?/?;?/?) confirm that these two proteins regulate dilatational band formation and bone matrix toughness. On the basis of these observations, we propose molecular deformation and fracture mechanics models, illustrating the role of OC and OPN in dilatational band formation, and predict that the nanometer scale of tissue organization, associated with dilatational bands, affects fracture at higher scales and determines fracture toughness of bone.

Poundarik, Atharva A.; Diab, Tamim; Sroga, Grazyna E.; Ural, Ani; Boskey, Adele L.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Vashishth, Deepak

2012-01-01

17

Lipid-coated gold nanoparticles promote lamellar body formation in A549 cells.  

PubMed

Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been applied as diagnostic and therapeutic agents because they can be targeted, localized, and be heated to cause cell death. However, their use has been limited by their relatively low biocompatibility. In this work, we coated the GNPs' surface by a biocompatible phospholipid bilayer composed of 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (SOPG). We tested their interaction with A549 cells to investigate their uptake and intracellular fate as well as the response of the cells to the presence of the GNPs. We used flow cytometry and confocal microscopy to show that the SOPG coated GNPs were readily taken up by the A549 cells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and fluorescence images further showed that the number of granular structures in the cells was increased following exposure to the lipid coated GNPs. Co-localization experiments demonstrated that SOPG coated GNPs localize in acidic compartments in a time dependent manner and that the number of these increase as the cells are exposed to the GNPs suggesting that they induce formation of lamellar bodies (LBs) which in A549 cells in turn can serve as a means of exporting the GNPs. PMID:23380648

Wang, Meijing; Petersen, Nils O

2013-06-01

18

Influence of glycols on the formation of lamellar liquid crystals with an anionic surfactant, oleic acid, and water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of glycol structures on the formation of lamellar liquid crystals with the physical appearance of transparent\\u000a gels in formulations composed of an anionic surfactant, oleic acid, and water was investigated. The glycols studied belong\\u000a to alkyl derivatives of ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol. The relationships between the ingredients of the so-called\\u000a basic compositions—surfactant, oleic acid, and glycol—were optimized

F. Comelles; J. Sánchez-Leal; J. J. González

2005-01-01

19

Formation of the lamellar structure in Group IA and IIID iron meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical EM, light microscopy, and electron microprobe analysis are used to study the lamellar plessite structure of Group IA and IIID iron meteorites. The alpha lamellae in IIID structures contained a compositional gradient from 6.1 + or - 0.7 wt pct Ni at the center of the alpha lamellae to 3.6 + or - 0.5 wt pct at the alpha/gamma interface. For the Group IA irons, compositions of 4 wt pct Ni in alpha and about 48 wt pct Ni in gamma are found. Convergent beam electron diffraction was used to characterize the orientation relations at the alpha/gamma interface in the lamellar regions of both Group IA and IIID. The phase transformations responsible for the observed lamellar structure in the IA and IIID chemical groups were also investigated.

Kowalik, J. A.; Williams, D. B.; Goldstein, J. I.

1988-01-01

20

Inhibition of bone formation during space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parameters of bone formation and resorption were measured in rats orbited for 19.5 days aboard the Soviet Cosmos 782 biological satellite. The most striking effects were on bone formation. During flight, rats formed significantly less periosteal bone than did control rats on the ground. An arrest line at both the periosteum and the endosteum of flight animals suggests that a complete cecessation of bone growth occurred. During a 26-day postflight period, the defect in bone formation was corrected. No significant changes in bone resorption were observed.

Morey, E. R.; Baylink, D. J.

1978-01-01

21

STAT3 Regulates ABCA3 Expression and Influences Lamellar Body Formation in Alveolar Type II Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATP-Binding Cassette A3 (ABCA3) is a lamellar body associated lipid transport protein required for normal synthesis and storage of pulmonary surfactant in type II cells in the alveoli. In this study, we demonstrate that STAT3, activated by IL-6, regulates ABCA3 expres- sion in vivo and in vitro. ABCA3 mRNA and immunostaining were decreased in adult mouse lungs in which STAT3

Yohei Matsuzaki; Valerie Besnard; Jean C. Clark; Yan Xu; Susan E. Wert; Machiko Ikegami; Jeffrey A. Whitsett

22

A three-scale finite element investigation into the effects of tissue mineralisation and lamellar organisation in human cortical and trabecular bone.  

PubMed

Bone is an exceptional material that is lightweight for efficient movement but also exhibits excellent strength and stiffness imparted by a composite material of organic proteins and mineral crystals that are intricately organised on many scales. Experimental and computational studies have sought to understand the role of bone composition and organisation in regulating the biomechanical behaviour of bone. However, due to the complex hierarchical arrangement of the constituent materials, the reported experimental values for the elastic modulus of trabecular and cortical tissue have conflicted greatly. Furthermore, finite element studies of bone have largely made the simplifying assumption that material behaviour was homogeneous or that tissue variability only occurred at the microscale, based on grey values from micro-CT scans. Thus, it remains that the precise role of nanoscale tissue constituents and microscale tissue organisation is not fully understood and more importantly that these have never been incorporated together to predict bone fracture or implant outcome in a multiscale finite element framework. In this paper, a three-scale finite element homogenisation scheme is presented which enables the prediction of homogenised effective properties of tissue level bone from its fundamental nanoscale constituents of hydroxyapatite mineral crystals and organic collagen proteins. Two independent homogenisation steps are performed on representative volume elements which describe the local morphological arrangement of both the nanostructural and microstructural levels. This three-scale homogenisation scheme predicts differences in the tissue level properties of bone as a function of mineral volume fraction, mineral aspect ratio and lamellar orientation. These parameters were chosen to lie within normal tissue ranges derived from experimental studies, and it was found that the predicted stiffness properties at the lamellar level correlate well with experimental nanoindentation results from cortical and trabecular bone. Furthermore, these studies show variations in mineral volume fraction, mineral crystal size and lamellar orientation could be responsible for previous discrepancies in experimental reports of tissue moduli. We propose that this novel multiscale modelling approach can provide a more accurate description of bone tissue properties in continuum/organ level finite element models by incorporating information regarding tissue structure and composition from advanced imaging techniques. This approach could thereby provide a preclinical tool to predict bone mechanics following prosthetic implantation or bone fracture during disease. PMID:22659366

Vaughan, T J; McCarthy, C T; McNamara, L M

2012-08-01

23

Lamellar Ichthyosis with Rickets  

PubMed Central

Lamellar ichthyosis (LI) is a rare genetic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance. It is equally seen in both sexes and usually manifests at birth. The child presents as a collodion baby. The erythema is minimal or absent; but when present, it is maximum on the face. The scaling is generalized, accentuated on lower extremities and flexural areas. Rickets is a condition in which there is softening of bones leading to fractures and deformities. It is caused by vitamin D deficiency & lack of adequate calcium in diet. Children, 6 to 24 months of age, are at a higher risk due to rapidly growing bones. The association between various types of ichthyoses and rickets is well documented. We report a case of lamellar ichthyosis with rickets in a 14-year-old girl from our part of the world.

Ali, Raafia; Aman, Shahbaz; Nadeem, Muhammad

2013-01-01

24

Space flight and bone formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major physiological changes which occur during spaceflight include bone loss, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular and immune response alterations. When trying to determine the reason why bone loss occurs during spaceflight, one must remember that all these other changes in physiology and metabolism may also have impact on the skeletal system. For bone, however, the role of normal weight bearing is a major concern and we have found no adequate substitute for weight bearing which can prevent bone loss. During the study of this problem, we have learned a great deal about bone physiology and increased our knowledge about how normal bone is formed and maintained. Presently, we do not have adequate ground based models which can mimic the tissue loss that occurs in spaceflight but this condition closely resembles the bone loss seen with osteoporosis. Although a normal bone structure will respond to application of mechanical force and weight bearing by forming new bone, a weakened osteoporotic bone may have a tendency to fracture. The study of the skeletal system during weightless conditions will eventually produce preventative measures and form a basis for protecting the crew during long term space flight. The added benefit from these studies will be methods to treat bone loss conditions which occur here on earth.

Doty, St B.

2004-01-01

25

Metallic materials stimulating bone formation.  

PubMed

Metallic materials implanted into bone defects are generally encapsulated by a fibrous tissue. Some metallic materials such as titanium and tantalum, however, have been revealed to bond to the living bone without forming the fibrous tissue, when they were subjected to NaOH solution and heat treatments. Thus treated metals form bone tissue around them even in muscle, when they take a porous form. This kind of osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties are attributed to sodium titanate or tantalate layer on their surfaces formed by the NaOH and heat treatments. These layers induce the deposition of bonelike apatite on the surface of the metals in the living body. This kind of bioactive metals are useful as bone substitutes even highly loaded portions, such as hip joint, spine and tooth root. PMID:15468833

Kokubo, T

2004-05-01

26

Inherited human diseases of heterotopic bone formation  

PubMed Central

Human disorders of hereditary and nonhereditary heterotopic ossification are conditions in which osteogenesis occurs outside of the skeleton, within soft tissues of the body. The resulting extraskeletal bone is normal. The aberration lies within the mechanisms that regulate cell-fate determination, directing the inappropriate formation of cartilage or bone, or both, in tissues such as skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Specific gene mutations have been identified in two rare inherited disorders that are clinically characterized by extensive and progressive extraskeletal bone formation—fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva and progressive osseous heteroplasia. In fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, activating mutations in activin receptor type-1, a bone morphogenetic protein type I receptor, induce heterotopic endochondral ossification, which results in the development of a functional bone organ system that includes skeletal-like bone and bone marrow. In progressive osseous heteroplasia, the heterotopic ossification leads to the formation of mainly intramembranous bone tissue in response to inactivating mutations in the GNAS gene. Patients with these diseases variably show malformation of normal skeletal elements, identifying the causative genes and their associated signaling pathways as key mediators of skeletal development in addition to regulating cell-fate decisions by adult stem cells.

Shore, Eileen M.; Kaplan, Frederick S.

2013-01-01

27

In vitro bone formation on coral granules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We investigated the ability of fetal rat bone cells isolated after collagenase digestion to differentiate in vitro and to\\u000a produce a mineralized matrix on coral granules. Scanning electron microscopy examination of the surface of the seeded coral\\u000a granules revealed that cells attached, spread, and proliferated on the material surface. Bone nodule formation was studied\\u000a in this in vitro system by

J. M. Sautier; J. R. Nefussi; H. Boulekbache; N. Forest

1990-01-01

28

Novel Regulators of Bone Formation: Molecular Clones and Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein extracts derived from bone can initiate the process that begins with cartilage formation and ends in de novo bone formation. The critical components of this extract, termed bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), that direct cartilage and bone formation as well as the constitutive elements supplied by the animal during this process have long remained unclear. Amino acid sequence has been

John M. Wozney; Vicki Rosen; Anthony J. Celeste; Lisa M. Mitsock; Matthew J. Whitters; Ronald W. Kriz; Rodney M. Hewick; Elizabeth A. Wang

1988-01-01

29

[BMP signaling and bone formation].  

PubMed

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) bind to two types of membrane receptors. Type II receptor phosphorylates type I receptor, then the phosphorylated type I receptor phosphorylates downstream effectors, such as Smads. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification in skeletal muscle tissue. ALK2, a BMP type I receptor has been mutated in patients with FOP. The mutant ALK2 phosphorylates Smads in the absence of BMPs. In FOP, muscle injury may enhance BMP signaling via Smads to induce acute heterotopic ossification. Inhibitors of the BMP-Smad pathway will be useful to develop novel treatments for FOP. PMID:23103811

Katagiri, Takenobu

2012-11-01

30

In vitro Protein Synthesis by Plastids of Phaseolus vulgaris. III. Formation of Lamellar and Soluble Chloroplast Protein 12  

PubMed Central

Chloroplasts from leaves of plants which had been grown in the dark, and then illuminated for 12 hours were isolated, and allowed to incorporate 14C-leucine into protein, and the products of this incorporation were studied. Lamellar and soluble proteins are the principal products, and are formed in about equal amounts. Only some of the soluble proteins become heavily labeled. Those with highest specific activity have a molecular weight of the order of 140,000, while the higher molecular weight Fraction I protein has a much lower specific activity. The soluble protein as a whole does not serve as a precursor for the lamellar protein, and vice-versa, although a precursor-product relationship between a minor component of the soluble fraction and the lamellar fraction has not been ruled out. The relative protein synthesizing capabilities of chloroplasts and mitochondria are discussed with reference to the data presented. Images

Margulies, Maurice M.; Parenti, Francesco

1968-01-01

31

In situ micropillar compression reveals superior strength and ductility but an absence of damage in lamellar bone.  

PubMed

Ageing societies suffer from an increasing incidence of bone fractures. Bone strength depends on the amount of mineral measured by clinical densitometry, but also on the micromechanical properties of the hierarchical organization of bone. Here, we investigate the mechanical response under monotonic and cyclic compression of both single osteonal lamellae and macroscopic samples containing numerous osteons. Micropillar compression tests in a scanning electron microscope, microindentation and macroscopic compression tests were performed on dry ovine bone to identify the elastic modulus, yield stress, plastic deformation, damage accumulation and failure mechanisms. We found that isolated lamellae exhibit a plastic behaviour, with higher yield stress and ductility but no damage. In agreement with a proposed rheological model, these experiments illustrate a transition from a ductile mechanical behaviour of bone at the microscale to a quasi-brittle response driven by the growth of cracks along interfaces or in the vicinity of pores at the macroscale. PMID:24907926

Schwiedrzik, Jakob; Raghavan, Rejin; Bürki, Alexander; LeNader, Victor; Wolfram, Uwe; Michler, Johann; Zysset, Philippe

2014-07-01

32

Directing mesenchymal stem cells to bone to augment bone formation and increase bone mass  

PubMed Central

Aging reduces the number of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the bone marrow which leads to impairment of osteogenesis. However, if MSCs could be directed toward osteogenic differentiation, they could be a viable therapeutic option for bone regeneration. We have developed a method to direct the MSCs to the bone surface by attaching a synthetic high affinity and specific peptidomimetic ligand (LLP2A) against integrin ?4?1 on the MSC surface, to a bisphosphonate (alendronate, Ale) that has high affinity for bone. LLP2A-Ale increased MSCs migration and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. A single intravenous injection of LLP2A-Ale increased trabecular bone formation and bone mass in both xenotransplantation and immune competent mice. Additionally, LLP2A-Ale prevented trabecular bone loss after peak bone acquisition was achieved or following estrogen deficiency. These results provide a proof of principle that LLP2A-Ale can direct MSCs to the bone to form new bone and increase bone strength.

Guan, Min; Yao, Wei; Liu, Ruiwu; Lam, Kit S.; Nolta, Jan; Jia, Junjing; Panganiban, Brian; Meng, Liping; Zhou, Ping; Shahnazari, Mohammad; Ritchie, Robert O.; Lane, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

33

Antiangiogenic Agent (TNP470) Inhibition of Ectopic Bone Formation Induced by Bone Morphogenetic Protein2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is a potent inducer of ectopic bone formation, and TNP-470, a synthetic analog of fumagillin, is an antiangiogenic agent that strongly inhibits neovascular formation in vivo. We investigated the effects of TNP-470 on BMP-induced ectopic bone formation to clarify the role of angiogenesis in bone formation. Collagen pellets containing recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) were implanted beneath

S Mori; H Yoshikawa; J Hashimoto; T Ueda; H Funai; M Kato; K Takaoka

1998-01-01

34

Is All Bone the Same? Distinctive Distributions and Properties of Non-Collagenous Matrix Proteins in Lamellar Vs. Woven Bone Imply the Existence of Different Underlying Osteogenic Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to summarize recent functional and structural findings regarding non-collagenous matrix proteins in bone and teeth, to compare gene locations for bone and tooth matrix proteins with loci for hereditary skeletal diseases, and to present several provocative hypotheses which integrate this new information into a physiological context. Hypothesis 1 proposes that the molecular composition of

J. P. Gorski

1998-01-01

35

Formation of lamellar cross bridges in the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc is a consequence of vascular regression  

PubMed Central

Cross bridges are radial structures within the highly organized lamellar structure of the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc that connect two or more non-consecutive lamellae. Their origin and function are unknown. During fetal development, blood vessels penetrate deep within the AF and recede during postnatal growth. We hypothesized that cross bridges are the pathways left by these receding blood vessels. Initially, the presence of cross bridges was confirmed in cadaveric human discs aged 25 and 53 years. Next, L1-L2 intervertebral discs (n=4) from sheep ranging in age from 75 days fetal gestation to adult were processed for paraffin histology. Mid-sagittal sections were immunostained for endothelial cell marker PECAM-1. The anterior and posterior AF were imaged using differential interference contrast microscopy, and the following parameters were quantified: total number of cross bridges; percentage of cross bridges staining positive for PECAM-1; cross bridge penetration depth (% total lamellae); and PECAM-1 positive cross bridge penetration depth. Cross bridges were first observed at 100 days fetal gestation. The overall number peaked in neonates then remained relatively unchanged. The percentage of PECAM-1 positive cross bridges declined progressively from almost 100% at 100 days gestation to less than 10% in adults. Cross bridge penetration depth peaked in neonates then remained unchanged at subsequent ages. Depth of PECAM-1 positive cross bridges decreased progressively after birth. Findings were similar for both the anterior and posterior. The AF lamellar architecture is established early in development. It later becomes disrupted as a consequence of vascularization. Blood vessels then recede, perhaps due to increasing mechanical stresses in the surrounding matrix. In this study we present evidence that the pathways left by receding blood vessels remain as lamellar cross bridges. It is unclear whether the presence of cross bridges in the aging and degenerating intervertebral disc would be advantages or detrimental, and this question should be addressed by future studies.

Smith, Lachlan J; Elliott, Dawn M

2011-01-01

36

Deep anterior lamellar Keratoplasty  

PubMed Central

Keratoconus is a disease causing increased steepening of the cornea resulted in irregular astigmatism. Treatment options are Glasses, Hard contact lenses, Cross linking, Intracorneal Segments insertion, Refractive surgery (Gilda et al., 2008), or Keratoplasty. Lamellar Keratoplasty (LKP) can be a better choice to manage cases of moderate and some cases of severe Keratoconus without deep scarring and severe thinning, also in cases of corneal scarring not involving the deeper layers of the cornea. LKP is a corneal graft technique consisting of transplantation of partial-thickness donor tissue, devoid of endothelium, Descemet membrane (DM), and rear stroma into a recipient healthy stromal bed after dissection of pathologic anterior stroma. However, deep lamellar Keratoplasty (DLKP) is a surgical method that completely removes pathologic corneal stroma tissue down to the DM, followed by transplantation of donor cornea without endothelium over the host bed. DLKP has a number of advantages over penetrating Keratoplasty (PKP). Because it does not violate the intraocular structures of the eye, it diminishes or eliminates the chance of postoperative glaucoma, cataract formation, retinal detachment, cystoids macular edema, expulsive choroidal hemorrhage and epithelial ingrowths. Furthermore, this procedure avoids the replacement of host endothelium with donor endothelium and thus precludes endothelial graft rejection, with comparable visual outcomes and low rate of chronic endothelial cell loss compared to PKP.

Al-Kharashi, Soliman A.; Al-Obailan, Majed M.; Almohaimeed, Mansour; Al-Torbak, Abdullah A.

2009-01-01

37

Stimulation of bone marrow cells and bone formation by nacre: in vivo and in vitro studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is frequently a loss of vertebral bone due to disease or aging. Nacre (mother of pearl from the oyster Pinctada maxima) stimulates bone cell differentiation and bone formation in vitro and in vivo. Experimental bone defects were prepared in the vertebrae of sheep and used to test the suitability of nacre as an injectable osteogenic biomaterial for treating vertebral

M Lamghari; M. J Almeida; S Berland; H Huet; A Laurent; C Milet; E Lopez

1999-01-01

38

Distal radial fractures heal by direct woven bone formation  

PubMed Central

Background Descriptions of fracture healing almost exclusively deal with shaft fractures and they often emphasize endochondral bone formation. In reality, most fractures occur in metaphyseal cancellous bone. Apart from a study of vertebral fractures, we have not found any histological description of cancellous bone healing in humans. Patients and methods We studied histological biopsies from the central part of 12 distal radial fractures obtained during surgery 6–28 days after the injury, using routine hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results New bone formation was seen in 6 cases. It was always in the form of fetal-like, disorganized woven bone. It seldom had contact with old trabeculae and appeared to have formed directly in the marrow. Cartilage was scarce or absent. The samples without bone formation showed only necrosis, scar, or old cancellous bone. Interpretation The histology suggests that cells in the midst of the marrow respond to the trauma by direct formation of bone, independently of trabecular surfaces.

2013-01-01

39

Eldecalcitol and calcitriol stimulates 'bone minimodeling,' focal bone formation without prior bone resorption, in rat trabecular bone.  

PubMed

Vitamin D is known as a potent stimulator of bone resorption. The active form of vitamin D3, calcitriol (1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), stimulates release of calcium (Ca) from bone in ex vivo organ culture, and treatment with large amounts of an active vitamin D3 analog induces hypercalcemia and bone resorption in mice in vivo. Calcitriol strongly induces both receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in osteoblasts in vitro. On the other hand, it has been reported that active vitamin D3 inhibits bone resorption in various experimental animal models. We previously showed that eldecalcitol [1?,25-dihydroxy-2?-(3-hydroxy-propyloxy)vitamin D3; ED-71] suppresses bone resorption and increases bone mineral density (BMD) to a greater extent than alfacalcidol (1?-hydroxyvitamin D3) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats in vivo. To elucidate the histological events that follow administration of eldecalcitol compared to calcitriol, OVX rats were given either vehicle, eldecalcitol (10, 30, or 90ng/kg), or calcitriol (33.3, 100, 300, or 900ng/kg), and sham-operated control animals were given vehicle, 5-times per week for 12 weeks. The lumbar spine and femur were removed and processed for bone mineral density (BMD) assessments and the femur for histomorphometrical analyzes. Both eldecalcitol and calcitriol increased the lumbar and femoral BMD in a dose dependent manner. Bone histomorphometry revealed that osteoclast surface (Oc.S/BS) and eroded surface (ES/BS) were dose-dependently suppressed in the trabecular region of the femur. Both calcitriol and eldecalcitol dose-dependently stimulated focal bone formation that started without prior bone resorption, a process known as bone minimodeling. Both reduction of bone resorption and stimulation of focal bone formation were more clearly observed in the eldecalcitol-treated rats than in the calcitriol-treated rats. Taken together, these findings suggest that eldecalcitol is a more potent vitamin D3 analog that stimulates focal bone formation (minimodeling) and suppresses bone resorption more strongly than does calcitriol. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:23069645

Saito, Hitoshi; Takeda, Satoshi; Amizuka, Norio

2013-07-01

40

Bone Balance within a Cortical BMU: Local Controls of Bone Resorption and Formation  

PubMed Central

Maintaining bone volume during bone turnover by a BMU is known as bone balance. Balance is required to maintain structural integrity of the bone and is often dysregulated in disease. Consequently, understanding how a BMU controls bone balance is of considerable interest. This paper develops a methodology for identifying potential balance controls within a single cortical BMU. The theoretical framework developed offers the possibility of a directed search for biological processes compatible with the constraints of balance control. We first derive general control constraint equations and then introduce constitutive equations to identify potential control processes that link key variables that describe the state of the BMU. The paper describes specific local bone volume balance controls that may be associated with bone resorption and bone formation. Because bone resorption and formation both involve averaging over time, short-term fluctuations in the environment are removed, leaving the control systems to manage deviations in longer-term trends back towards their desired values. The length of time for averaging is much greater for bone formation than for bone resorption, which enables more filtering of variability in the bone formation environment. Remarkably, the duration for averaging of bone formation may also grow to control deviations in long-term trends of bone formation. Providing there is sufficient bone formation capacity by osteoblasts, this leads to an extraordinarily robust control mechanism that is independent of either osteoblast number or the cellular osteoid formation rate. A complex picture begins to emerge for the control of bone volume. Different control relationships may achieve the same objective, and the ‘integration of information’ occurring within a BMU may be interpreted as different sets of BMU control systems coming to the fore as different information is supplied to the BMU, which in turn leads to different observable BMU behaviors.

Smith, David W.; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Dunstan, Colin

2012-01-01

41

Demineralization of the contacting surfaces in autologous onlay bone grafts improves bone formation and bone consolidation.  

PubMed

Background: Autologous bone grafts are usually well consolidated after 4 to 5 months but can be incompletely interlocked with the native bone. This study investigated the effect of acid demineralization of the graft-bed interface on graft consolidation. Methods: Onlay bone grafts were performed on the calvaria of 36 guinea pigs. Half of the animals had the graft-bed contacting surfaces demineralized with 50% citric acid (pH 1.0) for 3 minutes (test group). The other half received no demineralization (control group). The bone grafts were immobilized by a resorbable membrane glued to the recipient bed with cyanoacrylate. After 7, 30, and 90 days, specimens (n = 6) were obtained for light microscopy. Data from qualitative analysis and computerized histomorphometry were statistically processed at a significance level of 5%. Results: Osteogenesis was not seen at the interface after 7 days. After 30 days, the test group showed 34.39% ± 13.4% of the interface area filled with mineralized tissue, compared to 17.14% ± 8.6% in the control group (P = 0.026). After 90 days, the mean percentages of mineralized tissue at the interface in the test and control specimens were 54.00% ± 11.23% and 38.65% ± 7.76% (P = 0.041), respectively. Within groups, a higher percentage of the area filled with mineralized tissue was seen at 90 days compared to 30 days (P = 0.004 for control and 0.041 for test). Conclusions: Demineralization of the contacting surfaces between autologous bone graft and bone bed improved new bone formation and bone consolidation. These data need to be confirmed in humans. PMID:24171500

Rezende, Maria L; Consolaro, Alberto; Sant'ana, Adriana C; Damante, Carla A; Greghi, Sebastião L; Passanezi, Euloir

2014-05-01

42

Effect of spaceflight on periosteal bone formation in rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Male Wistar rats were placed in orbit for 18.5 days aboard the Soviet COSMOS 1129 biological satellite. Tetracycline was administered before and after spaceflight to label areas of bone formation. An inhibition of periosteal bone formation occurred during spaceflight in the tibial and humeral diaphyses, but this defect was corrected during the postflight period. The increased extent of arrest lines at these skeletal sites suggested that periosteal bone formation may have even ceased during spaceflight. The rib exhibited a small but nonsignificant decrease in periosteal bone formation. Endosteal bone resorption was not affected markedly by spaceflight conditions. The observed inhibition of periosteal bone formation may be a result of mechanical unloading, but endocrine factors cannot be ruled out.

Wronski, T. J.; Morey, E. R.

1983-01-01

43

MgCHA particles dispersion in porous PCL scaffolds: in vitro mineralization and in vivo bone formation.  

PubMed

In this work, we focus on the in vitro and in vivo response of composite scaffolds obtained by incorporating Mg,CO3 -doped hydroxyapatite (HA) particles in poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) porous matrices. After a complete analysis of chemical and physical properties of synthesized particles (i.e. SEM/EDS, DSC, XRD and FTIR), we demonstrate that the Mg,CO3 doping influences the surface wettability with implications upon cell-material interaction and new bone formation mechanisms. In particular, ion substitution in apatite crystals positively influences the early in vitro cellular response of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), i.e. adhesion and proliferation, and promotes an extensive mineralization of the scaffold in osteogenic medium, thus conforming to a more faithful reproduction of the native bone environment than undoped HA particles, used as control in PCL matrices. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Mg,CO3 -doped HA in PCL scaffolds support the in vivo cellular response by inducing neo-bone formation as early as 2?months post-implantation, and abundant mature bone tissue at the sixth month, with a lamellar structure and completely formed bone marrow. Together, these results indicate that Mg(2+) and CO3 (2-) ion substitution in HA particles enhances the scaffold properties, providing the right chemical signals to combine with morphological requirements (i.e. pore size, shape and interconnectivity) to drive osteogenic response in scaffold-aided bone regeneration. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22730225

Guarino, Vincenzo; Scaglione, Silvia; Sandri, Monica; Alvarez-Perez, Marco A; Tampieri, Anna; Quarto, Rodolfo; Ambrosio, Luigi

2014-04-01

44

SOLVE LAMELLAR PHASE PROBLEM IN A-286  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of a pearlite-like lamellar phase in the grain boundaries ; of austenitic stainless steel Z-286 lowers its stress-rupture life. This ; difficulty may be overcome by keeping beron content over 0.001% in parts not ; processed by cold working. Where severe cold working between solution treating ; and aging is necessary, lamellar phase cam be eliminated by re-solution

Metcalfe

1958-01-01

45

Bioactive ceramics: the effect of surface reactivity on bone formation and bone cell function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface reactivity is one of the common characteristics of bone bioactive ceramics. It contributes to their bone bonding ability and their enhancing effect on bone tissue formation. During implantation, reactions occur at the material–tissue interface that lead to time-dependent changes in the surface characteristics of the implant material and the tissues at the interface. This review describes some of the

P Ducheyne; Q Qiu

1999-01-01

46

The impact of skeletal unloading on bone formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Skeletal unloading leads to decreased bone formation and decreased bone mass. Bone resorption is uncoupled from bone formation, contributing to the bone loss. During space flight bone is lost principally from the bones most loaded in the 1 g environment. Determining the mechanism(s) by which loading of bone is sensed and translated into a signal(s) controlling bone formation remains the holy grail in this field. It seems likely that matrix/cell interactions will underlie much of the mechanocoupling. Integrins are a prime mediator of such interactions. The role for systemic hormones such as PTH, GH and 1,25(OH)2D compared to locally produced factors such as IGF-I, PTHrP, BMPs and TGF beta in modulating the cellular response to load remains unclear. Our studies demonstrate that skeletal unloading leads to resistance to the anabolic actions of IGF-I on bone as a result of failure of IGF-I to activate its own signaling pathways. This is associated with a reduction in integrin expression, suggesting crosstalk between these two pathways. As the mechanism(s) by which bone responds to changes in mechanical load with changes in bone formation is further elucidated, applications of this knowledge to other etiologies of osteoporosis are likely to develop. Skeletal unloading provides a perturbation in bone mineral homeostasis that can be used to understand the mechanisms by which bone mineral homeostasis is maintained, and that such understanding will lead to effective treatment for disuse osteoporosis in addition to preventive measures for the bone loss that accompanies space travel.

Bikle, Daniel D.; Sakata, Takeshi; Halloran, Bernard P.

2003-01-01

47

Inhibition of cortical and trabecular bone formation in the long bones of immobilized monkeys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tetracycline derivatives are administered on three separate occasions to label the sites of bone formation. Determinations are made of the tetracycline-labeling frequency and mineral apposition rate of osteons and trabecular bone surfaces in the humerus and femur. The inhibition of bone formation induced by immobilization is found to be more pronounced in trabecular bone. The immobilized monkeys exhibit a moderate, but statistically nonsignificant, reduction in the percentage of osteons forming bone. Conversely, the dramatic decline in the percentage of trabecular surfaces undergoing bone formation in the monkeys is found to be highly significant. The diminished rate of mineral apposition in osteons is seen as suggesting that osteoblastic activity is impaired in cortical bone during immobilization.

Wronski, T. J.; Morey, E. R.

1983-01-01

48

Glucocorticoids and inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading  

SciTech Connect

Skeletal unloading or loss of normal weight bearing in the growing animal inhibits bone formation and reduces bone calcium. To determine whether the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading is a consequence of an increase in plasma glucocorticoids and/or an increase in bone sensitivity to glucocorticoids, the authors measured plasma corticosterone throughout the day in unloaded and normally loaded rats (hindlimb elevation model) and examined the effect of adrenalectomy on the response of bone to skeletal unloading. Plasma corticosterone levels were similar in normally loaded and unloaded rats at all times. Skeletal unloading in sham-adrenalectomized animals reduced tibial and vertebral calcium by 11.5 and 11.1%, respectively, and in adrenalectomized animals by 15.3 and 20.3%, respectively. Uptake of {sup 45}Ca and ({sup 3}H)proline in the tibia was reduced by 8 and 14%, respectively, in the sham-adrenalectomized animals and by 13 and 19% in the adrenalectomized animals. Bone formation and apposition rates were reduced to the same level in sham- and adrenalectomized animals. These results suggest that the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading is not a consequence of increased plasma glucocorticoids or an increase in bone sensitivity to the glucocorticoids but, rather, point to a local mediator in bone that senses mechanical load and transmits that information to the bone-forming cells directly.

Halloran, B.P.; Bikle, D.D.; Cone, C.M.; Morey-Holton, E. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA) Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (USA) NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA))

1988-12-01

49

Leptin regulates bone formation via the sympathetic nervous system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We previously showed that leptin inhibits bone formation by an undefined mechanism. Here, we show that hypothalamic leptin-dependent antiosteogenic and anorexigenic networks differ, and that the peripheral mediators of leptin antiosteogenic function appear to be neuronal. Neuropeptides mediating leptin anorexigenic function do not affect bone formation. Leptin deficiency results in low sympathetic tone, and genetic or pharmacological ablation of adrenergic signaling leads to a leptin-resistant high bone mass. beta-adrenergic receptors on osteoblasts regulate their proliferation, and a beta-adrenergic agonist decreases bone mass in leptin-deficient and wild-type mice while a beta-adrenergic antagonist increases bone mass in wild-type and ovariectomized mice. None of these manipulations affects body weight. This study demonstrates a leptin-dependent neuronal regulation of bone formation with potential therapeutic implications for osteoporosis.

Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Levasseur, Regis; Liu, Xiuyun; Zhao, Liping; Parker, Keith L.; Armstrong, Dawna; Ducy, Patricia; Karsenty, Gerard

2002-01-01

50

Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition causes simultaneous bone loss and excess bone formation within growing bone in rats  

SciTech Connect

During postnatal skeletal growth, adaptation to mechanical loading leads to cellular activities at the growth plate. It has recently become evident that bone forming and bone resorbing cells are affected by the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI571, Gleevec (registered)) . Imatinib targets PDGF, ABL-related gene, c-Abl, c-Kit and c-Fms receptors, many of which have multiple functions in the bone microenvironment. We therefore studied the effects of imatinib in growing bone. Young rats were exposed to imatinib (150 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-7, or 100 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-13), and the effects of RTK inhibition on bone physiology were studied after 8 and 70 days (3-day treatment), or after 14 days (9-day treatment). X-ray imaging, computer tomography, histomorphometry, RNA analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate bone modeling and remodeling in vivo. Imatinib treatment eliminated osteoclasts from the metaphyseal osteochondral junction at 8 and 14 days. This led to a resorption arrest at the growth plate, but also increased bone apposition by osteoblasts, thus resulting in local osteopetrosis at the osteochondral junction. The impaired bone remodelation observed on day 8 remained significant until adulthood. Within the same bone, increased osteoclast activity, leading to bone loss, was observed at distal bone trabeculae on days 8 and 14. Peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) and micro-CT analysis confirmed that, at the osteochondral junction, imatinib shifted the balance from bone resorption towards bone formation, thereby altering bone modeling. At distal trabecular bone, in turn, the balance was turned towards bone resorption, leading to bone loss. - Research Highlights: > 3-Day imatinib treatment. > Causes growth plate anomalies in young rats. > Causes biomechanical changes and significant bone loss at distal trabecular bone. > Results in loss of osteoclasts at osteochondral junction.

Nurmio, Mirja, E-mail: Mirja.Nurmio@utu.fi [Department of Physiology, University of Turku (Finland); Department of Pediatrics, University of Turku (Finland); Joki, Henna, E-mail: Henna.Joki@utu.fi [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Turku (Finland); Kallio, Jenny, E-mail: Jenny.Kallio@utu.fi [Department of Physiology, University of Turku (Finland); Maeaettae, Jorma A., E-mail: jorma.maatta@utu.fi [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Turku (Finland); Department of Turku Center for Disease Modeling, University of Turku (Finland); Vaeaenaenen, H. Kalervo, E-mail: kalervo.vaananen@utu.fi [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Turku (Finland); Toppari, Jorma, E-mail: Jorma.Toppari@utu.fi [Department of Physiology, University of Turku (Finland); Department of Pediatrics, University of Turku (Finland); Jahnukainen, Kirsi, E-mail: Kirsi.Jahnukainen@utu.fi [Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Division of Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki (Finland); Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina, E-mail: tilale@utu.fi [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Turku (Finland)

2011-08-01

51

Parallel versus perpendicular lamellar-within-lamellar self-assembly of A-b-(B-b-A)(n)-b-C ternary multiblock copolymer melts.  

PubMed

Different types of lamellar-within-lamellar structure formations in A-b-(B-b-A)(n)-b-C terpolymer melts, with a volume fraction of components A, B, and C in the ratio of 1:1:2, are analyzed in the strong segregation limit using a simple theoretical approach. We consider the lamellar, parallel lamellar-within-lamellar, and perpendicular lamellar-within-lamellar self-assembled states. The influence of the copolymer chain length N, the value of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameters chi(AB), chi(AC), and chi(BC), and the number of blocks n in the AB multiblock chain on the phase behavior is discussed. We show that in the limiting case of n > 1, the perpendicular lamellar-within-lamellar state becomes stable when the interaction parameters satisfy the relation 0 < chi(BC) < 0.22 chi(AC). PMID:20369859

Subbotin, A; Markov, V; ten Brinke, G

2010-04-29

52

Bone Formation by BMP Gene Transfection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An application of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) has been expected to be a solution for fracture repair and bone regeneration ever since the discovery of their osteogenic potential (Urist, 1965; Reddi, 2000). Recombinant BMPs have been employed in in vitro and in vivo studies of bone induction. In vitro studies have revealed that BMPs cause the transformation of pluripotent mesenchymal cells obtained from bone marrow (Thies et al., 1992), fat (Dragoo et al., 2003), and muscle (Katagiri et al., 1994) into osteogenic cells. Clinical application of recom-binant BMPs requires a high-quality recombinant protein and drug delivery system (DDS), which enables slow and continuous release of protein.

Kishimoto, Koshi N.; Watanabe, Yuji

53

Role of B lymphocytes in new bone formation.  

PubMed

Although there may be a close relationship between B lymphocytes and osteoclasts, or bone resorbing cells, little is known about the role of B lymphocytes in bone formation. We compared in vivo new bone induction in mice homozygous for the B-cell deficient (microMT) gene knockout, which lack functional B lymphocytes, with bone induction in control wild-type (C57BL/6) mice. Our comparison used two models of new bone induction in vivo: endochondral osteoinduction by subcutaneous implantation of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) and osteogenic regeneration after tibial bone marrow ablation. The expression of bone-specific proteins (bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and osteocalcin) and inflammatory/immunomodulatory cytokines (interleukin-1alpha and -1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) was assessed by Northern blot analysis or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Ossicles induced by rhBMP-2 were larger in volume and mass in microMT knockout mice, but relative volumes of the newly induced bone, cartilage, and bone marrow were similar in the two groups. Six days after tibial bone marrow ablation, microMT knockout mice resorbed the initial blood clot faster and formed more trabecular bone, paralleled by greater levels of bone sialoprotein mRNA than in the wild-type mice. microMT knockout and wild-type mice also differed in the expression pattern of inflammatory/immunomodulatory cytokines during the development of the newly induced bone, suggesting that a genetic lack of B lymphocytes may create a change in the immunological milieu at the site of new bone induction, which stimulates the initial accumulation and proliferation of mesenchymal progenitor. PMID:11092536

Marusic, A; Grcevic, D; Katavic, V; Kovacic, N; Lukic, I K; Kalajzic, I; Lorenzo, J A

2000-11-01

54

Therapeutic inhibition of cathepsin K--reducing bone resorption while maintaining bone formation  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a disease of high bone remodeling with an imbalance of bone resorption over bone formation, resulting in decreased bone mineral density and deterioration of bone microarchitecture. From the emerging understandings of the molecular and cellular regulators of bone remodeling, potential new targets for therapeutic intervention for this disease have been identified. Cathepsin K (CatK), a cysteine protease produced by osteoclasts, is the primary enzyme mediating the degradation of the demineralized bone matrix. Current genetic and pharmacological evidence from studies in multiple preclinical species have consistently demonstrated that inhibition of CatK results in the reduction of bone resorption while allowing bone formation to continue. Early results from clinical studies with several investigational CatK inhibitors indicate that the impact of CatK inhibition on bone formation is distinct from that of either the bisphosphonates or the anti-receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand antibody, denosumab. Odanacatib, a highly selective, reversible and potent inhibitor of CatK, is currently in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Duong, Le T

2012-01-01

55

Effect of Buguzhi (Psoralea corylifolia fruit) extract on bone formation.  

PubMed

The objective of the study is to compare the amount of new bone produced by Buguzhi (Psoralea corylifolia fruit) extract in collagen matrix to that produced and collagen matrix in vivo. Eighteen bone defects, 5 mm by 10 mm, were created in the parietal bone of 9 New Zealand white rabbits. Six defects were grafted with Buguzhi extract mixed with collagen matrix. Six defects were grafted with collagen matrix alone (positive control) and 6 were left empty (negative control). Animals were sacrificed on day 14 and the defects were dissected and prepared for histological assessment. Quantitative analysis of new bone formation and bone cells was made on 100 sections (50 sections for each group) using image analysis. A total of 275% more new bone was present in defects grafted with Buguzhi extract in collagen matrix than those grafted with collagen matrix. No bone was formed in the negative control group. The amount of bone cells was also significantly greater in the Buguzhi group than in the positive control group. To conclude, Buguzhi extract in collagen matrix has the effect of increasing new bone formation locally in vivo. Buguzhi extract in collagen matrix can be used as a bone graft material. PMID:19953524

Wong, R W K; Rabie, A B M

2010-06-01

56

Bone Formation Rate in Experimental Disuse Osteoporosis in Monkeys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specific mechanisms underlying weightless and hypodynamic bone loss are obscure. A principal relationship which must be affected is the balance between bone formation and bone resorption rates. In order to better define the influence of those parameters on bone loss, and also to develop measurements in other species as a useful adjunct to human research, studies were undertaken with experimental monkeys. Tests were conducted with a total of 6 adult male monkeys, weighing 10-13 kg, and approximately 10-12 yrs. of age to evaluate specifically bone formation rate during the development of disuse osteoporosis and osteopenia. Three animals were restrained in a semi-recumbent position for six months; three animals served as normal caged controls. Food intake (Purina) was held relatively constant at 200g/day for each animal. Using a Norland Bone Mineral Analyzer, bone mineral losses of 3.5 to 6% were seen in the mid-shaft of the tibia and in the distal radius. Bone loss was confirmed radiographically, with observation of thinning of the proximal tibial cortex and trabeculae in the calcaneus. Bone formation rate was determined using standard Ca-47 kinetics under metabolic balance conditions. After six months of restraint, accretion was 7.2-13.2 mg Ca/kg/day, compared to 3.2-4.1 mg Ca/kg/day in caged controls and 3-8 mg Ca/kg/day in normal adult humans. Fecal and urine calcium was 25-40% higher in restrained animals than in controls. Dietary calcium absorption decreases during restraint, and calcium turnover increases, implying a rise in bone resorption rate concommitant with the observed rise in bone accretion rate. Further studies dealing specifically with bone resorption are underway to define this more fully.

Cann, Christopher; Young, Donald R.

1976-01-01

57

Changes in lipids during matrix: Induced endochondral bone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The changes in lipids occurring during the process of endochondral ossification have been characterized by studying the discrete\\u000a phases of matrix-induced endochondral bone formation in the rat. Calcium-acidic phospholipid-phosphate complexes were shown\\u000a to increase in concentration during cartilage calcification (day 9) and to peak in content during early bone formation (day\\u000a 11–13), the times during which the rate of mineral

A. L. Boskey; A. H. Reddi

1983-01-01

58

Rethinking the nature of fibrolamellar bone: an integrative biological revision of sauropod plexiform bone formation.  

PubMed

We present novel findings on sauropod bone histology that cast doubt on general palaeohistological concepts concerning the true nature of woven bone in primary cortical bone and its role in the rapid growth and giant body sizes of sauropod dinosaurs. By preparing and investigating longitudinal thin sections of sauropod long bones, of which transverse thin sections were published previously, we found that the amount of woven bone in the primary complex has been largely overestimated. Using comparative cellular and light-extinction characteristics in the two section planes, we revealed that the majority of the bony lamina consists of longitudinally organized primary bone, whereas woven bone is usually represented only by a layer a few cells thin in the laminae. Previous arguments on sauropod biology, which have been based on the overestimated amount, misinterpreted formation process and misjudged role of woven bone in the plexiform bone formation of sauropod dinosaurs, are thereby rejected. To explain the observed pattern in fossil bones, we review the most recent advances in bone biology concerning bone formation processes at the cellular and tissue levels. Differentiation between static and dynamic osteogenesis (SO and DO) and the revealed characteristics of SO- versus DO-derived bone tissues shed light on several questions raised by our palaeohistological results and permit identification of these bone tissues in fossils with high confidence. By presenting the methods generally used for investigating fossil bones, we show that the major cause of overestimation of the amount of woven bone in previous palaeohistological studies is the almost exclusive usage of transverse sections. In these sections, cells and crystallites of the longitudinally organized primary bone are cut transversely, thus cells appear rounded and crystallites remain dark under crossed plane polarizers, thereby giving the false impression of woven bone. In order to avoid further confusion in palaeohistological studies, we introduce new osteohistological terms as well as revise widely used but incorrect terminology. To infer the role of woven bone in the bone formation of fast-growing tetrapods, we review some aspects of the interrelationships between the vascularity of bone tissues, basal metabolic rate, body size and growth rate. By putting our findings into the context of osteogenesis, we provide a new model for the diametrical limb bone growth of sauropods and present new implications for the evolution of fast growth in vertebrates. Since biomechanical studies of bone tissues suggest that predominant collagen fibre orientation (CFO) is controlled by endogenous, functional and perhaps phylogenetic factors, the relationship between CFO and bone growth rate as defined by Amprino's rule, which has been the basis for the biological interpretation of several osteohistological features, must be revised. Our findings draw attention to the urgent need for revising widely accepted basic concepts of palaeohistological studies, and for a more integrative approach to bone formation, biomechanics and bone microstructural features of extant and extinct vertebrates to infer life history traits of long extinct, iconic animals like dinosaurs. PMID:23647662

Stein, Koen; Prondvai, Edina

2014-02-01

59

Lrp5 and bone formation : A serotonin-dependent pathway.  

PubMed

Lrp5, the mutated gene in osteoporosis pseudoglioma (OPPG) and the high bone-mass syndrome (HBM), regulates bone formation, while beta-catenin, the molecular node of Wnt signaling, regulates bone resorption, suggesting that Lrp5 could act in a Wnt-independent manner. Using microarray and conditional gene deletion in mice, we showed that Lrp5 actually enhances bone formation by inhibiting the expression, in duodenum, of tryptophan hydroxylase 1, the rate-limiting enzyme in the serotonin biosynthetic pathway. Accordingly, serotonin circulating levels are high in Lrp5(-/-) mice and OPPG patients but low in HBM patients, and normalizing serum serotonin levels rescues the bone phenotype of the Lrp5(-/-) mice. We also showed that serotonin acts on osteoblasts through the Htr1b receptor and the transcription factor cAMP responsive element binding to inhibit their proliferation. This study shows that Lrp5 acts in gut cells, not in osteoblasts, to control bone formation via a Wnt-independent pathway and identifies a new hormone, serotonin, and a novel endocrine axis regulating bone mass. These findings may have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of low bone-mass disorders. PMID:20392224

Yadav, Vijay K; Ducy, Patricia

2010-03-01

60

Heterotopic bone formation following hip arthroplasty in Paget's disease.  

PubMed

Heterotopic bone formation in soft tissues occurs commonly in Paget's disease patients following a primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). The nature of this heterotopic bone has not been documented. In this report, we show that the heterotopic bone removed 14 years after primary THA in a case of Paget's disease was sclerotic, contained prominent mosaic cement lines and showed increased remodelling activity on the bone surface. In addition to these typically Pagetic histological features, it was noted ultrastructurally that the osteoclasts contained characteristic intranuclear viral-like inclusions. In contrast, the foreign body macrophages found in the joint pseudocapsule and pseudomembrane, which are a population of mononuclear precursor cells from which osteoclasts can be formed, did not contain viral-like inclusions. These findings are of interest regarding the pathogenesis of heterotopic bone formation following hip arthroplasty and the ontogeny of Pagetic osteoclasts. PMID:15260016

Ferguson, D J P; Itonaga, I; Maki, M; McNally, E; Gundle, R; Athanasou, N A

2004-06-01

61

Endochondral bone formation in embryonic mouse pre-metatarsals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long term exposure to a reduced gravitational environment has a deleterious effect on bone. The developmental events which occur prior to initial bone deposition will provide insight into the regulation of mature bone physiology. We have characterized a system in which the events preceding bone formation take place in an isolated in vitro organ culture environment. We show that cultured pre-metatarsal tissue parallels development of pre-metatarsal tissue in the embryo. Both undergo mesenchyme differentiation and morphogenesis to form a cartilage rod, which resembles the future bone, followed by terminal chondrocyte differentiation in a definite morphogenetic pattern. These sequential steps occur prior to osteoblast maturation and bone matrix deposition in the developing organism. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is a distinctive enzymatic marker for mineralizing tissues. We have measured this activity throughout pre-metatarsal development and show (a) where in the tissue it is predominantly found, and (b) that this is indeed the mineralizing isoform of the enzyme.

Klement, B. J.; Spooner, B. S.

1992-01-01

62

Estrogen maintains trabecular bone volume in rats not only by suppression of bone resorption but also by stimulation of bone formation.  

PubMed Central

Estrogen is generally considered to maintain bone mass through suppression of bone resorption. We have previously demonstrated that administration of pharmacologic doses of estrogen increases bone formation in ovary-intact rats. To assess the effects of physiological concentrations of estrogen on bone formation, estrogen was administered to ovariectomized rats in which bone resorption was suppressed by the bisphosphonate 3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene-1-bisphosphonate (AHPrBP). Animals receiving exogenous 17 beta-estradiol (E2) (1, 10, and 100 micrograms/kg daily for 17 d) showed a dose-dependent increase in trabecular bone volume of 1.9, 25.8, and 43.6%, respectively, compared with those rats treated with AHPrBP alone. The increase in bone volume was associated with an increase in bone formation in E2-treated animals, in which bone resorption had been almost completely suppressed by AHPrBP. Neither ovariectomy, AHPrBP, nor E2 treatment had a significant effect on the volume or rate of formation of cortical bone. Thus, the increased bone resorption, which is a consequence of estrogen-deficiency, entrains increased bone formation, which masks a simultaneous reduction in estrogen-dependent bone formation. Therefore, in addition to the nonspecific effect of estrogen to depress formation via coupling, we have identified a specific effect of estrogen to increase formation independent of coupling. Thus it appears that estrogen maintains bone volume not only through inhibition of bone resorption, but also through stimulation of bone formation. Images

Chow, J; Tobias, J H; Colston, K W; Chambers, T J

1992-01-01

63

FOXOs attenuate bone formation by suppressing Wnt signaling  

PubMed Central

Wnt/?-catenin/TCF signaling stimulates bone formation and suppresses adipogenesis. The hallmarks of skeletal involution with age, on the other hand, are decreased bone formation and increased bone marrow adiposity. These changes are associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased growth factor production, which activate members of the FOXO family of transcription factors. FOXOs in turn attenuate Wnt/?-catenin signaling by diverting ?-catenin from TCF- to FOXO-mediated transcription. We show herein that mice lacking Foxo1, -3, and -4 in bipotential progenitors of osteoblast and adipocytes (expressing Osterix1) exhibited increased osteoblast number and high bone mass that was maintained in old age as well as decreased adiposity in the aged bone marrow. The increased bone mass in the Foxo-deficient mice was accounted for by increased proliferation of osteoprogenitor cells and bone formation resulting from upregulation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling and cyclin D1 expression, but not changes in redox balance. Consistent with this mechanism, ?-catenin deletion in Foxo null cells abrogated both the increased cyclin D1 expression and proliferation. The elucidation of a restraining effect of FOXOs on Wnt signaling in bipotential progenitors suggests that FOXO activation by accumulation of age-associated cellular stressors may be a seminal pathogenetic mechanism in the development of involutional osteoporosis.

Iyer, Srividhya; Ambrogini, Elena; Bartell, Shoshana M.; Han, Li; Roberson, Paula K.; de Cabo, Rafael; Jilka, Robert L.; Weinstein, Robert S.; O'Brien, Charles A.; Manolagas, Stavros C.; Almeida, Maria

2013-01-01

64

Clay-Enriched Silk Biomaterials for Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

The formation of silk protein/clay composite biomaterials for bone tissue formation is described. Silk fibroin serves as an organic scaffolding material offering mechanical stability suitable for bone specific uses. Clay montmorillonite (Cloisite ® Na+) and sodium silicate are sources of osteoinductive silica-rich inorganic species, analogous to bioactive bioglass-like bone repair biomaterial systems. Different clay particle-silk composite biomaterial films were compared to silk films doped with sodium silicate as controls for support of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in osteogenic culture. The cells adhered and proliferated on the silk/clay composites over two weeks. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed increased transcript levels for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and collagen type 1 (Col I) osteogenic markers in the cells cultured on the silk/clay films in comparison to the controls. Early evidence for bone formation based on collagen deposition at the cell-biomaterial interface was also found, with more collagen observed for the silk films with higher contents of clay particles. The data suggest that the silk/clay composite systems may be useful for further study toward bone regenerative needs.

Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Llamas, Jabier Gallego; Vaiana, Christopher A.; Kadakia, Madhavi P.; Naik, Rajesh R.; Kaplan, David L.

2011-01-01

65

Changes in homeobox-containing gene expression during ectopic bone formation induced by bone morphogenetic protein.  

PubMed

Expression of homeobox genes in relation to ectopic bone formation induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) was investigated. Oligonucleotide primers corresponding to highly conserved regions of Hox cluster and Msx genes were designed to detect homeobox sequences by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nine rat homologues of Hox cluster genes and two Msx genes were discovered in the BMP-implanted tissue, at earlier stage and later cartilage and bone formation stage, respectively. The PCR study provided evidence of dynamic changes in BMP-induced homeobox gene expression. PMID:7911662

Iimura, T; Oida, S; Takeda, K; Maruoka, Y; Sasaki, S

1994-06-15

66

Alveolar bone formation at dental implant dehiscence defects following guided bone regeneration and xenogeneic freeze-dried demineralized bone matrix.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated rate and extent of alveolar bone formation in dental implant dehiscence defects following guided bone regeneration (GBR) and implantation of xenogeneic freeze-dried demineralized bone matrix (xDBM). A total of 16 titanium plasma-sprayed (TPS) and 16 hydroxyapatite-coated (HA) titanium cylinder implants were inserted in 4 mongrel dogs following extraction of the mandibular premolar teeth. Four implant sites per jaw quadrant (2 TPS and 2 HA implant sites) were prepared into extraction sockets in each dog. Buccal alveolar bone was removed to create 3 x 5 mm dehiscence defects. Two jaw quadrants in separate animals received GBR, GBR + xDBM, xDBM (control), or gingival flap surgery alone (GFS; control). Thus, four conditions were available for each implant type (TPS or HA): GBR, GBR + xDBM; xDBM and GFS. The animals received fluorescent bone labels to allow observations of rate and extent of bone formation. Animals were sacrificed at 12 weeks postsurgery and block sections were harvested for histologic analysis. There were no apparent histologic differences between TPS and HA implant defects. GBR and GBR + xDBM resulted in almost complete bone closure of the dental implant dehiscence defect. Rate of bone formation appeared higher following GBR alone. Extent of bone formation appeared somewhat greater following GBR + xDBM; however, delayed. xDBM alone did not adequately resolve the bony defect. In conclusion, GBR results in rapid, clinically relevant bone closure of dental implant dehiscence defects. Adjunctive implantation of xDBM does not appear to significantly improve the healing response in the model used. PMID:11429943

Cho, K S; Choi, S H; Han, K H; Chai, J K; Wikesjö, U M; Kim, C K

1998-12-01

67

Hepcidin1 knockout mice display defects in bone microarchitecture and changes of bone formation markers.  

PubMed

Iron accumulation is a risk factor of osteoporosis; mechanisms leading to iron-related bone loss are not fully determined. We sought to better understand the effect of chronic iron accumulation on bone over the life span in a mouse model. Hepcidin1 knockout (Hepc1(-/-)) male mice and their littermate control wild type (WT) mice at 7 months old were used in this study. Serum iron and ferritin as well as iron contents in liver and femur were significantly increased in Hepc1(-/-) mice compared to WT mice. We found that Hepc1(-/-) mice had a phenotype of low bone mass and alteration of the bone microarchitecture, most likely caused by a decreased osteoblastic activity. Cell culture studies indicated that chronic iron accumulation decreased bone formation, probably by affecting bone morphogenetic protein signaling. PMID:24652331

Shen, Guang Si; Yang, Qing; Jian, Jing Long; Zhao, Guo Yang; Liu, Lu Lin; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Wen; Huang, Xi; Xu, You Jia

2014-06-01

68

Cadherins and Wnt signalling: a functional link controlling bone formation  

PubMed Central

Cadherins are calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules that have a major role in morphogenesis and tissue formation. In bone, cadherins control osteoblast differentiation by mediating cell–cell adhesion and signals that promote phenotypic osteoblast gene expression. Furthermore, cadherins can interact with Wnt signalling to modulate osteoblastogenesis. One mechanism involves the interaction of N-cadherin with ?-catenin at the cell membrane, resulting in ?-catenin sequestration, reduction of the cytosolic ?-catenin pool and inhibition of Wnt signalling. In addition to modulating the ?-catenin pool, N-cadherin can regulate osteoblasts by interacting with the Wnt coreceptors LRP5 or LRP6. We showed that the functional interaction between N-cadherin and LRP5/6 in osteoblasts promotes ?-catenin degradation and reduces canonical Wnt signalling. This crosstalk between N-cadherin and Wnt signalling has a negative impact on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and survival, independently of cell–cell adhesion, which results in decreased bone formation and delayed bone accrual in mice. The identification of this crosstalk between N-cadherin and Wnt signalling may have therapeutic implications, as a disruption of the N-cadherin–LRP5/6 interaction using a competitor peptide can increase Wnt/?-catenin signalling without affecting cell–cell adhesion, and this effect results in increased osteoblastogenesis and bone tissue formation in vivo. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of the key crosstalks between cadherins and Wnt signalling that impact osteoblast function, bone formation and bone mass, and the possible therapeutic implications of such interactions for promoting osteoblastogenesis, bone formation and bone mass.

Marie, Pierre J; Hay, Eric

2013-01-01

69

Soy isoflavone intake inhibits bone resorption and stimulates bone formation in menopausal women: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To clarify the effects of isoflavone intake on bone resorption and bone formation.Methods:We identified randomized controlled trials related to urinary deoxypyridinoline (Dpyr, a bone resorption marker) and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP, a bone formation marker) listed on MEDLINE (January 1966–April 2006), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE (1985–January 2006), Science Citation Index and PUBMED (updated till April 2006).Results:Nine studies

D-F Ma; L-Q Qin; P-Y Wang; R Katoh

2008-01-01

70

Bone formation induced by BMP-2 in human osteosarcoma cells.  

PubMed

Our previous studies demonstrated that BMP-2 inhibits the tumorigenicity of cancer stem cells identified as cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH(br) cells) from the human osteosarcoma cell line OS99-1. We further investigated whether BMP-2 is capable of inducing bone formation in OS99-1 cells. Flow cytometry sorting was used to isolate tumorigenic ALDH(br) and non-tumorigenic ALDH(lo) cells. qRT-PCR was used to quantify the gene expression. A xenograft model was used to verify the bone formation in vivo. There was significantly higher mRNA expression of BMPR1B and BMPR2 in ALDH(lo) cells compared with that in ALDH(br) cells and the BMPR1B expression in ALDH(lo) cells was ~8-fold higher compared to that in ALDHbr cells. BMP-2 was also found to induce higher transcription of osteogenic markers Runx-2, Osterix (Osx), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen type I in ALDH(lo) cells compared to ALDH(br) cells, which were mediated by the canonical Smad signaling pathway. In vivo, BMP-2 was identified to induce bone formation in both ALDH(br) and ALDH(lo) cells. All animals receiving 1 x 10()4 ALDH(lo) cells treated with 30 µg of BMP-2 per animal showed bone formation within 1-2 weeks after injection in mice. Bone formation induced by BMP-2 in ALDH(lo) cells showed significantly more bone mineral content compared to that in ALDH(br) cells. BMP-2 induces bone formation in heterogeneous osteosarcoma cells and BMP-2 may have a promising therapeutic role for treating human osteosarcoma by inducing differentiation along an osteogenic pathway. PMID:23900689

Wang, Lin; Park, Paul; La Marca, Frank; Than, Khoi; Rahman, Shayan; Lin, Chia-Ying

2013-10-01

71

Bone formation induced by BMP-2 in human osteosarcoma cells  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies demonstrated that BMP-2 inhibits the tumorigenicity of cancer stem cells identified as cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH br cells) from the human osteosarcoma cell line OS99-1. We further investigated whether BMP-2 is capable of inducing bone formation in OS99-1 cells. Flow cytometry sorting was used to isolate tumorigenic ALDH br and non-tumorigenic ALDH lo cells. qRT-PCR was used to quantify the gene expression. A xenograft model was used to verify the bone formation in vivo . There was significantly higher mRNA expression of BMPR1B and BMPR2 in ALDH lo cells compared with that in ALDH br cells and the BMPR1B expression in ALDH lo cells was ?8-fold higher compared to that in ALDH br cells. BMP-2 was also found to induce higher transcription of osteogenic markers Runx-2, Osterix (Osx), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen type I in ALDH lo cells compared to ALDH br cells, which were mediated by the canonical Smad signaling pathway. In vivo , BMP-2 was identified to induce bone formation in both ALDH br and ALDH lo cells. All animals receiving 1×10 4 ALDH lo cells treated with 30 ? g of BMP-2 per animal showed bone formation within 1–2 weeks after injection in mice. Bone formation induced by BMP-2 in ALDH lo cells showed significantly more bone mineral content compared to that in ALDH br cells. BMP-2 induces bone formation in heterogeneous osteosarcoma cells and BMP-2 may have a promising therapeutic role for treating human osteosarcoma by inducing differentiation along an osteogenic pathway.

WANG, LIN; PARK, PAUL; LA MARCA, FRANK; THAN, KHOI; RAHMAN, SHAYAN; LIN, CHIA-YING

72

Progressive Ankylosis Protein (ANK) in Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts Controls Bone Formation and Bone Remodeling  

PubMed Central

The progressive ankylosis gene (ank) encodes a transmembrane protein that transports intracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) to the extracellular milieu. ank/ank mice, which express a truncated nonfunctional ANK, showed a markedly reduced bone mass, bone-formation rate, and number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase–positive (TRAP+) multinucleated osteoclasts. ANK function deficiency suppressed osteoblastic differentiation of ank/ank bone marrow stromal cells, as indicated by the decrease in the expression of bone marker genes, including osterix, reduced alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization. Runx2 gene expression levels were not altered. Conversely, overexpression of ANK in the preosteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 resulted in increased expression of bone marker genes, including osterix. Whereas runx2 expression was not altered in ANK-overexpressing MC3T3-E1 cells, runx2 transcriptional activity was increased. Extracellular PPi or Pi stimulated osteoblastogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells or partially rescued delayed osteoblastogenic differentiation of ank/ank bone marrow stromal cells. A loss of PPi transport function ANK mutation also stimulated osteoblastogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Furthermore, ANK function deficiency suppressed the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts from ank/ank bone marrow cells cultured in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand. In conclusion, ANK is a positive regulator of osteoblastic and osteoclastic differentiation events toward a mature osteoblastic and osteoclastic phenotype. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Kim, Hyon Jong; Minashima, Takeshi; McCarthy, Edward F; Winkles, Jeffrey A; Kirsch, Thorsten

2010-01-01

73

Diabetes Enhances Periodontal Bone Loss through Enhanced Resorption and Diminished Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

Using a ligature-induced model in type-2 Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat and normoglycemic littermates, we investigated whether diabetes primarily affects periodontitis by enhancing bone loss or by limiting osseous repair. Diabetes increased the intensity and duration of the inflammatory infiltrate (P < 0.05). The formation of osteoclasts and percent eroded bone after 7 days of ligature placement was similar, while four days after removal of ligatures, the type 2 diabetic group had significantly higher osteoclast numbers and activity (P < 0.05). The amount of new bone formation following resorption was 2.4- to 2.9- fold higher in normoglycemic vs. diabetic rats (P < 0.05). Diabetes also increased apoptosis and decreased the number of bone-lining cells, osteoblasts, and periodontal ligament fibroblasts (P < 0.05). Thus, diabetes caused a more persistent inflammatory response, greater loss of attachment and more alveolar bone resorption, and impaired new bone formation. The latter may be affected by increased apoptosis of bone-lining and PDL cells.

Liu, R.; Bal, H.S.; Desta, T.; Krothapalli, N.; Alyassi, M.; Luan, Q.; Graves, D.T.

2008-01-01

74

Porphyromonas gingivalis infection increases osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation in a periodontitis mouse model  

PubMed Central

Background Porphyromonas gingivalis has been shown to invade osteoblasts and inhibit their differentiation and mineralization in vitro. However, it is unclear if P. gingivalis can invade osteoblasts in vivo and how this would affect alveolar osteoblast/osteoclast dynamics. This study aims to answer these questions using a periodontitis mouse model under repetitive P. gingivalis inoculations. Methods For 3-month-old BALB/cByJ female mice, 109 CFU of P. gingivalis were inoculated onto the gingival margin of maxillary molars 4 times at 2-day intervals. After 2 weeks, another 4 inoculations at 2-day intervals were applied. Calcein was injected 7 and 2 days before sacrificing animals to label the newly formed bone. Four weeks after final inoculation, mice were sacrificed and maxilla collected. Immunohistochemistry, micro-CT, and bone histomorphometry were performed on the specimens. Sham infection with only vehicle was the control. Results P. gingivalis was found to invade gingival epithelia, periodontal ligament fibroblasts, and alveolar osteoblasts. Micro-CT showed alveolar bone resorption and significant reduction of bone mineral density and content in the infected mice compared to the controls. Bone histomorphometry showed a decrease in osteoblasts, an increase in osteoclasts and bone resorption, and a surprisingly increased osteoblastic bone formation in the infected mice compared to the controls. Conclusions P. gingivalis invades alveolar osteoblasts in the periodontitis mouse model and cause alveolar bone loss. Although P. gingivalis appears to suppress osteoblast pool and enhance osteoclastic bone resorption, the bone formation capacity is temporarily elevated in the infected mice, possibly via some anti-microbial compensational mechanisms.

2014-01-01

75

The glycosylation profile of osteoadherin alters during endochondral bone formation.  

PubMed

Endochondral bone formation involves the dynamic interplay between the cells and their extracellular environment to facilitate the deposition of a calcified matrix. Numerous molecules are involved within this process, including collagens and non-collagenous proteins, and their post-translational modifications have been shown to effect their biomolecular interactions. Osteoadherin (OSAD), a keratin sulfate (KS)-substituted small leucine-rich proteoglycan has been isolated from mineralized tissues and is considered to be a mineralized tissue-specific protein. However, to date, information is limited concerning the dynamic expression and role of this proteoglycan during bone formation and the biomineralization process. The current study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of this protein throughout mouse metatarsal long bone development, from the cartilage anlagen (E15) to the fully formed bone (Adult). Using quantitative gene expression analysis we observed that OSAD was produced with the onset of mineralization and the formation of the ossification center. This finding was reflected in the localization studies, using both light and electron microscopy, and showed that initial OSAD localization was restricted to the endosteal surfaces of the diaphysis and forming metaphysis. Furthermore, we analyzed protein extracts, both mineral and non-mineral associated fractions, and showed that OSAD was substituted with varying patterns of glycosylation during bone development. Sequential enzymatic digestions of the non-mineral bound protein extracts demonstrated that OSAD lacked any KS chains throughout all development stages. Whereas, in the mineral bound fractions, with long bone maturation the substitution with KS became more apparent with development. Therefore, it can be concluded that different pools of OSAD are produced during endochondral bone formation and these may have specific roles in directing the mineralization process. PMID:23337037

Sugars, Rachael V; Olsson, Marie-Louise; Marchner, Sara; Hultenby, Kjell; Wendel, Mikael

2013-04-01

76

Ultraviolet light-irradiated photocrosslinkable chitosan hydrogel to prevent bone formation in both rat skull and fibula bone defects.  

PubMed

In the field of orthopaedic surgery, an orthopaedic surgeon sometimes requires to suppress excessive bone formation, such as ectopic bone formation, ossifying myositis and radio-ulnar synostosis, etc. Ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation of a photocrosslinkable chitosan (Az-CH-LA) generates an insoluble hydrogel within 30 s. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the photocrosslinked chitosan hydrogel (PCH) to inhibit bone formation in an experimental model of bone defect. Rat calvarium and fibula were surgically injured and PCH was implanted into the resultant bone defects. The PCH implants significantly prevented bone formation in the bone defects during the 4 and 8 week observation periods. In the PCH-treated defects, fibrous tissues infiltrated by inflammatory cells were formed by day 7, completely filling the bone defects. In addition to these findings, expression of osteocalcin and runt-related gene 2 (RUNX2) mRNA, both markers of bone formation, was lower in the PCH-treated defects than in the controls. In contrast, collagen type 1?2 and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) mRNA levels were significantly higher in the PCH-treated defects after 1 week. PCH stimulated the formation of fibrous tissue in bone defects while inhibiting bone formation. Thus, PCH might be a promising new therapeutic biomaterial for the prevention of bone formation in orthopaedic surgery. PMID:22408001

Tsuda, Yoshifumi; Hattori, Hidemi; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishihara, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Satoko; Amako, Masatoshi; Arino, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Koichi

2013-09-01

77

Transgenic overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 11 propeptide in skeleton enhances bone formation  

PubMed Central

Bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP11) is a key regulatory protein in skeletal development. BMP11 propeptide has been shown to antagonize GDF11 activity in vitro. To explore the role of BMP11 propeptide in skeletal formation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice with skeleton-specific overexpression of BMP11 propeptide cDNA. The mice showed a transformation of the seventh cervical vertebra into a thoracic vertebra in our previous report. Presently, further characterizations of the transgenic mice indicated that ossification in calvatia was dramatically enhanced in transgenic fetuses at 16.5 dpc in comparison with their wild-type littermates. At 10 weeks of age, bone mineral content and bone mineral density were significantly (P<0.05) higher in transgenic mice than that in their wild-type littermates based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis. The relative trabecular bone volume measured by histological analysis was dramatically increased in transgenic mice compared with their wild- type littermates. The enhanced bone formations in the transgenic mice appear to result from increase osteoblast activities as the expressions of four osteoblast markers-? 1 type 1 collagen, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase and phex were significantly higher in transgenic fetuses than that in their wild-type littermates. These results suggest that over-expression of BMP11 propeptide stimulates bone formation by increasing osteoblast cell functions.

Li, Zicong; Zeng, Fang; Mitchell, Alva; Kim, Yong Soo; Wu, Zhenfang; Yang, Jinzeng

2011-01-01

78

Transgenic overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 11 propeptide in skeleton enhances bone formation.  

PubMed

Bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP11) is a key regulatory protein in skeletal development. BMP11 propeptide has been shown to antagonize GDF11 activity in vitro. To explore the role of BMP11 propeptide in skeletal formation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice with skeleton-specific overexpression of BMP11 propeptide cDNA. The mice showed a transformation of the seventh cervical vertebra into a thoracic vertebra in our previous report. Presently, further characterizations of the transgenic mice indicated that ossification in calvatia was dramatically enhanced in transgenic fetuses at 16.5 dpc in comparison with their wild-type littermates. At 10 weeks of age, bone mineral content and bone mineral density were significantly (P<0.05) higher in transgenic mice than that in their wild-type littermates based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis. The relative trabecular bone volume measured by histological analysis was dramatically increased in transgenic mice compared with their wild-type littermates. The enhanced bone formations in the transgenic mice appear to result from increase osteoblast activities as the expressions of four osteoblast markers - ?1 type 1 collagen, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase and phex were significantly higher in transgenic fetuses than that in their wild-type littermates. These results suggest that over-expression of BMP11 propeptide stimulates bone formation by increasing osteoblast cell functions. PMID:22093826

Li, Zicong; Zeng, Fang; Mitchell, Alva D; Kim, Yong Soo; Wu, Zhenfang; Yang, Jinzeng

2011-12-16

79

Active multilayered capsules for in vivo bone formation  

PubMed Central

Interest in the development of new sources of transplantable materials for the treatment of injury or disease has led to the convergence of tissue engineering with stem cell technology. Bone and joint disorders are expected to benefit from this new technology because of the low self-regenerating capacity of bone matrix secreting cells. Herein, the differentiation of stem cells to bone cells using active multilayered capsules is presented. The capsules are composed of poly-L-glutamic acid and poly-L-lysine with active growth factors embedded into the multilayered film. The bone induction from these active capsules incubated with embryonic stem cells was demonstrated in vitro. Herein, we report the unique demonstration of a multilayered capsule-based delivery system for inducing bone formation in vivo. This strategy is an alternative approach for in vivo bone formation. Strategies using simple chemistry to control complex biological processes would be particularly powerful, as they make production of therapeutic materials simpler and more easily controlled.

Facca, S.; Cortez, C.; Mendoza-Palomares, C.; Messadeq, N.; Dierich, A.; Johnston, A. P. R.; Mainard, D.; Voegel, J.-C.; Caruso, F.; Benkirane-Jessel, N.

2010-01-01

80

Bone formation in rabbit cancellous bone explant culture model is enhanced by mechanical load  

PubMed Central

Background When studying and designing an artificial bone in vitro with similar features and functionality of natural bone by tissue engineering technology, the culturing environment, especially the mechanical environment is supposed to be an important factor, because a suitable mechanical environment in vitro may improve the adaptability of the planted-in tissue engineering bone in the body. Unfortunately, up to now, the relationship between mechanical stimuli and natural bone growth has not yet been precisely determined, and it is so imperative for a prior study on effect of mechanical loading on growth of the natural bone cultured in vitro. Methods Under sterile conditions, explant models of rabbit cancellous bone with 3?mm in thickness and 8?mm in diameter were prepared and cultured in a dynamic loading and circulating perfusion bioreactor system. By Micro-CT scanning, a 3D model for finite element (FEM) analysis was achieved. According to the results of FEM analysis and physiological load bearing capacity of the natural bone, these models were firstly subjected to mechanical load with 1Hz frequency causing average apparent strain of 1000 ??, 2000 ??, 3000 ?? and 4000 ?? respectively for 30?min every day, activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP) were detected on the 5th and the 14th loading day and on the 14th and the 21st day, mechanical properties, tissue mineral density (TMD) of the bone explant models were investigated and Von-kossa staining and fluorescence double labeling assays were conducted to evaluate whether there were fresh osteoid in the bone explant models. In addition, Western blot, Elisa and Real-time PCR were employed to analyze expression of Collagen-I (COL-1), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) protein and RNA. Results The explant models of rabbit cancellous bone prepared under sterile conditions grew well in the bioreactor system. With the increasing culturing time and load levels, bone explant models in groups with 1000 ?? and 2000 ?? average apparent strain experienced improving mechanical properties and TMD (P<0.05), and results of Von-kossa staining and fluorescence double labeling also showed apparent fresh osteoid formation. Under the same loading conditions, a up-regulations in protein and RNA of COL-1, BMP-2 and OPG were detected, especially, relative genes notably expressed after 21?days. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that mechanical load could improve function and activity of osteoblasts in explant models of cancellous bone. Through regulations of COL-1, OPG and BMP-2 secreted by osteoblasts, the mechanical load could improve the tissue structural density and stiffness due to formation of fresh osteoid.

2013-01-01

81

Effects Of Stress On Bone-Formation Markers In Rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes experiments involving simultaneous measurement of concentrations, in blood, of two substances indicative of formation of bone in rats. Measurements performed after flight in outer space plus 48 h of postflight environmental stress. Results emphasize critical influences of adrenal status and diet on functions of osteoblasts.

Arnaud, Sara B.; Fung, Paul; Vasques, Marilyn; Grindeland, Richard E.; Patterson-Buckendahl, Patricia; Durnova, Galina

1992-01-01

82

Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears ( Ursus arctos horribilis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and

Meghan E. McGee; Aaron J. Maki; Steven E. Johnson; O. Lynne Nelson; Charles T. Robbins; Seth W. Donahue

2008-01-01

83

Cardiotrophin-1 is an osteoclast-derived stimulus of bone formation required for normal bone remodeling.  

PubMed

Cardiotrophin (CT-1) signals through gp130 and the LIF receptor (LIFR) and plays a major role in cardiac, neurological, and liver biology. We report here that CT-1 is also expressed within bone in osteoclasts and that CT-1 is capable of increasing osteoblast activity and mineralization both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, CT-1 stimulated CAAT/enhancer-binding protein-delta (C/EBP delta) expression and runt-related transcription factor 2 (runx2) activation. In neonate CT-1(-/-) mice, we detected low bone mass associated with reduced osteoblasts and many large osteoclasts, but increased cartilage remnants within the bone, suggesting impaired resorption. Cultured bone marrow (BM) from CT-1(-/-) mice generated many oversized osteoclasts and mineralized poorly compared with wildtype BM. As the CT-1(-/-) mice aged, the reduced osteoblast surface (ObS/BS) was no longer detected, but impaired bone resorption continued resulting in an osteopetrotic phenotype in adult bone. CT-1 may now be classed as an essential osteoclast-derived stimulus of both bone formation and resorption. PMID:18665789

Walker, Emma C; McGregor, Narelle E; Poulton, Ingrid J; Pompolo, Sueli; Allan, Elizabeth H; Quinn, Julian M W; Gillespie, Matthew T; Martin, T John; Sims, Natalie A

2008-12-01

84

Sclerostin is a delayed secreted product of osteocytes that inhibits bone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteocytes are the most abundant cells in bone and are ideally located to influence bone turnover through their syncytial relationship with surface bone cells. Osteocyte-derived signals have remained largely enigmatic, but it was recently reported that human osteocytes secrete sclerostin, an inhibitor of bone formation. Absent sclerostin protein results in the high bone mass clinical disorder sclerosteosis. Here we report

Kenneth E. S. Poole; Rutger L. van Bezooijen; Nigel Loveridge; Herman Hamersma; Socrates E. Papapoulos; Clemens W. Löwik; Jonathan Reeve

2005-01-01

85

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation regulates in vitro bone formation and bone mass  

PubMed Central

Adenosine 5?-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a regulator of energy homeostasis, has a central role in mediating the appetite-modulating and metabolic effects of many hormones and antidiabetic drugs metformin and glitazones. The objective of this study was to determine if AMPK can be activated in osteoblasts by known AMPK modulators and if AMPK activity is involved in osteoblast function in vitro and regulation of bone mass in vivo. ROS 17/2.8 rat osteoblast-like cells were cultured in the presence of AMPK activators (AICAR and metformin), AMPK inhibitor (compound C), the gastric peptide hormone ghrelin and the beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol. AMPK activity was measured in cell lysates by a functional kinase assay and AMPK protein phosphorylation was studied by Western Blotting using an antibody recognizing AMPK Thr-172 residue. We demonstrated that treatment of ROS 17/2.8 cells with AICAR and metformin stimulates Thr-172 phosphorylation of AMPK and dose-dependently increases its activity. In contrast, treatment of ROS 17/2.8 cells with compound C inhibited AMPK phosphorylation. Ghrelin and propranolol dose-dependently increased AMPK phosphorylation and activity. Cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity were not affected by metformin treatment while AICAR significantly inhibited ROS 17/2.8 cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity at high concentrations. To study the effect of AMPK activation on bone formation in vitro, primary osteoblasts obtained from rat calvaria were cultured for 14-17 days in the presence of AICAR, metformin and compound C. Formation of ‘trabecular-shaped’ bone nodules was evaluated following alizarin red staining. We demonstrated that both AICAR and metformin dose-dependently increase trabecular bone nodule formation, while compound C inhibits bone formation. When primary osteoblasts were co-treated with AICAR and compound C, compound C suppressed the stimulatory effect of AICAR on bone nodule formation. AMPK is a ??? heterotrimer, where ? is the catalytic subunit. RT-PCR analysis of AMPK subunits in ROS17/2.8 osteoblastic cells and in mouse tibia showed that the AMPK?1 subunit is the dominant isoform expressed in bone. We analysed the bone phenotype of 4 month-old male wild type (WT) and AMPK?1?/? KO mice using micro-CT. Both cortical and trabecular bone compartments were smaller in the AMPK ?1-deficient mice compared to the WT mice. Altogether, our data support a role for AMPK signalling in skeletal physiology.

Shah, M.; Kola, B.; Bataveljic, A.; Arnett, T.R.; Viollet, B.; Saxon, L.; Korbonits, M.; Chenu, C.

2013-01-01

86

?-catenin Promotes Bone Formation And Suppresses Bone Resorption in Postnatal Growing Mice  

PubMed Central

Genetic studies in the mouse have demonstrated multiple roles for ?-catenin in the skeleton. In the embryo, ?-catenin is critical for the early stages of osteoblast differentiation. Postnatally, ?-catenin in mature osteoblasts and osteocytes indirectly suppresses osteoclast differentiation. However, a direct role for ?-catenin in regulating osteoblast number and/or function specifically in the postnatal life has not been demonstrated. Addressing this knowledge gap is important because LRP5, a co-receptor for WNT signaling proposed to function through ?-catenin, controls osteoblast number and function in postnatal mice or humans. To overcome the neonatal lethality caused by embryonic deletion of ?-catenin in early-stage osteoblast-lineage cells, we utilize Osx-CreERT2 to remove ?-catenin in Osx-expressing cells by administering tamoxifen (TM) temporarily to postnatal mice. Lineage-tracing experiments in the long bones demonstrate that Osx-CreERT2 targets predominantly osteoblast-lineage cells on the bone surface, but also transient progenitors that contribute to bone marrow stromal cells and adipocytes. Deletion of ?-catenin by this strategy greatly reduces the bone formation activity of the targeted osteoblasts. However, the targeted osteoblasts rapidly turn over and are replaced by an excessive number of non-targeted osteoblasts, causing an unexpected increase in bone formation, but an even greater increase in osteoclast number and activity produces a net effect of severe osteopenia. With time, the mutant mice also exhibit a marked increase in bone marrow adiposity. Thus, ?-catenin in postnatal Osx-lineage cells critically regulates bone homeostasis by promoting osteoblast activity and suppressing osteoblast turnover, while restraining osteoclast and marrow fat formation.

Chen, Jianquan; Long, Fanxin

2012-01-01

87

[Osteoplastic pneumopathy (disseminated bone formation in the lung)].  

PubMed

8 cases of pneumophathia osteoplastica (ppo) of branching type observed at patients having no vascular deformities and one case of a focal ppo at a patient with mitral stenosis are reported. Pathogenesis of the ppo of branching type in the majority of cases could not be clarified since the process appeared to be in the phase of definitive bone formation. Nevertheless in one of the cases in a septum of Y shape in addition to collagen fibres ending in bone tissue numerous elastic fibres have also been revealed. This fact, considering the presence of a normal bronchus in the area seems to evidence vascular origin of the lesion. The latter hypothesis could be verified by the bone-formation in the media of a vessel wall in another case. Further, in a case of primary chronic polyarthritis with ppo, bone-formation could be seen in the perivascular lung tissue with necrotizing pulmonal arteritis. Considering this finding the possibility of the primary role of necrotizing pulmonal arthritis in the pathogenesis of ppo have to be taken into account. Ppo should be classified as one of the alveolocapillary block syndromes. In some cases it may have clinico-pathological significance. It may lead to bronchietasis, emphyseme or cor pulmonale chronicum. PMID:6790943

Baranyay, F

1981-01-01

88

BONE FORMATION INDUCED IN MOUSE THIGH BY CULTURED HUMAN CELLS  

PubMed Central

Cultured FL human amnion cells injected intramuscularly into cortisone-conditioned mice proliferate to form discrete nodules which become surrounded by fibroblasts. Within 12 days, fibroblastic zones differentiate into cartilage which calcifies to form bone. Experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that FL cells behave as an inductor of bone formation. In the electron microscope, FL cells were readily distinguished from surrounding fibroblasts. Transitional forms between the two cell types were not recognized. Stains for acid mucopolysaccharides emphasized the sharp boundary between metachromatic fibroblastic and cartilaginous zones and nonmetachromatic FL cells. 35S was taken up preferentially by fibroblasts and chondrocytes and then deposited extracellularly in a manner suggesting active secretion of sulfated mucopolysaccharides. FL cells showed negligible 35S utilization and secretion. FL cells, labeled in vitro with thymidine-3H, were injected and followed radioautographically, during bone formation. Nuclear label of injected FL cells did not appear in adjacent fibroblasts in quantities sufficient to indicate origin of the latter from FL cells. The minimal fibroblast nuclear labeling seen may represent reutilization of label from necrotic FL cells. It is suggested that FL cells injected into the mouse thigh induced cartilage and bone formation by host fibroblasts.

Anderson, H. Clarke; Coulter, P. R.

1967-01-01

89

Low-level mechanical vibrations can influence bone resorption and bone formation in the growing skeleton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short durations of extremely small magnitude, high-frequency, mechanical stimuli can promote anabolic activity in the adult skeleton. Here, it is determined if such signals can influence trabecular and cortical formative and resorptive activity in the growing skeleton, if the newly formed bone is of high quality, and if the insertion of rest periods during the loading phase would enhance the

Liqin Xie; Jeffrey M. Jacobson; Edna S. Choi; Bhavin Busa; Leah Rae Donahue; Lisa M. Miller; Clinton T. Rubin; Stefan Judex

2006-01-01

90

Porphyromonas gingivalis invades osteoblasts and inhibits bone formation.  

PubMed

Porphyromonas gingivalis is etiologically associated with adult periodontitis, but it is unclear how P. gingivalis long-term interactions with bone cells contribute to this disease. This study investigates P. gingivalis interactions with osteoblasts over an extended time course. A primary mouse calvarial osteoblast culture was established and inoculated with P. gingivalis 33277 repeatedly every other day for up to four weeks. Invasion of osteoblasts by P. gingivalis, and the resulting effects on the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblasts were evaluated. P. gingivalis was found to invade osteoblasts in a dose-dependent manner, and repetitive inoculation increased the percentage of osteoblasts with internalized P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis did not affect osteoblast proliferation, but inhibited their differentiation and mineralization, partially via an inhibition of the differentiation regulatory transcription factors Cbfa-1 and osterix. In conclusion, P. gingivalis invades osteoblasts and inhibits bone formation, which likely contributes to alveolar bone loss in chronic periodontitis. PMID:20538069

Zhang, Wenjian; Swearingen, Elizabeth B; Ju, Jun; Rigney, Todd; Tribble, Gena D

2010-10-01

91

The collagen component of biological bone graft substitutes promotes ectopic bone formation by human mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Synthetic bone substitutes are attractive materials for repairing a variety of bone defects. They are readily available in unlimited quantities, have a defined composition without batch variability and bear no risk of disease transmission. When combined with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), bone healing can be further enhanced due to the osteogenic potential of these cells. However, human MSCs showed considerable donor variability in ectopic bone formation assays on synthetic bone substitutes, which may limit clinical success. This study addresses whether bone formation variability of MSCs is cell-intrinsic or biomaterial-dependent and may be improved using biological bone substitutes with and without collagen. Ectopic bone formation of MSCs from nine donors was tested in immune-deficient mice on biological bone substitutes of bovine and equine origin, containing collagen (bHA-C; eHA-C) or not (bHA; eHA). Synthetic ?-TCP was used for comparison. Histology of 8-week explants demonstrated a significant influence of the bone graft substitute (BGS) on donor variability of ectopic bone formation with best results seen for eHA-C (15/17) and ?-TCP (16/18). Bone was of human origin in all groups according to species-specific in situ hybridization, but MSCs from one donor formed no bone with any bone substitute. According to histomorphometry, most neo-bone was formed on eHA-C with significant differences to bHA, eHA and ?-TCP (p<0.001). Collagen-free biological BGSs were inferior to biological BGSs with collagen (p<0.001), while species-origin was of little influence. In conclusion, BGS composition had a strong influence on ectopic bone formation ability of MSCs, and biological BGSs with a collagen component seem most promising to display the strong osteogenic potential of MSCs. PMID:23542556

Wagner-Ecker, Mechthild; Voltz, Pia; Egermann, Marcus; Richter, Wiltrud

2013-07-01

92

Postablation bone marrow regeneration: An in vivo model to study differential regulation of bone formation and resorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The postablation bone marrow regeneration model is an in vivo paradigm of synchronous bone formation and resorption restricted to a defined reference anatomical location. The blood clot that fills the medullary cavity immediately after removal is organized by replacement with primary cancellous bone. At the peak of the osteogenic phase almost the entire medullary cavity is filled with the trabecular

I. A. Bab

1995-01-01

93

Multi-protein delivery by nanodiamonds promotes bone formation.  

PubMed

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are well-studied regulators of cartilage and bone development that have been Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for the promotion of bone formation in certain procedures. BMPs are seeing more use in oral and maxillofacial surgeries because of recent FDA approval of InFUSE(®) for sinus augmentation and localized alveolar ridge augmentation. However, the utility of BMPs in medical and dental applications is limited by the delivery method. Currently, BMPs are delivered to the surgical site by the implantation of bulky collagen sponges. Here we evaluate the potential of detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) as a delivery vehicle for BMP-2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Nanodiamonds are biocompatible, 4- to 5-nm carbon nanoparticles that have previously been used to deliver a wide variety of molecules, including proteins and peptides. We find that both BMP-2 and bFGF are readily loaded onto NDs by physisorption, forming a stable colloidal solution, and are triggered to release in slightly acidic conditions. Simultaneous delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF by ND induces differentiation and proliferation in osteoblast progenitor cells. Overall, we find that NDs provide an effective injectable alternative for the delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF to promote bone formation. PMID:24045646

Moore, L; Gatica, M; Kim, H; Osawa, E; Ho, D

2013-11-01

94

Lamellar-in-lamellar structure of binary linear multiblock copolymers.  

PubMed

A theoretical description of the lamellar-in-lamellar self-assembly of binary A-b-(B-b-A)(m)-b-B-b-A multiblock copolymers in the strong segregation limit is presented. The essential difference between this binary multiblock system and the previously considered C-b-(B-b-A)(m)-b-B-b-C ternary multiblock copolymer system is discussed. Considering the situation with long end blocks, the free energy of the lamellar-in-lamellar self-assembled state is analyzed as a function of the number k of "thin" internal lamellar domains for different numbers m of repeating (B-b-A) units and different values of the Flory-Huggins chi(AB) interaction parameter. The theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. PMID:19044984

Klymko, T; Subbotin, A; Ten Brinke, G

2008-09-21

95

Pattern evolution of an edge-dislocation array in a lyotropic lamellar phase confined in a wedge-shaped cell: Defect formation, relaxation, and recombination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a system undergoes a first-order phase transition from a disordered to an ordered state, the local energy is first minimized. This local energy minimization often prevents a system from reaching the global energy minimum state and leads to trapping in an imperfectly ordered state with many defects. In soft matter, however, a system can further relax to the global energy minimum state via slow relaxation due to its softness and fluidity. We study this relaxation process, using a lyotropic lamellar phase in a wedge-shaped cell as a model system. A lyotropic smectic liquid crystal has a large repeat unit (here, an interlayer spacing d ) up to ˜0.1?m , and thus the motion of an individual edge dislocation in the lamellar phase can be directly observed with optical microscopy. Furthermore, a rather macroscopic spatial confinement (size h ) can produce strong confinement effects, since d/h can still be large due to the largeness of d . These properties allow us to study the detailed kinetics of the relaxation process. We follow the time evolution of an edge dislocation array over 100 h from its initial stage. We reveal that the pattern evolution of an edge-dislocation array is the relaxation process of excess dislocation lines that formed initially toward the equilibrium configuration, and it is characterized by the motion of “nodes” of the topologically connected edge-dislocation network. We clarify the elementary process of this relaxation from a local to the global energy minimum state.

Iwashita, Yasutaka; Tanaka, Hajime

2008-04-01

96

Abdominal Fat Is Associated With Lower Bone Formation and Inferior Bone Quality in Healthy Premenopausal Women: A Transiliac Bone Biopsy Study  

PubMed Central

Context: The conventional view that obesity is beneficial for bone strength has recently been challenged by studies that link obesity, particularly visceral obesity, to low bone mass and fractures. It is controversial whether effects of obesity on bone are mediated by increased bone resorption or decreased bone formation. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate bone microarchitecture and remodeling in healthy premenopausal women of varying weights. Design: We measured bone density and trunk fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 40 women and by computed tomography in a subset. Bone microarchitecture, stiffness, remodeling, and marrow fat were assessed in labeled transiliac bone biopsies. Results: Body mass index (BMI) ranged from 20.1 to 39.2 kg/m2. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-trunk fat was directly associated with BMI (r = 0.78, P < .001) and visceral fat by computed tomography (r = 0.79, P < .001). Compared with women in the lowest tertile of trunk fat, those in the highest tertile had inferior bone quality: lower trabecular bone volume (20.4 ± 5.8 vs 29.1 ± 6.1%; P = .001) and stiffness (433 ± 264 vs 782 ± 349 MPa; P = .01) and higher cortical porosity (8.8 ± 3.5 vs 6.3 ± 2.4%; P = .049). Bone formation rate (0.004 ± 0.002 vs 0.011 ± 0.008 mm2/mm · year; P = .006) was 64% lower in the highest tertile. Trunk fat was inversely associated with trabecular bone volume (r = ?0.50; P < .01) and bone formation rate (r = ?0.50; P < .001). The relationship between trunk fat and bone volume remained significant after controlling for age and BMI. Conclusions: At the tissue level, premenopausal women with more central adiposity had inferior bone quality and stiffness and markedly lower bone formation. Given the rising levels of obesity, these observations require further investigation.

Dempster, David W.; Recker, Robert R.; Lappe, Joan M.; Zhou, Hua; Zwahlen, Alexander; Muller, Ralph; Zhao, Binsheng; Guo, Xiaotao; Lang, Thomas; Saeed, Isra; Liu, X. Sherry; Guo, X. Edward; Cremers, Serge; Rosen, Clifford J.; Stein, Emily M.; Nickolas, Thomas L.; McMahon, Donald J.; Young, Polly; Shane, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

97

Transgenic overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 11 propeptide in skeleton enhances bone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP11) is a key regulatory protein in skeletal development. BMP11 propeptide has been shown to antagonize GDF11 activity in vitro. To explore the role of BMP11 propeptide in skeletal formation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice with skeleton-specific overexpression of BMP11 propeptide cDNA. The mice showed a transformation of the seventh cervical vertebra into a thoracic

Zicong Li; Fang Zeng; Alva Mitchell; Yong Soo Kim; Zhenfang Wu; Jinzeng Yang

98

Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on bone formation and bone loss during limb lengthening  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on bone formation and disuse osteoporosis sustained during limb lengthening in a double-blind study. Seven males (mean age 13 years, range 11–19 years) and six females (mean age 12 years, range 9–19 years) were randomly allocated to receive either an active or an inactive PEMF coil. Limb lengthening was performed by

K. S. Eyres; M. Saleh; J. A. Kanis

1996-01-01

99

Chinese red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus-fermented rice) promotes bone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Statin can induce the gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2. Red yeast rice (RYR, Hongqu), i.e. rice fermented with Monascus purpureus, contains a natural form of statin. This study demonstrates the effects of RYR extract on bone formation. METHODS: Bone defects were created in the parietal bones of two New Zealand white rabbits. In the test animal, two defects

Ricky WK Wong; Bakr Rabie

2008-01-01

100

Parathyroid hormone may maintain bone formation in hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) to prevent disuse osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical unloading of bone causes an imbalance in bone formation and resorption leading to bone loss and increased fracture risk. Black bears (Ursus americanus) are inactive for up to six months during hibernation, yet bone mineral content and strength do not decrease with disuse or aging. To test whether hibernating bears have biological mechanisms to prevent disuse osteoporosis, we measured

Seth W. Donahue; Sarah A. Galley; Michael R. Vaughan; Patricia Patterson-Buckendahl; Laurence M. Demers; Josef L. Vance; Meghan E. McGee

2006-01-01

101

The stimulation of bone formation in vitro by therapeutic ultrasound.  

PubMed

A controlled study was performed to evaluate the effects of different ultrasound (US) intensities on 5-day-old mouse calvaria bone in tissue culture. A special technique to apply the US was developed, and the following parameters were measured: collagen and noncollagenous protein (NCP) synthesis (bone formation), and temperature change. It was found that ultrasound at 0.1 W/cm2 (SATA), pulsed 1:4, 3 MHz, 5 min, significantly stimulates bone formation (i.e., the synthesis of collagen and NCP) (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01). However, pulsed ultrasound at higher doses (1.0-2.0 W/cm2 (SATA), pulsed 1:4, 3 MHz, 5 min) significantly inhibited the synthesis of both collagen and NCP (p < 0.05). The temperature measurements showed a maximum rise of 1.8 degrees C [at 2.0 W/cm2 (SATA)] and no detected rise at 0.1 W/cm2 (SATA), suggesting that the effects in this study were primarily nonthermal. These results may reflect the healing effect of US on fractures and osteoradionecrosis and reinforces the use of low intensity US regimens [0.1 W/cm2 (SATA)] in clinical practice. PMID:9372573

Reher, P; Elbeshir el-NI; Harvey, W; Meghji, S; Harris, M

1997-01-01

102

Local treatment of a bone graft by soaking in zoledronic acid inhibits bone resorption and bone formation. A bone chamber study in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Bone grafts are frequently used in orthopaedic surgery. Graft remodelling is advantageous but can occur too quickly, and premature bone resorption might lead to decreased mechanical integrity of the graft. Bisphosphonates delay osteoclastic bone resorption but may also impair formation of new bone. We hypothesize that these effects are dose dependent. In the present study we evaluate different ways of applying bisphosphonates locally to the graft in a bone chamber model, and compare that with systemic treatment. Methods Cancellous bone grafts were placed in titanium chambers and implanted in the tibia of 50 male rats, randomly divided into five groups. The first group served as negative control and the grafts were rinsed in saline before implantation. In the second and third groups, the grafts were soaked in a zoledronic acid solution (0.5 mg/ml) for 5 seconds and 10 minutes respectively before being rinsed in saline. In the fourth group, 8 ?L of zoledronic acid solution (0.5 mg/ml) was pipetted onto the freeze-dried grafts without rinsing. The fifth group served as positive control and the rats were given zoledronic acid (0.1 mg/kg) systemically as a single injection two weeks after surgery. The grafts were harvested at 6 weeks and analysed with histomorphometry, evaluating the ingrowth distance of new bone into the graft as an equivalent to the anabolic osteoblast effect and the amount (bone volume/total volume; BV/TV) of remaining bone in the remodelled graft as equivalent to the catabolic osteoclast effect. Results In all chambers, almost the entire graft had been revascularized but only partly remodelled at harvest. The ingrowth distance of new bone into the graft was lower in grafts soaked in zoledronic acid for 10 minutes compared to control (p = 0.007). In all groups receiving zoledronic acid, the BV/TV was higher compared to control. Conclusions This study found a strong inhibitory effect on bone resorption by bisphosphonates but also a limited inhibition of the ingrowth of new bone. Local treatment at surgery resulted in stronger inhibition of both resorption and bone formation compared to systemic treatment.

2012-01-01

103

Histopathological Assessment of Fibrosis and New Bone Formation in Implanted Human Temporal Bones Using 3D-Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate new bone formation and fibrosis in implanted human temporal bones and relate that to neurosensory elements preservation. STUDY DESIGN Human temporal bone histopathology study. SETTING Temporal bone laboratory. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Ten human temporal bones from eight patients with multichannel cochlear implants and one single-electrode implant were examined under light microscopy and reconstructed using AMIRA 4.1 3D reconstruction software. Volumes of new bone formation, fibrosis and patent area were calculated in each bone. RESULTS The amount of fibrosis and new bone formation postimplantation varied among bones. There were no statistically significant relationships between age at implantation or duration of implantation and the overall amount of new tissue in the implanted ear. There was a relationship between total amount of new tissue and preservation of neurosensory elements only in Segment I of the cochlea (Rho=?.75, p?.013). Most of the new tissue was located in segments I and II, while segment III had little to no new tissue formation and segment IV was clear in all of the subjects. CONCLUSION New tissue formation postimplantation was related to preservation of neurosensory elements primarily in segment I of the cochlea. In an era of hearing preservation surgery and hybrid cochlear implants, soft surgical techniques are advocated as a means to decrease surgical trauma.

Fayad, Jose N.; Makarem, Andres O.; Linthicum, Fred H.

2009-01-01

104

Dissociation of Bone Resorption and Bone Formation in Adult Mice with a Non-Functional V-ATPase in Osteoclasts Leads to Increased Bone Strength  

PubMed Central

Osteopetrosis caused by defective acid secretion by the osteoclast, is characterized by defective bone resorption, increased osteoclast numbers, while bone formation is normal or increased. In contrast the bones are of poor quality, despite this uncoupling of formation from resorption. To shed light on the effect of uncoupling in adult mice with respect to bone strength, we transplanted irradiated three-month old normal mice with hematopoietic stem cells from control or oc/oc mice, which have defective acid secretion, and followed them for 12 to 28 weeks. Engraftment levels were assessed by flow cytometry of peripheral blood. Serum samples were collected every six weeks for measurement of bone turnover markers. At termination bones were collected for µCT and mechanical testing. An engraftment level of 98% was obtained. From week 6 until termination bone resorption was significantly reduced, while the osteoclast number was increased when comparing oc/oc to controls. Bone formation was elevated at week 6, normalized at week 12, and reduced onwards. µCT and mechanical analyses of femurs and vertebrae showed increased bone volume and bone strength of cortical and trabecular bone. In conclusion, these data show that attenuation of acid secretion in adult mice leads to uncoupling and improves bone strength.

Henriksen, Kim; Flores, Carmen; Thomsen, Jesper S.; Bruel, Anne-Marie; Thudium, Christian S.; Neutzsky-Wulff, Anita V.; Langenbach, Geerling E. J.; Sims, Natalie; Askmyr, Maria; Martin, Thomas J.; Everts, Vincent; Karsdal, Morten A.; Richter, Johan

2011-01-01

105

Ectopic bone formation associated with mesenchymal stem cells in a resorbable calcium deficient hydroxyapatite carrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone substitute materials can induce bone formation in combination with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). The aim of the current study was to examine ectopic in vivo bone formation with and without MSC on a new resorbable ceramic, called calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA). Ceramic blocks characterized by a large surface (48m2\\/g) were compared with ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP), hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics (both

Philip Kasten; Julia Vogel; Reto Luginbühl; Philip Niemeyer; Marcus Tonak; Helga Lorenz; Lars Helbig; Stefan Weiss; Jörg Fellenberg; Albrecht Leo; Hans-Georg Simank; Wiltrud Richter

2005-01-01

106

Identification of Mechanosensitive Genes during Embryonic Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

Although it is known that mechanical forces are needed for normal bone development, the current understanding of how biophysical stimuli are interpreted by and integrated with genetic regulatory mechanisms is limited. Mechanical forces are thought to be mediated in cells by “mechanosensitive” genes, but it is a challenge to demonstrate that the genetic regulation of the biological system is dependant on particular mechanical forces in vivo. We propose a new means of selecting candidate mechanosensitive genes by comparing in vivo gene expression patterns with patterns of biophysical stimuli, computed using finite element analysis. In this study, finite element analyses of the avian embryonic limb were performed using anatomically realistic rudiment and muscle morphologies, and patterns of biophysical stimuli were compared with the expression patterns of four candidate mechanosensitive genes integral to bone development. The expression patterns of two genes, Collagen X (ColX) and Indian hedgehog (Ihh), were shown to colocalise with biophysical stimuli induced by embryonic muscle contractions, identifying them as potentially being involved in the mechanoregulation of bone formation. An altered mechanical environment was induced in the embryonic chick, where a neuromuscular blocking agent was administered in ovo to modify skeletal muscle contractions. Finite element analyses predicted dramatic changes in levels and patterns of biophysical stimuli, and a number of immobilised specimens exhibited differences in ColX and Ihh expression. The results obtained indicate that computationally derived patterns of biophysical stimuli can be used to inform a directed search for genes that may play a mechanoregulatory role in particular in vivo events or processes. Furthermore, the experimental data demonstrate that ColX and Ihh are involved in mechanoregulatory pathways and may be key mediators in translating information from the mechanical environment to the molecular regulation of bone formation in the embryo.

Nowlan, Niamh C.; Prendergast, Patrick J.; Murphy, Paula

2008-01-01

107

Vaccination with DKK1-derived Peptides Promotes Bone Formation and Bone Mass in an Aged Mouse Osteoporosis Model.  

PubMed

The investigation of agents for the treatment of osteoporosis has been a long-standing effort. The Wnt pathway plays an important role in bone formation and regeneration, and expression of Wnt pathway inhibitors, Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), appears to be associated with changes in bone mass. Inactivation of DKK1 leads to substantially increased bone mass in genetically manipulated animals. DKK1-derived peptides (DDPs) were added to BMP2-stimulated MC3T3-E1 preosteoblastic cells in vitro to evaluate inhibitory activity of DDPs in MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation. Study was extended in vivo on old female mice to show whether or not inhibition of endogenous DKK1 biological activity using DDPs vaccination approach leads to increase of bone formation, bone density, and improvement of bone microstructure. We reported that synthetic DDPs were able to reduce alkaline phosphatase activity, prevent mineralization and inhibit the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro. Furthermore, vaccination with these DDPs in aged female mice 4 times for a total period of 22 weeks promoted bone mass and bone microstructure. 3D microCT and histomorphometric analysis showed that there were significant increase in bone mineral densities, improvement of bone microstructure and promotion of bone formation in the vaccinated mice, especially in the mice vaccinated with DDP-A and DDP-C. Histological and scanning electron microscopy image analysis also indicated that vaccination increased trabecular bone mass and significantly decreased fragmentation of bone fibers. Taken together, these preclinical results suggest that vaccination with DDPs represents a promising new therapeutic approach for the treatment of bone-related disorders, such as osteoporosis. PMID:24907907

Wu, Qiong; Li, Rui-Shu; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Zhi-Xia; Tang, Yan-Chun; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Jian-Ning; Tan, Xiang-Yang

2014-08-01

108

Genetics Home Reference: Lamellar ichthyosis  

MedlinePLUS

... skin. Affected individuals may also have hair loss (alopecia), a decreased ability to sweat (hypohidrosis), and a ... What glossary definitions help with understanding lamellar ichthyosis? alopecia ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; cell ; chromosome ; dehydration ; epidermis ; erythema ; ...

109

Local delivery of rolipram, a phosphodiesterase-4-specific inhibitor, augments bone morphogenetic protein-induced bone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) is a promising therapeutic cytokine for the induction of bone formation,\\u000a but a weak response in humans remains a major hurdle in its therapeutic application. We have previously reported an rhBMP-2-induced\\u000a increase in the bone mass of mice receiving systemic rolipram, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-4. To overcome the\\u000a side effects of systemic administration

Yoshio Tokuhara; Shigeyuki Wakitani; Yuuki Imai; Chizumi Nomura; Masatoshi Hoshino; Koichi Yano; Susumu Taguchi; Mitsunari Kim; Yoshinori Kadoya; Kunio Takaoka

2010-01-01

110

A prostanoid receptor EP4 agonist enhances ectopic bone formation induced by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anabolic effects of prostaglandin E2 on bone are effected through the activation of EP4, a G protein-coupled receptor. In the present study, we examined the effects of a prostanoid receptor-selective agonist (ONO-4819) in an experimental system of ectopic bone formation using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). Collagen pellets containing rhBMP-2 were implanted onto the back muscles of mice

Ryuichi Sasaoka; Hidetomi Terai; Hiromitsu Toyoda; Yuuki Imai; Ryo Sugama; Kunio Takaoka

2004-01-01

111

Bone morphogenetic protein 2 and retinoic acid accelerate in vivo bone formation, osteoclast recruitment, and bone turnover.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of craniofacial defects presents a substantial biomedical burden, and requires complex surgery. Interestingly, children after age 2 years and adults are unable to heal large skull defects. This nonhealing paradigm provides an excellent model system for craniofacial skeletal tissueengineering strategies. Previous studies have documented the in vivo osteogenic potential of adipose-derived stromal (ADS) cells and bone marrow-derived stromal (BMS) cells. This study investigates the ability to accelerate in vivo osteogenesis on ex vivo recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and retinoic acid stimulation. Mouse osteoblasts, ADS cells, and BMS cells were seeded onto apatite-coated PLGA scaffolds, stimulated with rhBMP-2 and retinoic acid ex vivo for 4 weeks, and subsequently implanted into critically sized (4 mm) calvarial defects. Samples were harvested after 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Areas of complete bony bridging were noted as early as 2 weeks in vivo; however, osteoclasts were attracted to the scaffold as identified by calcitonin receptor staining and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity staining. Although the optimal method of in vitro osteogenic priming for mesenchymal cells remains unknown, these results provide evidence that BMP-2 and retinoic acid stimulation of multipotent cells ex vivo can subsequently induce significant quantities of bone formation within a short time period in vivo. PMID:15869441

Cowan, Catherine M; Aalami, Oliver O; Shi, Yun-Ying; Chou, Yu-Fen; Mari, Carina; Thomas, Romy; Quarto, Natalin; Nacamuli, Randall P; Contag, Christopher H; Wu, Benjamin; Longaker, Michael T

2005-01-01

112

Effect of nickel–titanium shape memory metal alloy on bone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the biocompatibility of NiTi alloy on bone formation in vivo. For this purpose we used ectopic bone formation assay which goes through all the events of bone formation and calcification. Comparisons were made between Nitinol (NiTi), stainless steel (Stst) and titanium–aluminium (6%)–vanadium (4%) alloy (Ti–6Al–4V), which were implanted for 8 weeks under

Anita Kapanen; Jorma Ryhänen; Anatoli Danilov; Juha Tuukkanen

2001-01-01

113

TSH Prevents Bone Resorption and with Calcitriol Synergistically Stimulates Bone Formation in Rats with Low Levels of Calciotropic Hormones.  

PubMed

Thyroid-stimulating hormone exerts both antiresorptive and anabolic effects on bone remodeling in aged ovariectomized rats and thyroid stimulating hormone-receptor null mice, supported by clinical results demonstrating that low thyroid-stimulating hormone level is associated with increased bone loss. To further explore the effect of thyroid-stimulating hormone on bone metabolism we introduced here a rat model with removed thyroid and parathyroid glands to obtain low serum concentrations of thyroid and parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and 1,25(OH)2D3. Surgery resulted in hypocalcemia, low parathyroid and thyroid hormone, 1,25(OH)2D3, C-telopeptide, and osteocalcin serum level. Intermittent administration of thyroid-stimulating hormone resulted in a further decrease of serum calcium and decreased level of serum C-telopeptide due to the suppression of bone resorption, while in the same animals osteocalcin in serum was higher indicating an increased bone formation rate. A combination of thyroid-stimulating hormone and 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly increased the serum Ca2+, C-telopeptide and serum osteocalcin values. MicroCT analyses of the distal femur and proximal tibia showed that rats treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 alone or in a combination with thyroid-stimulating hormone had an increased trabecular bone volume, and enhanced trabecular bone quality. Biomechanical testing of the trabecular bone showed an increased maximal load for 105% and 235%, respectively, in rats treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 alone, or in a combination with thyroid-stimulating hormone. We suggest that thyroid-stimulating hormone independently of calciotropic hormones suppressed bone resorption and stimulated bone formation, while in combination with 1,25(OH)2D3 acted synergistically on bone formation resulting in an increased bone volume. PMID:24446158

Dumic-Cule, I; Draca, N; Luetic, A T; Jezek, D; Rogic, D; Grgurevic, L; Vukicevic, S

2014-05-01

114

Bone Formation in a Rat Tibial Defect Model Using Carboxymethyl Cellulose/BioC/Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 Hybrid Materials  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to assess whether carboxymethyl cellulose- (CMC-) based hydrogel containing BioC (biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP); tricalcium phosphate (TCP)?:?hydroxyapatite (Hap) = 70?:?30) and bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) led to greater bone formation than CMC-based hydrogel containing BioC without BMP-2. In order to demonstrate bone formation at 4 and 8 weeks, plain radiographs, microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) evaluation, and histological studies were performed after implantation of all hybrid materials on an 8?mm defect of the right tibia in rats. The plain radiographs and micro-CT analyses revealed that CMC/BioC/BMP-2 (0.5?mg) led to much greater mineralization at 4 and 8 weeks than did CMC/BioC or CMC/Bio/BMP-2 (0.1?mg). Likewise, bone formation and bone remodeling studies revealed that CMC/BioC/BMP-2 (0.5?mg) led to a significantly greater amount of bone formation and bone remodeling at 4 and 8 weeks than did CMC/BioC or CMC/BioC/BMP-2 (0.1?mg). Histological studies revealed that mineralized bone tissue was present around the whole circumference of the defect site with CMC/BioC/BMP-2 (0.5?mg) but not with CMC/BioC or CMC/BioC/BMP-2 (0.1?mg) at 4 and 8 weeks. These results suggest that CMC/BioC/BMP-2 hybrid materials induced greater bone formation than CMC/BioC hybrid materials. Thus, CMC/BioC/BMP-2 hybrid materials may be used as an injectable substrate to regenerate bone defects.

Kim, Hak-Jun; Park, Kyeongsoon; Kim, Sung Eun; Song, Hae-Ryong

2014-01-01

115

Local bone formation by injection of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 contained in polymer carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regenerating potential of human bone is limited. The repair of large bone defects often associated with bone tumor resections is not observed, and nonunion or delayed union of bone is a serious problem for fracture treatment. In these cases, autogeneic or allogeneic bone grafting has been routinely indicated, but these approaches require invasive surgical procedures. An alternative approach described

N Saito; T Okada; H Horiuchi; H Ota; J Takahashi; N Murakami; M Nawata; S Kojima; K Nozaki; K Takaoka

2003-01-01

116

In vitro bone formation using muscle-derived cells: a new paradigm for bone tissue engineering using polymer–bone morphogenetic protein matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 800,000 bone grafting procedures are performed in the United States annually, creating a demand for viable alternatives to autogenous bone, the grafting standard in osseous repair. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of a BMP-polymer matrix in inducing the expression of the osteoblastic phenotype and in vitro bone formation by muscle-derived cells. Specifically, we evaluated

Helen H. Lu; Michelle D. Kofron; Saadiq F. El-Amin; Mohammed A. Attawia; Cato T. Laurencinb

2003-01-01

117

Carbon nanotubes functionalized with fibroblast growth factor accelerate proliferation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells and bone formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and the advantages of their use as scaffolds for bone augmentation were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The activity of FGF was assessed by measuring the effect on the proliferation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (RBMSCs). The presence of FGF enhanced the proliferation of RBMSCs and the FGF covalently conjugated to the nanotubes (FGF-CNT) showed the same effect as FGF alone. In addition, FGF-CNT coated sponges were implanted between the parietal bone and the periosteum of rats and the formation of new bone was investigated. At day 14 after implantation, a larger amount of newly formed bone was clearly observed in most pores of FGF-CNT coated sponges. These findings indicated that MWCNTs accelerated new bone formation in response to FGF, as well as the integration of particles into new bone during its formation. Scaffolds coated with FGF-CNT could be considered as promising novel substituting materials for bone regeneration in future tissue engineering applications.

Hirata, Eri; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Venturelli, Enrica; Takita, Hiroko; Watari, Fumio; Bianco, Alberto; Yokoyama, Atsuro

2013-11-01

118

Effect of testosterone therapy on bone formation in an osteoporotic hypogonadal male  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Osteoporosis has been reported to complicate androgen deficiency in males. Accordingly, we have evaluated an osteoporotic hypogonadal male with bone histomorphometry before and after 6 months of testosterone replacement. Androgen therapy resulted in increases in relative osteoid volum, total osteoid surface, linear extent of bone formation, and bone mineralization. The dramatic histological response to hormonal replacement confirms the importance

Daniel T. Baran; Michele A. Bergfeld; Steven L. Teitelbaum; Louis V. Avioli

1978-01-01

119

Lrp5 controls bone formation by inhibiting serotonin synthesis in the duodenum.  

PubMed

Loss- and gain-of-function mutations in the broadly expressed gene Lrp5 affect bone formation, causing osteoporosis and high bone mass, respectively. Although Lrp5 is viewed as a Wnt coreceptor, osteoblast-specific disruption of beta-Catenin does not affect bone formation. Instead, we show here that Lrp5 inhibits expression of Tph1, the rate-limiting biosynthetic enzyme for serotonin in enterochromaffin cells of the duodenum. Accordingly, decreasing serotonin blood levels normalizes bone formation and bone mass in Lrp5-deficient mice, and gut- but not osteoblast-specific Lrp5 inactivation decreases bone formation in a beta-Catenin-independent manner. Moreover, gut-specific activation of Lrp5, or inactivation of Tph1, increases bone mass and prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Serotonin acts on osteoblasts through the Htr1b receptor and CREB to inhibit their proliferation. By identifying duodenum-derived serotonin as a hormone inhibiting bone formation in an Lrp5-dependent manner, this study broadens our understanding of bone remodeling and suggests potential therapies to increase bone mass. PMID:19041748

Yadav, Vijay K; Ryu, Je-Hwang; Suda, Nina; Tanaka, Kenji F; Gingrich, Jay A; Schütz, Günther; Glorieux, Francis H; Chiang, Cherie Y; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Insogna, Karl L; Mann, J John; Hen, Rene; Ducy, Patricia; Karsenty, Gerard

2008-11-28

120

Functionalized silk-based biomaterials for bone formation.  

PubMed

Silks are being reassessed as biomaterial scaffolds due to their unique mechanical properties, opportunities for genetic tailoring of structure and thus function, and recent studies clarifying biocompatibility. We report on the covalent decoration of silk films with integrin recognition sequences (RGD) as well as parathyroid hormone (PTH, 1-34 amino acids) and a modified PTH 1-34 (mPTH) involved in the induction of bone formation. Osteoblast-like cell (Saos-2) responses to the decorated silk films indicate that the proteins serve as suitable bone-inducing matrices. Osteoblast-like cell adhesion was significantly increased on RGD and PTH compared to plastic, mPTH, and the control peptide RAD. At 2 weeks of culture, message levels of alkaline phosphatase were similar on all substrates, but by 4 weeks, alkaline phosphatase mRNA was greatest on RGD. At 2 weeks of culture, alpha 1(I) procollagen mRNA was elevated on silk, RGD, RAD, and PTH, and hardly detectable on mPTH and plastic. However, by 4 weeks RGD demonstrated the highest level compared to the other substrates. Osteocalcin message levels detected by RT-PCR were greatest on RGD at both time points. Calcification was also significantly elevated on RGD compared to the other substrates with an increase in number and size of the mineralized nodules in culture. Thus, RGD covalently decorated silk appears to stimulate osteoblast-based mineralization in vitro. PMID:11077413

Sofia, S; McCarthy, M B; Gronowicz, G; Kaplan, D L

2001-01-01

121

Type XII collagen regulates osteoblast polarity and communication during bone formation  

PubMed Central

Differentiated osteoblasts are polarized in regions of bone deposition, demonstrate extensive cell interaction and communication, and are responsible for bone formation and quality. Type XII collagen is a fibril-associated collagen with interrupted triple helices and has been implicated in the osteoblast response to mechanical forces. Type XII collagen is expressed by osteoblasts and localizes to areas of bone formation. A transgenic mouse null for type XII collagen exhibits skeletal abnormalities including shorter, more slender long bones with decreased mechanical strength as well as altered vertebrae structure compared with wild-type mice. Col12a?/? osteoblasts have decreased bone matrix deposition with delayed maturation indicated by decreased bone matrix protein expression. Compared with controls, Col12a?/? osteoblasts are disorganized and less polarized with disrupted cell–cell interactions, decreased connexin43 expression, and impaired gap junction function. The data demonstrate important regulatory roles for type XII collagen in osteoblast differentiation and bone matrix formation.

Izu, Yayoi; Sun, Mei; Zwolanek, Daniela; Veit, Guido; Williams, Valerie; Cha, Byeong; Jepsen, Karl J.; Koch, Manuel

2011-01-01

122

Expression of PGK1 By Prostate Cancer Cells Induces Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the solid tumors that metastasize to the bone. Once there, the phenotype of the bone lesions becomes depends upon the balance between osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. We previously reported that over-expression of phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) in PCa cell lines enhanced bone formation at the metastatic site in vivo. Here, the role of PGK1 in the bone formation was further explored. We demonstrate that PCa-derived PGK1 induces osteoblastic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells. We also found that PGK1 secreted by PCa inhibits osteoclastogenesis. Finally, the expression levels of the bone specific markers in PCa cell themselves were higher in cells over expressing PGK1 than controls. Together, these data suggest that PGK1 secreted by PCa regulates bone formation at the metastatic site by increasing osteoblastic activity, decreasing osteoclastic function, and expressing an osteoblastic phenotype by PCa themselves.

Jung, Younghun; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Jingcheng; Wang, Zhuo; Pedersen, Elisabeth A.; Lee, Clara H.; Hall, Christopher L.; Hogg, Phillip J.; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Keller, Evan T.; Taichman, Russell S.

2009-01-01

123

Alginate hydrogels containing cell-interactive beads for bone formation.  

PubMed

Alginate hydrogels containing cell-instructive cues are the subject of intense interest for their use as cell carriers in bone tissue engineering. Peptides and proteins are chemically grafted onto these hydrophilic materials to facilitate adhesion and direct phenotype of entrapped cells. However, the presentation of a single or small number of peptides does not represent the complexity of the native extracellular matrix (ECM) of bony tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete ECM that can be harvested and deposited on various substrata to promote osteogenic differentiation. In this study, we hypothesized that the presentation of engineered cell-secreted ECM on microbeads suspended in alginate hydrogels would promote cell adhesion and enhance osteogenic differentiation of undifferentiated MSCs without chemical incorporation of cell-adhesive peptides. Human MSCs entrapped in alginate hydrogels loaded with ECM-coated beads showed increased interaction with beads, when compared with cells suspended in hydrogels containing uncoated blank (BLK) beads. MSCs entrapped in ECM gels exhibited increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and expression of osteogenic genes in vitro compared with hydrogels modified with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-containing peptides. Transplantation of MSCs into an ectopic site resulted in significant increases in blood vessel density for ECM hydrogels when compared with the BLK or RGD gels. Furthermore, we observed comparable levels of bone formation at 6 wk with ECM and RGD hydrogels. These findings demonstrate that engineered ECM can be deployed in a minimally invasive manner to direct the formation of bony tissue. This strategy may provide an alternative to the engraftment of proteins or peptides onto the polymer backbone of hydrogels for directing cellular behavior. PMID:24005905

Bhat, Archana; Hoch, Allison I; Decaris, Martin L; Leach, J Kent

2013-12-01

124

Effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 on bone formation in alveolar ridge defects in dogs.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) combined with poly D, L lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)/gelatin sponge complex (PGS) on the formation of bone in critically sized marginal defects of the mandible in dogs. Three months after extraction of the pre-molar teeth, rectangular bone defects (10 x 8 x 7 mm) were made in both sides of the mandible. A PGS block soaked in rhBMP-2 (400 microgram/ml) was implanted into one defect (BMP (+) group). As control, an untreated PGS block was implanted into the contralateral defect (BMP (-) group). 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after implantation, the defects were examined. In the BMP (+) group, newly formed bone was found in all defects from 4 weeks onward and was marked at 12 weeks. In contrast, the BMP (-) group showed no appreciable new bone formation, even at 12 weeks. Moreover, density of newly formed bone in the BMP (+) group was similar to that of the surrounding cortical bone at 12 weeks. These findings suggest that rhBMP-2/PGS is an effective bone substitute for reconstructive surgery of the dog mandible. PMID:11936403

Nagao, H; Tachikawa, N; Miki, T; Oda, M; Mori, M; Takahashi, K; Enomoto, S

2002-02-01

125

Estrogen receptor-? in osteocytes is important for trabecular bone formation in male mice  

PubMed Central

The bone-sparing effect of estrogen in both males and females is primarily mediated via estrogen receptor-? (ER?), encoded by the Esr1 gene. ER? in osteoclasts is crucial for the trabecular bone-sparing effect of estrogen in females, but it is dispensable for trabecular bone in male mice and for cortical bone in both genders. We hypothesized that ER? in osteocytes is important for trabecular bone in male mice and for cortical bone in both males and females. Dmp1-Cre mice were crossed with ER?flox/flox mice to generate mice lacking ER? protein expression specifically in osteocytes (Dmp1-ER??/?). Male Dmp1-ER??/? mice displayed a substantial reduction in trabecular bone volume (?20%, P < 0.01) compared with controls. Dynamic histomorphometry revealed reduced bone formation rate (?45%, P < 0.01) but the number of osteoclasts per bone surface was unaffected in the male Dmp1-ER??/? mice. The male Dmp1-ER??/? mice had reduced expression of several osteoblast/osteocyte markers in bone, including Runx2, Sp7, and Dmp1 (P < 0.05). Gonadal intact Dmp1-ER??/? female mice had no significant reduction in trabecular bone volume but ovariectomized Dmp1-ER??/? female mice displayed an attenuated trabecular bone response to supraphysiological E2 treatment. Dmp1-ER??/? mice of both genders had unaffected cortical bone. In conclusion, ER? in osteocytes regulates trabecular bone formation and thereby trabecular bone volume in male mice but it is dispensable for the trabecular bone in female mice and the cortical bone in both genders. We propose that the physiological trabecular bone-sparing effect of estrogen is mediated via ER? in osteocytes in males, but via ER? in osteoclasts in females.

Windahl, Sara H.; Borjesson, Anna E.; Farman, Helen H.; Engdahl, Cecilia; Moverare-Skrtic, Sofia; Sjogren, Klara; Lagerquist, Marie K.; Kindblom, Jenny M.; Koskela, Antti; Tuukkanen, Juha; Divieti Pajevic, Paola; Feng, Jian Q.; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Antonson, Per; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Ohlsson, Claes

2013-01-01

126

Spontaneous release of interleukin 1 from human blood monocytes reflects bone formation in idiopathic osteoporosis.  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a state of reduced skeletal mass characterized by various rates of bone remodeling. Multiple locally elaborated factors have been identified that appear to influence the cellular events in bone remodeling. The possible role(s) of these factors in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis is unknown. One such factor, interleukin 1 (IL-1), is of particular interest, as this protein is known to stimulate bone resorption and perhaps formation. Consequently, we have measured the spontaneous secretion of IL-1 activity by cultured peripheral blood monocytes obtained from 22 osteoporotic patients and 14 age-matched control subjects. Monocytes from osteoporotic patients produced more IL-1 than did monocytes from control subjects. When patients were grouped according to monocyte-produced IL-1 activity, dynamic parameters of bone formation, as judged by quantitative histomorphometric analysis of iliac crest bone biopsies and by circulating levels of bone 4-carboxyglutamic acid protein (BGP)--a marker of bone formation--were higher in subjects with elevated IL-1 activity; whereas, indices of bone resorption and static indices of bone formation were similar in subjects with either high or normal IL-1 activity. IL-1 activity released by peripheral blood monocytes appears to reflect bone formation rate in osteoporotic patients and may be of pathogenetic significance in a subset of individuals with osteoporosis.

Pacifici, R; Rifas, L; Teitelbaum, S; Slatopolsky, E; McCracken, R; Bergfeld, M; Lee, W; Avioli, L V; Peck, W A

1987-01-01

127

A comparison of Indomethacin and Diclofenac in the inhibition of experimental heterotopic new bone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the two nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs Diclofenac and Indomethacin on the formation of heterotropic and orthotopic bone in rats was compared. Experimental heterotopic bone formation was induced by implanting demineralized bone matrix into the abdominal wall of rats. Indomethacin (3 mg\\/kg), Diclofenac (3, 6 or 12 mg\\/kg), or saline were given as daily subcutaneous injections. 3H-proline and 45Ca

O. S. Nilsson; H. C. F. Bauer; O. Brosjö; H. Törnkvist

1987-01-01

128

Simvastatin-loaded ?-TCP drug delivery system induces bone formation and prevents rhabdomyolysis in OVX mice.  

PubMed

Bone formation and regeneration is a prolonged process that requires a slow drug release system to assist in the long-term recovery. A drug-delivery system is developed that allows for the controlled release of simvastin, without exhibiting the side effects associated with high concentrations of simvastatin, and is still capable of inducing constant bone formation. PMID:23184712

Chou, Joshua; Ito, Tomoko; Otsuka, Makoto; Ben-Nissan, Besim; Milthorpe, Bruce

2013-05-01

129

Impaired angiogenesis and endochondral bone formation in mice lacking the vascular endothelial growth factor isoforms VEGF 164 and VEGF 188  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated angiogenesis is an important part of bone formation. To clarify the role of VEGF isoforms in endochondral bone formation, we examined long bone development in mice expressing exclusively the VEGF120 isoform (VEGF120\\/120 mice). Neonatal VEGF120\\/120 long bones showed a completely disturbed vascular pattern, concomitant with a 35% decrease in trabecular bone volume, reduced bone growth

Christa Maes; Peter Carmeliet; Karen Moermans; Ingrid Stockmans; Nico Smets; Désiré Collen; Roger Bouillon; Geert Carmeliet

2002-01-01

130

Positive Regulation of Adult Bone Formation by Osteoblast-Specific Transcription Factor Osterix  

PubMed Central

Osterix (Osx) is essential for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, because mice lacking Osx die within 1 h of birth with a complete absence of intramembranous and endochondral bone formation. Perinatal lethality caused by the disruption of the Osx gene prevents studies of the role of Osx in bones that are growing or already formed. Here, the function of Osx was examined in adult bones using the time- and site-specific Cre/loxP system. Osx was inactivated in all osteoblasts by Col1a1-Cre with the activity of Cre recombinase under the control of the 2.3-kb collagen promoter. Even though no bone defects were observed in newborn mice, Osx inactivation with 2.3-kb Col1a1-Cre exhibited osteopenia phenotypes in growing mice. BMD and bone-forming rate were decreased in lumbar vertebra, and the cortical bone of the long bones was thinner and more porous with reduced bone length. The trabecular bones were increased, but they were immature or premature. The expression of early marker genes for osteoblast differentiation such as Runx2, osteopontin, and alkaline phosphatase was markedly increased, but the late marker gene, osteocalcin, was decreased. However, no functional defects were found in osteoclasts. In summary, Osx inactivation in growing bones delayed osteoblast maturation, causing an accumulation of immature osteoblasts and reducing osteoblast function for bone formation, without apparent defects in bone resorption. These findings suggest a significant role of Osx in positively regulating osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in adult bone.

Baek, Wook-Young; Lee, Min-A; Jung, Ji Won; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Akiyama, Haruhiko; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Kim, Jung-Eun

2014-01-01

131

In vivo micro-computed tomography allows direct three-dimensional quantification of both bone formation and bone resorption parameters using time-lapsed imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone is a living tissue able to adapt its structure to external influences such as altered mechanical loading. This adaptation process is governed by two distinct cell types: bone-forming cells called osteoblasts and bone-resorbing cells called osteoclasts. It is therefore of particular interest to have quantitative access to the outcomes of bone formation and resorption separately. This article presents a

Friederike A. Schulte; Floor M. Lambers; Gisela Kuhn; Ralph Müller

2011-01-01

132

Programmed administration of parathyroid hormone increases bone formation and reduces bone loss in hindlimb-unloaded ovariectomized rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gonadal insufficiency and reduced mechanical usage are two important risk factors for osteoporosis. The beneficial effects of PTH therapy to reverse the estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in the laboratory rat are well known, but the influence of mechanical usage in this response has not been established. In this study, the effects of programed administration of PTH on cancellous bone volume and turnover at the proximal tibial metaphysis were determined in hindlimb-unloaded, ovariectomized (OVX), 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats. PTH was administered to weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded OVX rats with osmotic pumps programed to deliver 20 microg human PTH (approximately 80 microg/kg x day) during a daily 1-h infusion for 7 days. Compared with sham-operated rats, OVX increased longitudinal and radial bone growth, increased indexes of cancellous bone turnover, and resulted in net resorption of cancellous bone. Hindlimb unloading of OVX rats decreased longitudinal and radial bone growth, decreased osteoblast number, increased osteoclast number, and resulted in a further decrease in cancellous bone volume compared with those in weight-bearing OVX rats. Programed administration of PTH had no effect on either radial or longitudinal bone growth in weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded OVX rats. PTH treatment had dramatic effects on selected cancellous bone measurements; PTH maintained cancellous bone volume in OVX weight-bearing rats and greatly reduced cancellous bone loss in OVX hindlimb-unloaded rats. In the latter animals, PTH treatment prevented the hindlimb unloading-induced reduction in trabecular thickness, but the hormone was ineffective in preventing either the increase in osteoclast number or the loss of trabecular plates. Importantly, PTH treatment increased the retention of a baseline flurochrome label, osteoblast number, and bone formation in the proximal tibial metaphysis regardless of the level of mechanical usage. These findings demonstrate that programed administration of PTH is effective in increasing osteoblast number and bone formation and has beneficial effects on bone volume in the absence of weight-bearing and gonadal hormones. We conclude that the actions of PTH on cancellous bone are independent of the level of mechanical usage.

Turner, R. T.; Evans, G. L.; Cavolina, J. M.; Halloran, B.; Morey-Holton, E.

1998-01-01

133

Function of matrix IGF-1 in coupling bone resorption and formation.  

PubMed

Balancing bone resorption and formation is the quintessential component for the prevention of osteoporosis. Signals that determine the recruitment, replication, differentiation, function, and apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteoclasts direct bone remodeling and determine whether bone tissue is gained, lost, or balanced. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathways involved in the coupling process will help develop further targets for osteoporosis therapy, by blocking bone resorption or enhancing bone formation in a space- and time-dependent manner. Insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1) has long been known to play a role in bone strength. It is one of the most abundant substances in the bone matrix, circulates systemically and is secreted locally, and has a direct relationship with bone mineral density. Recent data has helped further our understanding of the direct role of IGF-1 signaling in coupling bone remodeling which will be discussed in this review. The bone marrow microenvironment plays a critical role in the fate of mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells and thus how IGF-1 interacts with other factors in the microenvironment are equally important. While previous clinical trials with IGF-1 administration have been unsuccessful at enhancing bone formation, advances in basic science studies have provided insight into further mechanisms that should be considered for future trials. Additional basic science studies dissecting the regulation and the function of matrix IGF-1 in modeling and remodeling will continue to provide further insight for future directions for anabolic therapies for osteoporosis. PMID:24068256

Crane, Janet L; Cao, Xu

2014-02-01

134

Effect of the combination of enamel matrix derivatives and deproteinized bovine bone materials on bone formation in rabbits' calvarial defects  

PubMed Central

Background: Various types of materials are used in bone regeneration procedures. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of the enamel matrix derivative (EMD), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (Bio-Oss), and a combination of Bio-Oss plus EMD in the treatment of bone defects created in the rabbits’ calvaria. Materials and Methods: Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were included in this experimental randomized single blind study. Four equal cranial bone defects (3 × 6 × 0.5 mm3) were created in frontal and parietal bone and randomly grafted with Bio-Oss (Group 1), EMD (Group 2), EMD + Bio-Oss (Group 3) and one of them was left unfilled to serve as a control group (Group 4). After 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks the defects were evaluated by using histological and histomorphometric analysis. Data were analyzed by the Bonferroni test using SPSS 13 statistical software. P value <0.05 considered as statistically significant level. Results: Bone formation in the EMD + Bio-Oss group after 2 weeks was diminished when statistically compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Bone augmentation after 4 weeks from the lowest to the highest were found in groups 1, 3, 2, and 4, respectively, and these differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Using EMD with Bio-Oss increased bone formation in the non-critical defects in the rabbit calvaria during 8 and 12 weeks (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Boosting of EMD plus Bio-Oss seems to have synergic effect on bone regeneration in bone defects.

Shahriari, Shahriar; Houshmand, Behzad; Razavian, Hamid; Khazaei, Saber; Abbas, Fatemeh Mashhadi

2012-01-01

135

Radiostrontium clearance and bone formation in response to simulated internal screw fixation  

SciTech Connect

Changes in radiostrontium clearance (SrC) and bone formation (tetracycline labeling) were observed in the femurs of skeletally mature dogs following the various operative steps involved in bone screw fixation. Drilling, but not periosteal stripping, produced a small but statistically significant increase in SrC and endosteal bone formation in the distal third of the bone. Strontium clearance values equivalent to those produced by drilling alone were recorded after screw fixation at low or high torque (5 versus 20 inch pounds), as well as by the insertion of loosely fitting stainless steel implants. Bone formation (equals the percentage tetracycline-labeled trabecular bone surfaces) was increased by 30% when SrC values exceeded 3.5 ml/100 g bone/min, and the relationship was linear when SrC values ranged between 1.0 and 7.0 ml/100 g bone/min. The changes in SrC and bone formation one-week after bone screw application are primarily those associated with a response to local trauma caused by drilling.

Daum, W.J.; Simmons, D.J.; Fenster, R.; Shively, R.A.

1987-06-01

136

Cadmium stimulates osteoclast-like multinucleated cell formation in mouse bone marrow cell cultures  

SciTech Connect

Most of cadmium (Cd)-treated animals have been reported to show osteoporosis-like changes in bones. This suggests that Cd may promote bone loss by a direct action on bone. It was found that Cd stimulated prostaglandin E{sub 2}(PGE{sub 2}) production in the osteoblast-like cell, MC3T3-E1. Therefore, Cd stimulates bone resorption by increasing PGE{sub 2} production. Recently, several bone marrow cell culture systems have been developed for examining the formation of osteoclast-like multinucleated cells in vitro. As osteoblasts produce PGE{sub 2} by Cd-induced cyclooxygenase and may play an important role in osteoclast formation, the present study was undertaken to clarify the possibility that Cd might stimulate osteoclast formation in a mouse bone marrow culture system.

Miyahara, Tatsuro; Takata, Masakazu; Miyata, Masaki; Nagai, Miyuki; Sugure, Akemi; Kozuka, Hiroshi; Kuze, Shougo (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan))

1991-08-01

137

Ichthyosis in Sjögren-Larsson syndrome reflects defective barrier function due to abnormal lamellar body structure and secretion.  

PubMed

Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is a genetic disease characterized by ichthyosis, mental retardation, spasticity and mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene coding for fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme necessary for oxidation of fatty aldehydes and fatty alcohols. We investigated the cutaneous abnormalities in 9 patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome to better understand how the enzymatic deficiency results in epidermal dysfunction. Histochemical staining for aldehyde oxidizing activity was profoundly reduced in the epidermis. Colloidal lanthanum perfusion studies showed abnormal movement of tracer into the extracellular spaces of the stratum corneum consistent with a leaky water barrier. The barrier defect could be attributed to the presence of abnormal lamellar bodies, many with disrupted limiting membranes or lacking lamellar contents. Entombed lamellar bodies were present in the cytoplasm of corneocytes suggesting blockade of lamellar body secretion. At the stratum granulosum-stratum corneum interface, non-lamellar material displaced or replaced secreted lamellar membranes, and in the stratum corneum, the number of lamellar bilayers declined and lamellar membrane organization was disrupted by foci of lamellar/non-lamellar phase separation. These studies demonstrate the presence of a permeability barrier abnormality in Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, which localizes to the stratum corneum interstices and can be attributed to abnormalities in lamellar body formation and secretion. PMID:20049467

Rizzo, William B; S'Aulis, Dana; Jennings, M Anitia; Crumrine, Debra A; Williams, Mary L; Elias, Peter M

2010-08-01

138

Ichthyosis in Sj?gren-Larsson syndrome reflects defective barrier function due to abnormal lamellar body structure and secretion  

PubMed Central

Sjögren–Larsson syndrome is a genetic disease characterized by ichthyosis, mental retardation, spasticity and mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene coding for fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme necessary for oxidation of fatty aldehydes and fatty alcohols. We investigated the cutaneous abnormalities in 9 patients with Sjögren–Larsson syndrome to better understand how the enzymatic deficiency results in epidermal dysfunction. Histochemical staining for aldehyde oxidizing activity was profoundly reduced in the epidermis. Colloidal lanthanum perfusion studies showed abnormal movement of tracer into the extracellular spaces of the stratum corneum consistent with a leaky water barrier. The barrier defect could be attributed to the presence of abnormal lamellar bodies, many with disrupted limiting membranes or lacking lamellar contents. Entombed lamellar bodies were present in the cytoplasm of corneocytes suggesting blockade of lamellar body secretion. At the stratum granulosum–stratum corneum interface, non-lamellar material displaced or replaced secreted lamellar membranes, and in the stratum corneum, the number of lamellar bilayers declined and lamellar membrane organization was disrupted by foci of lamellar/non-lamellar phase separation. These studies demonstrate the presence of a permeability barrier abnormality in Sjögren–Larsson syndrome, which localizes to the stratum corneum interstices and can be attributed to abnormalities in lamellar body formation and secretion.

S'Aulis, Dana; Jennings, M. Anitia; Crumrine, Debra A.; Williams, Mary L.; Elias, Peter M.

2010-01-01

139

Chinese red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus-fermented rice) promotes bone formation  

PubMed Central

Background Statin can induce the gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2. Red yeast rice (RYR, Hongqu), i.e. rice fermented with Monascus purpureus, contains a natural form of statin. This study demonstrates the effects of RYR extract on bone formation. Methods Bone defects were created in the parietal bones of two New Zealand white rabbits. In the test animal, two defects were grafted with collagen matrix mixed with RYR extract. In the control animal, two defects were grafted with collagen matrix alone. UMR 106 cell line was used to test RYR extract in vitro. In the control group, cells were cultured for three durations (24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours) without any intervention. In the RYR group, cells were cultured for the same durations with various concentrations of RYR extract (0.001 g/ml, 0.005 g/ml and 0.01 g/ml). Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay were performed to measure total protein, mitochondrial activity and bone cell formation respectively. Results The test animal showed more formation of new bone in the defects than the control animal. RYR significantly increased the optical density in the MTT assay and ALP activity in vitro. Conclusion RYR extract stimulated new bone formation in bone defects in vivo and increased bone cell formation in vitro.

Wong, Ricky WK; Rabie, Bakr

2008-01-01

140

Light-emitting diode photobiomodulation: effect on bone formation in orthopedically expanded suture in rats--early bone changes.  

PubMed

The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate histomorphometrically the effects of light-emitting diode (LED) photobiomodulation therapy (LPT) on bone formation in response to expansion of the interpremaxillary suture in rats. Twenty male, 50- to 60-day-old Wistar rats were divided into two equal groups (control and experimental). Both groups were subjected to expansion for 5 days, and 50 cN of force was applied to the maxillary incisors with helical spring. An OsseoPulse® LED device, 618-nm wavelength and 20-mW/cm(2) output power irradiation, was applied to the interpremaxillary suture for 10 days. Bone formation in the sutural area was histomorphometrically evaluated, including the amount of new bone formation (in square micrometers), number of osteoblasts, number of osteoclasts, and number of vessels. Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical evaluation at p?bone formation area (p?=?0.024, 1.48-fold), number of osteoblasts (p?Bone histomorphometric measurements revealed that bone architecture in the LPT group was improved. The application of LPT can stimulate bone formation in the orthopedically expanded interpremaxillary suture during expansion and the early phase of the retention periods. PMID:23139069

Ekizer, Abdullah; Uysal, Tancan; Güray, Enis; Yüksel, Yasemin

2013-09-01

141

Enhanced Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2-Induced Ectopic and Orthotopic Bone Formation by Intermittent Parathyroid Hormone (1-34) Administration  

PubMed Central

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a central role in local bone regeneration strategies, whereas the anabolic features of parathyroid hormone (PTH) are particularly appealing for the systemic treatment of generalized bone loss. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether local BMP-2-induced bone regeneration could be enhanced by systemic administration of PTH (1–34). Empty or BMP-2-loaded poly(lactic-co glycolic acid)/poly(propylene fumarate)/gelatin composites were implanted subcutaneously and in femoral defects in rats (n?=?9). For the orthotopic site, empty defects were also tested. Each of the conditions was investigated in combination with daily administered subcutaneous PTH (1–34) injections in the neck. After 8 weeks of implantation, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone volume were analyzed using microcomputed tomography and histology. Ectopic bone formation and almost complete healing of the femoral defect were only seen in rats that received BMP-2-loaded composites. Additional treatment of the rats with PTH (1–34) resulted in significantly (p?bone volume in the BMP-2 composites at both implantation sites. Despite its effect on BMD in the humerus and vertebra, PTH (1–34) treatment had no significant effect on BMD and bone volume in the empty femoral defects and the ectopically or orthotopically implanted empty composites. Histological analysis showed that the newly formed bone had a normal woven and trabecular appearance. Overall, this study suggests that intermittent administration of a low PTH dose alone has limited potential to enhance local bone regeneration in a critical-sized defect in rats. However, when combined with local BMP-2-releasing scaffolds, PTH administration significantly enhanced osteogenesis in both ectopic and orthotopic sites.

Kempen, Diederik H.R.; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Creemers, Laura B.; Heijink, Andras; Maran, Avudaiappan; Dhert, Wouter J.A.; Yaszemski, Michael J.

2010-01-01

142

Prostaglandin E2 Prevents Bone Loss and Adds Extra Bone to Immobilized Distal Femoral Metaphysis in Female Rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The object of this study was to determine whether prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can prevent disuse (underloading)-induced cancellous bone loss. Thirteen-month-old retired female Sprague-Dawley breeders served as controls or were subjected to right hindlimb immobilization by bandaging and simultaneously treated subcutaneously daily with 0, 1, 3, or 6 mg PGE2/kg/d for two and six weeks. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on the cancellous bone using double-fluorescent labeled, 20 micron thick, undecalcified distal femoral metaphysis sections. We found that PGE2 administration not only prevented disuse-induced bone loss, but also added extra bone to disuse cancellous bone in a dose-response manner. PGE2 prevented the disuse-induced osteopenia by stimulating more bone formation than and shortening the period of bone remodeling. It activated woven bone formation, stimulated lamellar bone formation, and increased the eroded bone surface above that caused by disuse alone. While underloading increased the remodeling period (sigma), PGE2 treatment of underloaded bone shortened the time for osteoclastic bone resorption and bone remodeling, and thus reduced the remodeling space. The study shows that PGE2 is a powerful anabolic agent that prevents disuse-induced osteopenia and adds extra bone to these same bones.

Akamine, T.; Jee, W. S. S.; Ke, H. Z.; Li, X. J.; Lin, B. Y.

1992-01-01

143

Short-term aluminum administration in the rat: reductions in bone formation without osteomalacia  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum may be a pathogenic factor in dialysis-associated osteomalacia. To study the early effects of Al on bone, cortical bone growth was measured in pair-fed rats given Al and control rats over two consecutive intervals of 28 (period I) and 16 (period II) days, respectively, using tetracycline labeling of bone. Al (2 mg elemental Al per rat) was administered intraperitoneally for 5 days each week, except for the first week of study, when an incremental dose of Al was given. Control rats received saline vehicle only. For the entire 44-day study, bone and matrix formation were reduced from control values in rats given Al. Although bone and matrix formation remained at control levels during period I in rats given Al, both measurements decreased from control values during period II. During Al exposure, bone and matrix apposition at the periosteum were reduced from control levels in period II, but not in period I. Neither osteoid width nor mineralization front width increased from control values in rats given Al. These findings indicate that Al reduces bone and matrix formation early in the course of Al exposure and prior to the development of histologic osteomalacia. Rather than acting as an inhibitor of mineralization, the early effect of Al on bone is the suppression of matrix synthesis. Our results suggest that the state of low bone formation seen in dialysis-associated osteomalacia may be the consequence of a direct toxic effect of Al on the cellular activity of osteoblasts. 29 references, 3 tables.

Goodman, W.G.

1984-05-01

144

Strontium-calcium coadministration stimulates bone matrix osteogenic factor expression and new bone formation in a large animal model.  

PubMed

Strontium (Sr) has become increasingly attractive for use in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis by concomitantly inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Strontium shares similar chemical, physical, and biological characteristics with calcium (Ca), which has been widely used as a dietary supplement in osteoporosis. However, the effects of Sr-Ca coadministration on bone growth and remodeling are yet to be extensively reported. In this study, 18 ovariectomized goats were divided into four groups: three groups of five goats each treated with 100 mg/kg/day Ca, Ca plus 24 mg/kg/day Sr (Ca + 24Sr), or Ca plus 40 mg/kg/day Sr (Ca + 40Sr), and three untreated goats fed low calcium feed. Serum Sr levels increased 6- and 10-fold in the Ca + 24Sr and Ca + 40Sr groups, respectively. Similarly, Sr in the bone increased four- and sixfold in these two groups. Sr-Ca coadministration considerably increased bone mineral apposition rate (MAR). The expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) was significantly upregulated within the Ca + 40Sr treatment group; tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-agr; expression was significantly downregulated in the Ca and Ca + 40Sr groups. The results indicate that Sr-Ca coadministration increases osteogenic gene expression and stimulates new bone formation. PMID:19025756

Li, Zhaoyang; Lu, William W; Chiu, Peter K Y; Lam, Raymond W M; Xu, Bing; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Leong, John C Y; Luk, Keith D K

2009-06-01

145

Tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP-HA) bone scaffold as potential candidate for the formation of tissue engineered bone  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Various materials have been used as scaffolds to suit different demands in tissue engineering. One of the most important criteria is that the scaffold must be biocompatible. This study was carried out to investigate the potential of HA or TCP/HA scaffold seeded with osteogenic induced sheep marrow cells (SMCs) for bone tissue engineering. Methods: HA-SMC and TCP/HA-SMC constructs were induced in the osteogenic medium for three weeks prior to implantation in nude mice. The HA-SMC and TCP/HA-SMC constructs were implanted subcutaneously on the dorsum of nude mice on each side of the midline. These constructs were harvested after 8 wk of implantation. Constructs before and after implantation were analyzed through histological staining, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and gene expression analysis. Results: The HA-SMC constructs demonstrated minimal bone formation. TCP/HA-SMC construct showed bone formation eight weeks after implantation. The bone formation started on the surface of the ceramic and proceeded to the centre of the pores. H&E and Alizarin Red staining demonstrated new bone tissue. Gene expression of collagen type 1 increased significantly for both constructs, but more superior for TCP/HA-SMC. SEM results showed the formation of thick collagen fibers encapsulating TCP/HA-SMC more than HA-SMC. Cells attached to both constructs surface proliferated and secreted collagen fibers. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings suggest that TCP/HA-SMC constructs with better osteogenic potential compared to HA-SMC constructs can be a potential candidate for the formation of tissue engineered bone.

Sulaiman, Shamsul Bin; Keong, Tan Kok; Cheng, Chen Hui; Saim, Aminuddin Bin; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt. Hj

2013-01-01

146

No evidence to indicate topographic dependency on bone formation around cp titanium implants under masticatory loading.  

PubMed

In vitro studies have proved the topographic dependency upon osteogenesis on titanium plate by investigating the cell-adhesion, -shape, -proliferation, -differentiation, ALP activity and osteocalcin production of osteogenic stem cells, MG36, MC3T3-E1 and wild strains of bone formative cells from animal and human. However, this in vivo study on bone growth around cp titanium dental implants under masticatory loading did not demonstrate significant difference among the different surface roughness in the range of Ra 0.4-1.9 microm, Rz 2.8-11.2 microm, Rmax 3.6-28.1 microm and Sm 2.9-41.0 microm, which was estimated by measuring the bone contacts, bone occupancies and bone bonding strengths at the implant/bone marrow interface. It is revealed that the topographic dependency on the osteogenetic activity is apt to be covered with wide variation in bone healing potential under the clinical condition with functional biting load. PMID:16897165

Kawahara, H; Aoki, H; Koike, H; Soeda, Y; Kawahara, D; Matsuda, S

2006-08-01

147

Cannabinoids Stimulate Fibroblastic Colony Formation by Bone Marrow Cells Indirectly via CB 2 Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 were shown to modulate bone formation and resorption in vivo, although little is known of the mechanisms underlying this. The effects of cannabinoids on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) recruitment\\u000a in whole bone marrow were investigated using either the fibroblastic colony-forming unit (CFU-f) assay or high-density cultures\\u000a of whole bone marrow. Levels of the

A. Scutt; E. M. Williamson

2007-01-01

148

Formation of biologically active bone-like apatite on metals and polymers by a biomimetic process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some ceramics bond to living bone through a bone-like apatite layer which is formed on their surfaces in the living body. The formation of the apatite layer is induced by Si?OH or Ti?OH groups on their surfaces. These findings provide us with a biomimetic process with which to form a bone-like apatite layer on metals and organic polymers. Titanium metal

T. Kokubo

1996-01-01

149

Suppressive effects of Anoectochilus formosanus extract on osteoclast formation in vitro and bone resorption in vivo.  

PubMed

Anoectochilus formosanus, a plant native to Taiwan, is used as a folk medicine. It was found that oral administration of A. formosanus extract (AFE) (500 mg/kg) for 4 weeks suppressed bone weight loss and trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized mice, an experimental model of osteoporosis. Although AFE at 12.5 and 25 mug/ml inhibited osteoclast formation in co-culture of osteoblasts and bone marrow cells, AFE did not inhibit the formation of osteoclast progenitor cells and preosteoclast cells in bone marrow cells and RAW264 cells. However, AFE (at 12.5 and 25 microg/ml) decreased RANKL expression. These results suggested that AFE might suppress the bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency through suppression of RANKL expression required for osteoclast formation. PMID:18301967

Masuda, Kikuko; Ikeuchi, Mayumi; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Woo, Je-Tae; Nishimura, Tomio; Yazawa, Kazunaga

2008-01-01

150

Mechanical loading, damping, and load-driven bone formation in mouse tibiae  

PubMed Central

Mechanical loads play a pivotal role in the growth and maintenance of bone and joints. Although loading can activate anabolic genes and induce bone remodeling, damping is essential for preventing traumatic bone injury and fracture. In this study we investigated the damping capacity of bone, joint tissue, muscle, and skin using a mouse hindlimb model of enhanced loading in conjunction with finite element modeling to model bone curvature. Our hypothesis was that loads were primarily absorbed by the joints and muscle tissue, but that bone also contributed to damping through its compression and natural bending. To test this hypothesis, fresh mouse distal lower limb segments were cyclically loaded in axial compression in sequential bouts, with each subsequent bout having less surrounding tissue. A finite element model was generated to model effects of bone curvature in silico. Two damping-related parameters (phase shift angle and energy loss) were determined from the output of the loading experiments. Interestingly, the experimental results revealed that the knee joint contributed to the largest portion of the damping capacity of the limb, and bone itself accounted for approximately 38% of the total phase shift angle. Computational results showed that normal bone curvature enhanced the damping capacity of the bone by approximately 40%, and the damping effect grew at an accelerated pace as curvature was increased. Although structural curvature reduces critical loads for buckling in beam theory, evolution apparently favors maintaining curvature in the tibia. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia revealed that in response to axial loading, bone formation was significantly enhanced in the regions that were predicted to receive a curvature-induced bending moment. These results suggest that in addition to bone’s compressive damping capacity, surrounding tissues, as well as naturally-occurring bone curvature, also contribute to mechanical damping, which may ultimately affect bone remodeling and bone quality.

Dodge, Todd; Wanis, Mina; Ayoub, Ramez; Zhao, Liming; Watts, Nelson B.; Bhattacharya, Amit; Akkus, Ozan; Robling, Alexander; Yokota, Hiroki

2012-01-01

151

The effect of semelil (angipars(R)) on bone resorption and bone formation markers in type 2 diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose of the study Diabetes mellitus has been recognized as a major risk factor for osteoporosis in which bone turnover is affected by different mechanisms. As the morbidity, mortality and financial cost related to osteoporosis are expected to rise in Iran in coming years, and considering the efficacy of Angipars® for improvement of different ulcers which made it a new herbal drug in diabetic foot ulcer, there is a need to evaluate the effect of this new drug on different organs including bone resorption and bone formation markers. Methods In this randomized, double- blind clinical trial, 61 diabetic patients were included. The subjects were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. Subjects of intervention group received 100?mg of Angipars® twice a day. Laboratory tests including bone resorption and bone formation markers were performed at baseline and after 3?months. Result 31 patients in study group and 30 patients in control group finished the study. The mean age of the study population and the mean disease duration was respectively 51.8?±?6.2 and 7.5?±?4.7?years with no significant differences between intervention and control patients. No statistically significant differences between patients and controls were observed in pyridinoline, osteocalcin, urine calcium, bone alkaline phosphatase and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?). Only urine creatinine level significantly changed between two groups after 3?month of treatment (p-value: 0.029) Conclusion In conclusion, the findings of this study indicate that Semelil (Angipars®) had no beneficial or harmful effects on bone. It might be other effects of this new component on bone turnover process which need more studies and more time to be discovered.

2012-01-01

152

Continuous Treatment with a Low-Dose ?-Agonist Reduces Bone Mass by Increasing Bone Resorption Without Suppressing Bone Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sympathetic nervous system regulates bone remodeling through the ?-adrenergic receptor (?-AR). However, the systemic roles\\u000a of adrenergic actions on bone remodeling through the ?-AR are largely unknown. In this study, we examined the dose effect\\u000a of continuous treatment with isoprenaline, a nonspecific ?-AR agonist, on bone remodeling. Male C57BL\\/6J mice were intrasubcutaneously\\u000a administrated with four different doses (5, 25,

Hisataka Kondo; Akifumi Togari

2011-01-01

153

Rat bone marrow stem cells isolation and culture as a bone formative experimental system.  

PubMed

Bone marrow mesenchymal cells have been identified as a source of pluripotent stem cells with multipotential potential and differentiation in to the different cells types such as are osteoblast, chondroblast, adipoblast. In this research we describe pioneering experiment of tissue engineering in Bosnia and Herzegovina, of the isolation and differentiation rat bone marrow stromal cells in to the osteoblast cells lineages. Rat bone marrow stromal cells were isolated by method described by Maniatopulos using their plastic adherence capatibility. The cells obtained by plastic adherence were cultured and serially passaged in the osteoinductive medium to differentiate into the osteocytes. Bone marrow samples from rats long bones used for isolation of stromal cells (BMSCs). Under determinate culture conditions BMSCs were differentiated in osteogenic cell lines detected by Alizarin red staining three weeks after isolation. BMSCs as autologue cells model showed high osteogenetic potential and calcification capatibility in vitro. In future should be used as alternative method for bone transplantation in Regenerative Medicine. PMID:23448607

Smajilagi?, Amer; Alji?evi?, Mufida; Redži?, Amira; Filipovi?, Selma; Lagumdžija, Alena

2013-02-01

154

MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS AND THEIR PROGENY: DEVELOPMENTAL PARADIGMS GOVERNING OSTEOBLAST DIFFERENTIATION & BONE FORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 . We will provide insights into the developmental paradigms governing osteoblast differentiation and bone formation from cellular and molecular analyses of developing bone colonies in vitro. METHODS: Cells were isolated from 21 day Wistar rat calvariae, plated at different densities and cultured for up to 3-4 weeks in differentiation medium (?MEM, with antibiotics, 10% FBS, 50 ?g\\/ml ascorbic acid,

Jane E. Aubin; Shulin Zhang; Soshi Uchida

155

Mineralization and bone formation on microcarrier beads with isolated rat calvaria cell population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using enzymatically isolated rat bone cells in the presence of cytodex microcarrier beads, osteoblastic cell differentiation and bone nodule formation were studied at the optical and electron microscopic level. Cytochemical method showed an intense alkaline phosphatase activity mainly around the microcarriers where the cells have formed multilayers on day 4 of cultures. On day 7 of experiment cultures. Von Kossa

Jean-Michel Sautier; Jean-Raphaël Nefussi; Nadine Forest

1992-01-01

156

Alteration of newly induced endochondral bone formation in adult mice without tumour necrosis factor receptor 1  

PubMed Central

Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, a major proinflammatory cytokine, exerts its role on bone cells through two receptors (TNFR1 and TNFR2). TNFR1, but not TNFR2, is expressed by osteoblasts and its function in bone formation in vivo is not fully understood. We compared in vivo new bone formation in TNFR1-deficient (TNFR1–/–) mice and wild-type mice, using two models of bone formation: intramembranous ossification following tibial marrow ablation and endochondral ossification induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. Intramembranous osteogenesis in TNFR1–/– mice did not differ from the wild-type mice either in histomorphometric parameters or mRNA expression of bone-related markers and inflammatory cytokines. During endochondral osteogenesis, TNFR1–/– mice formed more cartilage (at post-implantation day 9), followed by more bone and bone marrow (at day 12). mRNAs for BMP-2, -4 and -7 were increased during the endochondral differentiation sequence in TNFR1–/– mice. The expression of receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) and receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK), as assessed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), was also increased significantly during endochondral ossification in TNFR1–/– mice. In conclusion, signalling through the TNFR1 seems to be a negative regulator of new tissue formation during endochondral but not intramembranous osteogenesis in an adult organism. BMPs and RANKL and its receptor RANK may be involved in the change of local environment in the absence of TNFR1 signalling.

Lukic, I K; Grcevic, D; Kovacic, N; Katavic, V; Ivcevic, S; Kalajzic, I; Marusic, A

2005-01-01

157

Drosophila Transforming Growth Factor beta Superfamily Proteins Induce Endochondral Bone Formation in Mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both decapentaplegic (dpp) protein and 60A protein have been implicated in pattern formation during Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis. Within the C-terminal domain, dpp and 60A are similar to human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (75% identity) and human osteogenic protein 1 (70% identity), respectively. Both recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 and recombinant human osteogenic protein 1 have been shown to induce

T. K. Sampath; K. E. Rashka; J. S; R. F. Tucker; F. M. Hoffmann

1993-01-01

158

Biphasic electrical current stimulator for early bone formation in dental implant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of piezoelectric properties of natural bone, electrical stimulation has been widely used in the clinical treatment of orthopedic fracture. Nevertheless, in dental implant technologies, it is the methods of surface modification that has been recently developed to enhance early osteointegration between implant's surface and surrounding tissue. In this paper, in order to accelerate bone formation, we developed

Jong Keun Song; Sung June Kim

159

A Cbfa1-dependent genetic pathway controls bone formation beyond embryonic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular mechanisms controlling bone extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition by differentiated osteoblasts in postnatal life, called hereafter bone formation, are unknown. This contrasts with the growing knowledge about the genetic control of osteoblast differentiation during embryonic development. Cbfa1, a transcriptional activator of osteoblast differentiation during embryonic development, is also expressed in differentiated osteoblasts postnatally. The perinatal lethality occurring in Cbfa1-deficient

P. Ducy; M. Starbuck; M. Priemel; J. Shen; G. Pinero; V. Geoffroy; M. Amling; G. Karsenty

1999-01-01

160

Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).  

PubMed

Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis. PMID:18037367

McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

2008-02-01

161

A tissue-like construct of human bone marrow MSCs composite scaffold support in vivo ectopic bone formation.  

PubMed

Biocompatible and osteoconductive cell-scaffold constructs comprise the first and most important step towards successful in vivo bone repair. This study reports on a new cell-scaffold construct composed of gelatin-based hydrogel and ceramic (CaCO(3)/beta-TCP) particles loaded with human MSCs producing a tissue-like construct applied as a transplant for in vivo bone formation. Bone marrow-derived human MSCs were cultured in osteogenic induction medium. 5 x 10(5) (P(2)) cells were loaded on a mixture of hydrogel microspheres and ceramic particles, cultured in a rotating dynamic culture for up to 3 weeks. Both hydrogel microspheres and ceramic particles coalesced together to form a tissue-like construct, shown by histology to contain elongated spindle-like cells forming the new tissue between the individual particles. Cell proliferation and cell viability were confirmed by Alamar blue assay and by staining with CFDA, respectively. FACS analysis conducted before loading the cells, and after formation of the construct, revealed that the profile of cell surface markers remained unchanged throughout the dynamic culture. The osteogenic potential of the cells composing the tissue-like construct was further validated by subcutaneous transplants in athymic nude mice. After 8 weeks a substantial amount of new bone formation was observed in the cell-construct transplants, whereas no bone formation was observed in transplants containing no cells. This new cell construct provides a system for in vivo bone transplants. It can be tailored for a specific size and shape as needed for various transplant sites and for all aspects of regenerative medicine and biomaterial science. PMID:19842114

Ben-David, D; Kizhner, T; Livne, E; Srouji, S

2010-01-01

162

Effect of Autologous Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Seeding and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Delivery on Ectopic Bone Formation in a Microsphere/Poly(Propylene Fumarate) Composite  

PubMed Central

A biodegradable microsphere/scaffold composite based on the synthetic polymer poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) holds promise as a scaffold for cell growth and sustained delivery vehicle for growth factors for bone regeneration. The objective of the current work was to investigate the in vitro release and in vivo bone forming capacity of this microsphere/scaffold composite containing bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in combination with autologous bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in a goat ectopic implantation model. Three composites consisting of 0, 0.08, or 8??g BMP-2?per mg of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres, embedded in a porous PPF scaffold, were combined with either plasma (no cells) or culture-expanded BMSCs. PPF scaffolds impregnated with a BMP-2 solution and combined with BMSCs as well as empty PPF scaffolds were also tested. The eight different composites were implanted subcutaneously in the dorsal thoracolumbar area of goats. Incorporation of BMP-2–loaded microspheres in the PPF scaffold resulted in a more sustained in vitro release with a lower burst phase, as compared to BMP-2–impregnated scaffolds. Histological analysis after 9 weeks of implantation showed bone formation in the pores of 11/16 composites containing 8??g/mg BMP-2–loaded microspheres with no significant difference between composites with or without BMSCs (6/8 and 5/8, respectively). Bone formation was also observed in 1/8 of the BMP-2–impregnated scaffolds. No bone formation was observed in the other conditions. Overall, this study shows the feasibility of bone induction by BMP-2 release from microspheres/scaffold composites.

Kempen, Diederik H.R.; Kruyt, Moyo C.; Lu, Lichun; Wilson, Clayton E.; Florschutz, Anthony V.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Dhert, Wouter J.A.

2009-01-01

163

Up-regulation of glycolytic metabolism is required for HIF1?-driven bone formation.  

PubMed

The bone marrow environment is among the most hypoxic in the body, but how hypoxia affects bone formation is not known. Because low oxygen tension stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF?) proteins, we have investigated the effect of expressing a stabilized form of HIF1? in osteoblast precursors. Brief stabilization of HIF1? in SP7-positive cells in postnatal mice dramatically stimulated cancellous bone formation via marked expansion of the osteoblast population. Remarkably, concomitant deletion of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in the mouse did not diminish bone accrual caused by HIF1? stabilization. Thus, HIF1?-driven bone formation is independent of VEGFA up-regulation and increased angiogenesis. On the other hand, HIF1? stabilization stimulated glycolysis in bone through up-regulation of key glycolytic enzymes including pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1). Pharmacological inhibition of PDK1 completely reversed HIF1?-driven bone formation in vivo. Thus, HIF1? stimulates osteoblast formation through direct activation of glycolysis, and alterations in cellular metabolism may be a broadly applicable mechanism for regulating cell differentiation. PMID:24912186

Regan, Jenna N; Lim, Joohyun; Shi, Yu; Joeng, Kyu Sang; Arbeit, Jeffrey M; Shohet, Ralph V; Long, Fanxin

2014-06-10

164

Prediction of spatio-temporal bone formation in scaffold by diffusion equation.  

PubMed

Developing a successful bone tissue engineering strategy entails translation of experimental findings to clinical needs. A major leap forward toward this goal is developing a quantitative tool to predict spatial and temporal bone formation in scaffold. We hypothesized that bone formation in scaffold follows diffusion phenomenon. Subsequently, we developed an analytical formulation for bone formation, which had only three unknown parameters: C, the final bone volume fraction, ?, the so-called scaffold osteoconduction coefficient, and h, the so-called peri-scaffold osteoinduction coefficient. The three parameters were estimated by identifying the model within vivo data of polymeric scaffolds implanted in the femoral condyle of rats. In vivo data were obtained by longitudinal micro-CT scanning of the animals. Having identified the three parameters, we used the model to predict the course of bone formation in two previously published in vivo studies. We found the predicted values to be consistent with the experimental ones. Bone formation into a scaffold can then adequately be described through diffusion phenomenon. This model allowed us to spatially and temporally predict the outcome of tissue engineering scaffolds with only 3 physically relevant parameters. PMID:21700329

Roshan-Ghias, Alireza; Vogel, Arne; Rakotomanana, Lalaonirina; Pioletti, Dominique P

2011-10-01

165

Suppression of Inflammation and Effects on New Bone Formation in Ankylosing Spondylitis  

MedlinePLUS

... ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is sometimes known as "fusing". Fusion of the spine and other joints, such as ... The authors of the study conclude that "Our data supports the hypothesis that new bone formation is ...

166

Mechanical loading, damping, and load-driven bone formation in mouse tibiae.  

PubMed

Mechanical loads play a pivotal role in the growth and maintenance of bone and joints. Although loading can activate anabolic genes and induce bone remodeling, damping is essential for preventing traumatic bone injury and fracture. In this study we investigated the damping capacity of bone, joint tissue, muscle, and skin using a mouse hindlimb model of enhanced loading in conjunction with finite element modeling to model bone curvature. Our hypothesis was that loads were primarily absorbed by the joints and muscle tissue, but that bone also contributed to damping through its compression and natural bending. To test this hypothesis, fresh mouse distal lower limb segments were cyclically loaded in axial compression in sequential bouts, with each subsequent bout having less surrounding tissue. A finite element model was generated to model effects of bone curvature in silico. Two damping-related parameters (phase shift angle and energy loss) were determined from the output of the loading experiments. Interestingly, the experimental results revealed that the knee joint contributed to the largest portion of the damping capacity of the limb, and bone itself accounted for approximately 38% of the total phase shift angle. Computational results showed that normal bone curvature enhanced the damping capacity of the bone by approximately 40%, and the damping effect grew at an accelerated pace as curvature was increased. Although structural curvature reduces critical loads for buckling in beam theory, evolution apparently favors maintaining curvature in the tibia. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia revealed that in response to axial loading, bone formation was significantly enhanced in the regions that were predicted to receive a curvature-induced bending moment. These results suggest that in addition to bone's compressive damping capacity, surrounding tissues, as well as naturally-occurring bone curvature, also contribute to mechanical damping, which may ultimately affect bone remodeling and bone quality. PMID:22878153

Dodge, Todd; Wanis, Mina; Ayoub, Ramez; Zhao, Liming; Watts, Nelson B; Bhattacharya, Amit; Akkus, Ozan; Robling, Alexander; Yokota, Hiroki

2012-10-01

167

Enhanced prostacyclin formation and Wnt signaling in sclerostin deficient osteocytes and bone.  

PubMed

We show that prostacyclin production is increased in bone and osteocytes from sclerostin (Sost) knockout mice which have greatly increased bone mass. The addition of prostacyclin or a prostacyclin analog to bone forming osteoblasts enhances differentiation and matrix mineralization of osteoblasts. The increase in prostacyclin synthesis is linked to increases in ?-catenin concentrations and activity as shown by enhanced binding of lymphoid enhancer factor, Lef1, to promoter elements within the prostacyclin synthase promoter. Blockade of Wnt signaling reduces prostacyclin production in osteocytes. Increased prostacyclin production by osteocytes from sclerostin deficient mice could potentially contribute to the increased bone formation seen in this condition. PMID:24780398

Ryan, Zachary C; Craig, Theodore A; Salisbury, Jeffrey L; Carpio, Lomeli R; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan; Westendorf, Jennifer J; Kumar, Rajiv

2014-05-23

168

Bone formation and resorption biological markers in cosmonauts during and after a 180-day space flight (Euromir 95)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term spaceflights induce bone loss as a result of profound modifications of bone remodeling, the modal- ities of which remain unknown in humans. We mea- sured intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum calcium; for bone formation, serum concentrations of bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), intact osteocalcin (iBGP), and type 1 procollagen propeptide (PICP); for resorption, urinary concentrations (normalized by creat- inine)

Anne Caillot-Augusseau; Marie-Helene Lafage-Proust; Claude Soler; Josiane Pernod; Francis Dubois; Christian Alexandre

169

Fibroblast growth factor-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor mediated augmentation of angiogenesis and bone formation in vascularized bone allotransplants.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated recipient-derived neoangiogenesis to maintain viability of living bone allogeneic transplants without long-term immunosuppression. The effect of cytokine delivery to enhance this process is studied. Vascularized femur transplantation was performed from Dark Agouti to Piebald Virol Glaxo rats. Poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres loaded with buffer (N?=?11), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) (N?=?10), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (N?=?11), or both (N?=?11) were inserted intramedullarly alongside a recipient-derived arteriovenous bundle. FK-506 was administered for 2 weeks. At 18 weeks, bone blood flow, microangiography, histologic, histomorphometric, and alkaline phosphatase measurements were performed. Bone blood flow was greater in the combined group than control and VEGF groups (P?=?0.04). Capillary density was greater in the FGF2 group than in the VEGF and combined groups (P?Bone viability, growth, and alkaline phosphatase activity did not vary significantly between groups. Neoangiogenesis in vascularized bone allotransplants is enhanced by angiogenic cytokine delivery, with results using FGF2 that are comparable to isotransplant from previous studies. Further studies are needed to achieve bone formation similar to isotransplants. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 34:301-307, 2014. PMID:24395434

Larsen, Mikko; Willems, Wouter F; Pelzer, Michael; Friedrich, Patricia F; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Bishop, Allen T

2014-05-01

170

Cylindrical intermediates in a shear-induced lamellar-to-vesicle transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism and kinetics of a shear-induced formation of multi-lamellar vesicles in a lyotropic lamellar phase of C10E3 (Triethyleneglycol-decylether) was investigated by rheology and time-resolved small-angle neutron and light scattering (SANS, SALS). Starting from a well-defined, macroscopically oriented lamellar phase, the transition occurs in two steps. First, there is a formation of an intermediate structure oriented in the flow direction which scatters only perpendicular to the flow. This is compatible with long, multi-lamellar cylinders (tubuli). Comparing results from three different shear rates shows that the formation of this intermediate structure is strain controlled. As shear is continued, multilamellar vesicles are formed.

Zipfel, J.; Nettesheim, F.; Lindner, P.; Le, T. D.; Olsson, U.; Richtering, W.

2001-02-01

171

Induction of bone formation in biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds by bone morphogenetic protein-2 and primary osteoblasts.  

PubMed

Bone tissue engineering strategies mainly depend on porous scaffold materials. In this study, novel biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) matrices were generated by 3D-printing. High porosity was achieved by starch consolidation. This study aimed to characterise the porous BCP-scaffold properties and interactions of osteogenic cells and growth factors under in vivo conditions. Five differently treated constructs were implanted subcutaneously in syngeneic rats: plain BCP constructs (group A), constructs pre-treated with BMP-2 (group B; 1.6?µg BMP-2 per scaffold), seeded with primary osteoblasts (OB) (group C), seeded with OB and BMP-2 (group D) and constructs seeded with OB and pre-cultivated in a flow bioreactor for 6?weeks (group E). After 2, 4 and 6?weeks, specimens were explanted and subjected to histological and molecular biological analyses. Explanted scaffolds were invaded by fibrovascular tissue without significant foreign body reactions. Morphometric analysis demonstrated significantly increased bone formation in samples from group D (OB?+?BMP-2) compared to all other groups. Samples from groups B-E displayed significant mRNA expression of bone-specific genes after 6?weeks. Pre-cultivation in the flow bioreactor (group E) induced bone formation comparable with group B. In this study, differences in bone distribution between samples with BMP-2 or osteoblasts could be observed. In conclusion, combination of osteoblasts and BMP-2 synergistically enhanced bone formation in novel ceramic scaffolds. These results provide the basis for further experiments in orthotopic defect models with a focus on future applications in orthopaedic and reconstructive surgery. PMID:22740314

Strobel, L A; Rath, S N; Maier, A K; Beier, J P; Arkudas, A; Greil, P; Horch, R E; Kneser, U

2014-03-01

172

Effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation (L-7)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, attention has been focused on the disorders of bone and calcium metabolism during space flight. The skeletal system has evolved on the Earth under 1-g. Space flights under low gravity appear to cause substantial changes in bone and calcium homeostasis of the animals adapted to 1-g. A space experiment for the First Materials Processing Test (FMPT) was proposed to examine the effects of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation using chick embryos loaded in a space shuttle. This space experiment was proposed based on the following two experimental findings. First, it has been reported that bone density decreases significantly during prolonged space flight. The data obtained from the US Skylab and the U.S.S.R. Salyut-6 cosmonauts have also documented that the degree of bone loss is related to the duration of space flight. Second, the US-Soviet joints space experiment demonstrated that the decrease in bone density under low gravity appears to be due to the decrease in bone formation rather than the increase in bone resorption. The purpose of our space experiment is, therefore, to investigate further the mechanisms of bone growth under low gravity using fertilized chick embryos.

Suda, Tatsuo

1993-01-01

173

Profilin1 Regulates Sternum Development and Endochondral Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

Bone development is a dynamic process that requires cell motility and morphological adaptation under the control of actin cytoskeleton. This actin cytoskeleton system is regulated by critical modulators including actin-binding proteins. Among them, profilin1 (Pfn1) is a key player to control actin fiber structure, and it is involved in a number of cellular activities such as migration. During the early phase of body development, skeletal stem cells and osteoblastic progenitor cells migrate to form initial rudiments for future skeletons. During this migration, these cells extend their process based on actin cytoskeletal rearrangement to locate themselves in an appropriate location within microenvironment. However, the role of Pfn1 in regulation of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) during skeletal development is incompletely understood. Here we examined the role of Pfn1 in skeletal development using a genetic ablation of Pfn1 in MPCs by using Prx1-Cre recombinase. We found that Pfn1 deficiency in MPCs caused complete cleft sternum. Notably, Pfn1-deficient mice exhibited an absence of trabecular bone in the marrow space of appendicular long bone. This phenotype is location-specific, as Pfn1 deficiency did not largely affect osteoblasts in cortical bone. Pfn1 deficiency also suppressed longitudinal growth of long bone. In vitro, Pfn1 deficiency induced retardation of osteoblastic cell migration. These observations revealed that Pfn1 is a critical molecule for the skeletal development, and this could be at least in part associated with the retardation of cell migration

Miyajima, Daisuke; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Hemmi, Hiroaki; Nakamoto, Tetsuya; Notomi, Takuya; Amagasa, Teruo; Bottcher, Ralph T.; Costell, Mercedes; Fassler, Reinhard; Ezura, Yoichi; Noda, Masaki

2012-01-01

174

Long-term anabolic effects of prostaglandin-E2 on tibial diaphyseal bone in male rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of long-term prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on tibial diaphyseal bone were studied in 7-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats given daily subcutaneous injections of 0, 1, 3 and 6 mg PGE2/kg/day for 60, 120 and 180 days. The tibial shaft was measured by single photon absorptiometry and dynamic histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent labeled undecalcified tibial diaphyseal bone samples. Exogenous PGE2 administration produced the following transient changes in a dose-response manner between zero and 60 days: (1) increased bone width and mineral density; (2) increased total tissue and total bone areas; (3) decreased marrow area; (4) increased periosteal and corticoendosteal lamellar bone formation; (5) activated corticoendosteal lamellar and woven trabecular bone formation; and (6) activated intracortical bone remodeling. A new steady-state of increased tibial diaphyseal bone mass and elevated bone activities were observed from day 60 onward. The elevated bone mass level attained after 60 days of PGE2 treatment was maintained at 120 and 180 days. These observations indicate that the powerful anabolic effects of PGE2 will increase both periosteal and corticoendosteal bone mass and sustain the transient increase in bone mass with continuous daily administration of PGE2.

Jee, Webster S. S.; Ke, Hua Zhu; Li, Xiao Jian

1991-01-01

175

Bone formation following transplantation of genetically modified primary bone marrow stromal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow stromal cells contain mesenchymal stem cells that can differentiate into a variety of mesenchymal tissues; in the presence of BMP-2, for example, they differentiate into osteoblasts. We constructed replication-deficient adenoviral vectors encoding human BMP-2 (BMP-2\\/Ad) or BMP-4 (BMP-4\\/Ad) and used them to transduce primary bone marrow stromal cells from the femurs of four-week-old female C3H mice, which then

Osamu Sugiyama; Hideo Orimo; Satoru Suzuki; Kazuo Yamashita; Hiromoto Ito; Takashi Shimada

2003-01-01

176

Effect of coating Straumann Bone Ceramic with Emdogain on mesenchymal stromal cell hard tissue formation.  

PubMed

Periodontal tissue engineering requires a suitable biocompatible scaffold, cells with regenerative capacity, and instructional molecules. In this study, we investigated the capacity of Straumann Bone Ceramic coated with Straumann Emdogain, a clinical preparation of enamel matrix protein (EMP), to aid in hard tissue formation by post-natal mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) including bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLFs). MSCs were isolated and ex vivo-expanded from human bone marrow and periodontal ligament and, in culture, allowed to attach to Bone Ceramic in the presence or absence of Emdogain. Gene expression of bone-related proteins was investigated by real time RT-PCR for 72 h, and ectopic bone formation was assessed histologically in subcutaneous implants of Bone Ceramic containing MSCs with or without Emdogain in NOD/SCID mice. Alkaline phosphatase activity was also assessed in vitro, in the presence or absence of Emdogain. Collagen-I mRNA was up-regulated in both MSC populations over the 72-h time course with Emdogain. Expression of BMP-2 and the osteogenic transcription factor Cbfa-1 showed early stimulation in both MSC types after 24 h. In contrast, expression of BMP-4 was consistently down-regulated in both MSC types with Emdogain. Up-regulation of osteopontin and periostin mRNA was restricted to BMSCs, while higher levels of bone sialoprotein-II were observed in PDLFs with Emdogain. Furthermore, alkaline phosphatase activity levels were reduced in both BMSCs and PDLFs in the presence of Emdogain. Very little evidence was found for ectopic bone formation following subcutaneous implantation of MSCs with Emdogain-coated or -uncoated Bone Ceramic in NOD/SCID mice. The early up-regulation of several important bone-related genes suggests that Emdogain may have a significant stimulatory effect in the commitment of mesenchymal cells to osteogenic differentiation in vitro. While Emdogain inhibited AP activity and appeared not to induce ectopic bone formation, longer-term studies are required to determine whether it promotes the final stages of osteoblast formation and mineralization at gene and protein levels. While used in clinical applications, whether Emdogain and other commercial preparations of EMPs truly possess the capacity to induce the regeneration of bone or other components of the periodontium remains to be established. PMID:21584694

Mrozik, Krzysztof Marek; Gronthos, Stan; Menicanin, Danijela; Marino, Victor; Bartold, P Mark

2012-06-01

177

Ephrin B1 Regulates Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Differentiation and Bone Formation by Influencing TAZ Transactivation via Complex Formation with NHERF1?  

PubMed Central

Mutations of ephrin B1 in humans result in craniofrontonasal syndrome. Because little is known of the role and mechanism of action of ephrin B1 in bone, we examined the function of osteoblast-produced ephrin B1 in vivo and identified the molecular mechanism by which ephrin B1 reverse signaling regulates bone formation. Targeted deletion of the ephrin B1 gene in type 1?2 collagen-producing cells resulted in severe calvarial defects, decreased bone size, bone mineral density, and trabecular bone volume, caused by impairment in osterix expression and osteoblast differentiation. Coimmunoprecipitation of the TAZ complex with TAZ-specific antibody revealed a protein complex containing ephrin B1, PTPN13, NHERF1, and TAZ in bone marrow stromal (BMS) cells. Activation of ephrin B1 reverse signaling with soluble EphB2-Fc led to a time-dependent increase in TAZ dephosphorylation and shuttling from cytoplasm to nucleus. Treatment of BMS cells with exogenous EphB2-Fc resulted in a 4-fold increase in osterix expression as determined by Western blotting. Disruption of TAZ expression using specific lentivirus small hairpin RNA (shRNA) decreased TAZ mRNA by 80% and ephrin B1 reverse signaling-mediated increases in osterix mRNA by 75%. Knockdown of NHERF1 expression reduced basal levels of osterix expression by 90% and abolished ephrin B1-mediated induction of osterix expression. We conclude that locally produced ephrin B1 mediates its effects on osteoblast differentiation by a novel molecular mechanism in which activation of reverse signaling leads to dephosphorylation of TAZ and subsequent release of TAZ from the ephrin B1/NHERF1/TAZ complex to translocate to the nucleus to induce expression of the osterix gene and perhaps other osteoblast differentiation genes. Our findings provide strong evidence that ephrin B1 reverse signaling in osteoblasts is critical for BMS cell differentiation and bone formation.

Xing, Weirong; Kim, Jonghyun; Wergedal, Jon; Chen, Shin-Tai; Mohan, Subburaman

2010-01-01

178

Role of scaffold internal structure on in vivo bone formation in macroporous calcium phosphate bioceramics.  

PubMed

Purpose of this study was the analysis of the role of density and pore interconnection pathway in scaffolds to be used as bone substitutes. We have considered 2 hydroxyapatite bioceramics with identical microstructure and different macro-porosity, pore size distribution and pore interconnection pathway. The scaffolds were obtained with two different procedures: (a) sponge matrix embedding (scaffold A), and (b) foaming (scaffold B). Bone ingrowth within the two bioceramics was obtained using an established model of in vivo bone formation by exogenously added osteoprogenitor cells. The histological analysis of specimens at different time after in vivo implantation revealed in both materials a significant extent of bone matrix deposition. Interestingly enough, scaffold B allowed a faster occurrence of bone tissue, reaching a steady state as soon as 4 weeks. Scaffold A on the other hand reached a comparable level of bone formation only after 8 weeks of in vivo implantation. Both scaffolds were well vascularised, but larger blood vessels were observed in scaffold A. Here we show that porosity and pore interconnection of osteoconductive scaffolds can influence the overall amount of bone deposition, the pattern of blood vessels invasion and finally the kinetics of the bone neoformation process. PMID:16488007

Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Scaglione, Silvia; Martinetti, Roberta; Dolcini, Laura; Beltrame, Francesco; Cancedda, Ranieri; Quarto, Rodolfo

2006-06-01

179

Estrogen receptor ? in osteocytes regulates trabecular bone formation in female mice.  

PubMed

Estrogens are well known steroid hormones necessary to maintain bone health. In addition, mechanical loading, in which estrogen signaling may intersect with the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, is essential for bone maintenance. As osteocytes are known as the major mechanosensory cells embedded in mineralized bone matrix, osteocyte ER? deletion mice (ER?(?Ocy/?Ocy)) were generated by mating ER? floxed mice with Dmp1-Cre mice to determine the role of ER? in osteocytes. Trabecular bone mineral density of female, but not male ER?(?Ocy/?Ocy) mice was significantly decreased. Bone formation parameters in ER?(?Ocy/?Ocy) were significantly decreased while osteoclast parameters were unchanged. This suggests that ER? in osteocytes exerts osteoprotective function by positively controlling bone formation. To identify potential targets of ER?, gene array analysis of Dmp1-GFP osteocytes sorted by FACS from ER?(?Ocy/?Ocy) and control mice was performed. Gene expression microarray followed by gene ontology analyses revealed that osteocytes from ER?(?Ocy/?Ocy) highly expressed genes categorized in 'Secreted' when compared to control osteocytes. Among them, expression of Mdk and Sostdc1, both of which are Wnt inhibitors, was significantly increased without alteration of expression of the mature osteocyte markers such as Sost and ?-catenin. Moreover, hindlimb suspension experiments showed that trabecular bone loss due to unloading was greater in ER?(?Ocy/?Ocy) mice without cortical bone loss. These data suggest that ER? in osteocytes has osteoprotective functions in trabecular bone formation through regulating expression of Wnt antagonists, but conversely plays a negative role in cortical bone loss due to unloading. PMID:24333171

Kondoh, Shino; Inoue, Kazuki; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Sugizaki, Hiroe; Shirode-Fukuda, Yuko; Inoue, Erina; Yu, Taiyong; Takeuchi, Jun K; Kanno, Jun; Bonewald, Lynda F; Imai, Yuuki

2014-03-01

180

Palm Tocotrienol Supplementation Enhanced Bone Formation in Oestrogen-Deficient Rats  

PubMed Central

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the commonest cause of osteoporosis. It is associated with increased free radical activity induced by the oestrogen-deficient state. Therefore, supplementation with palm-oil-derived tocotrienols, a potent antioxidant, should be able to prevent this bone loss. Our earlier studies have shown that tocotrienol was able to prevent and even reverse osteoporosis due to various factors, including oestrogen deficiency. In this study we compared the effects of supplementation with palm tocotrienol mixture or calcium on bone biomarkers and bone formation rate in ovariectomised (oestrogen-deficient) female rats. Our results showed that palm tocotrienols significantly increased bone formation in oestrogen-deficient rats, seen by increased double-labeled surface (dLS/Bs), reduced single-labeled surface (sLS/BS), increased mineralizing surface (MS/BS), increased mineral apposition rate (MAR), and an overall increase in bone formation rate (BFR/BS). These effects were not seen in the group supplemented with calcium. However, no significant changes were seen in the serum levels of the bone biomarkers, osteocalcin, and cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen, CTX. In conclusion, palm tocotrienol is more effective than calcium in preventing oestrogen-deficient bone loss. Further studies are needed to determine the potential of tocotrienol as an antiosteoporotic agent.

Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Ming, Wang; Abu Bakar, Roshayati; Hashnan, Nursyahrina Atiqah; Mohd Ali, Hanif; Mohamed, Norazlina; Muhammad, Norliza; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

2012-01-01

181

Fibrous dysplasia of bone in the McCune-Albright syndrome: abnormalities in bone formation.  

PubMed Central

In addition to café-au-lait pigmentation patterns and hyperendocrinopathies, fibrous dysplasia of bone is a major finding in the McCune-Albright syndrome. Activating missense mutations of the Gs alpha gene leading to overactivity of adenylyl cyclase have been identified in patients with McCune-Albright syndrome, but the mechanism leading to the specific development of fibrous dysplasia in bone has not been elucidated. By means of specific peptide antisera and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in situ hybridization, we show that expression of Gs alpha and its mRNA is critically up-regulated during maturation of precursor osteogenic cells to normal osteoblast cells and that this pattern of expression is retained in fibrous dysplasia. A functional characterization of fibrous dysplastic tissues revealed that the fibrotic areas consist, in fact, of an excess of cells with phenotypic features of pre-osteogenic cells, whereas the lesional bone formed de novo within fibrotic areas represents the biosynthetic output of mature but abnormal osteoblasts. These cells are noted for peculiar changes in cell shape and interaction with matrix, which were mimicked in vitro by the effects of excess exogenous cAMP on human osteogenic cells. Osteoblasts involved with the de novo deposition of lesional bone in fibrous dysplasia produce a bone matrix enriched in certain anti-adhesion molecules (versican and osteonectin), and poor in the pro-adhesive molecules osteopontin and bone sialoprotein, which is in contrast to the high levels of these two proteins found in normal de novo bone. Our data indicate the need to reinterpret fibrous dysplasia of bone as a disease of cells in the osteogenic lineage, related to the effects of excess cAMP on bone cell function. They further suggest that a critical, physiological, maturation-related regulation of Gs alpha levels makes cells in the osteogenic lineage a natural target for the effects of mutations in the Gs alpha gene and may provide a clue as to why bone itself is affected in this somatic, mutation-dependent disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8

Riminucci, M.; Fisher, L. W.; Shenker, A.; Spiegel, A. M.; Bianco, P.; Gehron Robey, P.

1997-01-01

182

Microkeratome assisted deep lamellar keratoprosthesis  

PubMed Central

Aims To establish a keratoprosthesis (Kpro) surgical technique that maintains an intact superficial corneal layer. Methods A manual microkeratome (Moria LSK?1) was used to create a 130??m flap of approximately 10?mm diameter in the right eye of Japanese white rabbits. The stoma beneath the flap area was dissected before the removal of a 5.0?mm stromal disc. A 5.0?mm collagen I immobilised poly(vinyl alcohol) (COL?PVA) disc was placed on the exposed posterior stroma close to Descemet's membrane. The flap was repositioned and fixed using 10?0 nylon sutures, which were removed 2?days following surgery. The corneas were followed clinically by slit lamp microscopy and photographs. Rabbits were sacrificed after 6?months, and the transplanted corneas were examined histologically by haematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry against vimentin and ??smooth muscle actin (??SMA). Results The transplanted COL?PVA discs remained transparent throughout the study, with no complications related to the flap or overlying epithelium. The interface between COL?PVA and Descemet's membrane remained clear without signs of opacification caused by scarring or cellular deposition. Pathology revealed the intact COL?PVA polymer in the posterior stroma, with minimal cellular infiltration along the anterior and posterior interfaces. Immunohistology shows vimentin and ??SMA staining at levels comparable to lamellar keratoplasty control. Conclusions Microkeratome assisted deep lamellar keratoprosthesis may be a safe technique for the transplantation of artificial hydrogels for therapeutic purposes.

Shimmura, S; Miyashita, H; Uchino, Y; Taguchi, T; Kobayashi, H; Shimazaki, J; Tanaka, J; Tsubota, K

2006-01-01

183

Formation of hollow bone-like morphology of calcium carbonate on surfactant/polymer templates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel hollow, bone-like structures of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) are fabricated, for the first time, starting from naturally occurring dolomite. The hollow, bone-like structures are prepared by precipitating calcium carbonate on self-assembled poly(acrylic acid)/cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (PAA/CTAC) template. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopic (FE-SEM) studies reveal that the bone-like structure is composed of Amorphous Calcium Carbonate (ACC) nanoparticles in the center and calcite nanoparticles at the edges. Bone-like PCC particles are in particle length of 2-3 ?m and particle width of 1 ?m. The internal hollow structures of bone-like particles are observed from TEM images. As identified by FE-SEM images, the bone-like structure has been formed through the crystal growth of initially formed ACC nanoparticles. The ACC particles are stabilized in the center while the calcite crystals have been grown from the ACC toward the edges of the structure to form a bone-like morphology. We also propose a possible mechanism for the formation of hollow bone-like PCC in this study. The fabricated hollow, bone-like PCC has potential applications in the preparation of release systems such as drugs, cosmetics and pigments.

Mantilaka, M. M. M. G. P. G.; Pitawala, H. M. T. G. A.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Karunaratne, D. G. G. P.; Upul Wijayantha, K. G.

2014-04-01

184

Engineering bone formation from human dental pulp- and periodontal ligament-derived cells.  

PubMed

A robust method for inducing bone formation from cultured dental mesenchymal cells has not been established. In this study, a method for generating bone tissue in vivo from cultured human dental pulp- and periodontal ligament-derived cells (DPCs and PDLCs, respectively) was designed using exogenous bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). DPCs and PDLCs showed enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcified nodule formation in medium containing dexamethasone, ?-glycerophosphate, and ascorbic acid (osteogenic medium). However, the addition of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP2) to osteogenic medium remarkably increased ALP activity and in vitro calcification above the increases observed with osteogenic medium alone. rhBMP2 also significantly upregulated the expression of osteocalcin, osteopontin, and dentin matrix protein 1 mRNA in both cell types cultured in osteogenic medium. Finally, we detected prominent bone-like tissue formation in vivo when cells had been exposed to rhBMP2 in osteogenic medium. In contrast, treatments with osteogenic medium or rhBMP2 alone could not induce abundant mineralized tissue formation. We propose here that treatment with rhBMP2 in osteogenic medium can make dental mesenchymal tissues a highly useful source of cells for bone tissue engineering. In addition, both DPCs and PDLCs showed similar and remarkable osteo-inducibility. PMID:20614244

Ikeda, Hideyoshi; Sumita, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Mihoko; Ikeda, Hisazumi; Okumura, Teruhito; Sakai, Eiko; Nishimura, Masahiro; Asahina, Izumi

2011-01-01

185

Low-Level Mechanical Vibrations can Reduce Bone Resorption and Enhance Bone Formation in the Growing Skeleton  

SciTech Connect

Short durations of extremely small magnitude, high-frequency, mechanical stimuli can promote anabolic activity in the adult skeleton. Here, it is determined if such signals can influence trabecular and cortical formative and resorptive activity in the growing skeleton, if the newly formed bone is of high quality, and if the insertion of rest periods during the loading phase would enhance the efficacy of the mechanical regimen. Eight-week-old female BALB/cByJ mice were divided into four groups, baseline control (n = 8), age-matched control (n = 10), whole-body vibration (WBV) at 45 Hz (0.3 g) for 15 min day{sup -1} (n = 10), and WBV that were interrupted every second by 10 of rest (WBV-R, n = 10). In vivo strain gaging of two additional mice indicated that the mechanical signal induced strain oscillations of approximately 10 microstrain on the periosteal surface of the proximal tibia. After 3 weeks of WBV, applied for 15 min each day, osteoclastic activity in the trabecular metaphysis and epiphysis of the tibia was 33% and 31% lower (P < 0.05) than in age-matched controls. Bone formation rates (BFR{center_dot}BS{sup -1}) on the endocortical surface of the metaphysis were 30% greater (P < 0.05) in WBV than in age-matched control mice but trabecular and middiaphyseal BFR were not significantly altered. The insertion of rest periods (WBV-R) failed to potentiate the cellular effects. Three weeks of either WBV or WBV-R did not negatively influence body mass, bone length, or chemical bone matrix properties of the tibia. These data indicate that in the growing skeleton, short daily periods of extremely small, high-frequency mechanical signals can inhibit trabecular bone resorption, site specifically attenuate the declining levels of bone formation, and maintain a high level of matrix quality. If WBV prove to be efficacious in the growing human skeleton, they may be able to provide the basis for a non-pharmacological and safe means to increase peak bone mass and, ultimately, reduce the incidence of osteoporosis or stress fractures later in life.

Xie,L.; Jacobsen, J.; Busa, B.; Donahue, L.; Miller, L.; Rubin, C.; Judex, S.

2006-01-01

186

Lamellar body counts: a consensus on protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lamellar bodies, concentrically layered “packages” of phospholipid that represent the storage form of surfactant, can be counted in the platelet channel of most electronic cell counters. The lamellar body count has been used for more than a decade and performs as well as traditional phospholipid analysis as an assay for evaluating fetal lung maturity. It is preferable to phospholipid analysis

Mark G Neerhof; James C Dohnal; Edward R Ashwood; In-Sik Lee; Maurizio M Anceschi

2001-01-01

187

Edge dislocations in copolymer lamellar films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of symmetric diblock copolymers on a flat solid surface form lamellae parallel to the substrate. The uppermost layer of the film may be incomplete and made of domains with a thickness equal to the lamellar period L. We investigate these domains both theoretically and experimentally. The domain edge is associated with a dislocation in the lamellar order which

M. S. Turner; M. Maaloum; D. Ausserré; J.-F. Joanny; M. Kunz

1994-01-01

188

Geochemical and mineralogical studies of dinosaur bone from the Morrison Formation at Dinosaur Ridge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The dinosaur bones first discovered in 1877 in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation at Morrison, Colorado were the first major find of dinosaur skeletons in the western U.S. and led to the recognition of four new dinosaur genera (Apatosaurus, Allosaurus, Diplodocus, and Stegosaurus). Eight articles dealing with these bones which appeared as research reports in the annual reports of the Friends of Dinosaur Ridge from 1990-1999 are condensed and summarized with some additional comments. Two of the articles are about the mineralogy and preservation of the bones; two are about the physical description of the bone occurrence; two are about the history of the site, and two are about use of novel instrumental methods (ground-penetrating radar and a directional scintillometer) to search for new bones.

Modreski, P. J.

2001-01-01

189

Dystrophic Cutaneous Calcification and Metaplastic Bone Formation due to Long Term Bisphosphonate Use in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Bisphosphonates are widely used in the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastases. We report a case of a female with breast cancer presented with a rash around a previous mastectomy site and a discharge lesion on her right chest wall in August 2010. Biopsy of the lesion showed dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation. The patient's history revealed a long term use of zoledronic acid for the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastasis. We stopped the treatment since we believed that the cutaneous dystrophic calcification could be associated with her long term bisphosphonate therapy. Adverse cutaneous events with bisphosphonates are very rare, and dystrophic calcification has not been reported previously. The dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation in this patient are thought to be due to long term bisphosphonate usage.

Tatl?, Ali Murat; Goksu, Sema Sezgin; Arslan, Deniz; Bassorgun, Cumhur Ibrahim; Coskun, Hasan Senol

2013-01-01

190

Alteration of newly induced endochondral bone formation in adult mice without tumour necrosis factor receptor 1.  

PubMed

Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, a major proinflammatory cytokine, exerts its role on bone cells through two receptors (TNFR1 and TNFR2). TNFR1, but not TNFR2, is expressed by osteoblasts and its function in bone formation in vivo is not fully understood. We compared in vivo new bone formation in TNFR1-deficient (TNFR1(-/-)) mice and wild-type mice, using two models of bone formation: intramembranous ossification following tibial marrow ablation and endochondral ossification induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. Intramembranous osteogenesis in TNFR1(-/-) mice did not differ from the wild-type mice either in histomorphometric parameters or mRNA expression of bone-related markers and inflammatory cytokines. During endochondral osteogenesis, TNFR1(-/-) mice formed more cartilage (at post-implantation day 9), followed by more bone and bone marrow (at day 12). mRNAs for BMP-2, -4 and -7 were increased during the endochondral differentiation sequence in TNFR1(-/-) mice. The expression of receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand (RANKL) and receptor activator of NF-kappa B (RANK), as assessed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), was also increased significantly during endochondral ossification in TNFR1(-/-) mice. In conclusion, signalling through the TNFR1 seems to be a negative regulator of new tissue formation during endochondral but not intramembranous osteogenesis in an adult organism. BMPs and RANKL and its receptor RANK may be involved in the change of local environment in the absence of TNFR1 signalling. PMID:15654822

Luki?, I K; Grcevi?, D; Kovaci?, N; Katavi?, V; Ivcevi?, S; Kalajzi?, I; Marusi?, A

2005-02-01

191

Suppressive effects of Anoectochilus formosanus extract on osteoclast formation in vitro and bone resorption in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anoectochilus formosanus, a plant native to Taiwan, is used as a folk medicine. It was found that oral administration of A. formosanus extract (AFE) (500 mg\\/kg) for 4 weeks suppressed bone weight loss and trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized mice, an experimental\\u000a model of osteoporosis. Although AFE at 12.5 and 25 ?g\\/ml inhibited osteoclast formation in co-culture of osteoblasts and

Kikuko Masuda; Mayumi Ikeuchi; Tomoyuki Koyama; Kohji Yamaguchi; Je-Tae Woo; Tomio Nishimura; Kazunaga Yazawa

2008-01-01

192

Formation of engineered bone with adipose stromal cells from buccal fat pad.  

PubMed

A robust method for inducing bone formation from adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) has not been established. Moreover, the efficacy of strong osteogenic inducers including BMP-2 for ADSC-mediated bone engineering remains controversial. Meanwhile, the buccal fat pad (BFP), which is found in the oral cavity as an adipose-encapsulated mass, has been shown to have potential as a new accessible source of ADSCs for oral surgeons. However, to date, there have been no reports that define the practical usefulness of ADSCs from BFP (B-ADSCs) for bone engineering. Here, we report an efficient method of generating bone from B-ADSCs using rhBMP-2. The analyses show that B-ADSCs can differentiate in vitro toward the osteoblastic lineage by the addition of rhBMP-2 to culture medium, regardless of the presence of osteoinductive reagents (OSR), as demonstrated by measurements of ALP activity, in vitro calcification, and osteogenic gene expression. Interestingly, adipogenic genes were clearly detectable only in cultures with rhBMP-2 and OSR. However, in vivo bone formation was most substantial when B-ADSCs cultured in this condition were transplanted. Thus, B-ADSCs reliably formed engineered bone when pre-treated with rhBMP-2 for inducing mature osteoblastic differentiation. This study supports the potential translation for B-ADSC use in the clinical treatment of bone defects. PMID:22538411

Shiraishi, T; Sumita, Y; Wakamastu, Y; Nagai, K; Asahina, I

2012-06-01

193

Exercise-Induced Bone Formation Is Poorly Linked to Local Strain Magnitude in the Sheep Tibia  

PubMed Central

Functional interpretations of limb bone structure frequently assume that diaphyses adjust their shape by adding bone primarily across the plane in which they are habitually loaded in order to minimize loading-induced strains. Here, to test this hypothesis, we characterize the in vivo strain environment of the sheep tibial midshaft during treadmill exercise and examine whether this activity promotes bone formation disproportionately in the direction of loading in diaphyseal regions that experience the highest strains. It is shown that during treadmill exercise, sheep tibiae were bent in an anteroposterior direction, generating maximal tensile and compressive strains on the anterior and posterior shaft surfaces, respectively. Exercise led to significantly increased periosteal bone formation; however, rather than being biased toward areas of maximal strains across the anteroposterior axis, exercise-related osteogenesis occurred primarily around the medial half of the shaft circumference, in both high and low strain regions. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that loading-induced bone growth is not closely linked to local strain magnitude in every instance. Therefore, caution is necessary when bone shaft shape is used to infer functional loading history in the absence of in vivo data on how bones are loaded and how they actually respond to loading.

Wallace, Ian J.; Demes, Brigitte; Mongle, Carrie; Pearson, Osbjorn M.; Polk, John D.; Lieberman, Daniel E.

2014-01-01

194

Rapid and robust response of biochemical markers of bone formation to teriparatide therapy.  

PubMed

Teriparatide, a parathyroid hormone analogue, is a potent anabolic treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Studies have shown that teriparatide induces large increases in biochemical markers of bone formation after 1 month of therapy followed by a delayed increase in bone resorption markers. The aims of this study were to (1) describe changes in bone turnover markers during 28 days of treatment with teriparatide; (2) identify the earliest time point by which most subjects showed a biochemical response to teriparatide; (3) identify potential biomarkers of positive bone response; (4) describe changes in bone turnover markers 4 weeks after stopping teriparatide. We recruited 15 osteopenic postmenopausal women, ages 55-69 (mean 62) years. All received 20 microg teriparatide subcutaneously for 28 days. Serum levels of the bone formation markers type I collagen N-terminal propeptide (PINP), type I collagen C-terminal propeptide (PICP), osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (bone ALP), and the bone resorption markers crosslinked C-telopeptide of type I collagen (Sbeta-CTX), crosslinked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (S-NTX) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase type 5b (TRACP5b) were measured on 11 occasions: three times before dosing (baseline) and on days 3, 7, 10, 14, 19, 24 and 28 and at day 56 (i.e., 28 days after stopping teriparatide ). During the first 2 days of teriparatide treatment, PINP levels increased rapidly, by 8.2% (90% confidence interval (CI) 6.9%, 9.5%) and continued to increase until the end of treatment to 110.8%. PICP and OC showed a similar, but less pronounced, pattern. All three markers increased by at least 75% at day 28. A small, transient decrease in bone resorption markers occurred over the same period. Following cessation of treatment, concentrations of bone formation markers decreased to within 20% of baseline values by day 56. In conclusion, the bone formation markers PINP, PICP and OC show a rapid and robust increase in response to teriparatide, which is noticeable during the first week of therapy. PINP is the most responsive marker. These findings have important implications for monitoring patients treated with teriparatide and may also inform the design of studies of new anabolic agents for osteoporosis. PMID:19679211

Glover, Sarah J; Eastell, Richard; McCloskey, Eugene V; Rogers, Angela; Garnero, Patrick; Lowery, Jonathan; Belleli, Rossella; Wright, Timothy M; John, Markus R

2009-12-01

195

Systemic prostaglandin E2 increases cancellous bone formation and mass in aging rats and stimulates their bone marrow osteogenic capacity in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) has been shown to exert a bone anabolic effect in young and adult rats. In this study we tested whether it possesses a similar effect on bone formation and bone mass in aging rats. Fifteen-month-old rats were injected daily with either PGE(2) at 5 mg/kg or vehicle for 14 days. PGE(2) treatment stimulated the rate of cancellous bone formation (a approximately 5.5-fold increase in bone formation rate), measured by the incorporation of calcein into bone-forming surfaces at the tibial proximal metaphysis. This effect resulted in increased cancellous bone area (+54%) at the same site. Since PGE(2) treatment resulted in a much higher proportion of bone surface undergoing bone formation and thus lined with osteoblasts, we tested the hypothesis that PGE(2) stimulates osteoblast differentiation from bone marrow precursor cells both in vivo and in vitro. We found that ex vivo cultures of bone marrow stromal cells from rats injected for 2 weeks with PGE(2) at 5 mg/kg per day yielded more ( approximately 4-fold) mineralized nodules and exhibited a greater (by 30-40%) alkaline phosphatase activity compared with cultures from vehicle-injected rats, attesting to a stimulation of osteoblastic differentiation by PGE(2). We also compared the osteogenic capacity of bone marrow from aging (15-month-old) versus young (5-week-old) rats and its regulation by PGE(2) in vitro. Bone marrow stromal cell cultures from aging rats exhibited a greatly diminished osteogenic capacity, reflected in reduced nodule formation ( approximately 6% of young animals) and lower alkaline phosphatase activity ( approximately 60% of young animals). However, these parameters could be stimulated in both groups of animals by incubation with 10-100 nM PGE(2). The magnitude of this stimulation was greater in cultures from aging rats (+550% vs +70% in nodule formation of aging compared with young rats). In conclusion, we demonstrate here that PGE(2) exerts a bone anabolic effect in aging rats, similar to the effect we and others have reported in young, growing rats. The PGE(2)-stimulated bone formation, which augments bone mass, most likely results from recruitment of osteoblasts from their bone marrow stromal precursors. PMID:11139777

Keila, S; Kelner, A; Weinreb, M

2001-01-01

196

Shannon's entropy and fractal dimension provide an objective account of bone tissue organization during calvarial bone regeneration.  

PubMed

The regeneration of compact bone involves the deposition of a poorly organized connective tissue template that remodels into compact lamellar bone. An objective description of this process is difficult because classical histomorphometry is unable to correctly characterize qualitative changes in tissue complexity. In this study, we demonstrated the use of two distinct methods of image texture analysis, the Shannon's entropy [standard error (SE)], and the fractal dimension (FD) to characterize the formation and remodeling of newly formed compact bone within two different polyanionic collagen-elastin matrices. The matrices were implanted in defects created into parietal bones of rats. The SE and FD were calculated for histological images of the experimental groups collected 3, 7, 15, 30, 60, and 365 days postsurgery and for the original bone only at day 365. Results showed that the SE and the FD initially increased and then diminished for all groups from day 3 to day 365 approaching the values of the original bone. These results are consistent with poor tissue organization during early osteogenesis that remodels into an organized lamellar structure, showing that these methods can be valuable tools to describe bone tissue remodeling during the regeneration process of compact bones. PMID:18512741

Rocha, Lenaldo B; Adam, Randall L; Leite, Neucimar J; Metze, Konradin; Rossi, Marcos A

2008-08-01

197

Fibrillin-1 and -2 differentially modulate endogenous TGF-? and BMP bioavailability during bone formation.  

PubMed

Extracellular regulation of signaling by transforming growth factor (TGF)-? family members is emerging as a key aspect of organ formation and tissue remodeling. In this study, we demonstrate that fibrillin-1 and -2, the structural components of extracellular microfibrils, differentially regulate TGF-? and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) bioavailability in bone. Fibrillin-2-null (Fbn2(-/-)) mice display a low bone mass phenotype that is associated with reduced bone formation in vivo and impaired osteoblast maturation in vitro. This Fbn2(-/-) phenotype is accounted for by improper activation of latent TGF-? that selectively blunts expression of osterix, the transcriptional regulator of osteoblast maturation, and collagen I, the structural template for bone mineralization. Cultured osteoblasts from Fbn1(-/-) mice exhibit improper latent TGF-? activation as well, but mature faster because of increased availability of otherwise matrix-bound BMPs. Additional in vitro evidence excludes a direct role of microfibrils in supporting mineral deposition. Together, these findings identify the extracellular microfibrils as critical regulators of bone formation through the modulation of endogenous TGF-? and BMP signaling. PMID:20855508

Nistala, Harikiran; Lee-Arteaga, Sui; Smaldone, Silvia; Siciliano, Gabriella; Carta, Luca; Ono, Robert N; Sengle, Gerhard; Arteaga-Solis, Emilio; Levasseur, Regis; Ducy, Patricia; Sakai, Lynn Y; Karsenty, Gerard; Ramirez, Francesco

2010-09-20

198

Vascularized Bone Tissue Formation Induced by Fiber-Reinforced Scaffolds Cultured with Osteoblasts and Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

The repair of the damaged bone tissue caused by damage or bone disease was still a problem. Current strategies including the use of autografts and allografts have the disadvantages, namely, diseases transmission, tissue availability and donor morbidity. Bone tissue engineering has been developed and regarded as a new way of regenerating bone tissues to repair or substitute damaged or diseased ones. The main limitation in engineering in vitro tissues is the lack of a sufficient blood vessel system, the vascularization. In this paper, a new-typed hydroxyapatite/collagen composite scaffold which was reinforced by chitosan fibers and cultured with osteoblasts and endothelial cells was fabricated. General observation, histological observation, detection of the degree of vascularization, and X-ray examination had been done to learn the effect of vascularized bone repair materials on the regeneration of bone. The results show that new vessel and bone formed using implant cultured with osteoblasts and endothelial cells. Nanofiber-reinforced scaffold cultured with osteoblasts and endothelial cells can induce vascularized bone tissue formation.

Liu, Xinhui; Zhang, Guoping; Hou, Chuanyong; Wang, Hua; Yang, Yelin; Guan, Guoping; Dong, Wei; Gao, Hongyang

2013-01-01

199

Partial Loss of Anabolic Effect of Prostaglandin E2 on Bone After Its Withdrawal in Rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The object of this study was to determine the fate of PGE(sub 2)-induced new bone mass after withdrawal of PGE(sub 2) administration. Seven-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were given subcutaneous injections of 1, 3, and 6 mg PGE(sub 2)/kg/d for 60 days and then withdrawn for 60 and 120 days. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on double fluorescent labeled undecalcified proximal tibial bone specimens. After 60 days of PGE(sub 2) treatment, a new steady state of increased trabecular bone area (+67% and +81% with 3 and 6 mg PGE(sub 2)/kg/d) from woven bone and stimulated lamellar bone formation, elevated bone turnover, and shortened remodeling periods were achieved compared to age-matched controls. In contrast, after 60 and 120 days withdrawal of PGE(sub 2), a new steady state characterized by less trabecular bone area (+40% to +60% of controls with 3 and 6 mg/kg/d doses), normal lamellar bone formation, no woven bone formation from controls, and eroded surface greater than those seen in controls and previously in 60-day PGE(sub 2) treated rats. The decrease in new bone mass after withdrawal of PGE(sub 2) was due to a further elevation of bone resorption above that induced by the PGE(sub 2) treatment and a reduction in PGE(sub 2) stimulated bone formation activities. Although there is more trabecular bone than in controls after 120 days' withdrawal of PGE(sub 2), we postulate that the skeletal adaptation to mechanical usage will eventually reduce the bone mass to control levels. Thus, it is conservative to conclude that the anabolic effect of PGE(sub 2) was dependent upon continuous daily administration of PGE(sub 2) in these older rats.

Ke, H. Z.; Li, X. J.; Jee, Webster S. S.

1991-01-01

200

Lamellar structures in neodymium borides  

SciTech Connect

Samples with the nominal composition Nd{sub 2}B{sub 5} contain strongly disordered crystals composed of nanosized (100) lamellae. Most commonly, a polysynthetic twinning based on a fourfold rotation separates the lamellae at coherent boundaries. The structure of the twin interface contains a pseudo fourfold arrangement of B atoms as derived from electron microscopy techniques. Such pseudo-symmetry serves for a rationalization of the twinning. Additionally, a chemical intergrowth of Nd{sub 2}B{sub 5} and NdB{sub 4} lamellae based on related structural building units can be observed. Further HRTEM examinations allow the identification of a new structural variant of neodymium borides. - Graphical abstract: The lamellar real structure of neodymium borides made visible by HRTEM.

Kienle, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)], E-mail: L.Kienle@fkf.mpg.de; Babizhetskyy, V.; Duppel, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Guerin, R. [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide et Inorganique Moleculaire, UMR CNRS 6511, Universite de Rennes 1, Institut de Chimie, Campus de Beaulieu, Avenue du General Leclerc, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Simon, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2007-10-15

201

Acceleration of new bone formation by an electrically polarized hydroxyapatite microgranule/platelet-rich plasma composite.  

PubMed

We have developed a technology for the electrical polarization and electrical characterization of hydroxyapatite (HA) microgranules. In order to improve handling of ceramic powders to fulfill complex geometrical demands, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) containing many growth factors was chosen as a carrier of HA microgranules. In this study, the effects of this electrically polarized HA microgranule/PRP composite on new bone formation were examined. To compare osteoconductivity, HA microgranules with or without electrical polarization/PRP composite gel, HA microgranules alone with or without electrical polarization, or PRP gel were implanted into holes in the medial femoral condyles of rabbits. As a control, some of the bone holes were left empty (n=6 in each group). Histological examination was performed 3 and 6 weeks after the surgical operation. It was suggested that PRP alone could not induce new bone formation until 6 weeks after implantation. HA microgranules with or without electrical polarization/PRP composite, especially the former, activated osteogenic cells, resulting in enhanced bone formation. It was confirmed that electrical polarization treatment of HA microgranules can accelerate new bone formation, and that this effect is enhanced by forming a complex within the PRP. PMID:22510403

Ohba, Seiko; Wang, Wei; Itoh, Soichiro; Takagi, Yuzo; Nagai, Akiko; Yamashita, Kimihiro

2012-07-01

202

Perlecan modulates VEGF signaling and is essential for vascularization in endochondral bone formation  

PubMed Central

Perlecan (Hspg2) is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed in basement membranes and cartilage. Perlecan deficiency (Hspg2?/?) in mice and humans causes lethal chondrodysplasia, which indicates that perlecan is essential for cartilage development. However, the function of perlecan in endochondral ossification is not clear. Here, we report the critical role of perlecan in VEGF signaling and angiogenesis in growth plate formation. The Hspg2?/? growth plate was significantly wider but shorter due to severely impaired endochondral bone formation. Hypertrophic chondrocytes were differentiated in Hspg2?/? growth plates; however, removal of the hypertrophic matrix and calcified cartilage was inhibited. Although the expression of MMP-13, CTGF, and VEGFA was significantly upregulated in Hspg2?/? growth plates, vascular invasion into the hypertrophic zone was impaired, which resulted in an almost complete lack of bone marrow and trabecular bone. We demonstrated that cartilage perlecan promoted activation of VEGF/VEGFR by binding to the VEGFR of endothelial cells. Expression of the perlecan transgene specific to the cartilage of Hspg2?/? mice rescued their perinatal lethality and growth plate abnormalities, and vascularization into the growth plate was restored, indicating that perlecan in the growth plate, not in endothelial cells, is critical in this process. These results suggest that perlecan in cartilage is required for activating VEGFR signaling of endothelial cells for vascular invasion and for osteoblast migration into the growth plate. Thus, perlecan in cartilage plays a critical role in endochondral bone formation by promoting angiogenesis essential for cartilage matrix remodeling and subsequent endochondral bone formation.

Ishijima, Muneaki; Suzuki, Nobuharu; Hozumi, Kentaro; Matsunobu, Tomoya; Kosaki, Keisuke; Kaneko, Haruka; Hassell, John R.; Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri; Yamada, Yoshihiko

2012-01-01

203

Deficiency of CIZ, a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, prevents unloading-induced bone loss through the enhancement of osteoblastic bone formation in vivo.  

PubMed

Disuse osteoporosis is a major cause to increase the risk of fractures in bed-ridden patients whose numbers are increasing in our modern society. However, the mechanisms underlying the sensing of mechanical stress in bone are largely unknown. CIZ localizes at cell adhesion plaque and transfers into nuclear compartments and activates promoters of the genes encoding enzymes, which degrade matrix proteins to link signals from the cell adhesion site to nuclear events. We examined whether this nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein would be involved in mediation of mechanical stress signaling. Unloading based on tail suspension reduced bone volume in wild-type mice. In contrast, CIZ-deficient mice revealed suppression in such reduction of bone mass due to unloading. Histomorphometric analysis revealed that unloading suppressed the levels of osteoblastic bone formation parameters, and such suppression of bone formation parameters was blocked by CIZ-deficiency. Osteoclastic bone resorption parameters were similar regardless of CIZ-deficiency after 2-week unloading. Mineralized nodule formation in the cultures of bone marrow cells obtained from the bone of mice subjected to unloading was suppressed in wild-type mice. CIZ deficiency blocked such reduction in nodule formation induced by unloading. These data indicated that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, CIZ, plays a pivotal role in the response of bone mass in unloading condition. PMID:17301008

Hino, K; Nakamoto, T; Nifuji, A; Morinobu, M; Yamamoto, H; Ezura, Y; Noda, M

2007-04-01

204

Postnatally induced inactivation of Osterix in osteoblasts results in the reduction of bone formation and maintenance  

PubMed Central

Osterix (Osx) is a zinc-finger-containing transcription factor that is highly specific to osteoblasts in vivo. Because Osx homozygous null mutants die in the immediate perinatal period showing a complete absence of bone formation, it is impossible determine the role that Osx plays in bones that have already formed after birth. To determine whether Osx is essential for bone maintenance and homeostasis, we conditionally inactivated the Osx gene in adult bone using the Cre/loxP recombination system. In previous reports, 2.3-kb Col1a1-CreERT2 mice that expressed a Cre recombinase that is transiently inducible by 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) were intercrossed with Rosa26R (R26R) reporter mice, which resulted in the production of Cre-expressing osteoblasts that were detected upon X-gal staining. In the present study, inducible Col1a1-CreERT2 transgenic mice and conditional Osx mice (Osxflox/+) were used to generate Osxflox/?; Col1a1-CreERT2 mice. The Osx gene in Osxflox/?; Col1a1-CreERT2 mice was inactivated in the osteoblasts of already formed bones by active Cre recombinase after the administration of 4-OHT. The bones from 4-OHT-treated Osxflox/?; Col1a1-CreERT2 mice and oil-treated control mice were analyzed by radiography, histology, and histomorphometry. Even though no significant difference was observed in the radiographic images of the whole mouse skeletons, the mineralized trabecular bone volume and number in lumbar vertebrae were remarkably reduced in 4-OHT-treated Osxflox/?; Col1a1-CreERT2 mice. In addition, the rate of bone formation and area of mineralized surface were also reduced in 4-OHT-treated Osxflox/?; Col1a1-CreERT2 mice. Osx inactivation in already formed bones during the postnatal period caused a functional defect in osteoblasts that was followed by a reduction of bone formation, even though there were no apparent differences in osteoblast proliferation and osteoclast formation. Taken together, these results indicate that Osx is required to maintain osteoblast function following adult bone maintenance.

Baek, Wook-Young; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Kim, Jung-Eun

2014-01-01

205

Updating the Lamellar Hypothesis of Hippocampal Organization  

PubMed Central

Andersen et al. (1971) proposed that excitatory activity in the entorhinal cortex propagates topographically to the dentate gyrus, and on through a “trisynaptic circuit” lying within transverse hippocampal “slices” or “lamellae.” In this way, a relatively simple structure might mediate complex functions in a manner analogous to the way independent piano keys can produce a nearly infinite variety of unique outputs. The lamellar hypothesis derives primary support from the “lamellar” distribution of dentate granule cell axons (the mossy fibers), which innervate dentate hilar neurons and area CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons within the confines of a thin transverse hippocampal segment. Following the initial formulation of the lamellar hypothesis, anatomical studies revealed that unlike granule cells, hilar mossy cells, CA3 pyramidal cells, and Layer II entorhinal cells all form axonal projections that are more divergent along the longitudinal axis than the clearly “lamellar” mossy fiber pathway. The existence of pathways with “translamellar” distribution patterns has been interpreted, incorrectly in our view, as justifying outright rejection of the lamellar hypothesis (Amaral and Witter, 1989). We suggest that the functional implications of longitudinally projecting axons depend not on whether they exist, but on what they do. The observation that focal granule cell layer discharges normally inhibit, rather than excite, distant granule cells suggests that longitudinal axons in the dentate gyrus may mediate “lateral” inhibition and define lamellar function, rather than undermine it. In this review, we attempt a reconsideration of the evidence that most directly impacts the physiological concept of hippocampal lamellar organization.

Sloviter, Robert S.; L?mo, Terje

2012-01-01

206

Heterotopic bone formation (myositis ossificans) and lower-extremity swelling mimicking deep-venous disease  

SciTech Connect

A quadriplegic patient with a swollen leg was suspected of having deep-venous thrombosis, and was studied with radionuclide venography (RNV) and contrast venography. Focal narrowing of the femoral vein, seen on RNV, was due to extrinsic compression. Although soft-tissue radiographs were normal, Tc-99m diphosphonate imaging established the diagnosis of early heterotopic bone formation (myositis ossificans), which was responsible for the venous compression. Clinically this inflammatory process can mimic deep-venous thrombosis, and should be considered in evaluating patients at risk for both heterotopic bone formation and deep-venous thrombosis.

Orzel, J.A.; Rudd, T.G.; Nelp, W.B.

1984-10-01

207

Osteoclast-specific cathepsin K deletion stimulates S1P-dependent bone formation.  

PubMed

Cathepsin K (CTSK) is secreted by osteoclasts to degrade collagen and other matrix proteins during bone resorption. Global deletion of Ctsk in mice decreases bone resorption, leading to osteopetrosis, but also increases the bone formation rate (BFR). To understand how Ctsk deletion increases the BFR, we generated osteoclast- and osteoblast-targeted Ctsk knockout mice using floxed Ctsk alleles. Targeted ablation of Ctsk in hematopoietic cells, or specifically in osteoclasts and cells of the monocyte-osteoclast lineage, resulted in increased bone volume and BFR as well as osteoclast and osteoblast numbers. In contrast, targeted deletion of Ctsk in osteoblasts had no effect on bone resorption or BFR, demonstrating that the increased BFR is osteoclast dependent. Deletion of Ctsk in osteoclasts increased their sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1) expression. Conditioned media from Ctsk-deficient osteoclasts, which contained elevated levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), increased alkaline phosphatase and mineralized nodules in osteoblast cultures. An S1P1,3 receptor antagonist inhibited these responses. Osteoblasts derived from mice with Ctsk-deficient osteoclasts had an increased RANKL/OPG ratio, providing a positive feedback loop that increased the number of osteoclasts. Our data provide genetic evidence that deletion of CTSK in osteoclasts enhances bone formation in vivo by increasing the generation of osteoclast-derived S1P. PMID:23321671

Lotinun, Sutada; Kiviranta, Riku; Matsubara, Takuma; Alzate, Jorge A; Neff, Lynn; Lüth, Anja; Koskivirta, Ilpo; Kleuser, Burkhard; Vacher, Jean; Vuorio, Eero; Horne, William C; Baron, Roland

2013-02-01

208

Osteoclast-specific cathepsin K deletion stimulates S1P-dependent bone formation  

PubMed Central

Cathepsin K (CTSK) is secreted by osteoclasts to degrade collagen and other matrix proteins during bone resorption. Global deletion of Ctsk in mice decreases bone resorption, leading to osteopetrosis, but also increases the bone formation rate (BFR). To understand how Ctsk deletion increases the BFR, we generated osteoclast- and osteoblast-targeted Ctsk knockout mice using floxed Ctsk alleles. Targeted ablation of Ctsk in hematopoietic cells, or specifically in osteoclasts and cells of the monocyte-osteoclast lineage, resulted in increased bone volume and BFR as well as osteoclast and osteoblast numbers. In contrast, targeted deletion of Ctsk in osteoblasts had no effect on bone resorption or BFR, demonstrating that the increased BFR is osteoclast dependent. Deletion of Ctsk in osteoclasts increased their sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1) expression. Conditioned media from Ctsk-deficient osteoclasts, which contained elevated levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), increased alkaline phosphatase and mineralized nodules in osteoblast cultures. An S1P1,3 receptor antagonist inhibited these responses. Osteoblasts derived from mice with Ctsk-deficient osteoclasts had an increased RANKL/OPG ratio, providing a positive feedback loop that increased the number of osteoclasts. Our data provide genetic evidence that deletion of CTSK in osteoclasts enhances bone formation in vivo by increasing the generation of osteoclast-derived S1P.

Lotinun, Sutada; Kiviranta, Riku; Matsubara, Takuma; Alzate, Jorge A.; Neff, Lynn; Luth, Anja; Koskivirta, Ilpo; Kleuser, Burkhard; Vacher, Jean; Vuorio, Eero; Horne, William C.; Baron, Roland

2013-01-01

209

Stimulatory effects of low-power laser irradiation on bone formation in vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of low-power laser irradiation on bone formation in vitro were assessed. Osteoblast-like cells were isolated from rat calvariae of 21d rat fetuses. The cultured calvarial cells were irradiated with a low-power laser (830 nm, 60 mW) one time only or once daily for 21d at various energy doses (10.8-108 J/day). The number and the total area of mineralized bone modules that had developed in the culture dish on day 21 were evaluated. DNA content, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the amount of extra-cellular collagen were also measured. Calcium and phosphorus in bone nodules were examined with an X-ray microanalyzer. Laser irradiation significantly increased the number and the total area of bone nodules in a dose-dependent manner. Cell proliferation and ALP activity in the irradiation group were higher in the early and middle culture periods, while the collagen content was higher in the middle an late periods compared with the control. Calcium and phosphorus were both higher in the irradiation group. These findings indicate that laser irradiation may play a principal role in stimulating differentiation of osteoblasts during the early stage of the culture, resulting in increased bone formation through acceleration of bone nodule maturation.

Ozawa, Yasuhito; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Kariya, Genichiro; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Takiguchi, Hisashi; Iwasawa, Tadamasa; Abiko, Yoshimitsu

1995-04-01

210

Immunological Reaction in TNF-?-Mediated Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is a cytokine produced by monocytes, macrophages, and T cells and is induced by pathogens, endotoxins, or related substances. TNF-? may play a key role in bone metabolism and is important in inflammatory bone diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Cells directly involved in osteoclastogenesis include macrophages, which are osteoclast precursor cells, osteoblasts, or stromal cells. These cells express receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) to induce osteoclastogenesis, and T cells, which secrete RANKL, promote osteoclastogenesis during inflammation. Elucidating the detailed effects of TNF-? on bone metabolism may enable the identification of therapeutic targets that can efficiently suppress bone destruction in inflammatory bone diseases. TNF-? is considered to act by directly increasing RANK expression in macrophages and by increasing RANKL in stromal cells. Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin- (IL-) 12, IL-18, and interferon-? (IFN-?) strongly inhibit osteoclast formation. IL-12, IL-18, and IFN-? induce apoptosis in bone marrow cells treated with TNF-???in vitro, and osteoclastogenesis is inhibited by the interactions of TNF-?-induced Fas and Fas ligand induced by IL-12, IL-18, and IFN-?. This review describes and discusses the role of cells concerned with osteoclast formation and immunological reactions in TNF-?-mediated osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

Kitaura, Hideki; Kimura, Keisuke; Ishida, Masahiko; Kohara, Haruka; Yoshimatsu, Masako; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

2013-01-01

211

Bone metabolism and formation of mice bred in a 2G environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to reveal the effect of chronic hypergravity exposure on the bone formation and the bone metabolism when mammals produce offspring in a 2G environment. We measured the length and width of the thighbone, the length of the pelvis, the width of the pelvic cavity and the width of the fourth cervical vertebra on the second (F2) and the third (F3) generation mice bred in a 2G environment every ten days from 20 days old to 60 days old in an experiment on bone formation. In an experiment on bone metabolism, we measured calcium and phosphorus in the bones of the F3 in the 2G group.Ratios of the thighbone length, pelvis length, pelvic cavity width, and fourth cervical vertebra width versus the body length were calculated.These ratios were higher in the 2G group than the control group during all measuring periods.Calcium and phosphorus concentrations in the thighbone and the lumbar vertebra were lower in the 2G group than in the control group. However, the calcium and phosphorus concentrations in the cervical vertebrae of the 2G group were higher. These results suggest that the influence of gravity load may vary in the bones.

Kita, S.; Iwasaki, K.; Onishi, R.; Fujisawa, M.; Kim, H.; Shibata, S.; Ito, M.

2003-10-01

212

Ectopic bone formation in mice associated with a lactic acid\\/dioxanone\\/ethylene glycol copolymer–tricalcium phosphate composite with added recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new putty-like material with bone-inducing capacity was made by combining a block copolymer of poly d,l-lactic acid with randomly inserted p-dioxanone and polyethylene glycol (PLA-DX-PEG) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) powder with added recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). To optimize the material's efficacy for bone formation, we formulated the optimal composition ratio of the respective constituent that gives the

Minori Kato; Takashi Namikawa; Hidetomi Terai; Masatoshi Hoshino; Shimpei Miyamoto; Kunio Takaoka

2006-01-01

213

Low dose fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) enhances bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2)-induced ectopic bone formation in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine how fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) affects the BMP signaling pathway during bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-induced ectopic bone formation, we implanted type I collagen disks containing constant amounts of BMP-2 (5 ?g) and varying amounts of FGF-2 onto the back muscles of adult male mice. We then performed histological analyses and histomorphometry, and measured bone mineral density and radiopaque

Yukio Nakamura; Keiji Tensho; Hiroyuki Nakaya; Masashi Nawata; Takahiro Okabe; Shigeyuki Wakitani

2005-01-01

214

A case of refractory perforation at the floor of the mouth with ectopic bone formation.  

PubMed

Although most fistulae are not problematic, surgeons occasionally encounter recurrent and/or refractory fistulae in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery. In this case report, the authors describe a case in which a patient experienced a recurrent and refractory fistula or perforation at his oral floor through the submandible, with heterotopic bone formation arising on both sides of the mylohyoid line. These heterotopic bones were connected to each other, forming a bone bridge at the center of the oral floor. A fistulectomy and wound closure with a tongue flap was successful. The perforation has not recurred after over four years of follow-up, and the bone bridge is still present. PMID:22586833

Ohba, Seigo; Sekine, Joji; Tobita, Takayoshi; Ikeda, Hideyoshi; Asahina, Izumi

2011-07-01

215

Demonstration of the capacity of nacre to induce bone formation by human osteoblasts maintained in vitro.  

PubMed

Nacre implanted in vivo in bone is osteogenic suggesting that it may possess factor(s) which stimulate bone formation. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that nacre can induce mineralization by human osteoblasts in vitro. Nacre chips were placed on a layer of first passage human osteoblasts. None of the chemical inducers generally required to obtain bone formation in vitro was added to the cultures. Osteoblasts proliferated and were clearly attracted by nacre chips to which they attached. Induction of mineralization appeared preferentially in bundles of osteoblasts surrounding the nacre chips. Three-dimensional nodules were formed by a dense osteoid matrix with cuboidal osteoblasts at the periphery and osteocytic-like cells in the center. These nodules contained foci with features of mineralized structures and bone-like structures, both radiodense to X-ray. Active osteoblasts (e.m.) with abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, extrusion of collagen fibrils and budding of vesicles were observed. Matrix vesicles induced mineral deposition. Extracellular collagen fibrils appeared cross-banded and electrodense indicating mineralization. These results demonstrate that a complete sequence of bone formation is reproduced when human osteoblasts are cultured in the presence of nacre. This model provides a new approach to study the steps of osteoblastic differentiation and the mechanisms of induction of mineralization. PMID:1440586

Lopez, E; Vidal, B; Berland, S; Camprasse, S; Camprasse, G; Silve, C

1992-01-01

216

Non-invasive monitoring of BMP-2 retention and bone formation in composites for bone tissue engineering using SPECT/CT and scintillation probes.  

PubMed

Non-invasive imaging can provide essential information for the optimization of new drug delivery-based bone regeneration strategies to repair damaged or impaired bone tissue. This study investigates the applicability of nuclear medicine and radiological techniques to monitor growth factor retention profiles and subsequent effects on bone formation. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2, 6.5 microg/scaffold) was incorporated into a sustained release vehicle consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres embedded in a poly(propylene fumarate) scaffold surrounded by a gelatin hydrogel and implanted subcutaneously and in 5-mm segmental femoral defects in 9 rats for a period of 56 days. To determine the pharmacokinetic profile, BMP-2 was radiolabeled with (125)I and the local retention of (125)I-BMP-2 was measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), scintillation probes and ex vivo scintillation analysis. Bone formation was monitored by micro-computed tomography (microCT). The scaffolds released BMP-2 in a sustained fashion over the 56-day implantation period. A good correlation between the SPECT and scintillation probe measurements was found and there were no significant differences between the non-invasive and ex-vivo counting method after 8 weeks of follow up. SPECT analysis of the total body and thyroid counts showed a limited accumulation of (125)I within the body. Ectopic bone formation was induced in the scaffolds and the femur defects healed completely. In vivo microCT imaging detected the first signs of bone formation at days 14 and 28 for the orthotopic and ectopic implants, respectively, and provided a detailed profile of the bone formation rate. Overall, this study clearly demonstrates the benefit of applying non-invasive techniques in drug delivery-based bone regeneration strategies by providing detailed and reliable profiles of the growth factor retention and bone formation at different implantation sites in a limited number of animals. PMID:19105972

Kempen, Diederik H R; Yaszemski, Michael J; Heijink, Andras; Hefferan, Theresa E; Creemers, Laura B; Britson, Jason; Maran, Avudaiappan; Classic, Kelly L; Dhert, Wouter J A; Lu, Lichun

2009-03-19

217

The effects of prostaglandin E2 in growing rats - Increased metaphyseal hard tissue and cortico-endosteal bone formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of in vivo prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in bone formation is investigated. Twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 223-267 g were injected subcutaneously with 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 mg of PGE2-kg daily for 21 days. The processing of the tibiae for observation is described. Radiographs and histomorphometric analyses are also utilized to study bone formation. Body weight, weights of soft tissues and bones morphometry are evaluated. It is observed that PGE2 depressed longitudinal bone growth, increased growth cartilage thickness, decreased degenerative cartilage cell size and cartilage cell production, and significantly increased proximal tibial metaphyseal hard tissue mass. The data reveal that periosteal bone formation is slowed down at higher doses of PGE2 and endosteal bone formation is slightly depressed less than 10 days post injection; however, here is a late increase (10 days after post injection) in endosteal bone formation and in the formation of trabecular bone in the marrow cavity of the tibial shaft. It is noted that the effects of PGE2 on bone formation are similar to the responses of weaning rats to PGE2.

Jee, W. S. S.; Ueno, K.; Deng, Y. P.; Woodbury, D. M.

1985-01-01

218

Bone Metastasis from Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Characteristics of Soft Tissue Formation  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the characteristics of bone metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma and the radiation field arrangement based on imaging studies. Materials and Methods Fifty-three patients (84 lesions) with bone metastasis from a primary hepatocellular carcinoma completed palliative radiation therapy. All patients underwent one of following imaging studies prior to the initiation of radiation therapy: a bone scan, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The median radiation dose was 30 Gy (7~40 Gy). We evaluated retrospectively the presence of soft tissue formation and the adjustment of the radiation field based on the imaging studies. Results Soft tissue formation at the site of bony disease was identified from either a CT/MRI scan (41 lesions) or from a symptomatic palpable mass (5 lesions). The adjustment of the radiation field size based on a bone scan was necessary for 31 of 41 soft tissue forming lesions (75.6%), after a review of the CT/MRI scan. The median survival from the initial indication of a hepatoma diagnosis was 8 months (2 to 71 months), with a 2-year survival rate of 38.6%. The median survival from the detection of a bone metastasis was 5 months (1 to 38 months) and the 1-year overall survival rate was 8.7%. Conclusion It was again identified that bone metastasis from a primary hepatocellular carcinoma is accompanied by soft tissue formation. From this finding, an adjustment of the radiation field size based on imaging studies is required. It is advisable to obtain a CT or MRI scan of suspected bone metastasis for better tumor volume coverage prior to the initiation of radiation therapy.

Kim, Sangwon; Wang, Heejung; Cho, Sungwon; Oh, Young-Taek; Kang, Seung-Hee; Yang, Juno

2007-01-01

219

Recombinant Vgr-1/BMP-6-expressing tumors induce fibrosis and endochondral bone formation in vivo.  

PubMed

Members of the TGF-beta superfamily appear to modulate mesenchymal differentiation, including the processes of cartilage and bone formation. Nothing is yet known about the function of the TGF-beta-related factor vgr-1, also called bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6), and only limited studies have been conducted on the most closely related factors BMP-5, osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) or BMP-7, and OP-2. Because vgr-1 mRNA has been localized in hypertrophic cartilage, this factor may play a vital role in endochondral bone formation. We developed antibodies to vgr-1, and documented that vgr-1 protein was expressed in hypertrophic cartilage of mice. To further characterize the role of this protein in bone differentiation, we generated CHO cells that overexpressed recombinant murine vgr-1 protein. Western blot analysis documented that recombinant vgr-1 protein was secreted into the media and was proteolytically processed to yield the mature vgr-1 molecule. To assess the biological activity of recombinant vgr-1 in vivo, we introduced the vgr-1-expressing CHO cells directly into the subcutaneous tissue of athymic nude mice. CHO-vgr-1 cells produced localized tumors, and the continuous secretion of vgr-1 resulted in tumors with a strikingly different gross and histological appearance as compared to the parental CHO cells. The tumors of control CHO cells were hemorrhagic, necrotic, and friable, whereas the CHO-vgr-1 tumors were dense, firm, and fibrotic. In contrast with control CHO tumors, the nests of CHO-vgr-1 tumor cells were surrounded by extensive connective tissue, which contained large regions of cartilage and bone. Further analysis indicated that secretion of vgr-1 from the transfected CHO tumor cells induced the surrounding host mesenchymal cells to develop along the endochondral bone pathway. These findings suggest that endochondral bone formation. PMID:8089189

Gitelman, S E; Kobrin, M S; Ye, J Q; Lopez, A R; Lee, A; Derynck, R

1994-09-01

220

The Wnt Serpentine Receptor Frizzled-9 Regulates New Bone Formation in Fracture Healing  

PubMed Central

Wnt signaling is a key regulator of bone metabolism and fracture healing. The canonical Wnt/?-catenin pathway is regarded as the dominant mechanism, and targeting this pathway has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of osteoporosis and poorly healing fractures. In contrast, little is known about the role of non-canonical Wnt signaling in bone. Recently, it was demonstrated that the serpentine receptor Fzd9, a Wnt receptor of the Frizzled family, is essential for osteoblast function and positively regulates bone remodeling via the non-canonical Wnt pathway without involving ?-catenin-dependent signaling. Here we investigated whether the Fzd9 receptor is essential for fracture healing using a femur osteotomy model in Fzd9?/? mice. After 10, 24 and 32 days the fracture calli were analyzed using biomechanical testing, histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, and micro-computed tomography. Our results demonstrated significantly reduced amounts of newly formed bone at all investigated healing time points in the absence of Fzd9 and, accordingly, a decreased mechanical competence of the callus tissue in the late phase of fracture healing. In contrast, cartilage formation and numbers of osteoclasts degrading mineralized matrix were unaltered. ?-Catenin immunolocalization showed that canonical Wnt-signaling was not affected in the absence of Fzd9 in osteoblasts as well as in proliferating and mature chondrocytes within the fracture callus. The expression of established differentiation markers was not altered in the absence of Fzd9, whereas chemokines Ccl2 and Cxcl5 seemed to be reduced. Collectively, our results suggest that non-canonical signaling via the Fzd9 receptor positively regulates intramembranous and endochondral bone formation during fracture healing, whereas it does not participate in the formation of cartilage or in the osteoclastic degradation of mineralized matrix. The finding that Fzd9, in addition to its role in physiological bone remodeling, regulates bone repair may have implications for the development of treatments for poorly or non-healing fractures.

Heilmann, Aline; Schinke, Thorsten; Bindl, Ronny; Wehner, Tim; Rapp, Anna; Haffner-Luntzer, Melanie; Nemitz, Claudia; Liedert, Astrid; Amling, Michael; Ignatius, Anita

2013-01-01

221

Recombinant Vgr-1/BMP-6-expressing tumors induce fibrosis and endochondral bone formation in vivo  

PubMed Central

Members of the TGF-beta superfamily appear to modulate mesenchymal differentiation, including the processes of cartilage and bone formation. Nothing is yet known about the function of the TGF-beta- related factor vgr-1, also called bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6), and only limited studies have been conducted on the most closely related factors BMP-5, osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) or BMP-7, and OP-2. Because vgr-1 mRNA has been localized in hypertrophic cartilage, this factor may play a vital role in endochondral bone formation. We developed antibodies to vgr-1, and documented that vgr-1 protein was expressed in hypertrophic cartilage of mice. To further characterize the role of this protein in bone differentiation, we generated CHO cells that overexpressed recombinant murine vgr-1 protein. Western blot analysis documented that recombinant vgr-1 protein was secreted into the media and was proteolytically processed to yield the mature vgr-1 molecule. To assess the biological activity of recombinant vgr-1 in vivo, we introduced the vgr-1-expressing CHO cells directly into the subcutaneous tissue of athymic nude mice. CHO-vgr-1 cells produced localized tumors, and the continuous secretion of vgr-1 resulted in tumors with a strikingly different gross and histological appearance as compared to the parental CHO cells. The tumors of control CHO cells were hemorrhagic, necrotic, and friable, whereas the CHO-vgr-1 tumors were dense, firm, and fibrotic. In contrast with control CHO tumors, the nests of CHO-vgr-1 tumor cells were surrounded by extensive connective tissue, which contained large regions of cartilage and bone. Further analysis indicated that secretion of vgr-1 from the transfected CHO tumor cells induced the surrounding host mesenchymal cells to develop along the endochondral bone pathway. These findings suggest that endochondral bone formation.

1994-01-01

222

A Cbfa1-dependent genetic pathway controls bone formation beyond embryonic development  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanisms controlling bone extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition by differentiated osteoblasts in postnatal life, called hereafter bone formation, are unknown. This contrasts with the growing knowledge about the genetic control of osteoblast differentiation during embryonic development. Cbfa1, a transcriptional activator of osteoblast differentiation during embryonic development, is also expressed in differentiated osteoblasts postnatally. The perinatal lethality occurring in Cbfa1-deficient mice has prevented so far the study of its function after birth. To determine if Cbfa1 plays a role during bone formation we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Cbfa1 DNA-binding domain (?Cbfa1) in differentiated osteoblasts only postnatally. ?Cbfa1 has a higher affinity for DNA than Cbfa1 itself, has no transcriptional activity on its own, and can act in a dominant-negative manner in DNA cotransfection assays. ?Cbfa1-expressing mice have a normal skeleton at birth but develop an osteopenic phenotype thereafter. Dynamic histomorphometric studies show that this phenotype is caused by a major decrease in the bone formation rate in the face of a normal number of osteoblasts thus indicating that once osteoblasts are differentiated Cbfa1 regulates their function. Molecular analyses reveal that the expression of the genes expressed in osteoblasts and encoding bone ECM proteins is nearly abolished in transgenic mice, and ex vivo assays demonstrated that ?Cbfa1-expressing osteoblasts were less active than wild-type osteoblasts. We also show that Cbfa1 regulates positively the activity of its own promoter, which has the highest affinity Cbfa1-binding sites characterized. This study demonstrates that beyond its differentiation function Cbfa1 is the first transcriptional activator of bone formation identified to date and illustrates that developmentally important genes control physiological processes postnatally.

Ducy, Patricia; Starbuck, Michael; Priemel, Matthias; Shen, Jianhe; Pinero, Gerald; Geoffroy, Valerie; Amling, Michael; Karsenty, Gerard

1999-01-01

223

A Cbfa1-dependent genetic pathway controls bone formation beyond embryonic development.  

PubMed

The molecular mechanisms controlling bone extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition by differentiated osteoblasts in postnatal life, called hereafter bone formation, are unknown. This contrasts with the growing knowledge about the genetic control of osteoblast differentiation during embryonic development. Cbfa1, a transcriptional activator of osteoblast differentiation during embryonic development, is also expressed in differentiated osteoblasts postnatally. The perinatal lethality occurring in Cbfa1-deficient mice has prevented so far the study of its function after birth. To determine if Cbfa1 plays a role during bone formation we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Cbfa1 DNA-binding domain (DeltaCbfa1) in differentiated osteoblasts only postnatally. DeltaCbfa1 has a higher affinity for DNA than Cbfa1 itself, has no transcriptional activity on its own, and can act in a dominant-negative manner in DNA cotransfection assays. DeltaCbfa1-expressing mice have a normal skeleton at birth but develop an osteopenic phenotype thereafter. Dynamic histomorphometric studies show that this phenotype is caused by a major decrease in the bone formation rate in the face of a normal number of osteoblasts thus indicating that once osteoblasts are differentiated Cbfa1 regulates their function. Molecular analyses reveal that the expression of the genes expressed in osteoblasts and encoding bone ECM proteins is nearly abolished in transgenic mice, and ex vivo assays demonstrated that DeltaCbfa1-expressing osteoblasts were less active than wild-type osteoblasts. We also show that Cbfa1 regulates positively the activity of its own promoter, which has the highest affinity Cbfa1-binding sites characterized. This study demonstrates that beyond its differentiation function Cbfa1 is the first transcriptional activator of bone formation identified to date and illustrates that developmentally important genes control physiological processes postnatally. PMID:10215629

Ducy, P; Starbuck, M; Priemel, M; Shen, J; Pinero, G; Geoffroy, V; Amling, M; Karsenty, G

1999-04-15

224

The primary function of gp130 signaling in osteoblasts is to maintain bone formation and strength, rather than promote osteoclast formation.  

PubMed

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) family cytokines act via gp130 in the osteoblast lineage to stimulate the formation of osteoclasts (bone resorbing cells) and the activity of osteoblasts (bone forming cells), and to inhibit expression of the osteocyte protein, sclerostin. We report here that a profound reduction in trabecular bone mass occurs both when gp130 is deleted in the entire osteoblast lineage (Osx1Cre gp130 f/f) and when this deletion is restricted to osteocytes (DMP1Cre gp130 f/f). This was caused not by an alteration in osteoclastogenesis, but by a low level of bone formation specific to the trabecular compartment. In contrast, cortical diameter increased to maintain ultimate bone strength, despite a reduction in collagen type 1 production. We conclude that osteocytic gp130 signaling is required for normal trabecular bone mass and proper cortical bone composition. PMID:24339143

Johnson, Rachelle W; Brennan, Holly J; Vrahnas, Christina; Poulton, Ingrid J; McGregor, Narelle E; Standal, Therese; Walker, Emma C; Koh, Thuan-Tzen; Nguyen, Huynh; Walsh, Nicole C; Forwood, Mark R; Martin, T John; Sims, Natalie A

2014-06-01

225

The effect of the microenvironment created by a titanium mesh cage on subcutaneous experimental bone formation and inhibition of absorption.  

PubMed

We attempted to form ectopic bone under the skin of rats without adding any extrinsic bone-inducing growth factors or cytokines using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), a collagen scaffold and a titanium mesh cage. We set up a space made up of a cage inserted into the subcutaneous region of rats' backs, where we could eliminate the possible influence of residual bone tissue on bone induction. We filled this space with a collagen matrix containing BMSCs. At week 8 and month 6 after implantation, the specimens were removed and observed histologically, histochemically and enzyme histochemically. As a result, bone tissue was identified in each case within the titanium cages, even though we had not used bone-inducing chemical substances. Bone generation was not found in test cases without a cage. Enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) labeling of the implanted BMSCs clearly showed that these cells differentiated into osteoblasts and subsequently into osteocytes in the formed bone tissue. Host cells without EGFP labeling were also confirmed to be involved in bone formation. Six months after transplantation, the implanted cells were still present in the generated bone, and no significant resorption of the generated bone was observed. These results indicate that the physically stable spatial microenvironment created by the cage in vivo plays an important role in bone formation and inhibition of its resorption, which we refer to as the 'cage effect'. PMID:22538638

Tanoue, Ryuichiro; Ohta, Keisuke; Kusukawa, Jingo; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro

2012-01-01

226

Autologous fat grafts placed around temporomandibular joint total joint prostheses to prevent heterotopic bone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated 1) the efficacy of packing autologous fat grafts around temporomandibular joint (TMJ) total joint prosthetic reconstruc- tions to prevent fibrosis and heterotopic bone formation and 2) the ef- fects on postsurgical joint mobility and jaw function. One hundred fifteen patients (5 males and 110 females) underwent TMJ reconstruction with total joint prostheses and simultaneous fat grafts (88

Larry M. Wolford; Carlos A. Morales-Ryan; Patricia Garcia Morales; Daniel Serra Cassano

227

The in vivo bone formation by mesenchymal stem cells in zein scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our previous study, a three-dimensional zein porous scaffold was prepared. This scaffold showed proper mechanical properties, good biocompatibility, and controllable biodegradation. In addition, it allowed blood vessels to form inside in vivo. In the current study, we prepared the complexes of zein scaffolds and rabbit MSCs, and investigated ectopic bone formation in nude mice. Furthermore, we implanted them into

Jinwen Tu; Huajie Wang; Huiwu Li; Kerong Dai; Jinye Wang; Xiaoling Zhang

2009-01-01

228

Marrow development and its relationship to bone formation in vivo: A histological study using an implantable titanium device in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

During embryogenesis, the creation of marrow sinusoids is intimately related to the coupled processes of osteogenesis and osteoclastic resorption. We set out to further define the relationship between bone formation and marrow development by implanting an intraosseous titanium device into the tibiae of rabbits which permits the examination of bone formation under standardized and reproducible conditions as well as allowing

H. Zhou; P. F. M. Choong; S. Henderson; S. T. Chou; P. Aspenberg; T. J. Martin; K. W. Ng

1995-01-01

229

Copolymer-surfactant complexes obtained in a lamellar lyotropic medium.  

PubMed

Polymer-surfactant complexes formed between charged copolymers and oppositely charged surfactants are analyzed as a function of the charge density in the macromolecule. Copolymers of ionizable diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) and neutral acrylamide are obtained at different comonomer ratios. When mixed with the lamellar medium formed by the anionic surfactant 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) in water, they give rise to highly condensed lamellar phases in equilibrium with another lyotropic phase. The structure of these phases is studied by SAXS and optical microscopy revealing the formation of copolymer-surfactant complexes which present a lamellar structure. The composition of the phases is inaccessible to direct determination, because they do not separate macroscopically (in most of the samples). Thus, the stoichiometry is determined using a model which considers the charge density of the copolymers. This model allows, from the experimental data provided by SAXS, to calculate the composition and volume ratio of the phases. The results indicate that these complexes are nonstoichiometric, containing a lesser amount of DADMAC than surfactant units. The neutral sequences of acrylamide can be considered as bridges along the water domains remaining anchored to the AOT bilayers by the cationic DADMAC units. When the charge density diminishes, the bridges become longer, rendering structures with higher water content. PMID:23387994

Agzenai, Yahya; Pacios, Isabel E; Renamayor, Carmen S

2013-03-14

230

Dynamin2 Organizes Lamellipodial Actin Networks to Orchestrate Lamellar Actomyosin  

PubMed Central

Actin networks in migrating cells exist as several interdependent structures: sheet-like networks of branched actin filaments in lamellipodia; arrays of bundled actin filaments co-assembled with myosin II in lamellae; and actin filaments that engage focal adhesions. How these dynamic networks are integrated and coordinated to maintain a coherent actin cytoskeleton in migrating cells is not known. We show that the large GTPase dynamin2 is enriched in the distal lamellipod where it regulates lamellipodial actin networks as they form and flow in U2-OS cells. Within lamellipodia, dynamin2 regulated the spatiotemporal distributions of ?-actinin and cortactin, two actin-binding proteins that specify actin network architecture. Dynamin2's action on lamellipodial F-actin influenced the formation and retrograde flow of lamellar actomyosin via direct and indirect interactions with actin filaments and a finely tuned GTP hydrolysis activity. Expression in dynamin2-depleted cells of a mutant dynamin2 protein that restores endocytic activity, but not activities that remodel actin filaments, demonstrated that actin filament remodeling by dynamin2 did not depend of its functions in endocytosis. Thus, dynamin2 acts within lamellipodia to organize actin filaments and regulate assembly and flow of lamellar actomyosin. We hypothesize that through its actions on lamellipodial F-actin, dynamin2 generates F-actin structures that give rise to lamellar actomyosin and for efficient coupling of F-actin at focal adhesions. In this way, dynamin2 orchestrates the global actin cytoskeleton.

Menon, Manisha; Askinazi, Olga L.; Schafer, Dorothy A.

2014-01-01

231

New bone formation in a bone defect associated to dental implant using absorbable or non-absorbable membrane in a dog model  

PubMed Central

The aim of this research was to determine the bone formation capacity in fenestration defects associated with dental implants using absorbable and non-absorbable membranes. Six dogs were used in the study. In both tibias of each animal 3 implants were installed, and around these 5 mm circular defects were created. The defects were covered with absorbable membranes (experimental group 1), non-absorbable membranes (experimental group 2), and the third defect was not covered (control group). At 3 and 8 weeks post-surgery, the animals were euthanized and the membranes with the bone tissue around the implants were processed for histological analysis. The statistical analysis was conducted with Tukey’s test, considering statistical significance when p<0.1. Adequate bone repair was observed in the membrane-covered defects. At 3 weeks, organization of the tissue, bone formation from the periphery of the defect and the absence of inflammatory infiltrate were observed in both experimental groups, but the defect covered with absorbable membrane presented statistically greater bone formation. At 8 weeks, both membrane-covered defects showed adequate bone formation without significant differences, although they did in fact present differences with the control defect in both periods (p>0.1). In the defects without membrane, continuous connective tissue invasions and bone repair deficiency were observed. There were no significant differences in the characteristics and volume of the neoformed bone in the defects around the implants covered by the different membranes, whereas the control defects produced significantly less bone. The use of biological membranes contributes to bone formation in three-wall defects.

Lopez, Maria de Almeida; Olate, Sergio; Lanata-Flores, Antonio; Pozzer, Leandro; Cavalieri-Pereira, Lucas; Cantin, Mario; Vasquez, Belgica; de Albergaria-Barbosa, Jose

2013-01-01

232

The influence of collagen and hyaluronan matrices on the delivery and bioactivity of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and ectopic bone formation.  

PubMed

Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is known to enhance fracture healing when delivered via a bovine collagen sponge. However, collagen rapidly releases BMP-2 with a high burst phase that is followed by a low sustained phase. As a result, supra-physiological doses of BMP-2 are often required to successfully treat bone defects. High BMP-2 dosing can introduce serious side effects that include edema, bone overgrowth, cyst-like bone formation and significant inflammation. As the release behavior of BMP-2 carriers significantly affects the efficacy of fracture healing, we sought to compare the influence of two BMP-2 delivery matrices with contrasting release profiles on BMP-2 bioactivity and ectopic bone formation. We compared a thiol-modified hyaluronan (Glycosil™) hydrogel that exhibits a low burst followed by a sustained release of BMP-2 to a collagen sponge for the delivery of three different doses of BMP-2, the bioactivities of released BMP-2 and ectopic bone formation. Analysis of bone formation by micro-computed tomography revealed that low burst followed by sustained release of BMP-2 from a hyaluronan hydrogel induced up to 456% more bone compared to a BMP-2 dose-matched collagen sponge that has a high burst and sustained release. This study demonstrates that BMP-2 released with a low burst followed by a sustained release of BMP-2 is more desirable for bone formation. This highlights the therapeutic potential of hydrogels, particularly hyaluronan-based, for the delivery of BMP-2 for the treatment of bone defects and may help abrogate the adverse clinical effects associated with high dose growth factor use. PMID:23871940

Bhakta, Gajadhar; Lim, Zophia X H; Rai, Bina; Lin, Tingxuan; Hui, James H; Prestwich, Glenn D; van Wijnen, Andre J; Nurcombe, Victor; Cool, Simon M

2013-11-01

233

Transgenic Overexpression of Ephrin B1 in Bone Cells Promotes Bone Formation and an Anabolic Response to Mechanical Loading in Mice  

PubMed Central

To test if ephrin B1 overexpression enhances bone mass, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing ephrin B1 under the control of a 3.6 kb rat collagen 1A1 promoter (Col3.6-Tgefnb1). Col3.6-Tgefnb1 mice express 6-, 12- and 14-fold greater levels of full-length ephrin B1 protein in bone marrow stromal cells, calvarial osteoblasts, and osteoclasts, respectively. The long bones of both genders of Col3.6-Tgefnb1 mice have increased trabecular bone volume, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness and decreased trabecular separation. Enhanced bone formation and decreased bone resorption contributed to this increase in trabecular bone mass in Col3.6-Tgefnb1 mice. Consistent with these findings, our in vitro studies showed that overexpression of ephrin B1 increased osteoblast differentiation and mineralization, osterix and collagen 1A1 expression in bone marrow stromal cells. Interaction of ephrin B1 with soluble clustered EphB2-Fc decreased osteoclast precursor differentiation into multinucleated cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the mechanical loading-induced increase in EphB2 expression and newly formed bone were significantly greater in the Col3.6-Tgefnb1 mice than in WT littermate controls. Our findings that overexpression of ephrin B1 in bone cells enhances bone mass and promotes a skeletal anabolic response to mechanical loading suggest that manipulation of ephrin B1 actions in bone may provide a means to sensitize the skeleton to mechanical strain to stimulate new bone formation.

Cheng, Shaohong; Kesavan, Chandrasekhar; Mohan, Subburaman; Qin, Xuezhong; Alarcon, Catrina M.; Wergedal, Jon; Xing, Weirong

2013-01-01

234

Oncostatin M promotes bone formation independently of resorption when signaling through leukemia inhibitory factor receptor in mice.  

PubMed

Effective osteoporosis therapy requires agents that increase the amount and/or quality of bone. Any modification of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption by disease or drug treatment, however, elicits a parallel change in osteoblast-mediated bone formation because the processes are tightly coupled. Anabolic approaches now focus on uncoupling osteoblast action from osteoclast formation, for example, by inhibiting sclerostin, an inhibitor of bone formation that does not influence osteoclast differentiation. Here, we report that oncostatin M (OSM) is produced by osteoblasts and osteocytes in mouse bone and that it has distinct effects when acting through 2 different receptors, OSM receptor (OSMR) and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR). Specifically, mouse OSM (mOSM) inhibited sclerostin production in a stromal cell line and in primary murine osteoblast cultures by acting through LIFR. In contrast, when acting through OSMR, mOSM stimulated RANKL production and osteoclast formation. A key role for OSMR in bone turnover was confirmed by the osteopetrotic phenotype of mice lacking OSMR. Furthermore, in contrast to the accepted model, in which mOSM acts only through OSMR, mOSM inhibited sclerostin expression in Osmr-/- osteoblasts and enhanced bone formation in vivo. These data reveal what we believe to be a novel pathway by which bone formation can be stimulated independently of bone resorption and provide new insights into OSMR and LIFR signaling that are relevant to other medical conditions, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. PMID:20051625

Walker, Emma C; McGregor, Narelle E; Poulton, Ingrid J; Solano, Melissa; Pompolo, Sueli; Fernandes, Tania J; Constable, Matthew J; Nicholson, Geoff C; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Nicola, Nicos A; Gillespie, Matthew T; Martin, T John; Sims, Natalie A

2010-02-01

235

Partial Loss of Anabolic Effect of Prostaglandin E(sub 2) on Bone After Its Withdrawal in Rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The object of this study was to determine the fate of PGE(sub 2)-induced new bone mass after withdrawal of PGE(sub 2) administration. Seven-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were given subcutaneous injections of 1, 3, and 6 mg PGE(sub 2),/kg/d for 60 days and then withdrawn for 60 and 120 days. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on double fluorescent labeled undecalcified proximal tibial bone specimens. After 60 days of PGE(sub 2) treatment, a new steady state of increased trabecular bone area (+67% and +81% with 3 and 6 mg PGE(sub 2)/kg/d) from woven bone and stimulated lamellar bone formation, elevated bone turnover, and shortened remodeling periods were achieved compared to age-matched controls. In contrast, after 60 and 120 days withdrawal of PGE(sub 2), a new steady state characterized by less trabecular bone area (+40% to +60% of controls with 3 and 6 mg/kg/d doses), normal lamellar bone formation, no woven bone formation from controls, and eroded surface greater than those seen in controls and previously in 60-day PGE(sub 2) treated rats. The decrease in new bone mass after withdrawal of PGE(sub 2), was due to a further elevation of bone resorption above that induced by the PGE(sub 2) treatment and a reduction in PGE(sub 2), stimulated bone formation activities. Although there is more trabecular bone than in controls after 120 days withdrawal of PGE(sub 2), we postulate that the skeletal adaptation to mechanical usage will eventually reduce the bone mass to control levels. Thus, it is conservative to conclude that the anabolic effect of PGE(sub 2) was dependent upon continuous daily administration of PGE(sub 2) in these older rats.

Ke, H. Z.; Li, X. J.; Jee, W. S. S.

1991-01-01

236

The role of intracellular calcium phosphate in osteoblast-mediated bone apatite formation  

PubMed Central

Mineralization is a ubiquitous process in the animal kingdom and is fundamental to human development and health. Dysfunctional or aberrant mineralization leads to a variety of medical problems, and so an understanding of these processes is essential to their mitigation. Osteoblasts create the nano-composite structure of bone by secreting a collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) on which apatite crystals subsequently form. However, despite their requisite function in building bone and decades of observations describing intracellular calcium phosphate, the precise role osteoblasts play in mediating bone apatite formation remains largely unknown. To better understand the relationship between intracellular and extracellular mineralization, we combined a sample-preparation method that simultaneously preserved mineral, ions, and ECM with nano-analytical electron microscopy techniques to examine osteoblasts in an in vitro model of bone formation. We identified calcium phosphate both within osteoblast mitochondrial granules and intracellular vesicles that transported material to the ECM. Moreover, we observed calcium-containing vesicles conjoining mitochondria, which also contained calcium, suggesting a storage and transport mechanism. Our observations further highlight the important relationship between intracellular calcium phosphate in osteoblasts and their role in mineralizing the ECM. These observations may have important implications in deciphering both how normal bone forms and in understanding pathological mineralization.

Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Gentleman, Eileen; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Evans, Nicholas D.; McComb, David W.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Stevens, Molly M.

2012-01-01

237

How do closed-compact multi-lamellar droplets form under shear flow? A possible mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of closed-compact multi-lamellar droplets obtained upon shearing both a lamellar phase (L?) and a two-phase separated lamellar-sponge (L?-L3) mixture is investigated as a function of the shear rate dot gamma, using small-angle light scattering (SALS) and cross-polarized optical microscopy. In both systems the formation of droplets occurs homogeneously in the cell at a well-defined wave vector qe propto dot gamma1/3 via a strain-controlled process. These results suggest that the formation of droplets may be monitored in both systems by a buckling instability of the lamellae as predicted from a recent theory.

Courbin, L.; Pons, R.; Rouch, J.; Panizza, P.

2003-01-01

238

The effect of heparan sulfate application on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are recognized for their ability to induce bone formation in vivo and in vitro. Their osteogenic and osteoinductive properties are tightly regulated by the secretion of specific BMP antagonists, which have been shown to physically bind and sometimes be blocked by the extracellular proteoglycan heparan sulphate side chains (from hereon referred to as HS). The purpose of this study was to investigate if local application of 5 µg of HS proteoglycan to a bone regenerate site in a mouse model of distraction osteogenesis (DO) can accelerate bone healing and affect the expression of key members of the BMP signaling pathway. DO was performed on the right tibia of 115 adult male wild-type mice. At mid-distraction (day 11), half the group was injected locally with 5 µg of HS, while the other half was injected with saline. The mice were sacrificed at 2 time-points: mid-consolidation (34 days) and full consolidation (51 days). The distracted tibial zone was then collected for analysis by ?CT, radiology, biomechanical testing, immunohistochemistry, and histology. While ?CT data showed no statistically significant difference in bone formation, the results of biomechanical testing in stiffness and ultimate force were significantly lower in the HS-injected bones at 51 days, compared to controls. Immunohistochemistry results also suggested a decrease in expression of several key members of the BMP signaling pathway at 34 days. Furthermore, wound dehiscence and infection rates were significantly elevated in the HS group compared to the controls, which resulted in a higher rate of euthanasia in the treatment group. Our findings demonstrate that exogenous application of 5 µg of HS in the distracted gap of a murine model had a negative impact on bone and wound healing. PMID:23457615

Gdalevitch, Marie; Kasaai, Bahar; Alam, Norine; Dohin, Bruno; Lauzier, Dominique; Hamdy, Reggie C

2013-01-01

239

Pyk2 Regulates Megakaryocyte-Induced Increases in Osteoblast Number and Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

Pre-clinical and clinical evidence from megakaryocyte (MK) related diseases suggest that MKs play a significant role in maintaining bone homeostasis. Findings from our laboratories reveal that MKs significantly increase osteoblast (OB) number through direct MK-OB contact and the activation of integrins. We therefore examined the role of Pyk2, a tyrosine kinase known to be regulated downstream of integrins, in the MK-mediated enhancement of OBs. When OBs were co-cultured with MKs, total Pyk2 levels in OBs were significantly enhanced primarily due to increased Pyk2 gene transcription. Additionally, p53 and Mdm2 were both decreased in OBs upon MK stimulation, which would be permissive of cell cycle entry. We then demonstrated that OB number was markedly reduced when Pyk2?/? OBs, as opposed to wild-type (WT) OBs, were co-cultured with MKs. We also determined that MKs inhibit OB differentiation in the presence and absence of Pyk2 expression. Finally, given that MK replete spleen cells from GATA-1 deficient mice can robustly stimulate OB proliferation and bone formation in WT mice, we adoptively transferred spleen cells from these mice into Pyk2?/? recipient mice. Importantly, GATA-1 deficient spleen cells failed to stimulate an increase in bone formation in Pyk2?/? mice, suggesting in vivo the important role of Pyk2 in the MK-induced increase in bone volume. Further understanding of the signaling pathways involved in the MK-mediated enhancement of OB number and bone formation will facilitate the development of novel anabolic therapies to treat bone loss diseases.

Cheng, Ying-Hua; Hooker, R. Adam; Nguyen, Khanh; Gerard-O'Riley, Rita; Waning, David L.; Chitteti, Brahmananda R.; Meijome, Tomas E.; Chua, Hui Lin; Plett, Artur P.; Orschell, Christie M.; Srour, Edward F.; Mayo, Lindsey D.; Pavalko, Fredrick M.; Bruzzaniti, Angela; Kacena, Melissa A.

2013-01-01

240

Local delivery of FTY720 accelerates cranial allograft incorporation and bone formation  

PubMed Central

Endogenous stem cell recruitment to the site of skeletal injury is key to enhanced osseous remodeling and neovascularization. To this end, this study utilized a novel bone allograft coating of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) to sustain the release of FTY720, a selective agonist for sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors, from calvarial allografts. Uncoated allografts, vehicle-coated, low dose FTY720 in PLAGA (1:200 w:w) and high dose FTY720 in PLAGA (1:40) were implanted into critical size calvarial bone defects. The ability of local FTY720 delivery to promote angiogenesis, maximize osteoinductivity and improve allograft incorporation by recruitment of bone progenitor cells from surrounding soft tissues and microcirculation was evaluated. FTY720 bioactivity after encapsulation and release was confirmed with sphingosine kinase 2 assays. HPLC-MS quantified about 50% loaded FTY720 release of the total encapsulated drug (4.5 µg) after 5 days. Following 2 weeks of defect healing, FTY720 delivery led to statistically significant increases in bone volumes compared to controls, with total bone volume increases for uncoated, coated, low FTY720 and high FTY720 of 5.98, 3.38, 7.2 and 8.9 mm3, respectively. The rate and extent of enhanced bone growth persisted through week 4 but, by week 8, increases in bone formation in FTY720 groups were no longer statistically significant. However, micro-computed tomography (microCT) of contrast enhanced vascular ingrowth (MICROFIL®) and histological analysis showed enhanced integration as well as directed bone growth in both high and low dose FTY720 groups compared to controls.

Huang, Cynthia; Das, Anusuya; Barker, Daniel; Tholpady, Sunil; Wang, Tiffany; Cui, Quanjun; Ogle, Roy

2012-01-01

241

Insulin-like growth factor I has independent effects on bone matrix formation and cell replication  

SciTech Connect

The effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin on bone matrix synthesis and bone cell replication were studied in cultured 21-day-old fetal rat calvariae. Histomorphometry techniques were developed to measure the incorporation of (2,3-/sup 3/H)proline and (methyl-/sup 3/H)thymidine into bone matrix and bone cell nuclei, respectively, using autoradiographs of sagittal sections of calvariae cultured with IGF-I, insulin, or vehicle for up to 96 h. To confirm an effect on bone formation, IGF-I was also studied for its effects on (/sup 3/H)proline incorporation into collagenase-digestible protein (CDP) and noncollagen protein and on (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into acid-precipitable material (DNA). IGF-I at 10(-9)-10(-7) M significantly increased the rate of bone matrix apposition and CDP after 24 h by 45-50% and increased cell labeling by 8-fold in the osteoprogenitor cell zone, by 4-fold in the osteoblast cell zone, and by 2-fold in the periosteal fibroblast zone. Insulin at 10(-9)-10(-6) M also increased matrix apposition rate and CDP by 40-50%, but increased cell labeling by 2-fold only at a concentration of 10(-7) M or higher and then only in the osteoprogenitor cell zone. When hydroxyurea was added to IGF-I-treated bones, the effects of IGF-I on DNA synthesis were abolished, but the increase in bone matrix apposition induced by IGF-I was only partly diminished. In conclusion, IGF-I stimulates matrix synthesis in calvariae, an effect that is partly, although not completely, dependent on its stimulatory effect on DNA synthesis.

Hock, J.M.; Centrella, M.; Canalis, E.

1988-01-01

242

Skeletal repair by in situ formation of the mineral phase of bone  

SciTech Connect

A process has been developed for the in situ formation of the mineral phase of bone. Inorganic calcium and phosphate sources are combined to form a paste that is surgically implanted by injection. Under physiological conditions, the material hardens in minutes concurrent with the formation of dahllite. After 12 hours, dahllite formation was nearly complete, and an ultimate compressive strength of 55 megapascals was achieved. The composition and crystal morphology of the dahllite formed are similar to those of bone. Animal studies provide evidence that the material is remodeled in vivo. A novel approach to skeletal repair is being tested in human trials for various applications; in one of the trials the new biomaterial is being percutaneously placed into acute fractures. After hardening, it serves as internal fixation to maintain proper alignment while healing occurs. 33 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Constantz, B.R.; Ison, I.C.; Fulmer, M.T.; Poser, R.D.; Smith, S.T.; VanWagoner, M. [Norian Corporation, Cupertino, CA (United States); Ross, J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Goldstein, S.A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Jupiter, J.B.; Rosenthal, D.I. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

1995-03-24

243

Heterotopic Bone Formation Around Vessels: Pilot Study of a New Animal Model  

PubMed Central

Abstract To achieve an easily established, safe, and reproducible animal model for the study of heterotopic bone formation around vessels, a small animal series using New Zealand White rabbits was performed. Three different dosages of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein (rhBMP-2) carried by fibrin matrix were tested. A guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane sheet was formed into a tube and allowed to harden; it served both to maintain the space around the vessel bundle and to separate the fibrin matrix with rhBMP-2 from skeletal muscle. Wrapped around the femoral vessel bundle and fixed in place, the tube was filled with the fibrin matrix containing rhBMP-2. The surgical site was closed in layers, and the postoperative healing was uneventful. All animals resumed their full preoperative daily activities 3–4 days after the operation. No adverse events such as wound dehiscence or infection occurred, and all animals could be sacrified at the scheduled date. Micro–computed tomography and histological investigations showed heterotopic bone formation around the vessel bundle in the medium- and high-dosage rhBMP-2 groups. An easy, safe, and reproducible animal model that allows the study of heterotopic bone formation around vessels was successfully established.

Cai, Wei-Xin; Zheng, Li-Wu; Weber, Franz E.; Li, Chun-Lei; Ma, Li; Ehrbar, Martin

2013-01-01

244

Bone formation in polymeric scaffolds evaluated by proton magnetic resonance microscopy and X-ray microtomography.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) and X-ray microtomography (XMT) were used to investigate de novo bone formation in porous poly(ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA) scaffolds, prepared by a novel co-extrusion process. PEMA scaffolds were seeded with primary chick calvarial osteoblasts and cultured under static conditions for up to 8 weeks. Bone formation within porous PEMA scaffolds was confirmed by the application of histologic stains to intact PEMA disks. Disks were treated with Alizarin red to visualize calcium deposits and with Sirius red to visualize regions of collagen deposition. DNA analysis confirmed that cells reached confluence on the scaffolds after 7 weeks in static culture. The formation of bone in PEMA scaffolds was investigated with water proton MRM. Quantitative MRM maps of the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) yielded maps of protein deposition, and magnetic resonance (MR) relaxation times (T1 and T2) yielded maps of mineral deposition. The location of newly formed bone and local mineral concentrations were confirmed by XMT. By comparing MRM and XMT data from selected regions-of-interest in one sample, the inverse relationship between the MR relaxation times and mineral concentration was validated, and calibration curves for estimating the mineral content of cell-seeded PEMA scaffolds from quantitative MRM images were developed. PMID:15162416

Washburn, Newell R; Weir, Michael; Anderson, Paul; Potter, Kimberlee

2004-06-15

245

Effects of epidermal growth factor on bone formation and resorption in vivo  

SciTech Connect

The effects of mouse epidermal growth factor (EGF) on bone formation and resorption were examined in male mice. EGF administration (2-200 ng.g-1.day-1 ip for 7 days) induced a dose-dependent rise in plasma EGF levels that remained within physiological range. Histomorphometric analysis of caudal vertebrae showed that EGF (20 and 200 ng.g-1.day-1) reduced the endosteal matrix and mineral appositional rates after 5 days of treatment as measured by double (3H)proline labeling and double tetracycline labeling, respectively. This effect was transitory and was not observed after 7 days of EGF administration. EGF administered for 7 days induced a dose-dependent increase in the periosteal osteoblastic and tetracycline double-labeled surfaces. At high dosage (200 ng.g-1.day-1) EGF administration increased the osteoclastic surface and the number of acid phosphatase-stained osteoclasts, although plasma calcium remained normal. The results show that EGF administration at physiological doses induces distinct effects on endosteal and periosteal bone formation and that the effects are dependent on EGF dosage and duration of treatment. This study indicates that EGF at physiological dosage stimulates periosteal bone formation and increases endosteal bone resorption in the growing mouse.

Marie, P.J.; Hott, M.; Perheentupa, J. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Paris (France))

1990-02-01

246

Insulin promotes bone formation in augmented maxillary sinus in diabetic rabbits.  

PubMed

The role of insulin during the formation of bone in the augmented space of the maxillary sinus in patients with diabetes is unclear. The authors compared the differences in bone formation after maxillary sinus floor elevation in diabetic and healthy animals and evaluated the effects of insulin on osteogenesis and the differentiation and activities of the osteoblasts. 10 male Japanese white rabbits were divided into two groups after diabetic induction by a single injection of monohydrated alloxan and having maintained steady blood glucose levels. The groups included the diabetes mellitus group (DM; n=5) and the DM+insulin group (n=5); another five healthy rabbits comprised the control group. Maxillary sinus floor elevation was performed by grafting hydroxyapatite particles. Compared with the control group, the newly formed bone area, number of blood vessels and osteoblasts, collagen I content and serum osteocalcin levels were significantly decreased in DM rabbits (P<0.01). Insulin treatment reversed the decrease in bone formation, blood vessels, osteoblasts, collagen I and serum osteocalcin (P<0.01). Insulin treatment also promoted osteogenesis in the augmented space of the diabetic rabbits, which might have resulted from promotion of osteoblast differentiation and upregulation of neovascularization. PMID:22099315

Hou, C-J; Liu, J-L; Li, X; Bi, L-J

2012-03-01

247

Fabrication and Characterization of Biomimetic Collagen-Apatite Scaffolds with Tunable Structures for Bone Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

The objective of the current study is to prepare a biomimetic collagen-apatite (Col-Ap) scaffold for improved bone repair and regeneration. A novel bottom-up approach has been developed, which combines a biomimetic self-assembly method with a controllable freeze casting technology. In this study, the mineralized collagen fibers were generated using a simple one-step co-precipitation method which involved collagen self-assembly and in situ apatite precipitation in a collagen-containing modified simulated body fluid (m-SBF). The precipitates were subjected to controllable freeze casting, forming scaffolds with either an isotropic equiaxed structure or a unidirectional lamellar structure. These scaffolds were comprised of collagen fibers and poorly crystalline bone-like carbonated apatite nanoparticles. The mineral content in the scaffold could be tailored in a range 0–54 wt% by simply adjusting the collagen content in the m-SBF. Further, the mechanisms of the formation of both the equiaxed and the lamellar scaffolds were investigated, and freezing regimes for equiaxed and lamellar solidification were established. Finally, bone forming capability of such prepared scaffolds was evaluated in vivo in a mouse calvarial defect model. It was confirmed that the scaffolds well support new bone formation.

Xia, Zengmin; Yu, Xiaohua; Jiang, Xi; Brody, Harold D; Rowe, David W; Wei, Mei

2013-01-01

248

Assessment of bone formation and bone resorption in osteoporosis: a comparison between tetracycline-based iliac histomorphometry and whole body /sup 85/Sr kinetics  

SciTech Connect

Bone formation and resorption have been measured in patients with idiopathic osteoporosis by histomorphometry of 7.5-mm trephine biopsies and in the whole body by 85Sr radiotracer methodology and calcium balances. The studies were synchronized and most were preceded by double in vivo tetracycline labeling. Correlations between histological and kinetic bone formation indices were better when better when based on the extent of double tetracycline labels than on measurements of osteoid by visible light microscopy. Correction of the kinetic data for long-term exchange, using 5 months' serial whole body counting of retained 85Sr, improved the fit of the kinetic to the histological data. A statistical analysis of the measurement uncertainties showed that the residual scatter in the best correlations (between exchange-corrected bone formation rates and double-labeled osteoid surface indices) could be attributed to measurement imprecision alone. The exchange-corrected resorption rate correlated fairly well with iliac trabecular resorption surfaces, and using a volume referent rather than a surface referent for the histological index improved the statistical fit when patients with therapeutically accelerated bone turnover were included. A much better correlation was obtained by including osteoid volume acting as an independent predictor of bone resorption in a bivariate regression with a resorption surface index. The residual errors could then be accounted for by known measurement uncertainties. Whereas osteoid taking a double label closely predicted the kinetic rate of bone formation, further analysis suggested that osteoid that took no label or a single label was more closely related to bone resorption, presumably as a secondary result of the coupling of bone formation to bone resorption.

Reeve, J.; Arlot, M.E.; Chavassieux, P.M.; Edouard, C.; Green, J.R.; Hesp, R.; Tellez, M.; Meunier, P.J.

1987-12-01

249

Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in mature osteoblasts is required for periosteal bone formation induced by reloading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skeletal loading and unloading has a pronounced impact on bone remodeling, a process also regulated by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling. Skeletal unloading leads to resistance to the anabolic effect of IGF-1, while reloading after unloading restores responsiveness to IGF-1. However, a direct study of the importance of IGF-1 signaling in the skeletal response to mechanical loading remains to be tested. In this study, we assessed the skeletal response of osteoblast-specific Igf-1 receptor deficient (Igf-1r-/-) mice to unloading and reloading. The mice were hindlimb unloaded for 14 days and then reloaded for 16 days. Igf-1r-/- mice displayed smaller cortical bone and diminished periosteal and endosteal bone formation at baseline. Periosteal and endosteal bone formation decreased with unloading in Igf-1r+/+ mice. However, the recovery of periosteal bone formation with reloading was completely inhibited in Igf-1r-/- mice, although reloading-induced endosteal bone formation was not hampered. These changes in bone formation resulted in the abolishment of the expected increase in total cross-sectional area with reloading in Igf-1r-/- mice compared to the control mice. These results suggest that the Igf-1r in mature osteoblasts has a critical role in periosteal bone formation in the skeletal response to mechanical loading.

Kubota, Takuo; Elalieh, Hashem Z.; Saless, Neema; Fong, Chak; Wang, Yongmei; Babey, Muriel; Cheng, Zhiqiang; Bikle, Daniel D.

2013-11-01

250

The Dose of Growth Factors Influences the Synergistic Effect of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor on Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4-Induced Ectopic Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to act synergistically with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2 and BMP4 to promote ectopic endochondral bone formation via cell-based BMP gene therapy, the optimal ratio of VEGF to either of the BMPs required to obtain this beneficial effect remains unclear. In the current study, two cell types (C2C12, NIH/3T3) were retrovirally transduced to express BMP4 only or both BMP4 and VEGF. The resulting groups of cells were tested for their cellular proliferation, in vitro mineralization capacity, survival potential, and ability to undergo ectopic bone formation when implanted into a gluteofemoral muscle pocket created in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Results showed that VEGF inhibited the in vitro calcification of C2C12 and NIH/3T3 cells transduced to express BMP4. In vivo, C2C12 and NIH/3T3 cells expressing BMP4 and VEGF displayed significantly less bone formation than the same cells expressing only BMP4. In vivo, our results indicated that, when the ratio of VEGF to BMP4 is high, a detrimental effect on ectopic bone formation is observed; however, when the ratio is kept low and constant over time, the detrimental effect that VEGF has on ectopic bone formation is lost. Our studies revealed that VEGF's synergistic role in BMP4 induced ectopic bone formation is dose and cell-type dependent, which is an important consideration for cell-based gene therapy and tissue engineering for bone healing.

Li, Guangheng; Corsi-Payne, Karin; Zheng, Bo; Usas, Arvydas; Peng, Hairong

2009-01-01

251

Immobilization hypercalcaemia due to low bone formation and responding to intravenous sodium sulphate.  

PubMed Central

A young man developed acute renal failure and hypercalcaemia following severe burns. The hypercalcaemia was initially controlled by haemodialysis, but it persisted after return of renal function. Plasma PTH was inappropriately elevated, but the nephrogenous cyclic adenosine monophosphate level was low; thus the PTH was probably not biologically active, and may have been artefactually elevated by the moderate renal impairment. Bone histology, showed a normal resorbing surface, but a zero forming surface, implying that the bone dissolution leading to hypercalcaemia resulted from a failure of bone formation. Because of widespread infection and impaired renal function, the hypercalcaemia could not be treated by corticosteroid drugs, mithramycin or phosphate, and there was no response to salmon calcitonin. He was therefore treated with intravenous sodium sulphate, which increased urinary calcium excretion and reduced the plasma calcium. Sodium sulphate still has a role in the treatment of patients with hypercalcaemia. Images Figure 3

Evans, R. A.; Lawrence, P. J.; Thanakrishnan, G.; Hills, E.; Wong, S. Y.; Dunstan, C. R.

1986-01-01

252

Development of silk-based scaffolds for tissue engineering of bone from human adipose derived stem cells  

PubMed Central

Silk fibroin is a potent alternative to other biodegradable biopolymers for bone tissue engineering (TE), because of its tunable architecture and mechanical properties, and demonstrated ability to support bone formation, in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated a range of silk scaffolds for bone TE using human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC), an attractive cell source for engineering autologous bone grafts. Our goal was to understand the effects of scaffold architecture and biomechanics and use this information to optimize silk scaffolds for bone TE applications. Silk scaffolds were fabricated using different solvents (aqueous vs. hexafluoro-2-propanol - HFIP), pore sizes (250–500?m vs. 500–1000?m) and structures (lamellar vs. spherical pores). Four types of silk scaffolds combining the properties of interest were systematically compared with respect to bone tissue outcomes with decellularized trabecular bone (DCB) included as a “gold standard”. The scaffolds were seeded with hASC and cultured for 7 weeks in osteogenic media. Bone formation was evaluated by cell proliferation and differentiation, matrix production, calcification and mechanical properties. We observed that 400–600?m porous HFIP-derived silk fibroin scaffold demonstrated the best bone tissue formation outcomes as evidenced by increased bone protein production (osteopontin, collagen type I, bone sialoprotein), enhanced calcium deposition and total bone volume. On a direct comparison basis, alkaline phosphatase activity (AP) at week 2, and new calcium deposition at week 7 were comparable to the cells cultured in DCB. Yet, among the aqueous-based structures, the lamellar architecture induced increased AP activity and demonstrated higher equilibrium modulus than the spherical-pore scaffolds. Based on the collected data, we propose a conceptual model describing the effects of silk scaffold design on bone tissue formation.

Correia, Cristina; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Yan, Le-Ping; Oliveira, Ana L.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Rockwood, Danielle; Kaplan, David L.; Sousa, Rui A.; Reis, Rui L.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2012-01-01

253

Bone Formation During Distraction Osteogenesis Is Dependent on Both VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 Signaling  

PubMed Central

Introduction Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is characterized by the induction of highly vascularized new bone formation through an intramembranous process largely devoid of the formation of cartilage. Materials and Methods To test the hypothesis that DO is strictly dependent on vascualrization, we inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) activity by antibody blockade of both receptors VEGFR1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR2 (Flk-1) or only VEGFR2 (Flk-1) in a previously developed murine tibia DO model. During normal DO, VEGFR1 (Flt-1), VEGFR2 (Flk-1), VEGFR3 (Flt4) and all four VEGF ligand (A, B, C, and D) mRNAs are induced. Results The expression of mRNA for the receptors generally paralleled those of the ligands during the period of active distraction. Bone formation, as assessed by ?CT, showed a significant decrease with the double antibody treatment and a smaller decrease with single antibody treatment. Vessel volume, number, and connectivity showed progressive and significant inhibition in all of these of parameters between the single and double antibody blockade. Molecular analysis showed significant inhibition in skeletal cell development with the single and double antibody blockade of both VEGFR1 and 2. Interestingly, the single antibody treatment led to selective early development of chondrogenesis, whereas the double antibody treatment led to a failure of both osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. Conclusions Both VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 are functionally essential in blood vessel and bone formation during DO and are needed to promote osteogenic over chondrogenic lineage progression.

Jacobsen, Kimberly A; Al-Aql, Zainab S; Wan, Chao; Fitch, Jennifer L; Stapleton, Stephanie N; Mason, Zachary D; Cole, Robert M; Gilbert, Shawn R; Clemens, Thomas L; Morgan, Elise F; Einhorn, Thomas A; Gerstenfeld, Louis C

2008-01-01

254

Human bone tissue formation in diffusion chamber culture in vivo by bone-derived cells and marrow stromal fibroblastic cells.  

PubMed

Direct grafts of human cells into immunocompromised or cortisone-treated animals, either alone or within carrier materials, have been used with some success to assess the developmental capability of the grafted cells. However, identification of the donor or host origins of the generated tissue in such direct grafts is essential. In an alternative and extensively used experimental system, cells are cultured within the isolated environments of diffusion chambers, which are surgically implanted in appropriate hosts. This system allows the direct study of the cellular potentials for differentiation as host tissues are excluded. In the present study, human osteoprogenitor cell populations derived from trabecular bone explants or marrow suspensions of 3 patients (2 females aged 14 years and 1 male aged 27 years) were cultured in the absence or the continuous presence of dexamethasone (10 nmol/L). Cells were impregnated into porous hydroxyapatite ceramics before subcutaneous implantation, or placed within diffusion chambers before intraperitoneal implantation, in athymic mice. All subcutaneous implants of cells in ceramic showed morphological evidence for the formation of bone tissue. In the diffusion chambers it was found that both marrow- and bone-derived fibroblastic cells cultured in the absence of dexamethasone generally produced fibrous tissue only. When cultured in the continuous presence of dexamethasone (10 nmol/L), these cell populations produced similar osteogenic tissues with active osteoblasts, wide osteoid seams, and mineralized tissue, with cartilage toward the interior of the chamber. These results validate the diffusion chamber as an experimental system to study human osteogenesis using appropriately primed cell populations. PMID:7669435

Gundle, R; Joyner, C J; Triffitt, J T

1995-06-01

255

Lamellar body counts: a consensus on protocol.  

PubMed

Lamellar bodies, concentrically layered "packages" of phospholipid that represent the storage form of surfactant, can be counted in the platelet channel of most electronic cell counters. The lamellar body count has been used for more than a decade and performs as well as traditional phospholipid analysis as an assay for evaluating fetal lung maturity. It is preferable to phospholipid analysis because it is rapid, objective, and inexpensive and can be performed in any hospital laboratory. The current methodologies for specimen preparation vary widely among laboratories, most notably with respect to centrifugation, resulting in differences in maturity cutoffs used. Our goal was to establish a consensus regarding a standardized methodology for the lamellar body count. Institutions that previously had published their results with lamellar body counts were invited to contribute. The consensus of the four participating institutions includes the following: centrifugation is not a necessary step and should be abandoned, maturity is suggested by a count of 50,000/microL or greater, and immaturity is suggested by a count of 15,000/microL or lower. As the lamellar body count gains wider acceptance as a primary assay for assessing fetal lung maturity, the test must be performed uniformly and accurately, given the implications of acting on a falsely negative test resulting from improper methodology. PMID:11165603

Neerhof, M G; Dohnal, J C; Ashwood, E R; Lee, I S; Anceschi, M M

2001-02-01

256

Twist1- and Twist2-Haploinsufficiency Results in Reduced Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

Background Twist1 and Twist2 are highly homologous bHLH transcription factors that exhibit extensive highly overlapping expression profiles during development. While both proteins have been shown to inhibit osteogenesis, only Twist1 haploinsufficiency is associated with the premature synostosis of cranial sutures in mice and humans. On the other hand, biallelic Twist2 deficiency causes only a focal facial dermal dysplasia syndrome or additional cachexia and perinatal lethality in certain mouse strains. It is unclear how these proteins cooperate to synergistically regulate bone formation. Methods Twist1 floxed mice (Twist1f/f) were bred with Twist2-Cre knock-in mice (Twist2Cre/+) to generate Twist1 and Twist2 haploinsufficient mice (Twist1f/+; Twist2Cre/+). X-radiography, micro-CT scans, alcian blue/alizarin red staining, trap staining, BrdU labeling, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridizations, real-time PCR and dual luciferase assay were employed to investigate the overall skeletal defects and the bone-associated molecular and cellular changes of Twist1f/+;Twist2Cre/+ mice. Results Twist1 and Twist2 haploinsufficient mice did not present with premature ossification and craniosynostosis; instead they displayed reduced bone formation, impaired proliferation and differentiation of osteoprogenitors. These mice exhibited decreased expressions of Fgf2 and Fgfr1–4 in bone, resulting in a down-regulation of FGF signaling. Furthermore, in vitro studies indicated that both Twist1 and Twist2 stimulated 4.9 kb Fgfr2 promoter activity in the presence of E12, a Twist binding partner. Conclusion These data demonstrated that Twist1- and Twist2-haploinsufficiency caused reduced bone formation due to compromised FGF signaling.

Huang, Yanyu; Meng, Tian; Wang, Suzhen; Zhang, Hua; Mues, Gabriele; Qin, Chunlin; Feng, Jian Q.; D'Souza, Rena N.; Lu, Yongbo

2014-01-01

257

Erythropoietin Mediated Bone Formation Is Regulated by mTOR Signaling  

PubMed Central

The role of erythropoietin (Epo) and Epo/Epo receptor (EpoR) signaling pathways for production of red blood cells are well established. However, little is known about Epo/EpoR signaling in non-hematopoietic cells. Recently, we demonstrated that Epo activates JAK/STAT signaling in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), leading to the production of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and bone formation and that Epo also directly activate mesenchymal cells to form osteoblasts in vitro. In this study, we investigated the effects of mTOR signaling on Epo-mediated osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. We found that mTOR inhibition by rapamycin blocks Epo-dependent and -independent osteoblastic phenotypes in human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) and ST2 cells, respectively. Furthermore, we found that rapamycin inhibits Epo-dependent and -independent osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells and Raw264.7 cells. Finally, we demonstrated that Epo increases NFATc1 expression and decreases cathepsin K expression in an mTOR-independent manner, resulting in an increase of osteoclast numbers and a decrease in resorption activity. Taken together, these results strongly indicate that mTOR signaling plays an important role in Epo-mediated bone homeostasis.

Kim, Jinkoo; Jung, Younghun; Sun, Hongli; Joseph, Jeena; Mishra, Anjali; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Wang, Jingcheng; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Taichman, Russell S.

2011-01-01

258

Craniosynostosis-Associated Fgfr2C342Y Mutant Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Exhibit Cell Autonomous Abnormalities in Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

We recently reported that cranial bones of Fgfr2C342Y/+ craniosynostotic mice are diminished in density when compared to those of wild type mice, and that cranial bone cells isolated from the mutant mice exhibit inhibited late stage osteoblast differentiation. To provide further support for the idea that craniosynostosis-associated Fgfr mutations lead to cell autonomous defects in osteoblast differentiation and mineralized tissue formation, here we tested bone marrow stromal cells isolated from Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice for their ability to differentiate into osteoblasts. Additionally, to determine if the low bone mass phenotype of Crouzon syndrome includes the appendicular skeleton, long bones were assessed by micro CT. Fgfr2C342Y/+ cells showed increased osteoblastic gene expression during early osteoblastic differentiation but decreased expression of alkaline phosphatase mRNA and enzyme activity, and decreased mineralization during later stages of differentiation, when cultured under 2D in vitro conditions. Cells isolated from Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice also formed less bone when allowed to differentiate in a 3D matrix in vivo. Cortical bone parameters were diminished in long bones of Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice. These results demonstrate that marrow stromal cells of Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice have an autonomous defect in osteoblast differentiation and bone mineralization, and that the Fgfr2C342Y mutation influences both the axial and appendicular skeletons.

Liu, J.; Kwon, T.-G.; Nam, H. K.; Hatch, N. E.

2013-01-01

259

Craniosynostosis-associated Fgfr2(C342Y) mutant bone marrow stromal cells exhibit cell autonomous abnormalities in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation.  

PubMed

We recently reported that cranial bones of Fgfr2(C342Y/+) craniosynostotic mice are diminished in density when compared to those of wild type mice, and that cranial bone cells isolated from the mutant mice exhibit inhibited late stage osteoblast differentiation. To provide further support for the idea that craniosynostosis-associated Fgfr mutations lead to cell autonomous defects in osteoblast differentiation and mineralized tissue formation, here we tested bone marrow stromal cells isolated from Fgfr2(C342Y/+) mice for their ability to differentiate into osteoblasts. Additionally, to determine if the low bone mass phenotype of Crouzon syndrome includes the appendicular skeleton, long bones were assessed by micro CT. Fgfr2(C342Y/+) cells showed increased osteoblastic gene expression during early osteoblastic differentiation but decreased expression of alkaline phosphatase mRNA and enzyme activity, and decreased mineralization during later stages of differentiation, when cultured under 2D in vitro conditions. Cells isolated from Fgfr2(C342Y/+) mice also formed less bone when allowed to differentiate in a 3D matrix in vivo. Cortical bone parameters were diminished in long bones of Fgfr2(C342Y/+) mice. These results demonstrate that marrow stromal cells of Fgfr2(C342Y/+) mice have an autonomous defect in osteoblast differentiation and bone mineralization, and that the Fgfr2(C342Y) mutation influences both the axial and appendicular skeletons. PMID:23762837

Liu, J; Kwon, T-G; Nam, H K; Hatch, N E

2013-01-01

260

Bone-like apatite layer formation on hydroxyapatite prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxyapatite (HA) compacts with high density and superior mechanical properties were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) using spray-dried HA powders as feedstock. The formation of bone-like apatite layer on SPS consolidated HA compacts were investigated by soaking the HA compacts in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various periods (maximum of 28 days). The structural changes in HA post-SBF were

Y. W. Gu; K. A. Khor; P. Cheang

2004-01-01

261

Effect of icariin on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis in the rabbit mandible  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of icariin on bone formation during mandibular distraction. 40 Rabbits were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Mandibular distraction was performed 5 days after unilateral mandibular osteotomy using a custom-made external distractor at a rate of 0.5mm\\/12h for 10 days. From the first day of distraction, icariin (2.5mg\\/kg·day) was

H. Wei; L. Zili; C. Yuanlu; Y. Biao; L. Cheng; W. Xiaoxia; L. Yang; W. Xing

2011-01-01

262

Short-term aluminum administration in the rat. Effects on bone formation and relationship to renal osteomalacia.  

PubMed Central

Aluminum may be pathogenic in the osteomalacia observed in some patients receiving hemodialysis. To study the early effects of Al on bone growth, bone formation, mineralization, and resorption were measured during short-term Al exposure in the tibial cortex of pair-fed control (C, n = 10), aluminum-treated (AL, n = 9), subtotally nephrectomized control (NX-C, n = 7), and subtotally nephrectomized aluminum-treated (NX-AL, n = 8) rats using double tetracycline labeling of bone. Animals received 2 mg/d of elemental Al intraperitoneally for 5 d/wk over 4 wk. Total bone and matrix (osteoid) formation, periosteal bone and matrix formation, and periosteal bone and matrix apposition fell by 20% in AL from C, P less than 0.05 for all values, and by 40% in NX-AL from NX-C, P less than 0.01 for all values. Moreover, each measurement was significantly less in NX-AL than in AL, P less than 0.05 for all values. Osteoid width did not increase following aluminum administration in either AL or NX-AL. Resorption surface increased from control values in both AL and NX-AL; also, resorptive activity at the endosteum was greater in NX-AL than in NX-C, P less than 0.05. Thus, aluminum impairs new bone and matrix formation but does not cause classic osteomalacia in the cortical bone of rats whether renal function is normal or reduced. These findings may represent either a different response to aluminum administration in cortical bone as contrasted to trabecular bone or an early phase in the development of osteomalacia. Aluminum may increase bone resorption and contribute to osteopenia in clinical states associated with aluminum accumulation in bone.

Goodman, W G; Gilligan, J; Horst, R

1984-01-01

263

An acute intake of phosphate increases parathyroid hormone secretion and inhibits bone formation in young women.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of a single oral phosphate (Pi) dose as well as those of three consecutive oral phosphate doses on calcium and bone metabolism. In the first part of the study (P1 study) 10 female volunteers were given orally 1500 mg of Pi in water, as a single dose, or plain water in randomized order at two different sessions. In the second part of the study (P3 study), 10 female volunteers were given orally 1500 mg of Pi, as three separate 500 mg doses in water, or plain water in randomized order. Calcium and bone metabolism was monitored for 24 h by measuring the concentrations of serum ionized calcium (S-iCa), urinary calcium, serum phosphate (S-P), urinary P, serum intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PICP), serum osteocalcin (BGP), serum carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity (B-ALP). The S-P increased (p = 0.00005 and p = 0.0005, in the P1 and P3 studies, respectively), the S-iCa concentration declined significantly only in the P1 study (p = 0.0014), the urinary calcium excretion decreased (p = 0.02 and 0.013, in the P1 and P3 studies, respectively), and the PTH concentration rose (p = 0.0083 and p = 0.014, in the P1 and P3 studies, respectively) during the phosphate experiment as compared with the control session. Of the three markers of bone formation studied, PICP declined in the P1 study (p = 0.04), and B-ALP declined in both parts of the study (p = 0.027, p = 0.026, in the P1 and P3 studies, respectively) after phosphate administration, whereas there was no significant change in BGP in either of the studies. The markers of bone resorption, ICTP and DPD, were unaffected by the phosphate load in both studies. In conclusion, acute ingestion of phosphate leads to an increase in S-P, a decrease in S-iCa, and an increase in intact PTH secretion. Our results indicate that these events may lead to an acute inactivation of the early phases of bone formation. In this setting, there was no indication of enhanced bone resorption despite the increase in PTH secretion, which could be due to the combined effect of phosphate and PTH on bone resorption. PMID:8970892

Kärkkäinen, M; Lamberg-Allardt, C

1996-12-01

264

Effect of aging on bone formation induced by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 combined with fibrous collagen membranes at subperiosteal sites.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the effect of aging on bone formation induced by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) combined with a fibrous collagen membrane (FCM). Implantation was done subperiosteally in bilateral palatal grooves in 34 male Wistar rats divided into three age groups: a 10-week-old group (10w group), a 30-week-old group (30w group) and a 70-week-old group (70w group). RhBMP-2-combined FCMs were implanted on the left palatal grooves as BMP-implanted sites (BMP site), while rhBMP-2 was not implanted on the right palatal grooves as control sites. The rats were sacrificed 6 weeks after implantation, and histometric evaluations were performed. New bone formation was observed in every site of each age group and the new bone was almost completely continuous with the original bone. The new bone volume (NBV) of the BMP site was significantly higher than that of the control site in each age group. The NBV of both the control and BMP sites were highest in the 10w group and lowest in the 70w group. The disparity of NBV between the control and BMP sites, which indicated the response to implanted BMP excluding the effect of skeletal growth and surgical stimulation, did not significantly differ among the age groups. These results indicate that rhBMP-2-combined FCM has the ability to induce new bone formation continuous with original bone even in senescent rats. Furthermore, it appeared that, in the case of palatal subperiosteal implantation, the responsiveness to implanted BMP was independent of age, although the total volume of newly formed bone declined with aging. PMID:11453116

Matsumoto, A; Yamaji, K; Kawanami, M; Kato, H

2001-06-01

265

Osterix is required for cranial neural crest-derived craniofacial bone formation  

PubMed Central

Osx plays essential roles in regulating osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation, and bone formation during mouse skeletal development. However, many questions remain regarding the requirement for Osx in different cell lineages. In this study, we asked whether Osx is required for craniofacial bone formation derived from cranial neural crest (CNC) cells. The Osx gene was conditionally inactivated in CNC-derived cells using a Wnt1-Cre recombination system. Neural crest-specific inactivation of Osx resulted in the complete absence of intramembranous skeletal elements derived from the CNC, and CNC-derived endochondral skeletal elements were also affected by Osx inactivation. Interestingly, Osx inactivated CNC-derived cells, which were recapitulated by lacZ expression, occupied the same regions of craniofacial skeletal elements as observed for controls. However, cells lost their osteogenic ability to differentiate into functional osteoblasts by Osx inactivation. These results suggest that Osx is important for craniofacial bone formation by CNC-derived cells. This finding provides novel insights of the regulation of craniofacial development by the gene network and transcription factors, and the understanding of human diseases caused by neural crest developmental abnormalities.

Baek, Wook-Young; Kim, Young-Ji; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Kim, Jung-Eun

2014-01-01

266

Hydroxyapatite bioactivated bacterial cellulose promotes osteoblast growth and the formation of bone nodules  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of bacterial cellulose (BC) scaffold to support osteoblast growth and bone formation. BC was produced by culturing Acetobacter xylinum supplemented with hydroxyapatite (HA) to form BC membranes (without HA) and BC/HA membranes. Membranes were subjected to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis to determine surface element composition. The membranes were further used to evaluate osteoblast growth, alkaline phosphatase activity and bone nodule formation. BC was free of calcium and phosphate. However, XPS analysis revealed the presence of both calcium (10%) and phosphate (10%) at the surface of the BC/HA membrane. Osteoblast culture showed that BC alone was non-toxic and could sustain osteoblast adhesion. Furthermore, osteoblast adhesion and growth were significantly (p ?0.05) increased on BC/HA membranes as compared to BC alone. Both BC and BC/HA membranes improved osteoconductivity, as confirmed by the level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity that increased from 2.5 mM with BC alone to 5.3 mM with BC/HA. BC/HA membranes also showed greater nodule formation and mineralization than the BC membrane alone. This was confirmed by Alizarin red staining (ARS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). This work demonstrates that both BC and BC/HA may be useful in bone tissue engineering.

2012-01-01

267

Catalytic properties of lamellar compounds of graphite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In heterogenous catalysis, the supports derived from graphite and carbon-graphite materials constitute a unique and exceptionally attractive group. The lamellar compounds of graphite with various kinds of electron acceptors and donors show catalytic activities on the following reactions: the oxidation of organic compounds with molecular oxygen, many sorts of polymerization, alcohol and formic acid dehydrogenation, hydrogenation and isomerization of olefins and acetylenes, ammonia synthesis from nitrogen and hydrogen, and also CO hydrogenation. Furthermore, the transition metal lamellar compounds of graphite are highly active catalysts in the process of the graphite-to-diamond conversion.

Novikov, Yu. N.; Vol'pin, M. E.

1981-05-01

268

Ectopic bone formation using an injectable biphasic calcium phosphate\\/Si-HPMC hydrogel composite loaded with undifferentiated bone marrow stromal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a new synthetic injectable composite constituted of hydroxyapatite\\/tricalcium phosphate (HA\\/TCP) particles in suspension in a self-hardening Si–hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) hydrogel. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo the biocompatibility and the new bone formation efficacy of this scaffold loaded with undifferentiated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). This biomaterial was mixed extemporaneously with BMSCs prepared from

Christophe Trojani; Florian Boukhechba; Jean-Claude Scimeca; Fanny Vandenbos; Jean-François Michiels; Guy Daculsi; Pascal Boileau; Pierre Weiss; Georges F. Carle; Nathalie Rochet

2006-01-01

269

Enhancement of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)-induced new bone formation by concurrent treatment with parathyroid hormone and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, pentoxifylline  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the enhancement of new bone |formation elicited ectopically by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), using parathyroid hormone (PTH) and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDEi), pentoxifylline (PTX), in an animal model. Collagen sponge sheet discs containing rhBMP were implanted onto the back muscles of mice. PTX alone (200?mg\\/kg body weight [BW]), PTH(1–34) (10?µg\\/kg BW), PTX plus PTH (200?mg\\/kg BW

Hiroshi Horiuchi; Naoto Saito; Tetsuya Kinoshita; Shinji Wakabayashi; Takahiro Tsutsumimoto; Satoru Otsuru; Kunio Takaoka

2004-01-01

270

Serum Bone Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzyme Levels in Normal Children and Children with Growth Hormone (GH) Deficiency: A Potential Marker for Bone Formation and Response to GH Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) has been considered to be a good marker for bone formation. Recently, a specific immuno- radiometric assay for serum B-ALP has been developed. Using this system, we measured the serum levels of B-ALP in 363 normal chil- dren (207 males and 156 females, age 0 -18 yr) and in 20 GH-deficient children (age 5-13 yr)

HITOSHI TOBIUME; SUSUMU KANZAKI; SHIGEKI HIDA; TAEKO ONO; TADASHI MORIWAKE; SHIGEKI YAMAUCHI; HIROYUKI TANAKA; YOSHIKI SEINO

271

Evaluation of a Thiolated Chitosan Scaffold for Local Delivery of BMP-2 for Osteogenic Differentiation and Ectopic Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

Thiolated chitosan (Thio-CS) is a well-established pharmaceutical excipient for drug delivery. However, its use as a scaffold for bone formation has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of Thio-CS in bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) delivery and bone formation. In vitro study showed that BMP-2 interacted with the Thio-CS and did not affect the swelling behavior. The release kinetics of BMP-2 from the Thio-CS was slightly delayed (70%) within 7 days compared with that from collagen gel (Col-gel, 85%), which is widely used in BMP-2 delivery. The BMP-2 released from Thio-CS increased osteoblastic cell differentiation but did not show any cytotoxicity until 21 days. Analysis of the in vivo ectopic bone formation at 4 weeks of posttransplantation showed that use of Thio-CS for BMP-2 delivery induced more bone formation to a greater extent (1.8 fold) than that of Col-gel. However, bone mineral density in both bones was equivalent, regardless of Thio-CS or Col-gel carrier. Taken together, Thio-CS system might be useful for delivering osteogenic protein BMP-2 and present a promising bone regeneration strategy.

Bae, In-Ho; Jeong, Byung-Chul; Kim, Sun-Hun; Koh, Jeong-Tae

2013-01-01

272

Sequential Application of Steady and Pulsatile Medium Perfusion Enhanced the Formation of Engineered Bone  

PubMed Central

In native bone, cells experience fluctuating shear forces that are induced by pulsatile interstitial flow associated with habitual loading. We hypothesized that the formation of engineered bone can be augmented by replicating such physiologic stimuli to osteogenic cells cultured in porous scaffolds using bioreactors with medium perfusion. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of fluid flow regime on in vitro bone-like tissue development by human adipose stem cells (hASC) cultivated on porous three-dimensional silk fibroin scaffolds. To this end, we varied the sequential relative durations of steady flow (SF) and pulsatile flow (PF) of culture medium applied over a period of 5 weeks, and evaluated their effect on early stages of bone formation. Porous silk fibroin scaffolds (400–600??m pore size) were seeded with hASC (30×106 cells/mL) and cultured in osteogenic medium under four distinct fluid flow regimes: (1) PF for 5 weeks; (2) SF for 1 week, PF for 4 weeks; (3) SF for 2 weeks, PF for 3 weeks; (4) SF for 5 weeks. The PF was applied in 12?h intervals, with the interstitial velocity fluctuating between 400 and 1200??m/s at a 0.5?Hz frequency for 2?h, followed by 10?h of SF. In all groups, SF was applied at 400??m/s. The best osteogenic outcomes were achieved for the sequence of 2 weeks of SF and 3 weeks of PF, as evidenced by gene expression (including the PGE2 mechanotransduction marker), construct compositions, histomorphologies, and biomechanical properties. We thus propose that osteogenesis in hASC and the subsequent early stage bone development involve a mechanism, which detects and responds to the level and duration of hydrodynamic shear forces.

Correia, Cristina; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Sousa, Rui A.; Reis, Rui L.

2013-01-01

273

Changes in markers of bone formation and resorption in a bed rest model of weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To study the mechanism of bone loss in physical unloading, we examined indices of bone formation and bone resorption in the serum and urine of eight healthy men during a 7 day -6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest. Prompt increases in markers of resorption--pyridinoline (PD), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and hydroxyproline (Hyp)/g creatinine--during the first few days of inactivity were paralleled by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) with significant increases in all these markers by day 4 of bed rest. An index of formation, skeletal alkaline phosphatase (SALP), did not change during bed rest and showed a moderate 15% increase 1 week after reambulation. In contrast to SALP, serum osteocalcin (OC) began increasing the day preceding the increase in Hyp, remained elevated for the duration of the bed rest, and returned to pre-bed rest values within 5 days of reambulation. Similarly, DPD increased significantly at the onset of bed rest, remained elevated for the duration of bed rest, and returned to pre-bed rest levels upon reambulation. On the other hand, the other three indices of resorption, Hyp, PD, and TRAP, remained elevated for 2 weeks after reambulation. The most sensitive indices of the levels of physical activity proved to be the noncollagenous protein, OC, and the collagen crosslinker, DPD. The bed rest values of both these markers were significantly elevated compared to both the pre-bed rest values and the post-bed rest values. The sequence of changes in the circulating markers of bone metabolism indicated that increases in serum OC are the earliest responses of bone to head-down tilt bed rest.

Lueken, S. A.; Arnaud, S. B.; Taylor, A. K.; Baylink, D. J.

1993-01-01

274

EPO Promotes Bone Repair through Enhanced Cartilaginous Callus Formation and Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Erythropoietin (EPO)/erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) signaling is involved in the development and regeneration of several non-hematopoietic tissues including the skeleton. EPO is identified as a downstream target of the hypoxia inducible factor-? (HIF-?) pathway. It is shown that EPO exerts a positive role in bone repair, however, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study we show that EPO and EPOR are expressed in the proliferating, pre-hypertrophic and hypertrophic zone of the developing mouse growth plates as well as in the cartilaginous callus of the healing bone. The proliferation rate of chondrocytes is increased under EPO treatment, while this effect is decreased following siRNA mediated knockdown of EPOR in chondrocytes. EPO treatment increases biosynthesis of proteoglycan, accompanied by up-regulation of chondrogenic marker genes including SOX9, SOX5, SOX6, collagen type 2, and aggrecan. The effects are inhibited by knockdown of EPOR. Blockage of the endogenous EPO in chondrocytes also impaired the chondrogenic differentiation. In addition, EPO promotes metatarsal endothelial sprouting in vitro. This coincides with the in vivo data that local delivery of EPO increases vascularity at the mid-stage of bone healing (day 14). In a mouse femoral fracture model, EPO promotes cartilaginous callus formation at days 7 and 14, and enhances bone healing at day 28 indexed by improved X-ray score and micro-CT analysis of microstructure of new bone regenerates, which results in improved biomechanical properties. Our results indicate that EPO enhances chondrogenic and angiogenic responses during bone repair. EPO's function on chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation is at least partially mediated by its receptor EPOR. EPO may serve as a therapeutic agent to facilitate skeletal regeneration.

Wan, Lin; Zhang, Fengjie; He, Qiling; Tsang, Wing Pui; Lu, Li; Li, Qingnan; Wu, Zhihong; Qiu, Guixing; Zhou, Guangqian; Wan, Chao

2014-01-01

275

Adiponectin receptor 1 regulates bone formation and osteoblast differentiation by GSK-3?/?-Catenin signaling in mice.  

PubMed

Adiponectin and its receptors are expressed in bone marrow-derived osteoblasts. Previous studies in vivo and in vitro have produced controversial results. The purpose of this study was to use porcine adiponectin receptor 1 transgenic mice (pAdipoR1) as a model to evaluate the role of AdipoR1 on bone physiology at different ages. pAdipoR1 transgenic mice had higher bone mineral density than wild-type mice in both genders at 56weeks of age. The bone volume and trabecular number, measured by micro-computed tomography (?CT) was significantly greater in transgenic than in wild-type female mice at both 8 and 56weeks of age. ELISA analysis revealed that both serum osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were significantly increased in 8-week old pAdipoR1 transgenic mice of both genders. Furthermore, serum OPG was elevated at 32 and 56weeks of age in female and male pAdipoR1 transgenic mice. Serum TRAP5b concentration was reduced in 8 and 56weeks old male pAdipoR1 mice compared with wild-type male mice. Knock-down of AdipoR1 significantly decreased gene expression of osteocalcin, OPG, alkaline phosphatase and msh homeobox 2 and the mineralization in MC3T3-E1 cells and mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, pathscan analysis and real-time PCR analysis suggest AdipoR1 regulates osteoblast differentiation through GSK-3 ? and ?-Catenin signaling. Consequently, the lack of AdipoR1 impaired osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. We conclude that AdipoR1 is a critical factor for the osteoblast differentiation and bone homeostasis. PMID:24713193

Lin, Yuan Yu; Chen, Ching Yi; Chuang, Tai Yuan; Lin, Yun; Liu, Hui Yu; Mersmann, Harry John; Wu, Shinn Chih; Ding, Shih Torng

2014-07-01

276

E3 ubiquitin ligase-mediated regulation of bone formation and tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitination–proteasome and degradation system is an essential process that regulates protein homeostasis. This system is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and survival, and dysregulations in this system lead to pathologies including cancers. The ubiquitination system is an enzymatic cascade that mediates the marking of target proteins by an ubiquitin label and thereby directs their degradation through the proteasome pathway. The ubiquitination of proteins occurs through a three-step process involving ubiquitin activation by the E1 enzyme, allowing for the transfer to a ubiquitin-conjugated enzyme E2 and to the targeted protein via ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3), the most abundant group of enzymes involved in ubiquitination. Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the role of E3 ubiquitin ligases in the control of bone turnover and tumorigenesis. These ligases are implicated in the regulation of bone cells through the degradation of receptor tyrosine kinases, signaling molecules and transcription factors. Initial studies showed that the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl, a multi-domain scaffold protein, regulates bone resorption by interacting with several molecules in osteoclasts. Further studies showed that c-Cbl controls the ubiquitination of signaling molecules in osteoblasts and in turn regulates osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and survival. Recent data indicate that c-Cbl expression is decreased in primary bone tumors, resulting in excessive receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Consistently, c-Cbl ectopic expression reduces bone tumorigenesis by promoting tyrosine kinase receptor degradation. Here, we review the mechanisms of action of E3 ubiquitin ligases in the regulation of normal and pathologic bone formation, and we discuss how targeting the interactions of c-Cbl with some substrates may be a potential therapeutic strategy to promote osteogenesis and to reduce tumorigenesis.

Severe, N; Dieudonne, F-X; Marie, P J

2013-01-01

277

Efficiently engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine-alginate nanocomposites plus bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene to promote new bone formation.  

PubMed

Regeneration of large bone defects is a common clinical problem. Recently, stem cell sheet has been an emerging strategy in bone tissue engineering. To enhance the osteogenic potential of stem cell sheet, we fabricated bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) gene-engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine-alginate (PEI-al) nanocomposites plus human BMP-2 complementary(c)DNA plasmid, and studied its osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. PEI-al nanocomposites carrying BMP-2 gene could efficiently transfect bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The cell sheet was made by culturing the cells in medium containing vitamin C for 10 days. Assays on the cell culture showed that the genetically engineered cells released the BMP-2 for at least 14 days. The expression of osteogenesis-related gene was increased, which demonstrated that released BMP-2 could effectively induce the cell sheet osteogenic differentiation in vitro. To further test the osteogenic potential of the cell sheet in vivo, enhanced green fluorescent protein or BMP-2-producing cell sheets were treated on the cranial bone defects. The results indicated that the BMP-2-producing cell sheet group was more efficient than other groups in promoting bone formation in the defect area. Our results suggested that PEI-al nanocomposites efficiently deliver the BMP-2 gene to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and that BMP-2 gene-engineered cell sheet is an effective way for promoting bone regeneration. PMID:24855355

Jin, Han; Zhang, Kai; Qiao, Chunyan; Yuan, Anliang; Li, Daowei; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Ce; Xu, Xiaowei; Ni, Shilei; Zheng, Changyu; Liu, Xiaohua; Yang, Bai; Sun, Hongchen

2014-01-01

278

Efficiently engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine-alginate nanocomposites plus bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene to promote new bone formation  

PubMed Central

Regeneration of large bone defects is a common clinical problem. Recently, stem cell sheet has been an emerging strategy in bone tissue engineering. To enhance the osteogenic potential of stem cell sheet, we fabricated bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) gene-engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate (PEI–al) nanocomposites plus human BMP-2 complementary(c)DNA plasmid, and studied its osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. PEI–al nanocomposites carrying BMP-2 gene could efficiently transfect bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The cell sheet was made by culturing the cells in medium containing vitamin C for 10 days. Assays on the cell culture showed that the genetically engineered cells released the BMP-2 for at least 14 days. The expression of osteogenesis-related gene was increased, which demonstrated that released BMP-2 could effectively induce the cell sheet osteogenic differentiation in vitro. To further test the osteogenic potential of the cell sheet in vivo, enhanced green fluorescent protein or BMP-2-producing cell sheets were treated on the cranial bone defects. The results indicated that the BMP-2-producing cell sheet group was more efficient than other groups in promoting bone formation in the defect area. Our results suggested that PEI–al nanocomposites efficiently deliver the BMP-2 gene to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and that BMP-2 gene-engineered cell sheet is an effective way for promoting bone regeneration.

Jin, Han; Zhang, Kai; Qiao, Chunyan; Yuan, Anliang; Li, Daowei; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Ce; Xu, Xiaowei; Ni, Shilei; Zheng, Changyu; Liu, Xiaohua; Yang, Bai; Sun, Hongchen

2014-01-01

279

Bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene controls tooth root development in coordination with formation of the periodontium.  

PubMed

Formation of the periodontium begins following onset of tooth-root formation in a coordinated manner after birth. Dental follicle progenitor cells are thought to form the cementum, alveolar bone and Sharpey's fibers of the periodontal ligament (PDL). However, little is known about the regulatory morphogens that control differentiation and function of these progenitor cells, as well as the progenitor cells involved in crown and root formation. We investigated the role of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Bmp2) in these processes by the conditional removal of the Bmp2 gene using the Sp7-Cre-EGFP mouse model. Sp7-Cre-EGFP first becomes active at E18 in the first molar, with robust Cre activity at postnatal day 0 (P0), followed by Cre activity in the second molar, which occurs after P0. There is robust Cre activity in the periodontium and third molars by 2 weeks of age. When the Bmp2 gene is removed from Sp7(+) (Osterix(+)) cells, major defects are noted in root, cellular cementum and periodontium formation. First, there are major cell autonomous defects in root-odontoblast terminal differentiation. Second, there are major alterations in formation of the PDLs and cellular cementum, correlated with decreased nuclear factor IC (Nfic), periostin and ?-SMA(+) cells. Third, there is a failure to produce vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) in the periodontium and the pulp leading to decreased formation of the microvascular and associated candidate stem cells in the Bmp2-cKO(Sp7-Cre-EGFP). Fourth, ameloblast function and enamel formation are indirectly altered in the Bmp2-cKO(Sp7-Cre-EGFP). These data demonstrate that the Bmp2 gene has complex roles in postnatal tooth development and periodontium formation. PMID:23807640

Rakian, Audrey; Yang, Wu-Chen; Gluhak-Heinrich, Jelica; Cui, Yong; Harris, Marie A; Villarreal, Demitri; Feng, Jerry Q; Macdougall, Mary; Harris, Stephen E

2013-06-01

280

Multiple myeloma presenting as plasmacytoma of the jaws showing prominent bone formation during chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

A 65-year-old female visited our hospital complaining of a swelling on the left cheek area of 2 years' duration. A panoramic radiograph revealed an ill-defined osteolytic radiolucent bony lesion involving the left mandibular angle, ascending ramus, coronoid process and condylar process. Histological examination showed the mandibular lesion to be a plasmacytoma, and a systemic work-up was obtained to rule out multiple myeloma. Contrast-enhanced CT images showed a well-defined and slightly enhanced round mass on the left ramal area, accompanied by the destruction of the left ramus and posterior maxilla. An 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography CT (18F-FDG PET/CT) scan revealed a hypermetabolic mass extending from the left mandible to the left maxillary sinus. The patient had M-protein in serum and urine, plasma cells up to 36.5% on bone marrow biopsy and anaemia as a clinical complication. The patient was diagnosed with multiple myeloma and received chemotherapy with thalidomide, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone. A PET/CT scan taken 6 months later revealed that the hypermetabolic mass had disappeared and there was remarkable bone formation on the left mandible compared with a previous PET/CT scan. A panoramic radiograph taken 8 months later also demonstrated a prominent bone formation of the affected site. To the best of our knowledge, the current case is the first report of multiple myeloma presenting as plasmacytoma of the mandible with an FDG PET/CT scan. The lesion was solitary at diagnosis, and remarkable bone formation was newly observed on the radiographic examination during chemotherapy.

An, S-Y; An, C-H; Choi, K-S; Heo, M-S

2013-01-01

281

Copal Bone Cement Is More Effective in Preventing Biofilm Formation than Palacos R-G  

PubMed Central

Bone cements loaded with combinations of antibiotics are assumed more effective in preventing infection than bone cements with gentamicin as a single drug. Moreover, loading with an additional antibiotic may increase interconnectivity between antibiotic particles to enhance release. We hypothesize addition of clindamycin to a gentamicin-loaded cement yields higher antibiotic release and causes larger inhibition zones against clinical isolates grown on agar and stronger biofilm inhibition. Antibiotic release after 672 hours from Copal bone cement was more extensive (65% of the clindamycin and 41% of the gentamicin incorporated) than from Palacos R-G (4% of the gentamicin incorporated). The higher antibiotic release from Copal resulted in a stronger and more prolonged inhibition of bacterial growth on agar. Bacterial colony counting and confocal laser scanning microscopy of biofilms grown on the bone cements suggest antibiotic release reduced bacterial viability, most notably close to the cement surface. The gentamicin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus formed gentamicin-resistant small colony variants on Palacos R-G and therefore Copal more effectively decreased biofilm formation than Palacos R-G.

Ensing, Geert T.; van Horn, Jim R.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

2008-01-01

282

Fra-2/AP-1 controls bone formation by regulating osteoblast differentiation and collagen production  

PubMed Central

The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor complex, in particular the Fos proteins, is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. Fra-2 (Fosl2), a Fos-related protein of the AP-1 family, is expressed in bone cells, and newborn mice lacking Fra-2 exhibit defects in chondrocytes and osteoclasts. Here we show that Fra-2–deficient osteoblasts display a differentiation defect both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, Fra-2–overexpressing mice are osteosclerotic because of increased differentiation of osteoblasts, which appears to be cell autonomous. Importantly, the osteoblast-specific osteocalcin (Oc) gene and collagen1?2 (col1?2) are transcriptional targets of Fra-2 in both murine and human bone cells. In addition, Fra-2, Oc, and col1 are expressed in stromal cells of human chondroblastic and osteoblastic osteosarcomas (Os’s) as well as during osteoblast differentiation of human Os cell lines. These findings reveal a novel function of Fra-2/AP-1 as a positive regulator of bone and matrix formation in mice and humans.

Bozec, Aline; Bakiri, Latifa; Jimenez, Maria; Schinke, Thorsten; Amling, Michael

2010-01-01

283

Fra-2/AP-1 controls bone formation by regulating osteoblast differentiation and collagen production.  

PubMed

The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor complex, in particular the Fos proteins, is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. Fra-2 (Fosl2), a Fos-related protein of the AP-1 family, is expressed in bone cells, and newborn mice lacking Fra-2 exhibit defects in chondrocytes and osteoclasts. Here we show that Fra-2-deficient osteoblasts display a differentiation defect both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, Fra-2-overexpressing mice are osteosclerotic because of increased differentiation of osteoblasts, which appears to be cell autonomous. Importantly, the osteoblast-specific osteocalcin (Oc) gene and collagen1?2 (col1?2) are transcriptional targets of Fra-2 in both murine and human bone cells. In addition, Fra-2, Oc, and col1 are expressed in stromal cells of human chondroblastic and osteoblastic osteosarcomas (Os's) as well as during osteoblast differentiation of human Os cell lines. These findings reveal a novel function of Fra-2/AP-1 as a positive regulator of bone and matrix formation in mice and humans. PMID:20837772

Bozec, Aline; Bakiri, Latifa; Jimenez, Maria; Schinke, Thorsten; Amling, Michael; Wagner, Erwin F

2010-09-20

284

Dual growth factor delivery and controlled scaffold degradation enhance in vivo bone formation by transplanted bone marrow stromal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supraphysiological concentrations of exogenous growth factors are typically required to obtain bone regeneration, and it is unclear why lower levels are not effective. We hypothesized that delivery of bone progenitor cells along with appropriate combinations of growth factors and scaffold characteristics would allow physiological doses of proteins to be used for therapeutic bone regeneration. We tested this hypothesis by measuring

Craig A. Simmons; Eben Alsberg; Susan Hsiong; Woo J. Kim; David J. Mooneya

2004-01-01

285

In vivo formation of bone and hematopoietic territories by transplanted human bone marrow stromal cells generated in medium with and without osteogenic supplements  

PubMed Central

Autologous transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) has been successfully used for bone reconstruction. However, in order to advance this approach into the mainstream of bone tissue engineering, the conditions for BMSC cultivation and transplantation must be optimized. In a recent report, cultivation with dexamethasone (Dex) significantly increased bone formation by human BMSCs in vivo. Based on this important conclusion, we analyzed the data accumulated by our laboratory where human BMSCs have been routinely generated using media both with and without a combination of two osteogenic supplements: Dex at 10-8M and ascorbic acid phosphate (AscP) at 10-4M. Our data demonstrate that for 22 out of 24 donors, BMSC strains propagated with and without Dex/AscP formed similar amounts of bone in vivo. Thus, human BMSCs do not appear to need to be induced to osteogenic differentiation ex vivo prior to transplantation. Similarly, for 12 of 14 donors, BMSC strains cultured with and without Dex/AscP formed hematopoietic territories to a comparable extent. While Dex/AscP did not increase bone formation, they significantly stimulated BMSC in vitro proliferation without affecting the number of BMSC colonies formed by the Colony Forming Units-Fibroblast. We conclude that for the substantial majority of donors, Dex/AscP have no effect on the ability of BMSCs to form bone and myelosupportive stroma in vivo. However, due to increased BMSC proliferation, the total osteogenic population obtained from a single marrow sample is larger after cultivation with Dex/AscP than without them. Secondary to increased BMSC proliferation, Dex/AscP may stimulate bone formation if BMSCs and/or the transplantation system are less than optimal.

Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Mankani, Mahesh H; Robey, Pamela Gehron

2011-01-01

286

INTERMITTENT PTH STIMULATES PERIOSTEAL BONE FORMATION BY ACTIONS ON POST-MITOTIC PREOSTEOBLASTS  

PubMed Central

Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone formation on the surface of cancellous and periosteal bone by increasing the number of osteoblasts. Previous studies of ours in mice demonstrated that intermittent PTH increases cancellous osteoblast number at least in part by attenuating osteoblast apoptosis, but the mechanism responsible for the anabolic effect of the hormone on periosteal bone is unknown. We report that daily injections of 100 ng/g of PTH(1–34) to 4–6 month old mice increased the number of osteoblasts on the periosteum of lumbar vertebrae by 2–3 fold as early as after 2 days. However, the prevalence of apoptotic periosteal osteoblasts was only 0.2% in vehicle treated animals, which is ~20-fold lower than is the case for cancellous osteoblasts. Moreover, PTH did not have a discernable effect on periosteal osteoblast apoptosis. Administration of BrdU for 4 days failed to label periosteal osteoblasts under either basal conditions or following administration of PTH. Cancellous osteoblasts, on the other hand, were labeled under basal conditions, but PTH did not increase the percentage of BrdU-positive cells. Thus, intermittent PTH does not increase cancellous or periosteal osteoblast number by stimulating the proliferation of osteoblast progenitors. Consistent with high turnover of cancellous osteoblasts as compared to that of periosteal osteoblasts, ganciclovir-induced ablation of replicating osteoblast progenitors in mice expressing thymidine kinase under the control of the 3.6kb rat Col1A1 promoter resulted in disappearance of osteoblasts from cancellous bone over a 7–14 day period, whereas periosteal osteoblasts were unaffected. However, 14 days of pre-treatment with ganciclovir prevented PTH anabolism on periosteal bone. We conclude that in cancellous bone, attenuation of osteoblast apoptosis by PTH increases osteoblast number because their rate of apoptosis is high, making this effect of the hormone profound. However, in periosteal bone where the rate of osteoblast apoptosis is low, PTH must exert pro-differentiating and/or pro-survival effects on post-mitotic pre-osteoblasts. Targeting the latter cells is an effective mechanism for increasing osteoblast number in periosteal bone where the production of osteoblasts from replicating progenitors is slow.

Jilka, Robert L.; O'Brien, Charles A.; Ali, A. Afshan; Roberson, Paula; Weinstein, Robert S.; Manolagas, Stavros C.

2009-01-01

287

?-Catenin and BMP-2 Synergize to Promote Osteoblast Differentiation and New Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

Mutations of critical components of the Wnt pathway profoundly affect skeletal development and maintenance, probably via modulation of ?-catenin signaling. We tested the hypothesis that ?-catenin is involved in mesenchymal lineage allocation to osteogenic cells using a ?-catenin mutant with constitutive transcriptional activity (?N151). Although this stable ?-catenin had no effects by itself on osteogenic differentiation of multipotent embryonic cell lines, it synergized with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) resulting in dramatic stimulation of alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin gene expression, and matrix mineralization. Likewise, ?N151 and BMP-2 synergistically stimulated new bone formation after subperiosteal injection in mouse calvaria in vivo. Conversely, ?N151 prevented adipogenic differentiation from pre-adipocytic or uncommitted mesenchymal cells in vitro. Intriguingly, the synergism with BMP-2 on gene transcription occurred without altering expression of Cbfa1/Runx2, suggesting actions independent or downstream of this osteoblast-specific transcription factor. Thus, ?-catenin directs osteogenic lineage allocation by enhancing mesenchymal cell responsiveness to osteogenic factors, such as BMP-2, in part via Tcf/Lef dependent mechanisms. In vivo, this synergism leads to increased new bone formation.

Mbalaviele, Gabriel; Sheikh, Sharmin; Stains, Joseph P.; Salazar, Valerie S.; Cheng, Su-Li; Chen, Di; Civitelli, Roberto

2009-01-01

288

Local inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase enhances bone formation in a rat model  

PubMed Central

Objectives Recent studies have shown that modulating inflammation-related lipid signalling after a bone fracture can accelerate healing in animal models. Specifically, decreasing 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) activity during fracture healing increases cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the fracture callus, accelerates chondrogenesis and decreases healing time. In this study, we test the hypothesis that 5-LO inhibition will increase direct osteogenesis. Methods Bilateral, unicortical femoral defects were used in rats to measure the effects of local 5-LO inhibition on direct osteogenesis. The defect sites were filled with a polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold containing 5-LO inhibitor (A-79175) at three dose levels, scaffold with drug carrier, or scaffold only. Drug release was assessed in vitro. Osteogenesis was assessed by micro-CT and histology at two endpoints of ten and 30 days. Results Using micro-CT, we found that A-79175, a 5-LO inhibitor, increased bone formation in an apparent dose-related manner. Conclusions These results indicate that 5-LO inhibition could be used therapeutically to enhance treatments that require the direct formation of bone.

Cottrell, J. A.; Keshav, V.; Mitchell, A.; O'Connor, J. P.

2013-01-01

289

Nanoscale control of silica particle formation via silk-silica fusion proteins for bone regeneration  

PubMed Central

The biomimetic design of silk/silica fusion proteins was carried out, combining the self assembling domains of spider dragline silk (Nephila clavipes) and silaffin derived R5 peptide of Cylindrotheca fusiformis that is responsible for silica mineralization. Genetic engineering was used to generate the protein-based biomaterials incorporating the physical properties of both components. With genetic control over the nanodomain sizes and chemistry, as well as modification of synthetic conditions for silica formation, controlled mineralized silk films with different silica morphologies and distributions were successfully generated; generating 3D porous networks, clustered silica nanoparticles (SNPs), or single SNPs. Silk serves as the organic scaffolding to control the material stability and multiprocessing makes silk/silica biomaterials suitable for different tissue regenerative applications. The influence of these new silk-silica composite systems on osteogenesis was evaluated with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) subjected to osteogenic differentiation. hMSCs adhered, proliferated, and differentiated towards osteogenic lineages on the silk/silica films. The presence of the silica in the silk films influenced osteogenic gene expression, with the upregulation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and collagen type 1 (Col 1) markers. Evidence for early bone formation as calcium deposits was observed on silk films with silica. These results indicate the potential utility of these new silk/silica systems towards bone regeneration.

Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Nadkarni, Lauren D.; Perry, Carole C.

2010-01-01

290

Si-Wu-tang extract stimulates bone formation through PI3K/Akt/NF-?B signaling pathways in osteoblasts  

PubMed Central

Background Si-Wu-Tang (SWT), a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula, is widely used for the treatment of gynopathies diseases such as menstrual discomfort, climacteric syndrome, dysmenorrhea, and other estrogen-related diseases. Recent studies have shown that SWT can treat primary dysmenorrhea, have anti-pruritic anti-inflammatory effects, and protect against radiation-induced bone marrow damage in an animal model. It has been reported that anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agents have the potential to treat osteoporosis by increasing bone formation and/or suppressing bone resorption. However, the effect of SWT on bone cell function has not yet been reported. Methods Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)-2, and osteopontin (OPN) mRNA expression was analyzed by qPCR. The mechanism of action of SWT extract was investigated using western blotting. The in vivo anti-osteoporotic effect of SWT extract was assessed in ovariectomized mice. Results Here, we report that SWT increases ALP, BMP-2, and OPN expression as well as bone mineralization. In addition, we show that the PI3K, Akt, and NF-?B signaling pathways may be involved in the SWT-mediated increase in gene expression and bone mineralization. Notably, treatment of mice with SWT extract prevented bone loss induced by ovariectomy in vivo. Conclusion SWT may be used to stimulate bone formation for the treatment of osteoporosis.

2013-01-01

291

Effect of estrogen/gestagen and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 therapy on bone formation in postmenopausal women  

SciTech Connect

The effect of two different estrogen/gestagen regimens and 24R,25-(OH)2-cholecalciferol on bone formation was studied in a randomized trial with 144 healthy postmenopausal women. Urinary excretion (UE) of /sup 99m/technetium-diphosphonate and serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) was determined before and then once a year for 2 years of treatment. Both estimates of bone formation showed highly significant decreases (p less than .001) to normal premenopausal levels in women receiving unopposed 17 beta-estradiol or in a sequential combination with progestagen, whereas unchanged high values were found in the groups receiving 24R,25-(OH)2D3 and placebo. The data show that bone turnover increases in early postmenopausal women concomitantly with the loss of bone mass, and that hormonal substitutional therapy normalizes the total skeletal turnover as well as preventing bone loss.

Thomsen, K.; Riis, B.; Christiansen, C.

1986-12-01

292

The transcription factor early B-cell factor 1 regulates bone formation in an osteoblast-nonautonomous manner  

PubMed Central

Early B-cell factor 1 (Ebf1) is a transcription factor whose inactivation in all cells results in high bone mass because of an increase in bone formation. This observation suggests Ebf1 may be an inhibitor of osteoblast differentiation. To test this contention, we analyzed Ebf1 pattern of expression and function in osteoblasts ex vivo and in vivo through osteoblast-specific inactivation in the mouse. We show here that in vivo deletion of Ebf1 in osteoblast progenitors does not affect osteoblast differentiation or bone formation accrual post-natally. These observations indicate that the phenotype described in Ebf1?/? mice is not osteoblast-autonomous.

Zee, Tiffany; Boller, Soren; Gyory, Ildiko; Makinistoglu, Munevver P.; Tuckermann, Jan P.; Grosschedl, Rudolf; Karsenty, Gerard

2014-01-01

293

Bone tissue formation under ideal conditions in a scaffold generated by a reaction-diffusion system.  

PubMed

The design of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering requires methods to generate geometries in order to control the stiffness and the permeability of the implant among others characteristics. This article studied the potential of the reaction-diffusion systems to design porous scaffolds for bone regeneration. We simulate the degradation of the scaffold material and the formation of new bone tissue over canal-like, spherical and ellipsoid structures obtained by this approach. The simulations show that the degradation and growth rates are affected by the form of porous structures. The results have indicated that the proposed method has potential as a tool to generate scaffolds with internal porosities and is comparable with other methodologies to obtain this type of structures. PMID:24015480

Velasco, A Marco; Garzón-Alvarado, Diego A

2013-06-01

294

Ectopic bone formation after medial femoral condyle graft to scaphoid nonunion.  

PubMed

Free vascularized bone graft from the medial femoral condyle has been described as a superior method for treatment of recalcitrant scaphoid nonunion with proximal pole avascularity and humpback deformity. Few complications and high union rates have been reported. In a series of three patients we describe an undesired volar ossification as a potential complication of the method. The risk of developing the ectopic bone formation can be minimized if the surgeon is aware of the strong osteogenic capacity of the periosteum. Meticulous dissection of the vascular bundle to the graft is mandatory to avoid the complication. Caution is warranted so as not to leave a periosteal sleeve under the vessels at the margin of the graft. PMID:24533246

Vedung, Torbjörn; Vinnars, Bertil

2014-02-01

295

Treatment of contaminated bone defects with clindamycin-reconstituted bone xenograft-composites.  

PubMed

Contaminated or infected bone defects and osteomyelitis after trauma are frequently encountered in clinical practice. It is difficult to make a successful bone graft and control infection at the same time. To find a better method to resolve this dilemma, we prepared a novel clindamycin-reconstituted bone xenograft-composite (C-RBX-C) that comprised of crude bBMP (bovine bone morphogenetic protein), clindamycin, and cancellous bone scaffold, and investigated the morphology, biocompatibility, antibiotic release profile and osteoinductive potential of this composite. The ultrastructure of C-RBX-C was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy; the biocompatibility and osteoinductive potential were assessed by testing ectopic implants. The antibiotic release profile was evaluated using a disc-diffusion assay. Finally, this composite was used to repair a Staphylococcus aureus contaminated bone defect in a rabbit model. 16 weeks after the implantation of C-RBX-C, the radial defect had been completely recuperated, with significantly better formation of lamellar bone and recanalization of the marrow cavity, than in the controls (scaffolds without clindamycin or bBMP). These results demonstrate that our novel composite, with its concomitant osteoinductive and antibiotic properties, has significant potential for the treatment of contaminated or infected bone defects and osteomyelitis. PMID:17330892

Bi, Long; Hu, Yunyu; Fan, Hongbin; Meng, Guolin; Liu, Jian; Li, Dan; Lv, Rong

2007-08-01

296

Relationship between renal stone formation, mitral annular calcification and bone resorption markers  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is associated with osteoporosis and there is evidence of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with renal stone formation (RSF). Therefore, we designed this study to test if RSF was associated with MAC and if this association could be linked to bone resorption. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients (mean age, 41.5 years) with RSF and 40 healthy subjects (mean age, 44.2 years) underwent screening for MAC and BMD, and measuurements were taken of serum and urine electrolytes, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase and urine dypyridoline. RESULTS: MAC was diagnosed in 11 (18%) patients with RSF compared with 1 (2.5%) control (P=.01). Urine phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and chloride levels were lower (P<.001, P=.02, P<.001, P<.001 and P<.001, respectively), but serum alkaline phosphatase, calcium and potassium levels were higher (P=.008, P=.007 and P=.001, respectively) in patients with RSF versus those without RSF. None of these abnormalities were found in patients or subjects with MAC. Urine pyridoline levels were higher and T-scores were more negative (more osteopenic) in patients and subjects with MAC than in those without MAC (P=.01 and P=.004, respectively). In a multivariate analysis, only T-scores and urine dipyridoline level were predictive of MAC (P=.03 and P=.04, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Screening for MAC and bone resorption markers in patients with RSF demonstrated a high incidence of MAC in these patients. The presence of MAC in patients with RSF was associated with bone resorption markers. This seemingly complex interrelationship between RSF, MAC and bone loss needs to be clarified in further studies.

Celik, Ahmet; Davutoglu, Vedat; Sarica, Kemal; Erturhan, Sakip; Ozer, Orhan; Sari, Ibrahim; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Baltaci, Yasemin; Akcay, Murat; Al, Behcet; Yuce, Murat; Yilmaz, Necat

2010-01-01

297

[Effect of osteogenically and adipogenically differentiated bone mesenchymal stem cells from mouse on osteoclast formation].  

PubMed

This study was purposed to investigate the regulatory effects of differentiating mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on osteoclast formation. The MSC from mouse compact bones were cultured and induced into osteoblasts and adipocytes for one week. To test their regulatory effect on osteoclastogenesis, osteogenically differentiated and adipogenically differentiated MSC were co-cultured with CD11b(+) monocytes and osteoclasts were identified with in situ tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. The results showed that differentiated MSC supported osteoclastogenesis but the osteoclast supporting capacity of osteogenically differentiated MSC decreased as compared with undifferentiated MSC. More interestingly, the adipogenically differentiated MSC significantly promoted osteoclasts formation when co-cultured with monocytes. It is concluded that the regulatory effect of MSC on osteoclast formation has changed while they have differentiated into different types of cells. The findings indicate that MSC may exert alternative effect on osteoclastogenesis by differentiation to descendant cells. PMID:23114145

Zhu, Heng; Liu, Yuan-Lin; Chen, Ji-De; Li, Hong; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Xu, Fen-Fen; Jiang, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Yi; Mao, Ning

2012-10-01

298

Osteoclasts on bone and dentin in vitro: mechanism of trail formation and comparison of resorption behavior.  

PubMed

The main function of osteoclasts in vivo is the resorption of bone matrix, leaving behind typical resorption traces consisting of pits and trails. The mechanism of pit formation is well described, but less is known about trail formation. Pit-forming osteoclasts possess round actin rings. In this study we show that trail-forming osteoclasts have crescent-shaped actin rings and provide a model that describes the detailed mechanism. To generate a trail, the actin ring of the resorption organelle attaches with one side outside the existing trail margin. The other side of the ring attaches to the wall inside the trail, thus sealing that narrow part to be resorbed next (3–21 lm). This 3D configuration allows vertical resorption layer-by-layer from the surface to a depth in combination with horizontal cell movement. Thus, trails are not just traces of a horizontal translation of osteoclasts during resorption. Additionally, we compared osteoclastic resorption on bone and dentin since the latter is the most frequently used in vitro model and data are extrapolated to bone. Histomorphometric analyses revealed a material-dependent effect reflected by an 11-fold higher resorption area and a sevenfold higher number of pits per square centimeter on dentin compared to bone. An important material-independent aspect was reflected by comparable mean pit area (?m²) and podosome patterns. Hence, dentin promotes the generation of resorbing osteoclasts, but once resorption has started, it proceeds independently of material properties. Thus, dentin is a suitable model substrate for data acquisition as long as osteoclast generation is not part of the analyses. PMID:24022329

Rumpler, M; Würger, T; Roschger, P; Zwettler, E; Sturmlechner, I; Altmann, P; Fratzl, P; Rogers, M J; Klaushofer, K

2013-12-01

299

Clonal distribution of osteoprogenitor cells in cultured chick periostea: Functional relationship to bone formation  

SciTech Connect

Folded explants of periosteum from embryonic chick calvaria form bone-like tissue when grown in the presence of ascorbic acid, organic phosphate, and dexamethasone. All osteoblast-like cells in these cultures arise de novo by differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells present in the periosteum. To study the spatial and functional relationships between bone formation and osteoprogenitor cells, cultures were continuously labeled with (3H)thymidine for periods of 1-5 days. Radioautographs of serial 2-microns plastic sections stained for alkaline phosphatase (AP) showed maximal labeling of 30% of fibroblastic (AP-negative) cells by 3 days while osteogenic cells (AP-positive) exhibited over 95% labeling by 5 days. No differential shifts in labeling indices, grain count histograms of fibroblastic and osteogenic cells or numbers of AP-positive cells were observed, indicating no significant recruitment of cells from the fibroblastic to the osteogenic compartment. Despite the continuous presence of (3H)thymidine, less than 35% of both osteoblasts and osteocytes were labeled at 5 days, indicating that only one-third of the osteoprogenitor cells had cycled prior to differentiation. Spatial clustering of (3H)thymidine-labeled cells was measured by computer-assisted morphometry and application of the Poisson distribution to assess contagion. Cluster size and number of labeled cells per cluster did not vary between 1-3 days, but the number of clusters increased 20-fold between Day 1 and Day 3. Three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections showed that clusters formed long, tubular arrays of osteogenic cells up to eight cells in length and located within 2-3 cell layers from the bone surface. Selective killing of S-phase cells with two pulse labels of high specific activity (3H)thymidine at 1 and 2 days of culture completely blocked bone formation.

McCulloch, C.A.; Fair, C.A.; Tenenbaum, H.C.; Limeback, H.; Homareau, R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1990-08-01

300

Humanized culture of periosteal progenitors in allogeneic serum enhances osteogenic differentiation and in vivo bone formation.  

PubMed

The translation of stem cell-based regenerative solutions from the laboratory to the clinic is often hindered by the culture conditions used to expand cell populations. Although fetal bovine serum (FBS) is widely used, regulatory bodies and safety concerns encourage alternative, xeno-free culturing practices. In an attempt to apply this approach to a bone-forming combination product of human periosteal progenitors (human periosteum derived cells) on a clinically used calcium phosphate carrier, FBS was substituted for human allogeneic serum (hAS) during cell expansion. It was found that cell proliferation was increased in hAS along with an apparent commitment to the osteogenic lineage, indicated by enhanced Runx2 expression, as well as alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization. Following analysis of signaling pathways, it was found that interferon-mediated signaling was downregulated, whereas JAK-STAT signaling was upregulated. STAT3 phosphorylation was enhanced in hAS-cultured human periosteum derived cells, inhibition of which ablated the proliferative effect of hAS. Furthermore, following in vivo implantation of hAS-cultured cells on NuOss scaffolds, enhanced bone formation was observed compared with FBS (71% increase, p < .001). Interestingly, the de novo-formed bone appeared to have a higher ratio of immature regions to mature regions, indicating that after 8 weeks implantation, tissue-formation processes were continuing. Integration of the implant with the environment appeared to be altered, with a decrease in calcium phosphate grain size and surface area, indicative of accelerated resorption. This study highlights the advantages of using humanized culture conditions for the expansion of human periosteal progenitors intended for bone regeneration. PMID:24375540

Roberts, Scott J; Owen, Helen C; Tam, Wai Long; Solie, Lien; Van Cromphaut, Sophie J; Van den Berghe, Greet; Luyten, Frank P

2014-02-01

301

Cortical and trabecular bone adaptation to incremental load magnitudes using the mouse tibial axial compression loading model.  

PubMed

The mouse tibial axial compression loading model has recently been described to allow simultaneous exploration of cortical and trabecular bone adaptation within the same loaded element. However, the model frequently induces cortical woven bone formation and has produced inconsistent results with regards to trabecular bone adaptation. The aim of this study was to investigate bone adaptation to incremental load magnitudes using the mouse tibial axial compression loading model, with the ultimate goal of revealing a load that simultaneously induced lamellar cortical and trabecular bone adaptation. Adult (16 weeks old) female C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three load magnitude groups (5, 7 and 9N), and had their right tibia axially loaded using a continuous 2-Hz haversine waveform for 360 cycles/day, 3 days/week for 4 consecutive weeks. In vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography was used to longitudinally assess midshaft tibia cortical bone adaptation, while ex vivo micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry were used to assess both midshaft tibia cortical and proximal tibia trabecular bone adaptation. A dose response to loading magnitude was observed within cortical bone, with increasing load magnitude inducing increasing levels of lamellar cortical bone adaptation within the upper two thirds of the tibial diaphysis. Greatest cortical bone adaptation was observed at the midshaft where there was a 42% increase in estimated mechanical properties (polar moment of inertia) in the highest (9N) load group. A dose response to load magnitude was not clearly evident within trabecular bone, with only the highest load (9N) being able to induce measureable adaptation (31% increase in trabecular bone volume fraction at the proximal tibia). The ultimate finding was that a load of 9N (engendering a tensile strain of 1833 ?? on medial surface of the midshaft tibia) was able to simultaneously induce measurable lamellar cortical and trabecular bone adaptation when using the mouse tibial axial compression loading model in 16 week old female C57BL/6 mice. This finding will help plan future studies aimed at exploring simultaneous lamellar cortical and trabecular bone adaptation within the same loaded element. PMID:23111313

Weatherholt, Alyssa M; Fuchs, Robyn K; Warden, Stuart J

2013-01-01

302

Cortical and Trabecular Bone Adaptation to Incremental Load Magnitudes Using the Mouse Tibial Axial Compression Loading Model  

PubMed Central

The mouse tibial axial compression loading model has recently been described to allow simultaneous exploration of cortical and trabecular bone adaptation within the same loaded element. However, the model frequently induces cortical woven bone formation and has produced inconsistent results with regards to trabecular bone adaptation. The aim of this study was to investigate bone adaptation to incremental load magnitudes using the mouse tibial axial compression loading model, with the ultimate goal of revealing a load that simultaneously induced lamellar cortical and trabecular bone adaptation. Adult (16 week old) female C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three load magnitude groups (5, 7 and 9 N), and had their right tibia axially loaded using a continuous 2-Hz haversine waveform for 360 cycles/d, 3 d/wk for 4 consecutive weeks. In vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography was used to longitudinally assess midshaft tibia cortical bone adaptation, while ex vivo micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry were used to assess both midshaft tibia cortical and proximal tibia trabecular bone adaptation. A dose response to loading magnitude was observed within cortical bone, with increasing load magnitude inducing increasing levels of lamellar cortical bone adaptation within the upper two thirds of the tibial diaphysis. Greatest cortical bone adaptation was observed at the midshaft where there was a 42% increase in estimated mechanical properties (polar moment of inertia) in the highest (9 N) load group. A dose response to load magnitude was not clearly evident within trabecular bone, with only the highest load (9 N) being able to induce measureable adaptation (31% increase in trabecular bone volume fraction at the proximal tibia). The ultimate finding was that a load of 9 N (engendering a tensile strain of 1,833 ?? on medial surface of the midshaft tibia) was able to simultaneously induce measurable lamellar cortical and trabecular bone adaptation when using the mouse tibial axial compression loading model in 16 week old female C57BL/6 mice. This finding will help plan future studies aimed at exploring simultaneous lamellar cortical and trabecular bone adaptation within the same loaded element.

Weatherholt, Alyssa M.; Fuchs, Robyn K.; Warden, Stuart J.

2012-01-01

303

Human bone-derived cells support formation of human osteoclasts from arthroplasty-derived cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Mononuclear osteoclast precursors are present in the wear-particle-associated macrophage infiltrate found in the membrane surrounding loose implants. These cells are capable of differentiating into osteoclastic bone-resorbing cells when co-cultured with the rat osteoblast-like cell line, UMR 106, in the presence of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3. In order to develop an in vitro model of osteoclast differentiation which more closely parallels the cellular microenvironment at the bone-implant interface in situ, we determined whether osteoblast-like human bone-derived cells were capable of supporting the differentiation of osteoclasts from arthroplasty-derived cells and analysed the humoral conditions required for this to occur. Long-term co-culture of arthroplasty-derived cells and human trabecular-bone-derived cells (HBDCs) resulted in the formation of numerous tartrate-resistant-acid-phosphatase (TRAP) and vitronectin-receptor (VNR)-positive multinucleated cells capable of extensive resorption of lacunar bone. The addition of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 was not required for the formation of osteoclasts and bone resorption. During the formation there was release of substantial levels of M-CSF and PGE2. Exogenous PGE2 (10(-8) to 10(-6) M) was found to stimulate strongly the resorption of osteoclastic bone. Our study has shown that HBDCs are capable of supporting the formation of osteoclasts from mononuclear phagocyte precursors present in the periprosthetic tissues surrounding a loose implant. The release of M-CSF and PGE2 by activated cells at the bone-implant interface may be important for the formation of osteoclasts at sites of pathological bone resorption associated with aseptic loosening. PMID:10990320

Neale, S D; Fujikawa, Y; Sabokbar, A; Gundle, R; Murray, D W; Graves, S E; Howie, D W; Athanasou, N A

2000-08-01

304

Nutrition and bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout life the skeleton is continually renewed. Old, worn out bone is broken down and new bone tissue is formed. During infancy, childhood and adolescence, bone formation is higher than breakdown. At about 30–35 years old adults achieve their peak bone mass. The rate of bone breakdown is equal to the rate of bone formation and bone mass is maintained.

Gail Goldberg

2004-01-01

305

Molecular biological evaluation of bioactive glass microspheres and adjunct bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene transfer in the enhancement of new bone formation.  

PubMed

Bioactive glass is a promising osteoconductive silica-based biomaterial for guidance of new bone growth. On the basis of several in vitro studies, the material appears able to promote osteoblast functions. In our in vivo study, the osteopromotive effect of bioactive glass microspheres seemed to surpass the osteoinductive action of direct adenovirus-mediated human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) gene transfer in a noncritical size bone defect model. The current study was initiated to elucidate the molecular mechanism behind bioactive glass action with or without adjunct BMP-2 gene transfer. A standardized bone defect of the rat tibia was filled with bioactive glass microspheres and injected with adenovirus carrying the human BMP-2 gene (RAdBMP-2). Control defects were left empty or filled with bioactive glass microspheres with injection of adenovirus carrying the lacZ reporter gene or saline. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction confirmed the expression of the transferred human BMP-2 gene at the defect area at 4 days, but not in intact reference tissues. Bone matrix components (collagens I, II, and III, osteocalcin, osteonectin, and osteopontin) and resorption markers (cathepsin K and MMP-9), determined by Northern analysis, showed a completely different pattern of gene expression in defects filled with bioactive glass compared with control defects left to heal without filling. Bioactive glass induced a long-lasting production of bone matrix with concurrent upregulation of osteoclastic markers, a sign of high bone turnover. Combining RAdBMP-2 gene transfer with bioactive glass decelerated the high turnover, but did not influence the balance of synthesis and resorption. This molecular analysis confirmed not only the highly osteopromotive effect of bioactive glass microspheres, but also the accelerated rate of new bone resorption on its surface. At least in noncritical size defects this impact of bioactive glass seems to saturate new bone formation on its surface and thereby overshadow the effect of BMP-2 gene transfer. PMID:15869418

Välimäki, Ville-Valtteri; Yrjans, Jessica J; Vuorio, Eero I; Aro, Hannu T

2005-01-01

306

Bone formation and neovascularization mediated by mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial cells in critical-sized calvarial defects.  

PubMed

Bone represents a highly dynamic tissue whose development is strongly dependent on vasculogenic and angiogenic processes. Neovascularization also plays an important role in fracture healing and in tissue engineering applications aiming at restoring bone function. We have previously shown in a heterotopic subcutaneous implantation model of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice that implanted human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) gave rise to the formation of a complex functional human neovasculature. In this study, we investigated the effect of HUVEC coimplantation on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated bone regeneration in an orthotopic calvarial bone defect model in immunocompromised mice. For this purpose, human fibrin/Matrigel-immobilized HUVECs and MSCs were seeded alone or in combination into scaffolds consisting of decalcified processed bovine cancellous bone (Tutobone) and implanted into calvarial critical-sized defects. Our results show that implanted HUVECs formed complex three-dimensional networks of perfused human neovessels that were stabilized by recruiting perivascular cells. Neovessel formation was considerably higher in the coimplantation group, suggesting that implanted MSCs supported HUVEC-triggered neovascularization. In addition, implanted MSCs effectively supported bone formation in calvarial defects. However, the HUVEC-derived neovasculature did not improve MSC-triggered bone regeneration in this orthotopic critical-sized defect model. PMID:20799886

Koob, Sebastian; Torio-Padron, Nestor; Stark, G Björn; Hannig, Christian; Stankovic, Zoran; Finkenzeller, Günter

2011-02-01

307

Long-term tracking of segmental bone healing mediated by genetically engineered adipose-derived stem cells: focuses on bone remodeling and potential side effects.  

PubMed

We previously showed that transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) engineered with hybrid baculovirus (BV) persistently expressing bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into segmental defects in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits led to successful defect reunion. By using microcomputed tomography and histology, here we further demonstrated that transplanting the hybrid BV-engineered ASCs into the massive defects (10?mm in length) at the femoral diaphysis of NZW rabbits resulted in trabecular bone formation in the interior via endochondral ossification and bone remodeling at 3 months post-transplantation. The progression of bone remodeling gave rise to the resorption of trabecular bone and conspicuous reconstruction of medullary cavity and cortical bone with lamellar structure at 8 months post-transplantation, hence conferring mechanical properties that were comparable to those of nonoperated femora. Importantly, X-ray, positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans, and histopathology revealed no signs of heterotopic bone formation and tumor formation. These data altogether attested that the genetically engineered ASCs and prolonged BMP2/VEGF expression not only healed and remodeled the stringent segmental defects, but also revitalized the defects into living bone tissues that structurally and biomechanically resembled intact bones without appreciable side effects, making it one step closer to translate this technology to the clinical setting. PMID:24367947

Lin, Chin-Yu; Chang, Yu-Han; Sung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chiu-Ling; Lin, Shih-Yeh; Li, Kuei-Chang; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Lin, Kun-Ju; Hu, Yu-Chen

2014-05-01

308

Effect of Different rhBMP-2 and TG-VEGF Ratios on the Formation of Heterotopic Bone and Neovessels  

PubMed Central

Bioengineered bone substitutes might represent alternatives to autologous bone grafts in medically compromised patients due to reduced operation time and comorbidity. Due to the lack of an inherent vascular system their dimension is limited to the size of critical bone size defect. To overcome this shortcoming, the experiment tried to create heterotopic bone around vessels. In vivo, a two-component fibrin and thrombin gel containing recombinant bone morphogenic protein (rhBMP-2) and transglutamate vascular endothelial growth factor (TG-VEGF) in different ratios, respectively, was injected into a dimensionally stable membrane tube, wrapped around the femoral vessel bundle in twelve New Zealand white rabbits. Sacrifice occurred eight weeks postoperatively. Microcomputed tomography of the specimens showed significantly increased bone volume in the rhBMP-2 to TG-VEGF ratio of 10 to 1 group. Histology showed new bone formation in close proximity to the vessel bundle. Immunohistochemistry detected increased angiogenesis within the newly formed bone in the rhBMP-2 to TG-VEGF ratios of 3 to 1 and 5 to 1. Heterotopic bone was engineered in vivo around vessels using different rhBMP-2 and TG-VEGF ratios in a fibrin matrix injected into a dimensionally stable membrane tube which prevented direct contact with skeletal muscles.

Cai, Wei Xin; Li, Chun Lei; Ehrbar, Martin; Weber, Franz E.; Zwahlen, Roger A.

2014-01-01

309

Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and tumor necrosis factor binding protein decrease osteoclast formation and bone resorption in ovariectomized mice.  

PubMed Central

To investigate the contribution of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF to the increased osteoclastogenesis induced by estrogen deficiency, ovariectomized (ovx) mice were treated with either IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), a competitive inhibitor of IL-1, TNF binding protein (TNFbp), an inhibitor of TNF, or the anti-IL-6 antibody (Ab) 20F3 for the first 2 wk after surgery. ovx increased the bone marrow cells secretion of IL-1 and TNF, but not IL-6, and the formation of TRAP-positive osteoclast-like multinucleated cells (MNCs) in bone marrow cultures treated with 1,25(OH)2D3. The increase in MNC formation induced by ovx was prevented by in vivo treatment with either 17 beta estradiol, IL-1ra, TNFbp, or anti-IL-6 Ab. However, the percent change in MNC formation induced by the anti-IL-6 Ab was similar in ovx and sham-operated animals, whereas IL-1ra and TNFbp were effective only in ovx mice. MNC formation was also decreased by in vitro treatment of bone marrow cultures with IL-1ra and TNFbp, but not with anti-IL-6 Ab. Ovx also increased bone resorption in vivo and in vitro, as assessed by the urinary excretion of pyridinoline cross links and the formation of resorption pits, respectively. IL-1ra, TNFbp and estrogen decreased bone resorption in vivo and in vitro whereas the anti-IL-6 Ab inhibited bone resorption in vitro but not in vivo. In conclusion, these data indicate that IL-1 and TNF play a direct role in mediating the effects of ovx on osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. The data also suggest that IL-6 is not essential for increasing bone resorption in the early postovariectomy period. Images

Kitazawa, R; Kimble, R B; Vannice, J L; Kung, V T; Pacifici, R

1994-01-01

310

Optimal lamellar arrangement in fish gills  

PubMed Central

Fish respire through gills, which have evolved to extract aqueous oxygen. Fish gills consist of filaments with well-ordered lamellar structures, which play a role in maximizing oxygen diffusion. It is interesting that when we anatomically observe the gills of various fish species, gill interlamellar distances (d) vary little among them, despite large variations in body mass (Mb). Noting that the small channels formed by densely packed lamellae cause significant viscous resistance to water flow, we construct and test a model of oxygen transfer rate as a function of the lamellar dimensions and pumping pressure, which allows us to predict the optimal interlamellar distance that maximizes the oxygen transfer rate in the gill. Comparing our theory with biological data supports the hypothesis that fish gills have evolved to form the optimal interlamellar distances for maximizing oxygen transfer. This explains the weak scaling dependence of d on Mb: d ? Mb1/6.

Park, Keunhwan; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

2014-01-01

311

Fungal keratitis following deep lamellar keratoplasty.  

PubMed

A young man affected from keratoconus was submitted to deep lamellar keratoplasty (DLK). The day after, the presence of pseudochamber between the donor and the recipient cornea was observed by the slit-lamp and the patient was submitted to the injection of an air bubble into the anterior chamber. Approximately six days later, multiple, whitish patches mostly located in the centre of the lamellar interface were noticed. Medical treatment was started immediately but no improvement was observed and penetrating keratoplasty was performed. Although this organism has been described as a microbial pathogen in blepharitis, conjunctivitis, keratitis, canaliculitis, dacryocystitis, and endophthalmitis, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of keratitis after DLK caused by Actinomyces species. PMID:21275603

Caretti, Luigi; Babighian, Silvia; Rapizzi, Emilio; Ponzin, Diego; Galan, Alessandro

2011-01-01

312

Impaired Intramembranous Bone Formation during Bone Repair in the Absence of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) is known to mediate bone resorption; however, its role in osteogenesis has not been fully elucidated. In order to investigate the direct role of TNF-? signaling in the recruitment and differentiation of osteoblasts, two separate models of bone repair were used, marrow ablation and simple transverse fractures. These models were carried out in the tibiae of

L. C. Gerstenfeld; T.-J. Cho; T. Kon; T. Aizawa; J. Cruceta; B. D. Graves; T. A. Einhorn

2001-01-01

313

Green tea polyphenols improve bone microarchitecture in high-fat-diet-induced obese female rats through suppressing bone formation and erosion.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on bone microarchitecture in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese female rats. Thirty-six 3-month-old female rats were fed either a control diet or a HFD for 4 months. Animals in the control group continued on the control diet for another 4 months. Animals in the HFD group were divided into two groups, with 0.5?g/100?mL GTP (the HFD+GTP group) or without GTP (the HFD group) in drinking water, in addition to the HFD for another 4 months. Compared to the control group, the HFD group increased bone formation and erosion rates at the tibia, decreased trabecular volume and thickness, but had no impact on bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular number (Tb.N), and separation. Compared to the control group, the HFD+GTP group demonstrates a greater Tb.N at the proximal tibia, and a greater trabecular thickness at the femur and the lumbar vertebrae, but a smaller trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and mineralizing surface at the proximal tibia, and a reduced endocortical mineral apposition rate (MAR) at the tibia shaft. Relative to the HFD group, the HFD+GTP group demonstrates (1) a higher BMD at the femur, a greater trabecular volume, thickness, and number at the proximal tibia, a larger cortical area and thickness at the tibial shaft, and a greater trabecular volume and thickness at the femur and the lumbar vertebrae, (2) a smaller Tb.Sp, MAR, bone formation rate, and eroded surface at the tibia. We concluded that GTP supplementation in drinking water improves bone microarchitecture in the HFD-induced obese female rats, possibly through suppressing bone turnover, resulting in a larger net bone volume. PMID:23631490

Shen, Chwan-Li; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J; Yeh, James K

2013-05-01

314

A comparison of osteoclast-rich and osteoclast-poor osteopetrosis in adult mice sheds light on the role of the osteoclast in coupling bone resorption and bone formation.  

PubMed

Osteopetrosis due to lack of acid secretion by osteoclasts is characterized by abolished bone resorption, increased osteoclast numbers, but normal or even increased bone formation. In contrast, osteoclast-poor osteopetrosis appears to have less osteoblasts and reduced bone formation, indicating that osteoclasts are important for regulating osteoblast activity. To illuminate the role of the osteoclast in controlling bone remodeling, we transplanted irradiated skeletally mature 3-month old wild-type mice with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to generate either an osteoclast-rich or osteoclast-poor adult osteopetrosis model. We used fetal liver HSCs from (1) oc/oc mice, (2) RANK KO mice, and (3) compared these to wt control cells. TRAP5b activity, a marker of osteoclast number and size, was increased in the oc/oc recipients, while a significant reduction was seen in the RANK KO recipients. In contrast, the bone resorption marker CTX-I was similarly decreased in both groups. Both oc/oc and Rank KO recipients developed a mild osteopetrotic phenotype. However, the osteoclast-rich oc/oc recipients showed higher trabecular bone volume (40 %), increased bone strength (66 %), and increased bone formation rate (54 %) in trabecular bone, while RANK KO recipients showed only minor trends compared to control recipients. We here show that maintaining non-resorbing osteoclasts, as opposed to reducing the osteoclasts, leads to increased bone formation, bone volume, and ultimately higher bone strength in vivo, which indicates that osteoclasts are sources of anabolic molecules for the osteoblasts. PMID:24838599

Thudium, Christian S; Moscatelli, Ilana; Flores, Carmen; Thomsen, Jesper S; Brüel, Annemarie; Gudmann, Natasja Stæhr; Hauge, Ellen-Margrethe; Karsdal, Morten A; Richter, Johan; Henriksen, Kim

2014-07-01

315

The optimum zinc content in set calcium phosphate cement for promoting bone formation in vivo  

PubMed Central

The final aim of our study is to develop a novel calcium phosphate cement based on zinc-containing ?-tricalcium phosphate (?ZnTCP) and evaluate its potential as bonegraft material in vivo. In the present study, in vivo efficacy of zinc in hardened bodies of ?ZnTCP was explored. The hardened bodies prepared from ?ZnTCP with zinc content of 0.00, 0.04, 0.08, 0.11 and 0.19 wt % were prepared by mixing pure ?TCP or ?ZnTCP powder with 12 wt% sodium succinate solution at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 2.0. Due to the release of zinc ions into the physiological salt solution during curing, the zinc content in the hardened bodies was calculated to be 0.00, 0.03, 0.06, 0.10 and 0.18 wt%, respectively. The hardened bodies were implanted in the femora and tibia of white rabbits for 4 weeks. Histological and histomorphometric evaluation showed that the hardened body containing 0.03 wt% zinc, significantly promoted more new bone formation without evoking adverse tissue reactions than that without zinc. The hardened bodies containing 0.06 and 0.10 wt% zinc also resulted in the increase in numbers of active osteoblasts surrounding the new bone but caused inflammation at the implant sites. Results of this study indicate that the hardened body prepared with ?ZnTCP is superior to that prepared with ?TCP in promoting new bone formation due to the release of zinc ions. This study also indicates that the optimum amount of zinc in the hardened body is about 0.03 wt % to avoid inflammatory reaction.

Li, Xia; Sogo, Yu; Ito, Atsuo; Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Nakamura, Satoshi; Yamashita, Kimihiro; LeGeros, Racquel Z.

2009-01-01

316

Ezh2 is required for neural crest-derived cartilage and bone formation.  

PubMed

The emergence of craniofacial skeletal elements, and of the jaw in particular, was a crucial step in the evolution of higher vertebrates. Most facial bones and cartilage are generated during embryonic development by cranial neural crest cells, while an osteochondrogenic fate is suppressed in more posterior neural crest cells. Key players in this process are Hox genes, which suppress osteochondrogenesis in posterior neural crest derivatives. How this specific pattern of osteochondrogenic competence is achieved remains to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that Hox gene expression and osteochondrogenesis are controlled by epigenetic mechanisms. Ezh2, which is a component of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), catalyzes trimethylation of lysine 27 in histone 3 (H3K27me3), thereby functioning as transcriptional repressor of target genes. Conditional inactivation of Ezh2 does not interfere with localization of neural crest cells to their target structures, neural development, cell cycle progression or cell survival. However, loss of Ezh2 results in massive derepression of Hox genes in neural crest cells that are usually devoid of Hox gene expression. Accordingly, craniofacial bone and cartilage formation is fully prevented in Ezh2 conditional knockout mice. Our data indicate that craniofacial skeleton formation in higher vertebrates is crucially dependent on epigenetic regulation that keeps in check inhibitors of an osteochondrogenic differentiation program. PMID:24496623

Schwarz, Daniel; Varum, Sandra; Zemke, Martina; Schöler, Anne; Baggiolini, Arianna; Draganova, Kalina; Koseki, Haruhiko; Schübeler, Dirk; Sommer, Lukas

2014-02-01

317

Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, prevents osteopenia by promoting bone formation and suppressing bone resorption in aged ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis mainly affects postmenopausal women and older men. Gastrointestinal hormones released after meal ingestion, such as glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2, have been shown to regulate bone turnover. However, whether GLP-1, another important gastrointestinal hormone, and its analogues also have antiosteoporotic effects, especially in aged postmenopausal situation, has not been confirmed. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis in old rats. Twelve-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to OVX, and exendin-4 was administrated 4 weeks after the surgery and lasted for 16 weeks. Bone characters and related serum and gene biomarkers were analyzed. Sixteen weeks of treatment with exendin-4 slowed down body weight gain by decreasing fat mass and prevented the loss of bone mass in old OVX rats. Exendin-4 also enhanced bone strength and prevented the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture. Moreover, exendin-4 decreased the urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD)/creatinine ratio and serum C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX-I) and increased serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP) levels, key biochemical markers of bone turnover. Interestingly, gene expression results further showed that exendin-4 not only inhibited bone resorption by increasing the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) ratio, but also promoted bone formation by increasing the expression of OC, Col1, Runx2, and ALP, which exhibited dual regulatory effects on bone turnover as compared with previous antiosteoporotic agents. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated for the first time the antiosteoporotic effects of exendin-4 in old OVX rats and that it might be a potential candidate for treatment of aged postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:23427056

Ma, Xue; Meng, Jingru; Jia, Min; Bi, Long; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Yukun; Hu, Jing; He, Gonghao; Luo, Xiaoxing

2013-07-01

318

Does Locked Plating of Periprosthetic Supracondylar Femur Fractures Promote Bone Healing by Callus Formation? Two Cases with Opposite Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Contemporary locking plates promote biological fixation through indirect reduction techniques and by elevating the plate from the bone. They have improved fixation strength in osteoporotic bone. Periarticular locking plates are rapidly being adopted for bridge plating of periprosthetic femur fractures. When these plates are used for indirect reduction and bridge plating osteosynthesis, fracture union occurs by secondary bone healing with callus formation which is stimulated by interfragmentary motion. In two patients with similar periprosthetic femur fractures treated with periarticular locking plates one fracture healed by ample callus formation while the other resulted in a non-union and had no callus formation six months post-operatively. The case, which progressed to secondar y bone healing with callus formation, exhibited varus migration as a result of loss of fixation. The non-union case retained stable fixation. The difference in outcome may indicate that callus formation was promoted by interfragmentary motion secondary to loss of fixation. Conversely, in absence of fixation failure, callus formation was suppressed by stable fixation with a stiff locking plate construct which reduced interfragmentary motion. These observations suggest that locked plating constructs should be sufficiently flexible when applied for bridge plating of comminuted fractures to promote callus formation.

Henderson, Christopher E.; Bottlang, Michael; Marsh, J. Lawrence; Fitzpatrick, Dan C.; Madey, Steven M.

2008-01-01

319

Biodegradation process of alpha-TCP particles and new bone formation in a rabbit cranial defect model.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to observe the biodegradation process of pure alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) particles and to determine the efficacy of alpha-TCP as a space maintainer in a bone defect. We used 14 rabbits and prepared two cranial bone defects in each rabbit. One defect was left empty as a control, whereas the other was filled with alpha-TCP particles about 300 mum in diameter. Animals were sacrificed at 1 week, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. The cranial bone was then embedded either in paraffin wax for the preparation of decalcified specimens, or in polyester resin for the preparation of nondecalcified specimens. All specimens were evaluated histologically and histomorphometrically. As a consequence of the degradation of alpha-TCP, a "reticulate structure" appeared in the particles at 1 week and new bone was observed in this structure at 8 weeks. The amount of new bone between the control and experimental groups was not significantly different at any of the time points. However, in the experimental group, new bone at the surface of alpha-TCP was evident even in the center of the defect whereas fibrous connective tissue was dominant in the control group. These results indicate that alpha-TCP is a degradable osteoconductive material that is able to act as a space maintainer for bone regeneration when applied to a bone defect. While there was no significant difference in total bone formation between the experimental and negative control groups, the space-maintaining and osteoconductive properties of the particles may result in more complete bone formation in longer-term studies. PMID:16680680

Kihara, Hidemichi; Shiota, Makoto; Yamashita, Yasuo; Kasugai, Shohei

2006-11-01

320

Sequential study on spontaneous colony formation by bone marrow cells during butylnitrosourea-induced leukemogenesis in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The spontaneous colony (SC)-forming activity of bone marrow cells of rats during butylnitrosourea (BNU) treatment was studied sequentially in an attempt to analyze stages of leukemogenesis. Aspirated bone marrow cells from female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats that had been given continuous access to drinking water containing 400 ppm BNU were examined at intervals of 3–5 weeks for colony formation of

Yasuo Takano; Tomoyuki Kitagawa; Yoshinori Urano

1990-01-01

321

Effects of Recombinant Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein4 on Bone Formation Parameters in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4), one of the most abundant IGFBPs produced by bone cells, is a potent inhibitor of IGF actions in vitro. To evaluate the modulation of IGF actions on bone formation in vivo by IGFBP-4, we produced intact and fragment (50- to 100-fold reduced IGF affinity) forms of BP-4 and examined their local and systemic effects

NAOHISA MIYAKOSHI; CHARMAINE RICHMAN; XUEZHONG QIN; DAVID J. BAYLINK; SUBBURAMAN MOHAN

1999-01-01

322

The p38? MAPK Function in Osteoprecursors Is Required for Bone Formation and Bone Homeostasis in Adult Mice  

PubMed Central

Background p38 MAPK activity plays an important role in several steps of the osteoblast lineage progression through activation of osteoblast-specific transcription factors and it is also essential for the acquisition of the osteoblast phenotype in early development. Although reports indicate p38 signalling plays a role in early skeletal development, its specific contributions to adult bone remodelling are still to be clarified. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated osteoblast-specific deletion of p38? to determine its significance in early skeletogenesis, as well as for bone homeostasis in adult skeleton. Early p38? deletion resulted in defective intramembranous and endochondral ossification in both calvaria and long bones. Mutant mice showed reduction of trabecular bone volume in distal femurs, associated with low trabecular thickness. In addition, knockout mice also displayed decreased femoral cortical bone volume and thickness. Deletion of p38? did not affect osteoclast function. Yet it impaired osteoblastogenesis and osteoblast maturation and activity through decreased expression of osteoblast-specific transcription factors and their targets. Furthermore, the inducible Cre system allowed us to control the onset of p38? disruption after birth by removal of doxycycline. Deletion of p38? at three or eight weeks postnatally led to significantly lower trabecular and cortical bone volume after 6 or 12 months. Conclusions Our data demonstrates that, in addition to early skeletogenesis, p38? is essential for osteoblasts to maintain their function in mineralized adult bone, as bone anabolism should be sustained throughout life. Moreover, our data also emphasizes that clinical development of p38 inhibitors should take into account their potential bone effects.

Rodriguez-Carballo, Edgardo; Gamez, Beatriz; Sedo-Cabezon, Lara; Sanchez-Feutrie, Manuela; Zorzano, Antonio; Manzanares-Cespedes, Cristina; Rosa, Jose Luis; Ventura, Francesc

2014-01-01

323

Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Stimulation of Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation Is Mediated by Modulation of the Wnt Signaling Pathway*  

PubMed Central

Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) positively modulates osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. However, the mechanism(s) is not fully understood. Because the Wnt canonical pathway is important for bone homeostasis, this study focuses on modulation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling using Fgf2?/? mice (FGF2 all isoforms ablated), both in the absence of endogenous FGF2 and in the presence of exogenous FGF2. This study demonstrates a role of endogenous FGF2 in bone formation through Wnt signaling. Specifically, mRNA expression for the canonical Wnt genes Wnt10b, Lrp6, and ?-catenin was decreased significantly in Fgf2?/? bone marrow stromal cells during osteoblast differentiation. In addition, a marked reduction of Wnt10b and ?-catenin protein expression was observed in Fgf2?/? mice. Furthermore, Fgf2?/? osteoblasts displayed marked reduction of inactive phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3?, a negative regulator of Wnt/?-catenin pathway as well as a significant decrease of Dkk2 mRNA, which plays a role in terminal osteoblast differentiation. Addition of exogenous FGF2 promoted ?-catenin nuclear accumulation and further partially rescued decreased mineralization in Fgf2?/? bone marrow stromal cell cultures. Collectively, our findings suggest that FGF2 stimulation of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation is mediated in part by modulating the Wnt pathway.

Fei, Yurong; Xiao, Liping; Doetschman, Thomas; Coffin, Douglas J.; Hurley, Marja M.

2011-01-01

324

Adipose-derived stem cells transfected with pEGFP-OSX enhance bone formation during distraction osteogenesis*  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to investigate the effects of local delivery of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) transfected with transcription factor osterix (OSX) on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis. New Zealand white rabbits (n=54) were randomly divided into three groups (18 rabbits per group). A directed cloning technique was used for the construction of recombinant plasmid pEGFP-OSX, where EGFP is the enhanced green fluorescence protein. After osteodistraction of the right mandible of all experimental rabbits, rabbits in group A were treated with ADSCs transfected with pEGFP-OSX, group B with ADSCs transfected with pEGFP-N1, and group C with physiological saline. Radiographic and histological examinations were processed after half of the animals within each group were humanely killed by injection of sodium pentothal at Week 2 or 6 after surgery. The distraction bone density was measured as its projectional bone mineral density (BMD). Three parameters were measured, namely, the thickness of new trabeculae (TNT), and the volumes of the newly generated cortical bone (NBV1) and the cancellous bone (NBV2) of the distracted regions. Good bone generation in the distraction areas was found in group A, which had the highest BMD, TNT, and NBV in the distraction zones among the groups. There was no significant difference in bone generation in the distraction areas between groups B and C. The results indicate that the transplantation of ADSCs transfected with pEGFP-OSX can effectively promote bone generation during distraction in vivo.

Lai, Qing-guo; Sun, Shao-long; Zhou, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Chen-ping; Yuan, Kui-feng; Yang, Zhong-jun; Luo, Sheng-lei; Tang, Xiao-peng; Ci, Jiang-bo

2014-01-01

325

Adipose-derived stem cells transfected with pEGFP-OSX enhance bone formation during distraction osteogenesis.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the effects of local delivery of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) transfected with transcription factor osterix (OSX) on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis. New Zealand white rabbits (n=54) were randomly divided into three groups (18 rabbits per group). A directed cloning technique was used for the construction of recombinant plasmid pEGFP-OSX, where EGFP is the enhanced green fluorescence protein. After osteodistraction of the right mandible of all experimental rabbits, rabbits in group A were treated with ADSCs transfected with pEGFP-OSX, group B with ADSCs transfected with pEGFP-N1, and group C with physiological saline. Radiographic and histological examinations were processed after half of the animals within each group were humanely killed by injection of sodium pentothal at Week 2 or 6 after surgery. The distraction bone density was measured as its projectional bone mineral density (BMD). Three parameters were measured, namely, the thickness of new trabeculae (TNT), and the volumes of the newly generated cortical bone (NBV1) and the cancellous bone (NBV2) of the distracted regions. Good bone generation in the distraction areas was found in group A, which had the highest BMD, TNT, and NBV in the distraction zones among the groups. There was no significant difference in bone generation in the distraction areas between groups B and C. The results indicate that the transplantation of ADSCs transfected with pEGFP-OSX can effectively promote bone generation during distraction in vivo. PMID:24793766

Lai, Qing-guo; Sun, Shao-long; Zhou, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Chen-ping; Yuan, Kui-feng; Yang, Zhong-jun; Luo, Sheng-lei; Tang, Xiao-peng; Ci, Jiang-bo

2014-05-01

326

Impaired bone formation in male idiopathic osteoporosis: further reduction in the presence of concomitant hypercalciuria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present iliac bone histomorphometric data and related biochemical data from 16 nonalcoholic men (50 +/- 11 (SD) years) referred for evaluation of spontaneous skeletal and/or appendicular fractures and reduced spinal bone density. All men were eugonadal and had no known underlying disorder associated with osteopenia. For the group, mean serum chemistry values were within normal limits including immunoreactive parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D]. Nine men demonstrated hypercalciuria (greater than or equal to 0.1 mmol/kg per day) while on a constant metabolic diet of 20 mmol/day Ca. Their 24-hour urinary calcium was significantly greater than that for the remaining 7 men (7.4 +/- 1.6 vs. 5.0 +/- 0.8 mmol/day, p = 0.003), as was their calciuric response to a 1 g oral calcium load (0.23 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.15 +/- 0.05 Ca/creatinine, p = 0.042). Serum parameters (including parathyroid hormone and 1,25(OH)2D) of hypercalciuric and normocalciuric men were not significantly different. Histomorphometric indices for cancellous bone demonstrated significant differences between the entire group of osteoporotic men and age-adjusted normal values for bone volume (11.4 +/- 4.0% vs. 23.2 +/- 4.4%), osteoid surface (5.6 +/- 3.9% vs. 12.1 +/- 4.6%), osteoblastic surface (2.0 +/- 2.3% vs. 3.9 +/- 1.9%), and mineralizing surface (1.9 +/- 2.4% vs. 5.1 +/- 2.7%); there were also significant differences in bone formation rate (total surface referent) (0.004 +/- 0.001 vs. 0.011 +/- 0.006 mm3/mm2 per year). Compared with the normocalciuric group the 9 hypercalciuric men had significantly lower osteoblastic surfaces (1.6 +/- 1.9% vs. 2.5 +/- 2.6%) and mineralizing surfaces (1.4 +/- 1.5% vs. 2.7 +/- 3.2%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

Zerwekh, J. E.; Sakhaee, K.; Breslau, N. A.; Gottschalk, F.; Pak, C. Y.

1992-01-01

327

Effects of AISI 316L corrosion products in in vitro bone formation.  

PubMed

Rat bone marrow cells were cultured in experimental conditions that favour the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic cells (i.e., 2.52 x 10(-4) mol l(-1) ascorbic acid, 10(-2) mol l(-1) beta-glycerophosphate and 10(-8) mol l(-1) dexamethasone) in the absence and in the presence of stainless-steel corrosion products, for a period of 18 days. An AISI 316L stainless-steel slurry (SS) was obtained by electrochemical means and the concentrations of the major metal ions, determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, were 8.78 x 10(-3) mol l(-1) of Fe, 4.31 x 10(-3) mol l(-1) of Cr and 2.56 x 10(-3) mol l(-1) of Ni. Bone marrow cells were exposed to 0.01, 0.1 and 1% of the SS and at the end of the incubation period, control and treated cultures were evaluated by histochemical assays for the identification of the presence of alkaline phosphatase and also calcium and phosphate deposition. Cultures were further observed by scanning electron microscopy. Levels of total and ionised calcium and phosphorus in the culture media collected from control and metal exposed cell cultures were also quantified. Histochemical staining showed that control cultures presented a strong reaction for the presence of alkaline phosphatase and exhibited formation of calcium and phosphates deposits. The presence of 0.01% SS caused no detectable biological effects in these cultures, 0.1% SS impaired osteoblastic behaviour and, 1% SS resulted in cell death. In the absence of bone cells, levels of total and ionised calcium and phosphorus in the control and metal added culture medium were similar throughout the incubation period. A significant decrease in the levels of ionised calcium and phosphorus were observed in the culture medium of control cultures and also in cultures exposed to 0.01% SS after two weeks of incubation, an event related with the formation of mineral calcium phosphate deposits in these cultures. In cultures grown in the presence of 0.1 and 1% SS corrosion products, levels of calcium and phosphorus were similar to those observed in the absence of cells. Results showed that stainless-steel corrosion products above certain concentrations may disturb the normal behaviour of osteoblast-like rat bone marrow cell cultures. PMID:9692798

Morais, S; Sousa, J P; Fernandes, M H; Carvalho, G S; de Bruijn, J D; van Blitterswijk, C A

1998-06-01

328

Implantation of silicon dioxide-based nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and pure phase beta-tricalciumphosphate bone substitute granules in caprine muscle tissue does not induce new bone formation  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoinductive bone substitutes are defined by their ability to induce new bone formation even at heterotopic implantation sites. The present study was designed to analyze the potential osteoinductivity of two different bone substitute materials in caprine muscle tissue. Materials and methods One gram each of either a porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) or an hydroxyapatite/silicon dioxide (HA/SiO2)-based nanocrystalline bone substitute material was implanted in several muscle pouches of goats. The biomaterials were explanted at 29, 91 and 181 days after implantation. Conventional histology and special histochemical stains were performed to detect osteoblast precursor cells as well as mineralized and unmineralized bone matrix. Results Both materials underwent cellular degradation in which tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast-like cells and TRAP-negative multinucleated giant cells were involved. The ß-TCP was completely resorbed within the observation period, whereas some granules of the HA-groups were still detectable after 180 days. Neither osteoblasts, osteoblast precursor cells nor extracellular bone matrix were found within the implantation bed of any of the analyzed biomaterials at any of the observed time points. Conclusions This study showed that ß-TCP underwent a faster degradation than the HA-based material. The lack of osteoinductivity for both materials might be due to their granular shape, as osteoinductivity in goat muscle has been mainly attributed to cylindrical or disc-shaped bone substitute materials. This hypothesis however requires further investigation to systematically analyze various materials with comparable characteristics in the same experimental setting.

2013-01-01

329

Lamellar semiconductors for conversion and storage of solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural and photoelectric characteristics of lamellar semiconductors are discussed. Intercalation and deintercalation in or out of these materials is presented. By mixing photoelectrochemical and intercalation phenomena in lamellar compounds, the concept of photointercalation/photodeintercalation is introduced, and experimental conclusions are drawn (with p-InSe and n-HfSe2). It appears then that lamellar photoelectrodes can really be thought of as part of a system which converts and simultaneously stores solar energy.

Theys, B.; Levy-Clement, C.; Gorochov, O.

330

Sonic Hedgehog-activated engineered blood vessels enhance bone tissue formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large bone defects naturally regenerate via a highly vascularized tissue which progressively remodels into cartilage and bone. Current approaches in bone tissue engineering are restricted by delayed vascularization and fail to recapitulate this stepwise differentiation toward bone tissue. Here, we use the morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) to induce the in vitro organization of an endothelial capillary network in an artificial

N. C. Rivron; C. C. Raiss; J. Liu; A. Nandakumar; C. Sticht; N. Gretz; R. K. Truckenmuller; J. Rouwkema; Blitterswijk van C. A

2012-01-01

331

Accelerated bone healing and excessive callus formation in patients with femoral fracture and head injury.  

PubMed

The effect of head injury on systemic physiology, including bone healing is still a topic of vivid discussion. Whether the observed changes genuinely represent accelerated fracture healing or are a form of local heterotopic ossification remains unclear. We aimed to investigate whether in patients with long bone fractures the presence of head injury is associated with accelerated bone healing and excessive callus formation. In total 67 patients were studied 17 with head injury and 50 without head injury (25 treated with reamed and the other 25 with the unreamed nailing technique). Both groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, ISS. All underwent stabilisation of their femoral fracture with intramedullary nailing. The quantification of fracture healing response was estimated by taking the radiological ratio of the largest diameter of callus formed into two planes and the adjacent normal diameter of femoral canal. The minimum follow up of the patients was 12 months. In patients with head injury, the mean time to fracture union was significantly shorter than either the reamed or unreamed group (10.5 weeks compared with 20.5 and 26.9 weeks, p<0.001). The difference between the mean callus to diaphyseal ratio was statistically significant for both the AP and Lateral projections (AP: mean difference 0.462, 95% CI 0.312 to 0.602, p<0.0001, LAT: mean difference 0.289, 95% CI 0.142 to 0.436, p<0.001) with the head injured patients having more florid callus compared to the control group. PMID:16963358

Giannoudis, P V; Mushtaq, S; Harwood, P; Kambhampati, S; Dimoutsos, M; Stavrou, Z; Pape, H C

2006-09-01

332

Bone metabolism and formation generation bred mice in a 2G environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined the influence of G-force on bone formation (Exp.1) and bone metabolism (Exp.2) on generation bred mice in a 2G environment. [Materials and Method] We made the centrifugation G load breeding machine that we can breed mouse in G load environment. Exp.1: We measured the body length, length of thighbone and pelvis, width of thighbone, pelvis and fourth cervical vertebra in mature mice from the photograph of mice by X-ray. Exp.2: Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and strontium were analyzed on thighbone, cervical vertebrae and lumbar vertebrae respectively. [Results] Exp.1: The result showed that the average of body length of control mice was 107.9+/-1.5 mm, a decrease approximately 7.9mm in body length in the G-forced mice. Length and width of thighbone and pelvis were miniaturized (length: 1.6%, width: 7.7% respectively) in the G-forced mice. However, width of cervical vertebrae in the Gforced mice was not different in control mice. Exp.2: The concentration of calcium and phosphorus of the thighbone in the G-forced mice was less than the control mice. However, that of the cervical vertebrae in G-forced mice was not different from the control mice. [Conclusion] Bone of mice adapted in a 2G environment. The results showed that the body length, thighbone and pelvis were miniaturized in the G-force mice. However, there were not any differences in the size of cervical vertebra. And cervical vertebra was promoted mineralization.

Kita, S.; Iwasaki, K.; Shibata, S.; Onishi, R.; Ito, M.

333

Intermittent Parathyroid Hormone Administration Counteracts the Adverse Effects of Glucocorticoids on Osteoblast and Osteocyte Viability, Bone Formation, and Strength in Mice  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoids act directly on bone cells to decrease production of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, increase osteoblast and osteocyte apoptosis, and prolong osteoclast life span. Conversely, daily injections of PTH decrease osteoblast and osteocyte apoptosis and increase bone formation and strength. Using a mouse model, we investigated whether the recently demonstrated efficacy of PTH in glucocorticoid-induced bone disease results from the ability of this therapeutic modality to counteract at least some of the direct effects of glucocorticoids on bone cells. Glucocorticoid administration to 5- to 6-month-old Swiss-Webster mice for 28 d increased the prevalence of osteoblast and osteocyte apoptosis and decreased osteoblast number, activation frequency, and bone formation rate, resulting in reduced osteoid, wall and trabecular width, bone mineral density, and bone strength. In contrast, daily injections of PTH caused a decrease in osteoblast and osteocyte apoptosis and an increase in osteoblast number, activation frequency, bone formation rate, bone mineral density, and bone strength. The decreased osteocyte apoptosis was associated with increased bone strength. When the two agents were combined, all the adverse effects of glucocorticoid excess on bone were prevented. Likewise, in cultured osteoblastic cells, PTH attenuated the adverse effects of glucocorticoids on osteoblast survival and Wnt signaling via an Akt phosphorylation-dependent mechanism. We conclude that intermittent PTH administration directly counteracts the key pathogenetic mechanisms of glucocorticoid excess on bone, thus providing a mechanistic explanation of its efficacy against glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.

Weinstein, Robert S.; Jilka, Robert L.; Almeida, Maria; Roberson, Paula K.; Manolagas, Stavros C.

2010-01-01

334

Macroscopic dynamics near the isotropic micellar to lamellar phase transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the hydrodynamic equations for the lamellar phase in lyotropic liquid crystals. The hydrodynamic equations are investigated to the vicinity of the isotropic micellar to lamellar phase transition. To derive the hydrodynamic equations we make use of symmetry arguments and irreversible thermodynamics. Besides the usual order parameters to describe the lamellar phase we also keep the concentration of the surfactant molecules which are aggregated in micelles as a variable in order to describe the correct macroscopic behavior of the lamellar phase. The macroscopic dynamic equations are presented on both sides of the transition. We discuss possible experiment were our theory can be tested.

Mukherjee, Prabir K.

2014-02-01

335

Shear Induced Structures in Lamellar Systems ---From Layers to Onions to Onions and Layers---  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear flow induces the formation of multilamellar vesicles (MLV, also termed ``onions") in the lamellar phase of the nonionic surfactant C_{10}E_{3} in water. Depending on the applied shear rate, one can reach a state of polydisperse MLV (at intermediate shear rates) or densely packed monodisperse MLV at high shear rates. In this contribution we investigated the structure evolution when the shear rate is reduced by means of rheo-microscopy as well as rheo-small angle light and neutron scattering (SALS, SANS). Different shear quenches within the MLV structure region of 40 wt% C_{10}E_{3} reveal two different MLV size growth mechanisms: (i) a continuous and (ii) a discontinuous MLV size growth. In the later case, a part of the initial MLV structure transforms into planar lamellar domains leading to shear thinning. The lamellar domains perform a re-orientation process from parallel oriented lamellae into MLV in coexistence with the initial MLV structure. The pathway of the transformation of the parallel lamellae to MLV is the same as in start-up experiments, i.e. from a homeotropically aligned lamellar phase.

Koschoreck, S.; Fujii, S.; Richtering, W.

336

Bio-activated titanium surface utilizable for mimetic bone implantation in dentistry—Part III: Surface characteristics and bone implant contact formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was carried out to quantify the effect of an alkali-modified surface on the bone implant interface formation during healing using an animal model. A total of 24 screw-shaped, self-tapping, (c.p.) titanium dental implants, divided into test group B—implants with alkali-modified surface (Bio surface) and control group M—implants with turned, machined surface, were inserted without pre-tapping in the tibiae of three beagle dogs. The animals were sacrificed after 2, 5 and 12 weeks and the bone implant contact (BIC%) was evaluated histometrically. The surface characteristics that differed between the implant surfaces, i.e. specific surface area, contact angle, may represent factors that influence the rate of osseointegration and the secondary implant stability. The alkali-treated surface enhances the BIC formation during the first 2 5 weeks of healing compared to the turned, machined surface.

Strnad, Jakub; Strnad, Zden?k; Šesták, Jaroslav; Urban, Karel; Povýšil, Ctibor

2007-05-01

337

Evidence for estrogen receptor expression during medullary bone formation and resorption in estrogen-treated male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica).  

PubMed

The temporal expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-? and ER-? mRNA was examined in male Japanese quails. Femurs of quails receiving 17?-estradiol underwent RT-PCR and histochemical analysis 1 to 15 days after treatment. Untreated quails were used as controls (day 0). Between days 0 and 5, cells lining the bone endosteal surface differentiated into osteoblasts, which in turn formed medullary bone. Expression of ER-? was already observed on day 0 and increased slightly during bone formation whereas ER-? was hardly detected throughout this process. After osteoclasts appeared on the medullary bone surface, this type of bone disappeared from the bone marrow cavity (days 7˜15). ER-? expression simultaneously decreased slightly and ER-? levels remained very low. These results suggest that estrogen activity mediated by ER-? not only affects medullary bone formation but also bone resorption. PMID:23000578

Hiyama, Shinji; Sugiyama, Toshie; Kusuhara, Seiji; Uchida, Takashi

2012-09-01

338

Effective spectral optical functions of lamellar nanogratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral properties of lamellar sub-wavelength gratings (nanogratings) are described by effective medium approximation (EMA). Analytical spectral formulae for ordinary and extraordinary effective optical functions are derived for nanogratings consisting of material described by Sellmeier, damped harmonic oscillator, and Drude formulae. Spectral origin for birefringence of dielectric nanogratings and linear dichroism for absorbing ones is discussed for model cases and gratings consisting of real natural materials. Simple approximation by zero-order diffraction is compared with rigorous modeling based on Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA). Limits of applicability of effective medium approximation is discussed in the spectral domain.

Foldyna, M.; Postava, K.; Ossikovski, R.; de Martino, A.; Garcia-Caurel, E.

2006-09-01

339

Mutation in osteoactivin decreases bone formation in vivo and osteoblast differentiation in vitro.  

PubMed

We have previously identified osteoactivin (OA), encoded by Gpnmb, as an osteogenic factor that stimulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro. To elucidate the importance of OA in osteogenesis, we characterized the skeletal phenotype of a mouse model, DBA/2J (D2J) with a loss-of-function mutation in Gpnmb. Microtomography of D2J mice showed decreased trabecular mass, compared to that in wild-type mice [DBA/2J-Gpnmb(+)/SjJ (D2J/Gpnmb(+))]. Serum analysis showed decreases in OA and the bone-formation markers alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin in D2J mice. Although D2J mice showed decreased osteoid and mineralization surfaces, their osteoblasts were increased in number, compared to D2J/Gpnmb(+) mice. We then examined the ability of D2J osteoblasts to differentiate in culture, where their differentiation and function were decreased, as evidenced by low alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses confirmed the decreased expression of differentiation markers in D2J osteoblasts. In vitro, D2J osteoblasts proliferated and survived significantly less, compared to D2J/Gpnmb(+) osteoblasts. Next, we investigated whether mutant OA protein induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in D2J osteoblasts. Neither endoplasmic reticulum stress markers nor endoplasmic reticulum ultrastructure were altered in D2J osteoblasts. Finally, we assessed underlying mechanisms that might alter proliferation of D2J osteoblasts. Interestingly, TGF-? receptors and Smad-2/3 phosphorylation were up-regulated in D2J osteoblasts, suggesting that OA contributes to TGF-? signaling. These data confirm the anabolic role of OA in postnatal bone formation. PMID:24462663

Abdelmagid, Samir M; Belcher, Joyce Y; Moussa, Fouad M; Lababidi, Suzanne L; Sondag, Gregory R; Novak, Kimberly M; Sanyurah, Afif S; Frara, Nagat A; Razmpour, Roshanak; Del Carpio-Cano, Fabiola E; Safadi, Fayez F

2014-03-01

340

Mechanism of the lamellar/inverse hexagonal phase transition examined by high resolution x-ray diffraction.  

PubMed

For the first time the electron density of the lamellar liquid crystalline as well as of the inverted hexagonal phase could be retrieved at the transition temperature. A reliable decomposition of the d-spacings into hydrophobic and hydrophilic structure elements could be performed owing to the presence of a sufficient number of reflections. While the hydrocarbon chain length, d(C), in the lamellar phase with a value of 14.5 A lies within the extreme limits of the estimated chain length of the inverse hexagonal phase 10 A < d(C) < 16 A, the changes in the hydrophilic region vary strongly. During the lamellar-to-inverse hexagonal phase transition the area per lipid molecule reduces by approximately 25%, and the number of water molecules per lipid increases from 14 to 18. On the basis of the analysis of the structural components of each phase, the interface between the coexisting mesophases between 66 and 84 degrees C has been examined in detail, and a model for the formation of the first rods in the matrix of the lamellar phospholipid stack is discussed. Judging from the structural relations between the inverse hexagonal and the lamellar phase, we suggest a cooperative chain reaction of rod formation at the transition midpoint, which is mainly driven by minimizing the interstitial region. PMID:12719241

Rappolt, Michael; Hickel, Andrea; Bringezu, Frank; Lohner, Karl

2003-05-01

341

Runx2 Protein Expression Utilizes the Runx2 P1 Promoter to Establish Osteoprogenitor Cell Number for Normal Bone Formation*  

PubMed Central

The Runt-related transcription factor, Runx2, is essential for osteogenesis and is controlled by both distal (P1) and proximal (P2) promoters. To understand Runx2 function requires determination of the spatiotemporal activity of P1 and P2 to Runx2 protein production. We generated a mouse model in which the P1-derived transcript was replaced with a lacZ reporter allele, resulting in loss of P1-derived protein while simultaneously allowing discrimination between the activities of the two promoters. Loss of P1-driven expression causes developmental defects with cleidocranial dysplasia-like syndromes that persist in the postnatal skeleton. P1 activity is robust in preosteogenic mesenchyme and at the onset of bone formation but decreases as bone matures. Homozygous Runx2-P1lacZ/lacZ mice have a normal life span but exhibit severe osteopenia and compromised bone repair in adult mice because of osteoblastic defects and not increased osteoclastic resorption. Gene expression profiles of bone, immunohistochemical studies, and ex vivo differentiation using calvarial osteoblasts and marrow stromal cells identified mechanisms for the skeletal phenotype. The findings indicate that P1 promoter activity is necessary for generating a threshold level of Runx2 protein to commit sufficient osteoprogenitor numbers for normal bone formation. P1 promoter function is not compensated via the P2 promoter. However, the P2 transcript with compensatory mechanisms from bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Wnt signaling is adequate for mineralization of the bone tissue that does form. We conclude that selective utilization of the P1 and P2 promoters enables the precise spatiotemporal expression of Runx2 necessary for normal skeletogenesis and the maintenance of bone mass in the adult.

Liu, Julie C.; Lengner, Christopher J.; Gaur, Tripti; Lou, Yang; Hussain, Sadiq; Jones, Marci D.; Borodic, Brent; Colby, Jennifer L.; Steinman, Heather A.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Stein, Janet L.; Jones, Stephen N.; Stein, Gary S.; Lian, Jane B.

2011-01-01

342

Effect of Id1 knockdown on formation of osteolytic bone lesions by prostate cancer PC3 cells in vivo.  

PubMed

The formation of osteolytic bone lesions is a key process for osteolytic cancer to metastasize to the bone and is under the control of a set of transcription factors. Recently, the inhibitor of differentiation 1 (Id1) has been linked with angiogenesis, tumorigenesis, metastasis and bone formation. However, the function of Id1 during the process of bone destruction caused by cancer in vivo has not yet been elucidated. We, therefore, examined whether and how Id1 affects the ability of cancer to form osteolytic lesion in vivo. The study used a lentiviral vector overexpressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting Id1 gene. PC3 cells, a prostate cancer cell line, were transduced with Id1 shRNA or negative control (NC) shRNA before implantation in BALB/c mice. Cells were implanted in a tibial injection model. Tumor formation in bone was monitored by X-ray. The relationship between parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), an osteolytic factor, and Id1 was analyzed by using immunohistochemistry in tissue sections from osteolytic lesion of the BALB/c mice. Our results showed that Id1 shRNA delivery to PC3 cells by lentivirus caused efficient and stable Id1 gene silencing. In the intratibial model, PC3 cells produced primarily osteolytic lesions in the bone. Eleven of 14 mice in Id1 shRNA group but only 4 of 14 mice in the NC shRNA group developed osteolytic lesions with cortical destruction at 4th week. Mice treated with Id1 shRNA had larger tumor volume in the bone and larger cortical destruction. The expression of PTHrP protein in PC3 cells was not affected by Id1 knockdown in vivo. These results indicate that Id1 may down-regulate the ability of PC3 cells to form osteolytic lesions in vivo and the signal pathway needs to be further investigated. PMID:22684559

Zhang, Zhengguo; Li, Kuanxin; Zhang, Xiaomei; Fang, Zhong; Xiong, Wei; Chen, Qi; Chen, Wenjian; Li, Feng

2012-06-01

343

Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF-2) Potentiates BMP-9-Induced Osteogenic Differentiation and Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

Efficient osteogenic differentiation and bone formation from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) should have clinical applications in treating nonunion fracture healing. MSCs are adherent bone marrow stromal cells that can self-renew and differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic lineages. We have identified bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP-9) as one of the most osteogenic BMPs. Here we investigate the effect of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) on BMP-9-induced bone formation. We have found that endogenous IGF-2 expression is low in MSCs. Expression of IGF-2 can potentiate BMP-9-induced early osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expression of later markers. IGF-2 has been shown to augment BMP-9-induced ectopic bone formation in the stem cell implantation assay. In perinatal limb explant culture assay, IGF-2 enhances BMP-9-induced endochondral ossification, whereas IGF-2 itself can promote the expansion of the hypertropic chondrocyte zone of the cultured limb explants. Expression of the IGF antagonists IGFBP3 and IGFBP4 leads to inhibition of the IGF-2 effect on BMP-9-induced ALP activity and matrix mineralization. Mechanistically, IGF-2 is further shown to enhance the BMP-9-induced BMPR-Smad reporter activity and Smad1/5/8 nuclear translocation. PI3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 abolishes the IGF-2 potentiation effect on BMP-9-mediated osteogenic signaling and can directly inhibit BMP-9 activity. These results demonstrate that BMP-9 crosstalks with IGF-2 through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway during osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Taken together, our findings suggest that a combination of BMP-9 and IGF-2 may be explored as an effective bone-regeneration agent to treat large segmental bony defects, nonunion fracture, and/or osteoporotic fracture. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Chen, Liang; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Jiayi; He, Bai-Cheng; Zuo, Guo-Wei; Zhang, Wenli; Luo, Qing; Shi, Qiong; Zhang, Bing-Qiang; Wagner, Eric R; Luo, Jinyong; Tang, Min; Wietholt, Christian; Luo, Xiaoji; Bi, Yang; Su, Yuxi; Liu, Bo; Kim, Stephanie H; He, Connie J; Hu, Yawen; Shen, Jikun; Rastegar, Farbod; Huang, Enyi; Gao, Yanhong; Gao, Jian-Li; Zhou, Jian-Zhong; Reid, Russell R; Luu, Hue H; Haydon, Rex C; He, Tong-Chuan; Deng, Zhong-Liang

2010-01-01

344

MRI evaluation of tibial tunnel wall cortical bone formation after platelet-rich plasma applied during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, formation of cortical sclerotic bone encircling the femoral and tibial tunnel is a part of intratunnel graft healing. During the physiological cascades of soft tissue healing and bone growth, cellular and hormonal factors play an important role. The purpose of this study was to non-invasively but quantitatively assess the effect of intraoperatively applied platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the formation of cortical bone encircling the tibial tunnel. Patients and methods In fifty patients, standard arthroscopic ACL reconstructions were performed. The PRP group (n = 25) received a local application of PRP while the control group (n = 25) did not receive PRP. The proximal tibial tunnel was examined by MRI in the paraxial plane where the portion of the tibial tunnel wall circumference consisting of sclerotic cortical bone was assessed with testing occurring at one, two and a half and six months after surgery. Results At one month after surgery, differences between the groups in the amount of cortical sclerotic bone encircling the tunnel were not significant (p = 0.928). At two and a half months, the sclerotic portion of the tunnel wall in the PRP group (36.2%) was significantly larger than in the control (22.5%) group (p = 0.004). At six months, the portion of sclerotic bone in the PRP group (67.1%) was also significantly larger than in the control (53.5%) group (p = 0.003). Conclusions Enhanced cortical bone formation encircling the tibial tunnel at 2.5 and 6 months after ACL graft reconstruction results from locally applied platelet-rich plasma.

Rupreht, Mitja; Vogrin, Matjaz; Hussein, Mohsen

2013-01-01

345

Beneath the Minerals, a Layer of Round Lipid Particles Was Identified to Mediate Collagen Calcification in Compact Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

Astronauts lose 1–2% of their bone minerals per month during space flights. A systematic search for a countermeasure relies on a good understanding of the mechanism of bone formation at the molecular level. How collagen fibers, the dominant matrix protein in bones, are mineralized remains mysterious. Atomic force microscopy was carried out, in combination with immunostaining and Western blotting, on bovine tibia to identify unrecognized building blocks involved in bone formation and for an elucidation of the process of collagen calcification in bone formation. Before demineralization, tiles of hydroxyapatite crystals were found stacked along bundles of collagen fibers. These tiles were homogeneous in size and shape with dimensions 0.69 × 0.77 × 0.2 ?m3. Demineralization dissolved these tiles and revealed small spheres with an apparent diameter around 145 nm. These spheres appeared to be lipid particles since organic solvents dissolved them. The parallel collagen bundles had widths mostly <2 ?m. Composition analysis of compact bones indicated a high content of apolar lipids, including triglycerides and cholesterol esters. Apolar lipids are known to form lipid droplets or lipoproteins, and these spheres are unlikely to be matrix vesicles as reported for collagen calcification in epiphyseal cartilages. Results from this study suggest that the layer of round lipid particles on collagen fibers mediates the mineral deposition onto the fibers. The homogeneous size of these lipid particles and the presence of apolipoprotein in demineralized bone tissue suggest the possibility that these particles might be of lipoprotein origin. More studies are needed to verify the last claim and to exclude the possibility that they are secreted lipid droplets.

Xu, Shaohua; Yu, Jianqing J.

2006-01-01

346

The comparative effectiveness of demineralized bone matrix, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and bovine-derived anorganic bone matrix on inflammation and bone formation using a paired calvarial defect model in rats  

PubMed Central

Background In this study, the effectiveness of Iranian Tissue Bank–produced demineralized bone matrix (ITB-DBM), beta-tricalcium phosphate (?TCP), and Bio-Oss® (Geistlich Pharma AG, Wolhusen, Switzerland) were evaluated and compared with double controls. The main goal was to measure the amount of new bone formation in the center of defects created in rat calvaria. Another goal was to compare the controls and evaluate the effects of each treatment material on their adjacent untreated (control) defects. Methods In this study, 40 male Wistar rats were selected and divided into four groups, In each group, there were ten rats with two defects in their calvarias; one of them is considered as control and the other one was treated with ITB-DBM (group 1), BIO-OSS (group2), and ?TCP (group 3), respectively. But in group 4, both defects were considered as control. The amount of inflammation and new bone formation were evaluated at 4 and 10 weeks. In the first group, one defect was filled with ITB-DBM; in the second group, one defect was filled with Bio-Oss; in the third group, one defect was filled with ?TCP; and in the fourth group, both defects were left unfilled. Zeiss microscope (Carl Zeiss AG, Oberkochen, Germany) and Image Tool® (version 3.0; University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX) software were used for evaluation. SPSS Statistics (IBM Corp, Somers, NY) was used for statistical analysis. Results Maximum bone formation at 4 and 10 weeks were observed in the ITB-DBM group (46.960% ± 4.366%, 94.970% ± 0.323%), which had significant difference compared with the other groups (P < 0.001). Ranking second was the Bio-Oss group and third, the ?TCP group. Bone formation in the group with two unfilled defects was much more significant than in the other controls beside the Bio-Oss and ?TCP after 10 weeks (29.1 ± 2.065, 29.05 ± 1.649), while this group had the least bone formation compared with the other controls at week 4 (2.100% ± 0.758%, 1.630% ± 0.668%, P < 0.001). Conclusion Overall, the ITB-DBM group showed the best results, although the results for other experimental groups were unfavorable. The authors conclude that human DBM (ITB-DBM) should be offered as an alternative for bone regeneration in animals, such as horses, as well as in humans, especially for jaw reconstruction. In relation to bone regeneration in control defects, the effect of experimental material on controls was apparent during the initial weeks.

Khoshzaban, Ahad; Mehrzad, Shahram; Tavakoli, Vida; Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Behrouzi, Gholam Reza; Bashtar, Maryam

2011-01-01

347

Crystal structure of ultrathin lamellar precipitates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystal structure of lamellar precipitates formed in alloys 1213 (Al-Cu-Ag), V-1461 (Al-Cu-Li) and V-1469 (Al-Cu-Li-Ag) has been studied during age hardening. The experimental studies have been performed using transmission electron microscopy. The precipitates have {111} habits and thicknesses of several atomic planes. In diffraction patterns, these plates give a system of diffuse streaks. These ultrathin plates scatter electrons similar to two-dimensional crystal lattices. It is shown that thin plates of precipitates in alloys 1213, V-1461, and V-1469 give identical systems of diffuse streaks. The two-dimensional crystal lattices that give the system of these streaks have a hexagonal symmetry with the following orientation relationship: {ie481-1} and the lattice parameter a f = 0.495 nm (there is no lattice parameter c f for two-dimensional lattices). A sequence of the steps of reconstruction of the spatial structure of plane precipitates is proposed in terms of their thickness, structures of two-dimensional lattices, and type of precipitates (extrinsic or intrinsic). The influence of Ag on the structure of lamellar precipitates in the V-1469 alloy is discussed.

Alekseev, A. A.; Lukina, E. A.; Klochkova, Yu. Yu.

2013-06-01

348

New bone formation in an osteoblastic tumor model is increased by endothelin-1 overexpression and decreased by endothelin A receptor blockade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The osteoblastic response of bone to metastatic prostate cancer is both characteristic and enigmatic. The potent vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1), produced by prostate cancer, has been identified as a potential factor in new bone formation.Methods. Using a novel method to quantitate new bone formation induced by the WISH tumor, we examined the effects of ET-1 overexpression and endothelin receptor antagonists

Joel B Nelson; Son H Nguyen; Jinshyun R Wu-Wong; Terry J Opgenorth; Douglas B Dixon; Leland W. K Chung; Nozomu Inoue

1999-01-01

349

Long-Term Symptoms Onset and Heterotopic Bone Formation around a Total Temporomandibular Joint Prosthesis: a Case Report  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background The literature on total alloplastic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) reconstructions is encouraging, and studies on total alloplastic TMJ replacements outcomes showed acceptable improvements in terms of both pain levels and jaw function. Nevertheless, some adverse events, such as heterotopic bone formation around the implanted prosthesis, may occur. In consideration of that, the present manuscript describes a case of heterotopic bone formation around a total temporomandibular joint prosthesis, which occurred several years after the implant. Methods The present manuscript describes a case of heterotopic bone formation around a total TMJ prosthesis, which occurred several years after the implant in patients, who previously underwent multiple failed TMJ surgeries. Results Ten years after the surgical TMJ replacement to solve an ankylotic bone block, the patient came to our attention again referring a progressive limitation in mouth opening. A computerized tomography showed evidence of marked heterotopic bone formation in the medial aspects of the joint, where a new-born ankylotic block occupied most part of the gap created by resecting the coronoid process at the time of the TMJ prosthesis insertion. Conclusions Despite this adverse event has been sometimes described in the literature, this is the first case in which its occurrence happened several years after the temporomandibular joint replacement. It can be suggested that an accurate assessment of pre-operative risk factors for re-ankylosis (e.g., patients with multiple failed temporomandibular joint surgeries) and within-intervention prevention (e.g., strategies to keep the bone interfaces around the implant separated) should be better standardized and define in future studies.

Guarda-Nardini, Luca; Manfredini, Daniele; Ferronato, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

350

Runx2 overexpression in bone marrow stromal cells accelerates bone formation in critical-sized femoral defects.  

PubMed

The repair of large nonunions in long bones remains a significant clinical problem due to high failure rates and limited tissue availability for auto- and allografts. Many cell-based strategies for healing bone defects deliver bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to the defect site to take advantage of the inherent osteogenic capacity of this cell type. However, many factors, including donor age and ex vivo expansion of the cells, cause BMSCs to lose their differentiation ability. To overcome these limitations, we have genetically engineered BMSCs to constitutively overexpress the osteoblast-specific transcription factor Runx2. In the present study, we examined Runx2-modified BMSCs, delivered via polycaprolactone scaffolds loaded with type I collagen meshes, in critical-sized segmental defects in rats compared to unmodified cells, cell-free scaffolds, and empty defects. Runx2 expression in BMSCs accelerated healing of critical-sized defects compared to unmodified BMSCs and defects receiving cell-free treatments. These findings provide an accelerated method for healing large bone defects, which may reduce recovery time and the need for external fixation of critical-sized defects. PMID:20412027

Wojtowicz, Abigail M; Templeman, Kellie L; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Guldberg, Robert E; García, Andrés J

2010-09-01

351

Secreted Phosphoprotein 24 kD (Spp24) and Spp14 Affect TGF-? Induced Bone Formation Differently  

PubMed Central

Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have opposing but complementary functions in directing bone growth, repair, and turnover. Both are found in the bone matrix. Proteins that bind to and affect the activity of these growth factors will determine the relative abundance of the growth factors and, therefore, regulate bone formation. Secreted phosphoprotein 24 kD (Spp24) is a bone matrix protein that has been demonstrated to bind to and affect the activity of BMPs. The arginine-rich carboxy terminus of Spp24 is proteolytically processed to produce three other predictable truncation products (Spp18.1, Spp16.0, and Spp14.5). In this work, we report that kinetic data obtained by surface plasmon resonance demonstrate that Spp24 and the three C-terminal truncation products all bind to TGF-?1 and TGF-?2 with a similar but somewhat less affinity than they bind BMP-2; that, as in the case of BMP-2, the full-length (FL) form of Spp24 binds TGF-? with greater affinity than do the truncation products; that FL-Spp24 inhibits TGF-?2 induced bone formation in vivo, but Spp14.5 does not; and that co-administration of FL-Spp24 or Spp14.5 with TGF-?2 in vivo is associated with a reduction in the amount of cartilage, relative to new bone, present at the site of injection. This finding is consistent with the observation that low-dose TGF-? administration in vivo is associated with greater bone formation than high-dose TGF-? administration, and suggests that one function of Spp24 and its truncation products is to down-regulate local TGF-? activity or availability during bone growth and development. The similarities and differences of the interactions between Spp24 proteins and TGF-? compared to the interaction of the Spp24 proteins and BMPs have significant implications with respect to the regulation of bone metabolism and with respect to engineering therapeutic proteins for skeletal disorders.

Tian, Haijun; Bi, Xiaoda; Li, Chen-Shuang; Zhao, Ke-Wei; Brochmann, Elsa J.; Montgomery, Scott R.; Aghdasi, Bayan; Chen, Deyu; Daubs, Michael D.; Wang, Jeffrey C.; Murray, Samuel S.

2013-01-01

352

HCP to FCT + precipitate transformations in lamellar gamma-titanium aluminide alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fully lamellar gamma-TiAl [alpha2(HCP) + gamma(FCT)] based alloys are potential structural materials for aerospace engine applications. Lamellar structure stabilization and additional strengthening mechanisms are major issues in the ongoing development of titanium aluminides due to the microstructural instability resulting from decomposition of the strengthening alpha 2 phase. This work addresses characterization of multi-component TiAl systems to identify the mechanism of lamellar structure refinement and assess the effects of light element additions (C and Si) on creep deformation behavior. Transmission electron microscopy studies directly confirmed for the first time that, fine lamellar structure is formed by the nucleation and growth of a large number of basal stacking faults on the 1/6<112¯0> dislocations cross slipping repeatedly into and out of basal planes. This lamellar structure can be tailored by modifying jog heights through chemistry and thermal processing. alpha 2 ? gamma transformation during heating (investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction) is a two step process involving the formation of a novel disordered FCC gamma' TiAl [with a(gamma') = c(gamma)] as an intermediate phase followed by ordering. Addition of carbon and silicon induced Ti2AlC H-type carbide precipitation inside the alpha2 lath and Ti 5(Al,Si)3 zeta-type silicide precipitation at the alpha 2/gamma interface. The H-carbides preserve alpha2/gamma type interfaces, while zeta-silicide precipitates restrict ledge growth and interfacial sliding enabling strong resistance to creep deformation.

Karadge, Mallikarjun Baburao

353

Methods and Compositions for Control of Bone Formation Via Modulation of Sympathetic Tone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to methods for treatment, diagnosis and prevention of bone disease and comprises methods including measurement and modulation of sympathetic tone and leptin activity. Alteration of sympathetic tone in bone disease can be accomplishe...

F. Elefteriou G. Karsenty S. Takeda

2002-01-01

354

trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid promotes bone formation by inhibiting adipogenesis by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-?-dependent mechanisms and by directly enhancing osteoblastogenesis from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

The bone undergoes continuous remodeling of osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption to maintain proper bone mass. It is also reported that bone marrow adiposity has a reciprocal role in osteoblasts due to their same origin from mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, one of the key mediators of adipogenesis, peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-? (PPAR?), plays a significant role in osteoblastogenesis in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. One dietary component that is known to have significant impact on adiposity and bone mass is conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). However, the link between controlling adiposity to improving bone mass by CLA has not been studied intensively. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine the role of CLA on bone marrow adiposity and bone formation using murine mesenchymal stem cells. The results confirmed that the trans-10,cis-12 CLA, but not the cis-9,trans-11 CLA isomer, significantly inhibited adipogenesis and promoted osteoblastogenesis from mesenchymal stem cells. The inhibition of adipogenesis by the trans-10,cis-12 CLA was mediated by PPAR?; however, the trans-10,cis-12 CLA had a direct effect on osteoblastogenesis which was independent to PPAR? in this model. The trans-10,cis-12 CLA also had significant effects on osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor, which suggests potential influence of CLA on osteoclastogenesis. Overall, the results suggest that the trans-10,cis-12, but not the cis-9,trans-11 CLA isomer, has a positive impact on bone health by both PPAR? mediated and independent mechanisms in mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:22832076

Kim, Jonggun; Park, Yooheon; Lee, Seong-Ho; Park, Yeonhwa

2013-04-01

355

Effect of Calcitonin on Bone Formation Around Titanium Implant. A Histometric Study in Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone healing around titanium implants has already been evaluated; however, the effect of drugs such as calcitonin during the pe riod of bone maturation around titanium implants has not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect s of calcitonin administration on the late period of bone healing following titanium implant insertion. Twenty-seven adult New

Alessandro Lourenço; Enilson Antonio SALLUM; Antonio Wilson SALLUM; Francisco Humberto NOCITI

356

Bone formation in vivo induced by Cbfa1-carrying adenoviral vectors released from a biodegradable porous ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overexpression of Cbfa1 (a transcription factor indispensable for osteoblastic differentiation) is expected to induce the