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Sample records for lamin b1 maintains

  1. Regulation of homologous recombinational repair by lamin B1 in radiation-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning-Ang; Sun, Jiying; Kono, Kazuteru; Horikoshi, Yasunori; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Tong, Xing; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Tashiro, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the major lethal lesion induced by ionizing radiation (IR). RAD51-dependent homologous recombination (HR) is one of the most important pathways in DSB repair and genome integrity maintenance. However, the mechanism of HR regulation by RAD51 remains unclear. To understand the mechanism of RAD51-dependent HR, we searched for interacting partners of RAD51 by a proteomics analysis and identified lamin B1 in human cells. Lamins are nuclear lamina proteins that play important roles in the structural organization of the nucleus and the regulation of chromosome functions. Immunoblotting analyses revealed that siRNA-mediated lamin B1 depletion repressed the DNA damage-dependent increase of RAD51 after IR. The repression was abolished by the proteasome inhibitor MG132, suggesting that lamin B1 stabilizes RAD51 by preventing proteasome-mediated degradation in cells with IR-induced DNA damage. We also showed that lamin B1 depletion repressed RAD51 focus formation and decreased the survival rates after IR. On the basis of these results, we propose that lamin B1 promotes DSB repair and cell survival by maintaining the RAD51 protein levels for HR upon DSB induction after IR. PMID:25733566

  2. Structural organization of nuclear lamins A, C, B1, and B2 revealed by superresolution microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, Takeshi; Kittisopikul, Mark; Tran, Joseph; Goldman, Anne E.; Adam, Stephen A.; Zheng, Yixian; Jaqaman, Khuloud; Goldman, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is a key structural element of the metazoan nucleus. However, the structural organization of the major proteins composing the lamina is poorly defined. Using three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy and computational image analysis, we characterized the supramolecular structures of lamin A, C, B1, and B2 in mouse embryo fibroblast nuclei. Each isoform forms a distinct fiber meshwork, with comparable physical characteristics with respect to mesh edge length, mesh face area and shape, and edge connectivity to form faces. Some differences were found in face areas among isoforms due to variation in the edge lengths and number of edges per face, suggesting that each meshwork has somewhat unique assembly characteristics. In fibroblasts null for the expression of either lamins A/C or lamin B1, the remaining lamin meshworks are altered compared with the lamin meshworks in wild-type nuclei or nuclei lacking lamin B2. Nuclei lacking LA/C exhibit slightly enlarged meshwork faces and some shape changes, whereas LB1-deficient nuclei exhibit primarily a substantial increase in face area. These studies demonstrate that individual lamin isoforms assemble into complex networks within the nuclear lamina and that A- and B-type lamins have distinct roles in maintaining the organization of the nuclear lamina. PMID:26310440

  3. Lamin B1 and lamin B2 are long-lived proteins with distinct functions in retinal development.

    PubMed

    Razafsky, David; Ward, Candace; Potter, Chloe; Zhu, Wanqiu; Xue, Yunlu; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Fong, Loren G; Young, Stephen G; Hodzic, Didier

    2016-06-15

    Lamin B1 and lamin B2 are essential building blocks of the nuclear lamina, a filamentous meshwork lining the nucleoplasmic side of the inner nuclear membrane. Deficiencies in lamin B1 and lamin B2 impair neurodevelopment, but distinct functions for the two proteins in the development and homeostasis of the CNS have been elusive. Here we show that embryonic depletion of lamin B1 in retinal progenitors and postmitotic neurons affects nuclear integrity, leads to the collapse of the laminB2 meshwork, impairs neuronal survival, and markedly reduces the cellularity of adult retinas. In stark contrast, a deficiency of lamin B2 in the embryonic retina has no obvious effect on lamin B1 localization or nuclear integrity in embryonic retinas, suggesting that lamin B1, but not lamin B2, is strictly required for nucleokinesis during embryonic neurogenesis. However, the absence of lamin B2 prevents proper lamination of adult retinal neurons, impairs synaptogenesis, and reduces cone photoreceptor survival. We also show that lamin B1 and lamin B2 are extremely long-lived proteins in rod and cone photoreceptors. OF interest, a complete absence of both proteins during postnatal life has little or no effect on the survival and function of cone photoreceptors. PMID:27075175

  4. Lamin B1 and lamin B2 are long-lived proteins with distinct functions in retinal development

    PubMed Central

    Razafsky, David; Ward, Candace; Potter, Chloe; Zhu, Wanqiu; Xue, Yunlu; Kefalov, Vladimir J.; Fong, Loren G.; Young, Stephen G.; Hodzic, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Lamin B1 and lamin B2 are essential building blocks of the nuclear lamina, a filamentous meshwork lining the nucleoplasmic side of the inner nuclear membrane. Deficiencies in lamin B1 and lamin B2 impair neurodevelopment, but distinct functions for the two proteins in the development and homeostasis of the CNS have been elusive. Here we show that embryonic depletion of lamin B1 in retinal progenitors and postmitotic neurons affects nuclear integrity, leads to the collapse of the laminB2 meshwork, impairs neuronal survival, and markedly reduces the cellularity of adult retinas. In stark contrast, a deficiency of lamin B2 in the embryonic retina has no obvious effect on lamin B1 localization or nuclear integrity in embryonic retinas, suggesting that lamin B1, but not lamin B2, is strictly required for nucleokinesis during embryonic neurogenesis. However, the absence of lamin B2 prevents proper lamination of adult retinal neurons, impairs synaptogenesis, and reduces cone photoreceptor survival. We also show that lamin B1 and lamin B2 are extremely long-lived proteins in rod and cone photoreceptors. OF interest, a complete absence of both proteins during postnatal life has little or no effect on the survival and function of cone photoreceptors. PMID:27075175

  5. The tail domain of lamin B1 is more strongly modulated by divalent cations than lamin A

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Sairaam; Qin, Zhao; Spagnol, Stephen T; Biegler, Matthew T; Coffey, Kelli A; Kalinowski, Agnieszka; Buehler, Markus J; Dahl, Kris Noel

    2015-01-01

    The nucleoskeleton contains mainly nuclear intermediate filaments made of lamin proteins. Lamins provide nuclear structure and also play a role in various nuclear processes including signal transduction, transcription regulation and chromatin organization. The disparate functions of lamins may be related to the intrinsic disorder of the tail domains, which allows for altered and promiscuous binding. Here, we show modulation of lamin tail domain structures in the presence of divalent cations. We utilize changes in fluorescence of tryptophan residues within the Ig-fold flanked by disordered regions to experimentally measure protein thermodynamics. Using spectroscopy experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the tail domain of lamin B1 shows enhanced association with both Ca2+ and Mg2+ compared to the tail domain of lamin A. Binding curves show a similar KD between protein and ion (250–300 μM) for both proteins with both ions. However, we observe a maximum binding of ions to lamin B1 tail domain which is 2–3 times greater than that for lamin A tail domain by both experiment and simulation. Using simulations, we show that divalent ion association alters the Ig-fold by pinning flanking regions. With cells in culture, we observe altered lamin B1 organization in the presence of excess Mg2+ more so than for lamin A. We suggest that the differential sensitivity to divalent cations contributes to the vastly different functionalities and binding of the 2 proteins. PMID:25807068

  6. Deficiencies in lamin B1 and lamin B2 cause neurodevelopmental defects and distinct nuclear shape abnormalities in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Coffinier, Catherine; Jung, Hea-Jin; Nobumori, Chika; Chang, Sandy; Tu, Yiping; Barnes, Richard H.; Yoshinaga, Yuko; de Jong, Pieter J.; Vergnes, Laurent; Reue, Karen; Fong, Loren G.; Young, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal migration is essential for the development of the mammalian brain. Here, we document severe defects in neuronal migration and reduced numbers of neurons in lamin B1–deficient mice. Lamin B1 deficiency resulted in striking abnormalities in the nuclear shape of cortical neurons; many neurons contained a solitary nuclear bleb and exhibited an asymmetric distribution of lamin B2. In contrast, lamin B2 deficiency led to increased numbers of neurons with elongated nuclei. We used conditional alleles for Lmnb1 and Lmnb2 to create forebrain-specific knockout mice. The forebrain-specific Lmnb1- and Lmnb2-knockout models had a small forebrain with disorganized layering of neurons and nuclear shape abnormalities, similar to abnormalities identified in the conventional knockout mice. A more severe phenotype, complete atrophy of the cortex, was observed in forebrain-specific Lmnb1/Lmnb2 double-knockout mice. This study demonstrates that both lamin B1 and lamin B2 are essential for brain development, with lamin B1 being required for the integrity of the nuclear lamina, and lamin B2 being important for resistance to nuclear elongation in neurons. PMID:21976703

  7. Lamin B1 Polymorphism Influences Morphology of the Nuclear Envelope, Cell Cycle Progression, and Risk of Neural Tube Defects in Mice

    PubMed Central

    De Castro, Sandra C. P.; Malhas, Ashraf; Leung, Kit-Yi; Gustavsson, Peter; Vaux, David J.; Copp, Andrew J.; Greene, Nicholas D. E.

    2012-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), including spina bifida and anencephaly, are common birth defects whose complex multigenic causation has hampered efforts to delineate their molecular basis. The effect of putative modifier genes in determining NTD susceptibility may be investigated in mouse models, particularly those that display partial penetrance such as curly tail, a strain in which NTDs result from a hypomorphic allele of the grainyhead-like-3 gene. Through proteomic analysis, we found that the curly tail genetic background harbours a polymorphic variant of lamin B1, lacking one of a series of nine glutamic acid residues. Lamins are intermediate filament proteins of the nuclear lamina with multiple functions that influence nuclear structure, cell cycle properties, and transcriptional regulation. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching showed that the variant lamin B1 exhibited reduced stability in the nuclear lamina. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the variant also affects neural tube closure: the frequency of spina bifida and anencephaly was reduced three-fold when wild-type lamin B1 was bred into the curly tail strain background. Cultured fibroblasts expressing variant lamin B1 show significantly increased nuclear dysmorphology and diminished proliferative capacity, as well as premature senescence, associated with reduced expression of cyclins and Smc2, and increased expression of p16. The cellular basis of spinal NTDs in curly tail embryos involves a proliferation defect localised to the hindgut epithelium, and S-phase progression was diminished in the hindgut of embryos expressing variant lamin B1. These observations indicate a mechanistic link between altered lamin B1 function, exacerbation of the Grhl3-mediated cell proliferation defect, and enhanced susceptibility to NTDs. We conclude that lamin B1 is a modifier gene of major effect for NTDs resulting from loss of Grhl3 function, a role that is likely mediated via the key function of lamin B1 in maintaining

  8. Lamin B1 protein is required for dendrite development in primary mouse cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    Giacomini, Caterina; Mahajani, Sameehan; Ruffilli, Roberta; Marotta, Roberto; Gasparini, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Lamin B1, a key component of the nuclear lamina, plays an important role in brain development and function. A duplication of the human lamin B1 (LMNB1) gene has been linked to adult-onset autosomal dominant leukodystrophy, and mouse and human loss-of-function mutations in lamin B1 are susceptibility factors for neural tube defects. In the mouse, experimental ablation of endogenous lamin B1 (Lmnb1) severely impairs embryonic corticogenesis. Here we report that in primary mouse cortical neurons, LMNB1 overexpression reduces axonal outgrowth, whereas deficiency of endogenous Lmnb1 results in aberrant dendritic development. In the absence of Lmnb1, both the length and complexity of dendrites are reduced, and their growth is unresponsive to KCl stimulation. This defective dendritic outgrowth stems from impaired ERK signaling. In Lmnb1-null neurons, ERK is correctly phosphorylated, but phospho-ERK fails to translocate to the nucleus, possibly due to delocalization of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) at the nuclear envelope. Taken together, these data highlight a previously unrecognized role of lamin B1 in dendrite development of mouse cortical neurons through regulation of nuclear shuttling of specific signaling molecules and NPC distribution. PMID:26510501

  9. Crystal structures of the coil 2B fragment and the globular tail domain of human lamin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Ruan, Jianbin; Xu, Chao; Bian, Chuanbing; Lam, Robert; Wang, Jia-Pey; Kania, Joanna; Min, Jinrong; Zang, Jianye

    2012-07-18

    We present here the crystal structures of human lamin B1 globular tail domain and coiled 2B domain, which adopt similar folds to Ig-like domain and coiled-coil domain of lamin A, respectively. Despite the overall similarity, we found an extra intermolecular disulfide bond in the lamin B1 coil 2B domain, which does not exist in lamin A/C. In addition, the structural analysis indicates that interactions at the lamin B1 homodimer interface are quite different from those of lamin A/C. Thus our research not only reveals the diversely formed homodimers among lamin family members, but also sheds light on understanding the important roles of lamin B1 in forming the nuclear lamina matrix.

  10. Structural organization of the human gene (LMNB1) encoding nuclear lamin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, F.; Worman, H.J.

    1995-05-20

    The authors have determined the structural organization of the human gene (LMNB1) that encodes nuclear lamin B1, an intermediate filament protein of the nuclear envelope. The transcription unit spans more than 45 kb and the transcription start site is 348 nucleotides upstream from the translation initiation codon. Lamin B1 is encoded by 11 exons. Exon 1 codes for the amino-terminal head domain and the first portion of the central rod domain, exons 2 through 6 the central rod domain, and exons 7 through 11 the carboxyl-terminal tail domain of this intermediate filament protein. Intron positions are conserved in other lamin genes from frogs, mice, and humans but different in lamin genes from Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. In the region encoding the central rod domain, intron positions are also similar to those in the gene for an invertebrate nonneuronal cytoplasmic intermediate filament protein and the genes for most vertebrate cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins except neurofilaments and nestin. 51 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Defects of Lipid Synthesis Are Linked to the Age-Dependent Demyelination Caused by Lamin B1 Overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Rolyan, Harshvardhan; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Hernandez, Marylens; Amoscato, Andrew A.; Sparvero, Louis J.; Nmezi, Bruce C.; Lu, Yue; Estécio, Marcos R. H.; Lin, Kevin; Chen, Junda; He, Rong-Rong; Gong, Pin; Rigatti, Lora H.; Dupree, Jeffrey; Bayır, Hülya; Kagan, Valerian E.; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Lamin B1 is a component of the nuclear lamina and plays a critical role in maintaining nuclear architecture, regulating gene expression and modulating chromatin positioning. We have previously shown that LMNB1 gene duplications cause autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD), a fatal adult onset demyelinating disease. The mechanisms by which increased LMNB1 levels cause ADLD are unclear. To address this, we used a transgenic mouse model where Lamin B1 overexpression is targeted to oligodendrocytes. These mice showed severe vacuolar degeneration of the spinal cord white matter together with marked astrogliosis, microglial infiltration, and secondary axonal damage. Oligodendrocytes in the transgenic mice revealed alterations in histone modifications favoring a transcriptionally repressed state. Chromatin changes were accompanied by reduced expression of genes involved in lipid synthesis pathways, many of which are known to play important roles in myelin regulation and are preferentially expressed in oligodendrocytes. Decreased lipogenic gene expression resulted in a significant reduction in multiple classes of lipids involved in myelin formation. Many of these gene expression changes and lipid alterations were observed even before the onset of the phenotype, suggesting a causal role. Our findings establish, for the first time, a link between LMNB1 and lipid synthesis in oligodendrocytes, and provide a mechanistic framework to explain the age dependence and white matter involvement of the disease phenotype. These results have implications for disease pathogenesis and may also shed light on the regulation of lipid synthesis pathways in myelin maintenance and turnover. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD) is fatal neurological disorder caused by increased levels of the nuclear protein, Lamin B1. The disease is characterized by an age-dependent loss of myelin, the fatty sheath that covers nerve fibers. We have studied a mouse model where Lamin B

  12. The role of lamin B1 for the maintenance of nuclear structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Camps, Jordi; Erdos, Michael R; Ried, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lamins constitute an integral structural component of the nuclear lamina. However, their impact on the structure and stability of chromosome territories, and on the regulation of gene expression is explored to a lesser extent. By 3D-FISH, Camps and colleagues showed that lamin B1 (LMNB1) is required for proper chromosome condensation in interphase nuclei, and deficiency of LMNB1 triggers the relocation of the epigenetic mark of facultative heterochromatin, H3K27me3, toward the interior of the nucleus. Additionally, LMNB1 repression slowed cellular growth due to S-phase delays and increased genomic instability. Finally, silencing of LMNB1 resulted in enlarged nuclear speckles and in extensive changes in alternative splicing of multiple genes. Altogether, the data suggest a central role of LMNB1 for the condensation of chromosome territories, for the distribution of heterochromatin, and for the regulation of gene expression and splicing. PMID:25602590

  13. ATP8B1-mediated spatial organization of Cdc42 signaling maintains singularity during enterocyte polarization

    PubMed Central

    Bruurs, Lucas J.M.; Donker, Lisa; Zwakenberg, Susan; Zwartkruis, Fried J.; Begthel, Harry; Knisely, A.S.; Posthuma, George; van de Graaf, Stan F.J.; Paulusma, Coen C.

    2015-01-01

    During yeast cell polarization localization of the small GTPase, cell division control protein 42 homologue (Cdc42) is clustered to ensure the formation of a single bud. Here we show that the disease-associated flippase ATPase class I type 8b member 1 (ATP8B1) enables Cdc42 clustering during enterocyte polarization. Loss of this regulation results in increased apical membrane size with scattered apical recycling endosomes and permits the formation of more than one apical domain, resembling the singularity defect observed in yeast. Mechanistically, we show that to become apically clustered, Cdc42 requires the interaction between its polybasic region and negatively charged membrane lipids provided by ATP8B1. Disturbing this interaction, either by ATP8B1 depletion or by introduction of a Cdc42 mutant defective in lipid binding, increases Cdc42 mobility and results in apical membrane enlargement. Re-establishing Cdc42 clustering, by tethering it to the apical membrane or lowering its diffusion, restores normal apical membrane size in ATP8B1-depleted cells. We therefore conclude that singularity regulation by Cdc42 is conserved between yeast and human and that this regulation is required to maintain healthy tissue architecture. PMID:26416959

  14. Amyloid domains in the cell nucleus controlled by nucleoskeletal protein lamin B1 reveal a new pathway of mercury neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Arnhold, Florian; Gührs, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a bioaccumulating trace metal that globally circulates the atmosphere and waters in its elemental, inorganic and organic chemical forms. While Hg represents a notorious neurotoxicant, the underlying cellular pathways are insufficiently understood. We identify amyloid protein aggregation in the cell nucleus as a novel pathway of Hg-bio-interactions. By mass spectrometry of purified protein aggregates, a subset of spliceosomal components and nucleoskeletal protein lamin B1 were detected as constituent parts of an Hg-induced nuclear aggregome network. The aggregome network was located by confocal imaging of amyloid-specific antibodies and dyes to amyloid cores within splicing-speckles that additionally recruit components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Hg significantly enhances global proteasomal activity in the nucleus, suggesting that formation of amyloid speckles plays a role in maintenance of protein homeostasis. RNAi knock down showed that lamin B1 for its part regulates amyloid speckle formation and thus likewise participates in nuclear protein homeostasis. As the Hg-induced cascade of interactions between the nucleoskeleton and protein homeostasis reduces neuronal signalling, amyloid fibrillation in the cell nucleus is introduced as a feature of Hg-neurotoxicity that opens new avenues of future research. Similar to protein aggregation events in the cytoplasm that are controlled by the cytoskeleton, amyloid fibrillation of nuclear proteins may be driven by the nucleoskeleton. PMID:25699204

  15. A large genomic deletion leads to enhancer adoption by the lamin B1 gene: a second path to autosomal dominant adult-onset demyelinating leukodystrophy (ADLD)

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgio, E.; Robyr, D.; Spielmann, M.; Ferrero, E.; Di Gregorio, E.; Imperiale, D.; Vaula, G.; Stamoulis, G.; Santoni, F.; Atzori, C.; Gasparini, L.; Ferrera, D.; Canale, C.; Guipponi, M.; Pennacchio, L. A.; Antonarakis, S. E.; Brussino, A.; Brusco, A.

    2015-02-20

    Chromosomal rearrangements with duplication of the lamin B1 (LMNB1) gene underlie autosomal dominant adult-onset demyelinating leukodystrophy (ADLD), a rare neurological disorder in which overexpression of LMNB1 causes progressive central nervous system demyelination. However, we previously reported an ADLD family (ADLD-1-TO) without evidence of duplication or other mutation in LMNB1 despite linkage to the LMNB1 locus and lamin B1 overexpression. By custom array-CGH, we further investigated this family and report here that patients carry a large (~660 kb) heterozygous deletion that begins 66 kb upstream of the LMNB1 promoter. Lamin B1 overexpression was confirmed in further ADLD-1-TO tissues and in a postmortem brain sample, where lamin B1 was increased in the frontal lobe. Through parallel studies, we investigated both loss of genetic material and chromosomal rearrangement as possible causes of LMNB1 overexpression, and found that ADLD-1-TO plausibly results from an enhancer adoption mechanism. The deletion eliminates a genome topological domain boundary, allowing normally forbidden interactions between at least three forebrain-directed enhancers and the LMNB1 promoter, in line with the observed mainly cerebral localization of lamin B1 overexpression and myelin degeneration. Finally, this second route to LMNB1 overexpression and ADLD is a new example of the relevance of regulatory landscape modifications in determining Mendelian phenotypes.

  16. A large genomic deletion leads to enhancer adoption by the lamin B1 gene: a second path to autosomal dominant adult-onset demyelinating leukodystrophy (ADLD)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Giorgio, E.; Robyr, D.; Spielmann, M.; Ferrero, E.; Di Gregorio, E.; Imperiale, D.; Vaula, G.; Stamoulis, G.; Santoni, F.; Atzori, C.; et al

    2015-02-20

    Chromosomal rearrangements with duplication of the lamin B1 (LMNB1) gene underlie autosomal dominant adult-onset demyelinating leukodystrophy (ADLD), a rare neurological disorder in which overexpression of LMNB1 causes progressive central nervous system demyelination. However, we previously reported an ADLD family (ADLD-1-TO) without evidence of duplication or other mutation in LMNB1 despite linkage to the LMNB1 locus and lamin B1 overexpression. By custom array-CGH, we further investigated this family and report here that patients carry a large (~660 kb) heterozygous deletion that begins 66 kb upstream of the LMNB1 promoter. Lamin B1 overexpression was confirmed in further ADLD-1-TO tissues and in amore » postmortem brain sample, where lamin B1 was increased in the frontal lobe. Through parallel studies, we investigated both loss of genetic material and chromosomal rearrangement as possible causes of LMNB1 overexpression, and found that ADLD-1-TO plausibly results from an enhancer adoption mechanism. The deletion eliminates a genome topological domain boundary, allowing normally forbidden interactions between at least three forebrain-directed enhancers and the LMNB1 promoter, in line with the observed mainly cerebral localization of lamin B1 overexpression and myelin degeneration. Finally, this second route to LMNB1 overexpression and ADLD is a new example of the relevance of regulatory landscape modifications in determining Mendelian phenotypes.« less

  17. Phosphorylation statuses at different residues of lamin B2, B1, and A/C dynamically and independently change throughout the cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Kuga, Takahisa; Nozaki, Naohito; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Nomura, Fumio; Tomonaga, Takeshi

    2010-08-15

    Lamins, major components of the nuclear lamina, undergo phosphorylation at multiple residues during cell cycle progression, but their detailed phosphorylation kinetics remain largely undetermined. Here, we examined changes in the phosphorylation of major phosphorylation residues (Thr14, Ser17, Ser385, Ser387, and Ser401) of lamin B2 and the homologous residues of lamin B1, A/C during the cell cycle using novel antibodies to the site-specific phosphorylation. The phosphorylation levels of these residues independently changed during the cell cycle. Thr14 and Ser17 were phosphorylated during G{sub 2}/M phase to anaphase/telophase. Ser385 was persistently phosphorylated during mitosis to G{sub 1} phase, whereas Ser387 was phosphorylated discontinuously in prophase and G{sub 1} phase. Ser401 phosphorylation was enhanced in the G{sub 1}/S boundary. Immunoprecipitation using the phospho-antibodies suggested that metaphase-phosphorylation at Thr14, Ser17, and Ser385 of lamins occurred simultaneously, whereas G{sub 1}-phase phosphorylation at Ser385 and Ser387 occurred in distinct pools or with different timings. Additionally, we showed that lamin B2 phosphorylated at Ser17, but not Ser385, Ser387 and Ser401, was exclusively non-ionic detergent soluble, depolymerized forms in growing cells, implicating specific involvement of Ser17 phosphorylation in lamin depolymerization and nuclear envelope breakdown. These results suggest that the phosphorylations at different residues of lamins might play specific roles throughout the cell cycle.

  18. Redistribution of the Lamin B1 genomic binding profile affects rearrangement of heterochromatic domains and SAHF formation during senescence

    PubMed Central

    Sadaie, Mahito; Salama, Rafik; Carroll, Thomas; Tomimatsu, Kosuke; Chandra, Tamir; Young, Andrew R.J.; Narita, Masako; Pérez-Mancera, Pedro A.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Chong, Heung; Kimura, Hiroshi; Narita, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    Senescence is a stress-responsive form of stable cell cycle exit. Senescent cells have a distinct gene expression profile, which is often accompanied by the spatial redistribution of heterochromatin into senescence-associated heterochromatic foci (SAHFs). Studying a key component of the nuclear lamina lamin B1 (LMNB1), we report dynamic alterations in its genomic profile and their implications for SAHF formation and gene regulation during senescence. Genome-wide mapping reveals that LMNB1 is depleted during senescence, preferentially from the central regions of lamina-associated domains (LADs), which are enriched for Lys9 trimethylation on histone H3 (H3K9me3). LMNB1 knockdown facilitates the spatial relocalization of perinuclear H3K9me3-positive heterochromatin, thus promoting SAHF formation, which could be inhibited by ectopic LMNB1 expression. Furthermore, despite the global reduction in LMNB1 protein levels, LMNB1 binding increases during senescence in a small subset of gene-rich regions where H3K27me3 also increases and gene expression becomes repressed. These results suggest that LMNB1 may contribute to senescence in at least two ways due to its uneven genome-wide redistribution: first, through the spatial reorganization of chromatin and, second, through gene repression. PMID:23964094

  19. Expression of the retinoic acid catabolic enzyme CYP26B1 in the human brain to maintain signaling homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Stoney, Patrick N; Fragoso, Yara D; Saeed, Reem Bu; Ashton, Anna; Goodman, Timothy; Simons, Claire; Gomaa, Mohamed S; Sementilli, Angelo; Sementilli, Leonardo; Ross, Alexander W; Morgan, Peter J; McCaffery, Peter J

    2016-07-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a potent regulator of gene transcription via its activation of a set of nuclear receptors controlling transcriptional activation. Precise maintenance of where and when RA is generated is essential and achieved by local expression of synthetic and catabolic enzymes. The catabolic enzymes Cyp26a1 and Cyp26b1 have been studied in detail in the embryo, where they limit gradients of RA that form patterns of gene expression, crucial for morphogenesis. This paracrine role of RA has been assumed to occur in most tissues and that the RA synthetic enzymes release RA at a site distant from the catabolic enzymes. In contrast to the embryonic CNS, relatively little is known about RA metabolism in the adult brain. This study investigated the distribution of Cyp26a1 and Cyp26b1 transcripts in the rat brain, identifying several novel regions of expression, including the cerebral cortex for both enzymes and striatum for Cyp26b1. In vivo use of a new and potent inhibitor of the Cyp26 enzymes, ser 2-7, demonstrated a function for endogenous Cyp26 in the brain and that hippocampal RA levels can be raised by ser 2-7, altering the effect of RA on differential patterning of cell proliferation in the hippocampal region of neurogenesis, the subgranular zone. The expression of CYP26A1 and CYP26B1 was also investigated in the adult human brain and colocalization of CYP26A1 and the RA synthetic enzyme RALDH2 indicated a different, autocrine role for RA in human hippocampal neurons. Studies with the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line implied that the co-expression of RA synthetic and catabolic enzymes maintains retinoid homeostasis within neurons. This presents a novel view of RA in human neurons as part of an autocrine, intracellular signaling system. PMID:26374207

  20. Lamin A/C sustains PcG protein architecture, maintaining transcriptional repression at target genes

    PubMed Central

    Cesarini, Elisa; Mozzetta, Chiara; Marullo, Fabrizia; Gregoretti, Francesco; Gargiulo, Annagiusi; Columbaro, Marta; Cortesi, Alice; Antonelli, Laura; Di Pelino, Simona; Squarzoni, Stefano; Palacios, Daniela; Zippo, Alessio; Bodega, Beatrice; Oliva, Gennaro

    2015-01-01

    Beyond its role in providing structure to the nuclear envelope, lamin A/C is involved in transcriptional regulation. However, its cross talk with epigenetic factors—and how this cross talk influences physiological processes—is still unexplored. Key epigenetic regulators of development and differentiation are the Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins, organized in the nucleus as microscopically visible foci. Here, we show that lamin A/C is evolutionarily required for correct PcG protein nuclear compartmentalization. Confocal microscopy supported by new algorithms for image analysis reveals that lamin A/C knock-down leads to PcG protein foci disassembly and PcG protein dispersion. This causes detachment from chromatin and defects in PcG protein–mediated higher-order structures, thereby leading to impaired PcG protein repressive functions. Using myogenic differentiation as a model, we found that reduced levels of lamin A/C at the onset of differentiation led to an anticipation of the myogenic program because of an alteration of PcG protein–mediated transcriptional repression. Collectively, our results indicate that lamin A/C can modulate transcription through the regulation of PcG protein epigenetic factors. PMID:26553927

  1. Huaier restrains proliferative and invasive potential of human hepatoma SKHEP-1 cells partially through decreased Lamin B1 and elevated NOV.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhongdong; Yang, Ailin; Su, Guozhu; Zhao, Yunfang; Wang, Ying; Chai, Xingyun; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cause of malignancy-related mortality worldwide. It is urgently needed to develop potential drugs with good efficacy and low toxicity for HCC treatment. The anti-tumor effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has received increasing attention worldwide. Trametes robiniophila Murr. (Huaier) has been used in TCM for approximately 1,600 years. Clinically, Huaier has satisfactory therapeutic effects in cancer treatment, especially in HCC. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effect of Huaier remain ill defined. Herein we have demonstrated that Huaier dramatically inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cell line SKHEP-1. Importantly, Huaier restrained the metastatic capability of SKHEP-1 cells. Mechanistically, down-regulation of Lamin B1 and up-regulation of Nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) were at least partially responsible for the inhibitory effect of Huaier on the proliferative and invasive capacity of SKHEP-1 cells. Our finding provided new insights into mechanisms of anti-HCC effect of Huaier and suggested a new scientific basis for clinical medication. PMID:27503760

  2. Huaier restrains proliferative and invasive potential of human hepatoma SKHEP-1 cells partially through decreased Lamin B1 and elevated NOV

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhongdong; Yang, Ailin; Su, Guozhu; Zhao, Yunfang; Wang, Ying; Chai, Xingyun; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cause of malignancy-related mortality worldwide. It is urgently needed to develop potential drugs with good efficacy and low toxicity for HCC treatment. The anti-tumor effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has received increasing attention worldwide. Trametes robiniophila Murr. (Huaier) has been used in TCM for approximately 1,600 years. Clinically, Huaier has satisfactory therapeutic effects in cancer treatment, especially in HCC. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effect of Huaier remain ill defined. Herein we have demonstrated that Huaier dramatically inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cell line SKHEP-1. Importantly, Huaier restrained the metastatic capability of SKHEP-1 cells. Mechanistically, down-regulation of Lamin B1 and up-regulation of Nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) were at least partially responsible for the inhibitory effect of Huaier on the proliferative and invasive capacity of SKHEP-1 cells. Our finding provided new insights into mechanisms of anti-HCC effect of Huaier and suggested a new scientific basis for clinical medication. PMID:27503760

  3. Structure-function relationship of biological gels revealed by multiple-particle tracking and differential interference contrast microscopy: The case of human lamin networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panorchan, Porntula; Wirtz, Denis; Tseng, Yiider

    2004-10-01

    Lamin B1 filaments organize into a thin dense meshwork underlying the nucleoplasmic side of the nuclear envelope. Recent experiments in vivo suggest that lamin B1 plays a key structural role in the nuclear envelope, but the intrinsic mechanical properties of lamin B1 networks remain unknown. To assess the potential mechanical contribution of lamin B1 in maintaining the integrity and providing structural support to the nucleus, we measured the micromechanical properties and examined the ultrastructural distribution of lamin B1 networks in vitro using particle tracking methods and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. We exploit various surface chemistries of the probe microspheres (carboxylated, polyethylene glycol-coated, and amine-modified) to differentiate lamin-rich from lamin-poor regions and to rigorously extract local viscoelastic moduli from the mean-squared displacements of noninteracting particles. Our results show that human lamin B1 can, even in the absence of auxiliary proteins, form stiff and yet extremely porous networks that are well suited to provide structural strength to the nuclear lamina. Combining DIC microscopy and particle tracking allows us to relate directly the local organization of a material to its local mechanical properties, a general methodology that can be extended to living cells.

  4. Invertebrate lamins

    SciTech Connect

    Melcer, Shai; Gruenbaum, Yosef . E-mail: gru@vms.huji.ac.il; Krohne, Georg . E-mail: krohne@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2007-06-10

    Lamins are the main component of the nuclear lamina and considered to be the ancestors of all intermediate filament proteins. They are localized mainly at the nuclear periphery where they form protein complexes with integral proteins of the nuclear inner membrane, transcriptional regulators, histones and chromatin modifiers. Studying lamins in invertebrate species has unique advantages including the smaller number of lamin genes in the invertebrate genomes and powerful genetic analyses in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. These simpler nuclear lamina systems allow direct analyses of their structure and functions. Here we give an overview of recent advances in the field of invertebrate nuclear lamins with special emphasis on their evolution, assembly and functions.

  5. Photoresist laminate

    DOEpatents

    Andrade, A.D.; Galbraith, L.K.

    1979-10-01

    The disclosure relates to a laminated negative dry-film photoresist for the production of thick, as well as thin, patterns with vertical sidewalls. Uniform depthwise exposure in a photoresist layer is effected by the use of an ultraviolet filtering top layer.

  6. Laminate article

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chirayil, Thomas G.; Lee, Dominic F.; Goyal, Amit; Feenstra, Roeland

    2002-01-01

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0laminate article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  7. Mammalian telomeres and their partnership with lamins

    PubMed Central

    Burla, Romina; La Torre, Mattia; Saggio, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chromosome ends are complex structures, which require a panel of factors for their elongation, replication, and protection. We describe here the mechanics of mammalian telomeres, dynamics and maintainance in relation to lamins. Multiple biochemical connections, including association of telomeres to the nuclear envelope and matrix, of telomeric proteins to lamins, and of lamin-associated proteins to chromosome ends, underline the interplay between lamins and telomeres. Paths toward senescence, such as defective telomere replication, altered heterochromatin organization, and impaired DNA repair, are common to lamins' and telomeres' dysfunction. The convergence of phenotypes can be interpreted through a model of dynamic, lamin-controlled functional platforms dedicated to the function of telomeres as fragile sites. The features of telomeropathies and laminopathies, and of animal models underline further overlapping aspects, including the alteration of stem cell compartments. We expect that future studies of basic biology and on aging will benefit from the analysis of this telomere-lamina interplay. PMID:27116558

  8. Vitamin B1

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flash 6 » Sound: No High score: Yes Credits » Chicken Farm Game - Why do we need vitamin B1? - ... save lives. You have one minute to feed chickens suffering from beriberi with the correct food to ...

  9. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)

    MedlinePlus

    ... B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin/niacinamide), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin ... in appropriate amounts, although rare allergic reactions and skin irritation have occurred. It is also LIKELY SAFE ...

  10. [Vitamin B1 (thiamine)].

    PubMed

    Guilland, Jean-Claude

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin B1 (or thiamine) plays a key role in energy production from glucose. Since the main fuel of the nervous system is glucose, thiamine deficiency causes severe neurological symptoms. The biological exploration of vitamin B1 status is based on the measurement of thiamine pyrophosphate concentration or of the activity of a thiamine-dependent enzyme, transketolase, in erythrocytes. Severe deficiency states can be observed in chronic alcoholics, after protracted vomiting during pregnancy and after bariatric surgery. Mild deficiencies are common in the general population, but their clinical consequences are still unclear. PMID:24298824

  11. B-1 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The B-1 test stand, the largest of three test stands used for Space Shuttle Main Engine testing at Stennis Space Center, is a dual position engine stand that was modified for single-engine tests. This structure stands 295 feet tall or 407 feet tall with the crane fully extended.

  12. Avermectin B1

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Avermectin B1 ; CASRN 65195 - 55 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  13. Hybrid composite laminate structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An invention which relates to laminate structures and specifically to essentially anisotropic fiber composite laminates is described. Metal foils are selectively disposed within the laminate to produce increased resistance to high velocity impact, fracture, surface erosion, and other stresses within the laminate.

  14. Boeing XF2B-1 (F2B-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Boeing XF2B-1 (F2B-1): Serving as the prototype for the F2B-1 shipboard fighter, the XF2B-1 differed visually in having a pointed spinner and an unbalanced rudder. Like many aircraft of its day, the Boeing model 69 was powered by a Pratt & Whitney Wasp radial engine.

  15. Nuclear envelope remodeling during mouse spermiogenesis: Postmeiotic expression and redistribution of germline lamin B3

    SciTech Connect

    Schuetz, Wolfgang; Alsheimer, Manfred; Oellinger, Rupert; Benavente, Ricardo . E-mail: benavente@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2005-07-15

    Lamins are members of a multigene family of structural nuclear envelope (NE) proteins. Differentiated mammalian somatic cells express lamins A, C, B1, and B2. The composition and organization of the nuclear lamina of mammalian spermatogenic cells differ significantly from that of somatic cells as they express lamin B1 as well as two short germ line-specific isoforms, namely lamins B3 and C2. Here we describe in detail the expression pattern and localization of lamin B3 during mouse spermatogenesis. By combining RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence microscopy, we show that lamin B3 is selectively expressed during spermiogenesis (i.e., postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis). In round spermatids, lamin B3 is distributed in the nuclear periphery and, notably, also in the nucleoplasm. In the course of spermiogenesis, lamin B3 becomes redistributed as it concentrates progressively to the posterior pole of spermatid nuclei. Our results show that during mammalian spermiogenesis the nuclear lamina is composed of B-type isoforms only, namely the ubiquitous lamin B1 and the germline-specific lamin B3. Lamin B3 is the first example of a mammalian lamin that is selectively expressed during postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis.

  16. Lamin B receptor

    PubMed Central

    Olins, Ada L; Rhodes, Gale; Welch, David B Mark; Zwerger, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Lamin B receptor (LBR) is an integral membrane protein of the interphase nuclear envelope (NE). The N-terminal end resides in the nucleoplasm, binding to lamin B and heterochromatin, with the interactions disrupted during mitosis. The C-terminal end resides within the inner nuclear membrane, retreating with the ER away from condensing chromosomes during mitotic NE breakdown. Some of these properties are interpretable in terms of our current structural knowledge of LBR, but many of the structural features remain unknown. LBR apparently has an evolutionary history which brought together at least two ancient conserved structural domains (i.e., Tudor and sterol reductase). This convergence may have occurred with the emergence of the chordates and echinoderms. It is not clear what survival values have maintained LBR structure during evolution. But it seems likely that roles in post-mitotic nuclear reformation, interphase NE growth and compartmentalization of nuclear architecture might have provided some evolutionary advantage to preservation of the LBR gene. PMID:21327105

  17. The telomeric protein AKTIP interacts with A- and B-type lamins and is involved in regulation of cellular senescence

    PubMed Central

    Burla, Romina; Carcuro, Mariateresa; Torre, Mattia La; Fratini, Federica; Crescenzi, Marco; D'Apice, Maria Rosaria; Spitalieri, Paola; Raffa, Grazia Daniela; Astrologo, Letizia; Lattanzi, Giovanna; Cundari, Enrico; Raimondo, Domenico; Biroccio, Annamaria; Gatti, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    AKTIP is a shelterin-interacting protein required for replication of telomeric DNA. Here, we show that AKTIP biochemically interacts with A- and B-type lamins and affects lamin A, but not lamin C or B, expression. In interphase cells, AKTIP localizes at the nuclear rim and in discrete regions of the nucleoplasm just like lamins. Double immunostaining revealed that AKTIP partially co-localizes with lamin B1 and lamin A/C in interphase cells, and that proper AKTIP localization requires functional lamin A. In mitotic cells, AKTIP is enriched at the spindle poles and at the midbody of late telophase cells similar to lamin B1. AKTIP-depleted cells show senescence-associated markers and recapitulate several aspects of the progeroid phenotype. Collectively, our results indicate that AKTIP is a new player in lamin-related processes, including those that govern nuclear architecture, telomere homeostasis and cellular senescence. PMID:27512140

  18. The telomeric protein AKTIP interacts with A- and B-type lamins and is involved in regulation of cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Burla, Romina; Carcuro, Mariateresa; Torre, Mattia La; Fratini, Federica; Crescenzi, Marco; D'Apice, Maria Rosaria; Spitalieri, Paola; Raffa, Grazia Daniela; Astrologo, Letizia; Lattanzi, Giovanna; Cundari, Enrico; Raimondo, Domenico; Biroccio, Annamaria; Gatti, Maurizio; Saggio, Isabella

    2016-08-01

    AKTIP is a shelterin-interacting protein required for replication of telomeric DNA. Here, we show that AKTIP biochemically interacts with A- and B-type lamins and affects lamin A, but not lamin C or B, expression. In interphase cells, AKTIP localizes at the nuclear rim and in discrete regions of the nucleoplasm just like lamins. Double immunostaining revealed that AKTIP partially co-localizes with lamin B1 and lamin A/C in interphase cells, and that proper AKTIP localization requires functional lamin A. In mitotic cells, AKTIP is enriched at the spindle poles and at the midbody of late telophase cells similar to lamin B1. AKTIP-depleted cells show senescence-associated markers and recapitulate several aspects of the progeroid phenotype. Collectively, our results indicate that AKTIP is a new player in lamin-related processes, including those that govern nuclear architecture, telomere homeostasis and cellular senescence. PMID:27512140

  19. B1 magnet harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P D

    2000-05-30

    During the B0 Overpass construction for the CDF detector at Fermilab, 33 B1 magnets were measured using a bucked tangential coil. Measurements were made on the midplane, at the centerline and at {+-} 1 inch horizontal displacement. Since the coil was only 62 inches long, measurements were made at four longitudinal positions. Because of the design of the Main Ring, it was sufficient to combine data from all positions and report the harmonic spectrum for the magnet as a whole. For modeling the Scrounge-atron, it is more useful to treat each measurement position separately. The author reports here an analysis of the harmonic spectra at each probe position, based on the original data.

  20. B-1a Lymphocytes Attenuate Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lei; Chng, MH; Alonso, Michael N.; Yuan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Obesity-associated insulin resistance, a common precursor of type 2 diabetes, is characterized by chronic inflammation of tissues, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Here we show that B-1a cells, a subpopulation of B lymphocytes, are novel and important regulators of this process. B-1a cells are reduced in frequency in obese high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, and EGFP interleukin-10 (IL-10) reporter mice show marked reductions in anti-inflammatory IL-10 production by B cells in vivo during obesity. In VAT, B-1a cells are the dominant producers of B cell–derived IL-10, contributing nearly half of the expressed IL-10 in vivo. Adoptive transfer of B-1a cells into HFD-fed B cell–deficient mice rapidly improves insulin resistance and glucose tolerance through IL-10 and polyclonal IgM-dependent mechanisms, whereas transfer of B-2 cells worsens metabolic disease. Genetic knockdown of B cell–activating factor (BAFF) in HFD-fed mice or treatment with a B-2 cell–depleting, B-1a cell–sparing anti-BAFF antibody attenuates insulin resistance. These findings establish B-1a cells as a new class of immune regulators that maintain metabolic homeostasis and suggest manipulation of these cells as a potential therapy for insulin resistance. PMID:25249575

  1. Lamins as cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Foster, Clare R; Przyborski, Stefan A; Wilson, Robert G; Hutchison, Christopher J

    2010-02-01

    Lamins are multifunctional proteins that are often aberrantly expressed or localized in tumours. Here, we endeavour to assess their uses as cancer biomarkers: to diagnose tumours, analyse cancer characteristics and predict patient survival. It appears that the nature of lamin function in cancer is very complex. Lamin expression can be variable between and even within cancer subtypes, which limits their uses as diagnostic biomarkers. Expression of A-type lamins is a marker of differentiated tumour cells and has been shown to be a marker of good or poor patient survival depending on tumour subtype. Further research into the functions of lamins in cancer cells and the mechanisms that determine its patterns of expression may provide more potential uses of lamins as cancer biomarkers. PMID:20074078

  2. Boeing F3B-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Boeing F3B-1: While most Boeing F3B-1s served aboard the U. S. Navy aircraft carriers Lexington and Saratoga, this example flew in NACA hands at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in the late 1920's. Also known as the Boeing Model 77, the aircraft was powered by a Pratt & Whitney Wasp radial engine.

  3. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio-Frequency Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, Holly S.; Allan, Shawn M.

    2009-11-11

    This Inventions and Innovations program supported the technical and commercial research and development needed to elevate Ceralink's energy saving process for flat glass lamination from bench scale to a self-supporting technology with significant potential for growth. Radio-frequency heating was any un-explored option for laminating glass prior to this program. With significant commercial success through time and energy savings in the wood, paper, and plastics industries, RF heating was found to have significant promise for the energy intensive glass lamination industry. A major technical goal of the program was to demonstrate RF lamination across a wide range of laminate sizes and materials. This was successfully accomplished, dispelling many skeptics' concerns about the abilities of the technology. Ceralink laminated panels up to 2 ft x 3 ft, with four sets processed simultaneously, in a 3 minute cycle. All major categories of interlayer materials were found to work with RF lamination. In addition to laminating glass, other materials including photovoltaic silicon solar cells, light emitting diodes, metallized glass, plastics (acrylic and polycarbonate), and ceramics (alumina) were found compatible with the RF process. This opens up a wide range of commercial opportunities beyond the initially targeted automotive industry. The dramatic energy savings reported for RF lamination at the bench scale were found to be maintained through the scale up of the process. Even at 2 ft x 3 ft panel sizes, energy savings are estimated to be at least 90% compared to autoclaving or vacuum lamination. With targeted promotion through conference presentations, press releases and internet presence, RF lamination has gained significant attention, drawing large audiences at American Ceramic Society meetings. The commercialization success of the project includes the establishment of a revenue-generating business model for providing process development and demonstrations for potential RF

  4. Honeycomb-laminate composite structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A honeycomb-laminate composite structure was comprised of: (1) a cellular core of a polyquinoxaline foam in a honeycomb structure, and (2) a layer of a noncombustible fibrous material impregnated with a polyimide resin laminated on the cellular core. A process for producing the honeycomb-laminate composite structure and articles containing the honeycomb-laminate composite structure is described.

  5. Lamins regulate cell trafficking and lineage maturation of adult human hematopoietic cells

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jae-Won; Spinler, Kyle R.; Swift, Joe; Chasis, Joel A.; Mohandas, Narla; Discher, Dennis E.

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, as well as nucleated erythroblasts and megakaryocytes, reside preferentially in adult marrow microenvironments whereas other blood cells readily cross the endothelial barrier into the circulation. Because the nucleus is the largest organelle in blood cells, we hypothesized that (i) cell sorting across microporous barriers is regulated by nuclear deformability as controlled by lamin-A and -B, and (ii) lamin levels directly modulate hematopoietic programs. Mass spectrometry-calibrated intracellular flow cytometry indeed reveals a lamin expression map that partitions human blood lineages between marrow and circulating compartments (P = 0.00006). B-type lamins are highly variable and predominate only in CD34+ cells, but migration through micropores and nuclear flexibility in micropipette aspiration both appear limited by lamin-A:B stoichiometry across hematopoietic lineages. Differentiation is also modulated by overexpression or knockdown of lamins as well as retinoic acid addition, which regulates lamin-A transcription. In particular, erythroid differentiation is promoted by high lamin-A and low lamin-B1 expression whereas megakaryocytes of high ploidy are inhibited by lamin suppression. Lamins thus contribute to both trafficking and differentiation. PMID:24191023

  6. Laminate armor and related methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; Zagula, Thomas M

    2013-02-26

    Laminate armor and methods of manufacturing laminate armor. Specifically, laminate armor plates comprising a commercially pure titanium layer and a titanium alloy layer bonded to the commercially pure titanium outer layer are disclosed, wherein an average thickness of the titanium alloy inner layer is about four times an average thickness of the commercially pure titanium outer layer. In use, the titanium alloy layer is positioned facing an area to be protected. Additionally, roll-bonding methods for manufacturing laminate armor plates are disclosed.

  7. Laminated BEAM loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danisch, Lee A.

    1996-10-01

    BEAM sensors include treated loops of optical fiber that modulate optical throughput with great sensitivity and linearity, in response to curvature of the loop out of its plane. This paper describes BEAM sensors that have two loops treated in opposed fashion, hermetically sealed in flexible laminations. The sensors include an integrated optoelectronics package that extracts curvature information from the treated portion of the loops while rejecting common mode errors. The laminated structure is used to sense various parameters including displacement, force, pressure, flow, and acceleration.

  8. Lamin A/C-dependent interaction with 53BP1 promotes cellular responses to DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Markiewicz, Ewa; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels; Hutchison, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Lamins A/C have been implicated in DNA damage response pathways. We show that the DNA repair protein 53BP1 is a lamin A/C binding protein. In undamaged human dermal fibroblasts (HDF), 53BP1 is a nucleoskeleton protein. 53BP1 binds to lamins A/C via its Tudor domain, and this is abrogated by DNA damage. Lamins A/C regulate 53BP1 levels and consequently lamin A/C-null HDF display a 53BP1 null-like phenotype. Our data favour a model in which lamins A/C maintain a nucleoplasmic pool of 53BP1 in order to facilitate its rapid recruitment to sites of DNA damage and could explain why an absence of lamin A/C accelerates aging. PMID:25645366

  9. B-type lamins in health and disease☆

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    For over two decades, B-type lamins were thought to have roles in fundamental processes including correct assembly of nuclear envelopes, DNA replication, transcription and cell survival. Recent studies have questioned these roles and have instead emphasised the role of these proteins in tissue building and tissue integrity, particularly in tissues devoid of A-type lamins. Other studies have suggested that the expression of B-type lamins in somatic cells influences the rate of entry into states of cellular senescence. In humans duplication of the LMNB1 gene (encoding lamin B1) causes an adult onset neurodegenerative disorder, termed autosomal dominant leukodystrophy, whilst very recently, LMNB1 has been implicated as a susceptibility gene in neural tube defects. This is consistent with studies in mice that reveal a critical role for B-type lamins in neuronal migration and brain development. In this review, I will consider how different model systems have contributed to our understanding of the functions of B-type lamins and which of those functions are critical for human health and disease. PMID:24380701

  10. ALDH1B1 links alcohol consumption and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surendra; Chen, Ying; Matsumoto, Akiko; Orlicky, David J; Dong, Hongbin; Thompson, David C; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2015-08-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1B1 (ALDH1B1) is a mitochondrial enzyme sharing 65% and 72% sequence identity with ALDH1A1 and ALDH2 proteins, respectively. Compared to the latter two ALDH isozymes, little is known about the physiological functions of ALDH1B1. Studies in humans indicate that ALDH1B1 may be associated with alcohol sensitivity and stem cells. Our recent in vitro studies using human ALDH1B1 showed that it metabolizes acetaldehyde and retinaldehyde. To investigate the in vivo role of ALDH1B1, we generated and characterized a global Aldh1b1 knockout mouse line. These knockout (KO) mice are fertile and show overtly good health. However, ethanol pharmacokinetic analysis revealed ∼40% increase in blood acetaldehyde levels in KO mice. Interestingly, the KO mice exhibited higher fasting blood glucose levels. Collectively, we show for the first time the functional in vivo role of ALDH1B1 in acetaldehyde metabolism and in maintaining glucose homeostasis. This mouse model is a valuable tool to investigate the mechanism by which alcohol may promote the development of diabetes. PMID:26086111

  11. Herpes simplex virus 2 UL13 protein kinase disrupts nuclear lamins

    SciTech Connect

    Cano-Monreal, Gina L.; Wylie, Kristine M.; Cao, Feng; Tavis, John E.; Morrison, Lynda A.

    2009-09-15

    Herpesviruses must cross the inner nuclear membrane and underlying lamina to exit the nucleus. HSV-1 US3 and PKC can phosphorylate lamins and induce their dispersion but do not elicit all of the phosphorylated lamin species produced during infection. UL13 is a serine threonine protein kinase conserved among many herpesviruses. HSV-1 UL13 phosphorylates US3 and thereby controls UL31 and UL34 nuclear rim localization, indicating a role in nuclear egress. Here, we report that HSV-2 UL13 alone induced conformational changes in lamins A and C and redistributed lamin B1 from the nuclear rim to intranuclear granular structures. HSV-2 UL13 directly phosphorylated lamins A, C, and B1 in vitro, and the lamin A1 tail domain. HSV-2 infection recapitulated the lamin alterations seen upon expression of UL13 alone, and other alterations were also observed, indicating that additional viral and/or cellular proteins cooperate with UL13 to alter lamins during HSV-2 infection to allow nuclear egress.

  12. Oxydative stress alters nuclear shape through lamins dysregulation: a route to senescence.

    PubMed

    Barascu, Aurélia; Le Chalony, Catherine; Pennarun, Gaëlle; Genet, Diane; Zaarour, Nancy; Bertrand, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Progeroid phenotypes are mainly encountered in 2 types of syndromes: in laminopathies, which are characterized by nuclear shape abnormalities due to lamin A alteration, and in DNA damage response defect syndromes. Because lamin A dysregulation leads to DNA damages, it has been proposed that senescence occurs in both types of syndromes through the accumulation of damages. We recently showed that elevated oxidative stress is responsible for lamin B1 accumulation, nuclear shape alteration and senescence in the DDR syndrome, ataxia telangiectasia (A-T). Interestingly, overexpression of lamin B1 in wild type cells is sufficient to induce senescence without the induction of DNA damages. Here, we will discuss the importance of controlling the lamins level in order for maintenance nuclear architecture and we will comment the relationships of lamins with other senescence mechanisms. Finally, we will describe emerging data reporting redox control by lamins, leading us to propose a general mechanism by which reactive oxygen species can induce senescence through lamin dysregulation and NSA. PMID:22895091

  13. Herpes simplex virus 2 UL13 protein kinase disrupts nuclear lamins

    PubMed Central

    Cano-Monreal, Gina L.; Wylie, Kristine M.; Cao, Feng; Tavis, John E.; Morrison, Lynda A.

    2009-01-01

    Herpesviruses must cross the inner nuclear membrane and underlying lamina to exit the nucleus. HSV-1 US3 and PKC can phosphorylate lamins and induce their dispersion but do not elicit all of the phosphorylated lamin species produced during infection. UL13 is a serine threonine protein kinase conserved among many herpesviruses. HSV-1 UL13 phosphorylates US3 and thereby controls UL31 and UL34 nuclear rim localization, indicating a role in nuclear egress. Here, we report that HSV-2 UL13 alone induced conformational changes in lamins A and C and redistributed lamin B1 from the nuclear rim to intranuclear granular structures. HSV-2 UL13 directly phosphorylated lamins A, C, and B1 in vitro, and the lamin A1 tail domain. HSV-2 infection recapitulated the lamin alterations seen upon expression of UL13 alone, and other alterations were also observed, indicating that additional viral and/or cellular proteins cooperate with UL13 to alter lamins during HSV-2 infection to allow nuclear egress. PMID:19640559

  14. A-type lamins bind both hetero- and euchromatin, the latter being regulated by lamina-associated polypeptide 2 alpha

    PubMed Central

    Gesson, Kevin; Rescheneder, Philipp; Skoruppa, Michael P.; von Haeseler, Arndt; Dechat, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Lamins are components of the peripheral nuclear lamina and interact with heterochromatic genomic regions, termed lamina-associated domains (LADs). In contrast to lamin B1 being primarily present at the nuclear periphery, lamin A/C also localizes throughout the nucleus, where it associates with the chromatin-binding protein lamina-associated polypeptide (LAP) 2 alpha. Here, we show that lamin A/C also interacts with euchromatin, as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation of euchromatin- and heterochromatin-enriched samples. By way of contrast, lamin B1 was only found associated with heterochromatin. Euchromatic regions occupied by lamin A/C overlap with those bound by LAP2alpha, and lack of LAP2alpha in LAP2alpha-deficient cells shifts binding of lamin A/C toward more heterochromatic regions. These alterations in lamin A/C-chromatin interactions correlate with changes in epigenetic histone marks in euchromatin but do not significantly affect gene expression. Loss of lamin A/C in heterochromatic regions in LAP2alpha-deficient cells, however, correlated with increased gene expression. Our data show a novel role of nucleoplasmic lamin A/C and LAP2alpha in regulating euchromatin. PMID:26798136

  15. 8 CFR 343b.1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the form designated by USCIS with the fee specified in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1) and in accordance with the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application. 343b.1 Section 343b.1 Aliens... NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.1 Application. A naturalized citizen who desires...

  16. Modelling of thick composites using a layerwise laminate theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, D. H., Jr.; Reddy, J. N.

    1993-01-01

    The layerwise laminate theory of Reddy (1987) is used to develop a layerwise, two-dimensional, displacement-based, finite element model of laminated composite plates that assumes a piecewise continuous distribution of the tranverse strains through the laminate thickness. The resulting layerwise finite element model is capable of computing interlaminar stresses and other localized effects with the same level of accuracy as a conventional 3D finite element model. Although the total number of degrees of freedom are comparable in both models, the layerwise model maintains a 2D-type data structure that provides several advantages over a conventional 3D finite element model, e.g. simplified input data, ease of mesh alteration, and faster element stiffness matrix formulation. Two sample problems are provided to illustrate the accuracy of the present model in computing interlaminar stresses for laminates in bending and extension.

  17. 78 FR 19007 - Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof.... 1337, on behalf of Lamina Packaging Innovations LLC of Longview, Texas. An amended complaint was filed... importation of certain products having laminated packaging, laminated packaging, and components thereof...

  18. 78 FR 13083 - Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... COMMISSION Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof; Notice of... Commission has received a complaint entitled Products Having Laminated ] Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and... filed on behalf of Lamina Packaging Innovations LLC on February 20, 2013. The complaint...

  19. Thermally stable laminating resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.; Burns, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    Improved thermally stable laminating resins were developed based on the addition-type pyrolytic polymerization. Detailed monomer and polymer synthesis and characterization studies identified formulations which facilitate press molding processing and autoclave fabrication of glass and graphite fiber reinforced composites. A specific resin formulation, termed P10P was utilized to prepare a Courtaulds HMS reinforced simulated airfoil demonstration part by an autoclave molding process.

  20. Laminated piezoelectric transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazquez Carazo, Alfredo (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A laminated piezoelectric transformer is provided using the longitudinal vibration modes for step-up voltage conversion applications. The input portions are polarized to deform in a longitudinal plane and are bonded to an output portion. The deformation of the input portions is mechanically coupled to the output portion, which deforms in the same longitudinal direction relative to the input portion. The output portion is polarized in the thickness direction relative its electrodes, and piezoelectrically generates a stepped-up output voltage.

  1. Symmetric Composite Laminate Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T.; Smolinski, K. F.; Gellin, S.

    1985-01-01

    It is demonstrated that COSMIC/NASTRAN may be used to analyze plate and shell structures made of symmetric composite laminates. Although general composite laminates cannot be analyzed using NASTRAN, the theoretical development presented herein indicates that the integrated constitutive laws of a symmetric composite laminate resemble those of a homogeneous anisotropic plate, which can be analyzed using NASTRAN. A detailed analysis procedure is presented, as well as an illustrative example.

  2. Solar cell module lamination process

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Paul G.; Thompson, Jesse B.; Aceves, Randy C.

    2002-01-01

    A solar cell module lamination process using fluoropolymers to provide protection from adverse environmental conditions and thus enable more extended use of solar cells, particularly in space applications. A laminate of fluoropolymer material provides a hermetically sealed solar cell module structure that is flexible and very durable. The laminate is virtually chemically inert, highly transmissive in the visible spectrum, dimensionally stable at temperatures up to about 200.degree. C. highly abrasion resistant, and exhibits very little ultra-violet degradation.

  3. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1b.1 Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part—...

  4. 34 CFR 5b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions. 5b.1 Section 5b.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.1 Definitions. As used in this part: (a... Education. (c) Department means the Department of Education. (d) Disclosure means the availability...

  5. 34 CFR 5b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 5b.1 Section 5b.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.1 Definitions. As used in this part: (a... Education. (c) Department means the Department of Education. (d) Disclosure means the availability...

  6. 8 CFR 343b.1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application. 343b.1 Section 343b.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.1 Application. A naturalized citizen who desires...

  7. 32 CFR 242b.1 - Regents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regents. 242b.1 Section 242b.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS GENERAL PROCEDURES AND DELEGATIONS OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES § 242b.1 Regents. (a) History...

  8. 32 CFR 242b.1 - Regents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regents. 242b.1 Section 242b.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS GENERAL PROCEDURES AND DELEGATIONS OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES § 242b.1 Regents. (a) History...

  9. Tape cast bioactive metal-ceramic laminates for structural application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clupper, Daniel Christopher

    Bioglass 45S5, is a silica based glass which is able to rapidly form strong bonds with bone and soft tissue in vivo. It is used clinically to replace damaged ear ossicles and in dental surgery to help maintain the structural integrity of the jaw bone. The goal of the research was to demonstrate that Bioglass can be toughened by lamination with metallic layers while maintaining bioactivity. Improvement of the mechanical properties of Bioglass 45SS would allow for additional clinical applications, such as fracture fixation plates, or vertebral spacers. Bioglass 45S5 was tape cast and laminated with clinically relevant metals (316L, stainless steel and titanium) as well as copper in an effort to demonstrate that the effective toughness, or area under the load-deflection diagram can be increased significantly through ductile layer lamination. The average strength of monolithic tape cast sintered Bioglass was as high as 150 MPa and the toughness measured approximately 1.0 MPa m1/2. Copper-Bioglass laminates clearly demonstrated the toughening effect of metal layers on tape cast sintered Bioglass 45S5. Steel-Bioglass laminates, although less tough than the copper-Bioglass laminates, showed higher strengths. In vitro bioactivity tests of both titanium and steel Bioglass laminates showed the formation of mature and thick hydroxyapatite layers after 24 hours in Tris buffer solution. Under the standard test conditions, the bioactivity of monolithic tape cast sintered Bioglass increased with increasing sintering temperature. For samples sintered at 1000°C, thick crystalline layers of hydroxyapatite formed within 24 hours in Tris buffer solution. The bioactivity of these samples approached that of amorphous bulk Bioglass. Samples processed at 800°C were able to form thick crystalline hydroxyapatite layer after 24 hours when the test solution volume was increased by eight times.

  10. Beach lamination: Nature and origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifton, H.E.

    1969-01-01

    A distinctive two-fold sedimentation unit characterizes lamination in the upper swash zone of beaches. Within the unit a fine and/or a heavy mineral rich layer at the base grades upward into a coarser and/or a heavy mineral poor layer at the top. This distinctive type of lamination results from grain segregation within bed flow during wave backwash. ?? 1969.

  11. Holographic nondestructive testing of laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckenberg, F. H.

    1973-01-01

    Very small differences in laminate thickness result in interference fringes in holograph image. These indicate presence of unbonded area. Theoretical knowledge of membrane deflection may be used in conjunction with reduced number of pretest experiments to determine number of optical fringes that should appear for given laminate.

  12. Self-Healing Laminate System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beiermann, Brett A. (Inventor); Keller, Michael W. (Inventor); White, Scott R. (Inventor); Sottos, Nancy R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A laminate material may include a first flexible layer, and a self-healing composite layer in contact with the first flexible layer. The composite layer includes an elastomer matrix, a plurality of first capsules including a polymerizer, and a corresponding activator for the polymerizer. The laminate material may self-heal when subjected to a puncture or a tear.

  13. Analyses of the Dynamic Properties of Nuclear Lamins by Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS).

    PubMed

    Takeshi, Shimi; Pack, Chan-Gi; Goldman, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    The major structural components of the nuclear lamina are the A- and B-type nuclear lamin proteins which are also present in the nucleoplasm. Studies of molecular movements of the lamins in both the lamina and nucleoplasm of living cell nuclei have provided insights into their roles in maintaining nuclear architecture. In this chapter, we present protocols for quantitatively measuring the mobilities of lamin proteins by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) in mammalian cell nuclei. PMID:27147036

  14. Processing and mechanical characterization of alumina laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, John K.

    2002-08-01

    Single-phase ceramics that combine property gradients or steps in monolithic bodies are sought as alternatives to ceramic composites made of dissimilar materials. This work describes novel processing methods to produce stepped-density (or laminated) alumina single-phase bodies that maintain their mechanical integrity. One arrangement consists of a stiff, dense bulk material with a thin, flaw tolerant, porous exterior layer. Another configuration consists of a lightweight, low-density bulk material with a thin, hard, wear resistant exterior layer. Alumina laminates with strong interfaces have been successfully produced in this work using two different direct-casting processes. Gelcasting is a useful near-net shape processing technique that has been combined with several techniques, such as reaction bonding of aluminum oxide and the use of starch as a fugative filler, to successfully produced stepped-density alumina laminates. The other direct casting process that has been developed in this work is thermoreversible gelcasting (TRG). This is a reversible gelation process that has been used to produce near-net shape dense ceramic bodies. Also, individual layers can be stacked together and heated to produce laminates. Bilayer laminate samples were produced with varied thickness of porous and dense layers. It was shown that due to the difference in modulus and hardness, transverse cracking is found upon Hertzian contact when the dense layer is on the exterior. In the opposite arrangement, compacted damage zones formed in the porous material and no damage occurred in the underlying dense layer. Flaw tolerant behavior of the porous exterior/dense underlayer was examined by measuring biaxial strength as a function of Vickers indentation load. It was found that the thinnest layer of porous material results in the greatest flaw tolerance. Also, higher strength was exhibited at large indentation loads when compared to dense monoliths. The calculated stresses on the surfaces

  15. 18 CFR 3b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 3b.1 Section 3b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  16. Human B-1 cells take the stage

    PubMed Central

    Rothstein, Thomas L.; Griffin, Daniel O.; Holodick, Nichol E.; Quach, Tam D.; Kaku, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    B-1cells play critical roles in defending against microbial invasion and in housekeeping removal of cellular debris. B-1cells secrete natural antibody and manifest functions that influence T cell expansion and differentiation and in these and other ways differ from conventional B-2 cells. B-1-cells were originally studied in mice where they are easily distinguished from B-2cells, but their identity in the human system remained poorly defined for many years. Recently, functional criteria for human B-1cells were established on the basis of murine findings, and reverse engineering resulted in identification of the phenotypic profile, CD20+CD27+CD43+CD70−, for B-1cells found in both umbilical cord blood and adult peripheral blood. Human B-1cells may contribute to multiple disease states through production of autoantibody and stimulation/modulation of T cell activity. Human B-1cells could be a rich source of antibodies useful in treating diseases present in elderly populations where natural antibody protection may have eroded. Manipulation of human B-1cell numbers and/or activity may be a new avenue for altering T cell function and treating immune dyscrasias. PMID:23692567

  17. Vacuum lamination of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Vacuum lamination of terrestrial photovoltaic modules is a new high volume process requiring new equipment and newly develop materials. Equipment development, materials research, and some research in related fields and testing methods are discussed.

  18. Internal Stresses in Laminated Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heim, A L; Knauss, A C; Seutter, Louis

    1923-01-01

    This report reviews the procedure employed in an investigation of the sources and influence of internal stresses in laminated construction, and discusses the influence of shrinkage and swelling stresses caused by atmospheric conditions upon the tensile strength across grain in laminated construction with special reference to airplane propellers. The investigation covered three sources of internal stress, namely, the combination of plain-sawed and quarter-sawed material in the same construction, the gluing together of laminations of different moisture contents, and the gluing together of laminations of different densities. Glued specimens and free specimens, made up under various manufacturing conditions, were subjected to various climatic changes inducing internal stresses and then were tested.

  19. Laminated electromagnetic pump stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, A.W.

    1995-08-08

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially abutting tapered laminations extending radially outwardly from a centerline axis to collectively define a radially inner bore and a radially outer circumference. Each of the laminations includes radially inner and outer edges and has a thickness increasing from the inner edge toward the outer edge to provide a substantially continuous path adjacent the circumference. This pump is used in nuclear fission reactors. 19 figs.

  20. Laminated electromagnetic pump stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.

    1995-01-01

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially abutting tapered laminations extending radially outwardly from a centerline axis to collectively define a radially inner bore and a radially outer circumference. Each of the laminations includes radially inner and outer edges and has a thickness increasing from the inner edge toward the outer edge to provide a substantially continuous path adjacent the circumference.

  1. The A- and B-type nuclear lamin networks: microdomains involved in chromatin organization and transcription

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, Takeshi; Pfleghaar, Katrin; Kojima, Shin-ichiro; Pack, Chan-Gi; Solovei, Irina; Goldman, Anne E.; Adam, Stephen A.; Shumaker, Dale K.; Kinjo, Masataka; Cremer, Thomas; Goldman, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear lamins function in the regulation of replication, transcription, and epigenetic modifications of chromatin. However, the mechanisms responsible for these lamin functions are poorly understood. We demonstrate that A- and B-type lamins form separate, but interacting, stable meshworks in the lamina and have different mobilities in the nucleoplasm as determined by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Silencing lamin B1 (LB1) expression dramatically increases the lamina meshwork size and the mobility of nucleoplasmic lamin A (LA). The changes in lamina mesh size are coupled to the formation of LA/C-rich nuclear envelope blebs deficient in LB2. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analyses of microdissected blebs, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and immunofluorescence localization of modified histones demonstrate that gene-rich euchromatin associates with the LA/C blebs. Enrichment of hyperphosphorylated RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and histone marks for active transcription suggest that blebs are transcriptionally active. However, in vivo labeling of RNA indicates that transcription is decreased, suggesting that the LA/C-rich microenvironment induces promoter proximal stalling of Pol II. We propose that different lamins are organized into separate, but interacting, microdomains and that LB1 is essential for their organization. Our evidence suggests that the organization and regulation of chromatin are influenced by interconnections between these lamin microdomains. PMID:19141474

  2. Identification of lamin B-regulated chromatin regions based on chromatin landscapes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaobin; Kim, Youngjo; Zheng, Yixian

    2015-07-15

    Lamins, the major structural components of the nuclear lamina (NL) found beneath the nuclear envelope, are known to interact with most of the nuclear peripheral chromatin in metazoan cells. Although NL-chromatin associations correlate with a repressive chromatin state, the role of lamins in tethering chromatin to NL and how such tether influences gene expression have remained challenging to decipher. Studies suggest that NL proteins regulate chromatin in a context-dependent manner. Therefore understanding the context of chromatin states based on genomic features, including chromatin-NL interactions, is important to the study of lamins and other NL proteins. By modeling genome organization based on combinatorial patterns of chromatin association with lamin B1, core histone modification, and core and linker histone occupancy, we report six distinct large chromatin landscapes, referred to as histone lamin landscapes (HiLands)-red (R), -orange (O), -yellow (Y), -green (G), -blue (B), and -purple (P), in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). This HiLands model demarcates the previously mapped lamin-associated chromatin domains (LADs) into two HiLands, HiLands-B and HiLands-P, which are similar to facultative and constitutive heterochromatins, respectively. Deletion of B-type lamins in mESCs caused a reduced interaction between regions of HiLands-B and NL as measured by emerin-chromatin interaction. Our findings reveal the importance of analyzing specific chromatin types when studying the function of NL proteins in chromatin tether and regulation. PMID:25995381

  3. Identification of lamin B–regulated chromatin regions based on chromatin landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaobin; Kim, Youngjo; Zheng, Yixian

    2015-01-01

    Lamins, the major structural components of the nuclear lamina (NL) found beneath the nuclear envelope, are known to interact with most of the nuclear peripheral chromatin in metazoan cells. Although NL–chromatin associations correlate with a repressive chromatin state, the role of lamins in tethering chromatin to NL and how such tether influences gene expression have remained challenging to decipher. Studies suggest that NL proteins regulate chromatin in a context-dependent manner. Therefore understanding the context of chromatin states based on genomic features, including chromatin–NL interactions, is important to the study of lamins and other NL proteins. By modeling genome organization based on combinatorial patterns of chromatin association with lamin B1, core histone modification, and core and linker histone occupancy, we report six distinct large chromatin landscapes, referred to as histone lamin landscapes (HiLands)-red (R), -orange (O), -yellow (Y), -green (G), -blue (B), and -purple (P), in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). This HiLands model demarcates the previously mapped lamin-associated chromatin domains (LADs) into two HiLands, HiLands-B and HiLands-P, which are similar to facultative and constitutive heterochromatins, respectively. Deletion of B-type lamins in mESCs caused a reduced interaction between regions of HiLands-B and NL as measured by emerin–chromatin interaction. Our findings reveal the importance of analyzing specific chromatin types when studying the function of NL proteins in chromatin tether and regulation. PMID:25995381

  4. Dynamic properties of meiosis-specific lamin C2 and its impact on nuclear envelope integrity

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Daniel; Schramm, Sabine; Benavente, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    A hallmark of meiosis is the precise pairing and the stable physical connection (synapsis) of the homologous chromosomes. These processes are essential prerequisite for their proper segregation. Pairing of the homologs during meiotic prophase I critically depends on characteristic movements of chromosomes. These movements, in turn, require attachment of meiotic telomeres to the nuclear envelope and their subsequent dynamic repositioning. Dynamic repositioning of meiotic telomeres goes along with profound structural reorganization of the nuclear envelope. The short A-type lamin C2 is thought to play a critical role in this process due to its specific expression during meiotic prophase I and the unique localization surrounding telomere attachments. Consistent with this notion, here we provide compelling evidence that meiosis-specific lamin C2 features a significantly increased mobility compared to somatic lamins as revealed by photobleaching techniques. We show that this property can be clearly ascribed to the lack of the N-terminal head and the significantly shorter α-helical coil domain. Moreover, expression of lamin C2 in somatic cells induces nuclear deformations and alters the distribution of the endogenous nuclear envelope proteins lamin B1, LAP2, SUN1 and SUN2. Together, our data define lamin C2 as a “natural lamin deletion mutant” that confers unique properties to the nuclear envelope which would be essential for dynamic telomere repositioning during meiotic prophase I. PMID:21327075

  5. 78 FR 6069 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 45941 (August 7, 2008...(b)(1). \\12\\ See Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 76 FR... Packaging Co., Ltd. (``Aifudi''). We have preliminarily determined that Aifudi failed to demonstrate...

  6. Knock-down of methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) causes alterations in cell proliferation and nuclear lamins expression in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MeCP2 (CpG-binding protein 2) is a nuclear multifunctional protein involved in several cellular processes, like large-scale chromatin reorganization and architecture, and transcriptional regulation. In recent years, a non-neuronal role for MeCP2 has emerged in cell growth and proliferation. Mutations in the MeCP2 gene have been reported to determine growth disadvantages in cultured lymphocyte cells, and its functional ablation suppresses cell growth in glial cells and proliferation in mesenchymal stem cells and prostate cancer cells. MeCP2 interacts with lamin B receptor (LBR) and with Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) at the nuclear envelope (NE), suggesting that it could be part of complexes involved in attracting heterochromatin at the nuclear periphery and in mediating gene silencing. The nuclear lamins, major components of the lamina, have a role in maintaining NE integrity, in orchestrating mitosis, in DNA replication and transcription, in regulation of mitosis and apoptosis and in providing anchoring sites for chromatin domains. In this work, we inferred that MeCP2 might have a role in nuclear envelope stability, thereby affecting the proliferation pattern of highly proliferating systems. Results By performing knock-down (KD) of MeCP2 in normal murine (NIH-3 T3) and in human prostate transformed cells (PC-3 and LNCaP), we observed a strong proliferation decrease and a defect in the cell cycle progression, with accumulation of cells in S/G2M, without triggering a strong apoptotic and senescent phenotype. In these cells, KD of MeCP2 evidenced a considerable decrease of the levels of lamin A, lamin C, lamin B1 and LBR proteins. Moreover, by confocal analysis we confirmed the reduction of lamin A levels, but we also observed an alteration in the shape of the nuclear lamina and an irregular nuclear rim. Conclusions Our results that indicate reduced levels of NE components, are consistent with a hypothesis that the deficiency of MeCP2 might cause the

  7. Significance of 1B and 2B domains in modulating elastic properties of lamin A.

    PubMed

    Bera, Manindra; Ainavarapu, Sri Rama Koti; Sengupta, Kaushik

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear lamins are type V intermediate filament proteins which form an elastic meshwork underlying the inner nuclear membrane. Lamins directly contribute to maintain the nuclear shape and elasticity. More than 400 mutations have been reported in lamin A that are involved in diseases known as laminopathies. These mutations are scattered mainly in the lamin rod domain along with some in its C-terminal domain. The contribution of the rod domain towards the elasticity of lamin A molecule was hitherto unknown. Here, we have elucidated the significance of the 1B and 2B domains of the rod in modulating the elastic behavior of lamin A by single-molecule force spectroscopy. In addition, we have also studied the network forming capacity of these domains and their corresponding viscoelastic behavior. We have shown that the 1B domain has the ability to form a lamin-like network and resists larger deformation. However at the single-molecular level, both the domains have comparable mechanical properties. The self-assembly of the 1B domain contributes to the elasticity of the lamin A network. PMID:27301336

  8. Significance of 1B and 2B domains in modulating elastic properties of lamin A

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Manindra; Ainavarapu, Sri Rama Koti; Sengupta, Kaushik

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear lamins are type V intermediate filament proteins which form an elastic meshwork underlying the inner nuclear membrane. Lamins directly contribute to maintain the nuclear shape and elasticity. More than 400 mutations have been reported in lamin A that are involved in diseases known as laminopathies. These mutations are scattered mainly in the lamin rod domain along with some in its C-terminal domain. The contribution of the rod domain towards the elasticity of lamin A molecule was hitherto unknown. Here, we have elucidated the significance of the 1B and 2B domains of the rod in modulating the elastic behavior of lamin A by single-molecule force spectroscopy. In addition, we have also studied the network forming capacity of these domains and their corresponding viscoelastic behavior. We have shown that the 1B domain has the ability to form a lamin-like network and resists larger deformation. However at the single-molecular level, both the domains have comparable mechanical properties. The self-assembly of the 1B domain contributes to the elasticity of the lamin A network. PMID:27301336

  9. Observation of B Meson decays to b1pi and b1K.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Tico, J Garra; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Pegna, D Lopes; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Osipenkov, I L; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Tanabe, T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Barrett, M; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Watson, J E; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Vazquez, W Panduro; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Prendki, J; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Neal, H

    2007-12-14

    We present the results of searches for decays of B mesons to final states with a b1 meson and a charged pion or kaon. The data, collected with the BABAR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, represent 382x10(6) BB[over ] pairs produced in e+e- annihilation. The results for the branching fractions are, in units of 10(-6), B(B+-->b1(0)pi+)=6.7+/-1.7+/-1.0, B(B+-->b1(0)K+)=9.1+/-1.7+/-1.0, B(B0-->b1(-/+)pi(+/-))=10.9+/-1.2+/-0.9, and B(B0-->b1(-)K+)=7.4+/-1.0+/-1.0, with the assumption that B(b1-->omega pi)=1. We also measure charge and flavor asymmetries A(ch)(B+-->b1(0)pi+)=0.05+/-0.16+/-0.02, Ach(B+-->b1(0)K+)=-0.46+/-0.20+/-0.02, A(ch)(B0-->b1(-/+)pi(+/-))=-0.05+/-0.10+/-0.02, C(B0-->b1(-/+)pi(+/-))=-0.22+/-0.23+/-0.05, DeltaC(B0-->b1(-/+)pi(+/-))=-1.04+/-0.23+/-0.08, and A(ch)(B0-->b1(-)K+)=-0.07+/-0.12+/-0.02. The first error quoted is statistical, and the second systematic. PMID:18233439

  10. Large dynamic range relative B1+ mapping

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Aaron T.; Aljabar, Paul; Malik, Shaihan J.; Jezzard, Peter; Robson, Matthew D.; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Koopmans, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Parallel transmission (PTx) requires knowledge of the B1+ produced by each element. However, B1+ mapping can be challenging when transmit fields exhibit large dynamic range. This study presents a method to produce high quality relative B1+ maps when this is the case. Theory and Methods The proposed technique involves the acquisition of spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) images at multiple radiofrequency drive levels for each transmitter. The images are combined using knowledge of the SPGR signal equation using maximum likelihood estimation, yielding an image for each channel whose signal is proportional to the B1+ field strength. Relative B1+ maps are then obtained by taking image ratios. The method was tested using numerical simulations, phantom imaging, and through in vivo experiments. Results The numerical simulations demonstrated that the proposed method can reconstruct relative transmit sensitivities over a wide range of B1+ amplitudes and at several SNR levels. The method was validated at 3 Tesla (T) by comparing it with an alternative B1+ mapping method, and demonstrated in vivo at 7T. Conclusion Relative B1+ mapping in the presence of large dynamic range has been demonstrated through numerical simulations, phantom imaging at 3T and experimentally at 7T. The method will enable PTx to be applied in challenging imaging scenarios at ultrahigh field. Magn Reson Med 76:490–499, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:26308375

  11. Development of a realistic stress analysis for fatigue analysis of notched composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, E. A.; Rosen, B. W.

    1979-01-01

    A finite element stress analysis which consists of a membrane and interlaminar shear spring analysis was developed. This approach was utilized in order to model physically realistic failure mechanisms while maintaining a high degree of computational economy. The accuracy of the stress analysis predictions is verified through comparisons with other solutions to the composite laminate edge effect problem. The stress analysis model was incorporated into an existing fatigue analysis methodology and the entire procedure computerized. A fatigue analysis is performed upon a square laminated composite plate with a circular central hole. A complete description and users guide for the computer code FLAC (Fatigue of Laminated Composites) is included as an appendix.

  12. Interphase phosphorylation of lamin A.

    PubMed

    Kochin, Vitaly; Shimi, Takeshi; Torvaldson, Elin; Adam, Stephen A; Goldman, Anne; Pack, Chan-Gi; Melo-Cardenas, Johanna; Imanishi, Susumu Y; Goldman, Robert D; Eriksson, John E

    2014-06-15

    Nuclear lamins form the major structural elements that comprise the nuclear lamina. Loss of nuclear structural integrity has been implicated as a key factor in the lamin A/C gene mutations that cause laminopathies, whereas the normal regulation of lamin A assembly and organization in interphase cells is still undefined. We assumed phosphorylation to be a major determinant, identifying 20 prime interphase phosphorylation sites, of which eight were high-turnover sites. We examined the roles of these latter sites by site-directed mutagenesis, followed by detailed microscopic analysis - including fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and nuclear extraction techniques. The results reveal three phosphorylation regions, each with dominant sites, together controlling lamin A structure and dynamics. Interestingly, two of these interphase sites are hyper-phosphorylated in mitotic cells and one of these sites is within the sequence that is missing in progerin of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. We present a model where different phosphorylation combinations yield markedly different effects on the assembly, subunit turnover and the mobility of lamin A between, and within, the lamina, the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm of interphase cells. PMID:24741066

  13. Lamin A, farnesylation and aging.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sita; Comai, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    Lamin A is a component of the nuclear envelope that is synthesized as a precursor prelamin A molecule and then processed into mature lamin A through sequential steps of posttranslational modifications and proteolytic cleavages. Remarkably, over 400 distinct point mutations have been so far identified throughout the LMNA gene, which result in the development of at least ten distinct human disorders, collectively known as laminopathies, among which is the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). The majority of HGPS cases are associated with a single point mutation in the LMNA gene that causes the production of a permanently farnesylated mutant lamin A protein termed progerin. The mechanism by which progerin leads to premature aging and the classical HGPS disease phenotype as well as the relationship between this disorder and the onset of analogous symptoms during the lifespan of a normal individual are not well understood. Yet, recent studies have provided critical insights on the cellular processes that are affected by accumulation of progerin and have suggested that cellular alterations in the lamin A processing pathway leading to the accumulation of farnesylated prelamin A intermediates may play a role in the aging process in the general population. In this review we provide a short background on lamin A and its maturation pathway and discuss the current knowledge of how progerin or alterations in the prelamin A processing pathway are thought to influence cell function and contribute to human aging. PMID:21871450

  14. Lamin A, farnesylation and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Sita; Comai, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    Lamin A is a component of the nuclear envelope that is synthesized as a precursor prelamin A molecule and then processed into mature lamin A through sequential steps of posttranslational modifications and proteolytic cleavages. Remarkably, over 400 distinct point mutations have been so far identified throughout the LMNA gene, which result in the development of at least ten distinct human disorders, collectively known as laminopathies, among which is the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). The majority of HGPS cases are associated with a single point mutation in the LMNA gene that causes the production of a permanently farnesylated mutant lamin A protein termed progerin. The mechanism by which progerin leads to premature aging and the classical HGPS disease phenotype as well as the relationship between this disorder and the onset of analogous symptoms during the lifespan of a normal individual are not well understood. Yet, recent studies have provided critical insights on the cellular processes that are affected by accumulation of progerin and have suggested that cellular alterations in the lamin A processing pathway leading to the accumulation of farnesylated prelamin A intermediates may play a role in the aging process in the general population. In this review we provide a short background on lamin A and its maturation pathway and discuss the current knowledge of how progerin or alterations in the prelamin A processing pathway are thought to influence cell function and contribute to human aging.

  15. Thermoelastic analysis of laminated plates. I - Symmetric specially orthotropic laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.H.; Tauchert, T.R.

    1980-04-01

    Thermally induced deformations and stress resultants in symmetric laminated plates are analyzed. The method of M. Levy is used to study the transverse bending of a specially orthotropic laminate having two simply supported edges and subject to a temperature distribution that does not vary in a direction parallel to the simple supports. A solution is also obtained for the problem of in-plane stretching of the plate middle surface caused by a general three-dimensional temperature field. As an illustrative example, the thermoelastic response of a unidirectionally fiber-reinforced plate to a temperature variation that is linear in the thickness direction is computed.

  16. Both lamin A and lamin C mutations cause lamina instability as well as loss of internal nuclear lamin organization

    SciTech Connect

    Broers, Jos L.V. . E-mail: jos.broers@molcelb.unimaas.nl; Kuijpers, H.J.H.; Oestlund, C.; Worman, H.J.; Endert, J.; Ramaekers, F.C.S.

    2005-04-01

    We have applied the fluorescence loss of intensity after photobleaching (FLIP) technique to study the molecular dynamics and organization of nuclear lamin proteins in cell lines stably transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged A-type lamin cDNA. Normal lamin A and C proteins show abundant decoration of the inner layer of the nuclear membrane, the nuclear lamina, and a generally diffuse localization in the nuclear interior. Bleaching studies revealed that, while the GFP-tagged lamins in the lamina were virtually immobile, the intranuclear fraction of these molecules was partially mobile. Intranuclear lamin C was significantly more mobile than intranuclear lamina A. In search of a structural cause for the variety of inherited diseases caused by A-type lamin mutations, we have studied the molecular organization of GFP-tagged lamin A and lamin C mutants R453W and R386K, found in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), and lamin A and lamin C mutant R482W, found in patients with Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD). In all mutants, a prominent increase in lamin mobility was observed, indicating loss of structural stability of lamin polymers, both at the perinuclear lamina and in the intranuclear lamin organization. While the lamin rod domain mutant showed overall increased mobility, the tail domain mutants showed mainly intranuclear destabilization, possibly as a result of loss of interaction with chromatin. Decreased stability of lamin mutant polymers was confirmed by flow cytometric analyses and immunoblotting of nuclear extracts. Our findings suggest a loss of function of A-type lamin mutant proteins in the organization of intranuclear chromatin and predict the loss of gene regulatory function in laminopathies.

  17. Impedances of Laminated Vacuum Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.; Lebedev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-22

    First publications on impedance of laminated vacuum chambers are related to early 70s: those are of S. C. Snowdon [1] and of A. G. Ruggiero [2]; fifteen years later, a revision paper of R. Gluckstern appeared [3]. All the publications were presented as Fermilab preprints, and there is no surprise in that: the Fermilab Booster has its laminated magnets open to the beam. Being in a reasonable mutual agreement, these publications were all devoted to the longitudinal impedance of round vacuum chambers. The transverse impedance and the flat geometry case were addressed in more recent paper of K. Y. Ng [4]. The latest calculations of A. Macridin et al. [5] revealed some disagreement with Ref. [4]; this fact stimulated us to get our own results on that matter. Longitudinal and transverse impendances are derived for round and flat laminated vacuum chambers. Results of this paper agree with Ref. [5].

  18. Lamin-Binding Proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Dobrzynska, Agnieszka; Askjaer, Peter; Gruenbaum, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear lamina, composed of lamins and numerous lamin-associated proteins, is required for mechanical stability, mechanosensing, chromatin organization, developmental gene regulation, mRNA transcription, DNA replication, nuclear assembly, and nuclear positioning. Mutations in lamins or lamin-binding proteins cause at least 18 distinct human diseases that affect specific tissues such as muscle, adipose, bone, nerve, or skin, and range from muscular dystrophies to lipodystrophy, peripheral neuropathy, or accelerated aging. Caenorhabditis elegans has unique advantages in studying lamin-binding proteins. These advantages include the low complexity of genes encoding lamin and lamin-binding proteins, advanced transgenic techniques, simple application of RNA interference, sophisticated genetic strategies, and a large collection of mutant lines. This chapter provides detailed and comprehensive protocols for the genetic and phenotypic analysis of lamin-binding proteins in C. elegans. PMID:26778571

  19. Type B lamins remain associated with the integral nuclear envelope protein p58 during mitosis: implications for nuclear reassembly.

    PubMed Central

    Meier, J; Georgatos, S D

    1994-01-01

    p58 (also referred to as the lamin B receptor) is an integral membrane protein of the nuclear envelope known to form a multimeric complex with the lamins and other nuclear proteins during interphase. To examine the fate of this complex during mitosis, we have investigated the partitioning and the molecular interactions of p58 in dividing chicken hepatoma (DU249) cells. Using confocal microscopy and double immunolabelling, we show here that lamins B1 and B2 co-localize with p58 during all phases of mitosis and co-assemble around reforming nuclei. A close juxtaposition of p58/lamin B-containing vesicles and chromosomes is already detectable in metaphase; however, p58 and lamin reassembly proceeds slowly and is completed in late telophase--G1. Flotation of mitotic membranes in sucrose density gradients and analysis of mitotic vesicles by immunoelectron microscopy confirms that p58 and most of the type B lamins reside in the same compartment. Co-immunoprecipitation of both proteins by affinity-purified anti-p58 antibodies shows that they are physically associated in the context of a mitotic p58 'sub-complex'. This sub-assembly does not include the type A lamins which are fully solubilized during mitosis. Our data provide direct, in vivo and in vitro evidence that the majority of type B lamins remain connected to nuclear membrane 'receptors' during mitosis. The implications of these findings in nuclear envelope reassembly are discussed below. Images PMID:8168487

  20. Basic mechanics of laminated composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.

    1994-01-01

    The mechanics of laminated composite materials is presented in a clear manner with only essential derivations included. The constitutive equations in all of their forms are developed and then summarized in a separate section. The effects of hygrothermal effects are included. The prediction of the engineering constants for a laminate are derived. Strength of laminated composites is not covered.

  1. Fungal degradation of aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Shantha, T

    1999-01-01

    A number of fungal cultures were screened to select an organism suitable to be used in the detoxification of aflatoxin B1. They were co-cultured in Czapek-Dox-Casamino acid medium with aflatoxin B1 producing Aspergillus flavus. Several fungal cultures were found to prevent synthesis of aflatoxin B1 in liquid culture medium. Among these Phoma sp., Mucor sp., Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma sp. 639, Rhizopus sp. 663, Rhizopus sp. 710, Rhizopus sp. 668, Alternaria sp. and some strains belonging to the Sporotrichum group (ADA IV B14(a), ADA SF VI BF (9), strain 720) could inhibit aflatoxin synthesis by > or =90%. A few fungi, namely ADA IV B1, ADA F1, ADA F8, also belonging to the Sporotrichum group, were less efficient than the Phoma sp. The Cladosporium sp. and A. terreus sp. were by far the least efficient, registering <10% inhibition. The cultures which prevent aflatoxin biosynthesis are also capable of degrading the preformed toxin. Among these, Phoma sp. was the most efficient destroying about 99% of aflatoxin B1. The cell free extract of Phoma sp. destroyed nearly 50 microg aflatoxin B1 100 ml(-1) culture medium (90% of the added toxin), and this was more effective than its own culture filtrate over 5 days incubation at 28+/-2 degrees C. The degradation was gradual: 35% at 24 h, 58% at 48 h, 65% at 72 h, 85% at 96 h and 90% at 120 h. The possibility of a heat stable enzymatic activity in the cell free extract of Phoma is proposed. PMID:10945479

  2. Direct deposit laminate nanocomposites with enhanced propellent properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangyu; Guerieri, Philip; Zhou, Wenbo; Huang, Chuan; Zachariah, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    One of the challenges in the use of energetic nanoparticles within a polymer matrix for propellant applications is obtaining high particle loading (high energy density) while maintaining mechanical integrity and reactivity. In this study, we explore a new strategy that utilizes laminate structures. Here, a laminate of alternating layers of aluminum nanoparticle (Al-NPs)/copper oxide nanoparticle (CuO-NPs) thermites in a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) reactive binder, with a spacer layer of PVDF was fabricated by a electrospray layer-by-layer deposition method. The deposited layers containing up to 60 wt % Al-NPs/CuO-NPs thermite are found to be uniform and mechanically flexible. Both the reactive and mechanical properties of laminate significantly outperformed the single-layer structure with the same material composition. These results suggest that deploying a multilayer laminate structure enables the incorporation of high loadings of energetic materials and, in some cases, enhances the reactive properties over the corresponding homogeneous structure. These results imply that an additive manufacturing approach may yield significant advantages in developing a tailored architecture for advanced propulsion systems. PMID:25815706

  3. Equine leukocyte antigens: relationships with sarcoid tumors and laminitis in two pure breeds.

    PubMed

    Meredith, D; Elser, A H; Wolf, B; Soma, L R; Donawick, W J; Lazary, S

    1986-01-01

    Frequencies of equine leukocyte antigen distribution were determined by complement-mediated cytotoxicity testing among populations of Thoroughbred and Standardbred horses, including animals affected with equine sarcoid and laminitis. A highly significant association is described between the presence or history of sarcoid lesions in Thoroughbreds and the expression of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-encoded antigens, W3 and B1. No association was found between antigenic expression frequencies and laminitis in either breed. These findings suggest that a strong relationship exists between the equine MHC and a predisposition to sarcoid. PMID:3699852

  4. Multilayer printed wiring board lamination

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, J.W.

    1980-06-01

    The relationship of delamination resistance of multilayer PWBs made from GF material to manufacturing process variables was investigated. A unique quantitative test method developed during this project shows that delamination resistance is highly sensitive to material conditioning, to innerlayer surface treatment, and to post-lamination storage conditions, but is relatively insensitive to cure cycle variations.

  5. Steady state response of unsymmetrically laminated plates

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, Kenji; Kawashima, Katsuya; Sakata, Toshiyuki

    1995-11-01

    A numerical approach for analyzing the forced vibration problem of a symmetrically laminated FRP (fiber reinforced plastic) composite plate was proposed by the authors. In the present paper, this approach is modified for application to an unsymmetrically laminated FRP composite plate. Numerical calculations are carried out for the clamped antisymmetrically laminated rectangular and elliptical plates which are a kind of unsymmetrically laminated plate. Then,, the effects of the lamina material and the fiber orientation angle on the steady state response are discussed. Furthermore, it is investigated that what structural damping factor is most influenced on the steady state response of an antisymmetrically laminated plate.

  6. Vacuum multilayer lamination of printed wiring boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkus, J. W.

    1992-11-01

    This experiment investigates vacuum multilayer lamination of rigid/flex, epoxy glass, polyimide glass, and polyimide quartz printed wiring boards. The effectiveness of the vacuum in removing entrapped air during the lamination cycle is demonstrated. The results of the experiment have also shown that vacuum lamination of epoxy glass multilayers improves the delamination resistance. Thus, epoxy glass multilayers that have been vacuum laminated will be able to withstand soldering temperatures longer without delaminating. Also, the experiment shows that vacuum multilayer lamination does not significantly change thickness, layer-to-layer registration, glass transition temperature, dielectric spacing between conductors, electrical resistance following thermal shock test, and other critical printed wiring board properties.

  7. 45 CFR 5b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.1 Definitions. As... the Department of Health and Human Services. (c) Department means the Department of Health and Human... records when used in connection with the term “system of records.” (g) Notification means communication...

  8. Microstress prediction in composite laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutapea, Parsaoran

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a macroscopic theory, which can provide the connection between macromechanics and micromechanics in characterizing the micro-stress of composite laminates near edges and holes. The micropolar theory, a class of higher-order elasticity theory, of composite laminate mechanics is implemented in a well-known Pipes-Pagano free edge boundary problem. The micropolar homogenization method to determine the micropolar anisotropic effective elastic moduli is presented. A displacement-based finite element method based on micropolar theory in anisotropic solids is developed in analyzing composite laminates. The effects of fiber volume fraction and cell size on the normal stress along the artificial interface of the composite laminate are also investigated. The stress response based on micropolar theory is compared with those deduced from the micromechanics and classical elasticity theory. Special attention of the investigation focuses on the stress fields near the free edge where the high macrostress gradient occurs. The normal stresses along the artificial interface and especially, the microstress along the fiber/matrix interface on the critical cell near the free edge where the high macrostress gradient detected are the focus of this investigation. These microstresses are expected to dominate the failure initiation process in composite laminate. The implementation of micropolar analysis on the prediction of microstress of the critical cell near the free edge is found to be in very good agreement with "exact" microstress solutions. It is demonstrated that the micropolar theory is able to capture the microstress correctly from the homogenized solutions.

  9. B1 bradykinin receptors and sensory neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, C. L.; Naeem, S.; Phagoo, S. B.; Campbell, E. A.; Urban, L.; Burgess, G. M.

    1996-01-01

    1. The location of the B1 bradykinin receptors involved in inflammatory hyperalgesia was investigated. 2. No specific binding of the B1 bradykinin receptor ligand [3H]-des-Arg10-kallidin was detected in primary cultures of rat dorsal root ganglion neurones, even after treatment with interleukin-1 beta (100 iu ml-1). 3. In dorsal root ganglion neurones, activation of B2 bradykinin receptors stimulated polyphosphoinositidase C. In contrast, B1 bradykinin receptor agonists (des-Arg9-bradykinin up to 10 microM and des-Arg10-kallidin up to 1 microM) failed to activate polyphosphoinositidase C, even in neurones that had been treated with interleukin-1 beta (100 iu ml-1), prostaglandin E2 (1 microM) or prostaglandin I2 (1 microM). 4. Dorsal root ganglion neurones removed from rats (both neonatal and 14 days old) that had been pretreated with inflammatory mediators (Freund's complete adjuvant, or carrageenan) failed to respond to B1 bradykinin receptor selective agonists (des-Arg9-bradykinin up to 10 microM and des-Arg10-kallidin up to 1 microM). 5. Bradykinin (25 nM to 300 nM) evoked ventral root responses when applied to peripheral receptive fields or central terminals of primary afferents in the neonatal rat spinal cord and tail preparation. In contrast, des-Arg9-bradykinin (50 nM to 500 nM) failed to evoke ventral root depolarizations in either control rats or in animals that developed inflammation following ultraviolet irradiation of the tail skin. 6. The results of the present study imply that the B1 bradykinin receptors that contribute to hypersensitivity in models of persistent inflammatory hyperalgesia are located on cells other than sensory neurones where they may be responsible for releasing mediators that sensitize or activate the nociceptors. PMID:8832074

  10. B-1 Cell Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Randall S

    2015-01-01

    Coelomic cavity–derived B-1 and splenic marginal zone (MZ) B lymphocytes play principal roles in frontline host protection at homeostasis and during primary humoral immune responses. Although they share many features that enable rapid and broad-based defense against pathogens, these innate-like subsets have disparate B cell receptor (BCR) signaling features. Members of the Fc receptor–like (FCRL) family are preferentially expressed by B cells and possess tyrosine-based immunoregulatory function. An unusual characteristic of many of these cell surface proteins is the presence of both inhibitory (ITIM) and activating (ITAM-like) motifs in their cytoplasmic tails. In mice, FCRL5 is a discrete marker of splenic MZ and peritoneal B-1 B cells and has both ITIM and ITAM-like sequences. Recent work explored its signaling properties and identified that FCRL5 differentially influences innate-like BCR function. Closer scrutiny of these differences disclosed the ability of FCRL5 to counter-regulate BCR activation by recruiting SHP-1 and Lyn to its cytoplasmic motifs. Furthermore, the disparity in FCRL5 regulation between MZ and B-1 B cells correlated with relative intracellular concentrations of SHP-1. These findings validate and extend our understanding of the unique signaling features in innate-like B cells and provide new insight into the complexity of FCRL modulation. PMID:25964091

  11. Lamin in inflammation and aging.

    PubMed

    Tran, Joseph R; Chen, Haiyang; Zheng, Xiaobin; Zheng, Yixian

    2016-06-01

    Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of tissue function and an increased susceptibility to injury and disease. Many age-associated pathologies manifest an inflammatory component, and this has led to the speculation that aging is at least in part caused by some form of inflammation. However, whether or not inflammation is truly a cause of aging, or is a consequence of the aging process is unknown. Recent work using Drosophila has uncovered a mechanism where the progressive loss of lamin-B in the fat body upon aging triggers systemic inflammation. This inflammatory response perturbs the local immune response of the neighboring gut tissue and leads to hyperplasia. Here, we will discuss the literature connecting lamins to aging and inflammation. PMID:27023494

  12. Specific contribution of lamin A and lamin C in the development of laminopathies

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvius, Nicolas Hathaway, Andrea; Boudreau, Emilie; Gupta, Pallavi; Labib, Sarah; Bolongo, Pierrette M.; Rippstein, Peter; McBride, Heidi; Bilinska, Zofia T.; Tesson, Frederique

    2008-08-01

    Mutations in the lamin A/C gene are involved in multiple human disorders for which the pathophysiological mechanisms are partially understood. Conflicting results prevail regarding the organization of lamin A and C mutants within the nuclear envelope (NE) and on the interactions of each lamin to its counterpart. We over-expressed various lamin A and C mutants both independently and together in COS7 cells. When expressed alone, lamin A with cardiac/muscular disorder mutations forms abnormal aggregates inside the NE and not inside the nucleoplasm. Conversely, the equivalent lamin C organizes as intranucleoplasmic aggregates that never connect to the NE as opposed to wild type lamin C. Interestingly, the lamin C molecules present within these aggregates exhibit an abnormal increased mobility. When co-expressed, the complex formed by lamin A/C aggregates in the NE. Lamin A and C mutants for lipodystrophy behave similarly to the wild type. These findings reveal that lamins A and C may be differentially affected depending on the mutation. This results in multiple possible physiological consequences which likely contribute in the phenotypic variability of laminopathies. The inability of lamin C mutants to join the nuclear rim in the absence of lamin A is a potential pathophysiological mechanism for laminopathies.

  13. Postbuckling of laminated anisotropic panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffrey, Glenda L.

    1987-01-01

    A two-part study of the buckling and postbuckling of laminated anisotropic plates with bending-extensional coupling is presented. The first part involves the development and application of a modified Rayleigh-Ritz analysis technique. Modifications made to the classical technique can be grouped into three areas. First, known symmetries of anisotropic panels are exploited in the selection of approximation functions. Second, a reduced basis technique based on these same symmetries is applied in the linear range. Finally, geometric boundary conditions are enforced via an exterior penalty function approach, rather than relying on choice of approximation functions to satisfy these boundary conditions. Numerical results are presented for both the linear and nonlinear range, with additional studies made to determine the effect of variation in penalty parameter and number of basis vectors. In the second part, six panels possessing anisotropy and bending-extensional coupling are tested. Detailed comparisons are made between experiment and finite element results in order to gain insight into the postbuckling and failure characteristics of such panels. The panels are constructed using two different lamination sequences, and panels with three different aspect ratios were constructed for each lamination sequence.

  14. Laminate delamination due to thermal gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, J.W.; Lu, T.J.

    1995-10-01

    Flaw-induced delamination of orthotropic laminates subject to through-thickness temperature gradients is analyzed. A crack-like flaw impedes heat flow through the laminate, producing thermal stresses and crack tip stress intensities. The focus is on delamination cracks which propagate under steady-state conditions. The steady-state analysis becomes accurate for a crack whose length is about one laminate thickness. Moreover, the analysis provides realistic fail-safe criteria for excluding delamination.

  15. B-1B excels in conventional role

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, W.B.

    1992-07-01

    A report is presented of an observational flight performed in a USAF B-1B to better understand the operational aspects of the aircraft's new conventional bombing mission as an integral element of a multiaircraft tactical strike package. The basic flight plan consisted of a standard takeoff and climb, cruising to the training area at 22,000 ft, descending for a 400 ft low-level run, making two simulated bomb drops, and climbing back to 25,000 ft for the return to base. Attention is given the new/enhanced avionics, the ALQ-161 defensive electronic warfare system and ripple-release Mk. 82 bombing procedures.

  16. Lamins at the crossroads of mechanosignaling

    PubMed Central

    Osmanagic-Myers, Selma; Dechat, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The intermediate filament proteins, A- and B-type lamins, form the nuclear lamina scaffold adjacent to the inner nuclear membrane. B-type lamins confer elasticity, while A-type lamins lend viscosity and stiffness to nuclei. Lamins also contribute to chromatin regulation and various signaling pathways affecting gene expression. The mechanical roles of lamins and their functions in gene regulation are often viewed as independent activities, but recent findings suggest a highly cross-linked and interdependent regulation of these different functions, particularly in mechanosignaling. In this newly emerging concept, lamins act as a “mechanostat” that senses forces from outside and responds to tension by reinforcing the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix. A-type lamins, emerin, and the linker of the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex directly transmit forces from the extracellular matrix into the nucleus. These mechanical forces lead to changes in the molecular structure, modification, and assembly state of A-type lamins. This in turn activates a tension-induced “inside-out signaling” through which the nucleus feeds back to the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix to balance outside and inside forces. These functions regulate differentiation and may be impaired in lamin-linked diseases, leading to cellular phenotypes, particularly in mechanical load-bearing tissues. PMID:25644599

  17. Geometrically nonlinear analysis of laminated elastic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, J. N.

    1984-01-01

    Laminated composite plates and shells that can be used to model automobile bodies, aircraft wings and fuselages, and pressure vessels among many other were analyzed. The finite element method, a numerical technique for engineering analysis of structures, is used to model the geometry and approximate the solution. Various alternative formulations for analyzing laminated plates and shells are developed and their finite element models are tested for accuracy and economy in computation. These include the shear deformation laminate theory and degenerated 3-D elasticity theory for laminates.

  18. Electrical characteristics of SrTiO3/Al2O3 laminated film capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yong; Yao, Manwen; Chen, Jianwen; Xu, Kaien; Yao, Xi

    2016-07-01

    The electrical characteristics of SrTiO3/Al2O3 (160 nm up/90 nm down) laminated film capacitors using the sol-gel process have been investigated. SrTiO3 is a promising and extensively studied high-K dielectric material, but its leakage current property is poor. SrTiO3/Al2O3 laminated films can effectively suppress the demerits of pure SrTiO3 films under low electric field, but the leakage current value reaches to 0.1 A/cm2 at higher electric field (>160 MV/m). In this study, a new approach was applied to reduce the leakage current and improve the dielectric strength of SrTiO3/Al2O3 laminated films. Compared to laminated films with Au top electrodes, dielectric strength of laminated films with Al top electrodes improves from 205 MV/m to 322 MV/m, simultaneously the leakage current maintains the same order of magnitude (10-4 A/cm2) until the breakdown occurs. The above electrical characteristics are attributed to the anodic oxidation reaction in origin, which can repair the defects of laminated films at higher electric field. The anodic oxidation reactions have been confirmed by the corresponding XPS measurement and the cross sectional HRTEM analysis. This work provides a new approach to fabricate dielectrics with high dielectric strength and low leakage current.

  19. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules...

  20. Phylogeography of E1b1b1b-M81 haplogroup and analysis of its subclades in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Reguig, Ahmed; Harich, Nourdin; Barakat, Abdelhamid; Rouba, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyzed 295 unrelated Berber-speaking men from northern, central, and southern Morocco to characterize frequency of the E1b1b1b-M81 haplogroup and to refine the phylogeny of its subclades: E1b1b1b1-M107, E1b1b1b2-M183, and E1b1b1b2a-M165. For this purpose, we typed four biallelic polymorphisms: M81, M107, M183, and M165. A large majority of the Berber-speaking male lineages belonged to the Y-chromosomal E1b1b1b-M81 haplogroup. The frequency ranged from 79.1% to 98.5% in all localities sampled. E1b1b1b2-M183 was the most dominant subclade in our samples, ranging from 65.1% to 83.1%. In contrast, the E1b1b1b1-M107 and E1b1b1b2a-M165 subclades were not found in our samples. Our results suggest a predominance of the E1b1b1b-M81 haplogroup among Moroccan Berber-speaking males with a decreasing gradient from south to north. The most prevalent subclade in this haplogroup was E1b1b1b2-M183, for which diffferences among these three groups were statistically significant between central and southern groups. PMID:25397701

  1. Symmetries in laminated composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.

    1976-01-01

    The different types of symmetry exhibited by laminated anisotropic fibrous composite plates are identified and contrasted with the symmetries of isotropic and homogeneous orthotropic plates. The effects of variations in the fiber orientation and the stacking sequence of the layers on the symmetries exhibited by composite plates are discussed. Both the linear and geometrically nonlinear responses of the plates are considered. A simple procedure is presented for exploiting the symmetries in the finite element analysis. Examples are given of square, skew and polygonal plates where use of symmetry concepts can significantly reduce the scope and cost of analysis.

  2. Impact damage in composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    1988-01-01

    Damage tolerance requirements have become an important consideration in the design and fabrication of composite structural components for modern aircraft. The ability of a component to contain a flaw of a given size without serious loss of its structural integrity is of prime concern. Composite laminates are particularly susceptible to damage caused by transverse impact loading. The ongoing program described is aimed at developing experimental and analytical methods that can be used to assess damage tolerance capabilities in composite structures subjected to impulsive loading. Some significant results of this work and the methodology used to obtain them are outlined.

  3. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Hanford 118-B-1 Burial Ground Treatability Study has been required by milestone change request {number_sign}M-15-93-04, dated September 30, 1993. The change request requires that a treatability test be conducted at the 100-B Area to obtain additional engineering information for remedial design of burial grounds receiving waste from 100 Area removal actions. This treatability study has two purposes: (1) to support development of the Proposed Plan (PP) and Record of Decision (ROD), which will identify the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and (2) to provide specific engineering information for receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test also will provide critical performance and cost information necessary for remedy evaluation in the detailed analysis of alternatives during preparation of the focused feasibility study (FFS). This treatability testing supports the following 100 Area alternatives: (1) excavation and disposal, and (2) excavation, sorting, (treatment), and disposal.

  4. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Frain, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    This treatability study has two purposes: to support development of the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and to provide specific engineering information for the design of burial grounds receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test will also provide performance and cost information necessary for detailed analysis of alternatives for burial ground remediation. Further details on the test requirements, milestones and data quality objectives are described in detail in the 118-B-1 Excavation Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-94-43). These working procedures are intended for use by field personnel to implement the requirements of the milestone. A copy of the detailed Test Plan will be kept on file at the on-site field support trailer, and will be available for review by field personnel.

  5. Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Six silicone modified resins were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 6-63%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 1,220 MPa and a modulus of 105 GPa. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 72 MPa.

  6. EphrinB1: novel microtubule associated protein whose expression affects taxane sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Colbert, Paul L.; Vermeer, Daniel W.; Wieking, Bryant G.; Lee, John H.; Vermeer, Paola D.

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are components of the cytoskeleton made up of polymerized alpha and beta tubulin dimers. MT structure and function must be maintained throughout the cell cycle to ensure proper execution of mitosis and cellular homeostasis. The protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTPN13, localizes to distinct compartments during mitosis and cytokinesis. We have previously demonstrated that the HPV16 E6 oncoprotein binds PTPN13 and leads to its degradation. Thus, we speculated that HPV infection may affect cellular proliferation by altering the localization of a PTPN13 phosphatase substrate, EphrinB1, during mitosis. Here we report that EphrinB1 co-localizes with MTs during all phases of the cell cycle. Specifically, a cleaved, unphosphorylated EphrinB1 fragment directly binds tubulin, while its phosphorylated form lacks MT binding capacity. These findings suggest that EphrinB1 is a novel microtubule associated protein (MAP). Importantly, we show that in the context of HPV16 E6 expression, EphrinB1 affects taxane response in vitro. We speculate that this reflects PTPN13's modulation of EphrinB1 phosphorylation and suggest that EphrinB1 is an important contributor to taxane sensitivity/resistance phenotypes in epithelial cancers. Thus, HPV infection or functional mutations of PTPN13 in non-viral cancers may predict taxane sensitivity. PMID:25436983

  7. Blocking farnesylation of the prelamin A variant in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome alters the distribution of A-type lamins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuexia; Ostlund, Cecilia; Choi, Jason C; Swayne, Theresa C; Gundersen, Gregg G; Worman, Howard J

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the lamin A/C gene that cause Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome lead to expression of a truncated, permanently farnesylated prelamin A variant called progerin. Blocking farnesylation leads to an improvement in the abnormal nuclear morphology observed in cells expressing progerin, which is associated with a re-localization of the variant protein from the nuclear envelope to the nuclear interior. We now show that a progerin construct that cannot be farnesylated is localized primarily in intranuclear foci and that its diffusional mobility is significantly greater than that of farnesylated progerin localized predominantly at the nuclear envelope. Expression of non-farnesylated progerin in transfected cells leads to a redistribution of lamin A and lamin C away from the nuclear envelope into intranuclear foci but does not significantly affect the localization of endogenous lamin B1 at nuclear envelope. There is a similar redistribution of lamin A and lamin C into intranuclear foci in transfected cells expressing progerin in which protein farnesylation is blocked by treatment with a protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor. Blocking farnesylation of progerin can lead to a redistribution of normal A-type lamins away from the inner nuclear envelope. This may have implications for using drugs that block protein prenylation to treat children with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. These findings also provide additional evidence that A-type and B-type lamins can form separate microdomains within the nucleus. PMID:22895092

  8. An absence of nuclear lamins in keratinocytes leads to ichthyosis, defective epidermal barrier function, and intrusion of nuclear membranes and endoplasmic reticulum into the nuclear chromatin.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hea-Jin; Tatar, Angelica; Tu, Yiping; Nobumori, Chika; Yang, Shao H; Goulbourne, Chris N; Herrmann, Harald; Fong, Loren G; Young, Stephen G

    2014-12-01

    B-type lamins (lamins B1 and B2) have been considered to be essential for many crucial functions in the cell nucleus (e.g., DNA replication and mitotic spindle formation). However, this view has been challenged by the observation that an absence of both B-type lamins in keratinocytes had no effect on cell proliferation or the development of skin and hair. The latter findings raised the possibility that the functions of B-type lamins are subserved by lamins A and C. To explore that idea, we created mice lacking all nuclear lamins in keratinocytes. Those mice developed ichthyosis and a skin barrier defect, which led to death from dehydration within a few days after birth. Microscopy of nuclear-lamin-deficient skin revealed hyperkeratosis and a disordered stratum corneum with an accumulation of neutral lipid droplets; however, BrdU incorporation into keratinocytes was normal. Skin grafting experiments confirmed the stratum corneum abnormalities and normal BrdU uptake. Interestingly, the absence of nuclear lamins in keratinocytes resulted in an interspersion of nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membranes with the chromatin. Thus, a key function of the nuclear lamina is to serve as a "fence" and prevent the incursion of cytoplasmic organelles into the nuclear chromatin. PMID:25312645

  9. An Absence of Nuclear Lamins in Keratinocytes Leads to Ichthyosis, Defective Epidermal Barrier Function, and Intrusion of Nuclear Membranes and Endoplasmic Reticulum into the Nuclear Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hea-Jin; Tatar, Angelica; Tu, Yiping; Nobumori, Chika; Yang, Shao H.; Goulbourne, Chris N.; Herrmann, Harald

    2014-01-01

    B-type lamins (lamins B1 and B2) have been considered to be essential for many crucial functions in the cell nucleus (e.g., DNA replication and mitotic spindle formation). However, this view has been challenged by the observation that an absence of both B-type lamins in keratinocytes had no effect on cell proliferation or the development of skin and hair. The latter findings raised the possibility that the functions of B-type lamins are subserved by lamins A and C. To explore that idea, we created mice lacking all nuclear lamins in keratinocytes. Those mice developed ichthyosis and a skin barrier defect, which led to death from dehydration within a few days after birth. Microscopy of nuclear-lamin-deficient skin revealed hyperkeratosis and a disordered stratum corneum with an accumulation of neutral lipid droplets; however, BrdU incorporation into keratinocytes was normal. Skin grafting experiments confirmed the stratum corneum abnormalities and normal BrdU uptake. Interestingly, the absence of nuclear lamins in keratinocytes resulted in an interspersion of nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membranes with the chromatin. Thus, a key function of the nuclear lamina is to serve as a “fence” and prevent the incursion of cytoplasmic organelles into the nuclear chromatin. PMID:25312645

  10. Prepatterning of differentiation-driven nuclear lamin A/C-associated chromatin domains by GlcNAcylated histone H2B.

    PubMed

    Rønningen, Torunn; Shah, Akshay; Oldenburg, Anja R; Vekterud, Kristin; Delbarre, Erwan; Moskaug, Jan Øivind; Collas, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic interactions of nuclear lamins with chromatin through lamin-associated domains (LADs) contribute to spatial arrangement of the genome. Here, we provide evidence for prepatterning of differentiation-driven formation of lamin A/C LADs by domains of histone H2B modified on serine 112 by the nutrient sensor O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (H2BS112GlcNAc), which we term GADs. We demonstrate a two-step process of lamin A/C LAD formation during in vitro adipogenesis, involving spreading of lamin A/C-chromatin interactions in the transition from progenitor cell proliferation to cell-cycle arrest, and genome-scale redistribution of these interactions through a process of LAD exchange within hours of adipogenic induction. Lamin A/C LADs are found both in active and repressive chromatin contexts that can be influenced by cell differentiation status. De novo formation of adipogenic lamin A/C LADs occurs nonrandomly on GADs, which consist of megabase-size intergenic and repressive chromatin domains. Accordingly, whereas predifferentiation lamin A/C LADs are gene-rich, post-differentiation LADs harbor repressive features reminiscent of lamin B1 LADs. Release of lamin A/C from genes directly involved in glycolysis concurs with their transcriptional up-regulation after adipogenic induction, and with downstream elevations in H2BS112GlcNAc levels and O-GlcNAc cycling. Our results unveil an epigenetic prepatterning of adipogenic LADs by GADs, suggesting a coupling of developmentally regulated lamin A/C-genome interactions to a metabolically sensitive chromatin modification. PMID:26359231

  11. Universality of the frequency spectrum of laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmuel, Gal; Band, Ram

    2016-07-01

    We show that the frequency spectrum of two-component elastic laminates admits a universal structure, independent of the geometry of the periodic-cell and the specific physical properties. The compactness of the structure enables us to rigorously derive the maximal width, the expected width, and the density of the band-gaps - ranges of frequencies at which waves cannot propagate. In particular, we find that the density of these band-gaps is a universal property of classes of laminates. Rules for tailoring laminates according to desired spectrum properties thereby follow. We show that the frequency spectrum of various finitely deformed laminates are also endowed with the same compact structure. Finally, we explain how our results generalize for laminates with an arbitrary number of components, based on the form of their dispersion relation.

  12. Wettability of graphene-laminated micropillar structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bong, Jihye; Seo, Keumyoung; Park, Ji-Hoon; Ahn, Joung Real; Ju, Sanghyun

    2014-12-01

    The wetting control of graphene is of great interest for electronic, mechanical, architectural, and bionic applications. In this study, the wettability of graphene-laminated micropillar structures was manipulated by changing the height of graphene-laminated structures and employing the trichlorosilane (HDF-S)-based self-assembly monolayer. Graphene-laminated micropillar structures with HDF-S exhibited higher hydrophobicity (contact angle of 129.5°) than pristine graphene thin film (78.8°), pristine graphene-laminated micropillar structures (97.5°), and HDF-S self-assembled graphene thin film (98.5°). Wetting states of the graphene-laminated micropillar structure with HDF-S was also examined by using a urea solution, which flowed across the surface without leaving any residues.

  13. Wettability of graphene-laminated micropillar structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bong, Jihye; Seo, Keumyoung; Ju, Sanghyun E-mail: shju@kgu.ac.kr; Park, Ji-Hoon; Ahn, Joung Real E-mail: shju@kgu.ac.kr

    2014-12-21

    The wetting control of graphene is of great interest for electronic, mechanical, architectural, and bionic applications. In this study, the wettability of graphene-laminated micropillar structures was manipulated by changing the height of graphene-laminated structures and employing the trichlorosilane (HDF-S)-based self-assembly monolayer. Graphene-laminated micropillar structures with HDF-S exhibited higher hydrophobicity (contact angle of 129.5°) than pristine graphene thin film (78.8°), pristine graphene-laminated micropillar structures (97.5°), and HDF-S self-assembled graphene thin film (98.5°). Wetting states of the graphene-laminated micropillar structure with HDF-S was also examined by using a urea solution, which flowed across the surface without leaving any residues.

  14. Stationary turbine component with laminated skin

    DOEpatents

    James, Allister W.

    2012-08-14

    A stationary turbine engine component, such as a turbine vane, includes a internal spar and an external skin. The internal spar is made of a plurality of spar laminates, and the external skin is made of a plurality of skin laminates. The plurality of skin laminates interlockingly engage the plurality of spar laminates such that the external skin is located and held in place. This arrangement allows alternative high temperature materials to be used on turbine engine components in areas where their properties are needed without having to make the entire component out of such material. Thus, the manufacturing difficulties associated with making an entire component of such a material and the attendant high costs are avoided. The skin laminates can be made of advanced generation single crystal superalloys, intermetallics and refractory alloys.

  15. In vivo Metabolism of Hydrolyzed Fumonisin B1 and Fumonisin B1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the most prevalent fumonisin mycotoxin found in corn and corn-based foods. It inhibits ceramide synthase, disrupts sphingolipid metabolism and function, is toxic to animals, causes cancer in rodents, and induces neural tube defects in some mouse strains. Its human health effect...

  16. The truncated prelamin A in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome alters segregation of A-type and B-type lamin homopolymers.

    PubMed

    Delbarre, Erwan; Tramier, Marc; Coppey-Moisan, Maïté; Gaillard, Claire; Courvalin, Jean-Claude; Buendia, Brigitte

    2006-04-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a dominant autosomal premature aging syndrome caused by the expression of a truncated prelamin A designated progerin (Pgn). A-type and B-type lamins are intermediate filament proteins that polymerize to form the nuclear lamina network apposed to the inner nuclear membrane of vertebrate somatic cells. It is not known if in vivo both type of lamins assemble independently or co-assemble. The blebbing and disorganization of the nuclear envelope and adjacent heterochromatin in cells from patients with HGPS is a hallmark of the disease, and the ex vivo reversal of this phenotype is considered important for the development of therapeutic strategies. Here, we investigated the alterations in the lamina structure that may underlie the disorganization caused in nuclei by Pgn expression. We studied the polymerization of enhanced green fluorescent protein- and red fluorescent protein-tagged wild-type and mutated lamins in the nuclear envelope of living cells by measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) that occurs between the two fluorophores when tagged lamins interact. Using time domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy that allows a quantitative analysis of FRET signals, we show that wild-type lamins A and B1 polymerize in distinct homopolymers that further interact in the lamina. In contrast, expressed Pgn co-assembles with lamin B1 and lamin A to form a mixed heteropolymer in which A-type and B-type lamin segregation is lost. We propose that such structural lamina alterations may be part of the primary mechanisms leading to HGPS, possibly by impairing functions specific for each lamin type such as nuclear membrane biogenesis, signal transduction, nuclear compartmentalization and gene regulation. PMID:16481358

  17. Molecular epidemiology of coxsackievirus type B1.

    PubMed

    Abdelkhalek, Ichrak; Seghier, Mohamed; Yahia, Ahlem Ben; Touzi, Henda; Meddeb, Zina; Triki, Henda; Rezig, Dorra

    2015-11-01

    Coxsackievirus type B1 (CVB1) has emerged globally as the predominant enterovirus serotype and is associated with epidemics of meningitis and chronic diseases. In this report, the phylogeny of CVB1 was studied based on the VP1 sequences of 11 North African isolates and 81 published sequences. All CVB1 isolates segregated into four distinct genogroups and 10 genotypes. Most of the identified genotypes of circulating CVB1 strains appear to have a strict geographical specificity. The North African strains were of a single genotype and probably evolved distinctly. Using a relaxed molecular clock model and three different population models (constant population, exponential growth and Bayesian skyline demographic models) in coalescent analysis using the BEAST program, the substitution rate in CVB1 varied between 6.95 × 10(-3) and 7.37 × 10(-3) substitutions/site/year in the VP1 region. This study permits better identification of circulating CVB1, which has become one of the most predominant enterovirus serotypes in humans. PMID:26243282

  18. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) and dementia.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Gary E; Hirsch, Joseph A; Fonzetti, Pasquale; Jordan, Barry D; Cirio, Rosanna T; Elder, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    The earliest and perhaps best example of an interaction between nutrition and dementia is related to thiamine (vitamin B1). Throughout the last century, research showed that thiamine deficiency is associated with neurological problems, including cognitive deficits and encephalopathy. Multiple similarities exist between classical thiamine deficiency and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in that both are associated with cognitive deficits and reductions in brain glucose metabolism. Thiamine-dependent enzymes are critical components of glucose metabolism that are reduced in the brains of AD patients and by thiamine decline, and a decrease in their levels could account for the reduction in glucose metabolism. In preclinical models, reduced thiamine can drive AD-like abnormalities, including memory deficits, neuritic plaques, and hyperphosphorylation of tau. Furthermore, excess thiamine diminishes AD-like pathologies. In addition to dietary deficits, drugs or other manipulations that interfere with thiamine absorption can cause thiamine deficiency. Elucidating the reasons why the brains of AD patients are functionally thiamine deficient and determining the effects of thiamine restoration may provide critical information to help treat patients with AD. PMID:26971083

  19. Critical current of laminated and non-laminated BSCCO superconducting composite tape under bending strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubayashi, H.; Mukai, Y.; Arai, T.; Shin, J. K.; Ochiai, S.; Okuda, H.; Osamura, K.; Otto, A.; Malozemoff, A.

    2009-10-01

    It has been reported that, when the (Bi,Pb) 2Sr 2Ca 2Cu 3O x (hereafter noted as BSCCO)/Ag/Ag-alloy tape is laminated with stainless steel, the tensile strain tolerance of critical current is much improved. In this study, using the non-laminated and laminated BSCCO composite tapes fabricated at American Superconductor Corporation, the influences of lamination on the critical current and its distribution under bending strain were studied. The analysis of the measured variation of average critical current with bending strain based on the damage evolution model revealed that the laminated stainless steel acts to suppress the fracture of the BSCCO filaments. The experimentally observed high critical current retention of the laminated tape up to high bending strain was accounted for by the suppression of fracture of BSCCO filaments stated above and enhancement of the compressive residual strain in the filaments. The distributions of local critical current in non-laminated and laminated composite tape were described well by the three-parameter Weibull distribution function within the bending strain lower than 1.1%. The coefficient of variation of distribution of critical current of the laminated tape was similar to that of the non-laminated one under the same strain distribution in the core.

  20. Direct Composite Laminate Veneers: Three Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Korkut, Bora; Yanıkoğlu, Funda; Günday, Mahir

    2013-01-01

    Re-establishing a patient’s lost dental esthetic appearance is one of the most important topics for contemporary dentistry. New treatment materials and methods have been coming on the scene, day by day, in order to achieve such an aim. Most dentists prefer more conservative and aesthetic approaches, such as direct and indirect laminate veneer restorations, instead of full-ceramic crowns for anteriors where aesthetics is really important. Laminate veneers are restorations which are envisioned to correct existing abnormalities, esthetic deficiencies and discolo-rations. Laminate veneer restorations may be processed in two different ways: direct or indirect. Direct laminate veneers have no need to be prepared in the laboratory and are based on the principle of application of a composite material directly to the prepared tooth surface in the dental clinic. Indirect laminate veneers may be produced from composite materials or ceramics, which are cemented to the tooth with an adhesive resin. In this case report, direct composite laminate veneer technique used for three patients with esthetic problems related to fractures, discolorations and an old prolapsed restoration, is described and six-month follow-ups are discussed. As a conclusion, direct laminate veneer restorations may be a treatment option for patients with the esthetic problems of anterior teeth in cases similar to those reported here. PMID:23875090

  1. Indentation law for composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, S. H.

    1981-01-01

    Static indentation tests are described for glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy composite laminates with steel balls as the indentor. Beam specimens clamped at various spans were used for the tests. Loading, unloading, and reloading data were obtained and fitted into power laws. Results show that: (1) contact behavior is not appreciably affected by the span; (2) loading and reloading curves seem to follow the 1.5 power law; and (3) unloading curves are described quite well by a 2.5 power law. In addition, values were determined for the critical indentation, alpha sub cr which can be used to predict permanent indentations in unloading. Since alpha sub cr only depends on composite material properties, only the loading and an unloading curve are needed to establish the complete loading-unloading-reloading behavior.

  2. Damage of hybrid composite laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haery, Haleh A.; Kim, Ho Sung

    2013-08-01

    Hybrid laminates consisting of woven glass fabric/epoxy composite plies and woven carbon fabric/epoxy composite plies are studied for fatigue damage and residual strength. A theoretical framework based on the systems approach is proposed as a guide to deal with the complexity involving uncertainties and a large number of variables in the hybrid composite system. A relative damage sensitivity factor expression was developed for quantitative comparisons between non-hybrid and hybrid composites. Hypotheses derived from the theoretical framework were tested and verified. The first hypothesis was that the difference between two different sets of properties produces shear stress in interface between carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CRP) and glass fibre reinforced plastics (GRP), and eventually become a source for CRP/GRP interfacial delamination or longitudinal cracking. The second hypothesis was that inter-fibre bundle delamination occurs more severely to CRP sub-system than GRP sub-system.

  3. Systematic identification of pathological lamin A interactors

    PubMed Central

    Dittmer, Travis A.; Sahni, Nidhi; Kubben, Nard; Hill, David E.; Vidal, Marc; Burgess, Rebecca C.; Roukos, Vassilis; Misteli, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Laminopathies are a collection of phenotypically diverse diseases that include muscular dystrophies, cardiomyopathies, lipodystrophies, and premature aging syndromes. Laminopathies are caused by >300 distinct mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes the nuclear intermediate filament proteins lamin A and C, two major architectural elements of the mammalian cell nucleus. The genotype–phenotype relationship and the basis for the pronounced tissue specificity of laminopathies are poorly understood. Here we seek to identify on a global scale lamin A–binding partners whose interaction is affected by disease-relevant LMNA mutations. In a screen of a human genome–wide ORFeome library, we identified and validated 337 lamin A–binding proteins. Testing them against 89 known lamin A disease mutations identified 50 disease-associated interactors. Association of progerin, the lamin A isoform responsible for the premature aging disorder Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome, with its partners was largely mediated by farnesylation. Mapping of the interaction sites on lamin A identified the immunoglobulin G (IgG)–like domain as an interaction hotspot and demonstrated that lamin A variants, which destabilize the Ig-like domain, affect protein–protein interactions more globally than mutations of surface residues. Analysis of a set of LMNA mutations in a single residue, which result in three phenotypically distinct diseases, identified disease-specific interactors. The results represent a systematic map of disease-relevant lamin A interactors and suggest loss of tissue-specific lamin A interactions as a mechanism for the tissue-specific appearance of laminopathic phenotypes. PMID:24623722

  4. Systematic identification of pathological lamin A interactors.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, Travis A; Sahni, Nidhi; Kubben, Nard; Hill, David E; Vidal, Marc; Burgess, Rebecca C; Roukos, Vassilis; Misteli, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Laminopathies are a collection of phenotypically diverse diseases that include muscular dystrophies, cardiomyopathies, lipodystrophies, and premature aging syndromes. Laminopathies are caused by >300 distinct mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes the nuclear intermediate filament proteins lamin A and C, two major architectural elements of the mammalian cell nucleus. The genotype-phenotype relationship and the basis for the pronounced tissue specificity of laminopathies are poorly understood. Here we seek to identify on a global scale lamin A-binding partners whose interaction is affected by disease-relevant LMNA mutations. In a screen of a human genome-wide ORFeome library, we identified and validated 337 lamin A-binding proteins. Testing them against 89 known lamin A disease mutations identified 50 disease-associated interactors. Association of progerin, the lamin A isoform responsible for the premature aging disorder Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, with its partners was largely mediated by farnesylation. Mapping of the interaction sites on lamin A identified the immunoglobulin G (IgG)-like domain as an interaction hotspot and demonstrated that lamin A variants, which destabilize the Ig-like domain, affect protein-protein interactions more globally than mutations of surface residues. Analysis of a set of LMNA mutations in a single residue, which result in three phenotypically distinct diseases, identified disease-specific interactors. The results represent a systematic map of disease-relevant lamin A interactors and suggest loss of tissue-specific lamin A interactions as a mechanism for the tissue-specific appearance of laminopathic phenotypes. PMID:24623722

  5. Flat laminated microbial mat communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, Jonathan; Stolz, John F.

    2009-10-01

    Flat laminated microbial mats are complex microbial ecosystems that inhabit a wide range of environments (e.g., caves, iron springs, thermal springs and pools, salt marshes, hypersaline ponds and lagoons, methane and petroleum seeps, sea mounts, deep sea vents, arctic dry valleys). Their community structure is defined by physical (e.g., light quantity and quality, temperature, density and pressure) and chemical (e.g., oxygen, oxidation/reduction potential, salinity, pH, available electron acceptors and donors, chemical species) parameters as well as species interactions. The main primary producers may be photoautotrophs (e.g., cyanobacteria, purple phototrophs, green phototrophs) or chemolithoautophs (e.g., colorless sulfur oxidizing bacteria). Anaerobic phototrophy may predominate in organic rich environments that support high rates of respiration. These communities are dynamic systems exhibiting both spatial and temporal heterogeneity. They are characterized by steep gradients with microenvironments on the submillimeter scale. Diel oscillations in the physical-chemical profile (e.g., oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, pH) and species distribution are typical for phototroph-dominated communities. Flat laminated microbial mats are often sites of robust biogeochemical cycling. In addition to well-established modes of metabolism for phototrophy (oxygenic and non-oxygenic), respiration (both aerobic and anaerobic), and fermentation, novel energetic pathways have been discovered (e.g., nitrate reduction couple to the oxidation of ammonia, sulfur, or arsenite). The application of culture-independent techniques (e.g., 16S rRNA clonal libraries, metagenomics), continue to expand our understanding of species composition and metabolic functions of these complex ecosystems.

  6. Saponins, Esculeosides B-1 and B-2, in Tomato Juice and Sapogenol, Esculeogenin B1.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Zhou, Jian-Rong; Urata, Jun; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Kotaro; El-Aasr, Mona; Ono, Masateru

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that commercial tomato juice packaged in 900 g plastic bottles contains rare, naturally occurring steroidal solanocapsine-type tomato glycosides in which the saponins consist of esculeosides B-1 (2) and B-2 (3) in 0.041% as major components lacking esculeoside A. We suggest that these saponins are derived from esculeoside A (1) when the juice in plastic bottles is prepared by treatment with boiling water, similar to the process used in preparing canned tomatoes. Herein, the obtained tomato saponins (2) and (3) provided sapogenols esculeogenin B1 (4) and B2 (5), respectively, by acid hydrolysis. The former was identical to esculeogenin B previously reported, and the latter was a new sapogenol characterized to be (5α,22S,23S,25S)-22,26-epimino-16β,23-epoxy-3β,23,27-trihydroxycholestane. PMID:26423043

  7. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) Every proposed...

  8. Severe laminitis in multiple zoo species.

    PubMed

    Wiedner, Ellen; Holland, Jeff; Trupkiewicz, John; Uzal, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    A 10-year record review from a zoological institution in the western USA identified four cases of severe laminitis resulting in rotation and protrusion of the third phalanx through the sole. Laminitis is reported in a Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi), a Sichuan takin (Budorcas taxicolor tibetana), a greater Malayan chevrotain (Tragulus napu) and a giant eland (Taurotragus derbianus). This is the first report of severe laminitis with pedal bone rotation and protrusion in multiple species of non-domestic hoofstock, and the first report of this disease in three of these species (takin, chevrotain, and giant eland). PMID:24730432

  9. Probabilistic methods for the calculation of laminate properties

    SciTech Connect

    Mcmanus, H.L. )

    1993-06-01

    A method for calculating the properties of advanced composite laminates, including their variations due to known variations in the properties of the individual plies and the laminate geometry, is presented. The method is useful for understanding scatter in the measured properties of composite laminates. This scatter is particularly important in the design of ultra-low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) laminates. Such laminates are designed with a theoretically zero CTE, but in practice have a distribution of nonzero CTEs. Information useful for designing ultra-low expansion laminates is discussed. A practical limit on how close to zero the CTE of a laminate can be assumed to be is found. 10 refs.

  10. Impaired cortical neurogenesis in plexin-B1 and -B2 double deletion mutant.

    PubMed

    Daviaud, Nicolas; Chen, Karen; Huang, Yong; Friedel, Roland H; Zou, Hongyan

    2016-08-01

    Mammalian cortical expansion is tightly controlled by fine-tuning of proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors in a region-specific manner. How extrinsic cues interface with cell-intrinsic programs to balance proliferative versus neurogenic decisions remains an unsolved question. We examined the function of Semaphorin receptors Plexin-B1 and -B2 in corticogenesis by generating double mutants, whereby Plexin-B2 was conditionally ablated in the developing brain in a Plexin-B1 null mutant background. Absence of both Plexin-Bs resulted in cortical thinning, particularly in the caudomedial cortex. Plexin-B1/B2 double, but not single, mutants exhibited a reduced neural progenitor pool, attributable to decreased proliferation and an altered division mode favoring cell cycle exit. This resulted in deficient production of neurons throughout the neurogenic period, proportionally affecting all cortical laminae. Consistent with the in vivo data, cultured neural progenitors lacking both Plexin-B1 and -B2 displayed decreased proliferative capacity and increased spontaneous differentiation. Our study therefore defines a novel function of Plexin-B1 and -B2 in transmitting extrinsic signals to maintain proliferative and undifferentiated states of neural progenitors. As single mutants displayed no apparent cortical defects, we conclude that Plexin-B1 and -B2 play redundant or compensatory roles during forebrain development to ensure proper neuronal production and neocortical expansion. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 882-899, 2016. PMID:26579598

  11. 26 CFR 1.7702B-1 - Consumer protection provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consumer protection provisions. 1.7702B-1 Section 1.7702B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7702B-1 Consumer protection provisions. (a) In general. Under...

  12. 49 CFR 178.33b-1 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance. 178.33b-1 Section 178.33b-1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Specifications for Inside Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-1 Compliance. (a) Required in all details. (b)...

  13. 32 CFR 806b.1 - Summary of revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Summary of revisions. 806b.1 Section 806b.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Overview of the Privacy Act Program § 806b.1 Summary of revisions. This part moves...

  14. 26 CFR 1.367(b)-1 - Other transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other transfers. 1.367(b)-1 Section 1.367(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.367(b)-1 Other transfers. (a) Scope. The regulations promulgated under section 367(b) (the section...

  15. 26 CFR 1.267(b)-1 - Relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Relationships. 1.267(b)-1 Section 1.267(b)-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.267(b)-1 Relationships. (a) In general. (1) The persons... partnership separately. Therefore, if the other person and a partner are within any one of the...

  16. 26 CFR 1.267(b)-1 - Relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationships. 1.267(b)-1 Section 1.267(b)-1...) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.267(b)-1 Relationships. (a) In general. (1) The persons referred to... partnership separately. Therefore, if the other person and a partner are within any one of the...

  17. 26 CFR 1.7702B-1 - Consumer protection provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consumer protection provisions. 1.7702B-1 Section 1.7702B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7702B-1 Consumer...

  18. 26 CFR 1.168(b)-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.168(b)-1 Section 1.168(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168(b)-1 Definitions. (a) Definitions. For purposes of section...

  19. 49 CFR 178.33b-1 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compliance. 178.33b-1 Section 178.33b-1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-1 Compliance. (a) Required in all details. (b)...

  20. 49 CFR 178.33b-1 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compliance. 178.33b-1 Section 178.33b-1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-1 Compliance. (a) Required in all details. (b)...

  1. 49 CFR 178.33b-1 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compliance. 178.33b-1 Section 178.33b-1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-1 Compliance. (a) Required in all details. (b)...

  2. 49 CFR 178.33b-1 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compliance. 178.33b-1 Section 178.33b-1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-1 Compliance. (a) Required in all details. (b)...

  3. 76 FR 60471 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section... Proposed Issuance of Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act,...

  4. 78 FR 26324 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of... No. 13-20 Notice of Proposed Issuance of Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the...

  5. 77 FR 42709 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section... Proposed Issuance of Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act,...

  6. 76 FR 60455 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section... Proposed Issuance of Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act,...

  7. 12 CFR 261b.1 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis and scope. 261b.1 Section 261b.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RULES REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 261b.1 Basis and scope. This part is issued by the Board...

  8. 26 CFR 53.4942(b)-1 - Operating foundations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Operating foundations. 53.4942(b)-1 Section 53.4942(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Failure To Distribute Income § 53.4942(b)-1 Operating foundations....

  9. 26 CFR 53.4942(b)-1 - Operating foundations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Operating foundations. 53.4942(b)-1 Section 53.4942(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Failure To Distribute Income § 53.4942(b)-1 Operating foundations....

  10. 26 CFR 31.6302(b)-1 - Method of collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Method of collection. 31.6302(b)-1 Section 31.6302(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT... Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6302(b)-1 Method of collection. For provisions relating to collection by...

  11. 26 CFR 54.4980B-1 - COBRA in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false COBRA in general. 54.4980B-1 Section 54.4980B-1... TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-1 COBRA in general. The COBRA continuation coverage... requirements were added to section 162 by the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985...

  12. 26 CFR 54.4980B-1 - COBRA in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false COBRA in general. 54.4980B-1 Section 54.4980B-1... TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-1 COBRA in general. The COBRA continuation coverage... requirements were added to section 162 by the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985...

  13. 26 CFR 54.4980B-1 - COBRA in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false COBRA in general. 54.4980B-1 Section 54.4980B-1... TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-1 COBRA in general. The COBRA continuation coverage... requirements were added to section 162 by the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1314(b)-1 - Method of adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Method of adjustment. 1.1314(b)-1 Section 1.1314(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Readjustment of Tax Between Years and Special Limitations § 1.1314(b)-1 Method...

  15. Initial Observations of Fruit Fly;s Flight with its b1 Motor Neuron Altered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. Jane; Melfi, James, Jr.

    2015-11-01

    Recently we have suggested that one of the fly's 17 steering muscles, the first basalar muscle (b1) is responsible for maintaining flight stability. To test this, we compare the flight behavior of normal flies with genetically modified flies whose motor neuron to the b1 muscle is silenced. We report our initial observation of the difference and similarity between these two lines supplied by Janelia Farm. We also discuss the basic question for quantifying flight, what makes a good flier? Partly supported by the Visiting Scientist program at HHMI-Janelia Farm.

  16. Fire-Resistant Hydrogel-Fabric Laminates: A Simple Concept That May Save Lives.

    PubMed

    Illeperuma, Widusha R K; Rothemund, Philipp; Suo, Zhigang; Vlassak, Joost J

    2016-01-27

    There is a large demand for fabrics that can survive high-temperature fires for an extended period of time, and protect the skin from burn injuries. Even though fire-resistant polymer fabrics are commercially available, many of these fabrics are expensive, decompose rapidly, and/or become very hot when exposed to high temperatures. We have developed a new class of fire-retarding materials by laminating a hydrogel and a fabric. The hydrogel contains around 90% water, which has a large heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization. When the laminate is exposed to fire, a large amount of energy is absorbed as water heats up and evaporates. The temperature of the hydrogel cannot exceed 100 °C until it is fully dehydrated. The fabric has a low thermal conductivity and maintains the temperature gradient between the hydrogel and the skin. The laminates are fabricated using a recently developed tough hydrogel to ensure integrity of the laminate during processing and use. A thermal model predicts the performance of the laminates and shows that they have excellent heat resistance in good agreement with experiments, making them viable candidates in life saving applications such as fire-resistant blankets or apparel. PMID:26716351

  17. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) Induces Lamellar Separation and Alters Sphingolipid Metabolism of In Vitro Cultured Hoof Explants

    PubMed Central

    Reisinger, Nicole; Dohnal, Ilse; Nagl, Veronika; Schaumberger, Simone; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Mayer, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important hoof diseases is laminitis. Yet, the pathology of laminitis is not fully understood. Different bacterial toxins, e.g. endotoxins or exotoxins, seem to play an important role. Additionally, ingestion of mycotoxins, toxic secondary metabolites of fungi, might contribute to the onset of laminitis. In this respect, fumonsins are of special interest since horses are regarded as species most susceptible to this group of mycotoxins. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) on primary isolated epidermal and dermal hoof cells, as well as on the lamellar tissue integrity and sphingolipid metabolism of hoof explants in vitro. There was no effect of FB1 at any concentration on dermal or epidermal cells. However, FB1 significantly reduced the separation force of explants after 24 h of incubation. The Sa/So ratio was significantly increased in supernatants of explants incubated with FB1 (2.5–10 µg/mL) after 24 h. Observed effects on Sa/So ratio were linked to significantly increased sphinganine concentrations. Our study showed that FB1 impairs the sphingolipid metabolism of explants and reduces lamellar integrity at non-cytotoxic concentrations. FB1 might, therefore, affect hoof health. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary to elucidate the effects of FB1 on the equine hoof in more detail. PMID:27023602

  18. Behaviour of Mechanically Laminated CLT Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuklík, P.; Velebil, L.

    2015-11-01

    Cross laminated timber (CLT) is one of the structural building systems based on the lamination of multiple layers, where each layer is oriented perpendicularly to each other. Recent requirements are placed to develop an alternative process based on the mechanical lamination of the layers, which is of particular interest to our research group at the University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings. The goal is to develop and verify the behaviour of mechanically laminated CLT wall panels exposed to shear stresses in the plane. The shear resistance of mechanically jointed CLT is ensured by connecting the layers by screws. The paper deals with the experimental analysis focused on the determination of the torsional stiffness and the slip modulus of crossing areas for different numbers of orthogonally connected layers. The results of the experiments were compared with the current analytical model.

  19. Method for fabricating laminated uranium composites

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, L.R.

    1983-08-03

    The present invention is directed to a process for fabricating laminated composites of uranium or uranium alloys and at least one other metal or alloy. The laminated composites are fabricated by forming a casting of the molten uranium with the other metal or alloy which is selectively positioned in the casting and then hot-rolling the casting into a laminated plate in or around which the casting components are metallurgically bonded to one another to form the composite. The process of the present invention provides strong metallurgical bonds between the laminate components primarily since the bond disrupting surface oxides on the uranium or uranium alloy float to the surface of the casting to effectively remove the oxides from the bonding surfaces of the components.

  20. Free edge effects in laminated composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herakovich, C. T.

    1989-01-01

    The fundamental mechanics of free-edge effects in laminated fiber-reinforced composites is examined, reviewing the results of recent experimental and analytical investigations. The derivation of the governing equations for the basic problem is outlined, including the equilibrium and mismatch conditions and the elasticity formulation, and experimental data on axial displacement and shear strain in angle-ply laminates are summarized. Numerical predictions of free-edge deformation and interlaminar and through-thickness stress distributions are presented for cross-ply, angle-ply, and quasi-isotropic laminates, and the mechanisms of edge damage and failure in angle-ply laminates are briefly characterized. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  1. Development of a laminate fatigue analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roderick, G. L.; Obrien, T. K.; Whitcomb, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    A fatigue analysis technique developed to predict damage growth in notched laminates is described. Features of the analysis include: criteria to relate matrix failure to cyclic stresses in and between plies; correlation of delamination growth with strain-release rate; and in-plane shear modulus change is related to cyclic shear stresses. A simplified finite element model is used to determine stresses in laminates that contain matrix damage. Failure criteria are integrated with the finite element model to form the fatigue analysis.

  2. Motor neurons in Drosophila flight control: could b1 be the one?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, Samuel; Shirangi, Troy; Cohen, Itai

    Similar to balancing a stick on one's fingertip, flapping flight is inherently unstable; maintaining stability is a delicate balancing act made possible only by near-constant, often-subtle corrective actions. For fruit flies, such corrective responses need not only be robust, but also fast: the Drosophila flight control reflex has a response latency time of ~5 ms, ranking it among the fastest reflexes in the animal kingdom. How is such rapid, robust control implemented physiologically? Here we present an analysis of a putatively crucial component of the Drosophila flight control circuit: the b1 motor neuron. Specifically, we apply mechanical perturbations to freely-flying Drosophila and analyze the differences in kinematics patterns between flies with manipulated and un-manipulated b1 motor neurons. Ultimately, we hope to identify the functional role of b1 in flight stabilization, with the aim of linking it to previously-proposed, reduced-order models for reflexive control.

  3. Effects of Aflatoxin B1 and Fumonisin B1 on Blood Biochemical Parameters in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Tessari, Eliana N. C.; Kobashigawa, Estela; Cardoso, Ana Lúcia S. P.; Ledoux, David R.; Rottinghaus, George E.; Oliveira, Carlos A. F.

    2010-01-01

    The individual and combined effects of dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) on liver pathology, serum levels of aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and plasma total protein (TP) of broilers were evaluated from 8 to 41 days of age. Dietary treatments included a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement with three levels of AFB1 (0, 50 and 200 μg AFB1/kg), and three levels of FB1 (0, 50 and 200 mg FB1/kg). At 33 days post feeding, with the exception of birds fed 50 mg FB1 only, concentrations of AST were higher (p < 0.05) in all other treatment groups when compared with controls. Plasma TP was lower (p < 0.05) at six days post feeding in groups fed 200 μg AFB1/kg alone or in combination with FB1. At day 33 days post feeding, with the exception of birds fed the highest combination of AFB1 and FB1 which had higher plasma TP than control birds, plasma TP of birds fed other dietary treatments were similar to controls. Broilers receiving the highest levels of AFB1 and FB1 had bile duct proliferation and trabecular disorder in liver samples. AFB1 singly or in combination with FB at the levels studied, caused liver damage and an increase in serum levels of AST. PMID:22069595

  4. Effects of aflatoxin B(1) and fumonisin B(1) on blood biochemical parameters in broilers.

    PubMed

    Tessari, Eliana N C; Kobashigawa, Estela; Cardoso, Ana Lúcia S P; Ledoux, David R; Rottinghaus, George E; Oliveira, Carlos A F

    2010-04-01

    The individual and combined effects of dietary aflatoxin B(1 )(AFB(1)) and fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) on liver pathology, serum levels of aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and plasma total protein (TP) of broilers were evaluated from 8 to 41 days of age. Dietary treatments included a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement with three levels of AFB(1 )(0, 50 and 200 μg AFB(1)/kg), and three levels of FB(1 )(0, 50 and 200 mg FB(1)/kg). At 33 days post feeding, with the exception of birds fed 50 mg FB(1 )only, concentrations of AST were higher (p < 0.05) in all other treatment groups when compared with controls. Plasma TP was lower (p < 0.05) at six days post feeding in groups fed 200 μg AFB(1)/kg alone or in combination with FB(1). At day 33 days post feeding, with the exception of birds fed the highest combination of AFB(1 )and FB(1 )which had higher plasma TP than control birds(, )plasma TP of birds fed other dietary treatments were similar to controls. Broilers receiving the highest levels of AFB(1) and FB(1) had bile duct proliferation and trabecular disorder in liver samples. AFB(1) singly or in combination with FB at the levels studied, caused liver damage and an increase in serum levels of AST. PMID:22069595

  5. B-1-cell subpopulations contribute differently to gut immunity.

    PubMed

    Roy, Bishnudeo; Agarwal, Shiwani; Brennecke, Anne-Margarete; Krey, Martina; Pabst, Oliver; Düber, Sandra; Weiss, Siegfried

    2013-08-01

    In mice, B-1 (B1a/B1b) cells are mainly located in the peritoneal cavity. B-1 cells are well known for their role in the early stages of Ab-mediated immune responses against pathogenic invasion as well as for the production of natural IgM antibodies. Although such B cells have been claimed to give rise to intestinal plasma cells producing IgA, a clear role of B-1 cells in IgA production in the gut-associated tissues is still not defined. Here, we employed the transgenic L2 mouse model characterized by the lack of B-2 cells and presence of B-1 cells as major B-cell subpopulation. The oligoclonality of the Ab repertoire in this mouse allowed us to take typical B1a cell VH sequences as indicators of the presence of IgM-producing B-1a cells in Peyer's patches as well as in lamina propria. However, amongst the IgAVH sequences recovered from the same tissues, none of the sequences showed B1a-cell specificity. Interestingly, all IgAVH sequences derived from the lamina propria of L2 mice displayed extensive numbers of nucleotide exchanges, indicating somatic hypermutation, and affinity maturation. This suggests that the contribution of natural unmutated IgA by B-1a cells to intestinal immunity is negligible. PMID:23677546

  6. [The interactions between natural products and OATP1B1].

    PubMed

    Shi, Mei-zhi; Liu, Yu; Bian, Jia-lin; Jin, Meng; Gui, Chun-shan

    2015-07-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) is an important liver-specific uptake transporter, which mediates transport of numerous endogenous substances and drugs from blood into hepatocytes. To identify and investigate potential modulators of OATP1B1 from natural products, the effect of 21 frequently used natural compounds and extracts on OATP1B1-mediated fluorescein methotrexate transport was studied by using Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing OATP1B1 (CHO-OATP1B1) in 96-well plates. This method could be used for the screening of large compound libraries. Our studies showed that some flavonoids (e.g., quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, chrysanthemum flavonoids and mulberrin) and triterpenoids (e.g., glycyrrhetinic acid and glycyrrhizic acid) were inhibitors of OATP1B1 with IC50 values less than 16 µmol · L(-1). The IC50 value of glycyrrhetinic acid on OATP1B1 was comparable to its blood concentration in clinics, indicating an OATPlB1-mediated drug-drug interaction could occur. Structure-activity relationship analysis showed that flavonoids had much higher inhibitory activity than their glycosides. Furthermore, the type and length of saccharides had a significant effect on their activity. In addition, we used OATP1B1 substrates fluvastatin and rosuvastatin as probe drugs to investigate the substrate-dependent effect of several natural compounds on the function of OATP1B1 in vitro. Our results demonstrated that the effect of these natural products on the function of OATPlB1 was substrate-dependent. In summary, this study would be conducive to predicting and avoiding potential OATP1B1-mediated drug-drug and drug-food interactions and thus provide the experimental basis and guidance for rational drug use. PMID:26552146

  7. 38 CFR 18b.1 - Scope of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scope of rules. 18b.1 Section 18b.1 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE UNDER TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 AND PART 18 OF THIS CHAPTER General Rules § 18b.1 Scope of rules. The rules...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6226(b)-1 - 5-percent group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see § 301.6226(b)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-percent group. 301.6226(b)-1 Section 301.6226... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6226(b)-1 5-percent group. (a) In...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6223(b)-1 - Notice group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see § 301.6223(b)-1T contained in 26 CFR... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice group. 301.6223(b)-1 Section 301.6223(b... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6223(b)-1 Notice group. (a) In...

  10. 26 CFR 301.6223(b)-1 - Notice group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see § 301.6223(b)-1T contained in 26 CFR... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice group. 301.6223(b)-1 Section 301.6223(b... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6223(b)-1 Notice group. (a) In...

  11. 26 CFR 301.6226(b)-1 - 5-percent group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see § 301.6226(b)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 5-percent group. 301.6226(b)-1 Section 301.6226... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6226(b)-1 5-percent group. (a) In...

  12. CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α (CCTα) and lamins alter nuclear membrane structure without affecting phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gehrig, Karsten; Ridgway, Neale D

    2011-06-01

    CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α (CCTα) is a nuclear enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the CDP-choline pathway for phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis. Lipid activation of CCTα results in its translocation to the nuclear envelope and expansion of an intranuclear membrane network termed the nucleoplasmic reticulum (NR) by a mechanism involving membrane deformation. Nuclear lamins are also required for stability and proliferation of the NR, but whether this unique structure, or the nuclear lamina in general, is required for PC synthesis is not known. To examine this relationship, the nuclear lamina was depleted by RNAi or disrupted by expression of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) mutant lamin A (progerin), and the effect on CCTα and choline metabolism was analyzed. siRNA-mediated silencing of lamin A/C or lamin B1 in CHO cells to diminish the NR had no effect on PC synthesis, while double knockdown non-specifically inhibited the pathway. Confirming this minor role in PC synthesis, only 10% of transiently overexpressed choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase was detected in the NR. In CHO cells, CCTα was nucleoplasmic and co-localized with GFP-progerin in nuclear folds and invaginations; however, HGPS fibroblasts displayed an abnormal distribution of CCTα in the cytoplasm and nuclear envelope that was accompanied by a 2-fold reduction in PC synthesis. In spite of its altered localization, choline-labeling experiments showed that CCT activity was unaffected, and inhibition of PC synthesis was traced to reduced activity of a hemicholinium-sensitive choline transporter. We conclude that CCTα and lamins specifically cooperate to form the NR, but the overall structure of the nuclear envelope has a minimal impact on CCT activity and PC synthesis. PMID:21504799

  13. New insights into heterogeneity of peritoneal B-1a cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongsheng; Lin, Jian-xin; Li, Peng; Skinner, Jeff; Leonard, Warren J; Morse, Herbert C

    2015-12-01

    Peritoneal B-1a cells are characterized by their expression of CD5 and enrichment for germline-encoded IgM B cell receptors. Early studies showing expression of a diverse array of VDJ sequences among purified B-1a cells provided a molecular basis for understanding the heterogeneity of the B-1a cell repertoire. Antigen-driven positive selection and the identification of B-1a specific progenitors suggest multiple origins of B-1a cells. The introduction of new markers such as PD-L2, CD25, CD73, and PC1 (plasma cell alloantigen 1, also known as ectonucleotide phosphodiesterase/pyrophosphatase 1) further helped to identify phenotypically and functionally distinct B-1a subsets. Among many B-1a subsets defined by these new markers, PC1 is unique in that it subdivides B-1a cells into PC1(hi) and PC1(lo) subpopulations with distinct functions, such as production of natural IgM and gut IgA, response to the pneumococcal antigen PPS-3, secretion of interleukin-10, and support for T helper 1 (TH 1) cell differentiation. RNA sequencing of these subsets revealed differential expression of genes involved in cellular movement and immune cell trafficking. We will discuss these new insights underlying the heterogeneous nature of the B-1a cell repertoire. PMID:25988856

  14. MAN1B1 Deficiency: An Unexpected CDG-II

    PubMed Central

    Millón, María B.; Race, Valérie; Sturiale, Luisa; Garozzo, Domenico; Mills, Philippa; Clayton, Peter; Asteggiano, Carla G.; Quelhas, Dulce; Cansu, Ali; Martins, Esmeralda; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Gonçalves-Rocha, Miguel; Topaloglu, Haluk; Jaeken, Jaak; Foulquier, François; Matthijs, Gert

    2013-01-01

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of rare metabolic diseases, due to impaired protein and lipid glycosylation. In the present study, exome sequencing was used to identify MAN1B1 as the culprit gene in an unsolved CDG-II patient. Subsequently, 6 additional cases with MAN1B1-CDG were found. All individuals presented slight facial dysmorphism, psychomotor retardation and truncal obesity. Generally, MAN1B1 is believed to be an ER resident alpha-1,2-mannosidase acting as a key factor in glycoprotein quality control by targeting misfolded proteins for ER-associated degradation (ERAD). However, recent studies indicated a Golgi localization of the endogenous MAN1B1, suggesting a more complex role for MAN1B1 in quality control. We were able to confirm that MAN1B1 is indeed localized to the Golgi complex instead of the ER. Furthermore, we observed an altered Golgi morphology in all patients' cells, with marked dilatation and fragmentation. We hypothesize that part of the phenotype is associated to this Golgi disruption. In conclusion, we linked mutations in MAN1B1 to a Golgi glycosylation disorder. Additionally, our results support the recent findings on MAN1B1 localization. However, more work is needed to pinpoint the exact function of MAN1B1 in glycoprotein quality control, and to understand the pathophysiology of its deficiency. PMID:24348268

  15. Mechanical Behavior of Fabric-Film Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Said, Magdi S.

    1999-01-01

    Inflatable structures are gaining wide support in planetary scientific missions as well as commercial applications. For such applications a new class of materials made of laminating thin homogenous films to lightweight fabrics are being considered us structura1 gas envelops. The emerging composite materials are a result of recent advances in the manufacturing cf 1ightweight, high strength fibers, fabrics and scrims. The lamination of these load-carrying members with the proper gas barrier film results in wide range of materials suitable for various loading and environmental conditions. Polyester - based woven fabrics laminated to thin homogeneus film of polyester (Maylar) is an example of this class. This fabric/ film laminate is being considered for the development a material suitable for building large gas envelopes for use in the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon Program (ULDB). Compared to commercial homogeneus films, the material provides relatively high strength to weight ratio as well as better resistance to crack and tear propagation. The purpose of this papers is to introduce the mechanical behavior of this class of multi-layers composite and to highlight some of the concerns observed during the characterization of these laminate composites.

  16. Lamination residual stresses in fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I. M.; Liber, T.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the magnitude of lamination residual stresses in angle-ply composites and to evaluate their effects on composite structural integrity. The materials investigated were boron/epoxy, boron/polyimide, graphite/low modulus epoxy, graphite/high modulus epoxy, graphite/polyimide and s-glass/epoxy. These materials were fully characterized. Static properties of laminates were also determined. Experimental techniques using embedded strain gages were developed and used to measure residual strains during curing. The extent of relaxation of lamination residual stresses was investigated. It was concluded that the degree of such relaxation is low. The behavior of angle-ply laminates subjected to thermal cycling, tensile load cycling, and combined thermal cycling with tensile load was investigated. In most cases these cycling programs did not have any measurable influence on residual strength and stiffness of the laminates. In the tensile load cycling tests, the graphite/polyimide shows the highest endurance with 10 million cycle runouts at loads up to 90 percent of the static strength.

  17. Evaluation of Behaviours of Laminated Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sable, L.; Japins, G.; Kalnins, K.

    2015-11-01

    Visual appearance of building facades and other load bearing structures, which now are part of modern architecture, is the reason why it is important to investigate in more detail the reliability of laminated glass for civil structures. Laminated glass in particular has become one of the trendy materials, for example Apple© stores have both load carrying capacity and transparent appearance. Glass has high mechanical strength and relatively medium density, however, the risk of sudden brittle failure like concrete or other ceramics determine relatively high conservatism in design practice of glass structures. This should be changed as consumer requirements evolve calling for a safe and reliable design methodology and corresponding building standards. A design methodology for glass and glass laminates should be urgently developed and included as a chapter in Eurocode. This paper presents initial experimental investigation of behaviour of simple glass sheets and laminated glass samples in 4-point bending test. The aim of the current research is to investigate laminated glass characteristic values and to verify the obtained experimental results with finite element method for glass and EVA material in line with future European Structural Design of Glass Components code.

  18. Loss of endophilin-B1 exacerbates Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Wang, David B; Kinoshita, Yoshito; Kinoshita, Chizuru; Uo, Takuma; Sopher, Bryce L; Cudaback, Eiron; Keene, C Dirk; Bilousova, Tina; Gylys, Karen; Case, Amanda; Jayadev, Suman; Wang, Hong-Gang; Garden, Gwenn A; Morrison, Richard S

    2015-07-01

    Endophilin-B1, also known as Bax-interacting factor 1 (Bif-1, and encoded by SH3GLB1), is a multifunctional protein involved in apoptosis, autophagy and mitochondrial function. We recently described a unique neuroprotective role for neuron-specific alternatively spliced isoforms of endophilin-B1. To examine whether endophilin-B1-mediated neuroprotection could be a novel therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease we used a double mutant amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 (APPswe/PSEN1dE9) mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and observed that expression of neuron-specific endophilin-B1 isoforms declined with disease progression. To determine if this reduction in endophilin-B1 has a functional role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, we crossed endophilin-B1(-/-) mice with APPswe/PSEN1dE9 mice. Deletion of endophilin-B1 accelerated disease onset and progression in 6-month-old APPswe/PSEN1dE9/endophilin-B1(-/-) mice, which showed more plaques, astrogliosis, synaptic degeneration, cognitive impairment and mortality than APPswe/PSEN1dE9 mice. In mouse primary cortical neuron cultures, overexpression of neuron-specific endophilin-B1 isoforms protected against amyloid-β-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, protein and mRNA levels of neuron-specific endophilin-B1 isoforms were also selectively decreased in the cerebral cortex and in the synaptic compartment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Flow sorting of synaptosomes from patients with Alzheimer's disease demonstrated a negative correlation between amyloid-β and endophilin-B1 levels. The importance of endophilin-B1 in neuronal function was further underscored by the development of synaptic degeneration and cognitive and motor impairment in endophilin-B1(-/-) mice by 12 months. Our findings suggest that endophilin-B1 is a key mediator of a feed-forward mechanism of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis where amyloid-β reduces neuron-specific endophilin-B1, which in turn enhances amyloid

  19. Maintaining Medicinal Plant Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For all plant genetic resources collections, including medicinal plant germplasm, maintaining the genetic integrity of material held ex situ is of major importance. This holds true for all intended end uses of the material whether it is as a source for crop improvement, medical research, as voucher...

  20. Maintaining Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... center but can also be done in nursing facilities, hospitals, or at home. Book a PFF Ambassador for your event. Call 844.TalkPFF > Life with PF About PF Treatment Options Clinical Trials Maintaining Your Health Find Medical Care Support Groups PFF ...

  1. Development of tough, moisture resistant laminating resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, R. A.; Harrison, E. S.

    1982-01-01

    Tough, moisture resistant laminating resins for employment with graphite fibers were developed. The new laminating resins exhibited cost, handleability and processing characteristics equivalent to 394K (250 F) curing epoxies. The laminating resins were based on bisphenol A dicyanate and monofunctional cyanates with hydrophobic substituents. These resins sorb only small quantities of moisture at equilibrium (0.5% or less) with minimal glass transition temperature depression and represent an improvement over epoxies which sorb around 2% moisture at equilibrium. Toughening was accomplished by the precipitation of small diameter particles of butadiene nitrile rubber throughout the resin matrix. The rubber domains act as microcrack termini and energy dissipation sites, allowing increased stress accommodation prior to catastrophic failure. A unique blend of amine terminated butadiene nitrile elastomer (MW 2,000) and a high nitrile content butadiene nitrile rubber yielded the desired resin morphology.

  2. Structural reliability analysis of laminated CMC components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Stephen F.; Palko, Joseph L.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1991-01-01

    For laminated ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials to realize their full potential in aerospace applications, design methods and protocols are a necessity. The time independent failure response of these materials is focussed on and a reliability analysis is presented associated with the initiation of matrix cracking. A public domain computer algorithm is highlighted that was coupled with the laminate analysis of a finite element code and which serves as a design aid to analyze structural components made from laminated CMC materials. Issues relevant to the effect of the size of the component are discussed, and a parameter estimation procedure is presented. The estimation procedure allows three parameters to be calculated from a failure population that has an underlying Weibull distribution.

  3. Plated lamination structures for integrated magnetic devices

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Bucknell C.

    2014-06-17

    Semiconductor integrated magnetic devices such as inductors, transformers, etc., having laminated magnetic-insulator stack structures are provided, wherein the laminated magnetic-insulator stack structures are formed using electroplating techniques. For example, an integrated laminated magnetic device includes a multilayer stack structure having alternating magnetic and insulating layers formed on a substrate, wherein each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure is separated from another magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure by an insulating layer, and a local shorting structure to electrically connect each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure to an underlying magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure to facilitate electroplating of the magnetic layers using an underlying conductive layer (magnetic or seed layer) in the stack as an electrical cathode/anode for each electroplated magnetic layer in the stack structure.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of hybrid titanium composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. L.; Progar, D. J.; Johnson, W. S.; St.clair, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    In this study, the mechanical response of hybrid titanium composite laminates (HTCL) was evaluated at room and elevated temperatures. Also, the use of an elastic-plastic laminate analysis program for predicting the tensile response from constituent properties was verified. The improvement in mechanical properties achieved by the laminates was assessed by comparing the results of static strength and constant amplitude fatigue tests to those for monolithic titanium sheet. Two HTCL were fabricated with different fiber volume fractions, resin layer thicknesses, and resins. One panel was thicker and was more poorly bonded in comparison to other. Consequently, the former had a lower tensile strength, while fewer cracks grew in this panel and at a slower rate. Both panels showed an improvement in fatigue life of almost two orders of magnitude. The model predictions were also in good agreement with the experimental results for both HTCL panels.

  5. Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    The development of silicon modified resins for graphite fiber laminates which will prevent the dispersal of graphite fibers when the composites are burned is discussed. Eighty-five silicone modified resins were synthesized and evaluated including unsaturated polyesters, thermosetting methacrylates, epoxies, polyimides, and phenolics. Neat resins were judged in terms of Si content, homogeneity, hardness, Char formation, and thermal stability. Char formation was estimated by thermogravimetry to 1,000 C in air and in N2. Thermal stability was evaluated by isothermal weight loss measurements for 200 hrs in air at three temperatures. Four silicone modified epoxies were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 25 to 50%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 140 kpsi and a modulus of 10 Mpsi. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 5.3 kpsi.

  6. Stochastic damage evolution in textile laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzenis, Yuris A.; Bogdanovich, Alexander E.; Pastore, Christopher M.

    1993-01-01

    A probabilistic model utilizing random material characteristics to predict damage evolution in textile laminates is presented. Model is based on a division of each ply into two sublaminas consisting of cells. The probability of cell failure is calculated using stochastic function theory and maximal strain failure criterion. Three modes of failure, i.e. fiber breakage, matrix failure in transverse direction, as well as matrix or interface shear cracking, are taken into account. Computed failure probabilities are utilized in reducing cell stiffness based on the mesovolume concept. A numerical algorithm is developed predicting the damage evolution and deformation history of textile laminates. Effect of scatter of fiber orientation on cell properties is discussed. Weave influence on damage accumulation is illustrated with the help of an example of a Kevlar/epoxy laminate.

  7. Nonlinear effects on composite laminate thermal expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashin, Z.; Rosen, B. W.; Pipes, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    Analyses of Graphite/Polyimide laminates shown that the thermomechanical strains cannot be separated into mechanical strain and free thermal expansion strain. Elastic properties and thermal expansion coefficients of unidirectional Graphite/Polyimide specimens were measured as a function of temperature to provide inputs for the analysis. The + or - 45 degrees symmetric Graphite/Polyimide laminates were tested to obtain free thermal expansion coefficients and thermal expansion coefficients under various uniaxial loads. The experimental results demonstrated the effects predicted by the analysis, namely dependence of thermal expansion coefficients on load, and anisotropy of thermal expansion under load. The significance of time dependence on thermal expansion was demonstrated by comparison of measured laminate free expansion coefficients with and without 15 day delay at intermediate temperature.

  8. On thermal edge effects in composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herakovich, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for a finite-element investigation of the combined influence of edge effects due to mechanical and thermal mismatch in composite laminates with free edges. Laminates of unidirectional boron/epoxy symmetrically bonded to sheets of aluminum and titanium were studied. It is shown that interlaminar thermal stresses may be more significant than the interlaminar stresses due to loading only. In addition, the stresses due to thermal mismatch may be of the same sign as those due to Poisson's mismatch or they may be of opposite sign depending upon material properties, stacking sequence, and direction of loading. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of thermal stresses in all-composite laminates.

  9. Damage initiation and propagation in metal laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Riddle, R.A.; Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.

    1996-07-26

    The metal laminates proposed here for aircraft structures are Al alloy interlayers between Al alloy based metal matrix composite (MMC) plates reinforced with Si carbide particles. Properties to be tailored for jet engine fan containment and wing and auxiliary support structures include the important property fracture toughness. A method was developed for simulating and predicting crack initiation/growth using finite element analysis and fracture mechanics. An important key in predicting the failure is the tie- break slideline with prescribed (chosen based on J Integral calculations) effective plastic strain to failure in elements along the slideline. More development of the method is needed, particularly in its correlation with experimental data from various fracture toughness and strength tests of metal laminates. Results show that delamination at the interface of the ductile interlayer and MMC material can add significantly to the energy required to propagate a crack through a metal laminate. 11 figs, 7 refs.

  10. Elastic constants of layers in isotropic laminates.

    PubMed

    Heyliger, Paul R; Ledbetter, Hassel; Kim, Sudook; Reimanis, Ivar

    2003-11-01

    The individual laminae elastic constants in multilayer laminates composed of dissimilar isotropic layers were determined using ultrasonic-resonance spectroscopy and the linear theory of elasticity. Ultrasonic resonance allows one to measure the free-vibration response spectrum of a traction-free solid under periodic vibration. These frequencies depend on pointwise density, laminate dimensions, layer thickness, and layer elastic constants. Given a material with known mass but unknown constitution, this method allows one to extract the elastic constants and density of the constituent layers. This is accomplished by measuring the frequencies and then minimizing the differences between these and those calculated using the theory of elasticity for layered media to select the constants that best replicate the frequency-response spectrum. This approach is applied to a three-layer, unsymmetric laminate of WpCu, and very good agreement is found with the elastic constants of the two constituent materials. PMID:14649998

  11. 26 CFR 1.280B-1 - Demolition of structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Demolition of structures. 1.280B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.280B-1 Demolition of structures. (a) In general. Section 280B provides that, in the case of the demolition of any structure, no deduction...

  12. 76 FR 43659 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English,...

  13. 26 CFR 1.643(b)-1 - Definition of income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of income. 1.643(b)-1 Section 1.643(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... of subparts A through D, part I, subchapter J, chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code, “income,”...

  14. 38 CFR 18b.1 - Scope of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of rules. 18b.1 Section 18b.1 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE UNDER TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 AND PART 18 OF THIS CHAPTER General...

  15. 26 CFR 1.665(b)-1A - Accumulation distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accumulation distributions. 1.665(b)-1A Section... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning on Or After January 1, 1969 § 1.665(b)-1A Accumulation distributions. (a) In general. (1) For...

  16. 26 CFR 1.665(b)-1A - Accumulation distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accumulation distributions. 1.665(b)-1A Section... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning on Or After January 1, 1969 § 1.665(b)-1A Accumulation distributions. (a)...

  17. 26 CFR 301.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 301.269B-1....269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. In accordance with section 269B(a)(1), a stapled foreign... Revenue Code. For provisions concerning taxes other than income for which the stapled foreign...

  18. 26 CFR 1.280B-1 - Demolition of structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Demolition of structures. 1.280B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.280B-1 Demolition of structures. (a) In general. Section 280B provides that, in the case of the demolition of any structure, no deduction...

  19. 26 CFR 1.7702B-1 - Consumer protection provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consumer protection provisions. 1.7702B-1 Section 1.7702B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... policies, unintentional lapse, disclosure, prohibitions against post-claims underwriting, minimum...

  20. 26 CFR 1.468B-1 - Qualified settlement funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-1 Relation-Back Election”, at the top of the first page; (B) Each transferor's name, address, and... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified settlement funds. 1.468B-1 Section 1.468B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME...

  1. 26 CFR 1.468B-1 - Qualified settlement funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-1 Relation-Back Election”, at the top of the first page; (B) Each transferor's name, address, and... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Qualified settlement funds. 1.468B-1 Section 1.468B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME...

  2. 26 CFR 1.468B-1 - Qualified settlement funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-1 Relation-Back Election”, at the top of the first page; (B) Each transferor's name, address, and... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Qualified settlement funds. 1.468B-1 Section 1.468B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME...

  3. 75 FR 48646 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD... 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law...

  4. 75 FR 74014 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  5. 76 FR 37075 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  6. 75 FR 20571 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD...(b)(1) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law...

  7. 75 FR 81993 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  8. 76 FR 29212 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements...

  9. 76 FR 37071 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  10. 76 FR 37078 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  11. 76 FR 28956 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  12. 75 FR 60424 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD...(b)(1) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law...

  13. 75 FR 74011 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  14. 76 FR 26707 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements...

  15. 76 FR 38371 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  16. 26 CFR 1.280B-1 - Demolition of structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Demolition of structures. 1.280B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.280B-1 Demolition of structures. (a) In general. Section 280B provides that, in the case of the demolition of any structure, no deduction...

  17. 75 FR 107 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD...(b)(1) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703)...

  18. 77 FR 74832 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B....

  19. 76 FR 40703 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  20. 75 FR 47275 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD...(b)(1) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164, dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703)...

  1. 75 FR 42708 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD... 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164, dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703)...

  2. 76 FR 35188 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B....

  3. 17 CFR 260.10b-1 - Calculation of percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of percentages. 260.10b-1 Section 260.10b-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Calculation of percentages. The percentages of voting securities and other securities specified in section...

  4. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-1 - Imposition of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Imposition of tax. 48.4061(b)-1 Section 48.4061(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber,...

  5. 75 FR 69926 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements...

  6. 75 FR 69938 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements...

  7. 75 FR 69957 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  8. 75 FR 69931 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements...

  9. 75 FR 69947 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements...

  10. 75 FR 69953 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  11. 75 FR 69971 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  12. 75 FR 69922 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements...

  13. 75 FR 69960 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  14. 26 CFR 1.280B-1 - Demolition of structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Demolition of structures. 1.280B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.280B-1 Demolition of structures. (a) In general. Section 280B provides that, in the case of the demolition of any structure, no deduction otherwise...

  15. 26 CFR 31.3401(b)-1 - Payroll period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payroll period. 31.3401(b)-1 Section 31.3401(b... Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3401(b)-1 Payroll period. (a) The term payroll period means the... elapsed and receives the remainder at the end of the week, the payroll period is still the calendar...

  16. 26 CFR 31.6011(b)-1 - Employers' identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Employers' identification numbers. 31.6011(b)-1... Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6011(b)-1 Employers' identification numbers. (a... Insurance Contributions Act, but who prior to such day neither has been assigned an identification...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1314(b)-1 - Method of adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Method of adjustment. 1.1314(b)-1 Section 1.1314(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Readjustment of Tax Between Years and Special Limitations §...

  18. Adhesives for laminating polyimide insulated flat conductor cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montermoso, J. C.; Saxton, T. R.; Taylor, R. L.

    1967-01-01

    Polymer adhesive laminates polyimide-film flat conductor cable. It is obtained by reacting an appropriate diamine with a dianhydride. The adhesive has also been used in the lamination of copper to copper for the preparation of multilayer circuit boards.

  19. Effects of prolonged oral administration of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Del Bianchi, M; Oliveira, C A F; Albuquerque, R; Guerra, J L; Correa, B

    2005-12-01

    The effects of prolonged oral administration of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) mycotoxins were evaluated in broiler chickens from 21 to 42 d of age. A total of 192 birds were housed in experimental batteries and assigned to 32 cages, 6 birds per cage. The following treatments were applied: 1) 0 mycotoxins (control), 2) 10 mg of FB1, 3) 50 microg of AFB1, 4) 50 microg of AFB1 + 10 mg of FB1, 5) 350 microg of AFB1, 6) 350 microg of AFB1 + 10 mg of FB1, 7) 2,450 microg of AFB1, 8) 2,450 microg of AFB1 + 10 mg of FB1/kg of feed. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 6 birds each. At the end of the trial, blood samples from 12 birds per treatment were collected, and the birds were necropsied. Compared with controls, the percentage of heterophils was lower (P < 0.05) in birds from groups receiving 50 microg of AFB1/kg + 10 mg of FB1/ kg and 2450 microg of AFB1/kg alone or in combination with FB1. A higher percentage of lymphocytes (P < 0.05) was observed in birds fed 50 microg of AFB1/kg + 10 mg of FB1/ kg, 350 microg of AFB1/kg, and 2,450 microg of AFB1/kg. A decrease in plasma albumin was observed only in birds fed 2,450 microg of AFB1/kg + 10 mg of FB1/kg. The liver of AFB1-treated birds had focal areas of necrosis and inflammatory infiltrates. In birds fed rations containing only 10 mg of FB1/kg, bile duct hyperplasia with fibrosis and a mononuclear infiltrate accompanied by trabecular derangement were observed. In contrast, in treatments in which FB1 was administered in combination, hepatic vacuolar degeneration was observed, and renal tissue presented corpuscles with increased cellular agglomeration, characterizing glomerulonephritis, and a clearly visible tubular epithelium with areas of degeneration and necrosis. The FB1 residues were detected in liver and in excreta of all FB1-treated groups, at levels that ranged from 0.013 to 0.051 mg/kg and from 1.19 to 2.79 mg/kg, respectively. Results indicated that FB1 and AFB1, singly or in combination

  20. Fracture behavior of laminated discontinuously reinforced aluminum material

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, T.M. |; Lewandowski, J.J.; Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Hunt, W.H. Jr

    1994-05-01

    Laminated metallic composites are being developed for applications which require high specific stiffness and fracture resistance. Recent work with laminated discontinuously reinforced aluminum (DRA) materials has demonstrated the potential for marked improvements in stable crack growth resistance via extrinsic toughening. The purpose of this work is to compare the fracture mechanisms and fracture resistance of laminated DRA materials to unlaminated DRA materials. In particular, the production of extensive stable crack growth and the associated improvement in damage tolerance in DRA laminates is documented.

  1. Reliability analysis of continuous fiber composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, David J.; Wetherhold, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes two methods, the maximum distortion energy (MDE) and the principle of independent action (PIA), developed for the analysis of the reliability of a single continuous composite lamina. It is shown that, for the typical laminated plate structure, the individual lamina reliabilities can be combined in order to produce the upper and the lower bounds of reliability for the laminate, similar in nature to the bounds on properties produced from variational elastic methods. These limits were derived for both the interactive and the model failure considerations. Analytical expressions were also derived for the sensitivity of the reliability limits with respect to changes in the Weibull parameters and in loading conditions.

  2. Composite laminate free edge reinforcement concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. E.; Gossard, T., Jr.; Jones, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of a free edge in a laminated composite structure can result in delamination of the composite under certain loading conditions. Linear finite element analysis predicts large or even singular interlaminar stresses near the free edge. Edge reinforcements which will reduce these interlaminar stresses, prevent or delay the onset of delaminations, and thereby increase the strength and life of the structure were studied. Finite element models are used to analyze reinforced laminates which were subsequently fabricated and loaded to failure in order to verify the analysis results.

  3. Ultrasonic transducer with laminated coupling wedge

    DOEpatents

    Karplus, Henry H. B.

    1976-08-03

    An ultrasonic transducer capable of use in a high-temperature environment incorporates a laminated metal coupling wedge including a reflecting edge shaped as a double sloping roof and a transducer crystal backed by a laminated metal sound absorber disposed so as to direct sound waves through the coupling wedge and into a work piece, reflections from the interface between the coupling wedge and the work piece passing to the reflecting edge. Preferably the angle of inclination of the two halves of the reflecting edge are different.

  4. Prenatal exposure to aflatoxin B1: developmental, behavioral, and reproductive alterations in male rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriya, Ch.; Reddy, P. Sreenivasula

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) inhibits androgen biosynthesis as a result of its ability to form a high-affinity complex with the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. The results of the present study demonstrate the postnatal effects of in utero exposure to AfB1 in the rat. Pregnant Wistar rats were given 10, 20, or 50 μg AfB1/kg body weight daily from gestation day (GD) 12 to GD 19. At parturition, newborns were observed for clinical signs and survival. All animals were born alive and initially appeared to be active. Male pups from control and AfB1-exposed animals were weaned and maintained up to postnatal day (PD) 100. Litter size, birth weight, sex ratio, survival rate, and crown-rump length of the pups were significantly decreased in AfB1-exposed rats when compared to controls. Elapsed time (days) for testes to descend into the scrotal sac was significantly delayed in experimental pups when compared to control pups. Behavioral observations such as cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, surface rightening activity, ascending wire mesh, open field behavior, and exploratory and locomotory activities were significantly impaired in experimental pups. Body weights and the indices of testis, cauda epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicles, and liver were significantly reduced on PD 100 in male rats exposed to AfB1 during embryonic development when compared with controls. Significant reduction in the testicular daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, and number of viable, motile, and hypo-osmotic tail coiled sperm was observed in experimental rats. The levels of serum testosterone and activity levels of testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a significant increase in the serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in experimental rats. Deterioration in the testicular and cauda epididymal architecture was observed in experimental rats. The results of fertility

  5. Prenatal exposure to aflatoxin B1: developmental, behavioral, and reproductive alterations in male rats.

    PubMed

    Supriya, Ch; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) inhibits androgen biosynthesis as a result of its ability to form a high-affinity complex with the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. The results of the present study demonstrate the postnatal effects of in utero exposure to AfB1 in the rat. Pregnant Wistar rats were given 10, 20, or 50 μg AfB1/kg body weight daily from gestation day (GD) 12 to GD 19. At parturition, newborns were observed for clinical signs and survival. All animals were born alive and initially appeared to be active. Male pups from control and AfB1-exposed animals were weaned and maintained up to postnatal day (PD) 100. Litter size, birth weight, sex ratio, survival rate, and crown-rump length of the pups were significantly decreased in AfB1-exposed rats when compared to controls. Elapsed time (days) for testes to descend into the scrotal sac was significantly delayed in experimental pups when compared to control pups. Behavioral observations such as cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, surface rightening activity, ascending wire mesh, open field behavior, and exploratory and locomotory activities were significantly impaired in experimental pups. Body weights and the indices of testis, cauda epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicles, and liver were significantly reduced on PD 100 in male rats exposed to AfB1 during embryonic development when compared with controls. Significant reduction in the testicular daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, and number of viable, motile, and hypo-osmotic tail coiled sperm was observed in experimental rats. The levels of serum testosterone and activity levels of testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a significant increase in the serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in experimental rats. Deterioration in the testicular and cauda epididymal architecture was observed in experimental rats. The results of fertility

  6. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, Shawn M; Baranova, Inessa; Poley, Joseph; Reis, Henrique

    2012-02-27

    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North

  7. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, Shawn M.

    2012-02-27

    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North

  8. Multi-layer laminate structure and manufacturing method

    DOEpatents

    Keenihan, James R.; Cleereman, Robert J.; Eurich, Gerald; Graham, Andrew T.; Langmaid, Joe A.

    2012-04-24

    The present invention is premised upon a multi-layer laminate structure and method of manufacture, more particularly to a method of constructing the multi-layer laminate structure utilizing a laminate frame and at least one energy activated flowable polymer.

  9. Multi-layer laminate structure and manufacturing method

    SciTech Connect

    Keenihan, James R.; Cleereman, Robert J.; Eurich, Gerald; Graham, Andrew T.; Langmaid, Joe A.

    2013-01-29

    The present invention is premised upon a multi-layer laminate structure and method of manufacture, more particularly to a method of constructing the multi-layer laminate structure utilizing a laminate frame and at least one energy activated flowable polymer.

  10. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    PubMed

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants. PMID:15676441

  11. Obtaining and maintaining funding

    SciTech Connect

    Beverly Hartline

    1996-04-01

    Obtaining and maintaining funding is important for individuals, groups, institutions, and fields. This challenge is easier during times of abundant and growing resources than it is now, when funding is tight and shrinking. Thus, to obtain and maintain funding will require: maintaining healthy funding levels for all of science; maintaining healthy funding levels for the field(s) you work in; and competing successfully for the available funds. Everyone should pay attention to the overall prospects for science funding and dedicate some effort to working with others to grow the constituency for science. Public support is likely an important prerequisite for keeping future science budgets high. In this context, researchers should share with society at large the benefits of their research, so that taxpayers can see and appreciate some return from the federal investment in science. Assuming this effort is successful, and there continue to be government and private organizations with substantial resources to invest in research, what can the individual investigator do to improve her chances? She can be clear about her goal(s) and carefully plan her effort to make maximum progress for minimum resources, especially early in her career while she is establishing a solid professional reputation. Specific useful strategies include: brainstorm funding options and select the most promising one(s); be persistent but flexible, responsive to new information and changing circumstances; provide value and assistance to prospective funding sources both before and after receiving funding; know the funding agents and what their goals are, they are the customers; promise a lot and always deliver more; build partnerships and collaboration to leverage interest and resources; and develop capabilities and ideas with a promising, irresistible future. There is no guarantee of success. For the best chances, consistently contribute positively and productively in all your efforts, and continue to

  12. Maintaining radiation protection records

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-30

    This Report is part of a series prepared under the auspices of Scientific Committee 46 on Operational Radiation Safety. It provides guidance on maintaining radiation protection records. Record keeping is an essential element of every radiation protection program. This Report describes the elements that should enter into the design of a program for the maintenance of operational radiation safety records. The problems of the length of time for retention of records for operational, regulatory, epidemiologic and legal uses are discussed in detail.

  13. Photo-induced bending in a light-activated polymer laminated composite.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiaoming; Sowan, Nancy; Tumbic, Julia A; Bowman, Christopher N; Mather, Patrick T; Qi, H Jerry

    2015-04-01

    Light activated polymers (LAPs) have attracted increasing attention since these materials change their shape and/or behavior in response to light exposure, which serves as an instant, remote and precisely controllable stimulus that enables non-contact control of the material shape and behavior through simple variation in light intensity, wavelength and spatially controlled exposure. These features distinguish LAPs from other active polymers triggered by other stimuli such as heat, electrical field or humidity. Previous examples have resulted in demonstrations in applications such as surface patterning, photo-induced shape memory behavior, and photo-origami. However, in many of these applications, an undesirable limitation has been the requirement to apply and maintain an external load during light irradiation. In this paper, a laminated structure is introduced to provide a pre-programmed stress field, which is then used for photo-induced deformation. This laminated structure is fabricated by bonding a stretched elastomer (NOA65) sheet between two LAP layers. Releasing the elastomer causes contraction and introduces a compressive stress in the LAPs, which are relaxed optically to trigger the desired deformation. A theoretical model is developed to quantitatively examine the laminated composite system, allowing exploration of the design space and optimum design of the laminate. PMID:25690905

  14. CYP1B1: a unique gene with unique characteristics.

    PubMed

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Sharma, Reetika; Saluja, Daman; Dada, Tanuj

    2014-01-01

    CYP1B1, a recently described dioxin inducible oxidoreductase, is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily involved in the metabolism of estradiol, retinol, benzo[a]pyrene, tamoxifen, melatonin, sterols etc. It plays important roles in numerous physiological processes and is expressed at mRNA level in many tissues and anatomical compartments. CYP1B1 has been implicated in scores of disorders. Analyses of the recent studies suggest that CYP1B1 can serve as a universal/ideal cancer marker and a candidate gene for predictive diagnosis. There is plethora of literature available about certain aspects of CYP1B1 that have not been interpreted, discussed and philosophized upon. The present analysis examines CYP1B1 as a peculiar gene with certain distinctive characteristics like the uniqueness in its chromosomal location, gene structure and organization, involvement in developmentally important disorders, tissue specific, not only expression, but splicing, potential as a universal cancer marker due to its involvement in key aspects of cellular metabolism, use in diagnosis and predictive diagnosis of various diseases and the importance and function of CYP1B1 mRNA in addition to the regular translation. Also CYP1B1 is very difficult to express in heterologous expression systems, thereby, halting its functional studies. Here we review and analyze these exceptional and startling characteristics of CYP1B1 with inputs from our own experiences in order to get a better insight into its molecular biology in health and disease. This may help to further understand the etiopathomechanistic aspects of CYP1B1 mediated diseases paving way for better research strategies and improved clinical management. PMID:25658124

  15. Reliability analysis of continuous fiber composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, David J.; Wetherhold, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    A composite lamina may be viewed as a homogeneous solid whose directional strengths are random variables. Calculation of the lamina reliability under a multi-axial stress state can be approached by either assuming that the strengths act separately (modal or independent action), or that they interact through a quadratic interaction criterion. The independent action reliability may be calculated in closed form, while interactive criteria require simulations; there is currently insufficient data to make a final determination of preference between them. Using independent action for illustration purposes, the lamina reliability may be plotted in either stress space or in a non-dimensional representation. For the typical laminated plate structure, the individual lamina reliabilities may be combined in order to produce formal upper and lower bounds of reliability for the laminate, similar in nature to the bounds on properties produced from variational elastic methods. These bounds are illustrated for a (0/plus or minus 15)sub s Graphite/Epoxy (GR/EP) laminate. And addition, simple physically plausible phenomenological rules are proposed for redistribution of load after a lamina has failed. These rules are illustrated by application to (0/plus or minus 15)sub s and (90/plus or minus 45/0)sub s GR/EP laminates and results are compared with respect to the proposed bounds.

  16. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    DOEpatents

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  17. Laminated insulators having heat dissipation means

    DOEpatents

    Niemann, R.C.; Mataya, K.F.; Gonczy, J.D.

    1980-04-24

    A laminated body is provided with heat dissipation capabilities. The insulator body is formed by dielectric layers interleaved with heat conductive layers, and bonded by an adhesive to form a composite structure. The heat conductive layers include provision for connection to an external thermal circuit.

  18. Phase behavior of mixtures of human lens proteins Gamma D and Beta B1

    PubMed Central

    Lomakin, Aleksey; McManus, Jennifer J.; Ogun, Olutayo; Benedek, George B.

    2010-01-01

    We have experimentally determined the coexistence surface characterizing the phase behavior of γD-βB1-water ternary solutions. The coexistence surface fully describes the solution conditions, i.e., temperature, protein concentration, and protein composition, at which liquid-liquid phase separation occurs in a ternary solution. We have observed a significant demixing of γD and βB1 i.e., large difference of composition in the two coexisting phases. This demixing suggests that the energy of the γD-βB1 attractive interaction is significantly smaller than the energy of the γD-γD attractive interaction. We also observed the lowering of the phase separation temperature upon increasing of the fraction of βB1 in solution. We provide a theoretical analysis of our experimental data, which enables a quantitative description of our principal experimental findings. In this way, we have evaluated the magnitude and temperature dependence of the relevant interprotein interaction energies. Our findings provide insight into the factors essential for maintaining lens proteins in a single homogeneous phase, thereby enabling lens transparency. PMID:20616077

  19. Compression failure of angle-ply laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peel, Larry D.; Hyer, Michael W.; Shuart, Mark J.

    1991-01-01

    The present work deals with modes and mechanisms of failure in compression of angle-ply laminates. Experimental results were obtained from 42 angle-ply IM7/8551-7a specimens with a lay-up of ((plus or minus theta)/(plus or minus theta)) sub 6s where theta, the off-axis angle, ranged from 0 degrees to 90 degrees. The results showed four failure modes, these modes being a function of off-axis angle. Failure modes include fiber compression, inplane transverse tension, inplane shear, and inplane transverse compression. Excessive interlaminar shear strain was also considered as an important mode of failure. At low off-axis angles, experimentally observed values were considerably lower than published strengths. It was determined that laminate imperfections in the form of layer waviness could be a major factor in reducing compression strength. Previously developed linear buckling and geometrically nonlinear theories were used, with modifications and enhancements, to examine the influence of layer waviness on compression response. The wavy layer is described by a wave amplitude and a wave length. Linear elastic stress-strain response is assumed. The geometrically nonlinear theory, in conjunction with the maximum stress failure criterion, was used to predict compression failure and failure modes for the angle-ply laminates. A range of wave length and amplitudes were used. It was found that for 0 less than or equal to theta less than or equal to 15 degrees failure was most likely due to fiber compression. For 15 degrees less than theta less than or equal to 35 degrees, failure was most likely due to inplane transverse tension. For 35 degrees less than theta less than or equal to 70 degrees, failure was most likely due to inplane shear. For theta less than 70 degrees, failure was most likely due to inplane transverse compression. The fiber compression and transverse tension failure modes depended more heavily on wave length than on wave amplitude. Thus using a single

  20. Determining Shear Stress Distribution in a Laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Yarrington, Phillip W.

    2010-01-01

    A "simplified shear solution" method approximates the through-thickness shear stress distribution within a composite laminate based on an extension of laminated beam theory. The method does not consider the solution of a particular boundary value problem; rather, it requires only knowledge of the global shear loading, geometry, and material properties of the laminate or panel. It is thus analogous to lamination theory in that ply-level stresses can be efficiently determined from global load resultants at a given location in a structure and used to evaluate the margin of safety on a ply-by-ply basis. The simplified shear solution stress distribution is zero at free surfaces, continuous at ply boundaries, and integrates to the applied shear load. The method has been incorporated within the HyperSizer commercial structural sizing software to improve its predictive capability for designing composite structures. The HyperSizer structural sizing software is used extensively by NASA to design composite structures. In the case of through-thickness shear loading on panels, HyperSizer previously included a basic, industry-standard, method for approximating the resulting shear stress distribution in sandwich panels. However, no such method was employed for solid laminate panels. The purpose of the innovation is to provide an approximation of the through-thickness shear stresses in a solid laminate given the through-thickness shear loads (Qx and Qy) on the panel. The method was needed for implementation within the HyperSizer structural sizing software so that the approximated ply-level shear stresses could be utilized in a failure theory to assess the adequacy of a panel design. The simplified shear solution method was developed based on extending and generalizing bi-material beam theory to plate-like structures. It is assumed that the through-thickness shear stresses arise due to local bending of the laminate induced by the through-thickness shear load, and by imposing

  1. Fatigue damage development of various CFRP-laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, K.; Baron, CH.

    1988-01-01

    The chronic strength and fatigue behavior of a woven carbon-fiber reinforced laminate in a balanced eight-shaft satin weave style was compared to nonwoven laminates with an equivalent cross-ply layup. Half the fibers were arranged in the direction of the load and the other half perpendicular to it. Two types of nonwoven laminates consisting of continuous fibers and aligned discontinuous fibers, both produced from carbon fiber prepregs, were studied. The cross-ply laminate with continuous fiber showed the best characteristics with regard to both static strength and fatigue. The similarities and differences in damage mechanisms in the laminates are described.

  2. Nonlinear laminate analysis for metal matrix fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    A nonlinear laminate analysis is described for predicting the mechanical behavior (stress-strain relationships) of angle-ply laminates in which the matrix is strained nonlinearly by both the residual stress and the mechanical load and in which additional nonlinearities are induced due to progressive fiber fractures and ply relative rotations. The nonlinear laminate analysis is based on linear composite mechanics and a piece-wise linear laminate analysis to handle the nonlinear responses. Results obtained by using this nonlinear analysis on boron-fiber/aluminum-matrix angle-ply laminates agree well with experimental data. The results shown illustrate the in situ ply stress-strain behavior and synergistic strength enhancement.

  3. Nonlinear laminate analysis for metal matrix fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    A nonlinear laminate analysis is described for predicting the mechanical behavior (stress-strain relationships) of angleplied laminates in which the matrix is strained nonlinearly by both the residual stress and the mechanical load and in which additional nonlinearities are induced due to progressive fiber fractures and ply relative rotations. The nonlinear laminate analysis (NLA) is based on linear composite mechanics and a piece wise linear laminate analysis to handle the nonlinear responses. Results obtained by using this nonlinear analysis on boron fiber/aluminum matrix angleplied laminates agree well with experimental data. The results shown illustrate the in situ ply stress-strain behavior and synergistic strength enhancement.

  4. Progressive delamination in polymer matrix composite laminates: A new approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Minnetyan, L.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach independent of stress intensity factors and fracture toughness parameters has been developed and is described for the computational simulation of progressive delamination in polymer matrix composite laminates. The damage stages are quantified based on physics via composite mechanics while the degradation of the laminate behavior is quantified via the finite element method. The approach accounts for all types of composite behavior, laminate configuration, load conditions, and delamination processes starting from damage initiation, to unstable propagation, and to laminate fracture. Results of laminate fracture in composite beams, panels, plates, and shells are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of this new approach.

  5. Edge effects in angle-ply composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, P. W.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a zeroth-order solution for edge effects in angle-ply composite laminates obtained using perturbation techniques and a limiting free body approach. The general solution for edge effects in laminates of arbitrary angle ply is applied to the special case of a (+ or - 45)s graphite/epoxy laminate. Interlaminar stress distributions are obtained as a function of the laminate thickness-to-width ratio and compared to finite difference results. The solution predicts stable, continuous stress distributions, determines finite maximum tensile interlaminar normal stress and provides mathematical evidence for singular interlaminar shear stresses in (+ or - 45) graphite/epoxy laminates.

  6. Mutations in ap1b1 Cause Mistargeting of the Na+/K+-ATPase Pump in Sensory Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Clemens Grisham, Rachel; Kindt, Katie; Finger-Baier, Karin; Schmid, Bettina; Nicolson, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The hair cells of the inner ear are polarized epithelial cells with a specialized structure at the apical surface, the mechanosensitive hair bundle. Mechanotransduction occurs within the hair bundle, whereas synaptic transmission takes place at the basolateral membrane. The molecular basis of the development and maintenance of the apical and basal compartments in sensory hair cells is poorly understood. Here we describe auditory/vestibular mutants isolated from forward genetic screens in zebrafish with lesions in the adaptor protein 1 beta subunit 1 (ap1b1) gene. Ap1b1 is a subunit of the adaptor complex AP-1, which has been implicated in the targeting of basolateral membrane proteins. In ap1b1 mutants we observed that although the overall development of the inner ear and lateral-line organ appeared normal, the sensory epithelium showed progressive signs of degeneration. Mechanically-evoked calcium transients were reduced in mutant hair cells, indicating that mechanotransduction was also compromised. To gain insight into the cellular and molecular defects in ap1b1 mutants, we examined the localization of basolateral membrane proteins in hair cells. We observed that the Na+/K+-ATPase pump (NKA) was less abundant in the basolateral membrane and was mislocalized to apical bundles in ap1b1 mutant hair cells. Accordingly, intracellular Na+ levels were increased in ap1b1 mutant hair cells. Our results suggest that Ap1b1 is essential for maintaining integrity and ion homeostasis in hair cells. PMID:23593334

  7. Mutations in ap1b1 cause mistargeting of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump in sensory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Clemens Grisham, Rachel; Kindt, Katie; Finger-Baier, Karin; Schmid, Bettina; Nicolson, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The hair cells of the inner ear are polarized epithelial cells with a specialized structure at the apical surface, the mechanosensitive hair bundle. Mechanotransduction occurs within the hair bundle, whereas synaptic transmission takes place at the basolateral membrane. The molecular basis of the development and maintenance of the apical and basal compartments in sensory hair cells is poorly understood. Here we describe auditory/vestibular mutants isolated from forward genetic screens in zebrafish with lesions in the adaptor protein 1 beta subunit 1 (ap1b1) gene. Ap1b1 is a subunit of the adaptor complex AP-1, which has been implicated in the targeting of basolateral membrane proteins. In ap1b1 mutants we observed that although the overall development of the inner ear and lateral-line organ appeared normal, the sensory epithelium showed progressive signs of degeneration. Mechanically-evoked calcium transients were reduced in mutant hair cells, indicating that mechanotransduction was also compromised. To gain insight into the cellular and molecular defects in ap1b1 mutants, we examined the localization of basolateral membrane proteins in hair cells. We observed that the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump (NKA) was less abundant in the basolateral membrane and was mislocalized to apical bundles in ap1b1 mutant hair cells. Accordingly, intracellular Na(+) levels were increased in ap1b1 mutant hair cells. Our results suggest that Ap1b1 is essential for maintaining integrity and ion homeostasis in hair cells. PMID:23593334

  8. ClpB1 Overproduction in Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 Increases Tolerance to Rapid Heat Shock

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Esquer, C. Raul

    2013-01-01

    ClpB1 is a heat shock protein known to disaggregate large protein complexes. Constitutive, 16-fold ClpB1 overproduction in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 increased cell survival by 20-fold when cultures were heated quickly (1°C/s) to 50°C and delayed cell death by an average of 3 min during incubation at high temperatures (>46°C). Cooverexpression of ClpB1 and another heat shock protein, DnaK2, further increased cell survival. According to immunocytochemistry results, ClpB1 is dispersed throughout the cytoplasm but is concentrated in specific areas and is more prevalent near thylakoid membranes. However, ClpB1 overproduction does not lead to a change in the morphology, chlorophyll content, or photosystem ratio. Whereas electron microscopy demonstrated that apparent protein aggregation occurred after heat treatment in the control strain, protein aggregate size was maintained in the ClpB1 overexpresser. Constitutive ClpB1 overproduction allows an earlier response to heat shock and protects from rapid heating of cultures. PMID:23913426

  9. Proangiogenic role of ephrinB1/EphB1 in basic fibroblast growth factor-induced corneal angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Takashi; Chang, Jin-Hong; Azar, Dimitri T

    2007-02-01

    Corneal neovascularization is a vision-threatening condition caused by various ocular pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function of the ephrin ligands and Eph receptors in vitro and in vivo in corneal angiogenesis in a mouse model. The Eph tyrosine kinase receptors and their ligands, ephrins, are expressed on the cell surface. The functions of Eph and ephrins have been shown to regulate axonal guidance, segmentation, cell migration, and angiogenesis. Understanding the roles of Eph and ephrin in corneal angiogenesis may provide a therapeutic intervention for the treatment of angiogenesis-related disorders. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that ephrinB1 and EphB1 were expressed in basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced vascularized corneas. EphB1 was specifically colocalized with vascular endothelial marker CD31 surrounded by type IV collagen. EphrinB1 was expressed in corneal-resident keratocytes and neutrophils. Recombinant ephrinB1-Fc, which induces EphB receptor activation, enhanced bFGF-induced tube formation in an in vitro aortic ring assay and promoted bFGF-induced corneal angiogenesis in vivo in a corneal pocket assay. Synergistically enhanced and sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase was noted in vascular endothelial cell lines after stimulation with ephrin B1 and bFGF combinations. These results suggest that ephrinB1 plays a synergistic role in corneal neovascularization. PMID:17255342

  10. MISR Level 1B1 Radiance Data (MI1B1_V2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J. (Principal Investigator)

    summary, the Level 1B1 Product contains the Data Numbers (DNs) radiometrically-scaled to radiances with no geometric resampling. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=2000-02-24; Stop_Date=] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1.1 km; Longitude_Resolution=1.1 km; Temporal_Resolution=about 15 orbits/day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=about 15 orbits/day].

  11. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Aflatoxin B 1 from Soil

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research describes the development of a Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) method to recover aflatoxin B1 from fortified soil. The effects of temperature, pressure, modifier (identity and percentage), and extraction type were assessed. Using the optimized SFE conditions, ...

  12. 76 FR 46754 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21,...

  13. 78 FR 78939 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21,...

  14. Properties of L=1 B(1) and B(2)* mesons.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, P; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chan, K; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clément, C; Clément, B; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; de Jong, P; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Martins, C De Oliveira; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, J; Guo, F; Gutierrez, P; Gutierrez, G; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J R; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kothari, B; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lellouch, J; Lesne, V; Leveque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, L; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, J; Meyer, A; Michaut, M; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Y Garzón, G J Otero; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perea, P M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; da Silva, W L Prado; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schliephake, T; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sengupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, R P; Snow, J; Snow, G R; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Strauss, E; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, S; Uvarov, L; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; van Eijk, B; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Toerne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weber, G; Weerts, H; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Williams, M R J; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yu, C; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2007-10-26

    This Letter presents the first strong evidence for the resolution of the excited B mesons B(1) and B(2)* as two separate states in fully reconstructed decays to B(+)(*)pi(-). The mass of B(1) is measured to be 5720.6+/-2.4+/-1.4 MeV/c(2) and the mass difference DeltaM between B(2)* and B(1) is 26.2+/-3.1+/-0.9 MeV/c;{2}, giving the mass of the B(2)* as 5746.8+/-2.4+/-1.7 MeV/c(2). The production rate for B(1) and B(2)* mesons is determined to be a fraction (13.9+/-1.9+/-3.2)% of the production rate of the B+ meson. PMID:17995320

  15. 77 FR 42711 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ...The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21,...

  16. 76 FR 72686 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ...The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21,...

  17. 76 FR 56181 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ...The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21,...

  18. ACTH Regulation of Adrenal SR-B1

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Azhar, Salman; Kraemer, Fredric B.

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal gland is one of the prominent sites for steroid hormone synthesis. Lipoprotein-derived cholesterol esters (CEs) delivered via SR-B1 constitute the dominant source of cholesterol for steroidogenesis, particularly in rodents. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates steroidogenesis through downstream actions on multiple components involved in steroidogenesis. Both acute and chronic ACTH treatments can modulate SR-B1 function, including its transcription, posttranscriptional stability, phosphorylation and dimerization status, as well as the interaction with other protein partners, all of which result in changes in the ability of SR-B1 to mediate HDL-CE uptake and the supply of cholesterol for conversion to steroids. Here, we provide a review of the recent findings on the regulation of adrenal SR-B1 function by ACTH. PMID:27242666

  19. 78 FR 36536 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ...The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21,...

  20. Novel Remanufacturing Process of Recycled Polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE)/GF Laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Z.; Ghita, O. R.; Johnston, P.; Evans, K. E.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the PTFE/GF laminate and PTFE PCB manufacturers are under considerable pressure to address the recycling issues due to Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive, shortage of landfill capacity and cost of disposal. This study is proposing a novel manufacture method for reuse of the mechanical ground PTFE/Glass fibre (GF) laminate and production of the first reconstitute PTFE/GF laminate. The reconstitute PTFE/GF laminate proposed here consists of a layer of recycled sub-sheet, additional layers of PTFE and PTFE coated glass cloth, also covered by copper foils. The reconstitute PTFE/GF laminate showed good dielectric properties. Therefore, there is potential to use the mechanical ground PTFE/GF laminate powder to produce reconstitute PTFE/GF laminate, for use in high frequencies PCB applications.

  1. Ultrasonic monitoring of asymmetric carbon fibre reinforced aluminum laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Junqing; Yang, Fan; Wang, Rongguo

    2013-08-01

    Asymmetric carbon fibre reinforced aluminum alloy laminates was manufactured for the purpose with repeat tensile test, which will be applied in composite pressure vessel. Ultrasonic C scan and A scan approach are used to evaluate the damage of the asymmetric CFRP-Al (carbon fibre reinforced aluminum alloy) laminates. Nondestructive detection is carried out for the CFRP-Al laminates before and after tensile test. Comparison results and pulse echo analysis show that when subjected to repeat tensile test with 70% elastic limit strain load of the CFRP laminates, the interface debonding between CFRP and Al will not occur but the delamination within CFRP laminates becomes the main damage of the asymmetric CFRP-Al laminates. This investigation indicated that combined ultrasonic C scan and A scan is available for damage evaluation of fibre metal laminates.

  2. Tensile stress-strain behavior of boron/aluminum laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sova, J. A.; Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The tensile stress-strain behavior of five types of boron/aluminum laminates was investigated. Longitudinal and transverse stress-strain curves were obtained for monotonic loading to failure and for three cycles of loading to successively higher load levels. The laminate strengths predicted by assuming that the zero deg plies failed first correlated well with the experimental results. The stress-strain curves for all the boron/aluminum laminates were nonlinear except at very small strains. Within the small linear regions, elastic constants calculated from laminate theory corresponded to those obtained experimentally to within 10 to 20 percent. A limited amount of cyclic loading did not affect the ultimate strength and strain for the boron/aluminum laminates. The laminates, however, exhibited a permanent strain on unloading. The Ramberg-Osgood equation was fitted to the stress-strain curves to obtain average curves for the various laminates.

  3. UNC93B1 mediates differential trafficking of endosomal TLRs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bettina L; Moon, Joanne E; Shu, Jeffrey H; Yuan, Lin; Newman, Zachary R; Schekman, Randy; Barton, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    UNC93B1, a multipass transmembrane protein required for TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13 function, controls trafficking of TLRs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to endolysosomes. The mechanisms by which UNC93B1 mediates these regulatory effects remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that UNC93B1 enters the secretory pathway and directly controls the packaging of TLRs into COPII vesicles that bud from the ER. Unlike other COPII loading factors, UNC93B1 remains associated with the TLRs through post-Golgi sorting steps. Unexpectedly, these steps are different among endosomal TLRs. TLR9 requires UNC93B1-mediated recruitment of adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2) for delivery to endolysosomes while TLR7, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13 utilize alternative trafficking pathways. Thus, our study describes a mechanism for differential sorting of endosomal TLRs by UNC93B1, which may explain the distinct roles played by these receptors in certain autoimmune diseases.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00291.001. PMID:23426999

  4. Regulation of EphB1 expression by dopamine signaling.

    PubMed

    Halladay, A K; Yue, Y; Michna, L; Widmer, D A; Wagner, G C; Zhou, R

    2000-12-28

    The Eph family tyrosine kinase receptors and their ligands have been implicated in axon guidance and neuronal migration during development of the nervous system. In the current study, we aim to characterize the nature of changes in EphB1 receptor expression following increases or decreases in dopamine activity. Neonatal mice (P3) were injected with 6-hydroxydopamine and allowed 13 days to recover. These animals show a profound depletion of dopamine in all areas assayed, with a corresponding dose-dependent decrease in EphB1 expression. Day 3 pups were also injected either chronically (P3-P16) or acutely (P3 only) with cocaine to determine how enhancing dopamine signaling would affect EphB1 signal density. It was found that both treatments significantly increased expression of EphB1 in the cortex, striatum and substantia nigra. Finally, animals were treated prenatally (E15-E17) with cocaine and sacrificed on P7. These animals also showed an increase in EphB1 signal density, but only in the dopaminergic terminal areas in the cortex and striatum. These studies indicate that dopamine activity regulates developmental expression of the tyrosine kinase receptor EphB1. PMID:11146119

  5. UNC93B1 mediates differential trafficking of endosomal TLRs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bettina L; Moon, Joanne E; Shu, Jeffrey H; Yuan, Lin; Newman, Zachary R; Schekman, Randy; Barton, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    UNC93B1, a multipass transmembrane protein required for TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13 function, controls trafficking of TLRs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to endolysosomes. The mechanisms by which UNC93B1 mediates these regulatory effects remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that UNC93B1 enters the secretory pathway and directly controls the packaging of TLRs into COPII vesicles that bud from the ER. Unlike other COPII loading factors, UNC93B1 remains associated with the TLRs through post-Golgi sorting steps. Unexpectedly, these steps are different among endosomal TLRs. TLR9 requires UNC93B1-mediated recruitment of adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2) for delivery to endolysosomes while TLR7, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13 utilize alternative trafficking pathways. Thus, our study describes a mechanism for differential sorting of endosomal TLRs by UNC93B1, which may explain the distinct roles played by these receptors in certain autoimmune diseases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00291.001 PMID:23426999

  6. 291-B-1 stack monitoring and sampling system annual system assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Ridge, T.M.

    1994-12-16

    The B Plant 291-B-1 main stack exhausts gaseous effluents to the atmosphere from the 221-B Building canyon and cells, the No. 1 Vessel Ventilation System (VVS1), the 212-B Cask Station cell ventilation system, and, to a limited capacity, the 224-B Building. VVS1 collects offgases from various process tanks in 221-B Building, while the 224-B system maintains a negative pressure in out-of-service, sealed process tanks. B Plant Administration Manual, WHC-CM-7-5, Section 5.30 requires an annual system assessment to evaluate and report the present condition of the sampling and monitoring system associated with Stack 291-B-1 (System Number B977A) at B Plant. The system is functional and performing satisfactorily.

  7. Maintaining gas cooling equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, J.D.

    1997-05-01

    An often overlooked key to satisfactory operation and longevity of any mechanical device is proper operation and maintenance in accordance with the manufacturer`s written instructions. Absorption chillers, although they use a different technology than the more familiar vapor compression cycle to produce chilled water, operate successfully in a variety of applications if operated and maintained properly. Maintenance procedures may be more frequent than those required for vapor compression chillers, but they are also typically less complex. The goal of this article is to describe the basic operation of an absorption chiller to provide an understanding of the relatively simple tasks required to keep the machine operating at maximum efficiency for its design life and beyond. A good starting point is definitions. Gas cooling equipment is generally defined as alternative energy, non-electric cooling products. This includes absorption chillers, engine-drive chillers and packaged desiccant units, among others. Natural gas combustion drives the equipment.

  8. Reagan: Maintain Antarctic program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan has decided that the United States should maintain an ‘active and influential presence’ in Antarctica to support the nation's interests. Following a review of a study by the Antarctica Policy Group, Reagan issued a memorandum, dated February 5, to the heads of 14 government agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Office of Science and Technology Policy, and the Office of Management and Budget.The U.S. presence in Antarctica ‘shall include the conduct of scientific activities in major disciplines; year-round occupation of the South Pole and two coastal stations; and availability of related necessary logistics support,’ wrote the President. In addition, NSF should continue to budget for the entire U.S. program in Antarctica. Short-term programs by other agencies require the recommendation of the Antarctica Policy Group and should be coordinated within the framework of NSF logistics support.

  9. Increased surfactant protein D fails to improve bacterial clearance and inflammation in serpinB1-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Stolley, J Michael; Gong, Dapeng; Farley, Kalamo; Zhao, Picheng; Cooley, Jessica; Crouch, Erika C; Benarafa, Charaf; Remold-O'Donnell, Eileen

    2012-12-01

    Previously, we described the protective role of the neutrophil serine protease inhibitor serpinB1 in preventing early mortality of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection by fostering bacterial clearance and limiting inflammatory cytokines and proteolytic damage. Surfactant protein D (SP-D), which maintains the antiinflammatory pulmonary environment and mediates bacterial removal, was degraded in infected serpinB1-deficient mice. Based on the hypothesis that increased SP-D would rescue or mitigate the pathological effects of serpinB1 deletion, we generated two serpinB1(-/-) lines overexpressing lung-specific rat SP-D and inoculated the mice with P. aeruginosa. Contrary to predictions, bacterial counts in the lungs of SP-D(low)serpinB1(-/-) and SP-D(high) serpinB1(-/-) mice were 4 logs higher than wild-type and not different from serpinB1(-/-) mice. SP-D overexpression also failed to mitigate inflammation (TNF-α), lung injury (free protein, albumin), or excess neutrophil death (free myeloperoxidase, elastase). These pathological markers were higher for infected SP-D(high)serpinB1(-/-) mice than for serpinB1(-/-) mice, although the differences were not significant after controlling for multiple comparisons. The failure of transgenic SP-D to rescue antibacterial defense of serpinB1-deficient mice occurred despite 5-fold or 20-fold increased expression levels, largely normal structure, and dose-dependent bacteria-aggregating activity. SP-D of infected wild-type mice was intact in 43-kD monomers by reducing SDS-PAGE. By contrast, proteolytic fragments of 35, 17, and 8 kD were found in infected SP-D(low)serpinB1(-/-), SP-D(high) serpinB1(-/-) mice, and serpinB1(-/-) mice. Thus, although therapies to increase lung concentration of SP-D may have beneficial applications, the findings suggest that therapy with SP-D may not be beneficial for lung inflammation or infection if the underlying clinical condition includes excess proteolysis. PMID:23024061

  10. Evidence for the eta_b(1S) in the Decay Upsilon(2S)-> gamma eta_b(1S)

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2009-12-14

    We have performed a search for the {eta}{sub b}(1S) meson in the radiative decay of the {Upsilon}(2S) resonance using a sample of 91.6 million {Upsilon}(2S) events recorded with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We observe a peak in the photon energy spectrum at E{sub {gamma}} = 610.5{sub -4.3}{sup +4.5}(stat) {+-} 1.8(syst) MeV, corresponding to an {eta}{sub b}(1S) mass of 9392.9{sub -4.8}{sup +4.6}(stat) {+-} 1.9(syst) MeV/c{sup 2}. The branching fraction for the decay {Upsilon}(2S) {yields} {gamma}{eta}{sub b}(1S) is determined to be (4.2{sub -1.0}{sup +1.1}(stat) {+-} 0.9(syst)) x 10{sup -4}. The ratio {Beta}({Upsilon}(2S) {yields} {gamma}{eta}{sub b}(1S))/{Beta}({Upsilon}(3S) {yields} {gamma}{eta}{sub b}(1S)) = 0.89{sub -0.23}{sup +0.25}(stat){sub -0.16}{sup +0.12}(syst) is consistent with the ratio expected for magnetic dipole transitions to the {eta}{sub b}(1S) meson.

  11. The 1990 vertical distribution of two important halons (F-12B1 and F-13B1) in the tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, O. N.; Borchers, R.; Lal, Shyam; Subbarya, B. H.; Krueger, Bernd C.; Fabian, Peter

    1994-01-01

    The first vertical profiles of F-12B1 and F-13B1 had been obtained in the tropical troposphere and stratosphere by us in 1987. The measurement of these substances responsible for almost the entire anthropogenic contribution to the stratospheric BrO(x) budget is important in the tropics, as tropical upwelling provides their injection along with that of other pollutants, into the stratosphere. To ascertain the trends of these distributions and foster the data, the 1987 experiment was repeated in April 1990. Like 1987, the MPAE cryogenic whole air sampler was launched on a balloon from Hyderabad, India (17.5 deg N), and 14 samples were collected between 10 and 35 km altitude. The results obtained by means of GC and GC-MS analyses showed that the atmospheric abundance of both F-12B1 and F-13B1 is increasing at a fast rate, respectively by about 15 percent and 10 percent per year. From 1987 to 1990, F-12B1 and F-13B1 tropospheric mixing ratios have been growing from 1.2 and 1.3 ppt to 1.8 and 1.7 ppt, respectively. The vertical profiles will be discussed.

  12. Micromechanical Modeling of Impact Damage Mechanisms in Unidirectional Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qinghua; Wang, Zhenqing

    2016-05-01

    Composite laminates are susceptible to the transverse impact loads resulting in significant damage such as matrix cracking, fiber breakage and delamination. In this paper, a micromechanical model is developed to predict the impact damage of composite laminates based on microstructure and various failure models of laminates. The fiber and matrix are represented by the isotropic and elastic-plastic solid, and their impact failure behaviors are modeled based on shear damage model. The delaminaton failure is modeling by the interface element controlled by cohesive damage model. Impact damage mechanisms of laminate are analyzed by using the micromechanical model proposed. In addition, the effects of impact energy and laminated type on impact damage behavior of laminates are investigated. Due to the damage of the surrounding matrix near the impact point caused by the fiber deformation, the surface damage area of laminate is larger than the area of ​​impact projectile. The shape of the damage area is roughly rectangle or elliptical with the major axis extending parallel to the fiber direction in the surface layer of laminate. The alternating laminated type with two fiber directions is more propitious to improve the impact resistance of laminates.

  13. Oxidation behavior and mechanical properties of laminated Hf-Ta coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yung-I.; Huang, Yu-Ren; Chang, Li-Chun

    2015-11-01

    This study explores the internal oxidation of laminated Hf-Ta coatings with a cyclically gradient chemical concentration distribution along the growth direction. The oxidation behavior was examined by annealing the coatings at 400-600 °C in a 15 ppm O2-N2 atmosphere for 30 min. The variations in crystalline structure, nanohardness, chemical states, and chemical composition profiles in depth after various annealing conditions were investigated. The results indicate that all the Hf-Ta coatings maintain a laminated structure after annealing at 400-600 °C. Internal oxidation conducts during 500 and 600 °C annealing, but part of the outmost layers exhibits complex oxides after annealing at 600 °C. The nanohardness of annealed Hf-Ta coatings related to the formation of HfO2, Hf6Ta2O17, and amorphous Ta-oxide were studied.

  14. Association of Endophilin B1 with Cytoplasmic Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Barylko, Barbara; Eichorst, John P; Mueller, Joachim D; Albanesi, Joseph P; Chen, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Endophilins are SH3- and BAR domain-containing proteins implicated in membrane remodeling and vesicle formation. Endophilins A1 and A2 promote the budding of endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane, whereas endophilin B1 has been implicated in vesicle budding from intracellular organelles, including the trans-Golgi network and late endosomes. We previously reported that endophilins A1 and A2 exist almost exclusively as soluble dimers in the cytosol. Here, we present results of fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy analyses indicating that, in contrast, the majority of endophilin B1 is present in multiple copies on small, highly mobile cytoplasmic vesicles. Formation of these vesicles was enhanced by overexpression of wild-type dynamin 2, but suppressed by expression of a catalytically inactive dynamin 2 mutant. Using dual-color heterospecies partition analysis, we identified the epidermal growth factor receptor on endophilin B1 vesicles. Moreover, a proportion of endophilin B1 vesicles also contained caveolin, whereas clathrin was almost undetectable on those vesicles. These results raise the possibility that endophilin B1 participates in dynamin 2-dependent formation of a population of transport vesicles distinct from those generated by A-type endophilins. PMID:27508440

  15. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in natural products.

    PubMed

    Prado, Guilherme; Altoé, Aline F; Gomes, Tatiana C B; Leal, Alexandre S; Morais, Vanessa A D; Oliveira, Marize S; Ferreira, Marli B; Gomes, Mateus B; Paschoal, Fabiano N; von S Souza, Rafael; Silva, Daniela A; Cruz Madeira, Jovita E G

    2012-10-01

    The media claims for the consumption of natural resource-based food have gradually increased in both developing and developed countries. The interest in the safety of these products is partially due to the possible presence of toxigenic fungi acting as mycotoxin producers, such as aflatoxins produced during the secondary metabolism of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Aflatoxins, mainly aflatoxin B1, are directly associated with liver cancer in human beings. This paper is aimed at evaluating the presence of aflatoxin B1 in a few vegetable drugs, dried plant extracts and industrialized products traded in 2010 in the city of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The method used for the quantification of aflatoxin B1 was based on extraction through acetone:water (85:15), immunoaffinity column purification followed by separation and detection in high efficiency liquid chromatography. Under the conditions of analysis, the Limits of Detection and Quantification were 0.6 µg kg(-1) and 1.0 µg kg(-1) respectively. The complete sets of analyses were carried out in duplicate. Aflatoxin B1 was noticed in a single sample (< 1.0 µg kg(-1)). The results revealed low aflatoxin B1 contamination in the products under analysis. However, it is required to establish a broad monitoring program in order to obtain additional data and check up on the actual extension of contamination. PMID:24031973

  16. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in natural products

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Guilherme; Altoé, Aline F.; Gomes, Tatiana C. B.; Leal, Alexandre S.; Morais, Vanessa A. D.; Oliveira, Marize S.; Ferreira, Marli B.; Gomes, Mateus B.; Paschoal, Fabiano N.; von S. Souza, Rafael; Silva, Daniela A.; Cruz Madeira, Jovita E. G.

    2012-01-01

    The media claims for the consumption of natural resource-based food have gradually increased in both developing and developed countries. The interest in the safety of these products is partially due to the possible presence of toxigenic fungi acting as mycotoxin producers, such as aflatoxins produced during the secondary metabolism of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Aflatoxins, mainly aflatoxin B1, are directly associated with liver cancer in human beings. This paper is aimed at evaluating the presence of aflatoxin B1 in a few vegetable drugs, dried plant extracts and industrialized products traded in 2010 in the city of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The method used for the quantification of aflatoxin B1 was based on extraction through acetone:water (85:15), immunoaffinity column purification followed by separation and detection in high efficiency liquid chromatography. Under the conditions of analysis, the Limits of Detection and Quantification were 0.6 µg kg-1 and 1.0 µg kg-1 respectively. The complete sets of analyses were carried out in duplicate. Aflatoxin B1 was noticed in a single sample (< 1.0 µg kg-1). The results revealed low aflatoxin B1 contamination in the products under analysis. However, it is required to establish a broad monitoring program in order to obtain additional data and check up on the actual extension of contamination. PMID:24031973

  17. Maintaining proper dental records.

    PubMed

    Leeuw, Wilhemina

    2014-01-01

    Referred to as Standard of Care, the legal duty of a dentist requires exercising the degree of skill and care that would be exhibited by other prudent dentists faced with the same patient-care situation. Primarily, the goal of keeping good dental records is to maintain continuity of care. Diligent and complete documentation and charting procedures are essential to fulfilling the Standard of Care. Secondly, because dental records are considered legal documents they help protect the interest of the dentist and/or the patient by establishing the details of the services rendered. Patients today are better educated and more assertive than ever before and dentists must be equipped to protect themselves against malpractice claims. Every record component must be handled as if it could be summoned to a court room and scrutinized by an attorney, judge or jury. Complete, accurate, objective and honest entries in a patient record are the only way to defend against any clinical and/or legal problems that might arise. Most medical and dental malpractice claims arise from an unfavorable interaction with the dentist and not from a poor treatment outcome. By implementing the suggestions mentioned in this course, dental health care professionals can minimize the legal risks associated with the delivery of dental care to promote greater understanding for patients of their rights and privileges to their complete record. PMID:24834675

  18. Transverse shear stiffness of laminated anisotropic shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    Equations are derived for the transverse shear stiffness of laminated anisotropic shells. Without making assumptions for thickness distribution for either transverse shear stresses or strains, constitutive equations for the transverse shear deformation theory of anisotropic heterogeneous shells are found. The equations are based on Taylor series expansions about a generic point for stress resultants and couples, identically satisfying plate equilibrium equations. These equations are used to find statically correct expressions for in-surface stresses, transverse shear stresses, and the area density of transverse shear strain energy, in terms of transverse shear stress resultants and redundants. The application of Castigliano's theorem of least work minimizes shear strain energy with respect to the redundants. Examples are presented for several laminated walls. Good agreement is found between the results and those of exact three-dimensional elasticity solutions for the cylindrical bending of a plate.

  19. Indirect laminate veneer: a conservative novel approach.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Paranjay; Sethuraman, Rajesh; Naveen, Y G; Patel, Jayanti R

    2013-01-01

    Various treatment options and materials are available for restoration of an endodontically treated tooth. Laminate veneer is conservative treatment usually employed for aesthetic correction or improvement. The indirect composite is available in a wide range of shades and specific characterisation is easily performed chair side in the operatory area, which makes it a quick procedure and time saving for both the patient and the dentist. The physical properties and optical properties are good enough to use it as indirect restorative material, so in this particular case it was the material of choice for fabrication of laminate veneer on anterior tooth. In this case, the endodontically treated tooth with a fractured incisal edge was restored with indirect composite material. PMID:23975914

  20. Investigating Delamination Migration in Composite Tape Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliffe, James G.; DeCarvalho, Nelson V.

    2014-01-01

    A modification to a recently developed test specimen designed to investigate migration of a delamination between neighboring ply interfaces in tape laminates is presented. The specimen is a cross-ply laminated beam consisting of 40 plies with a polytetrafluoroethylene insert spanning part way along its length. The insert is located between a lower 0-degree ply (specimen length direction) and a stack of four 90-degree plies (specimen width direction). The modification involved a stacking sequence that promotes stable delamination growth prior to migration, and included a relocation of the insert from the specimen midplane to the interface between plies 14 and 15. Specimens were clamped at both ends onto a rigid baseplate and loaded on their upper surface via a piano hinge assembly, resulting in a predominantly flexural loading condition. Tests were conducted with the load-application point positioned at various locations along a specimen's span. This position affected the sequence of damage events during a test.

  1. Thermal stresses in thick laminated composite shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, F. G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper provides an analytical formulation to investigate the thermomechanical behavior of thick composite shells subjected to a temperature distribution which varies arbitrarily in the radial direction. For illustrative purposes, shells under uniform temperature change are presented. It is found that thermal twist would occur even for symmetric laminated shells. Under uniform temperature rise, results for off-axis graphite/epoxy shells show that extensional-shear coupling can cause tensile radial stress throughout the shell and tensile hoop stress in the inner region. Laminated graphite/epoxy shells can exhibit negative effective thermal expansion coefficients in the longitudinal and transverse directions. Finally, the stacking sequence has a strong influence on the thermal stress distributions.

  2. Laminated grid and web magnetic cores

    DOEpatents

    Sefko, John; Pavlik, Norman M.

    1984-01-01

    A laminated magnetic core characterized by an electromagnetic core having core legs which comprise elongated apertures and edge notches disposed transversely to the longitudinal axis of the legs, such as high reluctance cores with linear magnetization characteristics for high voltage shunt reactors. In one embodiment the apertures include compact bodies of microlaminations for more flexibility and control in adjusting permeability and/or core reluctance.

  3. Process Yields Strong, Void-Free Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, L. E.; Covington, E. W., III; Dale, W. J.; Hall, E. T., Jr; Justice, J. E.; Taylor, E. C.; Wilson, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Need for lightweight materials as structural components for future space transportation systems stimulated development of systematic method for manufacturing a polyimide/graphite composite. Laminates manufactured by process are void-free, exhibit excellent thermo-oxidative stability up to 315 degrees C (600 degrees F) and are 40 percent lighter than aluminum. Process is precise, repeatable, and ideally suited for researchers and small-lot producers of composite materials.

  4. Triangular Element For Analyzing Elasticity Of Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C. Wayne; Lung, S. F.; Gupta, K. K.

    1991-01-01

    Flat triangular element developed for use in finite-element analyses of stress and strain in laminated plates made of such materials as plywood or advanced fiber/epoxy composite materials. Has multiple layers, each of which can have different isotropic or orthotropic elastic properties. Many such elements used in finite-element mesh to calculate stiffness of plate. Formulation of element straight-forward, and calculation of its stiffness matrix simple and fast.

  5. Nondimensional impact models for composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, B. V.; Nguyen, P. T.; Ku, C.

    1990-01-01

    The equations governing the problem of low-velocity impact of a simply supported rectangular laminated plate are nondimensionalized such that the problem is defined in terms of five dimensionless parameters. A parametric study using the Graeco-Latin Factorial Plan is performed. Semi-empirical formulas for maximum impact force, impact duration, and maximum back surface strains are obtained. It is found that some of the simple impact models provide the bounds for the case of impact on a finite extent plate.

  6. Characteristics of laminates with delamination control strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, C. T.; Goering, J. C.; Alper, J. M.; Gause, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    Tough resin is needed to resist delamination crack propagation. However, modulus often has to be compromised because it is difficult to retain both high modulus and toughness in a matrix material. A potential solution is to use a hybrid system in which tough resin strips are included within a conventional matrix composite. By adjusting the spacing of the tough resin strips, maximum delamination size can be controlled. Experimental results for impact damage and subsequent damage propagation in laminates containing tough resin strips are reported. Plain adhesive strips and fiber-reinforced tough resin composite strips were used in constructing the hybrid laminates. Test results indicated that size of delamination inflicted by impact was confined between the tough resin strips. As a result, significantly increased residual compressive strength was obtained. Impacted laminates containing tough resin strips were also fatigue tested. It was found that these strips reduced the growth of the impact damage area relative to the growth seen in coupons with no tough resin strips. Damage growth from an open hole under tension fatigue was evaluated using both tough resin strips and glass fiber reinforced tough resin strips. Unreinforced tough resin strips retarded delamination growth from the open hole, but did not stop matrix cracks growing in the fiber direction. Fiber reinforced tough resin strips did not contain axial delamination growth from the open hole. However, they did act as crack arresters, stopping the through-the-thickness tension crack originating from the hole.

  7. Modeling Composite Laminate Crushing for Crash Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David C.; Jones, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Crash modeling of composite structures remains limited in application and has not been effectively demonstrated as a predictive tool. While the global response of composite structures may be well modeled, when composite structures act as energy-absorbing members through direct laminate crushing the modeling accuracy is greatly reduced. The most efficient composite energy absorbing structures, in terms of energy absorbed per unit mass, are those that absorb energy through a complex progressive crushing response in which fiber and matrix fractures on a small scale dominate the behavior. Such failure modes simultaneously include delamination of plies, failure of the matrix to produce fiber bundles, and subsequent failure of fiber bundles either in bending or in shear. In addition, the response may include the significant action of friction, both internally (between delaminated plies or fiber bundles) or externally (between the laminate and the crushing surface). A figure shows the crushing damage observed in a fiberglass composite tube specimen, illustrating the complexity of the response. To achieve a finite element model of such complex behavior is an extremely challenging problem. A practical crushing model based on detailed modeling of the physical mechanisms of crushing behavior is not expected in the foreseeable future. The present research describes attempts to model composite crushing behavior using a novel hybrid modeling procedure. Experimental testing is done is support of the modeling efforts, and a test specimen is developed to provide data for validating laminate crushing models.

  8. Hygrothermal stability of laminated CFRP composite mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryor, Mark K.

    2000-07-01

    This paper is intended to address accuracy issues associated with hygrothermal stability of ultra-lightweight composite mirror structures. Hygrothermal stability of a mirror is ultimately defined as its optical performance when subjected to temperature or moisture variations. Stability is dictated by a combination of material behavior and geometric configuration. Ideally, an isotropic material could be used that is lightweight, has high stiffness, and has no response to temperature or moisture variances. This type of material would therefore be independent of geometry. Quasi-isotropic laminated CFRP composite materials offer most of these characteristics, but are transversely isotropic with near zero hygrothermal response in the plane of the laminate and a relatively high response through the thickness. Typically, mirrors made from laminated material consist of a thin curved shell supported by an array of ribs. Interference problems arise at the rib/shell interface resulting in a `print-through' effect by the ribs. Also, adhesive used to bond the ribs to the shell pull the shell causing additional `print-through'. Additional sources of instabilities result from material variances, processing, and assembly. These multiple sources of instabilities superimpose onto each other resulting in the structures overall hygrothermal stability.

  9. Superconductivity in Ca-doped graphene laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, J.; Su, Y.; Howard, C. A.; Kundys, D.; Grigorenko, A. N.; Guinea, F.; Geim, A. K.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Nair, R. R.

    2016-03-01

    Despite graphene’s long list of exceptional electronic properties and many theoretical predictions regarding the possibility of superconductivity in graphene, its direct and unambiguous experimental observation has not been achieved. We searched for superconductivity in weakly interacting, metal decorated graphene crystals assembled into so-called graphene laminates, consisting of well separated and electronically decoupled graphene crystallites. We report robust superconductivity in all Ca-doped graphene laminates. They become superconducting at temperatures (Tc) between ≈4 and ≈6 K, with Tc’s strongly dependent on the confinement of the Ca layer and the induced charge carrier concentration in graphene. We find that Ca is the only dopant that induces superconductivity in graphene laminates above 1.8 K among several dopants used in our experiments, such as potassium, caesium and lithium. By revealing the tunability of the superconducting response through doping and confinement of the metal layer, our work shows that achieving superconductivity in free-standing, metal decorated monolayer graphene is conditional on an optimum confinement of the metal layer and sufficient doping, thereby bringing its experimental realization within grasp.

  10. Distributed dynamic load on composite laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langella, A.; Lopresto, V.; Caprino, G.

    2016-05-01

    An experimental activity conducted in order to assess the impact behavior at room and low temperature of carbon fibre in vinylester resin laminates used in the shipbuilding industry, was reported. The conditions which reproduce the impact of a hull at low temperature with a solid body suspended in the water was reproduced. A test equipment was designed and realized to reproduce the real material behaviour in water to obtain a load distribution on the entire surface of the specimen. The results were obtained impacting the laminates placed between the cilyndrical steel impactor and a bag containing water. A falling weight machine, equipped with an instrumented steel impactor and a thermal chamber, was adopted for the experimental tests. The impact behaviour in hostile environments was compared to the behaviour at room temperature and the data obtained under distributed load conditions were compared with the results from concentrated loads: a completely different behaviour was observed between the two different loading conditions in terms of load-displacement curve. The effect of the impact on the laminates has been related with the delaminations, evaluated by ultrasonic scanning, and the indentation.

  11. Characteristics of laminates with delamination control strips

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, C.T.; Goering, J.C.; Alper, J.M.; Gause, L.W.

    1992-09-01

    Tough resin is needed to resist delamination crack propagation. However, modulus often has to be compromised because it is difficult to retain both high modulus and toughness in a matrix material. A potential solution is to use a hybrid system in which tough resin strips are included within a conventional matrix composite. By adjusting the spacing of the tough resin strips, maximum delamination size can be controlled. Experimental results for impact damage and subsequent damage propagation in laminates containing tough resin strips are reported. Plain adhesive strips and fiber-reinforced tough resin composite strips were used in constructing the hybrid laminates. Test results indicated that size of delamination inflicted by impact was confined between the tough resin strips. As a result, significantly increased residual compressive strength was obtained. Impacted laminates containing tough resin strips were also fatigue tested. It was found that these strips reduced the growth of the impact damage area relative to the growth seen in coupons with no tough resin strips. Damage growth from an open hole under tension fatigue was evaluated using both tough resin strips and glass fiber reinforced tough resin strips. Unreinforced tough resin strips retarded delamination growth from the open hole, but did not stop matrix cracks growing in the fiber direction. Fiber reinforced tough resin strips did not contain axial delamination growth from the open hole. However, they did act as crack arresters, stopping the through-the-thickness tension crack originating from the hole.

  12. Superconductivity in Ca-doped graphene laminates.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J; Su, Y; Howard, C A; Kundys, D; Grigorenko, A N; Guinea, F; Geim, A K; Grigorieva, I V; Nair, R R

    2016-01-01

    Despite graphene's long list of exceptional electronic properties and many theoretical predictions regarding the possibility of superconductivity in graphene, its direct and unambiguous experimental observation has not been achieved. We searched for superconductivity in weakly interacting, metal decorated graphene crystals assembled into so-called graphene laminates, consisting of well separated and electronically decoupled graphene crystallites. We report robust superconductivity in all Ca-doped graphene laminates. They become superconducting at temperatures (Tc) between ≈4 and ≈6 K, with Tc's strongly dependent on the confinement of the Ca layer and the induced charge carrier concentration in graphene. We find that Ca is the only dopant that induces superconductivity in graphene laminates above 1.8 K among several dopants used in our experiments, such as potassium, caesium and lithium. By revealing the tunability of the superconducting response through doping and confinement of the metal layer, our work shows that achieving superconductivity in free-standing, metal decorated monolayer graphene is conditional on an optimum confinement of the metal layer and sufficient doping, thereby bringing its experimental realization within grasp. PMID:26979564

  13. Superconductivity in Ca-doped graphene laminates

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, J.; Su, Y.; Howard, C. A.; Kundys, D.; Grigorenko, A. N.; Guinea, F.; Geim, A. K.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Nair, R. R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite graphene’s long list of exceptional electronic properties and many theoretical predictions regarding the possibility of superconductivity in graphene, its direct and unambiguous experimental observation has not been achieved. We searched for superconductivity in weakly interacting, metal decorated graphene crystals assembled into so-called graphene laminates, consisting of well separated and electronically decoupled graphene crystallites. We report robust superconductivity in all Ca-doped graphene laminates. They become superconducting at temperatures (Tc) between ≈4 and ≈6 K, with Tc’s strongly dependent on the confinement of the Ca layer and the induced charge carrier concentration in graphene. We find that Ca is the only dopant that induces superconductivity in graphene laminates above 1.8 K among several dopants used in our experiments, such as potassium, caesium and lithium. By revealing the tunability of the superconducting response through doping and confinement of the metal layer, our work shows that achieving superconductivity in free-standing, metal decorated monolayer graphene is conditional on an optimum confinement of the metal layer and sufficient doping, thereby bringing its experimental realization within grasp. PMID:26979564

  14. Laminate articles on biaxially textured metal substrates

    DOEpatents

    Beach, David B.; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chirayil, Thomas; Specht, Eliot D.; Goyal, Amit

    2003-12-16

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sup.1.sub.x RE.sup.2.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.3 buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0laminate article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sup.1.sub.x RE.sup.2.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.3 buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sup.1.sub.x RE.sup.2.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.3 buffer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (R.sup.1.sub.x RE.sup.2.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.3 buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  15. Metabolism of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride in Pseudomonas strain B1.

    PubMed Central

    van Ginkel, C G; van Dijk, J B; Kroon, A G

    1992-01-01

    A bacterium (strain B1) utilizing hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride as a carbon and energy source was isolated from activated sludge and tentatively identified as a Pseudomonas sp. This bacterium only grew on alkyltrimethylammonium salts (C12 to C22) and possible intermediates of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride breakdown such as hexadecanoate and acetate. Pseudomonas strain B1 did not grow on amines. Simultaneous adaptation studies suggested that the bacterium oxidized only the alkyl chain of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride. This was confirmed by the stoichiometric formation of trimethylamine from hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride. The initial hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride oxygenase activity, measured by its ability to form trimethylamine, was NAD(P)H and O2 dependent. Finally, assays of aldehyde dehydrogenase, hexadecanoyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, and isocitrate lyase in cell extracts revealed the potential of Pseudomonas strain B1 to metabolize the alkyl chain via beta-oxidation. PMID:1444422

  16. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  17. Transmission and Demographic Dynamics of Coxsackievirus B1.

    PubMed

    Chu, Pei-Yu; Tyan, Yu-Chang; Chen, Yao-Shen; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Lu, Po-Liang; Chen, Yu-Hsien; Chen, Bao-Chen; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Wang, Chu-Feng; Su, Hui-Ju; Shi, Yong-Ying; Sanno-Duanda, Bintou; Lin, Kuei-Hsiang; Motomura, Kazushi

    2015-01-01

    The infectious activity of coxsackievirus B1 (CV-B1) in Taiwan was high from 2008 to 2010, following an alarming increase in severe neonate disease in the United States (US). To examine the relationship between CV-B1 strains isolated in Taiwan and those from other parts of the world, we performed a phylodynamic study using VP1 and partial 3Dpol (414 nt) sequences from 22 strains of CV-B1 isolated in Taiwan (1989-2010) and compared them to sequences from strains isolated worldwide. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain methods. Four genotypes (GI-IV) in the VP1 region of CV-B1 and three genotypes (GA-C) in the 3Dpol region of enterovirus B were identified and had high support values. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that the GI and GIII strains in VP1 were geographically distributed in Taiwan (1993-1994) and in India (2007-2009). On the other hand, the GII and GIV strains appear to have a wider spatiotemporal distribution and ladder-like topology A stair-like phylogeny was observed in the VP1 region indicating that the phylogeny of the virus may be affected by different selection pressures in the specified regions. Further, most of the GI and GII strains in the VP1 tree were clustered together in GA in the 3D tree, while the GIV strains diverged into GB and GC. Taken together, these data provide important insights into the population dynamics of CV-B1 and indicate that incongruencies in specific gene regions may contribute to spatiotemporal patterns of epidemicity for this virus. PMID:26053872

  18. Base substitution mutations induced by metabolically activated aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Foster, P L; Eisenstadt, E; Miller, J H

    1983-05-01

    We have determined the base substitutions generated by metabolically activated aflatoxin B1 in the lacI gene of a uvrB- strain of Escherichia coli. By monitoring over 70 different nonsense mutation sites, we show that activated aflatoxin B1 specifically induced GxC leads to TxA transversions. One possible pathway leading to this base change involves depurination at guanine residues. We consider this mechanism of mutagenesis in the light of our other findings that the carcinogens benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide and N-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene also specifically induce GxC leads to TxA transversions. PMID:6405385

  19. Homogenized Creep Behavior of CFRP Laminates at High Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuta, Y.; Matsuda, T.; Kawai, M.

    In this study, creep behavior of a CFRP laminate subjected to a constant stress is analyzed based on the time-dependent homogenization theory developed by the present authors. The laminate is a unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy laminate T800H/#3631 manufactured by Toray Industries, Inc. Two kinds of creep analyses are performed. First, 45° off-axis creep deformation of the laminate at high temperature (100°C) is analyzed with three kinds of creep stress levels, respectively. It is shown that the present theory accurately predicts macroscopic creep behavior of the unidirectional CFRP laminate observed in experiments. Then, high temperature creep deformations at a constant creep stress are simulated with seven kinds of off-axis angles, i.e., θ = 0°, 10°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, 90°. It is shown that the laminate has marked in-plane anisotropy with respect to the creep behavior.

  20. Phosphorylation of lamins determine their structural properties and signaling functions

    PubMed Central

    Torvaldson, Elin; Kochin, Vitaly; Eriksson, John E

    2015-01-01

    Lamin A/C is part of the nuclear lamina, a meshwork of intermediate filaments underlying the inner nuclear membrane. The lamin network is anchoring a complex set of structural and linker proteins and is either directly or through partner proteins also associated or interacting with a number of signaling protein and transcription factors. During mitosis the nuclear lamina is dissociated by well established phosphorylation- dependent mechanisms. A-type lamins are, however, also phosphorylated during interphase. A recent study identified 20 interphase phosphorylation sites on lamin A/C and explored their functions related to lamin dynamics; movements, localization and solubility. Here we discuss these findings in the light of lamin functions in health and disease. PMID:25793944

  1. Lamin A is not synthesized as a larger precursor polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Lebel, S; Raymond, Y

    1987-12-16

    Isolation of rat liver nuclei in the presence of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) led to the recovery in the final nuclear matrix of a higher molecular weight form of lamin A. The 2 kDa larger form was identified as lamin A by isoelectric point determination, recognition by an anti-lamin A and C monoclonal antibody and peptide mapping using V8 protease and N-chlorosuccinimide. The 2 kDa extension was tentatively localized to the carboxy-terminus of lamin A. Pulse-chase labeling and immunoprecipitation studies using baby hamster kidney cells showed that lysis of the cells in the presence of NEM allowed the recovery of a stable higher molecular weight form of lamin A. We conclude from these results that NEM prevented the degradation of the native form of lamin A previously thought to represent a higher molecular weight transient precursor form. PMID:3426582

  2. Echinococcus multilocularis: parasite-specific humoral and cellular immune response subsets in mouse strains susceptible (AKR, C57B1/6J) or 'resistant' (C57B1/10) to secondary alveolar echinococcosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gottstein, B; Wunderlin, E; Tanner, I

    1994-01-01

    Parasite-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were investigated in highly susceptible (AKR and C57B1/6J) and relatively resistant (C57B1/10) mice undergoing secondary alveolar echinococcosis (infection with Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode). The parasite-specific proliferative immune response of lymph node cells upon in vitro antigen stimulation remained weak in all three mouse strains. By day 30 p.i., CD4+ lymphoblast cells dominated the total population of blast cells in all three mouse strains. There was, however, an unexpectedly high proportion of CD8+ blast cells; by day 90 p.i., a marked proportional increase in CD8+ cells was seen in susceptible (AKR and C57B1/6J), but not in resistant (C57B1/10) mice. Susceptible, but not resistant mice exhibited a significantly decreased responsiveness of lymph node cells to concanavalin A (Con A) stimulation on day 90 p.i. Analysis of the humoral immune response by ELISA showed that resistance in C57B1/10 mice was associated with the ability of the host to synthesize antibodies to Em2 of the IgG3 and IgG1 isotype. Em2 is a lectin-binding carbohydrate antigen of the laminated layer. In susceptible AKR and C57B1/6J mice, low levels of anti-Em2 antibodies of the IgG2a isotype were detected. Anti-Em2 antibodies of the IgG3/IgG1 isotype, however, were absent. Differences in subclass-specific IgG responses were confirmed by immunoblot analyses. Our findings suggest that differences in antigen recognition (with respect to subsets of humoral and cellular immune components), probably controlled by non-H-2 gene(s), coupled to immune suppression modulated by CD8+ cells and/or respective cytokines, may determine susceptibility or resistance in experimental infection with E. multilocularis. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:7910534

  3. Maintaining the unmethylated state

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A remarkable correspondence exists between the cytogenetic locations of the known fragile sites and frequently reported sites of hypermethylation. The best-known features of fragile sites are sequence motifs that are prone to the spontaneous formation of a non-B DNA structure. These facts, coupled with the known enzymological specificities of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), the ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, and the ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenases, suggest that these enzymes are involved in an epigenetic cycle that maintains the unmethylated state at these sites by resolving non-B structure, preventing both the sequestration of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and hypermethylation in normal cells. Presentation of the hypothesis The innate tendency of DNA sequences present at fragile sites to form non-B DNA structures results in de novo methylation of DNA at these sites that is held in check in normal cells by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases coupled with the action of TET dioxygenases. This constitutes a previously unrecognized epigenetic repair cycle in which spontaneously forming non-B DNA structures formed at fragile sites are methylated by DNMTs as they are removed by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, with the resulting nascent methylation rendered non-transmissible by TET dioxygenases. Testing the hypothesis A strong prediction of the hypothesis is that knockdown of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases will result in enhanced bisulfite sensitivity and hypermethylation at non-B structures in multiple fragile sites coupled with global hypomethylation. Implications of the hypothesis A key implication of the hypothesis is that helicases, like the lymphoid-specific helicase and alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked helicase, passively promote accurate maintenance of DNA methylation by preventing the sequestration of DNMTs at sites of unrepaired non-B DNA

  4. A peculiar lamin in a peculiar mammal: Expression of lamin LIII in platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus).

    PubMed

    Peter, Annette; Khandekar, Shaunak; Deakin, Janine E; Stick, Reimer

    2015-11-01

    Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) holds a unique phylogenetic position at the base of the mammalian lineage due to an amalgamation of mammalian and sauropsid-like features. Here we describe the set of four lamin genes for platypus. Lamins are major components of the nuclear lamina, which constitutes a main component of the nucleoskeleton and is involved in a wide range of nuclear functions. Vertebrate evolution was accompanied by an increase in the number of lamin genes from a single gene in their closest relatives, the tunicates and cephalochordates, to four genes in the vertebrate lineage. Of the four genes the LIII gene is characterized by the presence of two alternatively spliced CaaX-encoding exons. In amphibians and fish LIII is the major lamin protein in oocytes and early embryos. The LIII gene is conserved throughout the vertebrate lineage, with the notable exception of marsupials and placental mammals, which have lost the LIII gene. Here we show that platypus has retained an LIII gene, albeit with a significantly altered structure and with a radically different expression pattern. The platypus LIII gene contains only a single CaaX-encoding exon and the head domain together with coil 1a and part of coil1b of the platypus LIII protein is replaced by a novel short non-helical N-terminus. It is expressed exclusively in the testis. These features resemble those of male germ cell-specific lamins in placental mammals, in particular those of lamin C2. Our data suggest (i) that the specific functions of LIII, which it fulfills in all other vertebrates, is no longer required in mammals and (ii) once it had been freed from these functions has undergone structural alterations and has adopted a new functionality in monotremes. PMID:26213206

  5. A unified theory for laminated plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiamatsia Tafeuvoukeng, Irene

    A literature survey on plate and beam theories show how the advent of the finite element method and the variational method circa 1940 have been a great stimulant for the research in this field. The initial thin plate formulation has been incrementally expanded to treat the isotropic thick plate, the anisotropic single layer, and then laminated plates. It appears however that current formulations still fall into one of two categories: (1) The formulation is tailored for a specific laminate and/or loading case; (2) or the formulation is too complicated to be of practical relevance. In this work a new unifying approach to laminated plate formulation is presented. All laminated plates, including sandwich panels, subjected to any surface load and with any boundary conditions are treated within a single model. In addition, the fundamental behavior of the plate as a two-dimensional structural element is explained. The novel idea is the introduction of fundamental state solutions, which are analytical far field stress and strain solutions of the laminated plate subjected to a set of hierarchical primary loads, the fundamental loads. These loads are carefully selected to form a basis of the load space, and corresponding solutions are superposed to obtain extremely accurate predictions of the three dimensional solution. six,y,z =aklx,y sikl z where i = 1,..., 6; 1=1,...,l max is a substate of the kth fundamental state k=1,2,3,... Typically, a fundamental state solution is expressed as a through-thickness function (z), while the amplitudes of each fundamental load are found from two dimensional finite element solution as a function of in-plane coordinates (x,y). Three major contributions are produced in this work: (1) A complete calibration of the plate as a two-dimensional structure is performed with pure bending and constant shear fundamental states. (2) There are four independent ways to apply a constant shear resultant on a plate, as opposed to one for a beam. This makes

  6. Fracture behavior of thick, laminated graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. E.; Morris, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of laminate thickness on the fracture behavior of laminated graphite epoxy (T300/5208) composites was studied. The predominantly experimental research program included the study of the 0/+ or - 45/90 sub ns and 0/90 sub ns laminates with thickness of 8, 32, 64, 96 and 120 plies and the 0/+ or - 45 sub ns laminate with thickness of 6, 30, 60, 90 and 120 plies. The research concentrated on the measurement of fracture toughness utilizing the center-cracked tension, compact tension and three point bend specimen configurations. The development of subcritical damage at the crack tip was studied nondestructively using enhanced X-ray radiography and destructively using the laminate deply technique. The test results showed fracture toughness to be a function of laminate thickness. The fracture toughness of the 0 + or - 45/90 sub ns and 0/90 sub ns laminates decreased with increasing thickness and asymptotically approached lower bound values of 30 ksi square root of in. (1043 MPa square root of mm and 25 ksi square root of in (869 MPa square root of mm respectively. In contrast to the other two laminates, the fracture toughness of the 0/+ or - 45 sub ns laminate increased sharply with increasing thickness but reached an upper plateau value of 40 ksi square root of in (1390 MPa square root of mm) at 30 plies. Fracture toughness was independent of crack size for both thin and thick laminates for all three laminate types except for the 0/90 sub 2s laminate which spilt extensively. The center cracked tension, three point bend and compact tension specimens gave comparable results.

  7. Tension fatigue analysis and life prediction for composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brien, T. K.; Rigamonti, M.; Zanotti, C.

    1989-01-01

    A methodology is presented for the tension fatigue analysis and life prediction of composite laminates subjected to tension fatigue loading. The methodology incorporates both the generic fracture mechanics characterization of delamination and the assessment of the infuence of damage on laminate fatigue life. Tension fatigue tests were conducted on quasi-isotropic and orthotropic glass epoxy, graphite epoxy, and glass/graphite epoxy hybrid laminates, demonstrating good agreement between measured and predicted lives.

  8. 75 FR 114 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of six section...

  9. 75 FR 5971 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of six section...

  10. 75 FR 51445 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b... July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703) 601-3740....

  11. 75 FR 30787 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b... July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703) 601-3740. The...

  12. 26 CFR 54.4980B-1 - COBRA in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for topics not addressed in §§ 54.4980B-1 through 54.4980B-10? A-2: For purposes of section 4980B, for topics relating to the COBRA continuation coverage requirements of section 4980B that are not...

  13. In vivo formation of N-acyl-fumonisin B1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are fungal toxins found in corn and in corn-based foods. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the most common and is toxic to animals, causes cancer in rodents, and is a suspected risk factor for cancer and birth defects in humans. The hydrolyzed form of FB1 (HFB1) also occurs in foods and is metabolize...

  14. 78 FR 62597 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  15. 78 FR 62600 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  16. 77 FR 75617 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  17. 78 FR 62588 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  18. 77 FR 42704 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  19. 78 FR 15004 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  20. 78 FR 62590 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text...

  1. 78 FR 62592 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  2. 77 FR 51780 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text...

  3. 78 FR 72066 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text...

  4. 78 FR 62594 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  5. 26 CFR 31.3231(b)-1 - Who are employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3231(b)-1... he was employed or its corporate or operating successor, but (1) solely by reason of his physical...

  6. 75 FR 9182 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD...)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated...

  7. 76 FR 18731 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD...)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of...

  8. 76 FR 8716 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD...)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of...

  9. 76 FR 18726 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD...)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of...

  10. 75 FR 11865 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD...)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated...

  11. Determination of aflatoxin B1 in pistachio kernels and shells.

    PubMed

    Scholten, J M; Spanjer, M C

    1996-01-01

    A method was developed for accurate measurement of aflatoxin B1 in the edible portion of pistachio nuts. Twenty-nine samples of kernels with and without their shells were slurried with a Mega Ultra Turrax. A subsample of the homogenate was extracted with water-methanol, defatted with petroleum ether, purified with a silica solid-phase extraction column, and redissolved in methanol. After separation on an octadecyl column and postcolumn reaction with on-line electrochemically generated bromine, the aflatoxin B1 derivative was detected fluorometrically. The shells contained less than 1% of the aflatoxin B1 found in the edible kernel, and they accounted for 41.7-46.8% of the weight of the whole pistachio. These observations indicate it is possible to analyze an entire sample, up to 25 kg, as a whole and still be able to judge whether it meets the legal tolerance limit of 5 micrograms aflatoxin B1/kg edible part, as set by the Dutch Food Act. PMID:8946714

  12. Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin B1 in flour production.

    PubMed

    Halt, M

    1994-10-01

    This paper discusses the results of investigations of contamination with aflatoxin-producing fungi and aflatoxin B1 affecting 545 samples of wheat grains, 475 samples of intermediate products of wheat grain being milled to flour (like middlings) and 238 samples of flour. A significant contamination with moulds was detected in analyzed samples. Although Aspergillus (34.87%) and Penicillium (32.37%) dominated, other types were also present, e.g., Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Alternaria, Rhizopus, Absidia and Trichoderma (listed in order of frequency). The presence of Aspergillus flavus, the known aflatoxin producer, was detected in 9.94% of analyzed samples. Isolates of A. Flavus were capable of producing aflatoxin B1 under favourable conditions. Aflatoxin B1 was found in 76.8% of samples contaminated with A. flavus. The highest contamination with aflatoxin B1 was detected in wheat grain samples (mean value of 16.3 micrograms/kg) and in intermediate products of wheat grain being milled to flour (mean value of 11.13 micrograms/kg). Contamination was lower in flour samples (mean value of 4.13 micrograms/kg). With regard to proposed standards given by the FAO and WHO, under which the content of aflatoxin should not exceed 30 micrograms/kg in food products, only two of 96 samples did not meet these criteria. PMID:7859854

  13. 32 CFR 806b.1 - Summary of revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... systems subject to the Privacy Act, includes guidance on sending personal information via e-mail; adds procedures on complaints; and provides guidance on recall rosters; social rosters; consent statements... PROGRAM Overview of the Privacy Act Program § 806b.1 Summary of revisions. This part moves...

  14. 76 FR 66044 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... support. (iv) Military Department: Navy (LHG). (v) Prior Related Cases: Multiple cases dating back to...

  15. 76 FR 72184 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... Related Cases, if any: numerous cases dating back to 1995. (vi) Sales Commission, Fee, etc., Paid,...

  16. 77 FR 60387 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of...

  17. 77 FR 60384 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of...

  18. 77 FR 60391 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of...

  19. Impact damage resistance of thin stitched carbon/epoxy laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesconi, L.; Aymerich, F.

    2015-07-01

    The study examines the influence of through-thickness stitching on the damage response of thin cross-ply carbon/epoxy laminates subjected to low-velocity impacts. Instrumented impact tests were carried out on unstitched and polyethylene stitched laminates and the resulting damage was assessed in detail by X-radiography analyses. The results of the observations carried out during the experimental analyses are illustrated and discussed to identify the mechanical role played by through-thickness reinforcement and to highlight the influence of the laminate layup on the impact resistance of stitched laminates.

  20. Mapping of lamin A- and progerin-interacting genome regions.

    PubMed

    Kubben, Nard; Adriaens, Michiel; Meuleman, Wouter; Voncken, Jan Willem; van Steensel, Bas; Misteli, Tom

    2012-10-01

    Mutations in the A-type lamins A and C, two major components of the nuclear lamina, cause a large group of phenotypically diverse diseases collectively referred to as laminopathies. These conditions often involve defects in chromatin organization. However, it is unclear whether A-type lamins interact with chromatin in vivo and whether aberrant chromatin-lamin interactions contribute to disease. Here, we have used an unbiased approach to comparatively map genome-wide interactions of gene promoters with lamin A and progerin, the mutated lamin A isoform responsible for the premature aging disorder Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) in mouse cardiac myoytes and embryonic fibroblasts. We find that lamin A-associated genes are predominantly transcriptionally silent and that loss of lamin association leads to the relocation of peripherally localized genes, but not necessarily to their activation. We demonstrate that progerin induces global changes in chromatin organization by enhancing interactions with a specific subset of genes in addition to the identified lamin A-associated genes. These observations demonstrate disease-related changes in higher order genome organization in HGPS and provide novel insights into the role of lamin-chromatin interactions in chromatin organization. PMID:22610065

  1. Cured shape prediction of the bistable hybrid composite laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Fu-hong; Zhang, Bo-ming; Du, Shan-yi

    2009-07-01

    A bistable unsymmetric hybrid composite laminate with quite high stiffness and large shape change is presented. Rayleigh-Ritz method is used to predict the cured shape and the predited results agree well with the experimentals. The critical loads switching between different shapes are tested. It shows that the critical load for hybrid composite laminates increases greatly (up to 10 times) compared with the pure fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite laminates. The influence of different geometric and material properites on the bistable shape is discussed. It reveals that the present hybrid bistable laminate is more designable and miscellaneous.

  2. Lamins position the nuclear pores and centrosomes by modulating dynein

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuxuan; Zheng, Yixian

    2015-01-01

    Lamins, the type V nuclear intermediate filament proteins, are reported to function in both interphase and mitosis. For example, lamin deletion in various cell types can lead to an uneven distribution of the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) in the interphase nuclear envelope, whereas deletion of B-type lamins results in spindle orientation defects in mitotic neural progenitor cells. How lamins regulate these functions is unknown. Using mouse cells deleted of different combinations or all lamins, we show that lamins are required to prevent the aggregation of NPCs in the nuclear envelope near centrosomes in late G2 and prophase. This asymmetric NPC distribution in the absence of lamins is caused by dynein forces acting on NPCs via the dynein adaptor BICD2. We further show that asymmetric NPC distribution upon lamin depletion disrupts the distribution of BICD2 and p150 dynactin on the nuclear envelope at prophase, which results in inefficient dynein-driven centrosome separation during prophase. Therefore lamins regulate microtubule-based motor forces in vivo to ensure proper NPC distribution in interphase and centrosome separation in the mitotic prophase. PMID:26246603

  3. Sound transmission into a laminated composite cylindrical shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koval, L. R.

    1980-01-01

    In the context of the transmission of airborne noise into an aircraft fuselage, a mathematical model is presented for the transmission of an oblique plane sound wave into a laminated composite circular cylindrical shell. Numerical results are obtained for geometry typical of a narrow-bodied jet transport. Results indicate that from the viewpoint of noise attenuation on laminated composite shell does not appear to offer any significant advantage over an aluminum shell. However, the transmission loss of a laminated composite shell is sensitive to the orientation of the fibers and this suggests the possibility of using a laminated composite shell to tailor the noise attenuation characteristics to meet a specific need.

  4. Mechanical model of blebbing in nuclear lamin meshworks

    PubMed Central

    Funkhouser, Chloe M.; Sknepnek, Rastko; Shimi, Takeshi; Goldman, Anne E.; Goldman, Robert D.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Much of the structural stability of the nucleus comes from meshworks of intermediate filament proteins known as lamins forming the inner layer of the nuclear envelope called the nuclear lamina. These lamin meshworks additionally play a role in gene expression. Abnormalities in nuclear shape are associated with a variety of pathologies, including some forms of cancer and Hutchinson–Gilford Progeria Syndrome, and often include protruding structures termed nuclear blebs. These nuclear blebs are thought to be related to pathological gene expression; however, little is known about how and why blebs form. We have developed a minimal continuum elastic model of a lamin meshwork that we use to investigate which aspects of the meshwork could be responsible for bleb formation. Mammalian lamin meshworks consist of two types of lamin proteins, A type and B type, and it has been reported that nuclear blebs are enriched in A-type lamins. Our model treats each lamin type separately and thus, can assign them different properties. Nuclear blebs have been reported to be located in regions where the fibers in the lamin meshwork have a greater separation, and we find that this greater separation of fibers is an essential characteristic for generating nuclear blebs. The model produces structures with comparable morphologies and distributions of lamin types as real pathological nuclei. Thus, preventing this opening of the meshwork could be a route to prevent bleb formation, which could be used as a potential therapy for the pathologies associated with nuclear blebs. PMID:23401537

  5. Residual stress and crack propagation in laminated composites

    SciTech Connect

    Yttergren, R.M.F.; Zeng, K.; Rowcliffe, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Residual stress distributions in several laminated ceramic composites were measured by an indentation technique. The material included alumina-zirconia laminated composites, containing strong interfaces, and alumina-porcelain laminated composites with both weak and strong interfaces. The residual stress in these material originates from the mismatch of the thermal properties, differences in elastic properties, and different shrinkage of the laminates during sintering. An experimental technique is presented which gives a direct view of the residual stress state in the materials. Values of residual tensile stress are presented as a function of position relative to the interface in each material.

  6. The Displacement Perspective During Ultimate Failure of Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, P.; Bhar, A.

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the studies on the state of displacement of symmetric and anti-symmetric angle-ply and cross-ply laminated composite plates during its ultimate failure, subjected to transverse static load. First-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) is employed in conjunction with the finite element approach using eight-noded quadratic isoparametric element. The free vibration analyses of isotropic and laminated composite plates are carried out to ensure the overall validity of the present finite element formulation. The mid surface of the laminate is considered as the reference plane. The principal material directions in different laminae are oriented to produce a laminated structural element capable of resisting loads in several directions. The stiffness of a composite laminate is obtained from the properties of the constituent laminae. The affected stiffness of the failed lamina is discarded completely after the failure of weakest ply. The rigidity matrix of the laminate with remaining laminae is re-established. The re-evaluation process continues until the laminate fails completely. To investigate the displacement behaviour of laminates during the ultimate failure, parametric studies are carried out for different cases by varying the stacking sequences, fiber orientations, layer thicknesses, aspect ratios and the number of layers in the laminate. The comparison of results in terms of non-dimensional natural frequencies and ply-by-ply failure analyses obtained from the present investigation are made with those available in the reported literature.

  7. Extrinsic fracture mechanisms in two laminated metal composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.; Syn, C.; Riddle, R.; Sherby, O.

    1994-11-29

    The crack growth behavior and fracture toughness of two laminated metal composites (6090/SiC/25p laminated with 5182 and ultrahigh-carbon steel laminated with brass) have been studied in both ``crack arrester`` and ``crack divider`` orientations. The mechanisms of crack growth were analyzed and extrinsic toughening mechanisms were found to contribute significantly to the toughness. The influence of laminate architecture (layer thickness and component volume function), component material properties and residual stress on these mechanisms and the resulting crack growth resistance are discussed.

  8. Association between Kinin B1 Receptor Expression and Leukocyte Trafficking across Mouse Mesenteric Postcapillary Venules

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Peter G.; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Perretti, Mauro

    2000-01-01

    Using intravital microscopy, we examined the role played by B1 receptors in leukocyte trafficking across mouse mesenteric postcapillary venules in vivo. B1 receptor blockade attenuated interleukin (IL)-1β–induced (5 ng intraperitoneally, 2 h) leukocyte–endothelial cell interactions and leukocyte emigration (∼50% reduction). The B1 receptor agonist des-Arg9bradykinin (DABK), although inactive in saline- or IL-8–treated mice, caused marked neutrophil rolling, adhesion, and emigration 24 h after challenge with IL-1β (when the cellular response to IL-1β had subsided). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot revealed a temporal association between the DABK-induced response and upregulation of mesenteric B1 receptor mRNA and de novo protein expression after IL-1β treatment. DABK-induced leukocyte trafficking was antagonized by the B1 receptor antagonist des-arg10HOE 140 but not by the B2 receptor antagonist HOE 140. Similarly, DABK effects were maintained in B2 receptor knockout mice. The DABK-induced responses involved the release of neuropeptides from C fibers, as capsaicin treatment inhibited the responses. Treatment with the neurokinin (NK)1 and NK3 receptor antagonists attenuated the responses, whereas NK2, calcitonin gene-related peptide, or platelet-activating factor receptor antagonists had no effect. Substance P caused leukocyte recruitment that, similar to DABK, was inhibited by NK1 and NK3 receptor blockade. Mast cell depletion using compound 48/80 reduced DABK-induced leukocyte trafficking, and DABK treatment was shown histologically to induce mast cell degranulation. DABK-induced trafficking was inhibited by histamine H1 receptor blockade. Our findings provide clear evidence that B1 receptors play an important role in the mediation of leukocyte–endothelial cell interactions in postcapillary venules, leading to leukocyte recruitment during an inflammatory response. This involves activation of C fibers and mast cells

  9. 7 Tesla MRI with a Transmit/Receive Loopless Antenna and B1-Insensitive Selective Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Erturk, M. Arcan; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Moore, Jay; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Use of external coils with internal detectors or conductors is challenging at 7 Tesla (T) due to radiofrequency (RF) field (B1) penetration, B1-inhomogeneity, mutual coupling, and potential local RF heating. The present study tests whether the near-quadratic gains in signal-to-noise ratio and field-of-view with field-strength previously reported for internal loopless antennae at 7T can suffice to perform MRI with an interventional transmit/receive antenna without using any external coils. Methods External coils were replaced by semi-rigid or biocompatible transmit/receive loopless antennae requiring only a few Watts of peak RF power. Slice selection was provided by spatially selective B1-insensitive composite RF pulses that compensate for the antenna’s intrinsically nonuniform B1-field. Power was adjusted to maintain local temperature rise ≤1° C. Fruit, intravascular MRI of diseased human vessels in vitro, and MRI of rabbit aorta in vivo are demonstrated. Results Scout MRI with the transmit/receive antennae yielded a ≤10 cm cylindrical field-of-view, enabling subsequent targeted localization at ~100 μm resolution in 10-50 s and/or 50 μm MRI in ~2 min in vitro, and 100–300 μm MRI of the rabbit aorta in vivo. Conclusion A simple, low-power, one-device approach to interventional MRI at 7T offers the potential of truly high-resolution MRI, while avoiding issues with external coil excitation and interactions at 7T. PMID:23963978

  10. Disruption of NF-κB1 prevents bone loss caused by mechanical unloading.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hitomi; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Wataru; Alles, Neil; Nagano, Kenichi; Fukushima, Hidefumi; Osawa, Kenji; Yasuda, Hisataka; Nakamura, Ichiro; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko; Ohya, Keiichi; Maki, Kenshi; Jimi, Eijiro

    2013-06-01

    Mechanical unloading, such as in a microgravity environment in space or during bed rest (for patients who require prolonged bed rest), leads to a decrease in bone mass because of the suppression of bone formation and the stimulation of bone resorption. To address the challenges presented by a prolonged stay in space and the forthcoming era of a super-aged society, it will be important to prevent the bone loss caused by prolonged mechanical unloading. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcription factors are activated by mechanical loading and inflammatory cytokines. Our objective was to elucidate the role of NF-κB pathways in bone loss that are caused by mechanical unloading. Eight-week-old wild-type (WT) and NF-κB1-deficient mice were randomly assigned to a control or mechanically unloaded with tail suspension group. After 2 weeks, a radiographic analysis indicated a decrease in bone mass in the tibias and femurs of the unloaded WT mice but not in the NF-κB1-deficient mice. An NF-κB1 deficiency suppressed the unloading-induced reduction in bone formation by maintaining the proportion and/or potential of osteoprogenitors or immature osteoblasts, and by suppression of bone resorption through the inhibition of intracellular signaling through the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) in osteoclast precursors. Thus, NF-κB1 is involved in two aspects of rapid reduction in bone mass that are induced by disuse osteoporosis in space or bed rest. PMID:23322687

  11. 78 FR 48903 - Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... infringement of certain claims of nine patents. 78 FR 19,007. The subject products are certain laminated... industry requirement.'' 78 FR 19,008. The ALJ conducted a hearing on the domestic-industry issue on May 16... the complainant did not satisfy the economic prong of the domestic industry requirement. On...

  12. Fabrication and Optimization of Properties of Polymer Laminated Nanoreinforced Automobile Glasses: Experiments and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Sun, Xin; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes the fabrication process for the thin cast-in-place laminate glazing systems to be used in cars of the future to achieve the weight reduction goals of FreedomCAR. The primary objective of the project is to reduce vehicle weight, improve fuel economy, and reduce vehicle emissions through the use of structurally reliable, high acoustic performance and lightweight glazing systems with low manufacturing costs. Energy savings come from reducing weight by using thinner glazing: prior studies at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have demonstrated a potential of 30% weight reductions compared with standard glazing system. Energy savings will also come from reducing interior heat loads; that, in turn, will reduce the demand for air conditioning. The evaluation of alternative glazing concepts seek to improve acoustical performance such that reduced interior noise levels can be achieved while maintaining glazing at minimal thickness and weight levels. The most important factor in utilizing laminated glazing systems as vehicle side glass is its advantage in cost savings for material and manufacturing processes. To this end, a new, innovative manufacturing process is developed such that laminated glazing systems can be made with low cost in terms of raw materials and process-related equipment/facility investment.

  13. Thermal shock behavior of alumina/MoSi2 plasma sprayed laminated composites

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R. G.; Petrovic, J. J.; Vaidya, R. U.; Mendoza, D.

    2001-01-01

    Alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is very susceptible to thermal shock, which leads to strength degradation. By reinforcing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with molybdenum disilicide (MoSi{sub 2}) layers, the tolerance to damage caused by thermal shock can be improved. The thermal shock resistance of plasma sprayed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MoSi{sub 2} laminated composites were investigated. Three laminate microstructures having different layer thickness were fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying while maintaining a 50/50-volume fraction. Quenching experiments done on 4-point bend bars showed a gradual decrease in the strength as the change in temperature ({Delta}T) increased. Thermal shock resistant parameters (R{prime} and R-quadruple prime) provided a representative numerical value of the thermal shock resistance for the laminated composites. The corresponding material properties for the different microstructures were determined experimentally in order to calculate the R{prime} and R quadruple prime values. The intermediate layered composite showed the highest R-quadruple prime va1ue at 1061 {micro}m, while the thin layered composite had the highest R{prime} value at 474 W/m.

  14. Micromechanics of composite laminate compression failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, E. Gail; Bradley, Walter L.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this annual progress report is to summarize the work effort and results accomplished from July 1987 through July 1988 on NASA Research Grant NAG1-659 entitled Micromechanics of Composite Laminate Compressive Failure. The report contains: (1) the objective of the proposed research, (2) the summary of accomplishments, (3) a more extensive review of compression literature, (4) the planned material (and corresponding properties) received to date, (5) the results for three possible specimen geometries, experimental procedures planned, and current status of the experiments, and (6) the work planned for the next contract year.

  15. Strength of composite laminates under biaxial loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinton, M. J.; Soden, P. D.; Kaddour, A. S.

    1996-05-01

    Five well known failure criteria and one simple progressive model have been used in conjunction with laminate theory, which allows for nonlinear lamina shear behaviour, to predict the initial and final failure strengths of filament wound composite tubes. The predictions have been compared with experimental leakage and fracture stresses for ±75°, ±55° and ±45° filament wound GRP tubes subjected to a wide range of biaxial stress systems including biaxial compression. In some cases the fracture strengths were a factor of 10 higher than the initial failure predictions. The simple progressive failure theory predictions gave the best agreement with the experimental results.

  16. Laminated anisotropic reinforced plastic plates and shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korolev, V. I.

    1981-01-01

    Basic technical theories and engineering calculation equations for anisotropic plates and shells made of rigid reinforced plastics, mainly laminated fiberglass, are presented and discussed. Solutions are given for many problems of design of structural plates and shells, including curved sections and tanks, as well as two chapters on selection of the optimum materials, are given. Accounting for interlayer shearing and transverse separation, which are new engineering properties, are discussed. Application of the results obtained to thin three ply plates and shells wth a light elastic filler is presented and discussed.

  17. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1 - Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provisions of law and of 26 CFR (1939) Part 403 (Regulations 107). (3) Remuneration paid in 1939. Whether... accordance with the applicable provisions of law and of 26 CFR (1939) Part 400 (Regulations 90). (b) The term... §§ 31.3306(b)(1)-1 to 31.3306(b)(10)-1, inclusive) or paragraph (j) of this section. (c) The name...

  18. Improving MRI surface coil decoupling to reduce B1 distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Christian

    As clinical MRI systems continue to advance, larger focus is being given to image uniformity. Good image uniformity begins with generating uniform magnetic fields, which are easily distorted by induced currents on receive-only surface coils. It has become an industry standard to combat these induced currents by placing RF blocking networks on surface coils. This paper explores the effect of blocking network impedance of phased array surface coils on B1 distortion. It has been found and verified, that traditional approaches for blocking network design in complex phased arrays can leave undesirable B1 distortions at 3 Tesla. The traditional approach of LC tank blocking is explored, but shifts from the idea that higher impedance equals better B1 distortion at 3T. The result is a new design principle for a tank with a finite inductive reactance at the Larmor Frequency. The solution is demonstrated via simulation using a simple, single, large tuning loop. The same loop, along with a smaller loop, is used to derive the new design principle, which is then applied to a complex phased array structure.

  19. Fabrication of Multi-Ply Birefringent Fibrous Composite Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I.; Niiro, T.

    1984-01-01

    Fabrication method produces unidirectional, multi-ply, transparent birefringent fibrous composite laminates for use in macromechanical stress analysis conducted by means of anisotropic photoelasticity. New laminates glass-fiber-reinforced plastics for which matrix and fibers have same index of refraction. Method utilized in structural applications of composites.

  20. Buckling of angle-ply laminated circular cylindrical shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirano, Y.

    1979-01-01

    This note presents closed-form solutions for axisymmetrical and axially unsymmetrical buckling of angle-ply laminated circular cylindrical shells under axial compression. The axisymmetrical and axially unsymmetrical buckling stress are found to be different from each other, and the best lamination angles which give the highest buckling stress are obtained.

  1. Identification of differential protein interactors of lamin A and progerin.

    PubMed

    Kubben, Nard; Voncken, Jan Willem; Demmers, Jeroen; Calis, Chantal; van Almen, Geert; Pinto, Yigal; Misteli, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is an interconnected meshwork of intermediate filament proteins underlying the nuclear envelope. The lamina is an important regulator of nuclear structural integrity as well as nuclear processes, including transcription, DNA replication and chromatin remodeling. The major components of the lamina are A- and B-type lamins. Mutations in lamins impair lamina functions and cause a set of highly tissue-specific diseases collectively referred to as laminopathies. The phenotypic diversity amongst laminopathies is hypothesized to be caused by mutations affecting specific protein interactions, possibly in a tissue-specific manner. Current technologies to identify interaction partners of lamin A and its mutants are hampered by the insoluble nature of lamina components. To overcome the limitations of current technologies, we developed and applied a novel, unbiased approach to identify lamin A-interacting proteins. This approach involves expression of the high-affinity OneSTrEP-tag, precipitation of lamin-protein complexes after reversible protein cross-linking and subsequent protein identification by mass spectrometry. We used this approach to identify in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and cardiac myocyte NklTAg cell lines proteins that interact with lamin A and its mutant isoform progerin, which causes the premature aging disorder Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). We identified a total of 313 lamina-interacting proteins, including several novel lamin A interactors, and we characterize a set of 35 proteins which preferentially interact with lamin A or progerin. PMID:21327095

  2. Self-heating forecasting for thick laminate specimens in fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahuerta, F.; Westphal, T.; Nijssen, R. P. L.

    2014-12-01

    Thick laminate sections can be found from the tip to the root in most common wind turbine blade designs. Obtaining accurate and reliable design data for thick laminates is subject of investigations, which include experiments on thick laminate coupons. Due to the poor thermal conductivity properties of composites and the material self-heating that occurs during the fatigue loading, high temperature gradients may appear through the laminate thickness. In the case of thick laminates in high load regimes, the core temperature might influence the mechanical properties, leading to premature failures. In the present work a method to forecast the self-heating of thick laminates in fatigue loading is presented. The mechanical loading is related with the laminate self-heating, via the cyclic strain energy and the energy loss ratio. Based on this internal volumetric heat load a thermal model is built and solved to obtain the temperature distribution in the transient state. Based on experimental measurements of the energy loss factor for 10mm thick coupons, the method is described and the resulting predictions are compared with experimental surface temperature measurements on 10 and 30mm UD thick laminate specimens.

  3. Hole-thru-laminate mounting supports for photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Wexler, Jason; Botkin, Jonathan; Culligan, Matthew; Detrick, Adam

    2015-02-17

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a pedestal having a surface adaptable to receive a flat side of a photovoltaic module laminate. A hole is disposed in the pedestal, the hole adaptable to receive a bolt or a pin used to couple the pedestal to the flat side of the photovoltaic module laminate.

  4. Stress concentration factors around a circular hole in laminated composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueng, C. E. S.

    1976-01-01

    Stress concentration factors around a circular hole in a composite laminate are determined. The specific case investigated is a four layer (-45/45/45/-45 degs) graphite epoxy laminate. The factors are determined experimentally by means of electrical resistance strain gages, and analytically by using a hybrid finite element analysis.

  5. A MEMS lamination technology based on sequential multilayer electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M; Kim, J; Herrault, F; Schafer, R; Allen, MG

    2013-08-06

    A MEMS lamination technology based on sequential multilayer electrodeposition is presented. The process comprises three main steps: (1) automated sequential electrodeposition of permalloy (Ni80Fe20) structural and copper sacrificial layers to form multilayer structures of significant total thickness; (2) fabrication of polymeric anchor structures through the thickness of the multilayer structures and (3) selective removal of copper. The resulting structure is a set of air-insulated permalloy laminations, the separation of which is sustained by insulating polymeric anchor structures. Individual laminations have precisely controllable thicknesses ranging from 500 nm to 5 mu m, and each lamination layer is electrically isolated from adjacent layers by narrow air gaps of similar scale. In addition to air, interlamination insulators based on polymers are investigated. Interlamination air gaps with very high aspect ratio (>1:100) can be filled with polyvinylalcohol and polydimethylsiloxane. The laminated structures are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to directly examine properties such as the roughness and the thickness uniformity of the layers. In addition, the quality of the electrical insulation between the laminations is evaluated by quantifying the eddy current within the sample as a function of frequency. Fabricated laminations are comprised of uniform, smooth (surface roughness < 100 nm) layers with effective electrical insulation for all layer thicknesses and insulator approaches studied. Such highly laminated structures have potential uses ranging from energy conversion to applications where composite materials with highly anisotropic mechanical or thermal properties are required.

  6. A Laminated Track for the Inductrack System: Theory and Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R F; Hoburg, J F

    2004-01-12

    A laminated structure, composed of stacks of thin conducting sheets, has several advantages over a litz-wire ladder as the ''track'' wherein levitating currents are induced by a permanent magnet array on a moving vehicle. Modeling and experimental results for the laminated track are described and evaluated in this paper.

  7. Better Thermal Insulation in Solar-Array Laminators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.; Knox, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Glass marbles improve temperature control. Modified vacuum laminator for photovoltaic solar arrays includes thermal insulation made of conventional glass marbles. Marbles serve as insulation for temperature control of lamination process at cure temperatures as high as 350 degrees F. Used to replace original insulation made of asbestos cement.

  8. The strength of laminated composite materials under repeated impact loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rotem, Assa

    1988-01-01

    When low velocity and energy impact is exerted on a laminated composite material, in a perpendicular direction to the plane of the laminate, invisible damage may develop. It is shown analytically and experimentally that the invisible damage occurs during the first stage of contact between the impactor and the laminate and is a result of the contact stresses. However, the residual flexural strength changes only slightly, because it depends mainly on the outer layers, and these remain undamaged. Repeated impact intensifies the damage inside the laminate and causes larger bending under equivalent impact load. Finally, when the damage is most severe, even though it is still invisible, the laminate fails because of bending on the tension side. If the repeated impact is halted before final fracture occurs the residual strength and modulus would decrease by a certain amount.

  9. Deposition of laminated shale: A field and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Daniel L.; Roy, David C.

    1985-03-01

    Intermittently laminated shale of the Jemtland Formation in Maine is characterized by thin lenticular silt segregations interlaced with argillaceous and organic material (including graptolites). This shale is thinly interbedded with nonlaminated shale, siltstone, and thicker turbidite graywacke beds. Experiments suggest that the intermittently laminated shale was deposited by silt/clay-laden currents and may have been part of an upward turbidite progression from parallel-laminated silt (>60% silt), through intermittently laminated mud (40 to 60% silt), to nonlaminated mud (20 to 40% silt). Intermittently laminated mud may be produced from silt/clay flows that are: decelerating at a constant silt content, losing silt at constant velocity; or both decelerating and losing silt.

  10. Matrix cracking in laminated composites under monotonic and cyclic loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, David H.; Lee, Jong-Won

    1991-01-01

    An analytical model based on the internal state variable (ISV) concept and the strain energy method is proposed for characterizing the monotonic and cyclic response of laminated composites containing matrix cracks. A modified constitution is formulated for angle-ply laminates under general in-plane mechanical loading and constant temperature change. A monotonic matrix cracking criterion is developed for predicting the crack density in cross-ply laminates as a function of the applied laminate axial stress. An initial formulation for a cyclic matrix cracking criterion for cross-ply laminates is also discussed. For the monotonic loading case, a number of experimental data and well-known models are compared with the present study for validating the practical applicability of the ISV approach.

  11. Near-threshold fatigue crack growth in aluminum composite laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, P.B.; Gibeling, J.C.

    1995-03-15

    One promising method for improving the mechanical properties of particulate MMCs is to laminate the brittle composite with a more ductile component. A system currently being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a multilayer laminate consisting of alternating layers of AA6090/SiC/25p and more ductile AA5182. In order to further examine the effects of lamination on fatigue crack propagation mechanics and mechanisms, the fatigue crack growth behavior of the aluminum composite laminate developed at LLNL was examined. The laminate and the AA6090/SiC/25p component were studied in the T6 heat treatment condition for subsequent comparison. Fatigue crack surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy for further insight into crack growth mechanisms.

  12. Vibration suppression of composite laminated plate with nonlinear energy sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ye-Wei; Zhang, Hao; Hou, Shuai; Xu, Ke-Fan; Chen, Li-Qun

    2016-06-01

    The composite laminated plate is widely used in supersonic aircraft. So, there are many researches about the vibration suppression of composite laminated plate. In this paper, nonlinear energy sink (NES) as an effective method to suppress vibration is studied. The coupled partial differential governing equations of the composite laminated plate with the nonlinear energy sink (NES) are established by using the Hamilton principle. The fourth-order Galerkin discrete method is used to truncate the partial differential equations, which are solved by numerical integration method. Meanwhile study about the precise effectiveness of the nonlinear energy sink (NES) by discussing the different installation location of the nonlinear energy sink (NES) at the same speed. The results indicate that the nonlinear energy sink (NES) can significantly suppress the severe vibration of the composite laminated plate with speed wind loadings in to protect the composite laminated plate from excessive vibration.

  13. Free Vibration of Uncertain Unsymmetrically Laminated Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapania, Rakesh K.; Goyal, Vijay K.

    2001-01-01

    Monte Carlo Simulation and Stochastic FEA are used to predict randomness in the free vibration response of thin unsymmetrically laminated beams. For the present study, it is assumed that randomness in the response is only caused by uncertainties in the ply orientations. The ply orientations may become random or uncertain during the manufacturing process. A new 16-dof beam element, based on the first-order shear deformation beam theory, is used to study the stochastic nature of the natural frequencies. Using variational principles, the element stiffness matrix and mass matrix are obtained through analytical integration. Using a random sequence a large data set is generated, containing possible random ply-orientations. This data is assumed to be symmetric. The stochastic-based finite element model for free vibrations predicts the relation between the randomness in fundamental natural frequencies and the randomness in ply-orientation. The sensitivity derivatives are calculated numerically through an exact formulation. The squared fundamental natural frequencies are expressed in terms of deterministic and probabilistic quantities, allowing to determine how sensitive they are to variations in ply angles. The predicted mean-valued fundamental natural frequency squared and the variance of the present model are in good agreement with Monte Carlo Simulation. Results, also, show that variations between plus or minus 5 degrees in ply-angles can affect free vibration response of unsymmetrically and symmetrically laminated beams.

  14. Hygrothermally stable laminated composites with optimal coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Robert Andrew

    This work begins by establishing the necessary and sufficient conditions for hygrothermal stability of composite laminates. An investigation is performed into the range of coupling achievable from within all hygrothermally stable families. The minimum number of plies required to create an asymmetric hygrothermally stable stacking sequence is found to be five. Next, a rigorous and general approach for determining designs corresponding to optimal levels of coupling is established through the use of a constrained optimization procedure. Couplings investigated include extension-twist, bend-twist, extension-bend, shear-twist, and anticlastic. For extension-twist and bend-twist coupling, specimens from five- through ten-ply laminates are manufactured and tested to demonstrate hygrothermal stability and achievable levels of coupling. Nonlinear models and finite element analysis are developed, and predictions are verified through comparison with test results. Sensitivity analyses are performed to demonstrate the robustness of the hygrothermal stability and couplings to deviations in ply angle, typical of manufacturing tolerances. Comparisons are made with current state-of-the-art suboptimal layups, and significant increases in coupling over previously known levels are demonstrated.

  15. Lamins as mediators of oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Sieprath, Tom; Darwiche, Rabih; De Vos, Winnok H.

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nuclear lamina defines structural and functional properties of the cell nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lamina dysfunction leads to a broad spectrum of laminopathies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recent data is reviewed connecting laminopathies to oxidative stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A framework is proposed to explain interactions between lamins and oxidative stress. -- Abstract: The nuclear lamina defines both structural and functional properties of the eukaryotic cell nucleus. Mutations in the LMNA gene, encoding A-type lamins, lead to a broad spectrum of diseases termed laminopathies. While different hypotheses have been postulated to explain disease development, there is still no unified view on the mechanistic basis of laminopathies. Recent observations indicate that laminopathies are often accompanied by altered levels of reactive oxygen species and a higher susceptibility to oxidative stress at the cellular level. In this review, we highlight the role of reactive oxygen species for cell function and disease development in the context of laminopathies and present a framework of non-exclusive mechanisms to explain the reciprocal interactions between a dysfunctional lamina and altered redox homeostasis.

  16. Laminated ceramic components for microfluidic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Dean W.; Martin, Peter M.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Stewart, Donald C.; Bonham, Charles C.

    1999-08-01

    Applications for micro fluidic components continue to expand as the benefits resulting from the small volumes and light weight of such devices are recognized. Such benefits are particularly attractive for man-portable and automotive devices where reduction of weight is critical. As applications expand, so too does the need for the development of methods for producing micro fluidic components from unconventional materials (i.e., materials other than silicon). At the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, we are currently developing processes for producing laminated multilevel ceramic components containing microchannel features that will find applications in micro fluidic chemical processing and energy management systems. Thin layers of green ceramic tape are patterned with micro fluidic flow features using one of a number of cutting processes. The patterned layers are then stacked and laminated with other layers of green tape, ceramic plate, or other materials using a series of processing steps. The resulting monolithic, leak-tight micro fluidic ceramic components are capable of tolerating high temperature or chemically corrosive environments. Fabrication issues associated with the use of the green ceramic tape for this type of application will be discussed, and examples of test components produced using these processes will be presented.

  17. Development of a heterogeneous laminating resin system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, T. F.; Hopper, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    The factors which effect the impact resistance of laminating resin systems and yet retain equivalent performance with the conventional 450 K curing epoxy matrix systems in other areas were studied. Formulation work was conducted on two systems, an all-epoxy and an epoxy/bismaleimide, to gain fundamental information on the effect formulation changes have upon neat resin and composite properties. The all-epoxy work involved formulations with various amounts and combinations of eight different epoxy resins, four different hardeners, fifteen different toughening agents, a filler, and a catalyst. The epoxy/bismaleimide effort improved formulations with various amounts and combinations of nine different resins, four different hardeners, eight different toughening agents, four different catalysts, and a filler. When a formulation appeared to offer the proper combination of properties required for a laminating resin Celion 3K-70P fabric was prepregged. Initial screening tests on composites primarily involved Gardner type impact and measurement of short beam shear strengths under dry and hot/wet conditions.

  18. Magnetic sheet steel lamination detection, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carignan, F. J.; Syniuta, W. D.

    1980-08-01

    Research to assess the feasibility of a nondestructive magnetic inspection technique for detecting defective sheet steel is reported. A major problem in the deep drawing and stamping industry is the failure of sheet steel due to laminations which occur when the steel is formed into various shapes or processed further. A continuous nondestructive testing method was developed based upon differences in magnetic properties of acceptable steel and defective steel. The technique assumes an increase in the magnetic hardness of the defect compared to the base material. Experimental results obtained with the artificial flaw demonstrate that it is possible to sense magnetic differences in sheet steel if the differences are large enough. However, as the differences in magnetic hardness diminish, or where thin surface defects or internal laminations occur, detection becomes increasingly difficult. Moreoever, it has not been established that all sheet steel defects are magnetically harder than unflawed material. It was concluded that the technique, which can detect only some flaws and is incapable of detecting many important defects, would be only marginally useful.

  19. Geometrically nonlinear behavior of piezoelectric laminated plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovitch, Oded

    2005-08-01

    The geometrically nonlinear behavior of piezo-laminated plates actuated with isotropic or anisotropic piezoelectric layers is analytically investigated. The analytical model is derived using the variational principle of virtual work along with the lamination and plate theories, the von Karman large displacement and moderate rotation kinematic relations, and the anisotropic piezoelectric constitutive laws. A solution strategy that combines the approach of the method of lines, the advantages of the finite element concept, and the variational formulation is developed. This approach yields a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with nonlinear boundary conditions, which are solved using the multiple-shooting method. Convergence and verification of the model are examined through comparison with linear and nonlinear results of other approximation methods. The nonlinear response of two active plate structures is investigated numerically. The first plate is actuated in bending using monolithic piezoceramic layers and the second one is actuated in twist using macro-fiber composites. The results quantitatively reveal the complicated in-plane stress state associated with the piezoelectric actuation and the geometrically nonlinear coupling of the in-plane and out-of-plane responses of the plate. The influence of the nonlinear effects ranges from significant stiffening in certain combinations of electrical loads and boundary conditions to amplifications of the induced deflections in others. The paper closes with a summary and conclusions.

  20. Bending analysis of laminated composite box beams

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathy, A.K.; Patel, H.J.; Pang, S.S. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Box beams are widely used in weight reduction structures such as aircraft wings. The use of composite box beams further reduces the weight factor for such structures with the same deflection and stress as that of isotropic box beams. The difference in the behavior of composite box beam with different fiber orientation, number of plies, and number of stringers also provides a wide range of designing parameters to achieve the required performance for a given problem. A bending analysis has been carried out for the study of deflections and stresses for box beams of different material (isotropic and laminated composites), size, and number of stringers subjected to different kinds of loading conditions. A finite element model has been developed based on the strain energy principle, and the results are compared with an available commercial code COSMOS/M.'' Experiments using aluminum and scotchply composite laminates were conducted to verify the results. An optimal design for size and number of stiffeners for a given loading condition has been achieved. Investigations have also been carried out to find the effect of transverse shear on the span-wise normal stress.

  1. Buckling analysis of laminated thin shells in a hot environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotsis, Pascal K.; Guptil, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of parametric studies to assess the effects of various parameters on the buckling behavior of angle-ply, laminated thin shells in a hot environment. These results were obtained by using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. An angle-ply, laminated thin shell with fiber orientation of (theta/-theta)(sub 2) was subjected to compressive mechanical loads. The laminated thin shell had a cylindrical geometry. The laminate contained T300 graphite fibers embedded in an intermediate-modulus, high-strength (IMHS) matrix. The fiber volume fraction was 55 percent and the moisture content was 2 percent. The residual stresses induced into the laminate structure during the curing were taken into account. Parametric studies were performed to examine the effect on the critical buckling load of the following parameters: cylinder length and thickness, internal hydrostatic pressure, different ply thicknesses, different temperature profiles through the thickness of the structure, and different lay up configurations and fiber volume fractions. In conjunction with these parameters the ply orientation was varied from 0 deg to 90 deg. Seven ply angles were examined: 0 deg, 15 deg, 30 deg, 45 deg, 60 deg, 75 deg, and 90 deg. The results show that the ply angle theta and the laminate thickness had significant effects on the critical buckling load. The fiber volume fraction, the fiber orientations, and the internal hydrostatic pressure had important effects on the critical buckling load. The cylinder length had a moderate influence on the buckling load. The thin shell with (theta/-theta)(sub 2) or (theta/-theta)(sub s) angle-ply laminate had better buckling-load performance than the thin shell with (theta)(sub 4) angle-ply laminate. The temperature profiles through the laminate thickness and various laminates with the different ply thicknesses has insignificant effects on the buckling behavior of the thin shells.

  2. 26 CFR 48.6416(b)(1)-1 - Price readjustments causing overpayments of manufacturers tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... manufacturers tax. 48.6416(b)(1)-1 Section 48.6416(b)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... § 48.6416(b)(1)-1 Price readjustments causing overpayments of manufacturers tax. In the case of any... within the meaning of section 6416(b)(1) and § 48.6416(b)(1)-2 or § 48.6416(b)(1)-3, the person who...

  3. Supercritical fluid extraction of aflatoxin B(1) from soil.

    PubMed

    Starr, James M; Selim, Mustafa I

    2008-10-31

    This research describes the development of a supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method to recover aflatoxin B(1) from fortified soil. The effects of temperature, pressure, modifier (identity and percentage), and extraction type were assessed. Using the optimized SFE conditions, the mean recovery from air dried soil was 72%. The variables associated with changes in recovery of aflatoxin were co-solvents, static extraction, and temperature. Acetonitrile-2% acetic acid, used both in-cell and on-line, provided the most efficient recovery. The results indicate that desorption from the soil was the limiting factor in recovery and that the static phase was more important than the dynamic. PMID:18814879

  4. Human placental cathepsin B1. Isolation and some physical properties

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Arnold A.; Martin, Bill J.; Spicer, Sam S.

    1974-01-01

    A reproducible procedure for the isolation, from human placenta, of a cathepsin B1 in a homogeneous state, demonstrated by electrophoretic, ultracentrifugal and enzymic criteria, was carried out. The pH optimum was near pH5.5. The placental enzyme catalysed the release of acid-soluble u.v.-dense products from haemoglobin and myoglobin. It was inhibited by heavy metals and several compounds which react with the thiol groups. The optimum temperature was between 37° and 42°C. The molecular weight of the enzyme was calculated to be 24250. ImagesPLATE 1Fig. 5. PMID:4824207

  5. Non-uniformity correction of human brain imaging at high field by RF field mapping of B1+ and B1-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hidehiro; Takaya, Nobuhiro; Mitsumori, Fumiyuki

    2011-10-01

    A new method of non-uniform image correction is proposed. Image non-uniformity is originated from the spatial distribution of RF transmission and reception fields, represented as B1+ and B1-, respectively. In our method, B1+ mapping was performed invivo by a phase method. In B1- mapping, images with multiple TEs were acquired with a multi-echo adiabatic spin echo (MASE) sequence which enables homogeneous excitation. By T2 fitting of these images an M0 map ( M0MASE) was obtained, in which signal intensity was expressed as the product of B1- and M0(1-e). The ratio of this M0MASE map to the B1+ map showed a similar spatial pattern in different human brains. These ratios of M0MASE to B1+ in 24 subjects were averaged and then fitted with a spatially polynomial function to obtain a ratio map of B1-/B1+(α). Uniform image was achieved in spin echo (SE), MASE and inversion recovery turboFLASH (IRTF) images using measured B1+ and calculated B1- by αB1+. Water fractions in gray and white matters obtained from the M0 images corrected by this method were in good agreement with previously reported values. From these experimental results, the proposed method of non-uniformity correction is validated at 4.7 T imaging.

  6. Laminated wave turbulence: Generic algorithms iii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashova, Elena; Kartashov, Alexey

    2007-07-01

    Model of laminated wave turbulence allows to study statistical and discrete layers of turbulence in the frame of the same model. Statistical layer is described by Zakharov-Kolmogorov energy spectra in the case of irrational enough dispersion function. Discrete layer is covered by some system(s) of Diophantine equations while their form is determined by wave dispersion function. This presents a very special computational challenge to solve Diophantine equations in many variables, usually 6 to 8, in high degrees, say 16, in integers of order 1016 and more. Generic algorithms for solving this problem in the case of irrational dispersion function have been presented in our previous papers (corresponds to many types of water waves). In this paper, we present a new algorithm for the case of rational dispersion functions (atmospheric planetary waves, drift waves, etc.)

  7. Eddy current losses in ferromagnetic laminations

    SciTech Connect

    Serpico, C.; Visone, C.; Mayergoyz, I. D.; Basso, V.; Miano, G.

    2000-05-01

    It is demonstrated through the comparison of analytical, numerical, and experimental results that the existence of excess eddy current losses can be explained by the peculiar nature of the nonlinear diffusion of electromagnetic fields in magnetically nonlinear laminations. The essence of this peculiar nature is that nonlinear diffusion occurs as inward progress of almost rectangular profiles of magnetic flux density of variable height. Approximating actual profiles of magnetic flux density by rectangular ones, the problem of nonlinear diffusion can be treated analytically by using a simple model. The accuracy and the limit of applicability of the rectangular profile model are discussed by comparing its predictions with finite elements numerical solutions of nonlinear diffusion equation as well as with experimental results. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Reliability analysis of ceramic matrix composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, David J.; Wetherhold, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    At a macroscopic level, a composite lamina may be considered as a homogeneous orthotropic solid whose directional strengths are random variables. Incorporation of these random variable strengths into failure models, either interactive or non-interactive, allows for the evaluation of the lamina reliability under a given stress state. Using a non-interactive criterion for demonstration purposes, laminate reliabilities are calculated assuming previously established load sharing rules for the redistribution of load as the failure of laminae occur. The matrix cracking predicted by ACK theory is modeled to allow a loss of stiffness in the fiber direction. The subsequent failure in the fiber direction is controlled by a modified bundle theory. Results using this modified bundle model are compared with previous models which did not permit separate consideration of matrix cracking, as well as to results obtained from experimental data.

  9. Compression failure of angle-ply laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peel, L. D.; Hyer, M. W.; Shuart, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    Test results from the compression loading of (+ or - Theta/ - or + Theta)(sub 6s) angle-ply IM7-8551-7a specimens, 0 less than or = Theta less than or = 90 degs, are presented. The observed failure strengths and modes are discussed, and typical stress-strain relations shown. Using classical lamination theory and the maximum stress criterion, an attempt is made to predict failure stress as a function of Theta. This attempt results in poor correlation with test results and thus a more advanced model is used. The model, which is based on a geometrically nonlinear theory, and which was taken from previous work, includes the influence of observed layer waviness. The waviness is described by the wave length and the wave amplitude. The theory is briefly described and results from the theory are correlated with test results. It is shown that by using levels of waviness observed in the specimens, the correlation between predictions and observations is good.

  10. Impact resistance of composite laminated sandwich plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chun-Gon; Jun, Eui-Jin

    1992-01-01

    Investigated are the effects of face layup sequence and core density of a sandwich plate on the impact delamination area of the laminated facesheet. The sandwich plate is made of graphite/epoxy faces and Nomex honeycomb core. The size and shape of delamination due to impact at each interply location have been measured by the room temperature deply technique. The shape of the interply delamination under impact is, in general, found to be two-lobed. The shape exhibits very peculiar regularity under various experimental conditions. The quantitative measurement of delamination size has shown that the face layup with small relative orientation between adjacent plies and high density core are desirable in sandwich plates to reduce the impact delamination.

  11. Development of a Heterogeneous Laminating Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosnell, R.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of toughening the common types of matrix resins such as Narmco 5208 by utilizing a heterogeneous additive was examined. Some basic concepts and principles in the toughening of matrix resins for advanced composites were studied. The following conclusions were advanced: (1) the use of damage volume as a guide for measurement of impact resistance appears to be a valid determination; (2) short beam shear is a good test to determine the effect of toughening agents on mechanical properties; (3) rubber toughening results in improved laminate impact strength, but with substantial loss in high temperature dry and wet strength; (4) in the all-epoxy systems, the polycarbonate toughening agent seemed to be the most effective, although hot-wet strength is sacrificed; ABS was not as effective; and (5) in general, the toughened all-epoxy systems showed better damage tolerance, but less hot-wet strength; toughened bismaleimides had better hot-wet strength.

  12. Permeability After Impact Testing of Composite Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.

    2003-01-01

    Since composite laminates are beginning to be identified for use in reusable launch vehicle propulsion systems, an understanding of their permeance is needed. A foreign object impact event can cause a localized area of permeability (leakage) in a polymer matrix composite and it is the aim of this study to assess a method of quantifying permeability-after-impact results. A simple test apparatus is presented and variables that could affect the measured values of permeability-after-impact were assessed. Once it was determined that valid numbers were being measured, a fiber/resin system was impacted at various impact levels and the resulting permeability measured, first with a leak check solution (qualitative) then using the new apparatus (quantitative). The results showed that as the impact level increased, so did the measured leakage. As the pressure to the specimen was increased, the leak rate was seen to increase in a non-linear fashion for almost all of the specimens tested.

  13. Permeability After Impact Testing of Composite Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A.T.; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Since composite laminates are beginning to be identified for use in reusable launch vehicle propulsion systems, an understanding of their permeance is needed. A foreign object impact event can cause a localized area of permeability (leakage) in a polymer matrix composite and it is the aim of this study to assess a method of quantifying permeability-after-impact results. A simple test apparatus is presented and variables that could affect the measured values of permeability-after-impact were assessed. Once it was determined that valid numbers were being measured, a fiber/resin system was impacted at various impact levels and the resulting permeability measured, first with a leak check solution (qualitative) then using the new apparatus (quantitative). The results showed that as the impact level increased, so did the measured leakage. As the pressure to the specimen was increased, the leak rate was seen to increase in a non-linear fashion for almost all of the specimens tested.

  14. Analysis of "Kiss" Bonds Between Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveromo, Scott L.; Earthman, James C.

    2014-06-01

    One of the leading challenges to designing lightweight, cost-effective bonded structures is to detect low shear strength "kiss" bonds where no other defects such as voids and cracks exist. To develop a nondestructive testing method that is sensitive to kiss bonds, standards need to be fabricated with known strength values. In the current work, we attempt to create kiss bonds in between carbon fiber composite laminates that have been bonded with epoxy film adhesive and epoxy paste adhesive. Based on ultrasonic testing, when creating true kiss bonds using film adhesives, a complete disbond could not be avoided because of thermally induced stresses during the high-temperature cure. However, further work demonstrated that kiss bonds can be formed using room-temperature curable epoxy paste adhesives by creating an amine blush on the epoxy surface or applying a release agent on the bonding surfaces.

  15. Micromechanics of composite laminate compression failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, E. Gail; Bradley, Walter L.

    1986-01-01

    The Dugdale analysis for metals loaded in tension was adapted to model the failure of notched composite laminates loaded in compression. Compression testing details, MTS alignment verification, and equipment needs were resolved. Thus far, only 2 ductile material systems, HST7 and F155, were selected for study. A Wild M8 Zoom Stereomicroscope and necessary attachments for video taping and 35 mm pictures were purchased. Currently, this compression test system is fully operational. A specimen is loaded in compression, and load vs shear-crippling zone size is monitored and recorded. Data from initial compression tests indicate that the Dugdale model does not accurately predict the load vs damage zone size relationship of notched composite specimens loaded in compression.

  16. Rapid immunoenzyme assay of aflatoxin B1 using magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Urusov, Alexandr E; Petrakova, Alina V; Vozniak, Maxim V; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2014-01-01

    The main limitations of microplate-based enzyme immunoassays are the prolonged incubations necessary to facilitate heterogeneous interactions, the complex matrix and poorly soluble antigens, and the significant sample dilutions often required because of the presence of organic extractants. This study presents the use of antibody immobilization on the surface of magnetic particles to overcome these limitations in the detection of the mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1. Features of the proposed system are a high degree of nanoparticle dispersion and methodologically simple immobilization of the antibodies by adsorption. Reactions between the immobilized antibodies with native and labeled antigens are conducted in solution, thereby reducing the interaction period to 5 min without impairing the analytical outcome. Adsorption of immunoglobulins on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles increases their stability in aqueous-organic media, thus minimizing the degree of sample dilution required. Testing barley and maize extracts demonstrated a limit of aflatoxin B1 detection equal to 20 pg/mL and total assay duration of 20 min. Using this method, only the 3-fold dilution of the initial methanol/water (60/40) extraction mixture in the microplate wells is necessary. The proposed pseudo-homogeneous approach could be applied toward immunodetection of a wide range of compounds. PMID:25412219

  17. (HFR-B1 experiment reporting and capsule disassembly)

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, B.F.

    1991-02-22

    The traveler visited the Joint Research Centre (JRC), Petten, The Netherlands, the Forschungszentrum GmbH (KFA), Juelich, Germany; and the Zentralinstitut fuer Kernforschung (ZfK), Rossendorf, Germany, during the period January 28 through February 9. At JRC, the analysis of the experiment HFR-B1 was discussed; a new schedule for issuance of the final data report was established. Other discussions at JRC concerned the capabilities of Petten to conduct two reactor experiments being proposed under the US/FRG cooperative program and the initial results of a proof test of Germany fuel spheres. At KFA, the main emphasis was on the disassembly of capsules 2 and 3 of the HFR-B1 experiment and agreement on the examinations and tests to be conducted with the disassembled components. The disassembly of capsule 3 was observed. Extensive discussions were conducted on the work, both experimental and analytical, being conducted in the Institut fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktor Technologie. A major portion of the experimental work is being conducted at ZfK and a visit to this laboratory, sponosored by the KFA, was made on February 6 and 7. Cooperation with the US on the experimental and analytical work in the safety area was strongly emphasized. 1 tab.

  18. Regulation of the Extrarenal CYP27B1-Hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    Adams, John S.; Rafison, Brandon; Witzel, Sten; Reyes, Rachel E.; Shieh, Albert; Chun, Rene; Zavala, Kathryn; Hewison, Martin; Liu, Philip T.

    2014-01-01

    Provided here is a collective review of research on the extrarenal CYP27B1-hydroxylase that shapes our current and expanding vision of the role this enzyme plays in the intracrinonology and paracrinology, as opposed to the traditional endocrinology, of vitamin D to regulate the innate and adaptive immune response, particularly in human granuloma-forming diseases like tuberculosis. Special emphasis is placed on soluble factors (i.e., cytokines) in the local microenvironment of these human diseases that coordinate amplification and feedback inhibition of the macrophage CYP27B1-hydroxylase. Principal among these factors are Type I and Type II interferons (IFNs); the Type II IFN, IFN-γ, stimulates the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) from 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) by the granuloma-forming disease-activated macrophage, while the Type I IFNs, IFN-α and IFN-ß, block the hydroxylation reaction. The type I IFN response is associated with more aggressive disease, while the Type II IFN response, the one that promotes 1,25(OH)2D production by the macrophage, is associated with more confined disease. Tilting the balance in the human immune response toward a type II IFN, confined disease phenotype in enabled by the presence of extracellular 25OHD levels that are sufficient to enable the type II IFNγ-promoted, substrate 25OHD-driven intracellular synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D. PMID:24388948

  19. (Fission product transport experiments (HFR-B1))

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, B.F.

    1989-12-05

    Travel to the JRC Petten was for the purpose of discussing the HFR-B1 experiment and post irradiation activities. Technical assessment of the experiment strongly supports the concept of enhanced fission gas release at temperatures above 1100{degree}C, the extensive release of stored fission gas at water vapor levels postulated in accident scenarios, an increase in the steady-state fission gas release under hydrolyzing conditions, and an increase in gas release during thermal cycling. Schedules were established for completion of the work and issuance of reports by September 1990. At the KFA Juelich agreement was reached on the PIE activities for HFR-B1 and a schedule established. The final PIE report is due June 1991. Choices of accident condition tests in the PIE have yet to be made by the US participants. A proposal for the establishment of a new cooperative effort on model and code development was presented at the Institut fuer Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung of KFA. The proposal was considered premature; discussions dealing with general principles, basic aims, and organization were requested; particular concerns about free exchange of information, overlap with the existing safety subprogram, and exclusive cooperation with ORNL were raised. A strong desire for cooperation and the opinion that the raised problems could be resolved were expressed. Technical discussions at the KFA were beneficial.

  20. The CHESS survey of the L1157-B1 shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busquet, G.; Lefloch, B.; Benedettini, M.; Codella, C.; Cabrit, S.; Ceccarelli, C.; Vasta, M.; Viti, S.; Giannini, T.; Nisini, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lorenzani, A.

    2012-03-01

    Outflows generated by protostars heavily affect the kinematics and chemistry of the hosting molecular cloud due to strong shocks. These shocks heats and compress the ambient dense gas switching on a complex chemistry that leads to an enhancement of the abundance of several species, as reported in ``chemically active'' outflows, whose archetype is the outflow of the low-mass Class 0 protostar L1157. We present the results of the spectral survey of the shock region L1157-B1 carried out with PACS, SPIRE and HIFI instruments in the framework of the Herschel key program CHESS. The high spectral resolution data from HIFI show that different excitation conditions coexist in the B1 shock while the high PACS spatial resolution data shows a different spatial distribution of the the detected specie. We will discuss the properties of the different gas components and present the physical conditions derived from different species. We will present a first comparison with shock models highlighting the complex structure of this shocked region.

  1. Analysis of a hybrid, unidirectional buffer strip laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharani, L. R.; Goree, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    A method of analysis capable of predicting accurately the fracture behavior of a unidirectional composite laminate containing symmetrically placed buffer strips is presented. As an example, for a damaged graphite/epoxy laminate, the results demonstrate the manner in which to select the most efficient combination of buffer strip properties necessary to inhibit crack growth. Ultimate failure of the laminate after crack arrest can occur under increasing load either by continued crack extension through the buffer strips or the crack can jump the buffer strips. For some typical hybrid materials it is found that a buffer strip spacing-to-width ratio of about four to one is the most efficient.

  2. Multi-Layer Laminated Thin Films for Inflatable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yavrouian, Andre; Plett, Gary; Mannella, Jerami

    2005-01-01

    Special-purpose balloons and other inflatable structures would be constructed as flexible laminates of multiple thin polymeric films interspersed with layers of adhesive, according to a proposal. In the original intended application, the laminate would serve as the envelope of the Titan Aerobot a proposed robotic airship for exploring Titan (one of the moons of Saturn). Potential terrestrial applications for such flexible laminates could include blimps and sails. In the original application, the multi-layered laminate would contain six layers of 0.14-mil (0.0036-mm)-thick Mylar (or equivalent) polyethylene terephthalate film with a layer of adhesive between each layer of Mylar . The overall thickness and areal density of this laminate would be nearly the same as those of 1-mil (0.0254-mm)-thick monolayer polyethylene terephthalate sheet. However, the laminate would offer several advantages over the monolayer sheet, especially with respect to interrelated considerations of flexing properties, formation of pinholes, and difficulty or ease of handling, as discussed next. Most of the damage during flexing of the laminate would be localized in the outermost layers, where the radii of bending in a given bend would be the largest and, hence, the bending stress would be the greatest. The adverse effects of formation of pinholes would be nearly completely mitigated in the laminate because a pinhole in a given layer would not propagate to adjacent layers. Hence, the laminate would tend to remain effective as a barrier to retain gas. Similar arguments can be made regarding cracks: While a crack could form as a result of stress or a defect in the film material, a crack would not propagate into adjacent layers, and the adjacent layer(s) would even arrest propagation of the crack. In the case of the monolayer sheet, surface damage (scratches, dents, permanent folds, pinholes, and the like) caused by handling would constitute or give rise to defects that could propagate through

  3. Accurate stress resultants equations for laminated composite deep thick shells

    SciTech Connect

    Qatu, M.S.

    1995-11-01

    This paper derives accurate equations for the normal and shear force as well as bending and twisting moment resultants for laminated composite deep, thick shells. The stress resultant equations for laminated composite thick shells are shown to be different from those of plates. This is due to the fact the stresses over the thickness of the shell have to be integrated on a trapezoidal-like shell element to obtain the stress resultants. Numerical results are obtained and showed that accurate stress resultants are needed for laminated composite deep thick shells, especially if the curvature is not spherical.

  4. Vibration analysis of rotating thin laminated composite shell of revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, K.; Shikanai, G.; Takayama, K.

    1995-11-01

    An exact solution procedure is presented for solving free vibrations of a rotating thin laminated composite shell of revolution having meridionally constant curvature. Based on the classical lamination theory, equations of motion and boundary conditions are obtained from the stationally conditions of the Lagrangian. The equations of motion are solved exactly by using a power series expansion for symmetrically laminated, cross-ply shells. Frequencies and mode shapes of the shells having both ends clamped and both ends freely supported are presented showing their variations with rotating angular velocity, number of laminae and other parameters.

  5. Axisymmetric vibrations of laminated composite conical shells with varying thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Shikanai, G.; Suzuki, K.; Kojima, M.

    1995-11-01

    An exact solution procedure is presented for solving axisymmetric free vibrations of laminated composite conical shells with varying thickness. Based on the classical lamination theory neglecting shear deformation and rotary inertia, equations of motion and boundary conditions are obtained from the stationary conditions of the Lagrangian. The equations of motion are solved exactly by using a power series expansion for symmetrically laminated, cross-ply conical shells. Numerical studies are made for conical shells having both ends clamped to show the effects of the number of laminae, stacking sequences and other parameters upon the frequencies.

  6. An approximate solution for interlaminar stresses in composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Cheryl A.; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1993-01-01

    An efficient approximate solution for interlaminar stresses in finite width, symmetric and unsymmetric laminated composites subjected to axial and/or bending loads is presented. The solution is based upon statically admissible stress fields which take into consideration local property mismatch effects and global equilibrium requirements. Unknown constants in the assumed stress states are determined through minimization of the laminate complementary energy. Typical results are presented for through-thickness and interlaminar stress distributions for angle-ply and cross-ply laminates subjected to axial loading. It is shown that the present formulation represents an improved, efficient approximate solution for interlaminar stresses.

  7. Analysis of a hybrid-undirectional buffer strip laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharani, L. R.; Goree, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    A method of analysis capable of predicting accurately the fracture behavior of a unidirectional composite laminate containing symmetrically placed buffer strips is presented. As an example, for a damaged graphite/epoxy laminate, the results demonstrate the manner in which to select the most efficient combination of buffer strip properties necessary to inhibit crack growth. Ultimate failure of the laminate after the arrest can occur under increasing load either by continued crack extension through the buffer strips or the crack can jump the buffer strips. For some typical hybrid materials it is found that a buffer strip spacing to width ratio of about four to one is the most efficient.

  8. Interlaminar stresses in composite laminates: A perturbation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, P. W.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    A general method of solution for an elastic balanced symmetric composite laminate subject to a uniaxial extension was developed based upon a perturbation analysis of a limiting free body containing an interfacial plane. The solution satisfies more physical requirements and boundary conditions than previous investigations, and predicts smooth continuous interlaminar stresses with no instabilities. It determines the finite maximum intensity for the interlaminar normal stress in all laminates, provides mathematical evidences for the singular stresses in angle-ply laminates, suggests the need for the experimental determination of an important problem parameter, and introduces a viable means for solving related problems of practical interest.

  9. Improved PMR Polyimides For Heat-Stable Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, R. D.; Malarik, D. C.; Papadapoulos, D. S.; Waters, John F.

    1994-01-01

    Second-generation PMR-type polyimides (PMR-II polyimides) of enhanced thermo-oxidative stability prepared by substitution of para-aminostyrene (PAS) end caps for nadic-ester (NE) end caps used in prior PMR-II polyimides. Laminates unidirectionally reinforced with graphite fibers and made with PAS-capped resins exhibited thermo-oxidative stabilities significantly greater than those of similar laminates made with NE-capped PMR-II resins. One new laminate exhibited high retention of weight and strength after 1,000 h of exposure to air at 371 degrees C.

  10. Wave propagation in graphite/epoxy laminates due to impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, T. M.; Sun, C. T.

    1982-01-01

    The low velocity impact response of graphite-epoxy laminates is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A nine-node isoparametric finite element in conjunction with an empirical contact law was used for the theoretical investigation. Flat laminates subjected to pendulum impact were used for the experimental investigation. Theoretical results are in good agreement with strain gage experimental data. The collective results of the investigation indicate that the theoretical procedure describes the impact response of the laminate up to about 150 in/sec. impact velocity.

  11. Notched strength of composite laminates: Predictions and experiments - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Awerbuch, J.; Madhukar, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    A self-contained review of several semiempirical fracture models for predicting notched strength of composite laminates is presented, based on notched strength data on 70 different laminate configurations of graphite/epoxy, boron/aluminum, and graphite/polyimide. Emphasis is placed on experimental results concerning such failure factors as delamination, splitting, and size of damage zone. Moreover, the fracture model parameters are correlated with the notch sensitivity of composite laminates, and the applicability of the correlations in describing the material notch sensitivity is evaluated. The predictions provided by the different models were found to be identical for all practical purposes.

  12. Laminated metals composites fracture and ballistic impact behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.; Wadsworth, J.

    1998-01-20

    Recent advances in the fracture and ballistic impact response of laminated metal composites (LMCs) are reviewed. The laminate structure can provide significant improvements to these properties relative to the component materials. Typical fracture and ballistic impact properties in LMCs are illustrated for systems containing Al alloys and Al matrix composites. The unique mechanisms operating in a layered structure that contribute to fracture or ballistic impact resistance are discussed. The influence of laminate architecture, component material properties and interface strength on mechanisms and properties are briefly reviewed for these Al-based LMCs.

  13. Prediction of microcracking in composite laminates under thermomechanical loading

    SciTech Connect

    Maddocks, J.R.; Mcmanus, H.L.

    1995-01-01

    Composite laminates used in space structures are exposed to both thermal and mechanical loads. Cracks in the matrix form, changing the laminate thermoelastic properties. An analytical methodology is developed to predict microcrack density in a general laminate exposed to an arbitrary thermomechanical load history. The analysis uses a shear lag stress solution in conjunction with an energy-based cracking criterion. Experimental investigation was used to verify the analysis. Correlation between analysis and experiment is generally excellent. The analysis does not capture machining-induced cracking, or observed delayed crack initiation in a few ply groups, but these errors do not prevent the model from being a useful preliminary design tool.

  14. Production and Screening of High Yield Avermectin B1b Mutant of Streptomyces avermitilis 41445 Through Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Samia; Syed, Quratulain; Adnan, Ahmad; Qureshi, Fahim Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Background: Secondary metabolite production from wild strains is very low for economical purpose therefore certain strain improvement strategies are required to achieve hundred times greater yield of metabolites. Most important strain improvement techniques include physical and chemical mutagenesis. Broad spectrum mutagenesis through UV irradiation is the most important and convenient physical method. Objectives: The present study was conducted for enhanced production of avermectin B1b from Streptomyces avermitilis 41445 by mutagenesis using ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ethidium bromide (EB), and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) as mutagens. Materials and Methods: S. avermitilis DSM 41445 maintained on yeast extract malt extract glucose medium (YMG) was used as inoculum for SM2 fermentation medium. Spores of S. avermitilis DSM 41445 were exposed to UV radiation for physical broad spectrum mutagenesis and to EMS and EB for chemical mutagenesis. For each mutagen, the lethality rate and mutation rate were calculated along with positive mutation rate. Results: Avermectin B1b-hyper-producing mutant, produced using these three different methods, was selected according to the HPLC results. The mutant obtained after 45 minutes of UV radiation to the spores of S. avermitilis 41445, was found to be the best mutant for the enhanced production of avermectin B1b component (254.14 mg/L). Other avermectin B1b-hyper-producing mutants, were obtained from EMS (1 µL/mL) and EB (30 µL/mL) treatments, and yielded 202.63 mg/L and 199.30 mg/L of B1b, respectively. Conclusions: The hereditary stability analysis of the UV mentioning 45 minutes revealed the UV exposure time for mutants and 3 represented the colony taken from the plate irradiated for 45 minutes mutant showed that the production of avermectin B1b remained constant and no reverse mutation occurred after 15 generations. PMID:25147669

  15. 16 CFR Appendix B1 to Part 305 - Upright Freezers With Manual Defrost

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upright Freezers With Manual Defrost B1 Appendix B1 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF...) Pt. 305, App. B1 Appendix B1 to Part 305—Upright Freezers With Manual Defrost Range...

  16. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer

    PubMed Central

    Sarawgi, Aditi; Marwah, Nikhil; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Premature loss of a primary tooth is one of the most common etiology for malocclusion. Space maintainers are employed to prevent this complication. In anterior region, esthetics is an important concern along with function and space management. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retained space maintainer solves all these purposes ef ficiently and ef fectively. In addition, the technique is simple and the appliance is very comfortable inside the oral cavity. Here is a case of premature loss of anterior primary tooth which was replaced by FRC retained esthetic functional space maintainer. The appliance was found to be functioning satisfactorily inside the oral cavity till the last visit (1 Year). How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Marwah N, Gumber P, Dutta S. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):225-228. PMID:25709309

  17. Monotonic and fatigue loading behavior of quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy laminate embedded with piezoelectric sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mall, S.; Coleman, J. M.

    1998-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of embedding piezoelectric lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) sensors on the tensile strength and fatigue behavior of a quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy laminate as well as the embedded sensor's voltage degradation under these loading conditions. For this, AS4/3501-6 laminates were fabricated with a 0964-1726/7/6/010/img1 lay-up where PZT was inserted into a cut-out area in the two middle 0964-1726/7/6/010/img2 plies. Monotonic tensile tests showed that both the average ultimate strength and Young's modulus of the tested laminate with or without PZT were within 4% of each other. The fatigue lives with and without PZT were very close to each other as well. Overall, the sequence of damage in this study agreed with previous investigations of the damage mechanisms for 0964-1726/7/6/010/img1 quasi-isotropic laminates. The ranges of modulus reduction in both cases, with and without PZT, were within 5 to 15% of each other during fatigue loading. Delamination growths in both cases during most of the fatigue life were also very comparable to each other. Further, this study showed that the embedded PZT would maintain a steady voltage output indefinitely when mechanically cycled within its operational strain limit. It thus appears that the embedment of PZTs in a cut-out area of 0964-1726/7/6/010/img2 plies of quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy laminates would not affect their monotonic tensile and fatigue behavior.

  18. Generation and Characterization of a Cyp4b1 Null Mouse and the Role of CYP4B1 in the Activation and Toxicity of Ipomeanol

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    4-Ipomeanol (IPO) is a prototypical pulmonary toxin that requires P450-mediated metabolic activation to reactive intermediates in order to elicit its toxic effects. CYP4B1 is a pulmonary enzyme that has been shown, in vitro, to have a high capacity for bioactivating IPO. In order to determine, unambiguously, the role of CYP4B1 in IPO bioactivation in vivo, we generated Cyp4b1 null mice following targeted disruption of the gene downstream of exon 1. Cyp4b1 −/− mice are viable and healthy, with no overt phenotype, and no evidence of compensatory upregulation of other P450 isoforms in any of the tissues examined. Pulmonary and renal microsomes prepared from male Cyp4b1 −/− mice exhibited no detectable expression of the protein and catalyzed the in vitro bioactivation of IPO at < 10% of the rates observed in tissue microsomes from Cyp4b1 +/+ animals. Administration of IPO (20mg/kg) to Cyp4b1 +/+ mice resulted in characteristic lesions in the lung, and to a lesser extent in the kidney, which were completely absent in Cyp4b1 −/− mice. We conclude that CYP4B1 is a critical enzyme for the bioactivation of IPO in vivo and that the Cyp4b1 −/− mouse is a useful model for studying CYP4B1-dependent metabolism and toxicity. PMID:23748241

  19. 77 FR 49434 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... for Purchase: 26 Assault Amphibious Vehicles (AAVs)/Reliability, Availability and Maintainability/Rebuild to Standard (RAM/RS), with ancillary equipment, and machine guns. Also included are the upgrade of... the possible sale of 26 Assault Amphibious Vehicles (AAVs)/Reliability, Availability...

  20. RNA interference of IL-10 in leukemic B-1 cells.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Brian A; Mansour, Amal; Lin, Yi-Chu; Kotenko, Sergei; Raveche, Elizabeth

    2004-07-23

    RNA interference, or RNAi, is designed to work by Watson-Crick base pairing and to result in a posttranscriptional block in protein synthesis. Antiapoptotic proteins are a major focus of cancer therapy and make attractive targets for RNAi. An IL-10 RNAi sequence was designed in accordance with Tuschl rules and was modeled to a hairpin configuration. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most common leukemia in the Western world, the failure to undergo apoptosis may be responsible for the accumulation of malignant B-1 cells. Interleukin-10, despite controversy, has been shown to have antiapoptotic properties, and increased endogenous IL-10 production has been found in CLL by several labs. A malignant B-1 cell line, LNC, derived from an NZB mouse (a murine model for CLL) was utilized as a target for IL-10 RNAi. Our earlier studies of antisense IL-10 resulted in antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects. The cytotoxic effects of IL-10 RNAi were dose- and time-dependent, with an optimal dose 10-fold lower than that of antisense IL-10. IL-10 RNAi lowered IL-10 protein as measured by ELISA. 2 micro M IL-10 RNAi initiated a G2/M block and a decrease in the message for cdc25C, the M-phase inducer phosphatase. IL-10 RNAi efficiently induced apoptosis. Bcl7C, a member of the antiapoptotic Bcl family, was significantly down-regulated. IL-10 modulating Bcl7C expression represents a novel mechanism in the evasion of apoptosis. This approach, by itself or in conjunction with current therapies, merits consideration in similar B-cell malignancies. PMID:15270555

  1. Nuclear lamins during gametogenesis, fertilization and early development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, G. G.; Schatten, G.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of lamins (described by Gerace, 1978, as major proteins of nuclear envelope) during gametogenesis, fertilization, and early development was investigated in germ cells of a mouse (Mus musculus), an echinoderm (Lytechinus variegatus), and the surf clam (Spisula solidissima) was investigated in order to determine whether the differences detected could be correlated with differences in the function of cells in these stages of the germ cells. In order to monitor the behavior of lamins, the gametes and embryos were labeled with antibodies to lamins A, C, and B extracted from autoimmune sera of patients with scleroderma and Lupus erythematosus. Results indicated that lamin B could be identified in nuclear envelopes on only those nuclei where chromatin is attached and where RNA synthesis takes place.

  2. Analysis of a unidirectional, symmetric buffer strip laminate with damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharani, L. R.; Goree, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    A method for predicting the fracture behavior of hybrid buffer strip laminates is presented in which the classical shear-lag model is used to represent the shear stress distribution between adjacent fibers. The method is demonstrated by applying it to a notched graphite/epoxy laminate, and the results show clearly the manner in which the most efficient combination of buffer strip properties can be selected in order to arrest the crack. The ultimate failure stress of the laminate is plotted vs the buffer strip width. It is shown that in the case of graphite-epoxy and S-glass epoxy laminates, the optimum buffer strip spacing to width ratio should be about four to one.

  3. Structural and Dielectric Properties of Subnanometric Laminates of Binary Oxides.

    PubMed

    Kahouli, Abdelkader; Lebedev, Oleg; Ben Elbahri, Marwa; Mercey, Bernard; Prellier, Wilfrid; Riedel, Stefan; Czernohorsky, Malte; Lallemand, Florent; Bunel, Catherine; Lüders, Ulrike

    2015-11-25

    Capacitors with a dielectric material consisting of amorphous laminates of Al2O3 and TiO2 with subnanometer individual layer thicknesses can show strongly enhanced capacitance densities compared to the bulk or laminates with nanometer layer thickness. In this study, the structural and dielectric properties of such subnanometer laminates grown on silicon by state-of-the-art atomic layer deposition are investigated with varying electrode materials. The laminates show a dielectric constant reaching 95 combined with a dielectric loss (tan δ) of about 0.2. The differences of the observed dielectric properties in capacitors with varying electrodes indicate that chemical effects at the interface with the TiN electrode play a major role, while the influence of the local roughness of the individual layers is rather limited. PMID:26523935

  4. Laminated rare earth structure and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Senor, David J [West Richland, WA; Johnson, Roger N [Richland, WA; Reid, Bruce D [Pasco, WA; Larson, Sandra [Richland, WA

    2002-07-30

    A laminated structure having two or more layers, wherein at least one layer is a metal substrate and at least one other layer is a coating comprising at least one rare earth element. For structures having more than two layers, the coating and metal substrate layers alternate. In one embodiment of the invention, the structure is a two-layer laminate having a rare earth coating electrospark deposited onto a metal substrate. In another embodiment of the invention, the structure is a three-layer laminate having the rare earth coating electrospark deposited onto a first metal substrate and the coating subsequently abonded to a second metal substrate. The bonding of the coating to the second metal substrate may be accomplished by hot pressing, hot rolling, high deformation rate processing, or combinations thereof. The laminated structure may be used in nuclear components where reactivity control or neutron absorption is desired and in non-nuclear applications such as magnetic and superconducting films.

  5. Calculation of the room-temperature shapes of unsymmetric laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    A theory explaining the characteristics of the cured shapes of unsymmetric laminates is presented. The theory is based on an extension of classical lamination theory which accounts for geometric nonlinearities. A Rayleigh-Ritz approach to minimizing the total potential energy is used to obtain quantitative information regarding the room temperature shapes of square T300/5208 (0(2)/90(2))T and (0(4)/90(4))T graphite-epoxy laminates. It is shown that, depending on the thickness of the laminate and the length of the side the square, the saddle shape configuration is actually unstable. For values of length and thickness that render the saddle shape unstable, it is shown that two stable cylindrical shapes exist. The predictions of the theory are compared with existing experimental data.

  6. 11. Detail of laminated arch beams, radiators, pews and portion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail of laminated arch beams, radiators, pews and portion of the office to the left of the sanctuary, facing north - Mountain Home Air Force Base, Base Chapel, 350 Willow Street, Cantonment Area, Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  7. Characterization of delamination onset and growth in a composite laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. K.

    1981-01-01

    The onset and growth of delaminations in unnotched (+ or - 30/+ or - 30/90/90 bar) sub S graphite epoxy laminates is described quantitatively. These laminates, designed to delaminate at the edges under tensile loads, were tested and analyzed. Delamination growth and stiffness loss were monitored nondestructively. Laminate stiffness decreased linearly with delamination size. The strain energy release rate, G, associated with delamination growth, was calculated from two analyses. A critical G for delamination onset was determined, and then was used to predict the onset of delaminations in (+45 sub n/-45 sub n/o sub n/90 sub n) sub s (n=1,2,3) laminates. A delamination resistance curve (R curve) was developed to characterize the observed stable delamination growth under quasi static loading. A power law correlation between G and delamination growth rates in fatigue was established.

  8. Nonlinear analysis of laminated fibrous composites. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renieri, G. D.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    A computerized analysis of the nonlinear behavior of fibrous composite laminates including axial loading, thermal loading, temperature dependent properties, and edge effects is presented. Ramberg-Osgood approximations are used to represent lamina stress-strain behavior and percent retention curves are employed to model the variation of properties with temperature. Balanced, symmetric laminates comprised of either boron/epoxy, graphite/epoxy, or borsic-aluminum are analyzed using a quasi-three-dimensional finite element analysis. Results are presented for the interlaminar stress distributions in cross-ply, angle-ply, and more complex laminates. Nonlinear stress-strain curves for a variety of composite laminates in tension and compression are obtained and compared to other existing theories and experimental results.

  9. Solar-Cell Encapsulation by One-Step Lamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarbolouki, M. N.

    1983-01-01

    Simple method of potting solar cells reduces encapsulating to one-step lamination process. Simplified process saves time and expense. Potting material is added to two inside faces of solar-cell assembly before they are sandwiched and cured.

  10. Progressive Failure Analysis Methodology for Laminated Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleight, David W.

    1999-01-01

    A progressive failure analysis method has been developed for predicting the failure of laminated composite structures under geometrically nonlinear deformations. The progressive failure analysis uses C(exp 1) shell elements based on classical lamination theory to calculate the in-plane stresses. Several failure criteria, including the maximum strain criterion, Hashin's criterion, and Christensen's criterion, are used to predict the failure mechanisms and several options are available to degrade the material properties after failures. The progressive failure analysis method is implemented in the COMET finite element analysis code and can predict the damage and response of laminated composite structures from initial loading to final failure. The different failure criteria and material degradation methods are compared and assessed by performing analyses of several laminated composite structures. Results from the progressive failure method indicate good correlation with the existing test data except in structural applications where interlaminar stresses are important which may cause failure mechanisms such as debonding or delaminations.

  11. Tying up loose ends: telomeres, genomic instability and lamins.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, Susana; Eissenberg, Joel C

    2016-04-01

    On casual inspection, the eukaryotic nucleus is a deceptively simple organelle. Far from being a bag of chromatin, the nucleus is, in some ways, a structural and functional extension of the chromosomes it contains. Recently, interest has intensified in how chromosome compartmentalization and dynamics affect nuclear function. Different studies uncovered functional interactions between chromosomes and the filamentous nuclear meshwork comprised of lamin proteins. Here, we summarize recent research suggesting that telomeres, the capping structures that protect chromosome ends, are stabilized by lamin-binding and that alterations in nuclear lamins lead to defects in telomere compartmentalization, homeostasis and function. Telomere dysfunction contributes to the genomic instability that characterizes aging-related diseases, and might be an important factor in the pathophysiology of lamin-related diseases. PMID:27010504

  12. Laminated metamaterial flat lens at millimeter-wave frequencies.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Daisuke; Yaita, Makoto; Song, Ho-Jin

    2015-09-01

    A flat and thin shape is obviously advantageous not only in terms of reducing the volume of a device, but also in handling and using it. Particularly, laminating or stacking flat devices is an intuitive and straightforward way of tailoring performance and functions. Here, we experimentally demonstrated a laminated flat lens for millimeter-wave frequencies that is based on split-ring resonators (SRRs) composed of multiple layers with different and/or identical index profiles and that exhibits characteristics that are linear combinations of those of the individual lenses. Since the characteristics of the lenses of each layer are preserved regardless of the neighbouring layers, the desired functionalities can be easily implemented simply by laminating elementary lenses designed already. When we laminated two lenses designed for bending or focusing incoming waves at 120 GHz, we clearly observed that the outgoing waves collimated and bended as desired. PMID:26368436

  13. Optimal Synthesis of Hot Composite Laminates with Interphase Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabzak, Christopher; Saravanos, Dimitris A.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1993-01-01

    A method for the optimal grading of a single interphase layer in metal matrix composite laminates for the minimization of residual stresses is described. The capability to simultaneously tailor some fabrication parameters is also incorporated. Applications for unidirectional, cross-ply and quasi-isotropic Graphite/Copper laminates are investigated to assess the potential of interphase layer in reducing matrix residual stresses in various laminate configurations. Simultaneous optimization of interphase and fabrication characteristics appears to be more effective in decreasing residual stresses. The results also indicate that the interphase layer is more effective in lowering residual stresses in unidirectional composites and selectively within individual plies of a laminate. Embedded interphase layers in all the plies did not produce a significant global reduction in residual stresses.

  14. 10. Detail view of pendant lamps, laminated arch beams and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail view of pendant lamps, laminated arch beams and ceiling structure, facing north - Mountain Home Air Force Base, Base Chapel, 350 Willow Street, Cantonment Area, Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  15. Fatigue of notched fiber composite laminates. Part 1: Analytical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, P. V., Jr.; Kulkarni, S. V.; Huang, S. N.; Rosen, B. W.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a semi-empirical, deterministic analysis for prediction and correlation of fatigue crack growth, residual strength, and fatigue lifetime for fiber composite laminates containing notches (holes). The failure model used for the analysis is based upon composite heterogeneous behavior and experimentally observed failure modes under both static and fatigue loading. The analysis is consistent with the wearout philosophy. Axial cracking and transverse cracking failure modes are treated together in the analysis. Cracking off-axis is handled by making a modification to the axial cracking analysis. The analysis predicts notched laminate failure from unidirectional material fatique properties using constant strain laminate analysis techniques. For multidirectional laminates, it is necessary to know lamina fatique behavior under axial normal stress, transverse normal stress and axial shear stress. Examples of the analysis method are given.

  16. Fracture analysis of local delaminations in laminated composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sriram, P.; Armanios, Erian A.

    1988-01-01

    A shear deformation model was developed to analyze local delaminations growing from transverse cracks in 90 degree plies located around the mid plane of symmetric laminates. The predictions of the model agree reasonably with experimental data from T300/934 graphite epoxy laminates. The predicted behavior is such that, in combination with an edge delamination model, the critical loads can be predicted accurately in the range of n from .5 to 8.

  17. Laminated microchannel devices, mixing units and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Wendy D [Kennewick, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Martin, Peter M [Kennewick, WA; Matson, Dean W [Kennewick, WA

    2002-10-17

    A laminated microchannel device is described in which there is a unit operation process layer that has longitudinal channel. The longitudinal channel is cut completely through the layer in which the unit process operation resides. Both the device structure and method of making the device provide significant advantages in terms of simplicity and efficiency. A static mixing unit that can be incorporated in the laminated microchannel device is also described.

  18. Support Assembly for Composite Laminate Materials During Roll Press Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catella, Luke A.

    2011-01-01

    A composite laminate material is supported during the roll press processing thereof by an assembly having: first and second perforated films disposed adjacent to first and second opposing surfaces of a mixture of uncured resin and fibers defining the composite laminate material, a gas permeable encasement surrounding the mixture and the first and second films, a gas impervious envelope sealed about the gas permeable encasement, and first and second rigid plates clamped about the gas impervious envelope.

  19. Review on antibacterial biocomposites of structural laminated veneer lumber

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zi-xiang; Lei, Qiong; He, Rui-lin; Zhang, Zhong-feng; Chowdhury, Ahmed Jalal Khan

    2015-01-01

    In this review, the characteristics and applications of structural laminated veneer lumber made from planted forest wood is introduced, and its preparation is explained, including various tree species and slab qualities, treatments for multiple effects and reinforced composites. The relevant factors in the bonding technology and pressing processes as well as the mechanical properties, research direction and application prospects of structural laminated veneer lumber made from planted forest wood are discussed. PMID:26858559

  20. Damage Tolerance of Composite Laminates from an Empirical Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.

    2009-01-01

    Damage tolerance consists of analysis and experimentation working together. Impact damage is usually of most concern for laminated composites. Once impacted, the residual compression strength is usually of most interest. Other properties may be of more interest than compression (application dependent). A damage tolerance program is application specific (not everyone is building aircraft). The "Building Block Approach" is suggested for damage tolerance. Advantage can be taken of the excellent fatigue resistance of damaged laminates to save time and costs.

  1. Determination of the technical constants of laminates in oblique directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidouse, F.

    1979-01-01

    An off-axis tensile test theory based on Hooke's Law is applied to glass fiber reinforced laminates. A corrective parameter dependent on the characteristics of the strain gauge used is introduced by testing machines set up for isotropic materials. Theoretical results for a variety of strain gauges are compared with those obtained by a finite element method and with experimental results obtained on laminates reinforced with glass.

  2. Transparent, resilient human amniotic membrane laminates for corneal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hariya, Takehiro; Tanaka, Yuji; Yokokura, Shunji; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated a new technique to toughen and optically clarify human amniotic membrane (AM) tissue, which is naturally thin and clouded, and determined the suitability of the altered tissue for corneal transplantation. The technique created a tissue laminate by repeatedly depositing wet layers of AM and dehydrating them, followed by chemical cross-linking to tighten integration at the layer interfaces and within the layers, thereby improving the physical properties of the laminates by increasing light transmittance and mechanical strength. Interestingly, this improvement only occurred in laminates with at least 4 layers. Cross-linking also improved the resistance of the laminates to collagenase degradation, such as occurs in corneal melting. This study also confirmed that the AM tissue was biocompatible by inserting AM monolayers into the corneal stroma of rabbits, and by performing lamellar keratoplasty in rabbits with cross-linked AM laminates. The laminates were sufficiently thick and resilient to need only one set of sutures, whereas in previously described multi-layer AM transplantation technique, each layer required separate sutures. The current findings are a promising advance in the engineering of novel biomaterials and the alteration of existing tissues for medical use. PMID:27267629

  3. BioID Identification of Lamin-Associated Proteins.

    PubMed

    Mehus, Aaron A; Anderson, Ruthellen H; Roux, Kyle J

    2016-01-01

    A- and B-type lamins support the nuclear envelope, contribute to heterochromatin organization, and regulate a myriad of nuclear processes. The mechanisms by which lamins function in different cell types and the mechanisms by which lamin mutations cause over a dozen human diseases (laminopathies) remain unclear. The identification of proteins associated with lamins is likely to provide fundamental insight into these mechanisms. BioID (proximity-dependent biotin identification) is a unique and powerful method for identifying protein-protein and proximity-based interactions in living cells. BioID utilizes a mutant biotin ligase from bacteria that is fused to a protein of interest (bait). When expressed in living cells and stimulated with excess biotin, this BioID-fusion protein promiscuously biotinylates directly interacting and vicinal endogenous proteins. Following biotin-affinity capture, the biotinylated proteins can be identified using mass spectrometry. BioID thus enables screening for physiologically relevant protein associations that occur over time in living cells. BioID is applicable to insoluble proteins such as lamins that are often refractory to study by other methods and can identify weak and/or transient interactions. We discuss the use of BioID to elucidate novel lamin-interacting proteins and its applications in a broad range of biological systems, and provide detailed protocols to guide new applications. PMID:26778550

  4. The effect of lamination angle on polymer retention

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, H.W.

    1992-09-01

    Polymer retention may be affected by the reservoir geological structure due to lamination of the mineral surfaces. These laminae are very prevalent in Class I reservoirs. To account for the effect of lamination angle on polymer retention, several corefloods with three fired, rectangular, Berea sandstone cores were conducted. The three cores were cut at three different angles, 0, 30, and 90 degrees, with respect to the direction of laminations. A multiple slug retention method was used to determine the retention of a biopolymer in each core. Tracer tests were conducted before and after the biopolymer flow to determine how the retained biopolymer affected the fluid advance. A computed tomography (CT) scanning method was used to monitor the advance of the tracer. All corefloods and tracer tests were conducted at low flow rates similar to that in reservoirs. Coreflood tests revealed that polymer retention, which was mainly caused by mechanical entrapment, was higher in cores that had laminations parallel to the direction of flow than in cores that had crossbed laminae. In cores that had crossbed laminae, polymer retention increased with an increase in the lamination angle. Retained polymer is harmful to the stability of fluid front in cores that have laminations parallel to the direction of flow, but is helpful in cores that have crossbed laminae.

  5. Coupled actin-lamin biopolymer networks and protecting DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Rocklin, D. Zeb; Mao, Xiaoming; Schwarz, J. M.

    The mechanical properties of cells are largely determined by networks of semiflexible biopolymers forming the cytoskeleton. Similarly, the mechanical properties of cell nuclei are also largely determined by networks of semiflexible biopolymers forming the nuclear cytoskeleton. In particular, a network of filamentous lamin sits just inside the inner nuclear membrane to presumably protect the heart of the cell nucleus--the DNA. It has been demonstrated over the past decade that the actin cytoskeletal biopolymer network and the lamin biopolymer network are coupled via a sequence of proteins bridging the outer and inner nuclear membranes, known as the LINC complex. We, therefore, probe the consequences of such a coupling in a model biopolymer network system via numerical simulations to understand the resulting deformations in the lamin network in response to perturbations in the actin cytoskeletal network. We find, for example, that the force transmission across the coupled system can depend sensitively on the concentration of LINC complexes. Such study could have implications for mechanical mechanisms of the regulation of transcription since DNA couples to lamin via lamin-binding domains so that deformations in the lamin network may result in deformations in the DNA.

  6. The assembly of C. elegans lamins into macroscopic fibers.

    PubMed

    Zingerman-Koladko, Irena; Khayat, Maayan; Harapin, Jan; Shoseyov, Oded; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Salman, Ahmad; Medalia, Ohad; Ben-Harush, Kfir

    2016-10-01

    Intermediate filament (IF) proteins are known mainly by their propensity to form viscoelastic filamentous networks within cells. In addition, IF-proteins are essential parts of various biological materials, such as horn and hagfish slime threads, which exhibit a range of mechanical properties from hard to elastic. These properties and their self-assembly nature made IF-proteins attractive building blocks for biomimetic and biological materials in diverse applications. Here we show that a type V IF-protein, the Caenorhabditis elegans nuclear lamin (Ce-lamin), is a promising building block for protein-based fibers. Electron cryo-tomography of vitrified sections enabled us to depict the higher ordered assembly of the Ce-lamin into macroscopic fibers through the creation of paracrystalline fibers, which are prominent in vitro structures of lamins. The lamin fibers respond to tensile force as other IF-protein-based fibers, i.e., hagfish slime threads, and possess unique mechanical properties that may potentially be used in certain applications. The self-assembly nature of lamin proteins into a filamentous structure, which is further assembled into a complex network, can be easily modulated. This knowledge may lead to a better understanding of the relationship in IF-proteins-based fibers and materials, between their hierarchical structures and their mechanical properties. PMID:27341289

  7. Tracer Lamination in the Stratosphere: A Global Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appenzeller, Christof; Holton, James R.

    1997-01-01

    Vertical soundings of stratospheric ozone often exhibit laminated tracer structures characterized by strong vertical tracer gradients. The change in time of these gradients is used to define a tracer lamination rate. It is shown that this quantity can be calculated by the cross product of the horizontal temperature and horizontal tracer gradients. A climatology based on UARS satellite-borne ozone data and on ozone-like pseudotracer data is presented. Three stratospheric regions with high lamination rates were found: the part of the stratospheric overworld which is influenced by the polar vortex, the part of the lowermost stratosphere which is influenced by the tropopause and a third region in the subtropical lower stratosphere mainly characterized with strong vertical shear. High lamination rates in the stratospheric overworld were absent during summer, whereas in the lowermost stratosphere high lamination rates were found year-round. This is consistent with the occurrence and seasonal variation of the horizontal tracer gradient and vertical shear necessary for tilting the tracer surfaces. During winter, high lamination rates associated with the stratospheric polar vortex are present down to approximately 100 hPa. Several features of the derived climatology are roughly consistent with earlier balloon-borne studies. The patterns in the southern and northern hemisphere are comparable, but details differ as anticipated from a less disturbed and more symmetric southern polar vortex.

  8. Properties of wheat gluten/poly(lactic acid) laminates.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Woo; Gällstedt, Mikael; Hedenqvist, Mikael S

    2010-06-23

    Laminates of compression-molded glycerol-plasticized wheat gluten (WG) films surrounded and supported by poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films have been produced and characterized. The objective was to obtain a fully renewable high gas barrier film with sufficient mechanical integrity to function in, for example, extrusion-coating paper/board applications. It was shown that the lamination made it possible to make films with a broad range of glycerol contents (0-30 wt %) with greater strength than single unsupported WG films. The low plasticizer contents yielded laminates with very good oxygen barrier properties. In addition, whereas the unsupported WG films had an immeasurably high water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), the laminate showed values that were finite and surprisingly, in several cases, also lower than that of PLA. Besides being a mechanical support (as evidenced by bending and tensile data) and a shield between the WG and surrounding moisture, the PLA layer also prevented the loss of the glycerol plasticizer from the WG layer. This was observed after the laminate had been aged on an "absorbing" blotting paper for up to 17 weeks. The interlayer adhesion (peel strength) decreased with decreasing glycerol content and increasing WG film molding temperature (130 degrees C instead of 110 degrees C). The latter effect was probably due to a higher protein aggregation, as revealed by infrared spectroscopy. The lamination temperature (110-140 degrees C) did not, however, have a major effect on the final peel strength. PMID:20504031

  9. Bending Boundary Layers in Laminated-Composite Circular Cylindrical Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III

    2000-01-01

    An analytical, parametric study of the attenuation of bending boundary layers or edge effects in balanced and unbalanced, symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated thin cylindrical shells is presented for nine contemporary material systems. The analysis is based on the linear Sanders-Koiter shell equations and specializations to the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations and Donnell's equations are included. Two nondimensional parameters are identified that characterize and quantify the effects of laminate orthotropy and laminate anisotropy on the bending boundary-layer decay length in a very general and encompassing manner. A substantial number of structural design technology results are presented for a wide range of laminated-composite cylinders. For all the laminate constructions considered, the results show that the differences between results that were obtained with the Sanders-Koiter shell equations, the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations, and Donnell's equations are negligible. The results also show that the effect of anisotropy in the form of coupling between pure bending and twisting has a negligible effect on the size of the bending boundary-layer decay length of the balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders considered. Moreover, the results show that coupling between the various types of shell anisotropies has a negligible effect on the calculation of the bending boundary-layer decay length in most cases. The results also show that in some cases neglecting the shell anisotropy results in underestimating the bending boundary-layer decay length and in other cases it results in an overestimation.

  10. Response of automated tow placed laminates to stress concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Douglas S.; Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Walker, Tom

    1993-01-01

    In this study, the response of laminates with stress concentrations is explored. Automated Tow Placed (ATP, also known as Fiber Placement) laminates are compared to conventional tape layup manufacturing. Previous tensile fracture tests on fiber placed laminates show an improvement in tensile fracture of large notches over 20 percent compared to tape layup laminates. A hierarchial modeling scheme is presented. In this scheme, a global model is developed for laminates with notches. A local model is developed to study the influence of inhomogeneities at the notch tip, which are a consequence of the fiber placement manufacturing technique. In addition, a stacked membrane model was developed to study delaminations and splitting on a ply-by-ply basis. The results indicate that some benefit with respect to tensile fracture (up to 11 percent) can be gained from inhomogeneity alone, but that the most improvement may be obtained with splitting and delaminations which are more severe in the case of fiber placement compared to tape layup. Improvements up to 36 percent were found from the model for fiber placed laminates with damage at the notch tip compared to conventional tape layup.

  11. Higher order finite element analysis of thick composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goering, J.; Kim, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    A higher order, sub-parametric, laminated, 3D solid finite element was used for the analysis of very thick laminated composite plates. The geometry of this element is defined by four nodes in the X-Y plane which define a prism of material through the thickness of the laminate. There are twenty-four degrees of freedom at each node; translations at the upper and lower surfaces of the laminate in each of the three coordinate directions, and the derivatives of these translations with respect to each coordinate. This choice of degrees of freedom leads to displacement and strain compatibility at the corners. Stacking sequence effects are accounted for by explicitly integrating the strain energy density through the thickness of the element. The laminated solid element was combined with a gap-contact element to analyze thick laminated composite lugs loaded through flexible pins. The resulting model accounts for pin bending effects that produce non-uniform bearing stresses through the thickness of the lug. A thick composite lug experimental test program was performed, and provided data that was used to validate the analytical model. Two lug geometries and three stacking sequences were tested.

  12. Three dimensional inelastic finite element analysis of laminated composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, O. H., Jr.; Kamat, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    Formulations of the inelastic response of laminated composites to thermal and mechanical loading are used as the basis for development of the computer NALCOM (Nonlinear Analysis of Laminated Composites) computer program which uses a fully three dimensional isoparametric finite element with 24 nodes and 72 degrees of freedom. An incremental solution is performed with nonlinearities introduced as pseudoloads computed for initial strains. Equilibrium iteration may be performed at every step. Elastic and elastic-plastic response of boron/epoxy and graphite/epoxy graphite/epoxy and problems of curing 0/90 sub s Gr/Ep laminates with and without circular holes are analyzed. Mechanical loading of + or - 45sub s Gr/Ep laminates is modeled and symmetry conditions which exist in angle-ply laminates are discussed. Results are compared to experiments and other analytical models when possible. All models are seen to agree reasonably well with experimetnal results for off-axis tensile coupons. The laminate analyses show the three dimensional effects which are present near holes and free corners.

  13. Structure and expression of the gene (HNRPA2B1) encoding the human hnRNP protein A2/B1

    SciTech Connect

    Kozu, Tomoko; Henrich, B.; Schaefer, K.P.

    1995-01-20

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2 is a major nuclear protein and one of the major components of the hnRNP core complex in mammalian cells. We first determined the complete sequence of the human gene for hnRNP protein A2 (HNRPA2B1). The human HNRPA2B1 gene exists in a single copy over 9 kb in length. The gene was split into 12 exons, including a 36-nucleotide mini-exon, which was specific to the hnRNP protein B1, providing genetic evidence that the B1 mRNA was generated from the primary HNRPA2B1 transcript by alternative splicing. The 5{prime} region of HNRPA2B1 was GC-rich and contained several DNA motifs for the binding of several transcription factors, which included 2 CCAAT boxes and no TATA sequences. The 5{prime} ends of the mRNA were mapped to multiple positions. These structural features are characteristic of promoter regions of housekeeping genes. Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses of the HNRPA2B1 transcripts revealed levels of B1 mRNA from 2 to 5% of total A2/B1 transcripts and showed that both A2 and B1 mRNAs were transcribed in all human cell lines and mouse tissues studied. The structural and evolutionary characteristics of the A2 and A1 proteins as they relate to each other are discussed. 38 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Fumonisin B1 and the kidney: modes of action for renal tumor formation by fumonisin B1 in rodents.

    PubMed

    Müller, Stephanie; Dekant, Wolfgang; Mally, Angela

    2012-10-01

    The mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) is an important contaminant of maize and maize-based products. In rodent toxicity studies, FB1 was shown to be hepato- and nephrotoxic, and to induce renal tumors in rats when administered via the diet. Of particular note are the aggressive growth characteristics of FB1-induced tumors with a high potential to metastasize. While genotoxicity does not appear to contribute to FB1 carcinogenicity, it is well established that FB1-mediated disruption of sphingolipid metabolism plays a key role in FB1 toxicity. This review provides an overview on human dietary exposure to FB1, FB1 toxicity and carcinogenicity, and potential mechanisms involved in FB1-mediated tumor formation, with a particular focus on cellular functions of sphingolipids and biological consequences of FB1-mediated perturbation of sphingolipid metabolism. PMID:22771819

  15. Effects of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 on body weight, antibody titres and histology of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Tessari, E N C; Oliveira, C A F; Cardoso, A L S P; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E

    2006-06-01

    1. Our objective was to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1), administered singly or in combination to broilers. 2. Feeds were prepared with concentrations equal to 0, 50 and 200 microg AFB1/kg, and/or 0, 50 and 200 mg FB1/kg, and offered to broiler chicks from 8 to 41 d of age. The experimental design was totally randomised, in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement with 9 treatments and 12 birds per treatment. Animals were vaccinated against Newcastle disease on d 14 of life and killed at 41 d. 3. Compared with controls, all mycotoxin-treated groups at 41 d had lower body weight and weight gain, and higher relative heart weight. The relative weight of the liver increased only in birds fed diets containing 200 mg FB1, singly or in combination with AFB1. 4. At 35 d, all groups receiving mycotoxin-treated rations had reduced geometrical mean antibody titres, with birds from groups fed combinations of AFB1 and FB1/kg having even lower values, when compared to the other groups. 5. Histological changes were observed only in liver from birds fed mycotoxin-contaminated rations, and in kidneys of birds fed the diet containing 200 microg AFB1 and 200 mg FB1/kg. Main alterations included vacuolar degeneration and cell proliferation of bile ducts in the liver, and hydropic degeneration in renal tubules in the kidneys. 6. We concluded that AFB1 and FB1 in combination have primarily additive effects on body weight, liver structure and immunological response of broilers at the concentrations used. PMID:16787861

  16. Maintaining qualification for 340B.

    PubMed

    Gricius, Robert F; Wong, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    After initial acceptance in the 340B Drug Pricing Program, hospitals and health systems should monitor and take steps to maintain their disproportionate share hospital status to continue to qualify for participation. Proactively managing the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Ratio will ensure the organization avoids an unexpected decline in the Medicare portion of its 340B patient base. Even with the surge resulting from Medicaid expansion, tracking patient eligibility for Medicare/ SSI to ensure all patients who qualify are appropriately enrolled in the program is an important step in maintaining 340B program eligibility. PMID:27183761

  17. Nuclear localization signal deletion mutants of lamin A and progerin reveal insights into lamin A processing and emerin targeting.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Flannery, Andrew R; Cai, Helen; Ko, Eunae; Cao, Kan

    2014-01-01

    Lamin A is a major component of the lamina, which creates a dynamic network underneath the nuclear envelope. Mutations in the lamin A gene (LMNA) cause severe genetic disorders, one of which is Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a disease triggered by a dominant mutant named progerin. Unlike the wild-type lamin A, whose farnesylated C-terminus is excised during post-translational processing, progerin retains its farnesyl tail and accumulates on the nuclear membrane, resulting in abnormal nuclear morphology during interphase. In addition, membrane-associated progerin forms visible cytoplasmic aggregates in mitosis. To examine the potential effects of cytoplasmic progerin, nuclear localization signal (NLS) deleted progerin and lamin A (PGΔNLS and LAΔNLS, respectively) have been constructed. We find that both ΔNLS mutants are farnesylated in the cytosol and associate with a sub-domain of the ER via their farnesyl tails. While the farnesylation on LAΔNLS can be gradually removed, which leads to its subsequent release from the ER into the cytoplasm, PGΔNLS remains permanently farnesylated and membrane-bounded. Moreover, both ΔNLS mutants dominantly affect emerin's nuclear localization. These results reveal new insights into lamin A biogenesis and lamin A-emerin interaction. PMID:24637396

  18. Nuclear localization signal deletion mutants of lamin A and progerin reveal insights into lamin A processing and emerin targeting

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Flannery, Andrew R; Cai, Helen; Ko, Eunae; Cao, Kan

    2014-01-01

    Lamin A is a major component of the lamina, which creates a dynamic network underneath the nuclear envelope. Mutations in the lamin A gene (LMNA) cause severe genetic disorders, one of which is Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a disease triggered by a dominant mutant named progerin. Unlike the wild-type lamin A, whose farnesylated C-terminus is excised during post-translational processing, progerin retains its farnesyl tail and accumulates on the nuclear membrane, resulting in abnormal nuclear morphology during interphase. In addition, membrane-associated progerin forms visible cytoplasmic aggregates in mitosis. To examine the potential effects of cytoplasmic progerin, nuclear localization signal (NLS) deleted progerin and lamin A (PGΔNLS and LAΔNLS, respectively) have been constructed. We find that both ΔNLS mutants are farnesylated in the cytosol and associate with a sub-domain of the ER via their farnesyl tails. While the farnesylation on LAΔNLS can be gradually removed, which leads to its subsequent release from the ER into the cytoplasm, PGΔNLS remains permanently farnesylated and membrane-bounded. Moreover, both ΔNLS mutants dominantly affect emerin’s nuclear localization. These results reveal new insights into lamin A biogenesis and lamin A-emerin interaction. PMID:24637396

  19. Damage growth in composite laminates with interleaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goree, James G.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of placing interleaves between fiber reinforced plies in multilayered composite laminates is investigated. The geometry of the composite is idealized as two dimensional, isotropic, linearly elastic media made of a damaged layer bonded between two half planes and separated by thin interleaves of low extensional and shear moduli. The damage in the layer is taken in the form of a symmetric crack perpendicular to the interface and may extend up to the interface. The case of an H-shaped crack in the form of a broken layer with delamination along the interface is also analyzed. The interleaves are modeled as distributed shear and tension springs. Fourier integral transform techniques are used to develop solutions in terms of singular integral equations. An asymptotic analysis of the integral equations based on Muskhelishvili's techniques reveals logarithmically singular axial stresses in the half plane at the crack tips for the broken layer. For the H shaped crack, similar singularities are found to exist in the axial stresses at the interface crack tips in the layer and the half plane. The solution of the equations is found numerically for the stresses and displacements by using the Hadamard's concept of direct differentiation of Cauchy integrals as well as Gaussian integration techniques.

  20. Progressive Fracture of Laminated Composite Stiffened Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotsis, Pascalis K.; Chamis, Christos C.; David, Kostantinos; Abdi, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Laminated fiber-reinforced composite stiffened plate with [0/90/plus or minus 45]s plies made of S-Glass/epoxy are evaluated via computational simulation to study damage and fracture progression. The loads are pressure and temperature which varies from 21 to 65.5 C (case I) and from 143.3 to 21 C (case II). An integrated computer code is used for the simulation of the damage progression. Results show that damage initiation begins at low load level, with matrix cracking at the 0 deg. (bottom and top) plies, fiber fracture at the bottom (0 deg.) ply and interply delamination at the top (0 deg. ) ply. Increasing the applied pressure, the damage growth is expended resulting in fracture through the thickness of the structure. At this stage, 90 percent of the plies damage at applied pressure 15.306 MPa for the case I and 15.036 MPa for the case II. After this stage the cracks propagate rapidly and the structure collapses.